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Sample records for wave dragon nissum

  1. Hydraulic Response of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    This report deals with the hydraulic performance of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype.......This report deals with the hydraulic performance of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype....

  2. Overtopping Measurements on the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the methods used to estimate (calculated from some indirect measurements) the overtopping of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon placed in a real sea environment. The wave energy converter in quistion is the 237-tonne heavy Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype. Comparisons...

  3. Data Obtained from Prototype Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James William; Curie, Marie; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the Project: Sea Testing and Optimisation of Power Production on a Scale 1:4.5 Test Rig of the Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon. This report aims to provide access for the project partners to the raw data obtained from the testing period in Nissum Bredning...

  4. Data Obtained from Prototype Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James William; Curie, Marie; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the Project: Sea Testing and Optimisation of Power Production on a Scale 1:4.5 Test Rig of the Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon. This report aims to provide access for the project partners to the raw data obtained from the testing period in Nissum Bredning...

  5. Calibration and validation of measurement system. Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofoed, J.P-; Riemann, S.; Knapp, W.

    2004-03-01

    This report deals with the calibration of the measuring equipment on board the Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning (WD-NB) prototype. The report covers the following instruments on board WD-NB: 1) Pressure transducers. 2) Force transducers. 3) Accelerometers. 4) Displacement sensors. 5) Strain gauges. 6) Inclinometers. All of these instruments are connected to the HBM MGC+ amplifier and data acquisition unit. In the following the calibration will be dealt with individually. Furthermore, a preliminary calibration of the siphon and dummy turbines has been carried out and this is also described in the following. (au)

  6. Power Production Experience from Wave Dragon Prototype Testing in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The first Wave Dragon prototype power production testing started May 2003 and ended temporarily primo 2005. In the mentioned period Wave Dragon was situated in a corner of Nissum Bredning with relative little amount of wave energy. Main purpose of the tests was demonstration of survivability...

  7. Forces and overtopping on 2. generation Wave Dragon for Nissum Bredning. Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, T.; Frigaard, P.

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize forcing and overtopping on the redesigned Wave Dragon model. The results will establish a basis for the development of the 1:4.5 scale prototype planned for testing in Nissum Bredning, a sea inlet on the Danish West Coast. For comparison also results obtained using the 1. generation are referred in this report. (au)

  8. Renovation of the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents developments of the Wave Dragon, a large offshore wave energy converter. A prototype has been tested in a real sea environment for over 20 months. During 2005 the plant has been in harbor for a major overhaul of several of its components. The motivation for the upgrades......, the laboratory testing procedure and the design and manufacture are described. The modifications are complete and the prototype is scheduled to be deployed at a higher energy site in December 2005....

  9. Automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation. Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, P. [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark); Friis-Madsen, Erik [Wave Dragon ApS (Denmark); Nimskov, M. [Balslev (Denmark)

    2004-02-01

    This report deals with the modules for automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation on board the Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning (WD-NB) prototype, and covers what has been going on up to ultimo 2003. The modules have been implemented on board WD-NB by means of a Siemens PLC. The control and monitoring of the PLC is achieved through a SCADA software package (SIMATIC WinCC V6) running on a Windows 2000 PC situated on board. A preliminary Users manual is available (Nimskov, 2003). The two modules for automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation are denoted 'Buoyancy' and 'Generators', respectively, in the SCADA system. The 'Buoyancy' part controls the freeboard by blowing air into or letting air out of air chambers underneath the structure, and thereby raise or lower it. The 'generator' part controls the generators, and thereby the turbines, by switching them on and of in order to maintain the water level in the reservoir within the specified work span. Furthermore, the generators are controlled by frequency converters, so the rotational speed for each turbine is achieved, corresponding to the optimal operation point. (au)

  10. Calculation of the Wave Conditions in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Rasmus; Frigaard, Peter

    For the purpose of determining the optimal position in Nissum Bredning for placement of wave dragon, the wave energy flux in Nissum Bredning has been calculated. It has not been posible to retrieve satisfactory measured wavedata for Nissum Bredning, therefor the calculations are based on the SPM-......-method1. By this method the significant wave height, Hs, and the peak period, Tp, are calculated from the fetch, F, and wind stress factor, Ua....

  11. Wave Induced Stresses Measured at the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, L.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the wave induced loading on the overtopping based wave energy converter Wave Dragon. Focus is put on the junction between the main body and the reflector, also called the "shoulder part", where large cross sectional forces and bending moments acts. There are two main objectives...... for this paper, first to verify the FEM results obtained by Niras, Danish society in charge of the finite element modelling and structural design, and then to make a first experimental fatigue analysis of a particular part of the Wave Dragon. This last part shall be considered as an exercise for the further work...... that is to be done for the fatigue analysis, and which is not part of this paper....

  12. Influence of Buoyancy Control Performance on Power Production by the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the real sea performance of the buoyancy control system of Wave Dragon, a floating wave energy converter using the overtopping principle. The device operates with the full independent control system which has been tested during three years of operation. The impact of the buo......This paper reports on the real sea performance of the buoyancy control system of Wave Dragon, a floating wave energy converter using the overtopping principle. The device operates with the full independent control system which has been tested during three years of operation. The impact...

  13. 3 Years Experience with Energy Production on the Nissum Bredning Wave Dragon Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...... this extended period. The prototype is highly instrumented. The overtopping characteristic and the power produced are presented here. This has enabled comparison between the prototype and earlier results from both laboratory model and computer simulation. This gives the optimal operating point and the expected...

  14. Development of Wave Energy Devices: The Danish Case / The Dragon of Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the Danish case of development of wave energy devices and outlines the established best practice. A brief overview of international standardization efforts is given and the Danish involvement in this described. The developed Danish best practice, which is being carried over to ...

  15. Development of Wave Energy Devices: The Danish Case / The Dragon of Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the Danish case of development of wave energy devices and outlines the established best practice. A brief overview of international standardization efforts is given and the Danish involvement in this described. The developed Danish best practice, which is being carried over to ...

  16. Wave Dragon MW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the experience gained a full scale, multi MW prototype...

  17. Wave Dragon MW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the experience gained a full scale, multi MW prototype...

  18. Wave Dragon Buoyancy Regulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jens; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter, which was deployed offshore at Nissum Bredning in Denmark in 2003. The experience gained from operating Wave Dragon during 2003 and 2004 has shown that the buoyancy regulation system can be improved in a number of ways. This study describes the current...

  19. Wave Overtopping Characteristics of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Simulation work has been used extensively with the Wave dragon and other overtopping devices to analyse the power production performance of them and to optimise the structural design and the control strategy. A time domain approach to this is well documented in Jakobsen & Frigaard 1999. Using...... measurements taken from the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning prototype, some of the previous assumptions have been slightly modified and improved upon, so that the simulation method better represents the reality of what is occurring....

  20. Wave Overtopping Characteristics of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Simulation work has been used extensively with the Wave dragon and other overtopping devices to analyse the power production performance of them and to optimise the structural design and the control strategy. A time domain approach to this is well documented in Jakobsen & Frigaard 1999. Using...... measurements taken from the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning prototype, some of the previous assumptions have been slightly modified and improved upon, so that the simulation method better represents the reality of what is occurring....

  1. Wave Dragon Buoyancy Regulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jens; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter, which was deployed offshore at Nissum Bredning in Denmark in 2003. The experience gained from operating Wave Dragon during 2003 and 2004 has shown that the buoyancy regulation system can be improved in a number of ways. This study describes the current situ...... situation, and proposes a number of activities in order to improve the buoyancy regulation system. This work was performed under EU ENERGIE contract no. ENK5-CT-2002-00603, and is a contribution to WP 2.3/2.4 and D40/D41....

  2. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies......, concerning a hydraulic evaluation and optimisation of the geometry of the Wave Dragon, is presented. Furthermore, the plans for the future development projects are sketched....

  3. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  4. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  5. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57!27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world’s first offshore wave energy...

  6. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57 x 27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world's first offshore wave energy...

  7. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    På foranledning af Löwenmark F.R.I, er der udført numeriske beregninger af Wave Dragons (herefter WD) armes effektivitet for forskellige geometriske udformninger. 5 geometriske modeller, hvor WD's arme er forkortet/forlænget er undersøgt for 3 forskellige drejninger af armene. I alt er 15...

  8. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    På foranledning af Löwenmark F.R.I, er der udført numeriske beregninger af Wave Dragons (herefter WD) armes effektivitet for forskellige geometriske udformninger. 5 geometriske modeller, hvor WD's arme er forkortet/forlænget er undersøgt for 3 forskellige drejninger af armene. I alt er 15...

  9. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...... this extended period. The prototype is highly instrumented. The overtopping characteristic and the power produced are presented here. This has enabled comparison between the prototype and earlier results from both laboratory model and computer simulation. This gives the optimal operating point and the expected...

  10. Model Testing of Forces in the Reflector Joint and Mooring Forces on Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James

    This report aims to present the results of a test series analysing the forces in the redesigned reflector joint and the forces in the main mooring link. The resluts presented are intended to be used by WD project partners, for the design and construction of the joint on the prototype Wave Dragon...... at Nissum Bredning and for future North Sea scale Wave Dragon. Lengths, forces and other dimentions presented are scaled to the North sea Wave Dragon unless otherwise specified....

  11. Model Testing of Forces in the Reflector Joint and Mooring Forces on Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James

    This report aims to present the results of a test series analysing the forces in the redesigned reflector joint and the forces in the main mooring link. The resluts presented are intended to be used by WD project partners, for the design and construction of the joint on the prototype Wave Dragon...... at Nissum Bredning and for future North Sea scale Wave Dragon. Lengths, forces and other dimentions presented are scaled to the North sea Wave Dragon unless otherwise specified....

  12. Preliminary Results from Second Phase Sea Testing of the Wave Dragon Prototype Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Hans Chr.; Tedd, James; Friis-Madsen, Erik;

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006 the prototype Wave Dragon has been redeployed to a more energetic site in Nissum Bredning an inland sea in Western Denmark. This has followed a period of renovation of many aspects of the device which have resulted in 20% higher energy output. This paper describes the preliminary re...

  13. Preliminary Results from Second Phase Sea Testing of the Wave Dragon Prototype Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Hans Chr.; Tedd, James; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006 the prototype Wave Dragon has been redeployed to a more energetic site in Nissum Bredning an inland sea in Western Denmark. This has followed a period of renovation of many aspects of the device which have resulted in 20% higher energy output. This paper describes the preliminary...

  14. Specification of Instrumentation of Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type and is described e.g. in Tedd et. al. (2006). The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based on the exp......Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type and is described e.g. in Tedd et. al. (2006). The device has been thoroughly tested on a 1:51.8 scale model in wave laboratories and a 1:4.5 scale model deployed in Nissum Bredning, a large inland waterway in Denmark. Based...

  15. Prototype testing of the wave energy converter wave dragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter [Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, Aalborg 9000 (Denmark); Friis-Madsen, Erik [Loewenmark F.R.I., Copenhagen (Denmark); Soerensen, Hans Chr. [SPOK, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2006-02-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57x27m wide and 237tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world's first offshore wave energy converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. In the period May 2003 to January 2005 an extensive measuring program has been carried out, establishing the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for deployment of a 4MW power production unit in the Atlantic by 2007 is in progress. (author)

  16. The Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H. C.; Hansen, R.; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type, utilizing a patented wave reflector design to focus the waves towards a ramp, and the overtopping is used for electricity production through a set of Kaplan/propeller hydro turbines. During the last 2 years, excessive...... design an testing has been performed on a scale 1:50 model of the Wave Dragon, and on a scale 1:3:5 model turbine. Thus survivability, overtopping, hydraulic response, turbine performance and feasibility have been verified....

  17. Hydraulic behaviour of the floating wave energy converter Wave Dragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the project is to establish a scale 1:4.5 test model of the floating offshore wave energy converter - Wave Dragon - for testing at 5 m water depth in the Inlet Nissum Bredning. The test model will be equipped with an existing diameter 340 mm model turbine plus additional outlet tubes simulating the resistance from 1 - 16 turbines. The model will be designed to stay afloat even with a total loss of air pressure in the open bottom buoyancy chambers. The test series will primarily focus on measurements of hydraulic response, forces in the mooring system and overtopping quantities. Also data such as head, rotational speed and power production from the turbine will be monitored during the whole test period. The project will verify the effect of the pressured air buoyancy system, which cannot be scaled correctly in laboratory scale models. The test results will allow for an evaluation of the Wave Dragon power production as a function of sea state and freeboard height, in order to calibrate the existing WD-power simulation software. The model can be utilized for further testing of turbine regulation and stress and strain in the structure, establishing the necessary knowledge base for deploying a full-scale demonstration plant. This CD-ROM contains various videos, reports, notes, conference papers and Power Point presentations on the making of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon. (BA)

  18. Power performance measurements on Wave Star in Nissum Bredning. Final report; Wave energy converter; Effektmaalinger paa Wave Star i Nissum Bredning. Afsluttende rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigaard, P.; Lykke Andersen, T.

    2009-04-15

    The Wave Star test machine in Nissum Bredning was put in continuous operation on 24 July 2006. Over the past 2 1/2 years the produced power was measured continuously and with only minor interruptions. The measurements cover operation for all seasons in a very changeable climate. There is thus gaining operational experience under different wave conditions. In the period the machine has been running with a simple form of control and Power Take Off system (PTO), which form the background for effect measurements with the existing control strategy. Calculations have shown that the use of more advanced forms of control can increase the efficiency of Wave Star significantly. New control systems are therefore still under development with the primary objective to increase performance from the wave energy plant. To test and develop the methods, a new mini-hydraulic station with associated second generation PTO was developed and constructed for testing in Nissum Bredning. The mini-hydraulic station is coupled to a single float, while the other machine's 39 floats are still connected to the existing PTO system. As the existing PTO system can be applied to the 39 floats simultaneously with the new PTO used on 1 float, effect can be measured on the two systems simultaneously. The first tentative experiments with the new second generation PTO seem very promising. During the first measurements made in March 2009 the new system achieved an average yield of 3.1 times the average output from a float on the existing machine. In the coming period more experiments will be performed with the mini-hydraulic station to test the new PTO in various sea conditions. Since the mini-hydraulic station can simulate various forms of control, they also will be tested under real wave conditions in Nissum Bredning. The effect optimization should continue to be subject to a greater targeted effort, as improvements in this area can increase energy production and thus reduce the kWh cost of energy

  19. Effektmålinger på Wave Star i Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Wave Star test-maskinen i Nissum Bredning blev sat i kontinuerlig drift den 24. juli 2006. Igennem de seneste 2½ år er den producerede effekt blevet målt kontinuert og kun med mindre afbrydelser. Målingerne dækker over drift på alle årstiderne (forår, sommer, efterår, vinter) i et meget omskiftel......Wave Star test-maskinen i Nissum Bredning blev sat i kontinuerlig drift den 24. juli 2006. Igennem de seneste 2½ år er den producerede effekt blevet målt kontinuert og kun med mindre afbrydelser. Målingerne dækker over drift på alle årstiderne (forår, sommer, efterår, vinter) i et meget...

  20. Impact of Wave Dragon on Wave Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Tedd, James; Kramer, Morten

    This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator.......This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator....

  1. Notatsamling 2006 vedrørende målinger fra Wave Star i Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten

    Dette skrift er en samling af små skrifter og notater udarbejdet i forbindelse med den første drift og analyse af måledata fra Wave Star i Nissum Bredning mellem August og December 2006. Skriftet kan betragtes som en slags ”dagbog” som indeholder undersøgelser og konklusioner der kan biddrage med...... erfaring til gavn for udviklingen fremover. Notaterne er ordnet kronologisk efter dato, således det ældste skrift er først. Enkelte af skrifterne er ændret en smule, således gentagelser er slettet og misforståelser/fejl er rettet....

  2. Hydraulic model tests on modified Wave Dragon. Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hald, T.; Lynggaard, J.

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the model tests conducted with a new designed 2. generation WD model as well as obtained model test results. Tests are conducted as sequential reconstruction followed by physical model tests. All details concerning the reconstruction are found in Hald and Lynggaard (2001). Model tests and reconstruction are carried out during the phase 3 project: 'Wave Dragon. Reconstruction of an existing model in scale 1:50 and sequential tests of changes to the model geometry and mass distribution parameters' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency (DEA) wave energy programme. The tests will establish a well documented basis for the development of a 1:4.5 scale prototype planned for testing Nissum Bredning, a sea inlet on the Danish West Coast. (au)

  3. Model testing of Wave Dragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Previous to this project a scale model 1:50 of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon was built by the Danish Maritime Institute and tested in a wave tank at Aalborg University (AAU). The test programs investigated the movements of the floating structure, mooring forces and forces in the reflectors. The first test was followed by test establishing the efficiency in different sea states. The scale model has also been extensively tested in the EU Joule Craft project JOR-CT98-7027 (Low-Pressure Turbine and Control Equipment for Wave Energy Converters /Wave Dragon) at University College Cork, Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre, Ireland. The results of the previous model tests have formed the basis for a redesign of the WEC. In this project a reconstruction of the scale 1:50 model and sequential tests of changes to the model geometry and mass distribution parameters will be performed. AAU will make the modifications to the model based on the revised Loewenmark design and perform the tests in their wave tank. Grid connection requirements have been established. A hydro turbine with no movable parts besides the rotor has been developed and a scale model 1:3.5 tested, with a high efficiency over the whole head range. The turbine itself has possibilities for being used in river systems with low head and variable flow, an area of interest for many countries around the world. Finally, a regulation strategy for the turbines has been developed, which is essential for the future deployment of Wave Dragon.The video includes the following: 1. Title, 2. Introduction of the Wave Dragon, 3. Model test series H, Hs = 3 m, Rc = 3 m, 4. Model test series H, Hs = 5 m, Rc = 4 m, 5. Model test series I, Hs = 7 m, Rc = 1.25 m, 6. Model test series I, Hs = 7 m, Rc = 4 m, 7. Rolling title. On this VCD additional versions of the video can be found in the directory 'addvideo' for playing the video on PC's. These versions are: Model testing of Wave Dragon, DVD version

  4. Modeling and control in Nissum. Technical report; Wave energy converter Wave Star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E.V.

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this report is to give a deeper theoretical understanding of the achieved results of the performance tests described in another report. It is documented that the 2nd generation of PTO (Power Take-Off) is able to absorb significantly more energy than the existing PTO. 1) A linear dynamic model of the PTO in Nissum is derived and analogies to the electrical circuits are drawn. 2) A deeper mathematical and physical insight on the control strategy with the 2nd generation of PTO is given. 3) The 2nd generation of PTO is equivalent to create a resistive load which matches the intrinsic resistance of the system (resistance matching). 4) The performed simulations agree with the experiments realized in the actual performance tests where it is concluded that 2nd generation of PTO has a higher performance. (LN)

  5. Design of the Wave Dragon Mooring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano

    This report is part of the project “Wave Dragon 1.5 MW North Sea Demonstrator”, funded by the Danish Energy Agency under the EUDP program (J.no. 64010-0405). In phase 1 of the project the hydrodynamic characterization of Wave Dragon was carried out through numerical analysis with a model calibrated...... storm conditions typical of the DanWEC location. The most desirable mooring configuration has also been better defined in terms of horizontal compliance. In phase 3 results from phase 1 shall be used to setup a numerical model for time-domain analysis of the composite system Wave Dragon + moorings...

  6. Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with wave energy converters used to reduce the wave height along shorelines. For this study the Wave Dragon wave energy converter is chosen. The wave height reduction from a single device has been evaluated from physical model tests in scale 1:51.8 of the 260 x 150 m, 24 kW/m model...... Spain, to evaluate the potential for reducing wave heights close the shore by means of Wave Dragons....

  7. Advanced Control Techniques for WEC Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Jasinski, M.;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the ongoing work on control of the Wave Dragon wave energy converter. Research is being conducted in and between several centers across Europe. This is building upon the knowledge gained in the prototype project, and will enable much better performance of the future deployment...

  8. Experimental Overtopping Investigation for the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgarino, Bruno; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James

    The present report displays the results from overtopping tests carried on the 1:51.8 Wave Dragon model in September 2007. This tests have been carried on by Bruno Borgarino, James Tedd and Jens Peter Kofoed in the wave tank facilities of Aalborg University. The objective was to provide an updated...

  9. Hydraulic Model Tests on Modified Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Lynggaard, Jakob

    A floating model of the Wave Dragon (WD) was built in autumn 1998 by the Danish Maritime Institute in scale 1:50, see Sørensen and Friis-Madsen (1999) for reference. This model was subjected to a series of model tests and subsequent modifications at Aalborg University and in the following...... are found in Hald and Lynggaard (2001). Model tests and reconstruction are carried out during the phase 3 project: ”Wave Dragon. Reconstruction of an existing model in scale 1:50 and sequentiel tests of changes to the model geometry and mass distribution parameters” sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency...

  10. Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters Used as Coastal Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with wave energy converters used to reduce the wave height along shorelines. For this study the Wave Dragon wave energy converter is chosen. The wave height reduction from a single device has been evaluated from physical model tests in scale 1:51.8 of the 260 x 150 m, 24 kW/m model...

  11. Testing, Analysis and Control of Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James

    of a textbook, a submitted journal paper and three peer-reviewed conference papers. The content can be broadly divided into four topics: experiences gained with the Wave Dragon prototype device; power-production verification; overtopping analysis; and improvements in control. A comprehensive record...... the expected performance. Other sources of generation are presented, including development and tank testing of a novel power absorbing joint. Wave Dragon belongs in the family of overtopping wave energy converters. The energy is captured by waves running up a ramp and overtopping the crest into a reservoir...

  12. Evaluation of Hydraulic Response of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The present study investigates the hydraulic response of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon. This is done by peforming model tests in a wave tank in the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University. In the model tests a floating scale model (length scale 1:50) of the Wave...... Dragon is subjected to irregular, long crested irregular and short crested sea conditions corresponding to typical situations under which the Wave Dragon will produce power. Furthermore two situations corresponding to extreme storm conditions are tested. The objective of the study is to determine...... the wave induced forces in the moorings and in the junction between the reflectors and the reservoir part, and motions of the Wave Dragon situated in different sea conditions....

  13. Evaluation of Hydraulic Response of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The present study investigates the hydraulic response of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon. This is done by peforming model tests in a wave tank in the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University. In the model tests a floating scale model (length scale 1:50) of the Wave...... Dragon is subjected to irregular, long crested irregular and short crested sea conditions corresponding to typical situations under which the Wave Dragon will produce power. Furthermore two situations corresponding to extreme storm conditions are tested. The objective of the study is to determine...... the wave induced forces in the moorings and in the junction between the reflectors and the reservoir part, and motions of the Wave Dragon situated in different sea conditions....

  14. Survivability mode and extreme loads on the mooring lines of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmeggiani, S.; Kofoed, J.P.

    2010-11-15

    This report is a product of the cooperation agreement between Wave Dragon and Aalborg University regarding phase 2 of the development of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter. The research is carried out by testing the 1:51.8 scale model of the Wave Dragon, aiming at the assessment of the survivability of the device in extreme waves and evaluation of the design loads for the mooring component. The outcome of the research will be used as input for future research work aimed at the design of the mooring system and the certification of the structural design for the full scale Wave Dragon demonstrator. (Author)

  15. CFD study of the overtopping discharge of the Wave Dragon wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskilsson, K.; Palm, J.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a floating Wave Energy Converter (WEC) working by the overtopping principle. The overtopping discharge has been determined by model scale experiments in wave basins. In the present study we numerically simulate the overtopping behavior of the Wave Dragon device using a VOFbased...

  16. The wave dragon. Now ready for test in real sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, H..; Hansen, R.; Friis-Madsen, E. (and others)

    2001-07-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type, utilizing a patented wave reflector design to focus the waves towards a ramp, and the overtopping is used for electricity production through a set of Kaplan/propeller hydro turbines. During the last 2 years, excessive design and testing has been performed on a scale 1:50 model of the Wave Dragon, and on a scale 1:3.5 model turbine. The survivability, overtopping, hydraulic response, turbine performance and feasibility have been verified. Furthermore regulation strategy, grid connection technology, generator technology, and mooring systems have been accommodated to the Wave Dragon. The main conclusions from this work are elaborated, and the future plans for, and expectations to, the technology is described. (au)

  17. Investigation of Wave Transmission from a Floating Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calibration of the MIKE21BW model against the measured wave height reduction behind a 24 kW/m Wave Dragon (WD) wave energy converter. A numerical model is used to determine the wave transmission through the floating WD in varying wave conditions. The transmission obtained...

  18. Evaluation of hydraulic response of the Wave Dragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The present study investigates the hydraulic response of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon. This is done by performing model tests in a wave tank in the Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University. In the model tests a floating scale model (length scale 1:50) of the Wave Dragon is subjected to irregular long crested irregular and short crested sea conditions corresponding to typical situations under which the Wave Dragon will produce power. Furthermore two situations corresponding to extreme storm conditions are tested. The objective of the study is to determine the wave induced forces in the moorings and in the junction between the reflectors and the reservoir part, and motions of the Wave Dragon situated in different sea conditions. On the background of the performed model tests and evaluation of the investigated concept is given. The floating model of Wave Dragon demonstrated a good behaviour and was able to collect water in all sea conditions. Motions in seas with up to 5 m significant wave height were reasonable. Though, the heave motion and the pitch motion seemed to be rather large. wave Dragon survived tests in very severe sea conditions with significant wave heights between 10 m and 15 m. This was the case for long crested waves and short crested as well. Some problems were seen while adjusting the crest freeboard to the different sea conditions. The maximum force in the instrumented junction between the reflector and the reservoir part was found to be approximately 30 MN (3.000 ton). Maximum forces in the mooring system were found to be 20 MN, 30 MN and 140 MN, respectively, giving stresses in the order of 1.000 MPa to 4.000 MPa in the pre-designed wires. (au)

  19. Experimental Modeling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is currently facing a precommercial phase. At this stage of development a reliable overtopping model is highly required, in order to predict the performance of the device at possible deployment locations. A model formulation derived for an overtopping device...... with general geometry has been used so far. The paper presents an updated formulation drawn through the tank testing of a scaled model the Wave Dragon. The sensitivity analysis of the main features influencing the overtopping flow led to an updated model formulation which can be specifically suited...... for the Wave Dragon....

  20. Experimental Modeling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is currently facing a precommercial phase. At this stage of development a reliable overtopping model is highly required, in order to predict the performance of the device at possible deployment locations. A model formulation derived for an overtopping device...... with general geometry has been used so far. The paper presents an updated formulation drawn through the tank testing of a scaled model the Wave Dragon. The sensitivity analysis of the main features influencing the overtopping flow led to an updated model formulation which can be specifically suited...... for the Wave Dragon....

  1. Slow waves, sharp waves, ripples, and REM in sleeping dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein-Idelson, Mark; Ondracek, Janie M; Liaw, Hua-Peng; Reiter, Sam; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-04-29

    Sleep has been described in animals ranging from worms to humans. Yet the electrophysiological characteristics of brain sleep, such as slow-wave (SW) and rapid eye movement (REM) activities, are thought to be restricted to mammals and birds. Recording from the brain of a lizard, the Australian dragon Pogona vitticeps, we identified SW and REM sleep patterns, thus pushing back the probable evolution of these dynamics at least to the emergence of amniotes. The SW and REM sleep patterns that we observed in lizards oscillated continuously for 6 to 10 hours with a period of ~80 seconds. The networks controlling SW-REM antagonism in amniotes may thus originate from a common, ancient oscillator circuit. Lizard SW dynamics closely resemble those observed in rodent hippocampal CA1, yet they originate from a brain area, the dorsal ventricular ridge, that has no obvious hodological similarity with the mammalian hippocampus.

  2. Experimental Update of the Overtopping Model Used for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    An overtopping model specifically suited for Wave Dragon is needed in order to improve the reliability of its performance estimates. The model shall be comprehensive of all relevant physical processes that affect overtopping and flexible to adapt to any local conditions and device configuration....... An experimental investigation is carried out to update an existing formulation suited for 2D draft-limited, low-crested structures, in order to include the effects on the overtopping flow of the wave steepness, the 3D geometry of Wave Dragon, the wing reflectors, the device motions and the non-rigid connection...... of which can be measured in real-time. Instead of using new fitting coefficients, this approach allows a broader applicability of the model beyond the Wave Dragon case, to any overtopping WEC or structure within the range of tested conditions. Predictions reliability of overtopping over Wave Dragon...

  3. Wave Dragon. Test to evaluate hydraulic response. Report phase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, H.C.; Friis-Madsen, E.

    1999-02-01

    Danish Maritime Institute has in the spring 1998 built a model in scale 1:50 of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon. The scale model is based on calculations performed by the inventor Erik Friis-Madsen from the consultant Loewenmark F.R.I. The scale model is tested in the wave tank at Aalborg University, the Hydraulic and Coastal Engineering Laboratory. This report deals with the results from this test (phase A of the test program). The objective of the test series was to get a judgement of the viability of Wave Dragon in extreme sea conditions in the Danish part of the North Sea at a water depth of 30 meters. The test series had to document: The viability of the Wave Dragon in extreme sea conditions up to 100-year waves; the hydraulic response in 7 different sea conditions where forces and movements have been registered. The main findings are: Wave Dragon has the expected behavior, i.e. the converter is able to survive a 100-year storm; An adjustment of the pitch of the converter could improve the energy efficiency; The forces in the mooring system and the junction between wave reflectors and the platform are acceptable. The forces and the movements are registered at 7 different sea conditions. Video recording has been taken during the test. Five of the sea conditions correspond to 'normal' waves in which power will be produced. Two sea conditions correspond to extreme wave situations. The duration of the registration in each sea conditions was approximately 1/2 an hour, i.e. 3.5 hours in scale 1:1. The conclusion is: The planned test series to evaluate the energy performance can start up (phase B of the test program); The energy efficiency is expected to be improved by a slight modification in the geometry of the Wave Dragon. The modifications can include the geometry of the front and the stabilising wing at the rear end of the platform. Further on changes are possible in the stiffness of the junction between the wave reflectors and the platform and

  4. Investigation of Wave Transmission from a Floating Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the calibration of the MIKE21BW model against the measured wave height reduction behind a 24 kW/m Wave Dragon (WD) wave energy converter. A numerical model is used to determine the wave transmission through the floating WD in varying wave conditions. The transmission obtained...... from the MIKE21BW model is compared to results from a simpler model, based on the integration of wave energy flux. The conclusion is that the simplified approach provides results similar to the transmission obtained from the numerical model, both for a single WD and a farm of multiple WDs....

  5. Experimental Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the overtopping type. Oncoming waves are focused by two wing reflectors towards the ramp of the device, surge-up and overtop into a reservoir placed at a higher level than the surface of the sea. The energy production takes...... place as the water is led back to the sea through a set of low-head hydro-turbines. After many years of development, Wave Dragon (WD) is now facing the phase of pre-commercial demonstration. In this phase it is very important to be able to use the available data to predict the performances of the device...... at different scales and locations. A flexible and comprehensive modelling tool is therefore highly required. Wave Dragon produces power through different steps of energy conversion: 1. Primary energy conversion: overtopping – The energy content of the wave (partly in the kinetic and partly in the potential...

  6. Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions of the perf......The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions...

  7. Measurements of Overtopping Flow Time Series on the Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow the character......A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow...... the characteristics of the overtopping flow are discussed and the simulation algorithm is tested. Measured data is shown from a storm build up in October 2006, from theWave Dragon prototype situated in an inland sea in Northern Denmark. This wave energy converter extracts energy from the waves, by funnelling them...

  8. Numerical Simulation of Wake Effects in the Lee of a Farm of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beels, C.; Troch, P.; De Visch, K.;

    2009-01-01

    . In this paper wake effects in the lee of a single Wave Dragon WEC and multiple Wave Dragon WECs are studied in a time-dependent mild-slope equation model. The Wave Dragon WEC is a floating offshore converter of the overtopping type. The water volume of overtopped waves is first captured in a basin above mean...... sea level and then drains back to the sea through hydro turbines. The wake dimensions behind a single Wave Dragon WEC are investigated for uni- and multidirectional waves. An increasing directional spreading results in a faster wave redistribution behind the WEC. The power absorption of a farm of five...... Wave Dragon WECs, installed in a staggered grid, is calculated for varying inbetween distances. It is observed that an in-between distance of 2D is preferred, when taking spatial and safety considerations into account....

  9. The Wave Dragon: tests on a modified model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, Luca; Frigaard, Peter

    1999-09-01

    A modified floating model of the Wave Dragon was tested for movements, overtopping and forces on critical positions. The modifications and consequent testing of the model are part of a R and D programme. 18 tests (repetitions included) were carried out during May 1999. Forces in 7 different positions and movements for three degrees of freedom (heave, pitch and surge) were recorded for 7 wave situations. Total overtopping was measured for 5 different wave situations. Furthermore influence of crest freeboard was tested. Sensitivity to the energy spreading in multidirectional seas was investigated. A typical exponential equation describing overtopping was fitted to the data in case of frequent wave conditions. The formula is compared to the present tests. (au)

  10. The Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James William

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power......'s first offshore wave energy converter. During this period an extensive measuring program has established the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2 years is in progress. The prototype....... In the period from 1998 to 2001 extensive testing on a scale 1:50 model was carried at Aalborg University. During the last two years, testing has started on a prototype of the Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning, Denmark (scale 1:4.5 of the North Sea). The prototype was grid connected in May 2003 as the world...

  11. Model Testing of Hydraulic Damping of the Reflector Joint on Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Further development of the Wave Dragon wave energy converter in preparation for full-scale demonstration in the North Sea, PHASE A. FU4305, A4305 & ENS j.nr. 7903-030......Further development of the Wave Dragon wave energy converter in preparation for full-scale demonstration in the North Sea, PHASE A. FU4305, A4305 & ENS j.nr. 7903-030...

  12. Model Testing of Hydraulic Damping of the Reflector Joint on Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Further development of the Wave Dragon wave energy converter in preparation for full-scale demonstration in the North Sea, PHASE A. FU4305, A4305 & ENS j.nr. 7903-030......Further development of the Wave Dragon wave energy converter in preparation for full-scale demonstration in the North Sea, PHASE A. FU4305, A4305 & ENS j.nr. 7903-030...

  13. Experimental Update of the Overtopping Model Used for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano [Wave Dragon Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Kofoed, Jens Peter [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Department of Civil Engineering; Friis-Madsen, Erik [Wave Dragon Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    An overtopping model specifically suited for Wave Dragon is needed in order to improve the reliability of its performance estimates. The model shall be comprehensive of all relevant physical processes that affect overtopping and flexible to adapt to any local conditions and device configuration. An experimental investigation is carried out to update an existing formulation suited for 2D draft-limited, low-crested structures, in order to include the effects on the overtopping flow of the wave steepness, the 3D geometry of Wave Dragon, the wing reflectors, the device motions and the non-rigid connection between platform and reflectors. The study is carried out in four phases, each of them specifically targeted at quantifying one of these effects through a sensitivity analysis and at modeling it through custom-made parameters. These are depending on features of the wave or the device configuration, all of which can be measured in real-time. Instead of using new fitting coefficients, this approach allows a broader applicability of the model beyond the Wave Dragon case, to any overtopping WEC or structure within the range of tested conditions. Predictions reliability of overtopping over Wave Dragon increased, as the updated model allows improved accuracy and precision respect to the former version.

  14. Experimental Update of the Overtopping Model Used for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Friis-Madsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An overtopping model specifically suited for Wave Dragon is needed in order to improve the reliability of its performance estimates. The model shall be comprehensive of all relevant physical processes that affect overtopping and flexible to adapt to any local conditions and device configuration. An experimental investigation is carried out to update an existing formulation suited for 2D draft-limited, low-crested structures, in order to include the effects on the overtopping flow of the wave steepness, the 3D geometry of Wave Dragon, the wing reflectors, the device motions and the non-rigid connection between platform and reflectors. The study is carried out in four phases, each of them specifically targeted at quantifying one of these effects through a sensitivity analysis and at modeling it through custom-made parameters. These are depending on features of the wave or the device configuration, all of which can be measured in real-time. Instead of using new fitting coefficients, this approach allows a broader applicability of the model beyond the Wave Dragon case, to any overtopping WEC or structure within the range of tested conditions. Predictions reliability of overtopping over Wave Dragon increased, as the updated model allows improved accuracy and precision respect to the former version.

  15. Extreme Loads on the Mooring Lines and Survivability Mode for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges Wave Energy Converters have to face on the road towards commercialization is to ensure survivability in extreme condition at a reasonable capital costs. For a floating device like the Wave Dragon, a reliable mooring system is essential. The control strategy of the Wave...... by approximately 20-30% by lowering the crest level and balancing the device to lean a little towards the front....

  16. Description of the Power Take-off System on board the Wave Dragon Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Knapp, Wilfried

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the power take-off system of the overtopping based wave energy converter Wave Dragon (WD). Focus is put on the hydro turbine arrangement used for the extraction of the potential energy in the water obtained by wave overtopping of the ramp into the reservoir.......The paper describes the power take-off system of the overtopping based wave energy converter Wave Dragon (WD). Focus is put on the hydro turbine arrangement used for the extraction of the potential energy in the water obtained by wave overtopping of the ramp into the reservoir....

  17. Low-pressure hydro turbines and control equipment for wave energy converters (Wave Dragon). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, H.C.; Hansen, R.

    2001-06-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 MW floating offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. Through performing tests on a scale 1:50 model of the Wave Dragon, real-time overtopping time series were provided. These allowed the development of a feasible turbine and regulation strategy for handling the varying heads and flows occurring in the reservoir. A model turbine with a runner diameter of 340 mm was designed, and tested in a conventional turbine test stand. The results revealed very high efficiencies (91.3% peak efficiency), and more importantly a very flat performance curve yielding high turbine efficiency for the complete range of heads available at the Wave Dragon. A suitable power take-off and grid connection system was developed, addressing power quality issues, as well as more practical issues of flexible cabling solutions. It was concluded that feasible solutions to the technical barriers envisioned prior to the project had been found. Also means for improving the overtopping characteristics of the device were put forward. The feasibility of the Wave Dragon at original 1st generation design was investigated and key performance figures were given as net annual power production of 5.1-3.1 GWh/year, 2,775-3,150 Euro/kW in construction costs and a power production price of 0.19-0.27 Euro/kWh. The figures includes availability losses, all losses in the power train, and losses from restricted freedom of movement for two of the scenarios, with a wave energy potential of 16 and 24 kW/m wave front respectively. Significant scope for improvement, especially from enhanced overtopping from improved design, mass production and learning effects were also identified. Through implementing the known technical improvements to the Wave Dragon design identified through the project an annual net power production of 8.9 GWh/year and a production price of 0.12 Euro/kWh is foreseen for a 24 kW/m wave potential. With additional technical improvements, mass production benefits and

  18. Application of the Time-Dependent Mild-Slope Equations for the Simulation of Wake Effects in the Lee of a Farm of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beels, Charlotte; Troch, Peter; Visch, Kenneth De;

    2010-01-01

    in a time-dependent mild-slope equation model by using numerical sponge layers. In this paper the developed WEC implementation is applied to a single Wave Dragon WEC and multiple Wave Dragon WECs. The Wave Dragon WEC is a floating offshore converter of the overtopping type. Two wave reflectors focus...... and reservoir) are simulated as porous structures, exhibiting the same reflection, respectively absorption characteristics as obtained for the prototype Wave Dragon WEC. The wake effects behind a single Wave Dragon WEC are studied in detail for uni- and multidirectional waves. The shadow zone indicating...... the wake effect is decreasing with increasing directional spreading. The wake in the lee of a farm of five Wave Dragon WECs, installed in a staggered grid (3 WECs in the first row and 2 WECs in the second row), is calculated for three in-between distances of respectively D, 2D and 3D, with D the distance...

  19. Specification of Instrumentation of Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    of the transducers used on the Nissum Bredning prototype have failed during the first three years of deployment. Therefore the system of transducers to be used on the North Sea prototype should be robust. Redundancy is necessary to ensure valid information is available even if several of the transducers fail...

  20. Development of the Wave Energy Converter -Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, Hans Christian;

    2000-01-01

    2Over the years wave energy has gradually been brought into focus, as it has become clear that the fossil energy resources are limited, and cause large environmental problems, e.g. CO2 pollution. On this background a number of different wave energy converters have been proposed. In Denmark...... the government have decided to appropriate 20 mill. DKK (approx. 2,7 mill. EUR) to the development of wave energy devices over two years, 1998-1999, and the European Community (EC) also supports the development through the JOULECRAFT program....

  1. Experimental modelling of the overtopping flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmeggiani, S.; Kofoed, J.P.

    2010-11-15

    The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the overtopping type. Oncoming waves are focused by two wing reflectors towards the ramp of the device, surge-up and overtop into a reservoir placed at a higher level than the surface of the sea. The energy production takes place as the water is led back to the sea through a set of low-head hydro-turbines. After many years of development, Wave Dragon (WD) is now facing the phase of pre-commercial demonstration. In this phase it is very important to be able to use the available data to predict the performances of the device at different scales and locations. A flexible and comprehensive modelling tool is therefore highly required. Wave Dragon produces power through different steps of energy conversion: 1. Primary energy conversion: overtopping - The energy content of the wave (partly in the kinetic and partly in the potential form) is transferred to the device in the form of volumes of water coming into the reservoir. These volumes are stored at a higher level than the surrounding sea, being a stock of potential energy. 2. Secondary energy conversion: turbines - The potential energy stored in the reservoir is transformed into mechanical energy as the water flows back to the sea, activating the lowhead hydro-turbines. 3. Tertiary energy conversion step: generators - The turbines shaft rotation activates the permanent magnet generators, converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. 4. Grid connection and delivery of the power - The electricity produced is delivered to the grid at the right frequency, by means of a frequency converter. The present research is focused on the overtopping. Being the primary energy conversion mechanism of the WD, the overtopping is indeed the stage where the performances of the device are influenced by local conditions and the geometric features of the set-up. This makes it the right step where to account for these features through an accurate modelling

  2. Survivability Mode and Extreme Loads on the Mooring Lines of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    of the survivability of the device in extreme waves and evaluation of the design loads for the mooring component. The testing has been carried out in October 2010 by PhD student Stefano Parmeggiani and Master students Giovanna Bevilacqua and Giacomo Girardi Ferruzza at the Hydraulic and Coastal Laboratories...... of the department of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University. The outcome of the research will be used as input for future research work aimed at the design of the mooring system and the certification of the structural design for the full scale Wave Dragon demonstrator....

  3. Calibration and Validation of Measurement System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Riemann, Sven; Knapp, Wilfried

    The report deals with the calibration of the measuring equipment on board the Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype.......The report deals with the calibration of the measuring equipment on board the Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning prototype....

  4. Measurements of overtopping flow time series on the Wave Dragon, wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedd, James; Peter Kofoed, Jens [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardhomsvej 57, Aalborg 9000 (Denmark)

    2009-03-15

    A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow the characteristics of the overtopping flow are discussed and the simulation algorithm is tested. Measured data is shown from a storm build up in October 2006, from the Wave Dragon prototype situated in an inland sea in Northern Denmark. This wave energy converter extracts energy from the waves, by funnelling them to run-up a ramp and overtop into a reservoir. This water is stored at a higher level than the average sea surface, before being discharged through hydro turbines. The waves, device sea handling and overtopping flow are measured by pressure transducers ahead of, beneath and in the device. Comparisons of the distribution and correlation show that the measurements support the use of the algorithm for generating a simulated flow. (author)

  5. Experimental Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter (WEC) of the overtopping type. Oncoming waves are focused by two wing reflectors towards the ramp of the device, surge-up and overtop into a reservoir placed at a higher level than the surface of the sea. The energy production takes...... place as the water is led back to the sea through a set of low-head hydro-turbines. After many years of development, Wave Dragon (WD) is now facing the phase of pre-commercial demonstration. In this phase it is very important to be able to use the available data to predict the performances of the device...... form) is transferred to the device in the form of volumes of water coming into the reservoir. These volumes are stored at a higher level than the surrounding sea, being a stock of potential energy. 2. Secondary energy conversion: turbines – The potential energy stored in the reservoir is transformed...

  6. Modelling of the Overtopping Flow on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions of the perf......The Wave Dragon is a floating slack-moored Wave Energy Converter of the overtopping type, which is facing now the last phase of development before the commercial exploitation: the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator. In this phase a modelling tool allowing for accurate predictions...... of the performance of the device at different scaling ratios and locations of interest is strongly required. The overtopping, depending on the local conditions of the deployment site, is identified as the right stage to be considered in the modelling. The existing formulation of the overtopping model needs...... to be updated in order to represent more accurately the effects of the geometrical features and stability of the device and of the local conditions and nonscalable parameters on the overtopping flow. The paper analyses the conditions at which the present formulation has been established and proposes a strategy...

  7. Havvindmøller i Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben

    Formålet med undersøgelsen er at vurdere den morfologiske udvikling af Nissum Bredning omkring Sælhundeholm Løb ved etablering af ny vindmøllepark, bestående af 11-14 offshore vindmøller. Beregningen er foretaget vha. af numerisk modellering af strøm- og bølgeforhold samt sedimenttransport i det ...

  8. Modelling and Testing of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Towards Full Scale Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano

    -commercial stage in which it has proven difficult to secure the necessary funding for the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator unit. The work presented aims at easing this process, by increasing public and scientific knowledge of the device, as well as by showing the latest progress in its development. Research....... This is mainly due to the development of an updated overtopping model specifically suited to Wave Dragon, which allows greater quality to predictions of the primary energy absorption of the device compared to previous versions. At the same time an equitable approach has been described and used in the performance......, the research has also provided a deeper insight into the physics of the overtopping process by individually assessing the influence of related device configuration and wave features, which goes beyond the present application and may be used for other overtopping WECs as well. Comprehensive analysis...

  9. Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Based on the EquiMar Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Pecher, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    At the present pre-commercial phase of the wave energy sector, device developers are called to provide reliable estimates on power performance and production at possible deployment locations. The EU EquiMar project has proposed a novel approach, where the performance assessment is based mainly...... on experimental data deriving from sea trials rather than solely on numerical predictions. The study applies this methodology to evaluate the performance of Wave Dragon at two locations in the North Sea, based on the data acquired during the sea trials of a 1:4.5 scale prototype. Indications about power...... performance and production of the device at the target locations, as well as on the applicability of the methodology, are provided....

  10. Sea testing and optimisation of power production on a scale 1:4.5 test rig of the offshore wave energy converter wave dragon. Summary of final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-06-15

    The 4-11 MW Wave Dragon is a slack moored device that can be deployed in large parks wherever a sufficient wave climate and a water depth of more than 20 m is found--typically this is the case in the North Sea and in the Atlantic, offering significant economic and environmental benefits for the EU. The primary objective of the project was to establish the scientific knowledge base needed for deploying a full-scale prototype of the overtopping wave energy converter Wave Dragon. This has been obtained through long-term field-testing on a test rig with all systems installed. The scale 1:4.5 prototype has an installed power of 20 kW corresponding to 4 MW in full-scale with full-turbine deployment and is grid connected. The scale 1:4.5 prototype has been designed based on the conclusions from a previous EU Craft project. The basic test rig construction is provided through a project sponsored by the Danish Energy Authority. The test site is in protected waters in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, where the wave climate resembles North Sea conditions (scale 1:4.5) which in accordance with model law resembles a power scale of 1:200. The test results after more than 20,000 hours of operation cover: Long-term field testing of turbine operation, control strategy testing and optimisation, power monitoring and evaluation, stress and strain measurements and analysis, and mooring and cable systems analysis. The model tools developed in the previous EU Craft project have been validated and slightly modified based on the measured data. A Life Cycle Analysis and Finite Element Modelling have been performed. A report on market analysis, economic risk assessment and job creation potential has also been carried out. The project has established the necessary scientific and technical knowledge base for engaging in the establishment of a full-scale prototype in exposed waters. This includes the existence of a well-established design basis and documentation of technical viability through long

  11. Development of Wave Dragon from Scale 1:50 to Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, H. C.; Friis-Madsen, E.; Panhauser, W.;

    2003-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 to 11 MW offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It basically consists of two wave reflectors focusing the waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power......’s first offshore wave energy converter. During the coming 2 years an extensive measuring program will establish the background for optimal design of the structure and regulation of the power take off system. Planning for full scale deployment of a 7 MW unit within the next 2-3 years is in progress....

  12. The environmental impact of a Wave Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  13. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Diaconu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.

  14. The Environmental Impact of a Wave Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a wave farm consisting of Wave Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the wave climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged wave model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any wave energy converter and simulations considering a wave farm consisting of six Wave Dragon devices. Comparisons of the wave model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the wave farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the wave farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the wave farm than the significant wave height. Finally, the possible impact on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401

  15. Application of the time-dependent mild-slope equations for the simulation of wake effects in the lee of a farm of Wave Dragon wave energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beels, Charlotte; Troch, Peter; De Visch, Kenneth; De Backer, Griet [Ghent University, Department of Civil Engineering, Technologiepark 904, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Kofoed, Jens Peter [Aalborg University, Department of Civil Engineering, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2010-08-15

    Time-dependent mild-slope equations have been extensively used to compute wave transformations near coastal and offshore structures for more than 20 years. Recently the wave absorption characteristics of a Wave Energy Converter (abbreviated as WEC) of the overtopping type have been implemented in a time-dependent mild-slope equation model by using numerical sponge layers. In this paper the developed WEC implementation is applied to a single Wave Dragon WEC and multiple Wave Dragon WECs. The Wave Dragon WEC is a floating offshore converter of the overtopping type. Two wave reflectors focus the incident wave power towards a ramp. The focussed waves run up the ramp and overtop in a water reservoir above mean sea level. The obtained potential energy is converted into electricity when the stored water drains back to the sea through hydro turbines. The wave reflectors and the main body (ramp and reservoir) are simulated as porous structures, exhibiting the same reflection, respectively absorption characteristics as obtained for the prototype Wave Dragon WEC. The wake effects behind a single Wave Dragon WEC are studied in detail for uni- and multidirectional waves. The shadow zone indicating the wake effect is decreasing with increasing directional spreading. The wake in the lee of a farm of five Wave Dragon WECs, installed in a staggered grid (3 WECs in the first row and 2 WECs in the second row), is calculated for three in-between distances of respectively D, 2D and 3D, with D the distance between the tips of the wave reflectors of a single WEC. As a result, a farm of five Wave Dragon WECs installed in a staggered grid with an in-between distance of 2D is preferred, when taking cost and spatial considerations into account. (author)

  16. The Wave Dragon: 3D overtopping tests on a floating model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, Luca; Frigaard, Peter

    1999-05-01

    In order to investigate the overtopping likely to occur in the Wave Dragon (WD), some tests were carried out measuring the total overtopping volumes on a floating 1:50 model for 5 selected wave conditions. The model set-up and the tests are first described. The aim of the tests is to measure all the water overtopping the crest freeboard and, if possible, to obtain some elements to enhance the WD efficiency. A typical exponential equation describing overtopping has been fitted to the data. Tests results are then given and compared to previous tests performed in a 2D non-floating model of the structure. (au)

  17. Design of a 1.5MW Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, H. C.; Friis-Madsen, E.; Parmeggiani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses results of regular wave tests conducted at the University of Naples “Federico II” with the purpose of investigating the qualitative features and the magnitude of the wave pressures acting onto the front face of a Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG). Various wave conditions have...

  18. Design of a 1.5MW Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, H. C.; Friis-Madsen, E.; Parmeggiani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses results of regular wave tests conducted at the University of Naples “Federico II” with the purpose of investigating the qualitative features and the magnitude of the wave pressures acting onto the front face of a Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG). Various wave conditions have ...

  19. Sanitary survey rapport 2: Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    .3and the associated sampling plan are required to be based on so-called ‘sanitary surveys’. A sanitary survey is an assessment of the interactions between potential sources of microbial pollution, climate conditions and oceanography in the area. The EU Commission guidance for making a sanitary...... survey formed the basis for this report. However, in certain cases, the Danish practice for microbiological sampling frequency and classification made previously on the basis of this, as described in ‘muslingebekendtgørelsen’ is summarized in Appendix 13. The report covers production areas P1, P2, P3...... is determined in samples of mussels, etc. taken at different sampling points within each area. The report points to the most precautionary fixed sampling points for future monitoring In summary, the sanitary survey of Nissum Broads identifies an area that in general is a microbial homogeneous, stable...

  20. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Petersen, Anne-Louise S.

    2004-01-01

    Udvikling og produktion af vindmøller har været en af de største danske erhvervssucceser gennem de sidste 10 år. Nu er det næste danske bud på en vedvarende energikilde under udvikling havets bølger skal fanges, og deres energi skal tappes....

  1. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Petersen, Anne-Louise S.

    2004-01-01

    Udvikling og produktion af vindmøller har været en af de største danske erhvervssucceser gennem de sidste 10 år. Nu er det næste danske bud på en vedvarende energikilde under udvikling havets bølger skal fanges, og deres energi skal tappes.......Udvikling og produktion af vindmøller har været en af de største danske erhvervssucceser gennem de sidste 10 år. Nu er det næste danske bud på en vedvarende energikilde under udvikling havets bølger skal fanges, og deres energi skal tappes....

  2. Report on Damage in Storm 05.01.08

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Christensen, Lars

    The report describes a number of observations at the energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning, during the storm on January 8th 2005.......The report describes a number of observations at the energy converter Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning, during the storm on January 8th 2005....

  3. Experimental Study Related to the Mooring Design for the 1.5 MW Wave Dragon WEC Demonstrator at DanWEC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study identifying the response of a 1.5 MW Wave Dragon to extreme conditions typical of the DanWEC test center. The best strategies allowing for a reduction in the extreme mooring tension have also been investigated, showing that this is possible...

  4. Comparison of Mooring Loads in Survivability Mode on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Obtained by a Numerical Model and Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Muliawan, Made Jaya; Gao, Zhen;

    2012-01-01

    to be carried out numerically, through coupled analyses of alternative solutions. The present study deals with the preliminary hydrodynamic characterization of Wave Dragon needed in order to calibrate the numerical model to be used for the mooring design. A hydrodynamic analysis of the small scale model......, with experimental results derived from tank tests of a small scale model. Due to the complex geometry of the device, a sensitivity analysis is performed to discuss the influence of the mean position on the quality of the numerical predictions. Good correspondence is achieved between the experimental and numerical...... model. The numerical model is hence considered reliable for future design applications....

  5. Healthy Dragon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继山

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese economic dragon is healthy and dynamic. The dragorthead,Shanghai, is developing at a pace never before seen in world history, The dragon's body is also doing well, not least because there is tremendous competition across the country. Thus, four cities along the central Yangtze River Region are trying to strengthen their competitiveness.

  6. Correlation dimension analysis and capillary wave turbulence in Dragon-Wash phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huai-Wu; Li, Rui-Qu; Chen, Song-Ze; Li, Cun-Biao

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the evolution of surface capillary waves of deep water excited by gradually increasing the lateral external force at a single frequency. The vertical velocities of the water surface are measured by using a Polytec Laser Vibrometer with a thin layer of aluminium powder scattering on the surface to reflect the laser beam. Nonlinear interaction processes result in a stationary Fourier spectrum of the vertical surface velocities (the same as the surface elevation), i.e. Iω ~ ω-3.5. The observed spectrum can be interpreted as a wave-turbulent Kolmogorov spectrum for the case of 'narrowband pumping' for a direct cascade of energy. Correlation dimension analysis of the whole development process reveals four distinct stages during the wave structure development and identifies the wave turbulence stage.

  7. Correlation dimension analysis and capillary wave turbulence in Dragon-Wash phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Huai-Wu; Li Rui-Qu; Chen Song-Ze; Li Cun-Biao

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of surface capillary waves of deep water excited by gradually increasing the lateral external force at a single frequency.The vertical velocities of the water surface are measured by using a Polytec Laser Vibrometer with a thin layer of aluminium powder scattering on the surface to reflect the laser beam.Nonlinear interaction processes result in a stationary Fourier spectrum of the vertical surface velocities (the same as the surface elevation),i.e.Iω~ω-3.5.The observed spectrum can be interpreted as a wave-turbulent Kolmogorov spectrum for the case of 'narrowband pumping' for a direct cascade of energy.Correlation dimension analysis of the whole development process reveals four distinct stages during the wave structure development and identifies the wave turbulence stage.

  8. Tillæg til rapport om Havvindmøller i Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben

    Nærværende rapport er udført for NOE, A.m.b.a. og Nissum Bredning Vindmølle Laug af Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg i henhold til konsulentaftale af 30.11.2011, som tillæg til tidligere rapport jf. konsulentaftale af 6.7.2010. /1/. Dette tillæg omfatter kun den såkaldte dæmning...

  9. Automatic Control of Freeboard and Turbine Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik;

    The report deals with the modules for automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation on board the Wave dragon, Nissum Bredning (WD-NB) prototype, and covers what has been going on up to ultimo 2003.......The report deals with the modules for automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation on board the Wave dragon, Nissum Bredning (WD-NB) prototype, and covers what has been going on up to ultimo 2003....

  10. Placering af trykmåler til bølgemåling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    I nærværende rapport arbejdes der med indflydelsen af placering af trykmåleren til opmåling af bølger ved Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning.......I nærværende rapport arbejdes der med indflydelsen af placering af trykmåleren til opmåling af bølger ved Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning....

  11. Dragons as Amulets, Dragons as Talismans, Dragons as Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in diverse historical and cultural settings, dragons have served as protective amulets/powerful talismans to protect/enhance powers of those who possess them. Explores use of such personal symbols in dealing with personal adversity and suggests methods in which dragon symbol can be used to promote discussion of feelings, problems, and…

  12. Experimental Study Related to the Mooring Design for the 1.5 MW Wave Dragon WEC Demonstrator at DanWEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano [Wave Dragon Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Kofoed, Jens Peter [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Department of Civil Engineering; Friis-Madsen, Erik [Wave Dragon Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study identifying the response of a 1.5 MW Wave Dragon to extreme conditions typical of the Danish Wave Energy Centre (DanWEC) test center. The best strategies allowing for a reduction in the extreme mooring tension have also been investigated, showing that this is possible by increasing the surge natural period of the system. The most efficient strategy in doing this is to provide the mooring system with a large horizontal compliance (typically in the order of 100 s), which shall be therefore assumed as design configuration. If this is not possible, it can also be partly achieved by lowering the floating level to a minimum (survivability mode) and by adopting a negative trim position. The adoption of the design configuration would determine in a 100-year storm extreme mooring tensions in the order of 0.9 MN, 65% lower than the worst case experienced in the worst case configuration. At the same time it would lead to a reduction in the extreme motion response, resulting in heave and pitch oscillation heights of 7 m and 19 deg and surge excursion of 12 m. Future work will numerically identify mooring configurations that could provide the desired compliance.

  13. Experimental Study Related to the Mooring Design for the 1.5 MW Wave Dragon WEC Demonstrator at DanWEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Peter Kofoed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental study identifying the response of a 1.5 MW Wave Dragon to extreme conditions typical of the DanWEC test center. The best strategies allowing for a reduction in the extreme mooring tension have also been investigated, showing that this is possible by increasing the surge natural period of the system. The most efficient strategy in doing this is to provide the mooring system with a large horizontal compliance (typically in the order of 100 s, which shall be therefore assumed as design configuration. If this is not possible, it can also be partly achieved by lowering the floating level to a minimum (survivability mode and by adopting a negative trim position. The adoption of the design configuration would determine in a 100-year storm extreme mooring tensions in the order of 0.9 MN, 65% lower than the worst case experienced in the worst case configuration. At the same time it would lead to a reduction in the extreme motion response, resulting in heave and pitch oscillation heights of 7 m and 19° and surge excursion of 12 m. Future work will numerically identify mooring configurations that could provide the desired compliance.

  14. Talking about Dragon in the Dragon Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2012-01-01

    In the five-thousand-year history of Chinese nation,dragon is the embodiment of Chinese culture,It represents the profound cultural deposits and expresses the cultural features of China.The characteristics of dragon are snake's body,eagle's claws,deer's antlers and tiger's teeth-the most featured and powerful pans from various animals.It indicates that Chinese culture absorbs merits of other cultures and integrates them,which is also the distinctive feature of Chinese culture.

  15. Hadron Dragons strike again

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Dragon Boat team – the Hadron Dragons – achieved a fantastic result at the "Paddle for Cancer" Dragon Boat Festival at Lac de Joux on 6 September. CERN Hadron Dragons heading for the start line.Under blue skies and on a clear lake, the Hadron Dragons won 2nd place in a hard-fought final, following top times in the previous heats. In a close and dramatic race – neck-and-neck until the final 50 metres – the local Lac-de-Joux team managed to inch ahead at the last moment. The Hadron Dragons were delighted to take part in this festival. No one would turn down a day out in such a friendly and fun atmosphere, but the Dragons were also giving their support to cancer awareness and fund-raising in association with ESCA (English-Speaking Cancer Association of Geneva). Riding on their great success in recent competitions, the Hadron Dragons plan to enter the last Dragon Boat festival of 2009 in Annecy on 17-18 October. This will coincide with t...

  16. Plaster-Wrap Dragons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her students constructed a three-dimensional sculpture of a dragon using plaster wrap and other materials. The dragons were formed from modest means--using only a toilet-paper tube, newsprint, tape and wire.

  17. Plaster-Wrap Dragons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her students constructed a three-dimensional sculpture of a dragon using plaster wrap and other materials. The dragons were formed from modest means--using only a toilet-paper tube, newsprint, tape and wire.

  18. Bitten by a Dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, Stephen D; Cooper, Jeffrey S; Wadman, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are large lizards known to take down prey even larger than themselves. They rarely attack humans. A 38-year-old woman was bitten by a Komodo dragon on her hand while cleaning its enclosure. She was transiently hypotensive. The wounds were extensively cleaned, and she was started on prophylactic antibiotics. Her wounds healed without any infectious sequelae. Komodo dragon bites are historically thought to be highly infectious and venomous. Based on a literature review, neither of these are likely true. As in any bite, initial stabilization followed by wound management are the main components to therapy.

  19. Nuclear astrophysics at DRAGON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hager, U. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado (United States)

    2014-05-02

    The DRAGON recoil separator is located at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF, Vancouver. It is designed to measure radiative alpha and proton capture reactions of astrophysical importance. Over the last years, the DRAGON collaboration has measured several reactions using both radioactive and high-intensity stable beams. For example, the 160(a, g) cross section was recently measured. The reaction plays a role in steady-state helium burning in massive stars, where it follows the 12C(a, g) reaction. At astrophysically relevant energies, the reaction proceeds exclusively via direct capture, resulting in a low rate. In this measurement, the unique capabilities of DRAGON enabled determination not only of the total reaction rates, but also of decay branching ratios. In addition, results from other recent measurements will be presented.

  20. The racing dragon

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...

  1. Dragon Boat Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English and designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. This booklet describes the celebration of the Dragon Boat Festival, which marks the beginning of summer. A brief background to the festival is…

  2. Dragon Daughter Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    LONG long ago, Heavenly King Mu who ruled the Lijiang River intended to extend his kingdom. In order to occupy Yongning, a fertile land, he wrote to the king of the North (the North was inhabited by the Primmi and Naxi nationalities in Yongning) to propose a marriage between the two families. On the 50th birthday of Heavenly King Mu, his daughter, Princess Longnu (Dragon Daughter), fell in love with the Prince of the North, a kind and handsome young man. The Prince of the North and the Dragon Daughter were deeply attached to each other after their marriage. Before long the King of the North died and the prince became the new King. Heavenly King Mu wanted to

  3. The aesthetic of dragon pattern elements in modern clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任倩慧

    2015-01-01

    Dragon pattern with a long history of traditional patterns,contains profound cultural connotation.This passage illustrate the aesthetic analysis of dragon pattern in modern clothing, analyze the aesthetic expression of dragon pattern with modern costume designer.

  4. Wave power plant at Horns Rev. Screening[Denmark]; Boelgekraftanlaeg ved Horns Rev. Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Hans C.; Nielsen, Kim; Steenstrup, P.R.; Friis-Madsen, E.; Wigant, L.

    2005-12-15

    The objective for the analysis has been to establish data for the sea at Horns Rev wind farm in the North Sea in order to assess the opportunity for using the site as test site for demonstration of wave energy devices exemplified by three different devices under development in Denmark. For comparison alternative sites like Hanstholm, Samsoe and Nissum Bredning are also assessed as well as the test centre EMEC at the Orkney Islands and the proposed test site Wave Hub at the north coast of Cornwall. The analysis shows that it is possible without major technical problems to connect 2-4 MW power generated by 3 different wave energy devices (AquaBuOY, Wave Star Energy and Wave Dragon) to the wind farm at Horns Rev (www.hornsrev.dk). The expenses for connection and regulation within the wind farm is about 200,000 DKK (30,00 EURO). On top of this comes the cost for individual sub sea cable connection to the wave devices, pull in of the sub sea cable through the existing J-tube in turbine T04 and the necessary regulation/control system in the individual wave devices to avoid damaging the power system in case of too high production. The analysis of the co-production of wind and wave power is dealt with in a separate report which shows that over a time period of half to one hour the time variation for wind generated electricity is 3 times as large as for wave energy generated power based on the actual measurement at Horns Rev. Further on the analysis shows that the wave generated power is more predictable than wind energy generated power as the power from the waves first is present about 2 hours after the wind is acting and last for 3 to 6 hours after the wind dies out; 6 to 12 hours with wind from west. The time is off course strongly depending of the direction of the wind i.e. the fetch. As this special report has a more general scope than the analysis as such it is reported in English (Annex Report II). The analysis shows that it is up to the individual device developer

  5. SpaceX Dragon Air Circulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda; Piatrovich, Siarhei; Prina, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    The Dragon capsule is a reusable vehicle being developed by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) that will provide commercial cargo transportation to the International Space Station (ISS). Dragon is designed to be a habitable module while it is berthed to ISS. As such, the Dragon Environmental Control System (ECS) consists of pressure control and pressure equalization, air sampling, fire detection, illumination, and an air circulation system. The air circulation system prevents pockets of stagnant air in Dragon that can be hazardous to the ISS crew. In addition, through the inter-module duct, the air circulation system provides fresh air from ISS into Dragon. To utilize the maximum volume of Dragon for cargo packaging, the Dragon ECS air circulation system is designed around cargo rack optimization. At the same time, the air circulation system is designed to meet the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) inter-module and intra-module ventilation requirements and acoustic requirements. A flight like configuration of the Dragon capsule including the air circulation system was recently assembled for testing to assess the design for inter-module and intra-module ventilation and acoustics. The testing included the Dragon capsule, and flight configuration in the pressure section with cargo racks, lockers, all of the air circulation components, and acoustic treatment. The air circulation test was also used to verify the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model of the Dragon capsule. The CFD model included the same Dragon internal geometry that was assembled for the test. This paper will describe the Dragon air circulation system design which has been verified by testing the system and with CFD analysis.

  6. Commissioning and operation of DRAGON

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, S

    2003-01-01

    The new DRAGON (Detector of Recoils And Gammas Of Nuclear reactions) facility, located at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive beams laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, has initiated its experimental program. Recently DRAGON was used for initial studies of the sup 2 sup 1 Na(p,gamma) sup 2 sup 2 Mg reaction. This facility was designed to measure absolutely the rates of radiative proton and alpha capture reactions of astrophysical interest to a precision of +-20%, using inverse kinematics. To fully understand the optics and operational parameters of the facility along with the transmission particularly of the reaction recoils, systematic studies of various configurations are in progress using stable beams along with measurements of well-known resonance reactions. The status of these commissioning studies is presented.

  7. Role Playing Research before Dungeons and Dragons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    of Dungeons and Dragons the hobby community quickly took up this more serious mantle as well. Looking to a few unfortunate cases, and the obvious psychological power of role playing experience, many came to believe that role playing can have a profound psychological impact, but few evidence based studies have...... the effects of roleplaying – long before LARP and Dungeons and Dragons....

  8. Design of the Wave Dragon Mooring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano

    with experimental data, derived from tank tests of the 2nd generation scaled model of the device. In phase 2 further tank testing has been carried out on a novel 3rd generation scaled model to assess the design loads in the mooring system and the extreme response of the device in surge, heave and pitch to extreme....... Alternative mooring configurations have to be assessed in order to identify the most cost-effective, real configurations allowing the desired compliance to the system, as shown by the results of phase 2. The numerical model used is part of the commercial software package SESAM, developed by DNV together...

  9. Outliers and Extremes: Dragon-Kings or Dragon-Fools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysics seems full of monsters like Victor Hugo's Court of Miracles and monstrous extremes have been statistically considered as outliers with respect to more normal events. However, a characteristic magnitude separating abnormal events from normal ones would be at odd with the generic scaling behaviour of nonlinear systems, contrary to "fat tailed" probability distributions and self-organized criticality. More precisely, it can be shown [1] how the apparent monsters could be mere manifestations of a singular measure mishandled as a regular measure. Monstrous fluctuations are the rule, not outliers and they are more frequent than usually thought up to the point that (theoretical) statistical moments can easily be infinite. The empirical estimates of the latter are erratic and diverge with sample size. The corresponding physics is that intense small scale events cannot be smoothed out by upscaling. However, based on a few examples, it has also been argued [2] that one should consider "genuine" outliers of fat tailed distributions so monstrous that they can be called "dragon-kings". We critically analyse these arguments, e.g. finite sample size and statistical estimates of the largest events, multifractal phase transition vs. more classical phase transition. We emphasize the fact that dragon-kings are not needed in order that the largest events become predictable. This is rather reminiscent of the Feast of Fools picturesquely described by Victor Hugo. [1] D. Schertzer, I. Tchiguirinskaia, S. Lovejoy et P. Hubert (2010): No monsters, no miracles: in nonlinear sciences hydrology is not an outlier! Hydrological Sciences Journal, 55 (6) 965 - 979. [2] D. Sornette (2009): Dragon-Kings, Black Swans and the Prediction of Crises. International Journal of Terraspace Science and Engineering 1(3), 1-17.

  10. Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzainah A. Jaafar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dragon fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus is well known for the rich nutrient contents and it is commercially available worldwide for improving many health problems. Several studies show the proximity value of red pitaya fruits but the nutrient composition of the stem has not been extensively studied. Approach: This study was carried out to measure the proximate analysis of moisture content, water activity, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, glucose and ascorbic acids content in premature and mature of dragon fruit. The dried powder was produced from the stem of dragon fruit and the proximate analysis of dragon fruit stem was compared between freeze drying process and drying oven process. Results: Results of this study showed that 96% moisture; 0.270 g of protein; 0.552 g L-1 glucose and 132.95 mg L-1 ascorbic acid of dragon fruit stem found higher than the fruit flesh of the dragon fruit. Conclusion: The premature stem had higher values than the mature stem of the dragon fruit which may helpful in preventing the risk factors of certain diseases.

  11. How not to train your dragon: a case of a Komodo dragon bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Heather A; Charlton, Nathan P

    2015-06-01

    Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are the world's largest lizards, known for killing prey that exceed their body mass. Reports of bites to humans in the popular press suggest high degrees of morbidity and mortality. Reports in the medical literature are lacking. We describe the case of a zookeeper who was bitten by a Komodo dragon, with a resultant mallet finger. We further discuss the various potential mechanisms of Komodo dragon lethality, including sepsis and venom deposition theories that are useful in guiding management.

  12. Bronze Dragons and Phoenix Table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The table is one of the oldest kinds of furniture in China.Most, however, haven’t survived as they were made ofbamboo or wood, The discovery of this bronze table gives usa chance to see a real object from the Warring States Periodfor the first time. This bronze table was unearthed from the tomb of a kingof the Zhongshan Kingdom during the Warring States Periodat today’s Pingshan County, Hebei Province. The stand isformed from four two-winged dragons and four phoenixes

  13. Dungeons & Dragons: The gamers are revolting! [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bryant

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative response by players to corporate changes to the rule systems governing Dungeons & Dragons suggests that tabletop RPGs have more in common with fan fiction than with computer games.

  14. Dragon bridge - the world largest dragon-shaped (ARCH steel bridge as element of smart city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Luong Minh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dragon Bridge - The world’s largest dragon-shaped steel bridge, with an installation cost of $85 million USD, features 6 lanes for two separate directions, 666 meters of undulating steel in the shape of a dragon in the Ly Dynasty, the symbol of prosperity in Vietnamese culture. This unique and beautifully lit bridge, which also breathes fire and sprays water. It’s the purposeful integration of the lighting hardware articulates the dragon’s form, and the fire-breathing dragon head. This project transcends the notion of monumental bridge with dynamic colour-changing lighting, creating an iconic sculpture in the skyline that is both reverent and whimsical. The signature feature of the bridge was the massive undulating support structure resembling a dragon flying over the river. The dragon is prominent in Vietnamese culture as a symbol of power and nobility. Dragon Bridge stands out as a model of innovation. It has received worldwide attention in the design community and from the global media for its unique arch support system. Dragon Bridge serves as an example of how aesthetic quality of a design can serve cultural, economic and functional purposes. The article presents design solutions of the object and the evaluation of the technical condition before putting the facility into service.

  15. Experiments with the Dragon Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Malenfant

    2005-08-12

    The basic characteristics of a self-sustaining chain reaction were demonstrated with the Chicago Pile in 1943, but it was not until early 1945 that sufficient enriched material became available to experimentally verify fast-neutron cross-sections and the kinetic characteristics of a nuclear chain reaction sustained with prompt neutrons alone. However, the demands of wartime and the rapid decline in effort following the cessation of hostilities often resulted in the failure to fully document the experiments or in the loss of documentation as personnel returned to civilian pursuits. When documented, the results were often highly classified. Even when eventually declassified, the data were often not approved for public release until years later.2 Even after declassification and approval for public release, the records are sometimes difficult to find. Through a fortuitous discovery, a set of handwritten notes by ''ORF July 1945'' entitled ''Dragon - Research with a Pulsed Fission Reactor'' was found by William L. Myers in an old storage safe at Pajarito Site of the Los Alamos National Laboratory3. Of course, ORF was identified as Otto R. Frisch. The document was attached to a page in a nondescript spiral bound notebook labeled ''494 Book'' that bore the signatures of Louis Slotin and P. Morrison. The notes also reference an ''Idea LS'' that can only be Louis Slotin. The discovery of the notes led to a search of Laboratory Archives, the negative files of the photo lab, and the Report Library for additional details of the experiments with the Dragon machine that were conducted between January and July 1945. The assembly machine and the experiments were carefully conceived and skillfully executed. The analyses--without the crutch of computers--display real insight into the characteristics of the nuclear chain reaction. The information presented here provides what is believed to be a complete

  16. Using Dragon Curves To Learn about Length and Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lyle R.

    1999-01-01

    Utilizes dragon curves which are made with three tiles and can be used to create fascinating patterns to help students understand the concepts of length, area, and perimeter of regions as defined by dragon curves. (ASK)

  17. Little Dragon Two: An efficient Multivariate Public Key Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh P Singh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 [8], Patarin proposed an efficient cryptosystem called Little Dragon which was a variant a variant of Matsumoto Imai cryptosystem C*. However Patarin latter found that Little Dragon cryptosystem is not secure [8], [3]. In this paper we propose a cryptosystem Little Dragon Two which is as efficient as Little Dragon cryptosystem but secure against all the known attacks. Like Little Dragon cryptosystem the public key of Little Dragon Two is mixed type that is quadratic in plaintext and cipher text variables. So the public key size of Little Dragon Two is equal to Little Dragon Cryptosystem. Ourpublic key algorithm is bijective and can be used for both encryption and signatures

  18. Flavonoids from artificially induced dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Jiang, He-Mei; Li, Fei-Xiang; Chen, Hui-Qin; Liu, Wen-Chao; Ren, Shou-Zhong; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2017-09-01

    Dragon's blood is a rare traditional medicine used in many countries. Because of its various therapeutic uses, its requirement is increasing dramatically, while formation of dragon's blood need at least several years, so many researchers tried to induce the formation of dragon's blood artificially, but the chemical constituents of artificially induced dragon's blood were rarely studied. In our research, twenty constituents, including three new ones, were isolated from artificially induced dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana, five of which are the same with those from natural dragon's blood. In addition, six compounds exhibited cytotoxic activities, and eleven compounds demonstrated antibacterial activities. Artificially induced dragon's blood is expected to be the substituent of natural dragon's blood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Key Aspects of Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck

    2012-01-01

    . By collecting the experience from mainly three different wave energy developers, the possible alternative functions (other than energy production) of the devices are describe: Wave Dragon can be effectively used to reduce coastline erosion and/or as mussel farm; the Sea wave Slot cone Generator (SSG) can...

  20. Characterization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) components with valorization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liaotrakoon, Wijitra

    2013-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...

  1. Men and Women Compete for the Dragon Crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    THE dragon is the symbol of China, and the Chinese consider themselves descendants of the dragon. From April 30 to May 5 in 1995, the First National Dragon Dance Tournament was held in the Summer Palace of Chinese cultural heritage. Twenty dragon dance teams convened in Beijing and a fierce display of strength and beauty unfolded. The most eyecatching performance was by the only female participants—the Zhengmingsi

  2. Is the Dragon a Suitable Symbol for China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梦雨

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently there has been a heated discussion on whether we should continue to use the dragon as the symbol for our China.Some claim that the dragon is no longer a suitable symbol for China. Whereas others don’t think so. A professor Wu in Shanghai who holds the view that the dragon is no good a symbol gives the following reasons.Firstly,the dragon is an evil

  3. The Comical Image of the Dragon in The Woman Warrior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾露

    2013-01-01

    The figuration of the dragon is quite eye-catching and meaningful, particularly in the second episode of The Woman Warrior. By analyzing the image of the dragon in the text, and the relations of the dragon to the Chinese mythology and the tra⁃ditional Chinese medicine, this study argues Kingston has universalized the Chinese culture and exhibted her transnational world⁃view.

  4. Dragon's Blood incense: misbranded as a drug of abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, S L; Steiner, R R; Thiericke, R; Young, R; Soine, W H

    2001-01-01

    An unknown red substance was being sold and used with other drugs of abuse in Virginia (often being used in conjunction with marihuana). The red substance was identified as Dragon's Blood incense from Daemonorops draco. In bioassays, Dragon's Blood incense exhibited a low, but measurable cytotoxicity in in vitro cell lines. Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood had no adverse effect on mouse motor performance based on the inclined screen and rotorod tests. delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) produced a dose-related decline in mouse performance on the rotorod test. The combination of Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood with delta(9)-THC did not contribute further to the impairment of the mice on the rotorod. This data suggests that the abuse potential for Dragon's Blood incense alone or in combination with marihuana is minimal.

  5. [RP-HPLC characteristics of dragon's blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiu-Li; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Peng-Jiao; Zhang, Min

    2007-10-01

    To study the fingerprint of dragon's blood resina draconis by high performance liquid chromatography. The samples are extracted with methanol and separated on a Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-H2O in gradient mode, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), the detection wavelength was 275 nm and the temperature of column was 40 degrees C. Loureirin B was used as the reference compound. HPLC fingerprint of dragon's blood was established and the similarity of the fingerprint was compared. The method is simple, accurate, and can be used to control the quality of dragon's blood.

  6. Design and testing for novel joint for wave reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedd, J. [SPOK ApS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Friis-Madsen, E. [Loewenmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Frigaard, P. [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    Construction of a novel joint between the main platform and the wave reflectors of the Wave Dragon has begun. This paper describes the design and testing process behind this. Tests conducted in the facilities at Aalborg University highlighted large motions, and similar force magnitudes to the previous design. This testing has influenced the design and allowed construction to begin on refitting the joint to the 1:4.5 scale prototype Wave Dragon. (au)

  7. Life cycle assessment of the wave energy converter: Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hans Chr., Sørensen; Stefan, Naef; Stefan, Anderberg

    Any power production technology should be able to demonstrate that it's able to comply with current and future environmental regulation and that it demonstrates a considerable surplus in the energy balance being a part of the entire power system. This means that the energy used throughout all...... the lifecycle stages; from provision of materials over manufacturing of components and assembly, to deployment and use and eventually the disposal stage, is considerably less than the energy produced by the devise during its use/production stage....

  8. Dragon's blood secretion and its ecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura-Morawiec, Joanna; Tulik, Mirela

    Dragon's blood is the name given to a red exudate produced by some plant species belonging to the genera Daemonorops, Dracaena, Croton and Pterocarpus. These are endemic to various parts of the globe. It is classified as a resin or latex depending on its mode of secretion and its chemical composition, which is species specific. This red substance functions in defence and is produced (a) constitutively and stored in preformed anatomical structures, or (b) by induction in response to traumatic events, such as mechanical injury, pathogen attack or invasion by insects. Apart from its defensive role in plants, dragon's blood is also a valuable natural resource renowned since antiquity for its diverse medicinal properties and uses in art. Despite the great importance of dragon's blood, our knowledge of the biological basis for its secretion is still incomplete. This review summarizes recent advances in the study of the anatomical basis for its secretion, and discusses its classification and ecological function. Bringing some clarity to these issues may also help in the commercial sourcing of dragon's blood.

  9. Dragon Boat Festival (Dyun Ngh Jit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Julia; Quan, Ella Y.

    This bilingual-bicultural reader in Cantonese and English is intended for elementary school children in a bilingual education setting. Pen-and-ink drawings illustrate the story of the traditional dragon boat festival. Each page of the text is written in Chinese characters, Romanized form, and in English. (NCR)

  10. Ultrasonographic anatomy of bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucy, Daniel S; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Zwingenberger, Allison L

    2015-04-15

    To determine which organs can be reliably visualized ultrasonographically in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), describe their normal ultrasonographic appearance, and describe an ultrasonographic technique for use with this species. Cross-sectional study. 14 healthy bearded dragons (6 females and 8 males). Bearded dragons were manually restrained in dorsal and sternal recumbency, and coelomic organs were evaluated by use of linear 7- to 15-MHz and microconvex 5- to 8-MHz transducers. Visibility, size, echogenicity, and ultrasound transducer position were assessed for each organ. Coelomic ultrasonography with both microconvex and linear ultrasound transducers allowed for visualization of the heart, pleural surface of the lungs, liver, caudal vena cava, aorta, ventral abdominal vein, gallbladder, fat bodies, gastric fundus, cecum, colon, cloaca, kidneys, and testes or ovaries in all animals. The pylorus was visualized in 12 of 14 animals. The small intestinal loops were visualized in 12 of 14 animals with the linear transducer, but could not be reliably identified with the microconvex transducer. The hemipenes were visualized in 7 of 8 males. The adrenal glands and spleen were not identified in any animal. Anechoic free coelomic fluid was present in 11 of 14 animals. Heart width, heart length, ventricular wall thickness, gastric fundus wall thickness, and height of the caudal poles of the kidneys were positively associated with body weight. Testis width was negatively associated with body weight in males. Results indicated coelomic ultrasonography is a potentially valuable imaging modality for assessment of most organs in bearded dragons and can be performed in unsedated animals.

  11. [New study on species of Chinese medicine dragon's blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian; Li, Jian; Zhao, Hai-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Through comprehensive study on the descriptions of dragon's blood in traditional medical books, we pointed out that before Tang Dynasty, Butea monosperma was used as dragon's blood; during Tang and Song Dynasty, Liquidambar formosana. was used as dragon's blood; in Commentaries on the illustrations of Song Dynasty, the author made a mistake by combined the descriptions of Butea monosperma with the descriptions of the prepared medicine of Dracaena cochinchinensis in dragon's blood, and thus the oversea species D. cochinchinensis became the mainstream of dragon's blood source in homeland. Until the foundation of the Republic of China, Daemonorops draco replaced D. cochinchinensis to the main source of dragon's blood. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Dragon's blood: botany, chemistry and therapeutic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Bleakley, Bruce; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2008-02-12

    Dragon's blood is one of the renowned traditional medicines used in different cultures of world. It has got several therapeutic uses: haemostatic, antidiarrhetic, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antiviral, wound healing, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, etc. Besides these medicinal applications, it is used as a coloring material, varnish and also has got applications in folk magic. These red saps and resins are derived from a number of disparate taxa. Despite its wide uses, little research has been done to know about its true source, quality control and clinical applications. In this review, we have tried to overview different sources of Dragon's blood, its source wise chemical constituents and therapeutic uses. As well as, a little attempt has been done to review the techniques used for its quality control and safety.

  13. My Six- Months Internship in "The Dragon"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程婧莹

    2011-01-01

    @@ In order to complete my first year at SHMS Caux I was required to fulfil a six-months internship in the hotel.I have chosen to work in the "Dragon Hotel".I had the pleasure of having my first year internship there.All the things for me is fresh and strange.I faced many difficulties and problems while I was doing my internship.

  14. First test of the dragon equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Voitsekhovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El equipo DRAGON constituye un nuevo instrumento astronómico diseñado para llevar a cabo diversas investigaciones relacionadas con óptica adaptativa, óptica activa, astronomía observacional e instrumentación astronómica. En este artículo presentamos los resultados de las primeras pruebas de este instrumento llevadas a cabo en el OAN-Tonantzintla (México.

  15. Measuring radiative capture rates at DRAGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, U.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Greife, U.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Rojas, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2013-04-01

    The DRAGON recoil separator facility is located at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF, Vancouver. It is designed to measure radiative alpha and proton capture reactions of astrophysical importance in inverse kinematics. The Supernanogan ion source at ISAC provides stable beams of high intensities. The DRAGON collaboration has taken advantage of this over the last years by measuring several reactions requiring high-intensity stable oxygen beams. In particular,the ^17O(p,γ) and ^16O(α,γ) reaction rates were recently measured. The former reaction is part of the hot CNO cycle, and strongly influences the abundance of ^18F in classical novae. Because of its relatively long lifetime, ^18F is a possible target for satellite-based gamma-ray spectroscopy. The ^16O(α,γ) reaction plays a role in steady-state helium burning in massive stars, where it follows the ^12C(α,γ) reaction. At astrophysically relevant energies, the reaction proceeds exclusively via direct capture, resulting in a low rate. In both cases, the unique capabilities of DRAGON enabled determination not only of the total reaction rates, but also of decay branching ratios. Results from both experiments will be presented.

  16. Development of the Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, Hans Christian

    2000-01-01

    The development of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon (WD) is presented. The WD is based on the overtopping principle. Initially a description of the WD is given. Then the development over time in terms of the various research and development projects working with the concept is described...

  17. Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...

  18. Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...

  19. Comparison and Sensitivity Investigations of a CALM and SALM Type Mooring System for Wave Energy Converters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur Pecher; Aligi Foglia; Jens Peter Kofoed

    2014-01-01

    ...) of 2000 kN and a water depth of 30 m. This reference scenario seems to be representative for large WECs operating in intermediate water depths, such as Weptos, Wave Dragon and many others, including reasonable design safety factors...

  20. Denmark's clean energy future from waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G. [Nova Pro, CADDET Danish National Team, Toelloese (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    This article presents a brief overview of Denmark's wave energy programme which aims to develop wave energy plants to supply 15% of Denmark's energy consumption. Details are given of the Wave Dragon deep water floating wave power plant, the Swan DK3 backward bend duct buoy, the point absorber float, and the WavePlane floating device. The step by step development approach for projects accepted by the wave energy programme, and future options are discussed. (UK)

  1. Turbine Control Strategy using Wave Prediction to Optimise Power Take Off of Overtopping Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Knapp, Wilfried; Frigaard, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the control strategy used on Wave Dragon overtopping wave energy converter. The nature of overtopping requires that for optimum performance the water level in the reservoir must be controlled by controlling the turbine outflows. A history of the simulations performed is included...

  2. New biflavonoids from dragon's blood of Dracaena cinnabari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoud, M; Himmelreich, U; Ripperger, H; Adam, G

    1995-08-01

    The new biflavonoids 2'-methoxysocotrin-5'-ol, socotrin-4'-ol, and homoisosocotrin-4'-ol were isolated from dragon's blood of Dracaena cinnabari and their structures elucidated mainly by NMR spectroscopy.

  3. Dragon-kings: mechanisms, statistical methods and empirical evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D; 10.1140/epjst/e2012-01559-5

    2012-01-01

    This introductory article presents the special Discussion and Debate volume "From black swans to dragon-kings, is there life beyond power laws?" published in Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics in May 2012. We summarize and put in perspective the contributions into three main themes: (i) mechanisms for dragon-kings, (ii) detection of dragon-kings and statistical tests and (iii) empirical evidence in a large variety of natural and social systems. Overall, we are pleased to witness significant advances both in the introduction and clarification of underlying mechanisms and in the development of novel efficient tests that demonstrate clear evidence for the presence of dragon-kings in many systems. However, this positive view should be balanced by the fact that this remains a very delicate and difficult field, if only due to the scarcity of data as well as the extraordinary important implications with respect to hazard assessment, risk control and predictability.

  4. Dragon paves the way for new spaceflight era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2012-07-01

    The success of the first private mission to the International Space Station (ISS) has opened up a new era in commercial spaceflight after SpaceX's Dragon capsule splashed down safely in the Pacific Ocean on 31 May.

  5. Dragon-Kings, Black Swans and the Prediction of Crises

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, Didier

    2009-01-01

    We develop the concept of ``dragon-kings'' corresponding to meaningful outliers, which are found to coexist with power laws in the distributions of event sizes under a broad range of conditions in a large variety of systems. These dragon-kings reveal the existence of mechanisms of self-organization that are not apparent otherwise from the distribution of their smaller siblings. We present a generic phase diagram to explain the generation of dragon-kings and document their presence in six different examples (distribution of city sizes, distribution of acoustic emissions associated with material failure, distribution of velocity increments in hydrodynamic turbulence, distribution of financial drawdowns, distribution of the energies of epileptic seizures in humans and in model animals, distribution of the earthquake energies). We emphasize the importance of understanding dragon-kings as being often associated with a neighborhood of what can be called equivalently a phase transition, a bifurcation, a catastrophe ...

  6. Standalone visualization tool for three-dimensional DRAGON geometrical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukomski, A.; McIntee, B.; Moule, D.; Nichita, E. [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    DRAGON is a neutron transport and depletion code able to solve one-, two- and three-dimensional problems. To date DRAGON provides two visualization modules, able to represent respectively two- and three-dimensional geometries. The two-dimensional visualization module generates a postscript file, while the three dimensional visualization module generates a MATLAB M-file with instructions for drawing the tracks in the DRAGON TRACKING data structure, which implicitly provide a representation of the geometry. The current work introduces a new, standalone, tool based on the open-source Visualization Toolkit (VTK) software package which allows the visualization of three-dimensional geometrical models by reading the DRAGON GEOMETRY data structure and generating an axonometric image which can be manipulated interactively by the user. (author)

  7. Three new flavans in dragon's blood from Daemonorops draco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qian; Saito, Yoshinori; Matsuo, Yosuke; Li, Hai-Zhou; Takashi, Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Three new flavans were isolated from chloroform extracts of dragon's blood from Daemonorops draco, together with eight known compounds. The structures of the new flavans were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis. These compounds are the first examples of 2-methoxyflavans from D. draco and regarded as derivatives of biogenetic intermediates from flavans to chalcones, which are characteristic of the dragon's blood.

  8. Simulation of the SONGS Reactor Antineutrino Flux Using DRAGON

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, C L

    2011-01-01

    For reactor antineutrino experiments, a thorough understanding of the fuel composition and isotopic evolution is of paramount importance for the extraction of $\\theta_{13}$. To accomplish these goals, we employ the deterministic lattice code DRAGON, and analyze the instantaneous antineutrino rate from the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Unit 2 reactor in California. DRAGON's ability to predict the rate for two consecutive fuel cycles is examined.

  9. Intraerythrocytic iridovirus in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, Claire; Wellehan, James F X; Owens, Sean D; McGraw, Sabrina; Gaffney, Patricia M; Foley, Janet; Childress, April L; Yun, Susan; Malm, Kirsten; Groff, Joseph M; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Weber, E Scott

    2014-05-01

    Three adult central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) originating from a commercial breeding facility presented with clinical signs, including anorexia, dehydration, white multifocal lesions on the dorsal aspect of the tongue, blepharospasm, and weight loss. In 1 of 3 lizards, a marked regenerative anemia was noted, and all 3 bearded dragons had erythrocytic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Nine bearded dragons housed in contact also had identical, but fewer intraerythrocytic inclusions. Inclusion bodies examined by electron microscopy had particles consistent with iridoviruses. Attempts to culture the virus were unsuccessful; however, amplification and sequencing of regions of the viral DNA polymerase by polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of an iridovirus. One of the bearded dragons died, while the 2 others showing clinical signs were euthanized. The remaining 9 infected bearded dragons of the teaching colony were also euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed a moderate, multifocal, lymphoplasmacytic or mononuclear adenitis of the tongue in the 3 bearded dragons, and a lymphohistiocytic hepatitis with bacterial granulomas in 2 lizards. © 2014 The Author(s).

  10. Toxic leucoencephalopathy after 'chasing the dragon'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Saini, Monica

    2015-06-01

    Toxic leucoencephalopathy (TLE) is a rare neurological complication of heroin abuse. 'Chasing the dragon' is an inhalational mode of heroin abuse that originated in Southeast Asia. Intriguingly, no cases of TLE have been reported from this region, although the inhalational mode of heroin abuse is common. We herein report the case of a middle-aged man with a history of polysubstance abuse who presented with progressive neurological symptoms and progressed to an uncommunicative state. While the initial impression was that of iatrogenic parkinsonism, diffuse leucoencephalopathy with sparing of the cerebellum was noted on magnetic resonance imaging. In view of his history of inhalational heroin abuse close to the onset of the neurological symptoms, a diagnosis of TLE was made. No clinical improvement was noted with administration of a dopaminergic agent. This is the first known case of delayed TLE following heroin inhalation from Southeast Asia with the unusual feature of cerebellar sparing.

  11. Predictors of telomere content in dragon lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballen, Cissy; Healey, Mo; Wilson, Mark; Tobler, Michael; Olsson, Mats

    2012-08-01

    Telomeres shorten as a consequence of DNA replication, in particular in cells with low production of telomerase and perhaps in response to physiological stress from exposure to reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide. This process of telomere attrition is countered by innate antioxidation, such as via the production of superoxide dismutase. We studied the inheritance of telomere length in the Australian painted dragon lizard ( Ctenophorus pictus) and the extent to which telomere length covaries with mass-corrected maternal reproductive investment, which reflects the level of circulating yolk precursor and antioxidant, vitellogenin. Our predictors of offspring telomere length explained 72 % of telomere variation (including interstitial telomeres if such are present). Maternal telomere length and reproductive investment were positively influencing offspring telomere length in our analyses, whereas flow cytometry-estimated superoxide level was negatively impacting offspring telomere length. We suggest that the effects of superoxide on hatchling telomere shortening may be partly balanced by transgenerational effects of vitellogenin antioxidation.

  12. 76 FR 27284 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ..., Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... during the Dragon Boat Races which take place during the third or fourth weekend in July each year. This... from other vessel traffic. The Captain of the Port Detroit has determined dragon boat races in...

  13. 77 FR 55436 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ..., Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... River during the annual Dragon Boat Races. This special local regulated area is necessary to protect... Regulation; Partnership in Education Dragon Boat Race, Maumee River Toledo, OH in the Federal...

  14. Worlds Largest Wave Energy Project 2007 in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars; Friis-Madsen, Erik; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    a large number of fundamentally different technologies are utilised to harvest wave energy. The Wave Dragon belongs to the wave overtopping class of converters and the paper describes the fundamentals and the technical solutions used in this wave energy converter. An offshore floating WEC like the Wave......This paper introduces world largest wave energy project being developed in Wales and based on one of the leading wave energy technologies. The background for the development of wave energy, the total resource ands its distribution around the world is described. In contrast to wind energy turbines...... Dragon has to be scaled in accordance with the wave climate at the deployment site, which makes the Welch demonstrator device the worlds largest WEC so far with a total width of 300 meters. The project budget, the construction methods and the deployment site are also given....

  15. DRAGON: Monte Carlo Generator of Particle Production from a Fragmented Fireball in Ultrarelativistic Nuclear Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, Boris

    2010-11-01

    A Monte Carlo generator of the final state of hadrons emitted from an ultrarelativistic nuclear collision is introduced. An important feature of the generator is a possible fragmentation of the fireball and emission of the hadrons from fragments. Phase space distribution of the fragments is based on the blast wave model extended to azimuthally non-symmetric fireballs. Parameters of the model can be tuned and this allows to generate final states from various kinds of fireballs. A facultative output in the OSCAR1999A format allows for a comprehensive analysis of phase-space distributions and/or use as an input for an afterburner. DRAGON's purpose is to produce artificial data sets which resemble those coming from real nuclear collisions provided fragmentation occurs at hadronisation and hadrons are emitted from fragments without any further scattering. Its name, DRAGON, stands for DRoplet and hAdron GeneratOr for Nuclear collisions. In a way, the model is similar to THERMINATOR, with the crucial difference that emission from fragments is included.

  16. SpaceX's Dragon America's next generation spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This book describes Dragon V2, a futuristic vehicle that not only provides a means for NASA to transport its astronauts to the orbiting outpost but also advances SpaceX’s core objective of reusability. A direct descendant of Dragon, Dragon V2 can be retrieved, refurbished and re-launched. It is a spacecraft with the potential to completely revolutionize the economics of an industry where equipment costing hundreds of millions of dollars is routinely discarded after a single use. It was presented by SpaceX CEO Elon Musk in May 2014 as the spaceship that will carry NASA astronauts to the International Space Station as soon as 2016 SpaceX’s Dragon – America’s Next Generation Spacecraft describes the extraordinary feats of engineering and human achievement that have placed this revolutionary spacecraft at the forefront of the launch industry and positioned it as the precursor for ultimately transporting humans to Mars. It describes the design and development of Dragon, provides mission highlights of the f...

  17. DRAGONS - A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J. -C.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Anderson, C.; Sadilek, A.; Burchell, M.; Hamilton, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital Navy-NASA Sensor (DRAGONS) is intended to be a large area impact sensor for in situ measurements of micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) in the millimeter or smaller size regime. These MMOD particles are too small to be detected by ground-based radars and optical telescopes, but are still large enough to be a serious safety concern for human space activities and robotic missions in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. The nominal detection area of a DRAGONS unit is 1 m2, consisting of several independently operated panels. The approach of the DRAGONS design is to combine different particle impact detection principles to maximize information that can be extracted from detected events. After more than 10 years of concept and technology development, a 1 m2 DRAGONS system has been selected for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS) in August 2016. The project team achieved a major milestone when the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) was completed in May 2015. Once deployed on the ISS, this multi-year mission will provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the MMOD detection capability of the DRAGONS technologies and to collect data to better define the small MMOD environment at the ISS altitude.

  18. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many t...

  19. Gilded Silver Crown with Double-dragon Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Unearthed from a Liao tomb at Zhangjia Yingzi, Jianping County, Liaoning Province in 1956, this gilded silver crown with double-dragon pattern is 19 cm high and 20.9 cm in diameter. Its shape is suggestive of a mountain: higher in the middle and lower on both sides. On the front is a carving in the shape of a pearl surrounded by an S-shape pattern symbolizing good fortune. There is a lively dragon on either side. The complete design is based on the old theme "two dragons play with a pearl." Traditions of the Qidan, an ancient nationality of northern China, are evident in the design of the crown. It is recorded in

  20. Chemotherapeutic treatment for leukemia in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Gwen; Sirninger, Jeffrey; Borne, Jessica; Nevarez, Javier G

    2011-06-01

    A 4.5-yr-old, captive-bred, male bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) presented for lethargy, anorexia, and increased mucoid salivation with upper respiratory clicks. Diagnostics were declined and the bearded dragon was prescribed ceftazidime 20 mg/kg i.m. q 72 hr. The patient presented again 1 wk later with a marked monocytosis, heterophilia, and lymphocytosis, and a clinical diagnosis of chronic monocytic leukemia was made. Chemotherapy with cytosine arabinoside (100 mg/m2 over 48 hr i.v.) was initiated. Forty-four hours into the treatment the dragon became acutely unresponsive and died within 1 hr. Adverse effects as a result of i.v. cytosine arabinoside therapy were not identified despite previous reports suggestive that the drug induces renal failure.

  1. Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, J M; Garner, M M; Chilton, J A; Jacobson, E R; Kiupel, M

    2009-11-01

    This article describes a newly recognized highly malignant neoplastic entity in young bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas, which readily metastasize. Ten bearded dragons with histories of anorexia (8), vomiting (3), hyperglycemia (2), and anemia (3) were included in this study. All animals had neoplastic masses in their stomach, with metastasis to the liver. Microscopically, 6 of these neuroendocrine carcinomas were well-differentiated and 4 were poorly differentiated. For further characterization, immunohistochemistry for protein gene product 9.5, neuron-specific enolase, endorphin, chromogranins A and B, synaptophysin, somatostatin, insulin, glucagon, gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide was performed on 5 animals. Because only immunolabeling for somatostatin was consistently observed in all neoplasms, a diagnosis of somatostatinoma was made for these 5 bearded dragons. Some neoplasms also exhibited multihormonal expression. Electron microscopy performed on 1 tumor confirmed the presence of neuroendocrine granules within neoplastic cells. Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas, and specifically somatostatinomas, have not been previously reported in bearded dragons, or other reptiles, and may be underdiagnosed due to inconsistent, ambiguous clinical signs. In humans, pancreatic somatostatinomas are associated with a syndrome of hypersomatostatinemia, which includes hyperglycemia, weight loss, and anemia, as observed in some of these bearded dragons. Somatostatinomas in humans are commonly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (Von Recklinghausen's disease), caused by a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene NF1, which results in decreased expression of neurofibromin. In all 5 animals examined, neoplasms exhibited decreased neurofibromin expression compared with control tissues, suggesting that decreased functional neurofibromin may play a role in the pathogenesis of somatostatinomas in bearded dragons.

  2. D=3, N=8 conformal supergravity and the Dragon window

    CERN Document Server

    Cederwall, Martin; Nilsson, Bengt E W

    2011-01-01

    We give a superspace description of D=3, N=8 supergravity. The formulation is off-shell in the sense that the equations of motion are not implied by the superspace constraints (but an action principle is not given). The multiplet structure is unconventional, which we connect to the existence of a "Dragon window", that is modules occurring in the supercurvature but not in the supertorsion. According to Dragon's theorem this cannot happen above three dimensions. We clarify the relevance of this window for going on the conformal shell, and discuss some aspects of coupling to conformal matter.

  3. Dragones, serpientes y cocodrilos infernales en la comedia de santos

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Fernandez, Luis

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Se examinan en este artículo algunos casos en los que aparecen dragones, serpientes y cocodrilos vinculados al personaje teatral del demonio en la comedia de santos. El corpus es mayormente calderoniano.; Parcours retraçant dans la comedia de santos (pièces hagiographiques) la présence de monstres tels que les dragons, les serpents et les crocodiles là où il y a une relation spécifique avec le diable. Le corpus examiné porte essentiellement sur les oeuvres de Pedro Cal...

  4. A seismic anisotropy study of the Dragon Flag hydrothermal field (49°39'E ) on the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zhao, M.; Tong, V. C. H.; Qiu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Dragon Flag hydrothermal field located at 49°39'E on the Southwest Indian Ridge contains the active hydrothermal vents firstly discovered on the ultraslow spreading ridge (Tao et al, 2012). Anisotropic study in this area will provide important information tectonic activities. 65634 traveltime residuals from the three-dimensional isotropic inversion (Zhao et al., 2013), were divided into three groups, which correspond to quasi ocean crustal Layer 2 (qL2), quasi ocean crustal Layer 3 (qL3) and quasi uppermost mantle (qUM), respectively. Traveltime residuals at different depths show that there are obvious cosine relationships between traveltime residuals and azimuth of qL2, qL3 and qUM, indicating anisotropy existed in both crust and mantle beneath Dragon Flag hydrothermal field. The best fitted cosine curves indicate that the fast directions (negative traveltime residuals) corresponding to the general trend of ridge axis of N104°E. According to these results, we propose that there may be prevalent cracks penetrating into lower crust or even uppermost mantle. We argue that the hydrothermal convection of Dragon Flag hydrothermal field not only occurs perpendicular to ridge axis, but also occurs parallel to ridge axis. We reveal for the first time anisotropic characteristics of the ultraslow spreading ridge, which has profound scientific significance for the future research on global ocean lithospheric anisotropy. This research was granted by the Natural Science Foundation of China (91028002, 41176053, 91428204). Keywords: ultraslow spreading ridge, Southwest Indian Ridge, Dragon Flag hydrothermal field, P wave traveltime residuals, anisotropy References: Tao C H, Lin J, Guo S, et al. First active hydrothermal vents on an ultraslow-spreading center: Southwest Indian Ridge. Geology, 2012, 40(1): 47~50. Zhao M H, Qiu X L, Li J B, et al. Three-dimensional seismic structure of the Dragon Flag oceanic core complex at the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39

  5. Short term wave forecasting, using digital filters, for improved control of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Frigaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    experimentally. Results are shown form measurements taken on the Wave Dragon prototype device, a floating overtopping device situated in Northern Denmark. In this case the method is able to accurately predict the surface elevation at the device 11.2 seconds before the measurement is made. This is sufficient......This paper presents a Digital Filter method for real time prediction of waves incident upon a Wave Energy device. The method transforms waves measured at a point ahead of the device, to expected waves incident on the device. The relationship between these incident waves and power capture is derived...

  6. Phenolic compounds of Dragon's blood from Dracaena draco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A G; León, F; Sánchez-Pinto, L; Padrón, J I; Bermejo, J

    2000-09-01

    Three new compounds, 2,4,4'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (1), 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5,7-dimethoxychroman (2), and 7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)chromone (3), were isolated from the resin "Dragon's blood" obtained from Dracaena draco along with 18 known compounds. The structures of 1, 2, and 3 were determined using MS and NMR techniques.

  7. Vulnerable Cyborgs: Learning to Live with our Dragons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Transhumanist visions appear to aim at invulnerability. We are invited to fight the dragon of death and disease, to shed our old, human bodies, and to live on as invulnerable minds or cyborgs. This paper argues that even if we managed to enhance humans in one of these ways, we would remain highly

  8. A Literature Unit for "Dragon's Gate" by Laurence Yep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Vallens, Mary

    Intended as a an aid to classroom teachers, this 52-page handbook presents a literature unit based on the children and young people's book, "Dragon's Gate" by Laurence Yep. It begins with sample lesson plans, pre-reading activities, author information, a book summary, vocabulary lists and suggested vocabulary activities. Next, chapters…

  9. A new steroidal saponin from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study on dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana led to a new steroidal saponin, cambodianoside G(1), and six known ones (2-7). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. Evaluation of antibacterial activities showed that compound 7 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Lion and dragon: four centuries of Dutch-Vietnamese relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; van der Zwan, B.; Moors, H.; van Zeeland, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch-Vietnamese relations go back as far as the beginning of the seventeenth century. For a long time, relations between the Dutch lion and the Vietnamese dragon have been fragile and even violent. Although the relations were not continuously bad, they remained distant rather than warm. Today Vietn

  11. Ecological allometries and niche use dynamics across Komodo dragon ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandana, Deni; Ariefiandy, Achmad; Imansyah, M. Jeri; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Letnic, Mike; Jessop, Tim S.

    2016-04-01

    Ontogenetic allometries in ecological habits and niche use are key responses by which individuals maximize lifetime fitness. Moreover, such allometries have significant implications for how individuals influence population and community dynamics. Here, we examined how body size variation in Komodo dragons ( Varanus komodoensis) influenced ecological allometries in their: (1) prey size preference, (2) daily movement rates, (3) home range area, and (4) subsequent niche use across ontogeny. With increased body mass, Komodo dragons increased prey size with a dramatic switch from small (≤10 kg) to large prey (≥50 kg) in lizards heavier than 20 kg. Rates of foraging movement were described by a non-linear concave down response with lizard increasing hourly movement rates up until ˜20 kg body mass before decreasing daily movement suggesting reduced foraging effort in larger lizards. In contrast, home range area exhibited a sigmoid response with increased body mass. Intrapopulation ecological niche use and overlap were also strongly structured by body size. Thus, ontogenetic allometries suggest Komodo dragon's transition from a highly active foraging mode exploiting small prey through to a less active sit and wait feeding strategy focused on killing large ungulates. Further, our results suggest that as body size increases across ontogeny, the Komodo dragon exhibited marked ontogenetic niche shifts that enabled it to function as an entire vertebrate predator guild by exploiting prey across multiple trophic levels.

  12. Clones, Drones and Dragons: Ongoing Uncertainties around School Leader Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a number of key issues around successful school leadership and leader development. Three metaphors are used to frame, track and analyse recent research and commentary in the area--these are clones, drones and dragons. Although development mechanisms rarely fall neatly within one category, the metaphors provide a useful way to…

  13. Here Be Dragons: voorgeschiedenis en ontstaan van Adventure Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, Connie

    2004-01-01

    The article traces the history of adventure games from the birth of the fantasy genre in William Morris' work and the origins of the Kriegspiel, through Tolkien's fantasy world and Dungeons and Dragons to the early text adventures and the first graphical adventures.

  14. Lion and dragon: four centuries of Dutch-Vietnamese relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; van der Zwan, B.; Moors, H.; van Zeeland, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch-Vietnamese relations go back as far as the beginning of the seventeenth century. For a long time, relations between the Dutch lion and the Vietnamese dragon have been fragile and even violent. Although the relations were not continuously bad, they remained distant rather than warm. Today

  15. A Literature Unit for "Dragon's Gate" by Laurence Yep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Vallens, Mary

    Intended as a an aid to classroom teachers, this 52-page handbook presents a literature unit based on the children and young people's book, "Dragon's Gate" by Laurence Yep. It begins with sample lesson plans, pre-reading activities, author information, a book summary, vocabulary lists and suggested vocabulary activities. Next, chapters…

  16. Aeroacoustics of the swinging corrugated tube: Voice of the Dragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Rudenko, O.; Hirschberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    When one swings a short corrugated pipe segment around one’s head, it produces a musically interesting whistling sound. As a musical toy it is called a “Hummer” and as a musical instrument, the “Voice of the Dragon.” The fluid dynamics aspects of the instrument are addressed, corresponding to the

  17. Clones, Drones and Dragons: Ongoing Uncertainties around School Leader Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a number of key issues around successful school leadership and leader development. Three metaphors are used to frame, track and analyse recent research and commentary in the area--these are clones, drones and dragons. Although development mechanisms rarely fall neatly within one category, the metaphors provide a useful way to…

  18. Direct measurements of radiative capture reactions with DRAGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Direct measurements of radiative proton and alpha capture reactions are crucial for understanding nucleosynthesis in a variety of astrophysical environments, including classical novae, supernovae, X-Ray bursts, and quiescent stellar burning. Often the most important reactions have very low cross sections or involve unstable targets, making laboratory measurements extremely challenging. The detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions (DRAGON) at TRIUMF is a recoil mass separator designed to measure radiative capture reactions in inverse kinematics, with beam suppression factors as high as 1016. When combined with the intense radioactive beams available at the ISAC-I facility, DRAGON's capabilities are unique and world-leading. In this talk, I will give a brief technical overview of DRAGON before presenting results from recent experiments. Some highlights include the first-ever direct measurement of 38K(p , γ) 39Ca, a crucial reaction for determining the endpoint of nova nucleosynthesis, and measurements of 76Se(α , γ) 80Kr. The latter measurements determine the rate of the reverse reaction, 80Kr(γ , α) 76Se, an important waiting point in the synthesis of the p-nuclei. I will also discuss future (and ongoing) developments at DRAGON, including the commissioning of a new chamber for high-precision elastic scattering measurements and plans to determine the 330 keV resonance strength in 18F(p , γ) 19Ne via measurements of 15O(α , γ) 19Ne and 15O + α elastic scattering.

  19. Low Cost Mars Sample Return Utilizing Dragon Lander Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    We studied a Mars sample return (MSR) mission that lands a SpaceX Dragon Capsule on Mars carrying sample collection hardware (an arm, drill, or small rover) and a spacecraft stack consisting of a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) and Earth Return Vehicle (ERV) that collectively carry the sample container from Mars back to Earth orbit.

  20. Lion and dragon: four centuries of Dutch-Vietnamese relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; van der Zwan, B.; Moors, H.; van Zeeland, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch-Vietnamese relations go back as far as the beginning of the seventeenth century. For a long time, relations between the Dutch lion and the Vietnamese dragon have been fragile and even violent. Although the relations were not continuously bad, they remained distant rather than warm. Today Vietn

  1. Loureirin B: An Effective Component in Dragon's Blood Modulating Sodium Currents in TG Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangming; Yin, Shijin; Chen, Su; Ma, Quanshun

    2005-01-01

    To test, analyze and express the relationship between the pharmacological effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) dragon's blood and that of its component loureirin B, specify an operational definition for effective component from raw drug of TCM. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, the effects of dragon's blood and its component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons were observed. The results show that both dragon's blood and loureirin B suppressed two types of peak sodium currents in a dose-dependent way. 0.1% dragon's blood and 0.2mmol/L loureirin B affected the activation and inactivation of sodium channels. The results further prove the analgetic mechanism of dragon's blood interfering with the nociceptive transmission. According to the above definition, loureirin B is the effective component in dragon's blood modulating sodium currents in TG neurons.

  2. 龙、龙图腾与龙的传人——兼驳一种观点%Dragon, Dragon Totem, and Descendants of the Dragon —— Refutation of a View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段宝林

    2011-01-01

    有一种观点认为中国未曾存在过龙的图腾,说中国人是“龙的传人”是“误谈”,这是不了解龙产生的历史及龙所体现的民族精神。历史记载、考古事实等都证明,从开天辟地的盘古,到人祖伏羲、女娲,到炎帝神龙氏、黄帝轩辕氏,直至夏禹一族均为龙图腾——龙之传人;中国南北许多民族的图腾和象征都是龙。龙是中华凝聚力的象征、中华儿女大团结的象征、中华民族“和合精神”的象征。%A view holds that since there did not exist dragon totem in China, the saying that Chinese are the descendents of dragon is wrong. Those holding this view do not understand the history of dragon generation and the spirit reflected by dragon. Historical records, and archaeological facts proved that from the epoch of Pangu, to the human ancestors Fuxi, Nvwa, to the Yah Emperor' s dragon clan,the Yellow Emperor's Xuanyuan clan, and up to the Yu clan in Xia Dynasty, they all had dragon totem-descendents of dragon. Many totems or symbols of ethnics in southern and northern China are dragon. Dragon is the symbol of Chinese cohesion,of Chinese peoples' great unity, and of Chinese peoples'"spirit of harmony".

  3. Production of dragon's blood in Dracaena cochinchinensis plants by inoculation of Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Hong; Zhang, Changhe; Yang, Ling-Ling; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2011-02-01

    Dragon's blood is a traditional medicine widely used in the world from ancient times. However, little is known about its formation mechanism. This work aimed to gain some insights into its formation mechanism and to control its production. The results demonstrate that wounding plus causal fungal infection and keeping the wound moist are essential for efficient dragon's blood formation in Dracaena cochinchinensis. Two fungal isolates YM-266 and YM-71213 of Fusarium proliferatum increased the yield of dragon's blood in D. cochinchinensis trees by 2.7- and 3.3-times compared to that of the control (wounding alone and keeping the wound moist), respectively. The fungal induced dragon's blood had almost identical chemical constituents to that of the natural dragon's blood with a higher loureirins a and b content as analyzed by TLC and HPLC. In addition, the induced dragon's blood had similar antimicrobial activity and similar or higher antioxidant activity than that of the natural dragon's blood. The novel biological technology developed here for the production of dragon's blood is safe, repeatable, practical, and feasible for the farmers, enabling the production of dragon's blood in a sustainable way without destroying the endangered trees and environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dragon's blood may have radioprotective effects in radiation-induced rat brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Li, Yu-Juan; Li, Xu; Wang, Xiao; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Wang, Hai-Long; Ma, Hong; Schläppi, Michael; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2012-07-01

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis. It is a traditional medicinal that is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity appears to be from phenolic compounds found in Dragon's blood. In this study, the radioprotective effects of Dragon's blood were examined after whole brain irradiation of rats with either 100 MeV/u Carbon (12)C(6+) heavy ions or (60)Co γ-rays. The amounts of radiation-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in irradiated rat brains were compared with and without Dragon's blood treatment. Compared to the "irradiation only" control group, the Dragon's blood treatment group significantly decreased malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide levels, and increased superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels induced by oxidative stress in radiation exposed rats (P Dragon's blood also significantly reduced radiation-induced inflammatory cytokines of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and interleukin-6 levels (P Dragon's blood significantly increased expression of brain-derived neurophic factor and inhibited the expression of pro-apoptotic caspase 3 (P Dragon's blood significantly inhibited expression of the AP-1 transcription factor family members c-fos and c-jun proteins (P Dragon's blood has radioprotective properties in rat brains after both heavy ions and (60)Co γ-ray exposure.

  5. Anion and Cation Ionic Conductivity of Dragon Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, Nadya; Asiah, M. N.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M.

    2010-07-01

    The separation of all ions in a synthetic solution was achieved with an anion eluent containing 0.3392 g Na2CO3 and 0.084 g NaHCO2 and the run around 20 min. Cation eluent containing 0.60 g Tartaric acid and 0.125 g Dipicolinic acid and the run around 16 min. This method was applied to dragon fruit juice with success and has shown sensitivity. Moreover, sample preparation was a simple 1:1, 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1000 ppm with 0.20 mm filtration and direct injection without prior sample clean-up. Due to the use of eluent generator, very low conductance background conductivity can be obtained and sensitivity of dragon fruit has been greatly improved. Under the experimental condition, several inorganic anions, such as F-, NO3-, NO2-, Br- and PO43- obtained from dragon fruit. For cation, inorganic ions that occurred during the experiment were NH3+, Ca+, and Mg+. Conductivity for anion of F-, NO3-, NO2-, Br- and PO43- were approximately 20, 17, 16, 16 and 20 μS/cm, respectively. Concentration for F- is 1.57 mg/l, NO3- is 1.92 mg/l, NO2- is 0.30 mg/l, Br- is 0.45 mg/l and PO43- is 4.45 mg/l. Conductivity for cation of NH3+, Ca+, and Mg+ were approximately 537, 538 and 531 μS/cm, respectively. Concentration for cation of NH3+ is 0.93 mg/l, Ca+ is 1.15 mg/l, and Mg+ 7.285 is mg/l. The method has successfully applied to the determination of inorganic ions in dragon fruit. An ion chromatography method is described for the simultaneous determination of ionic conductivity for dragon fruit juice using a selected anion and cation eluent. The detection of ionic conductivity in dragon fruit juice has been studied.

  6. [Dragon's blood. A glance into the history of pharmacognosy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, M

    1999-01-01

    Dragon's blood, a red resin, which is often used as a dry powdered "herbal" remedy in traditional medicine, has different origins which are briefly discussed. This contribution however focuses on the species of the genus Dracaena Vand ex L., belonging to the Agavaceae and native to the Old World and the Canary Islands. H.J.N. Crantz, a botanist and medical doctor turned pharmacologist (born in 1722 near Luxembourg), had published a brief and very uncommon treatise on this group of plants, which he only knew from botanical gardens. The pharmacognostical and historical background of dragon's blood use is at the core of this contribution--the drug itself being of no major importance in today's medical care.

  7. Three-dimensional seismic structure of the Dragon Flag oceanic core complex at the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (49°39'E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minghui; Qiu, Xuelin; Li, Jiabiao; Sauter, Daniel; Ruan, Aiguo; Chen, John; Cannat, Mathilde; Singh, Satish; Zhang, Jiazheng; Wu, Zhenli; Niu, Xiongwei

    2013-10-01

    The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is an ultraslow spreading end-member of mid-ocean ridge system. We use air gun shooting data recorded by ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and multibeam bathymetry to obtain a detailed three-dimensional (3-D) P wave tomographic model centered at 49°39'E near the active hydrothermal "Dragon Flag" vent. Results are presented in the form of a 3-D seismic traveltime inversion over the center and both ends of a ridge segment. We show that the crustal thickness, defined as the depth to the 7 km/s isovelocity contour, decreases systematically from the center (˜7.0-8.0 km) toward the segment ends (˜3.0-4.0 km). This variation is dominantly controlled by thickness changes in the lower crustal layer. We interpret this variation as due to focusing of the magmatic activity at the segment center. The across-axis velocity model documents a strong asymmetrical structure involving oceanic detachment faulting. A locally corrugated oceanic core complex (Dragon Flag OCC) on the southern ridge flank is characterized by high shallow crustal velocities and a strong vertical velocity gradient. We infer that this OCC may be predominantly made of gabbros. We suggest that detachment faulting is a prominent process of slow spreading oceanic crust accretion even in magmatically robust ridge sections. Hydrothermal activity at the Dragon Flag vents is located next to the detachment fault termination. We infer that the detachment fault system provides a pathway for hydrothermal convection.

  8. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... the importation into the continental United States of dragon fruit (multiple genera and species) from... noxious weeds via the importation of dragon fruit from Thailand. DATES: Effective Date: October 4, 2011...

  9. 76 FR 38349 - Notice of Availability of Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Importation of Dragon Fruit From Thailand Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... States of dragon fruit from Thailand. Based on this analysis, we believe that the application of one or... disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of dragon fruit from Thailand. We are making the...

  10. Steroidal saponins from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hai-Yan; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Zhao, You-Xing; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Luo, Ying; Li, Xiao-Na; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2014-04-01

    Six new steroidal saponins, cambodianosides A-F (1-6), together with seven known ones, were isolated from the dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical methods. The cytotoxicities of all the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro against three human cancer cell lines, and compounds 7, 8, and 11 showed significant inhibitory activities.

  11. Antibacterial activities of serum from the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Merchant

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis are able to feed on large prey items by injecting a dose of toxic bacteria with their bite that, over time, kills the prey by systemic infection. Dragons also suffer bites from other members of their own species during territorial disputes and feeding frenzies. However, they do not suffer the same fate as their prey, suggesting that they have developed a strong immunity to bacterial infections. This study was undertaken to determine the antibacterial activities of serum from the Komodo dragon. Bacterial cultures were treated with different volumes serum from Varanus komodoensis and the growth was monitored by optical density at 430 nm. In addition, the serum was treated with protease, chelators of divalent metal ions, or with mild heat to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activities. Treatment of bacterial cultures with serum from Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis resulted in a volume-dependent decrease in bacterial growth. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca exhibited moderate-strong growth inhibition by V. komodoensis serum, while cultures of Streptococcus epidermitis, Salmonella typhimurium, Providencia stuartii, and Shigella flexneri were nearly completely obliterated for 24 h by only 10% (v/v serum. The antibacterial activity of V. komodensis serum occurred very rapidly, as 18% of E. coli growth was inhibited by a five min exposure to serum. Furthermore, 10- and 20-min incubations of E. coli with serum from V. komodoensis resulted in 43 and 68% inhibition of bacterial growth, respectively. The bactericidal capacity of the serum against E. coli was 2,075,000 bacteria/μL serum, and was inhibited by mild heat treatment, pronase, EDTA, and phosphate, indicating that the anti-bacterial action is most probably due to the presence of a potent serum complement protein system.

  12. Two new antimicrobial flavanes from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Qin; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Wang, Hui; Shen, Hai-Yan; Luo, Ying; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2012-01-01

    Two new flavonoids, named cambodianins D (1) and E (2), together with two known flavanes (2S)-7,4'-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethylflavane (3) and (2S)-7,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-methylflavane (4), were isolated from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana. The new compounds were determined by HR-ESI-MS and spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR). Compounds 1-3 exhibited antimicrobial activities.

  13. Bo Painting with Human, Dragon and Phoenix Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    During the period between the Warring States and Qin (221-207 B.C.), Han (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) dynasties in China, silk was called bo, so paintings on silk were called bohua and words on silk boshu. The bohua with a human, dragon and phoenix pattern excavated in 1949 in Changsha, Hunan Province, dates back to the Warring States. It is the earliest painting

  14. Powerful elderly characters in video games: Flemeth of Dragon Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Toma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As games are becoming an increasingly popular medium in various demographic and professional strata, scholars are discussing their content and how they shape society. However, despite an increase in gender analysis of video games, little has been written about orienting games towards an elderly audience, or game representations of aging and older persons. Games specifically designed for older persons are focused on improving cognitive functions, starting from the assumption that the elderly are in need of special games in order to repair age-related deficits. This repair-focused design philosophy comes at the expense of pursuing a broader understanding of quality of life and non-programmatic entertainment. Games-for-fun that also explicitly target the elderly as an audience are almost invisible. In this article we turn our attention to a powerful elderly feminine character in an AAA game designed for entertainment without a serious mission, namely Flemeth from Dragon Age. We discuss how the game depicts and models older characters: What repertoire of portraits has Flemeth as an old woman, in the Dragon Age games? How does Flemeth contribute to an enlarged repertoire of portrayals of old women in video games? We conclude that Flemeth’s gender and age displays in Dragon Age do not impoverish her portrayal but, on the contrary, turn her into a powerful and complex character, thus offering a model for game design to represent and invite older players.

  15. Systemic microsporidiosis in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, E R; Green, D E; Undeen, A H; Cranfield, M; Vaughn, K L

    1998-09-01

    One laboratory-hatched and -reared inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) (No. 1) and two privately owned inland bearded dragons (Nos. 2 and 3) died, showing nonspecific signs of illness. Light microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections from lizard No. 1 revealed severe hepatic necrosis with clusters of light basophilic intracytoplasmic microorganisms packing and distending hepatocytes and free in areas of necrosis. Similar microorganisms were within cytoplasmic vacuoles in distended renal epithelial cells, pulmonary epithelial cells, gastric mucosal epithelial cells, enterocytes, and capillary endothelial cells and ventricular ependymal cells in the brain. In lizard Nos. 2 and 3, microorganisms of similar appearance were in macrophages in granulomatous inflammation in the colon, adrenal glands, and ovaries. The microorganism was gram positive and acid fast and had a small polar granule that stained using the periodic acid-Schiff reaction. Electron microscopic examination of deparaffinized liver of lizard No. 1 revealed merogonic and sporogonic stages of a protozoan compatible with members of the phylum Microspora. This report provides the first description of microsporidiosis in bearded dragons and is only the second report of this infection in a lizard.

  16. Devriesea agamarum causes dermatitis in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Martel, An; Chiers, Koen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2009-03-02

    Devriesea agamarum is frequently isolated from dermatitis in lizards, notably from cheilitis in spiny tailed lizards (genus Uromastyx). It was the aim of the present study to assess the role of this bacterium as a causative agent of dermatitis by fulfilling Koch's postulates. First, its association with diseased lizards was demonstrated. The bacterium was isolated from several, mainly desert dwelling squamate species showing symptoms of dermatitis and/or septicaemia. The affected lizards mainly belonged to the family of the Agamidae (genera Pogona, Uromastyx, Agama) and in one case to the Iguanidae (genus Crotaphytus). Secondly, the occurrence of D. agamarum in 66 clinically healthy bearded dragons, 21 clinically healthy Uromastyx species and 40 squamate eggshells was studied. The bacterium was isolated from the oral cavity of 10 bearded dragons but from none of the healthy Uromastyx species. Hence D. agamarum was found to be part of the oral microbiota in Pogona vitticeps. Finally, bearded dragons (P. vitticeps) were experimentally inoculated with D. agamarum by direct application of a bacterial suspension on intact and abraded skin. At the scarified skin of all inoculated lizards, dermatitis was induced from which D. agamarum was re-isolated. In conclusion, D. agamarum is a facultative pathogenic bacterium, able to cause dermatitis in agamid lizards when the integrity of the skin is breached.

  17. Dragons in English: The Great Change of the Late Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…

  18. Dragons in English: The Great Change of the Late Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…

  19. 33 CFR 100.909 - Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. 100.909 Section 100.909 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Chinatown Chamber of Commerce Dragon Boat Race; Chicago, IL. (a) Regulated Area. All waters of the...

  20. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area....

  1. 78 FR 57063 - Special Local Regulations; Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival; St. Johns River; Jacksonville, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Jacksonville Dragon Boat... Jacksonville, Florida during the Jacksonville Dragon Boat Festival, a series of paddle boat races. The event is... is to ensure safety of life on navigable waters of the United States during the Jacksonville...

  2. 33 CFR 100.903 - Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harborfest Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. 100.903 Section 100.903 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Dragon Boat Race; South Haven, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include...

  3. History of a Journal: the Case of Dragon Magazine (U.S. Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Sevillano Pareja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work study and analyze the history and development of a journal, from its birth, on paper, until its transformation into electronic version. For this analysis we have focused in Dragon Magazine, which was the most important magazine of role playing games (or RPGs published until now, especially with regard to the first commercial RPG, Dungeons & Dragons.

  4. JEM-EUSO Design for Accommodation on the SpaceX Dragon Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christl, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO mission has been planned for launch on JAXA's H2 Launch Vehicle. Recently, the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft has emerged as an alternative payload carrier for JEM-EUSO. This paper will discuss a concept for the re-design of JEM-EUSO so that it can be launched on Dragon.

  5. 78 FR 24065 - Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... the Junior League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. This event is advertised as scheduled and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat...

  6. 77 FR 23125 - Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Race; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... associated with the Jr. League of Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat Races. This event is advertised as scheduled and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tuscaloosa Dragon Boat...

  7. A comparison of UVb compact lamps in enabling cutaneous vitamin D synthesis in growing bearded dragons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, J.J.E.; Baines, F.M.; Heijboer, A.C.; Leeuwen, van J.P.; Kik, M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of exposure to different UVb compact lamps on the vitamin D status of growing bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) was studied. Forty-two newly hatched bearded dragons (<24 h old) were allocated to six treatment groups (n = 7 per group). Five groups were exposed to different UVb

  8. The Mythological Battles Around the World The Images and Meanings of International Dragon-Slayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiguangZhao

    1996-01-01

    Dragons and dragon slayers belong to a system ofsemiology.They are images with messages.Differentcultures in the world have assigned to these imageshistorical limits,conditions of use,and introducedmultiple meanings into them.Dragons do not exist,therefore dragon slayers do not either.However,they have become an artificial existence in most cul-tures,and this existence have passed from a closed,silent existence to an oral state,open to appropria-tion by society,for there is no regulation,either nat-ural or not,which forbids imagination.Few symbols saturate human civilization sobroadly and thoroughly as those of the dragon:proudly flicking its tail across the tapestries of

  9. Physiological and physical characteristics of elite dragon boat paddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sarah R; Smith, Richard M; Chapman, Philip G; Sinclair, Peter J; Funato, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to profile the physiological and physical characteristics of elite dragon boat paddlers, to identify characteristics that predict race performance and to quantify the metabolic energy contributions to simulated 200-m and 500-m dragon boat racing. Eleven, national level, male, Japanese dragon boat paddlers completed a battery of tests on a paddling ergometer including an incremental maximal aerobic capacity test, a 2-minute maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test, and simulated 200-m and 500-m races. A physiological and physical profile of subjects was compiled. Results showed that 200-m race performance correlated with flexed arm girth and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) measured in the 30 minutes after the MAOD test, whereas 500-m race performance correlated with body fat percentage, relaxed and flexed arm girth, MAOD, EPOC, and peak power during the MAOD test. Stepwise multiple regression revealed that flexed arm girth was the most powerful predictor of 200-m and 500-m race performance, followed by EPOC with the combination of these 2 factors able to explain 74% and 68% of the variance in 200-m and 500-m race performance, respectively. Aerobic energy contributions for 200-m (50 seconds) and 500-m (1 minute 50 seconds) races were (mean (95% confidence intervals)) 52.1% (range, 47.4-56.8%) and 67.5% (range, 60.1-77.8%), respectively. In conclusion, coaches should develop training programs targeted at developing upper-body musculature and increasing anaerobic capacity because these factors are the strongest predictors of 200-m and 500-m race performance. Given the substantial aerobic energy contributions even for a 200-m race event, coaches should aim to increase the maximal aerobic capacity of the paddler in preparation for both 200-m and 500-m events.

  10. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b, RGMb) is a novel gene that promotes colorectal cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Chen, Guo-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Li, Ye-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Li, Shao; Xia, Yin; Ren, Jian-Lin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2015-08-21

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC initiation, growth and metastasis are poorly understood. Dragon (RGMb), a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, has been recently identified as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but the role of Dragon in CRC development is undefined. Here, we show that Dragon expression was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to control tissues in CAC mouse model and in human patients. Dragon promoted proliferation of CT26.WT and CMT93 colon cancer cells and accelerated tumor growth in the xenograft mouse model. Dragon's action on colon cancer development was mediated via the BMP4-Smad1/5/8 and Erk1/2 pathways. Therefore, our results have revealed that Dragon is a novel gene that promotes CRC growth through the BMP pathway. Dragon may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment.

  11. Raman spectroscopy of coloured resins used in antiquity: dragon's blood and related substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, H G; de Oliveira, L F; Quye, A

    2001-12-01

    Dragon's blood is a deep red resin which has been used for centuries by many cultures and much prized for it's rarity, depth of colour and alchemical associations. The original source of dragon's blood resin is believed to be Dracaena cinnabari from Socotra in Africa, but since mediaeval times there have been several alternatives from different geographical locations from the Canary Islands to the East Indies. Here, the Raman spectra of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena draco Liliacae trees growing in several different locations bordering the Mediterranean and Middle East are compared with the resins from alternative botanical sources such as Daemonorops draco, Dracaena cinnabari and Eucalyptus terminalis, which all generically come under the description of dragon's blood. Key vibrational spectroscopic marker bands are identified in the Raman spectra of the resins, which are suggested for adoption as a protocol for the identification of the botanical and possible geographical sources of modern dragon's blood resins. The Raman spectra of materials, which are falsely attributed to dragon's blood resin are also shown for comparison and identification purposes. Changes in the Raman spectra of genuine dragon's blood resin specimens arising from simple processing treatment during the preparation of the resins for sale are also identified, which suggests a possible attribution characteristic for unknown samples.

  12. [Effects of extracts of Dragon's blood on fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix hyaluronic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Hui, Rui; Hu, Yongwu; Han, Yan; Guo, Shuzhong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Dragon' s blood extract on proliferation and secret extracellular matrix function of fibroblasts in vitro. Dragon' s blood was extracted by chloroform, acetoacetic ester, alcohol. Human fibroblast were cultured in vitro in media containing gradient dilutions of Dragon' s blood extracts (0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20 mg/ml) , which was followed by cell proliferation assessed with MTT assay on 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 h. Under the optimal concentration, the cell growth curves were drawn and the flow cytometry (FCM) was used to determine the changes of cell cycle. On 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 h, the concentration of hyaluronic acid in the supernatant of fibroblast culture was measured by radioimmunoassay. 0.2-2 mg/ml Dragon' s blood extracts enhanced the proliferation of fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. 2 mg/ml was the optimal dilution of Dragon's blood extract, and it increased the ratio of S cells in cell cycle [(25.80 ± 3.10)%] than control group [(7.50 ± 0.70)%, P Dragon's blood group, concentration of Hyaluronic acid secreted by fibroblasts gradually increased, but were less than control (P Dragon's blood acetoacetic ester extract improved the proliferation of cultured human fibroblasts in vitro, might be beneficial to promote wound healing.

  13. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b, RGMb) is a novel gene that promotes colorectal cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Chen, Guo-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Li, Ye-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Li, Shao; Xia, Yin; Ren, Jian-Lin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC initiation, growth and metastasis are poorly understood. Dragon (RGMb), a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, has been recently identified as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but the role of Dragon in CRC development is undefined. Here, we show that Dragon expression was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to control tissues in CAC mouse model and in human patients. Dragon promoted proliferation of CT26.WT and CMT93 colon cancer cells and accelerated tumor growth in the xenograft mouse model. Dragon's action on colon cancer development was mediated via the BMP4-Smad1/5/8 and Erk1/2 pathways. Therefore, our results have revealed that Dragon is a novel gene that promotes CRC growth through the BMP pathway. Dragon may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment. PMID:26029998

  14. Raman spectroscopy of coloured resins used in antiquity: dragon's blood and related substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.; Quye, Anita

    2001-12-01

    Dragon's blood is a deep red resin which has been used for centuries by many cultures and much prized for it's rarity, depth of colour and alchemical associations. The original source of dragon's blood resin is believed to be Dracaena cinnabari from Socotra in Africa, but since mediaeval times there have been several alternatives from different geographical locations from the Canary Islands to the East Indies. Here, the Raman spectra of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena draco Liliacae trees growing in several different locations bordering the Mediterranean and Middle East are compared with the resins from alternative botanical sources such as Daemonorops draco, Dracaena cinnabari and Eucalyptus terminalis, which all generically come under the description of dragon's blood. Key vibrational spectroscopic marker bands are identified in the Raman spectra of the resins, which are suggested for adoption as a protocol for the identification of the botanical and possible geographical sources of modern dragon's blood resins. The Raman spectra of materials, which are falsely attributed to dragon's blood resin are also shown for comparison and identification purposes. Changes in the Raman spectra of genuine dragon's blood resin specimens arising from simple processing treatment during the preparation of the resins for sale are also identified, which suggests a possible attribution characteristic for unknown samples.

  15. A New Phenylpropanoid Glycoside from Dragon's Blood of Dracaena cambodiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hai-yan; WANG Hui; ZUO Wen-jian; ZHAO You-xing; LUO Ying; MEI Wen-li; DAI Hao-fu

    2013-01-01

    A new phenylpropanoid glycoside,named cambodianin F(1),together with three known compounds,1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-hydroxy-4-allylbenzene(2),1-O-(6-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-hydroxy-4-allylbenzene(3) and 1,2-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-4-allylbenzene(4) was isolated from the dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.The new compound was elucidated by HR-ESI-MS and spectroscopic techniques(UV,IR,1D and 2D NMR).

  16. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D. L.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons ( Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition.

  17. Reactor Simulation for Antineutrino Experiments using DRAGON and MURE

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, C L; Conrad, J M; Djurcic, Z; Fallot, M; Giot, L; Keefer, G; Onillon, A; Winslow, L

    2011-01-01

    Rising interest in nuclear reactors as a source of antineutrinos for experiments motivates validated, fast, and accessible simulations to predict reactor fission rates. Here we present results from the DRAGON and MURE simulation codes and compare them to other industry standards for reactor core modeling. We use published data from the Takahama-3 reactor to evaluate the quality of these simulations against the independently measured fuel isotopic composition. The propagation of the uncertainty in the reactor operating parameters to the resulting antineutrino flux predictions is also discussed.

  18. Biomimetic Synthesis of Complex Flavonoids Isolated from Daemonorops "Dragon's Blood".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Matthias; Trauner, Dirk

    2017-09-25

    The dragonbloodins are a pair of complex flavonoid trimers that have been isolated from the palm tree Daemonorops draco, one of the sources of the ancient resin known as "dragon's blood". We present a short synthesis that clarifies their relative configurations and sheds light on their origin in Nature. This synthesis features biomimetic cascade reactions that involve both ionic and radical intermediates. The biogenetic relationships between dracorhodin, the dracoflavans C, and the dragonbloodins A1 and A2 are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Three new biflavonoids from Chinese dragon's blood, Dracaena cochinchinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jing; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2012-05-01

    Three new biflavonoids, named (2RyS)-3'-methoxy-8-methylsocotrin-4'-ol (1), (2SyR)-3'-methoxy-8-methylsocotrin-4'-ol (2), and (2RyR)-8-methylsocotrin-4'-ol (3), were isolated from Chinese Dragon's blood [Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. C. Chen], together with two known ones. The structures of these new biflavonoids were elucidated by a combination of HR-ESI-MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC spectra. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-4 were determined by quantum chemical calculation of the circular dichroism spectrum and comparison with the experimental CD spectrum.

  20. Periorbital adenocarcinoma in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Brett G; Johnstone McLean, Nancy S; Russman, Shirley E; Schiller, Chris A

    2013-07-01

    A 4.5-year-old female bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) presented for periorbital swelling affecting the left eye. A well-organized, hypoechoic mass was noted ventral and medial to the globe on ocular ultrasound. The mass continued to grow despite antibiotic therapy, and an exenteration was performed. The mass was diagnosed via histopathology and immunohistochemical staining as a probable lacrimal gland carcinoma, although a Harderian gland origin could not definitively be ruled out. The tumor recurred following removal, and the lizard died 2 months postoperatively. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. When the dragon wore the crown putting starlight back into myth

    CERN Document Server

    Cerow, Don

    2013-01-01

    When our ancestors gazed upon the skies thousands of years ago they looked up into the center of Creation and saw a mighty Dragon, a great celestial serpent with wings circling ceaselessly above them, night after night, century after century. When the Dragon Wore the Crown is a ground breaking book that covers a period of over six thousand years, focusing on what astrologers would call the Ages of Gemini, Taurus and Aries and taking us through the period of classical astronomy with the Greeks and Romans (approx. 7000 BC-200 AD).When the Dragon Wore the Crown opens and closes with the Chinese m

  2. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Xie, D Z; Zhang, X Z; Xiong, B; Ruan, L; Sha, S; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Lin, S H; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Guo, X H; Li, X X; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Wu, Q; Zhao, H Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Zhu, Y H; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Li, J Q; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W

    2012-02-01

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  3. Mechanistic Study of Silver Nanoparticle's Synthesis by Dragon's Blood Resin Ethanol Extract and Antiradiation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Murtaza; Iqbal, Javed; Awan, Umer; Saeed, Yasmeen; Ranran, Yuan; Liang, Yanli; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2015-02-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is best way to avoid exposure of hazardous materials as compared to chemical manufacturing process which is a severe threat not only to biodiversity but also to environment. In present study, we reported a novel method of finding antiradiation compounds by bioreducing mechanism of silver nanoparticles formation using 50% ethanol extract of Dragons blood, a famous Chinese herbal plant. Color change during silver nanoparticles synthesis was observed and it was confirmed by ultra violet (UV) visible spectroscopy at wave length at 430 nm after 30 min of reaction at 60 °C. Well dispersed round shaped silver nanoparticles with approximate size (4 nm to 50 nm) were measured by TEM and particle size analyser. Capping of biomolecules on Ag nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectra. HPLC analysis was carried out to find active compounds in the extract. Furthermore, antiradiation activity of this extract was tested by MTT assay in vitro after incubating the SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h at 37 °C. The results indicate that presence of active compounds in plant extract not only involves in bioreduction process but also shows response against radiation. The dual role of plant extract as green synthesis of nanoparticles and exhibit activity against radiation which gives a new way of fishing out active compounds from complex herbal plants.

  4. Analysis on surface nanostructures present in hindwing of dragon fly (Sympetrum vulgatum) using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Rajendran; Karuppanan, Karthikeyan K; Pezhinkattil, Radhakrishnan

    2012-12-01

    The present study involves the analysis of surface nanostructures and its variation present in the hind wing of dragon fly (Sympetrum vulgatum) using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hindwing was dissected into 4 parts (D1-D4) and each dissected section was analyzed using AFM in tapping mode at different locations. The AFM analysis revealed the presence of irregular shaped nanostructures on the surface of the wing membrane with size varying between 83.25±1.79 nm to 195.08±10.25 nm. The size and shape of the nanostructure varied from tip (pterostigma) to the costa part. The membrane surface of the wing showed stacked arrangement leading to increase in size of the nanostructure. Such arrangement of the nanostructures has lead to the formation of nanometer sized valleys of different depth and length on the membrane surface giving them ripple wave morphology. The average roughness of the surface nanostructures varied from 18.58±3.12 nm to 24.25±8.33 nm. Surfaces of the wings had positive skewness in D1, D2 and D4 regions and negative skewness in D3 region. These surface nanostructures may contribute asymmetric resistance under mechanical loading during the flight by increasing the bending and torsional resistance of the wing.

  5. Surface water waves interaction in a circular vessel with oscillating walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissenko, Petr; Hsieh, Din-Yu

    1998-11-01

    Surface water waves appeared in a circular elastic vessel (modelled after the Chinese antique "Dragon Wash") are studied experimentally. Interaction of different wave modes are investigated. For small amplitude of wall oscillations, only the axisymmetric capillary wave mode, which is hardly visible to naked eyes, exists. When the amplitude is increased, half-frequency circumferential wave appears. Further increase of amplitude leads to chaotic behavior of surface waves. For large amplitudes, water drops jumping from edge regions are observed. Then, excitation of different modes of low frequency axisymmetric gravity waves may be obtained. Conditions for appearance of these gravity waves are investigated. Optical methods were applied for water surface diagnostics.

  6. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother-offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection.

  7. The behavioural consequences of sex reversal in dragons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Holleley, Clare E.; Elphick, Melanie; Georges, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in morphology, physiology, and behaviour are caused by sex-linked genes, as well as by circulating sex-steroid levels. Thus, a shift from genotypic to environmental sex determination may create an organism that exhibits a mixture of male-like and female-like traits. We studied a lizard species (Central Bearded Dragon, Pogona vitticeps), in which the high-temperature incubation of eggs transforms genetically male individuals into functional females. Although they are reproductively female, sex-reversed dragons (individuals with ZZ genotype reversed to female phenotype) resemble genetic males rather than females in morphology (relative tail length), general behaviour (boldness and activity level), and thermoregulatory tactics. Indeed, sex-reversed ‘females’ are more male-like in some behavioural traits than are genetic males. This novel phenotype may impose strong selection on the frequency of sex reversal within natural populations, facilitating rapid shifts in sex-determining systems. A single period of high incubation temperatures (generating thermally induced sex reversal) can produce functionally female individuals with male-like (or novel) traits that enhance individual fitness, allowing the new temperature-dependent sex-determining system to rapidly replace the previous genetically based one.

  8. Thermoregulation and aggregation in neonatal bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jameel J; Richardson, Jean M L; Tattersall, Glenn J

    2010-05-11

    Ectothermic vertebrates, such as reptiles, thermoregulate behaviorally by choosing from available temperatures in their environment. As neonates, bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) are often observed to aggregate in vertical strata. A proximate mechanism for this behavior is the thermal advantage of heat storage (i.e., grouped lizards benefit through a decreased surface area to volume ratio), although competition for limited thermal resources, or aggregation for social reasons are alternative explanations. This study was designed to gain an understanding of how aggregation and thermoregulation interact. We observed that both isolated and grouped individuals achieved a similar level of thermoregulation (mean T(b) over trial) within a thermal gradient, but that individuals within a group had lower thermoregulatory precision. An experimental design in which light and ambient temperature (T(a)) (20 versus 30 degrees C) were altered established that a light bulb (source of heat) was a limited and valuable resource to both isolated and grouped neonatal lizards. Lizards aggregated more when the light was on at both temperatures, suggesting that individuals were equally attracted to or repelled from the heat source, depending on the ambient temperature. These data suggest aggregation occurs in neonatal bearded dragons through mutual attraction to a common resource. Further, increased variability in thermal preference occurs in groups, demonstrating the potential for agonistic behaviors to compromise optimal thermoregulation in competitive situations, potentially leading to segregation, rather than aggregation. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Encephalitozoonosis in two inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B; Csokai, J; Graner, I; Eisenberg, T; Pantchev, N; Eskens, H U; Nedorost, N

    2013-02-01

    Microsporidiosis is reported rarely in reptiles. Sporadic multisystemic granulomatous disease of captive bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) has been associated with microsporidia showing Encephalitozoon-like morphology. Two such cases are described herein. Both animals displayed clinical signs suggestive of renal failure. Necropsy examination revealed granulomatous lesions in the liver and adrenal area in both animals, and in several other organs in one animal. The lesions were associated with intracellular protozoa consistent with microsporidia. Ultrastructural examination of the organisms revealed morphology similar to Encephalitozoon spp. Immunohistochemistry and chromogenic in-situ hybridization for Encephalitozoon cuniculi were positive in both animals. Nucleotide sequencing of the partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene and the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed high similarity with published E. cuniculi sequences in both animals. However, the ITS region showed a GTTT-repeat pattern distinct from mammalian E. cuniculi strains. This may be a novel E. cuniculi strain associated with multisystemic granulomatous disease in bearded dragons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DRAGONOLOGY: THE IDEA OF THE DRAGON AMONG THE GREEKS AND THE ZULU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kirby-Hirst

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The dragon is one of the most ubiquitous of images — from its appearance in the dreams of individuals to the legendary works of men like J R R Tolkien — it is known across the world but never viewed in the same way. This article takes a Jungian psychoanalytic approach to the dragon as symbol, and juxtaposes two distinct perspectives on the dragon, that of the ancient Greeks (the mythic dragons Typhon and Python in particular and the Zulu people of South Africa (with special attention given to the place of the python as a possible “dragon” in the practice of divination, in an effort to better understand the creature’s significance to these two cultures and to the world at large.

  11. A new dihydrochalcone from dragon's blood, red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Ke-Lan; Lv, Jing-Ci; Zhang, Tian-Bao; Xu, Lu-Rong; Chen, Xu

    2008-12-01

    A new dihydrochalcone, 4'-hydroxy-4,2'-dimethoxy-dihydrochalcone, was isolated from Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis. Its structure was established by spectrum analysis.

  12. Ice Dragon: A Mission to Address Science and Human Exploration Objectives on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C.; Davilla, A.; Davis, S.; Glass, B.; Gonzales, A.; Heldmann, J.; Karcz, J.; Lemke, L.; Sanders, G.

    2012-06-01

    We present a mission concept where a SpaceX Dragon capsule lands a payload on Mars that samples ground ice to search for evidence of life, assess hazards to future human missions, and demonstrate use of Martian resources.

  13. Review on the Developing Status of Dragon Dancing Movement%舞龙运动发展现状综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐启龙

    2012-01-01

    舞龙运动是中华民族的艺术魂宝,本文通过对舞龙运动的国内发展现状,国际发展现状,高校开展现状进行综述,更好的了解舞龙运动的开展状况,进一步探讨舞龙运动的未来发展趋势。%Dragon dancing movement is a chinese national soul art treasure,by summarizing present situation of domestic dragon dancing movement,present situation of international dragon dancing movement,current situation of university of dragon dancing movement,this paper has knew the dragon dancing movement well,explored the future trends of dragon dancing movement.

  14. Red Dragon: Low-cost Access to the Surface of Mars using Commercial Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcz, John; Davis, S. M.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Allen, G. A.; Bakhtian, N. M.; Dyakonov, A. A.; Edquist, K. T.; Glass, B. J.; Gonzales, A. A.; Heldmann, J. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We will discuss the feasibility of using a minimally-modified variant of a SpaceX Dragon capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander for scientific and human-precursor missions. We have been evaluating such a Red Dragon platform as an option for a Discovery Program mission concept. A Red Dragon lander has the potential to be low cost primarily because it would be derived from a routinely-flying spacecraft. Dragon is being developed to ferry cargo and crew to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The cargo variant is currently undergoing test flights, which will be followed by standard ISS cargo missions and, eventually, crewed flights. The human variant, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, appears to also have most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant Super- Draco engines integrated directly into the capsule which are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters suggest the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface. Concepts for large, human-relevant landers (see, e.g., [1]) also often employ supersonic retro-propulsion; Red Dragon's entry, descent, and landing approach would scale to those landers. Further, SpaceX's Falcon Heavy launch vehicle, currently under development and expected to have its first flight in 2013, will be capable of sending Dragon on a trajectory to Mars. We will discuss our motivation for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the primary technical questions which determine its feasibility, and the current results of our analysis. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface.

  15. Dragon pavilion-I Have Come to See You in Kaifeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The Dragon Pavilion Park is located at the northwestern corner down town in Kaifeng and is built on the ruins of the royal palace of six dynasties. Its main part is the big hall of dragon pavilion, one of the major protected relics in Henan Province. It comprises the following scenic spots: the Median Gate, the Bridge of Jade Belt, Songhu, the Worshipping Gate, the Screen Wall, the Worshipping House, and the Longevity Palace Architectural Compound built in the

  16. The Silver Dragon and the Golden Fish: an imperial Ottoman symbol

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, David

    2003-01-01

    This article studies and catalogues a group of ottoman swords decorated with dragon and fish emblems on their hilts. Both animals were associated to the imperial power according the oriental traditon.

    Este trabajo estudia y cataloga un grupo de espadas otomanas decoradas con dragones y peces en sus empuñaduras. Estos animales fueron asociados con el poder imperial según la tradición oriental.

  17. The Silver Dragon and the Golden Fish: an imperial Ottoman symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander, David

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies and catalogues a group of ottoman swords decorated with dragon and fish emblems on their hilts. Both animals were associated to the imperial power according the oriental traditon.

    Este trabajo estudia y cataloga un grupo de espadas otomanas decoradas con dragones y peces en sus empuñaduras. Estos animales fueron asociados con el poder imperial según la tradición oriental.

  18. THEORY?OF?WATER?WAVES?IN?AN?ELASTIC?VESSEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Y.Hsieh

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiments related to the Dragon Wash phenomena showed that axisymmetric capillary waves appear first from excitation, and circumferential apillary waves appear after increase of the excitation strength. Based on this new finding, a theory of parametric resonance is developed in detail to explain the onset of the prominent circumferential capillary waves. Numerical computation is also carried out and the results agree generally with the experiments. Analysis and numerical computation are also presented to explain the generation of axisymmetric low-frequency gravity waves by the high-frequency external excitation.

  19. Size-Related Differences in the Thermoregulatory Habits of Free-Ranging Komodo Dragons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Harlow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoregulatory processes were compared among three-size groups of free-ranging Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis comprising small (5–20 kg, medium (20–40 gm and large (40–70 kg lizards. While all size groups maintained a similar preferred body temperature of ≈35∘C, they achieved this end point differently. Small dragons appeared to engage in sun shuttling behavior more vigorously than large dragons as represented by their greater frequency of daily ambient temperature and light intensity changes as well as a greater activity and overall exposure to the sun. Large dragons were more sedentary and sun shuttled less. Further, they appear to rely to a greater extent on microhabitat selection and employed mouth gaping evaporative cooling to maintain their preferred operational temperature and prevent overheating. A potential ecological consequence of size-specific thermoregulatory habits for dragons is separation of foraging areas. In part, differences in thermoregulation could contribute to inducing shifts in predatory strategies from active foraging in small dragons to more sedentary sit-and-wait ambush predators in adults.

  20. Comparison and sensitivity investigations of a CALM and SALM type mooring system for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Foglia, Aligi; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    , such as Weptos, Wave Dragon and many others, including reasonable design safety factors. Around this reference scenario, the main influential parameters were modified in order to investigate their impact on the specifications of the mooring system, e.g. the water depth, the horizontal design load, and a mooring...

  1. Predictability of the Power Output of Three Wave Energy Technologies in the Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Jensen, N. E. Helstrup; Sørensen, H. C.;

    2011-01-01

    of the study is to provide an indication on the accuracy of the forecast of i) wave parameters, ii) the normalised theoretical power productions from each of the selected technologies (Pelamis, Wave Dragon and Wavestar), and iii) the normalised theoretical power production of a combination of the three devices...... of the normalised theoretical power outputs of Pelamis, Wave Dragon and Wavestar are 44%, 52% and 62%, respectively. The best compromise between forecast accuracy and mean power production results when considering the combined production of the three devices.......The paper addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...

  2. Myelogenous leukemia in a bearded dragon (Acanthodraco vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocidlowski, M E; McNamara, P L; Wojcieszyn, J W

    2001-03-01

    A 3-yr-old bearded dragon (Acanthodraco vitticeps) presented with lethargy, a swollen right elbow joint, inability to move its rear limbs normally, and marked leukocytosis. The majority of leukocytes were an abnormal mononuclear lymphoid-type cell with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, a slightly blue cytoplasm, nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin, and some nuclear clefts. Acute leukemia of lymphoid or myeloid origin was tentatively diagnosed. The abnormal mononuclear leukocyte cell population stained positively for the myeloid cytochemical stains: peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and L1-calprotectin. The abnormal cell population of the peripheral blood did not stain with the lymphoid cytochemical stains: alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase, CD3, and CD79a.

  3. Simulation of Reactors for Antineutrino Experiments Using DRAGON

    CERN Document Server

    Winslow, L

    2011-01-01

    From the discovery of the neutrino to the precision neutrino oscillation measurements in KamLAND, nuclear reactors have proven to be an important source of antineutrinos. As their power and our knowledge of neutrino physics has increased, more sensitive measurements have become possible. The next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments require more detailed simulations of the reactor core. Many of the reactor simulation codes are proprietary which makes detailed studies difficult. Here we present the results of the open source DRAGON code and compare it to other industry standards for reactor modeling. We use published data from the Takahama reactor to determine the quality of the simulations. The propagation of the uncertainty to the antineutrino flux is also discussed.

  4. Cytotoxic and antibacterial flavonoids from dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Wang, Hui; Zhao, You-Xing; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Shen, Hai-Yan; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2011-12-01

    Chemical studies on the constituents from the dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana led to the discovery of three new flavonoid derivatives (1- 3) and six known compounds (4- 9). The structures of the three new compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. All compounds were evaluated for their growth inhibitory activity against human cell lines K-562, SMMC-7721, and SGC-7901, as well as antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). As a result, compounds 1, 2, 5, 7, and 9 showed cytotoxicity against K-562, SMMC-7721, and SGC-7901 cell lines. All these compounds were observed to exhibit antibacterial activities against S. aureus, and compounds 1- 4, 6, 8, and 9 were observed to exhibit antibacterial activity against MRSA. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. [Antibacterial components from artificially induced dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He-mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jun; Dai, Hao-fu; Luo, Yan-ping; Mei, Wen-li

    2015-10-01

    Ten compounds were isolated from the artificially induced dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana by various column chromatographies on silica and sephadex LH-20 gel. Based on spectral analysis of NMR and MS, their structures were identified as 3, 4-dihydroxyallylbenzene (1), 3', 4', 5'-trimethoxycinnamylalcohol (2), pinoresinol (3), (2R)-7, 4'-dihydroxy-8-methylflavane (4), (2R)-7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-8-methylflavane(5),(2S)-7,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-methylflavane(6) ,(2S)-4',7-dihydroxy-6, 8-dimethylflavane(7), 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone(8), 4,4'-dihydroxy-2-methoxydihydrochalcon(9) and Cambodianin E (10). Antibacterial activity assay showed that compounds 1, 4 and 10 have inhibitory effect on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cuben, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and Ralstonia solanacearum.

  6. Temperature coefficients in the Dragon low-enriched power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U.

    1972-05-15

    The temperature coefficient of the fuel and of the moderator have been evaluated for the Dragon HTR design for different stages in reactor life, initial core, end of no-refuelling period and equilibrium conditions. The investigation has shown the low-enriched HTR to have a strong, positive moderator coefficient. In some cases and for special operating conditions, even leading to a positive total temperature coefficient. This does not imply, however, that the HTR is an unsafe reactor system. By adequate design of the control system, safe and reliable operating characteristics can be achieved. This has already been proved satisfactory through many years of operation of other graphite moderated systems, such as the Magnox stations.

  7. Dragon exploratory system on Hepatitis C Virus (DESHCV)

    KAUST Repository

    Kwofie, Samuel K.

    2011-06-01

    Even though Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) cDNA was characterized about 20 years ago, there is insufficient understanding of the molecular etiology underlying HCV infections. Current global rates of infection and its increasingly chronic character are causes of concern for health policy experts. Vast amount of data accumulated from biochemical, genomic, proteomic, and other biological analyses allows for novel insights into the HCV viral structure, life cycle and functions of its proteins. Biomedical text-mining is a useful approach for analyzing the increasing corpus of published scientific literature on HCV. We report here the first comprehensive HCV customized biomedical text-mining based online web resource, dragon exploratory system on Hepatitis C Virus (DESHCV), a biomedical text-mining and relationship exploring knowledgebase was developed by exploring literature on HCV. The pre-compiled dictionaries existing in the dragon exploratory system (DES) were enriched with biomedical concepts pertaining to HCV proteins, their name variants and symbols to make it suitable for targeted information exploration and knowledge extraction as focused on HCV. A list of 32,895 abstracts retrieved via PubMed database using specific keywords searches related to HCV were processed based on concept recognition of terms from several dictionaries. The web query interface enables retrieval of information using specified concepts, keywords and phrases, generating text-derived association networks and hypotheses, which could be tested to identify potentially novel relationship between different concepts. Such an approach could also augment efforts in the search for diagnostic or even therapeutic targets. DESHCV thus represents online literature-based discovery resource freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/DESHCV/ and its mirror site http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/deshcv/. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Dragon exploratory system on hepatitis C virus (DESHCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwofie, Samuel K; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava S; Maqungo, Monique; Christoffels, Alan; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2011-06-01

    Even though hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA was characterized about 20 years ago, there is insufficient understanding of the molecular etiology underlying HCV infections. Current global rates of infection and its increasingly chronic character are causes of concern for health policy experts. Vast amount of data accumulated from biochemical, genomic, proteomic, and other biological analyses allows for novel insights into the HCV viral structure, life cycle and functions of its proteins. Biomedical text-mining is a useful approach for analyzing the increasing corpus of published scientific literature on HCV. We report here the first comprehensive HCV customized biomedical text-mining based online web resource, dragon exploratory system on hepatitis C virus (DESHCV), a biomedical text-mining and relationship exploring knowledge base was developed by exploring literature on HCV. The pre-compiled dictionaries existing in the dragon exploratory system (DES) were enriched with biomedical concepts pertaining to HCV proteins, their name variants and symbols to make it suitable for targeted information exploration and knowledge extraction as focused on HCV. A list of 32,895 abstracts retrieved via PubMed database using specific keywords searches related to HCV were processed based on concept recognition of terms from several dictionaries. The web query interface enables retrieval of information using specified concepts, keywords and phrases, generating text-derived association networks and hypotheses, which could be tested to identify potentially novel relationship between different concepts. Such an approach could also augment efforts in the search for diagnostic or even therapeutic targets. DESHCV thus represents online literature-based discovery resource freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/DESHCV/ and its mirror site http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/deshcv/.

  9. Can camera traps monitor Komodo dragons a large ectothermic predator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Ariefiandy

    Full Text Available Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis, an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψand varied detection probabilities (p according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site, p (site survey; ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species.

  10. Can camera traps monitor Komodo dragons a large ectothermic predator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariefiandy, Achmad; Purwandana, Deni; Seno, Aganto; Ciofi, Claudio; Jessop, Tim S

    2013-01-01

    Camera trapping has greatly enhanced population monitoring of often cryptic and low abundance apex carnivores. Effectiveness of passive infrared camera trapping, and ultimately population monitoring, relies on temperature mediated differences between the animal and its ambient environment to ensure good camera detection. In ectothermic predators such as large varanid lizards, this criterion is presumed less certain. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of camera trapping to potentially monitor the population status of the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), an apex predator, using site occupancy approaches. We compared site-specific estimates of site occupancy and detection derived using camera traps and cage traps at 181 trapping locations established across six sites on four islands within Komodo National Park, Eastern Indonesia. Detection and site occupancy at each site were estimated using eight competing models that considered site-specific variation in occupancy (ψ)and varied detection probabilities (p) according to detection method, site and survey number using a single season site occupancy modelling approach. The most parsimonious model [ψ (site), p (site survey); ω = 0.74] suggested that site occupancy estimates differed among sites. Detection probability varied as an interaction between site and survey number. Our results indicate that overall camera traps produced similar estimates of detection and site occupancy to cage traps, irrespective of being paired, or unpaired, with cage traps. Whilst one site showed some evidence detection was affected by trapping method detection was too low to produce an accurate occupancy estimate. Overall, as camera trapping is logistically more feasible it may provide, with further validation, an alternative method for evaluating long-term site occupancy patterns in Komodo dragons, and potentially other large reptiles, aiding conservation of this species.

  11. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule RGMb) inhibits E-cadherin expression and induces apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjing; Li, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yueshui; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Chao; Yang, Baoxue; Lan, Hui-Yao; Lin, Herbert Y; Xia, Yin

    2013-11-01

    Dragon is one of the three members of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, i.e. RGMa, RGMb (Dragon), and RGMc (hemojuvelin). We previously identified the RGM members as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptors that enhance BMP signaling. Our previous studies found that Dragon is highly expressed in the tubular epithelial cells of mouse kidneys. However, the roles of Dragon in renal epithelial cells are yet to be defined. We now show that overexpression of Dragon increased cell death induced by hypoxia in association with increased cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase-3 levels in mouse inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD3) cells. Dragon also inhibited E-cadherin expression but did not affect epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in IMCD3 cells. Previous studies suggest that the three RGM members can function as ligands for the receptor neogenin. Interestingly, our present study demonstrates that the Dragon actions on apoptosis and E-cadherin expression in IMCD3 cells were mediated by the neogenin receptor but not through the BMP pathway. Dragon expression in the kidney was up-regulated by unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous Dragon knock-out mice exhibited 45-66% reduction in Dragon mRNA expression, decreased epithelial apoptosis, and increased tubular E-cadherin expression and had attenuated tubular injury after unilateral ureteral obstruction. Our results suggest that Dragon may impair tubular epithelial integrity and induce epithelial apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Short term wave forecasting, using digital filters, for improved control of Wave Energy Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedd, J.; Frigaard, P. [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a Digital Filter method for real time prediction of waves incident upon a Wave Energy device. The method transforms waves measured at a point ahead of the device, to expected waves incident on the device. The relationship between these incident waves and power capture is derived experimentally. Results are shown form measurements taken on the Wave Dragon prototype device, a floating overtopping device situated in Northern Denmark. In this case the method is able to accurately predict the surface elevation at the device 11.2 seconds before the measurement is made. This is sufficient to allow advanced control systems to be developed using this knowledge to significantly improve power capture.

  13. Golden Dragon Keeps Good Reputation in Syria%金旅客车:坚守叙利亚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琼芳

    2016-01-01

    Golden Dragon exported its ifrst group of buses to Syria in 2009, since when the company had won a good reputation among the local customers with high quality product and excellent service. Nowadays Golden Dragon has been widely recognized in this country.

  14. 78 FR 42733 - Safety Zone; Cleveland Dragon Boat Festival and Head of the Cuyahoga, Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cleveland Dragon Boat Festival and Head of... during the Dragon Boat Festival and Head of the Cuyahoga boating events. The safety zone established by...: http://www.regulations.gov . (2) Fax: 202-493-2251. (3) Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S...

  15. On the Origin of the Dragon Image on the Plate from Shilovka Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liphanov Nicolay А.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes an unique image of two opposed dragons engraved on a bone plate discovered in 1992 at barrow No.1 of Shilovka burial mound located on the right bank of the Volga river in Ulyanovsk Oblast (the excavations were conducted by R.S. Bagautdinov. The burial mound is related to the cattle breeding population of late 7th century. The article considers different hypotheses concerning the origin of these dragon images in the artistic traditions of various regions: China (A.V. Komar, D.G. Savinov, B. Totev, Pelevina, Central Asia (V.G. Kotov, V.E. Flyorova, India (N.A. Fonyakova. According to the author, this image has no apparent iconographic parallels in the traditions of these regions. Such analogues are found in the art of the Mediterranean where the ancient images of various mythological creatures exist alongside the image of the sea dragon “ketos” which later became part of the Christian tradition. The appearance of this monster in the images of the first half – middle of the 1st millennium A.D. is practically identical to the dragons from Shilovka burial mound. According to the author, certain impact on the formation of the considered dragon image was made by Iranian art.

  16. Identification and differentiation of dragon's blood in works of art using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    Dragon's blood is a common but non-specific name for red-coloured resins that are produced by various plants, particularly exudations from plant species belonging to the genera Dracaena and Daemonorops. Although dragon's blood is mentioned in historic sources as a colourant, it has hardly ever been identified in real artworks. This paper reports the identification and discrimination of dragon's blood produced by Dracaena cinnabari, Dracaena draco as well as Daemonorops draco and Daemonorops micracantha by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) within the context of a routine analysis of binding media used in works of art. The detection of specific flavonoid marker compounds in both underivatised and methylated methanol extracts provided the first evidence for the use of dragon's blood from all four species in various works of art from the fifteenth to nineteenth centuries. Dragon's blood was mainly used as a red colourant in gold lacquers as well as translucent glazes and paints, e.g. in reverse-glass paintings (Hinterglasmalerei).

  17. First Description of the Karyotype and Sex Chromosomes in the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Pokorná, Martina; Altmanová, Marie; Rovatsos, Michail; Velenský, Petr; Vodička, Roman; Rehák, Ivan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest lizard in the world. Surprisingly, it has not yet been cytogenetically examined. Here, we present the very first description of its karyotype and sex chromosomes. The karyotype consists of 2n = 40 chromosomes, 16 macrochromosomes and 24 microchromosomes. Although the chromosome number is constant for all species of monitor lizards (family Varanidae) with the currently reported karyotype, variability in the morphology of the macrochromosomes has been previously documented within the group. We uncovered highly differentiated ZZ/ZW sex microchromosomes with a heterochromatic W chromosome in the Komodo dragon. Sex chromosomes have so far only been described in a few species of varanids including V. varius, the sister species to Komodo dragon, whose W chromosome is notably larger than that of the Komodo dragon. Accumulations of several microsatellite sequences in the W chromosome have recently been detected in 3 species of monitor lizards; however, these accumulations are absent from the W chromosome of the Komodo dragon. In conclusion, although varanids are rather conservative in karyotypes, their W chromosomes exhibit substantial variability at the sequence level, adding further evidence that degenerated sex chromosomes may represent the most dynamic genome part.

  18. Stimulation of dragon's blood accumulation in Dracaena cambodiana via fungal inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin-Long; Wang, Chun-Lan; Guo, Shun-Xing; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Wang, Meng-Liang

    2013-06-01

    Dragon's blood is a rare and precious traditional medicine used by different cultures since ancient times. However, studies on enhancing the rapid accumulation of dragon's blood in Dracaena cambodiana and determining its formation mechanism are unavailable. In this study, the activities of two fungi, namely, BJDC01 and BJDC05, and their effect on promoting the accumulation of five main compositions of dragon's blood in D. cambodiana were investigated for the first time. Results of field tests conducted for ten months indicated that the contents of Loureirin D, 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-dimethoxychalcone, Loureirin A and Loureirin B in two fungal-inoculated materials were 1.67 to 2.85 times greater than those of natural samples, and thus were significantly higher than those of the control groups. The content of 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'6'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone in each fungal-inoculated sample was close to that of the natural sample, and was more than twice of each of the control group. By combining the results of morphological characterizations, both BJDC01 and BJDC05 can stimulate the accumulation of the compositions of dragon's blood. This stimulation may be considered as a defense response of D. cambodiana tree against the invasion of foreign fungi. Thus, this study provides a potential way of producing dragon's blood via the inoculation of two fungal elicitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of intraocular pressure in healthy unanesthetized inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Eva J; Strueve, Julia; Fehr, Michael J; Mathes, Karina A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the use of rebound and applanation tonometry for the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) and to assess diurnal variations in and the effect of topical anesthesia on the IOP of healthy inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). 56 bearded dragons from 4 months to 11 years old. For each animal following an initial ophthalmic examination, 3 IOP measurements were obtained on each eye between 9 AM and 10 AM, 1 PM and 2 PM, and 5 PM and 7 PM by use of rebound and applanation tonometry. An additional measurement was obtained by rebound tonometry for each eye in the evening following the application of a topical anesthetic to evaluate changes in the tolerance of the animals to the tonometer. Descriptive data were generated, and the effects of sex, time of day, and topical anesthesia on IOP were evaluated. Bearded dragons did not tolerate applanation tonometry even following topical anesthesia. Median daily IOP as determined by rebound tonometry was 6.16 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 5.61 to 6.44 mm Hg). The IOP did not differ significantly between the right and left eyes. The IOP was highest in the morning, which indicated that the IOP in this species undergoes diurnal variations. Topical anesthesia did not significantly affect IOP, but it did improve the compliance for all subjects. Results indicated that rebound tonometry, but not applanation tonometry, was appropriate for measurement of IOP in bearded dragons. These findings provided preliminary guidelines for IOP measurement and ophthalmic evaluation in bearded dragons.

  20. Adenoviral infection in a collection of juvenile inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doneley, R J T; Buckle, K N; Hulse, L

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) from a breeding collection in south-east Queensland were presented at age 6-10 weeks with neurological signs, poor growth and occasional deaths. Histopathological examination revealed that six of eight lizards had multifocal non-suppurative hepatitis associated with 5-10 μm diameter, smudgy, basophilic, hyaline intranuclear inclusion bodies that marginated the nuclear chromatin. These histological lesions were considered consistent with adenoviral hepatitis. Infection with adenovirus was confirmed positive in one of the eight dragons by PCR for adenoviral DNA. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pooled tissues of the juvenile inland bearded dragons and tested using a nested-PCR protocol with primers specific for identification of adenovirus. Sequencing of the one PCR-positive dragon showed 95% nucleotide sequence alignment with agamid atadenovirus 1. Further investigation involved testing the breeding population, including the parents of the affected juveniles. Blood and cloacal samples were collected from the adult population, DNA was extracted and tested by PCR for adenovirus. There was a high percentage of positive results from the samples collected from the breeding population. This is the first reported group outbreak of adenoviral disease in bearded dragons in Australia. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Infection with Devriesea agamarum and Chrysosporium guarroi in an inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Ukaj, Silvana; Loncaric, Igor; Klang, Andrea; Spergser, Joachim; Häbich, Annett-Carolin; Knotek, Zdenek

    2014-12-01

    Description of clinical, microbiological and histopathological findings in a case of deep dermatitis in an inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) caused by Devriesea agamarum and Chrysosporium guarroi. A 4-year-old male inland bearded dragon, weighing 497 g, was presented at the clinic because the animal was suffering from dysecdysis and chronic skin lesions. Large numbers of bacilli, cocci and hyphal elements were diagnosed during the microscopic examination of the wound exudate. Microbiological analysis of a skin specimen revealed a moderate growth of Enterococcus sp. and D. agamarum. The condition of the bearded dragon improved with combined therapy consisting of ceftiofur hydrochloride, voriconazole and meloxicam. However, 3 months later recrudescence was observed. This time, Clostridium sp. and Chrysosporium sp. were isolated in large numbers. The bearded dragon was euthanized. Histopathology confirmed a severe granulomatous dermatitis with associated fungal hyphae and a severe granulomatous hepatitis with intralesional hyphae. Chrysosporium guarroi was identified by PCR and sequencing in two organs (skin and liver). This is the first case of an infection with D. agamarum and C. guarroi in an inland bearded dragon (P. vitticeps). It emphasizes the importance of mycological cultures and specific treatment. Samples of suspected Chrysosporium sp. should be cultured at 30°C for 10-14 days. Early antifungal treatment is necessary to prevent systemic and potentially fatal infection with C. guarroi. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. Standardization of the two-dimensional transcoelomic echocardiographic examination in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, S; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, D; Stern, J; Gustavsen, K A; Griffiths, L G

    2016-06-01

    To objectively and subjectively describe the normal spectrum of two-dimensional echocardiographic findings in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). Sixteen central bearded dragons. Central bearded dragons were prospectively evaluated under manual restraint in right and left lateral recumbency to identify imaging planes for reproducible measurements of cardiac chambers, subjective two-dimensional analysis and color Doppler assessment. Echocardiography can be performed through windows in the left and right axillae. The window in the left axilla allows for a subjective and objective assessment of cardiac structure and function. The right axillary window allows for evaluation of pulmonary artery flow. Both views provide data for the presence of pericardial effusion or valvular insufficiency. With optimized imaging planes, cardiac chambers and fractional area change along with fractional shortening in the longitudinal and transverse planes can be calculated. Body weight and cardiac chamber dimensions of males were significantly larger than females. Ventricular fractional area change was the most consistent functional assessment. The majority of animals were found to have no evidence of valvular insufficiency, while approximately half had evidence of pericardial fluid. Pulmonary artery flow was assessed in all patients. Left and right aortic velocities cannot be reliably obtained. This study is the first to generate reference values for cardiac structure and function in clinically healthy central bearded dragons. Valvular insufficiency is not a normal finding in central bearded dragons, while mild pericardial effusion may be. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo wound healing activity of Dragon's Blood (Croton spp.), a traditional South American drug, and its constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, L; De Bruyne, T; Van Poel, B; Vingerhoets, R; Totté, J; Vanden Berghe, D; Vlietinck, A

    1995-07-01

    The wound healing activity of dragon'sblood (Croton spp.), in Spanish 'sangre de drago‛ or 'sangre de grado‛, a traditional South American drug, and some of its constituents, including the alkaloid taspine (1), the dihydrobenzufuran lignan 3',4-O-dimethylcedrusin (2) and proantho-cyanidins, was evaluated in vivo on rats, and compared with the wound healing actitivy of synthetic proanthocyanidins. The beneficial effect of dragon's blood on wound healing was confirmed. Dragon's blood stimulated contraction of the wound, formation of a crust, formation of new collagen, and regeneration of the epithelial layer. 3',4-O-Dimethylcedrusin also improved wound healing in vivo by stimulating the formation of fibroblasts and collagen, but crude dragon's blood was more effective. This was due to the proanthocyanidins, present in dragon's blood, which stimulate contraction of the wound and precipitate with proteins forming a dark crust covering the wound, but which delay wound repair by a decreased formation of new fibroblasts.

  4. Investigation of Wave Height Reduction behind the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters and Application in Santander, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    power along the shorelines in Santander Bay is reduced by approximately 50% when using the farm layout of that provides the best overall compromise between coastal protection and electricity production. Moreover, it is concluded that a farm of devices can be modelled with good accuracy using...

  5. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (pDragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  6. General Situation on Clinical Application of Dragon-Tiger Fighting Needling Technique in the Recent Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何龙; 袁宜勤; 钟耀东; 何贤发; 黄国琪

    2008-01-01

    @@ Depending upon the descriptions of the ancient literature, such as Jin Zhen Fu (Odes to Golden Needles, ), the dragon-tiger fighting needling technique has the effects to dredge the meridians, circulate qi, activate blood, stop and remove pain. "Dragon" implies to twist the needle leftward for reinforcing, and "tiger" means to twist the needle rightward for reducing. To twist the needle leftward and rightward alternately is termed "fighting". After the arrival of the needling sensation by inserting the needle to the proper depth, the needle is first twisted leftward with the thumb forward in a method of nine yang numbers, and then twisted backward and rightward with the thumb backward in a method of six yin numbers, in alternation of reinforcing and reducing repeatedly. Therefore, the general information on clinical application of dragon-tiger fighting needling technique in the recent sixteen years is given in the following.

  7. External validation of the ability of the DRAGON score to predict outcome after thrombolysis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Christian Aavang; Christensen, Anders; Nielsen, J K

    2013-01-01

    Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant plasmino......Easy-to-perform and valid assessment scales for the effect of thrombolysis are essential in hyperacute stroke settings. Because of this we performed an external validation of the DRAGON scale proposed by Strbian et al. in a Danish cohort. All patients treated with intravenous recombinant...... and their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was assessed after 3 months. Three hundred and three patients were included in the analysis. The DRAGON scale proved to have a good discriminative ability for predicting highly unfavourable outcome (mRS 5-6) (area under the curve-receiver operating characteristic [AUC-ROC]: 0...

  8. Efficiency Calibration Measurement And Geant Simulation Of The Dragon Bgo Gamma Ray Array At Triumf

    CERN Document Server

    Gigliotti, D G

    2005-01-01

    A gamma ray array to detect the characteristic gammas emitted from astrophysically significant, radiative proton and alpha capture reactions, was built as part of the Detector of Recoils And Gammas Of Nuclear reactions (DRAGON) spectrometer at ISAC/TRIUMF. The DRAGON array consists of a collection of 30 hexagonal BGO detectors measuring 7.62 cm long by 5.58 cm across the face. A simulation was built with the particle-tracking program GEANT v3.21. The efficiency of the array was measured using calibrated sources of various gamma energies and compared to simulated results. For the cases where the activity of the source was not well known the sources were calibrated using a standard NaI detector of known efficiency. The agreement between simulation and measured differences is more than adequate for proposed DRAGON experiments. The analysis and results of the comparison between measured and simulated efficiency will be discussed in this thesis.

  9. Dragon's Blood extract has antithrombotic properties, affecting platelet aggregation functions and anticoagulation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Nian; Li, Yu-Juan; Li, Yan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Schlappi, Michael; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2011-05-17

    Dragon's Blood from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C. Chen (Yunnan, China), as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, was shown to have certain antithrombotic effects. A new preparation process was used to extract effective components from Dragon's Blood. A 95% ethanol extract A (EA) and a precipitate B (PB) fraction were obtained and compared. Reliability of the preparation process was validated by pharmacodynamic experiments. A rat/mouse thrombosis and blood stasis model was developed for this study, and EA and PB effects on thrombosis, platelet functions and blood coagulation activities were analyzed. It was observed that the EA fraction had significantly better inhibitory effects than the PB fraction on thrombosis (pDragon's Blood contained pharmacologically effective compounds with antithrombotic effects, partially improving platelet function and anticoagulation activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of coordinate rotation on 3D molecular descriptors computed by DragonX

    CERN Document Server

    Hechinger, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative structure-property relations (QSPR) employing descriptors derived from the 3D molecular structure are frequently applied for property prediction in various fields of research. In particular, DragonX is one of the most widely used software packages for descriptor calculation. The reliability of 3D molecular descriptors computed by DragonX has lately been investigated, thereby focusing on the effect of computational methods used for molecular structure optimization on the accuracy of the resulting molecular descriptors. The present contribution extends the analysis to a more intrinsic problem of DragonX descriptor evaluation resulting from the sensitivity of the computed 3D descriptors on the coordinate system used for molecule description. Evaluating several 3D descriptors for converged molecular structures rotated around all 3 spatial axes (affine coordinate transformations) yields systematically varying descriptor values. Since this unphysical behavior severely affects the descriptor reliability...

  11. Multi-channel quantum dragons from rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkoom, Godfred; Novotny, Mark

    Recently, a large class of nanostructures called quantum dragons have been discovered theoretically. Quantum dragons are nanostuctures with correlated disorder but have an electron transmission probability  (E) =1 for all energies E when connected to idealized leads. Hence for a single channel, the electrical conductance for a two-probe measurement should give the quantum of conductance Go =2e2/h . The time independent Schrödinger equation for the single band tight binding model is solved exactly to obtain  (E) . We have generalized the matrix method and the mapping methods of in order to study multi-channel quantum dragons for rectangular nanotubes with even-odd structure. The studies may be relevant for experimental rectangular nanotubes, such as MgO, copper phthalocyanine or some types of graphyne.. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  12. Chasing the dragon-Toxic leukoencephalopathy(Heroin-Induced Spongiform Leukoencephalopathy)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初建平

    2012-01-01

    @@ "Chasing the dragon" is a toxic leukoencephalopathy caused by inhalation of heroin fumes.The term"chasing the dragon"appears to have originated in China in the 1920s and became a popular mechanism of heroin administration in the 1950s in Hong Kong because the drug was cheap but impure.A small quantity of powder is placed on aluminium foil,which is then heated underneath with a lighter or matches.The heroin liquefies into a reddish brown glob, which moves around on the foil and emits a white vapor.The glob or"dragon"is"chased"with the lighter underneath while the vapor is sucked through a straw or pipe.

  13. Statistical Outliers and Dragon-Kings as Bose-Condensed Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2012-01-01

    A theory of exceptional extreme events, characterized by their abnormal sizes compared with the rest of the distribution, is presented. Such outliers, called "dragon-kings", have been reported in the distribution of financial drawdowns, city-size distributions (e.g., Paris in France and London in the UK), in material failure, epileptic seizure intensities, and other systems. Within our theory, the large outliers are interpreted as droplets of Bose-Einstein condensate: the appearance of outliers is a natural consequence of the occurrence of Bose-Einstein condensation controlled by the relative degree of attraction, or utility, of the largest entities. For large populations, Zipf's law is recovered (except for the dragon-king outliers). The theory thus provides a parsimonious description of the possible coexistence of a power law distribution of event sizes (Zipf's law) and dragon-king outliers.

  14. Dermatomycosis in three central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) associated with Nannizziopsis chlamydospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Ukaj, Silvana; Loncaric, Igor; Spergser, Joachim; Richter, Barbara; Hochleithner, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Chronic dermatomycosis was identified in 3 central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), held as companion animals by the same owner. Clinical signs of dermatomycosis included subcutaneous masses as well as crusty, erosive, and ulcerative skin lesions. The facial region was affected in 2 of the 3 cases. Masses were surgically excised, and histology confirmed necrotizing and granulomatous inflammatory processes associated with fungal hyphae. Two of the bearded dragons were euthanized because of their deteriorating condition. In both cases, postmortem histology confirmed systemic fungal infections despite treatment of 1 animal with itraconazole. In the third bearded dragon, therapy with voriconazole at 10 mg/kg was initially effective, but mycotic lesions reappeared 15 months later. Nannizziopsis chlamydospora was identified by PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing in 2 of these cases. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Natural potential therapeutic agents of neurodegenerative diseases from the traditional herbal medicine Chinese dragon's blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Ma, Zhongjun; Li, Mujie; Xing, Yachao; Hou, Yue

    2014-03-28

    Dragon's blood has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times by many cultures. It is a deep red resin, obtained from more than 20 different species of four distinct genera. Red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis S.C. Chen, known as Chinese dragon's blood or Yunnan dragon's blood, has been shown to promote blood circulation, alleviate inflammation, and to treat stomach ulcers, diarrhea, diabetes, and bleeding. This study investigated an effective approach to identify natural therapeutic agents for neurodegeneration from herbal medicine. The dichloride extract and isolated effective constituents of Chinese dragon's blood showed quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) inducing activity and anti-inflammatory effect significantly, which are therapy targets of various neurodegenerative diseases. Multiple chromatography and spectra analysis were utilized to afford effective constituents. Then Hepa 1c1c7 and BV-2 cells were employed to assay their NQO1 inducing and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. Bioactivities guided isolation afforded 21 effective constituents, including two new polymers cochinchinenene E (1), cochinchinenene F (2) and a new steroid dracaenol C (16). The main constituent 3 (weight percent 0.2%), 5 (weight percent 0.017%), 4 (weight percent 0.009%), 9 (weight percent 0.094%), 10 (weight percent 0.017%) and 8 (weight percent 0.006%) are responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities of Chinese dragon's blood. While, new compounds 1, 2 and known compounds 5, 11 showed good NQO1 inducing activities. The brief feature of the activities and structures was discussed accordingly. Overviewing the bioactivities and phytochemical study result, 4'-hydroxy-2,4-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (3) and pterostilbene (5) as effective constituents of Chinese dragon's blood, were found to be potential candidate therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. DDPC: Dragon database of genes associated with prostate cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Maqungo, Monique

    2010-09-29

    Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men. PC is relatively difficult to diagnose due to a lack of clear early symptoms. Extensive research of PC has led to the availability of a large amount of data on PC. Several hundred genes are implicated in different stages of PC, which may help in developing diagnostic methods or even cures. In spite of this accumulated information, effective diagnostics and treatments remain evasive. We have developed Dragon Database of Genes associated with Prostate Cancer (DDPC) as an integrated knowledgebase of genes experimentally verified as implicated in PC. DDPC is distinctive from other databases in that (i) it provides pre-compiled biomedical text-mining information on PC, which otherwise require tedious computational analyses, (ii) it integrates data on molecular interactions, pathways, gene ontologies, gene regulation at molecular level, predicted transcription factor binding sites on promoters of PC implicated genes and transcription factors that correspond to these binding sites and (iii) it contains DrugBank data on drugs associated with PC. We believe this resource will serve as a source of useful information for research on PC. DDPC is freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/ddpc/ and http://cbrc .kaust.edu.sa/ddpc/. The Author(s) 2010.

  17. Dragon's blood Croton palanostigma induces genotoxic effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistro, Edson Luis; Ganthous, Giulia; Machado, Marina da Silva; Zermiani, Tailyn; Andrade, Sérgio Faloni de; Rosa, Paulo Cesar Pires; Perazzo, Fabio Ferreira

    2013-05-20

    Dragon's blood is a dark-red sap produced by species from the genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), which has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times in many countries, with scarce data about its safe use in humans. In this research, we studied genotoxicity and clastogenicity of Croton palanostigma sap using the comet assay and micronucleus test in cells of mice submitted to acute treatment. HPLC analysis was performed to identify the main components of the sap. The sap was administered by oral gavage at doses of 300 mg/kg, 1,000 mg/kg and 2,000 mg/kg. For the analysis, the comet assay was performed on the leukocytes and liver cells collected 24h after treatment, and the micronucleus test (MN) on bone marrow cells. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring 200 consecutive polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes (PCE/NCE ratio). The alkaloid taspine was the main compound indentified in the crude sap of Croton palanostigma. The results of the genotoxicity assessment show that all sap doses tested produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes and liver cells and also produced clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells of mice at the two higher doses tested. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. The data obtained suggest caution in the use of Croton palanostigma sap by humans considering its risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The DRAGON simulations: globular cluster evolution with a million stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Long; Aarseth, Sverre; Giersz, Mirek; Askar, Abbas; Berczik, Peter; Naab, Thorsten; Schadow, Riko; Kouwenhoven, M B N

    2016-01-01

    Introducing the DRAGON simulation project, we present direct $N$-body simulations of four massive globular clusters (GCs) with $10^6$ stars and 5$\\%$ primordial binaries at a high level of accuracy and realism. The GC evolution is computed with NBODY6++GPU and follows the dynamical and stellar evolution of individual stars and binaries, kicks of neutron stars and black holes, and the effect of a tidal field. We investigate the evolution of the luminous (stellar) and dark (faint stars and stellar remnants) GC components and create mock observations of the simulations (i.e. photometry, color-magnitude diagrams, surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles). By connecting internal processes to observable features we highlight the formation of a long-lived 'dark' nuclear subsystem made of black holes (BHs), which results in a two-component structure. The inner core is dominated by the BH subsystem and experiences a core collapse phase within the first Gyr. It can be detected in the stellar (luminous) line-...

  19. DDESC: Dragon database for exploration of sodium channels in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanovic Aleksandar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channels are heteromultimeric, integral membrane proteins that belong to a superfamily of ion channels. The mutations in genes encoding for sodium channel proteins have been linked with several inherited genetic disorders such as febrile epilepsy, Brugada syndrome, ventricular fibrillation, long QT syndrome, or channelopathy associated insensitivity to pain. In spite of these significant effects that sodium channel proteins/genes could have on human health, there is no publicly available resource focused on sodium channels that would support exploration of the sodium channel related information. Results We report here Dragon Database for Exploration of Sodium Channels in Human (DDESC, which provides comprehensive information related to sodium channels regarding different entities, such as "genes and proteins", "metabolites and enzymes", "toxins", "chemicals with pharmacological effects", "disease concepts", "human anatomy", "pathways and pathway reactions" and their potential links. DDESC is compiled based on text- and data-mining. It allows users to explore potential associations between different entities related to sodium channels in human, as well as to automatically generate novel hypotheses. Conclusion DDESC is first publicly available resource where the information related to sodium channels in human can be explored at different levels. This database is freely accessible for academic and non-profit users via the worldwide web http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/ddesc.

  20. On the Origin of the Dragon Image on the Plate from Shilovka Burial Mound

    OpenAIRE

    Liphanov Nicolay А.

    2017-01-01

    The author of the article analyzes an unique image of two opposed dragons engraved on a bone plate discovered in 1992 at barrow No.1 of Shilovka burial mound located on the right bank of the Volga river in Ulyanovsk Oblast (the excavations were conducted by R.S. Bagautdinov). The burial mound is related to the cattle breeding population of late 7th century. The article considers different hypotheses concerning the origin of these dragon images in the artistic traditions of various regions: Ch...

  1. In vitro antifungal activity of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Luilma A; Sidrim, J J C; Martins, Domingos T; Cechinel Filho, V; Rao, Vietla S

    2005-02-28

    Based on ethnobotanical approach, the dragon's blood collected from Croton urucurana Baill. bark (Euphorbiaceae) was tested for antifungal activity against five dermatophytes by paper disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) showing no visible fungal growth was also determined, using tube dilution technique. The test dermatophytes were Tricophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccossum. The dragon's blood (0.175-3.0 mg/ml) exhibited an inhibition zone range of 7.6-26.9 mm against all the tested fungi with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1.25-2.5 mg/ml.

  2. Development of detection systems for low-energy heavy ions at DRAGON

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, S; Chen, A; Dale, C; D'Auria, J M; Giesen, U; Greife, U; Henderson, R; Hunter, D; Hutcheon, D; Openshaw, R; Rogers, J; Rolfs, C; Shotter, A

    2002-01-01

    The new DRAGON facility at TRIUMF is designed to measure alpha and proton capture reactions with radioactive ion beams in inverse kinematics. For nucleo-synthesis in astrophysical scenarios, the relevant energies lie in the 0.15-1 MeV/u range, where very low cross sections are expected. Therefore the separation of the recoil products from the beam particles will be a difficult task. This paper focuses on the end detectors, which will be used to distinguish recoils from beam particles at the end of the DRAGON separator.

  3. [Studies on cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of Dragon's blood and its tablets preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin-Bin; Pei, Hui-Na; Sun, Hai-Song; Ning, Quan-Kui; Ren, Yong

    2008-09-01

    To study the cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of Dragon's blood for improving the drug solubility and the preparation. The inclusion complexes were prepared with beta-cyclodextrin, HP-beta-cyclodextrin, SBE-beta-cyclodextrin and confirmed by DTA. The activity of the inclusion complex was tested by animal experiments. Inclusion complexes tablets were prepared and the dissolution test was performed. The solubility of inclusion complexes was increased to 13. 75-168. 39 times. The activity of the inclusion complex was markedly improved, and dissolution rate was 78.69%. The cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of Dragon's blood have a good solubility, dissolution rate and pharmacological activity.

  4. Effectiveness of the Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Extract as the Colorant, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial on Beef Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri M Manihuruk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel extracts addition on beef sausages. Red dragon fruit peel extracts were obtained by maceration using solvent at pH 5. Phytochemical characteristics, total phenols, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the peel extracts were observed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were associated with high phytochemical compounds and total phenols contained in the extracts. Red dragon fruit peel extracts with various percentages (0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were added on beef sausages, and their physicochemical characteristics, nutrients, antioxidant activity, and microbiological profile were analyzed. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts significantly reduced texture values, but increased intensity of luminosity, intensity of red color, and intensity of yellow color (P<0.05 beef sausages. It could be concluded that red dragon fruit peel extract containing phytochemical compounds was effective as an antibacterial agent and natural antioxidant. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts was effective in increasing the antioxidant activity and decreasing TBARS values. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extract did not affect the reddish colorization of beef sausages, but it was capable of increasing the yellowish colorization on beef sausage.

  5. Antioxidant, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented and unfermented drink of three varieties of dragon fruits (Hylocereus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa-Velasco Carlos Enrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dragon fruit juice from three variety (red, pink, and white were evaluated in pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, color, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, while in fermented dragon fruit juice with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were also evaluated the mesophylls and yeasts plus molds, and alcohol grade. The contents of total soluble solids and pH decreased in the fermented juice of all varieties as consequence of the fermentation process. The phenolic compounds were higher in the red dragon fruit juice, followed by the pink and white dragon fruit with average values of 45.3, 32.1 y 24.6 mg of Gallic acid/100 mL of juice, respectively. Therefore, the antioxidant activity was higher in the red dragon fruit juice (160.84 mg of Trolox/100 mL of juice. Fermenting the juice increased the phenolic compounds (changing of 45.31 to 51.38 mg of galic acid/100 mL of juice, in red dragon fruit, however decreased the antioxidant activity (124.51 to 82.96 mg of Trolox/100 mL of juice, in pink dragon fruit. The alcohol grades in the fermented juices were among 2.9 to 3.9 % (v/v. At the end of the fermentation the higher yeasts plus molds (1580 CFU/mL were in the white dragon fruit juice. However, after the pasteurization process the microbial load in all treatments were lower to 10 CFU/mL. The development of products such as fermented juice is a viable alternative for the commercialization of products derived from dragon fruit.

  6. 平实之作——梅捷P41865PE Plus DRAGON 2V1.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魔之左手

    2004-01-01

    捷P41865PE Plus DRAGON2是其重返内地市场后。推出的“龙(DRAGON)”系列产品之一。我们之前曾经介绍过梅捷P41865PE DRAGON2,那是一款“全功能”型的产品。而P41865PE Plus DRAGON2虽然名为Plus版,但定位却与其相反,是一款功能和价格都比较大众化的产品。

  7. Dragon exploration system on marine sponge compounds interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2013-02-16

    Natural products are considered a rich source of new chemical structures that may lead to the therapeutic agents in all major disease areas. About 50% of the drugs introduced in the market in the last 20 years were natural products/derivatives or natural products mimics, which clearly shows the influence of natural products in drug discovery. In an effort to further support the research in this field, we have developed an integrative knowledge base on Marine Sponge Compounds Interactions (Dragon Exploration System on Marine Sponge Compounds Interactions - DESMSCI) as a web resource. This knowledge base provides information about the associations of the sponge compounds with different biological concepts such as human genes or proteins, diseases, as well as pathways, based on the literature information available in PubMed and information deposited in several other databases. As such, DESMSCI is aimed as a research support resource for problems on the utilization of marine sponge compounds. DESMSCI allows visualization of relationships between different chemical compounds and biological concepts through textual and tabular views, graphs and relational networks. In addition, DESMSCI has built in hypotheses discovery module that generates potentially new/interesting associations among different biomedical concepts. We also present a case study derived from the hypotheses generated by DESMSCI which provides a possible novel mode of action for variolins in Alzheimer's disease. DESMSCI is the first publicly available (http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/desmsci) comprehensive resource where users can explore information, compiled by text- and data-mining approaches, on biological and chemical data related to sponge compounds.

  8. DDEC: Dragon database of genes implicated in esophageal cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2009-07-06

    Background: Esophageal cancer ranks eighth in order of cancer occurrence. Its lethality primarily stems from inability to detect the disease during the early organ-confined stage and the lack of effective therapies for advanced-stage disease. Moreover, the understanding of molecular processes involved in esophageal cancer is not complete, hampering the development of efficient diagnostics and therapy. Efforts made by the scientific community to improve the survival rate of esophageal cancer have resulted in a wealth of scattered information that is difficult to find and not easily amendable to data-mining. To reduce this gap and to complement available cancer related bioinformatic resources, we have developed a comprehensive database (Dragon Database of Genes Implicated in Esophageal Cancer) with esophageal cancer related information, as an integrated knowledge database aimed at representing a gateway to esophageal cancer related data. Description: Manually curated 529 genes differentially expressed in EC are contained in the database. We extracted and analyzed the promoter regions of these genes and complemented gene-related information with transcription factors that potentially control them. We further, precompiled text-mined and data-mined reports about each of these genes to allow for easy exploration of information about associations of EC-implicated genes with other human genes and proteins, metabolites and enzymes, toxins, chemicals with pharmacological effects, disease concepts and human anatomy. The resulting database, DDEC, has a useful feature to display potential associations that are rarely reported and thus difficult to identify. Moreover, DDEC enables inspection of potentially new \\'association hypotheses\\' generated based on the precompiled reports. Conclusion: We hope that this resource will serve as a useful complement to the existing public resources and as a good starting point for researchers and physicians interested in EC genetics. DDEC is

  9. The DRAGON simulations: globular cluster evolution with a million stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Spurzem, Rainer; Aarseth, Sverre; Giersz, Mirek; Askar, Abbas; Berczik, Peter; Naab, Thorsten; Schadow, Riko; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.

    2016-05-01

    Introducing the DRAGON simulation project, we present direct N-body simulations of four massive globular clusters (GCs) with 106 stars and 5 per cent primordial binaries at a high level of accuracy and realism. The GC evolution is computed with NBODY6++GPU and follows the dynamical and stellar evolution of individual stars and binaries, kicks of neutron stars and black holes (BHs), and the effect of a tidal field. We investigate the evolution of the luminous (stellar) and dark (faint stars and stellar remnants) GC components and create mock observations of the simulations (i.e. photometry, colour-magnitude diagrams, surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles). By connecting internal processes to observable features, we highlight the formation of a long-lived `dark' nuclear subsystem made of BHs, which results in a two-component structure. The inner core is dominated by the BH subsystem and experiences a core-collapse phase within the first Gyr. It can be detected in the stellar (luminous) line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles. The outer extended core - commonly observed in the (luminous) surface brightness profiles - shows no collapse features and is continuously expanding. We demonstrate how a King model fit to observed clusters might help identify the presence of post core-collapse BH subsystems. For global observables like core and half-mass radii, the direct simulations agree well with Monte Carlo models. Variations in the initial mass function can result in significantly different GC properties (e.g. density distributions) driven by varying amounts of early mass-loss and the number of forming BHs.

  10. 龙雷之火犀烛%Discussion on Dragon-thunder Fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强

    2015-01-01

    The meaning of the Dragon-thunder fire is always confused with Dragon-fire, ministerial fire, yin-fire and lesser-fire. Understanding these terminologies by comparing their meanings will be good for traditional Chinese medicine theory learners.The result showed that the meanings of the Dragon-thunder fire discussed by different scholars were distinguished, and their meanings were partly same or not with Dragon-fire, ministerial fire, yin-fire and lesser-fire.The way to understand the true meaning of this term can start with the concept, nature, treatment and pathogenesis.%龙雷之火自古与龙火、相火、阴火,少火等名词术语混淆不清,本文通过术语涵义辨析为中医理论学习者厘清彼此间联系。笔者发现各个医家所论述的龙雷之火内涵多有不同,且其内涵与龙火、相火、阴火、少火部分相同或不同,理解各医家所论述龙雷之火的内涵可从概念、性质、治法,病机四方面入手。

  11. Slaying the Seven-Headed Dragon : The Quest for Gender Change in Academia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.C.L. van den; Benschop, Y.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we propose a multi-level distinction between gender inequality practices and gender equality practices to come to better understanding of the slow pace of gender change in academia. Gender inequality resembles an unbeatable seven-headed dragon that has a multitude of faces in differe

  12. External validation of the MRI-DRAGON score: early prediction of stroke outcome after intravenous thrombolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Turc

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to validate in an independent cohort the MRI-DRAGON score, an adaptation of the (CT- DRAGON score to predict 3-month outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing MRI before intravenous thrombolysis (IV-tPA.We reviewed consecutive (2009-2013 anterior circulation stroke patients treated within 4.5 hours by IV-tPA in the Lille stroke unit (France, where MRI is the first-line pretherapeutic work-up. We assessed the discrimination and calibration of the MRI-DRAGON score to predict poor 3-month outcome, defined as modified Rankin Score >2, using c-statistic and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively.We included 230 patients (mean ±SD age 70.4±16.0 years, median [IQR] baseline NIHSS 8 [5]-[14]; poor outcome in 78(34% patients. The c-statistic was 0.81 (95%CI 0.75-0.87, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was not significant (p = 0.54.The MRI-DRAGON score showed good prognostic performance in the external validation cohort. It could therefore be used to inform the patient's relatives about long-term prognosis and help to identify poor responders to IV-tPA alone, who may be candidates for additional therapeutic strategies, if they are otherwise eligible for such procedures based on the institutional criteria.

  13. Dragons with Clay Feet? : Transition, sustainable land use and rural environment in China and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, M.; Heerink, N.; Qu, F.

    2007-01-01

    Dragons with Clay Feet? presents state-of-the-art research on the impact of ongoing and anticipated economic policy and institutional reforms on agricultural development and sustainable rural resource in two East-Asian transition (and developing) economies--China and Vietnam.

  14. Panda-Huggers and Dragon-Slayers: How to View Modern China Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Panda-hugger and dragon-slayer are phrases used to describe two different kinds of China-watchers, and increasingly, two different types of people in the general public. A panda-hugger is someone who says that almost everything going on in China is good, that China's progress is a great thing for the world, and that any problems are peripheral. A…

  15. Postharvest quality of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) after x-ray irradiation quarantine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quality of three dragon fruit clones (Hylocereus sp.) was determined following x-ray irradiation for disinfestation of quarantine pests. Fruit were treated with irradiation doses of 0, 200, 400, 600, or 800 Gy and stored for 12 days at 10 °C. Irradiation did not affect soluble solids content, ti...

  16. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  17. Fabrication and analysis of dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dye extracted from dragon fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed Ali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dragon fruit dye has been prepared and used in the fabrication of DSSC as sensitizer. The properties of dragon fruit dye have been investigated by UV-Vis and FTIR technique. The absorption spectrum shows a peak value of 535 nm. Chemically dragon fruit dye shows present of intermolecular H-bond, conjugate C=O stretching and esters acetates C-O-C stretching vibration, which is due to the component of anthocyanin. On the other hand, the resistivity of TiO2 film on ITO glass before it is used for the fabrication of DSSC is also investigated. The TiO2 sheet resistivity increase from 1 layer = 22.1 Ω cm to 2 layers = 369.6 Ω cm. Finally, the efficiency of assemble DSSC was evaluated and simulated using a custom made technique. The result shows fill factor, Pmax and efficiency during the present of halogen lamp are 0.30, 13 μW, 0.22%, respectively. We have successfully showed that the DSSC using dragon fruit as a dye sensitizer is useful for the preparation of environmental friendly and low-cost DSSC.

  18. "Snow White" Coating Protects SpaceX Dragon's Trunk Against Rigors of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    He described it as "snow white." But NASA astronaut Don Pettit was not referring to the popular children's fairy tale. Rather, he was talking about the white coating of the Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) Dragon spacecraft that reflected from the International Space Station s light. As it approached the station for the first time in May 2012, the Dragon s trunk might have been described as the "fairest of them all," for its pristine coating, allowing Pettit to clearly see to maneuver the robotic arm to grab the Dragon for a successful nighttime berthing. This protective thermal control coating, developed by Alion Science and Technology Corp., based in McLean, Va., made its bright appearance again with the March 1 launch of SpaceX's second commercial resupply mission. Named Z-93C55, the coating was applied to the cargo portion of the Dragon to protect it from the rigors of space. "For decades, Alion has produced coatings to protect against the rigors of space," said Michael Kenny, senior chemist with Alion. "As space missions evolved, there was a growing need to dissipate electrical charges that build up on the exteriors of spacecraft, or there could be damage to the spacecraft s electronics. Alion's research led us to develop materials that would meet this goal while also providing thermal controls. The outcome of this research was Alion's proprietary Z-93C55 coating."

  19. Additional Notes on some Dragon-Flies of the Genus Zonophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, J.

    1966-01-01

    By way of a supplement to my 1963 paper on “Dragon Flies of the Genus Zonophora” (Studies Fauna Surinam 5, p. 60—69, pl. 3—4) other particulars of the Surinam congeners may now be placed on record.

  20. The "7 Keys of the Dragon": An E-Learning Gamelike Environment for Albanian and Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revithiadou, Anthi; Kourtis-Kazoullis, Vasilia; Soukalopoulou, Maria; Konstantoudakis, Konstantinos; Zarras, Christos; Pelesoglou, Nestoras

    2014-01-01

    In this article we report on the development of an interactive open source extensible software, dubbed "The 7 Keys of the Dragon," for the teaching/learning of Albanian and Russian to students (9-12 years old) with the respective languages as their heritage languages. Based on the assumption that games in language learning are associated…

  1. Developing CALL for Heritage Languages: "The 7 Keys of the Dragon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revithiadou, Anthi; Kourtis-Kazoullis, Vasilia; Soukalopoulou, Maria; Konstantoudakis, Konstantinos; Zarras, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present an interactive extensible software, "The 7 Keys of the Dragon," for the teaching/learning of Albanian and Russian to students that attend primary and secondary education in Greece with the respective languages as their heritage languages. We address the key challenges we encountered during the conceptualization…

  2. Additional Notes on some Dragon-Flies of the Genus Zonophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belle, J.

    1966-01-01

    By way of a supplement to my 1963 paper on “Dragon Flies of the Genus Zonophora” (Studies Fauna Surinam 5, p. 60—69, pl. 3—4) other particulars of the Surinam congeners may now be placed on record.

  3. Results from the development of ionization detection systems for the DRAGON facility

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, A A

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the implementation of an ionization detection system for the focal plane of the DRAGON recoil mass separator. We report recent tests performed with stable beams to test the feasibility of such a system for use in measurements of radiative capture reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive beams.

  4. Radioprotective effects of dragon's blood and its extracts on radiation-induced myelosuppressive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ran; Hasan, Murtaza; Jia, Qiutian; Tang, Bo; Shan, Shuangquan; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2014-07-03

    Dragon׳s blood, a traditional Chinese herb, has been used to "panacea of blood activating" and its major biological activity appears to be from phenolic compounds. In this study, our research aims to examine the effects of Dragon׳s blood (DB) and its extracts (DBE) on radiation-induced myelosuppressive mice. Adult BALB/C mice were exposed to the whole body irradiation with 4 Gy (60)Co γ-rays. DB and DBE were respectively administered orally for 5 constitutive days prior to irradiation treatment. The radioprotective effects and relevant mechanisms of DB and DBE in radiation-induced bone marrow injury were investigated by ex vivo examination. We found that the administration of DB and DBE significantly increased the numbers of peripheral blood cells and colony forming unit of bone marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells. Interestingly, compared with the irradiation group, the administration of DB and DBE significantly decreased the levels of the inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ and oxidative stress injury such as SOD, CAT, GSH, MDA in serum of mice. Furthermore, DBE markedly improved the morphology of bone marrow histopathology. Our data suggest that DB and DBE effectively attenuate radiation-induced damage in bone marrow, which is likely associated with the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of DB and DBE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Panda-Huggers and Dragon-Slayers: How to View Modern China Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Panda-hugger and dragon-slayer are phrases used to describe two different kinds of China-watchers, and increasingly, two different types of people in the general public. A panda-hugger is someone who says that almost everything going on in China is good, that China's progress is a great thing for the world, and that any problems are peripheral. A…

  6. Astronomical Orientations Of Dragon Houses (Laka Palli, Kapsala, Oche) And Armena Gate (Euboea, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liritzis, I.; Artelaris, G.

    The preliminary investigation of the astronomical orientation of monuments at Styra, southern Euboea, includes the triple so called 'dragon house' complex at Laka Palli, one dragon house at Kapsala and one on the summit of Mount Oche, and a monumental gate in the megalithic fortification wall at Armena. Recent luminescence testing dates these remains to approximately the Classical period with apparent re-use in Roman and later times. Thus far no definite astronomical orientation has been determined in the layout of the structures and no celestial stone markers or similar features have been found associated with the dragon houses, however, the relationship of significant stars, constellations and solar stands was well known in antiquity, and the limited results presented here suggests the possibility for further investigation. This study, which considered possible orientations related to sun rise and sun set for the summer and winter solstice, as well as, alignments towards equinoxes and major bright stars and constellations, did observe a general preference for a southern orientation at most of the sites and a possible feature for time observations in the dragon house complex at Laka Palli.

  7. Dragons with clay feet? Transition, sustainable land use, and rural environment in China and Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, M.; Heerink, N.; Qu, F.

    2010-01-01

    Dragons with Clay Feet? presents state-of-the-art research on the impact of ongoing and anticipated economic policy and institutional reforms on agricultural development and sustainable rural resource in two East-Asian transition (and developing) economies--China and Vietnam. The contributions to th

  8. The history of some Komodo Dragons (Varanus Komodoensis) captured on Rintja in 1927

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The first scientific description of the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis), given by P. A. Ouwens, appeared only as late as 1912. During some time following this event, but little information on the species became available and no specimens were captured. Only in 1926, an American expe

  9. DragonFly BSD1.6正式发布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    近日,DragonFly BSD发布了最新的1.6版本,这是DragonFly BSD发布的第四个重要发行版。在DragonFly BSD1.6中,用户看到的最大变化包括一个新的随机数生成器、对大部分802.11无线模块的支持、对内核中Bug的修复、以及内置了锁功能。DragonFly 是一个作为FreeBSD4.X系列在逻辑上的延续而设计的操作系统及应用环境,给了BSD一个向着不同于FreeBSD5.X系列的崭新方向发展机会。

  10. 龙与年号%The Chinese Dragon and the Rein Titles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆云

    2000-01-01

    The Chinese dragon is a prevalent political symbol in Chinese culture which cannot be seen in any other country. The political flavor of Chinese dragon culture finds its expressions in three respects: 1) the special relationship between dragon and the emperors, the latter being sons of Heaven; 2) dragon being regarded as the symbol d emperors and the taboos associated with it; and 3) the reign titles. Many emperors had a special preference for a reign title named with the Chinese word “dragon”. In Chinese history, there were fourteen such reign titles altogether.%中国龙具有明显的政治性,这是其他国家的龙所没有的。中国龙文化的政治性表现在三方面:一是认为龙与帝王特殊的关系,帝王被视为真龙天子;二是龙被视为帝王的象征,有种种禁忌;三是表现在年号上,不少帝王喜用带有“龙”字的年号,历史上共有带“龙”字的14个年号。

  11. The diet of free-roaming Australian Central Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Leeuwen, van J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2015-01-01

    The central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is one of the most popular pet lizards. However, little is known regarding their nutrient requirement, or their natural diet. Therefore, the stomach contents of 14 free-roaming P. vitticeps were determined by flushing. These stomach contents were

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of a periocular myxosarcoma in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardhouse, Sara; Eshar, David; Lee-Chow, Bridget; Foster, Robert A; Ingrao, Joelle C; Poirier, Valerie J

    2014-07-01

    A 5-year-old male Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) was presented with a 2-month history of a periocular mass. The clinical evaluation included a physical examination, hematology, biochemistry, and radiographs. The mass was treated surgically and diagnosed as myxosarcoma. Strontium-90 plesiotherapy was attempted, but the mass recurred 5 mo later.

  13. Effects of high dose coffee intake on aerobic power in dragon female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Shabani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : There are few studies that consider the effect of high doses of caffeine on aerobic power (VO2max. Also, to date, no study examined the effect of coffee intake on dragon boat paddler specifically on women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of espresso coffee on improvement of aerobic power of dragon boat paddler. Material : Twenty women athletes of Guilan dragon bout team members of Malavan club of port city of Anzali (mean ±SD age, 23.60± 3.49 years; BMI,23.77±1.88kg/m2; body fat, 30.32±4.65% were recruited to this study, after they completed a primary test without consuming any coffee, they consumed 6mg/kg of coffee (espresso or decaffeinated and following that they completed two experimental trials. A randomized, double-blind, repeated-measures, design was employed whereby paddlers complete a 2000m paddling dragon boat ergo-meter. Results : Coffee could improve VO2max (Without coffee =74.40± QUOTE 4.99, Espresso coffee =90.10± QUOTE 6.19, Decaffeinated coffee =91.00± QUOTE 5.67, P≤ QUOTE 0.05. VO2max amount after exercise were significantly higher for both espresso coffee and decaffeinated coffee, when compared with without coffee condition. No significant differences were observed between espresso coffee and decaffeinated coffee (P≤ QUOTE 0.05. Conclusion : The present study shows that both high doses of caffeine (espresso coffee and decaffeinated coffee can enhance VO2max during aerobic exercise including 2000m dragon boat paddling. It seems that some compounds except caffeine in decaffeinated coffee can act improve VO2max. Further studies needed for considering the effect of high doses of coffee on endurance exercises. Also in other age ranges of women athletes and other sport athletes.

  14. Flavylium chromophores as species markers for dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Micaela M; Melo, Maria J; Parola, A Jorge; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Catarino, Fernando; Pina, Fernando; Cook, Frances E M; Simmonds, Monique S J; Lopes, João A

    2008-10-31

    A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic method with diode-array UV-vis spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the authentication of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees. Using this method it was discovered that the flavylium chromophores, which contribute to the red colour of these resins, differ among the species and could be used as markers to differentiate among species. A study of parameters, such as time of extraction, proportion of MeOH and pH, was undertaken to optimise the extraction of the flavyliums. This method was then used to make extracts from samples of dragon's blood resin obtained from material of known provenance. From the samples analysed 7,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracorhodin), 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracoflavylium) and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavylium were selected as species markers for Daemonorops spp., Dracaena draco and Dracaena cinnabari, respectively. The chromatograms from these samples were used to build an HPLC-DAD database. The ability to discriminate among species of dragon's blood using the single marker compounds was compared with a principal components analysis of the chromatograms in the HPLC-DAD database. The results from the HPLC-DAD method based on the presence of these flavylium markers was unequivocal. The HPLC-DAD method was subsequently applied to 37 samples of dragon blood resins from the historical samples in the Economic Botany Collection, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The method identified anomalies in how samples in this collection had been labelled. It is clear that the method can be used to evaluate the provenance of samples used in different areas of cultural heritage. It also could be used to monitor the trade of endangered species of dragon's blood and the species being used in complex formulations of traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Design and commissioning of a timestamp-based data acquisition system for the DRAGON recoil mass separator

    CERN Document Server

    Christian, G; Connolly, D; Fallis, J; Hutcheon, D; Olchanski, K; Ruiz, C

    2014-01-01

    The DRAGON recoil mass separator at TRIUMF exists to study radiative proton and alpha capture reactions, which are important in a variety of astrophysical scenarios. DRAGON experiments require a data acquisition system that can be triggered on either reaction product ($\\gamma$ ray or heavy ion), with the additional requirement of being able to promptly recognize coincidence events in an online environment. To this end, we have designed and implemented a new data acquisition system for DRAGON which consists of two independently triggered readouts. Events from both systems are recorded with timestamps from a $20$ MHz clock that are used to tag coincidences in the earliest possible stage of the data analysis. Here we report on the design, implementation, and commissioning of the new DRAGON data acquisition system, including the hardware, trigger logic, coincidence reconstruction algorithm, and live time considerations. We also discuss the results of an experiment commissioning the new system, which measured the ...

  16. Psychosocial experiences of breast cancer survivors involved in a dragon boat program: exploring links to positive psychological growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiston, Catherine M; McDonough, Meghan H; Crocker, Peter R E

    2007-08-01

    This study explored psychosocial experiences of breast cancer survivors involved in dragon boat programs. Twenty women (M(age) = 58.69, SD = 6.85) were interviewed for 45-60 min about their experiences as members of survivor dragon boat teams. Interviews were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory methods. The dragon boat program facilitated social support from women with common challenges and a shared understanding of survivorship. It also provided opportunities to (re)gain a sense of personal control, develop new identities as athletes, and overcome physical challenges. Together these elements contributed to positive psychological growth and linked to the literature on posttraumatic growth. Future physical activity interventions targeting breast cancer survivors may benefit from developing strategies that share key characteristics of dragon boating.

  17. 中华龙的本源与起源地的探讨:湖南辰溪%Chenxi, Hunan, a “key” to disclosing Chinese Dragon--- Probe into the Fountainhead of Chinese Dragon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳国胜

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Dragon originates from symbol of phenology in field of agricultural cultivation in prehistory .Its biological prototype is“South Snake” with huge body . Dragon totem of ancients comes from the regular unearth of snake hibernation and farmers begin their agricultural cultivation on the basis of unearth of regular hibernation animal . The “Chen” in Chenxi seems like a dragon within Chinese Zodiac .The dragon pattern with 8000 history is unearthed in Chenxi .Totem activities about dragon culture like dragon boat race , etc . are still popular in this county ,which proves ChenXi is the important place of origin .%中华龙是史前期一个农耕物侯标志,其生物原型是个体特大的南蛇;古人的龙图腾源于对规律性冬眠后出土蛇类的崇拜,人们据此确定农时。辰溪的“辰”字在古记时十二生肖中表象为龙,境内出土过距今7800年的龙形图案,且龙舟竞渡等龙崇拜文化源远流长,多学科证据表明辰溪是中华龙文化的重要起源地。

  18. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif

    2015-01-01

    The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14–65 years, who ...

  19. Effectiveness of the Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel Extract as the Colorant, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial on Beef Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Fitri M Manihuruk; Tuti Suryati; Irma Isnafia Arief

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel extracts addition on beef sausages. Red dragon fruit peel extracts were obtained by maceration using solvent at pH 5. Phytochemical characteristics, total phenols, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the peel extracts were observed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were associated with high phytochemical compounds and total phenols contained in the extracts. Red drago...

  20. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Christine Men [UNESP; Hamanaka,Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida,Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; HIDALGO Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira,Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional a...

  1. Paper tiger in Washington: fiery dragon in the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Gunder Frank

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el término de la Guerra Fría en 1989 y el consiguiente declive de la URSS como un contendiente serio, así como la caída de Japón como otro posible contendiente, otras dos regiones, Estados y potencias comenzaron una nueva contienda. Una de ellas es Estados Unidos cuyas fortunas y perspectivas parecieron declinar después de 1970 pero se recuperaron en los 90; y aun así es un tigre de papel. La otra es Asia del Este, a pesar de su crisis post 1997, y especialmente China –el dragón fuerte-. Este artículo analiza las claves económicas y geopolíticas que orientan las estrategias de ambos contendientes. El examen de la economía mundial y del lugar predominante que tiene en ella Asia del Este, permite encontrar las bases fundamentales de los desarrollos económicos en la región y además presagia otros importantes desarrollos económicos mundiales en un futuro previsible._______________ABSTRACT:With the end of the cold war in 1989 and the subsequent decline of Russia as a serious immediate contender, as well as the decline during the 1990s of the hype of Japan as 1, two other regions, states and powers came into contention. One is the United States whose fortunes and prospects seemed to have declined after 1970 but recovered in the 1990s; and even so it is a Paper Tiger. The other is East Asia, despite its post 1997 crisis, and especially China -the Fiery Dragon-. This article analyzes the economic and geopolitical keys that orient the strategies of both contenders. The examination of the world economy and of the predominant place in it of the East Asian points to the most fundamental bases of contemporary economic developments in the region and also presages important world economic ones for the foreseeable future.

  2. Analysis of implicit and explicit lattice sensitivities using DRAGON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, M.R., E-mail: ballmr@mcmaster.ca; Novog, D.R., E-mail: novog@mcmaster.ca; Luxat, J.C., E-mail: luxatj@mcmaster.ca

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a way to propagate point-wise perturbations using only WIMS-D4 multigroup data. • The method inherently includes treatment of multi-group implicit sensitivities. • We compared our calculated sensitivities to an industry standard tool (TSUNAMI-1D). • In general, our results agreed well with TSUNAMI-1D. - Abstract: Deterministic lattice physics transport calculations are used extensively within the context of operational and safety analysis of nuclear power plants. As such the sensitivity and uncertainty in the evaluated nuclear data used to predict neutronic interactions and other key transport phenomena are critical topics for research. Sensitivity analysis of nuclear systems with respect to fundamental nuclear data using multi-energy-group discretization is complicated by the dilution dependency of multi-group macroscopic cross-sections as a result of resonance self-shielding. It has become common to group sensitivities into implicit and explicit effects to aid in the understanding of the nature of the sensitivities involved in the calculations, however the overall sensitivity is an integral of these effects. Explicit effects stem from perturbations performed for a specific nuclear data for a given isotope and at a specific energy, and their direct impact on the end figure of merit. Implicit effects stem from resonance self-shielding effects and can change the nature of their own sensitivities at other energies, or that for other reactions or even other isotopes. Quantification of the implicit sensitivity component involves some manner of treatment of resonance parameters in a way that is self-consistent with perturbations occurring in associated multi-group cross-sections. A procedure for assessing these implicit effects is described in the context of the Bondarenko method of self-shielding and implemented using a WIMS-D4 multi-group nuclear library and the lattice solver DRAGON. The resulting sensitivity results were compared

  3. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif

    2016-01-01

    The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14-65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood.

  4. EFFECT OF CONSUMING RED DRAGON FRUIT (HYLOCEREUS COSTARICENSIS JUICE ON THE LEVELS OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ERYTHROCYTE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Widyaningsih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia during pregnancy. Red dragon fruit is assumed having much iron to increase hemoglobin and erythrocyte level. Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of dragon fruit juice on levels of hemoglobin and erythrocytes. Methods: This was a quasi experimental research with non-equivalent control group design. There were 34 respondents recruited in this study using consecutive sampling. The samples were divided into intervention group (17 respondents and control group (17 respondents. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test and Paired t-test. Results: There was a statistically significant effect of red dragon fruit juice Hb level on the 7th day of intervention with p-value 0.037 (0.05. This study also revealed that there was a statistically significant effect of red dragon fruit juice on pregnant women's erythrocyte level on the 7th day with p-value 0.025 ( 0.05. Conclusion: There was a statistically significant effect of red dragon fruit juice on hemoglobin and erythrocyte levels. This study provides the insight of knowledge that the red dragon fruit juice can be an alternative treatment to deal with anemia among pregnant women.

  5. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Namjoyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14–65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001. The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood.

  6. Screen of micro-organisms for inducing the production of dragon's blood by leaf of Dracaena cochinchinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X H; Zhang, C H; Wang, Y; Gomes-Laranjo, J

    2010-11-01

    To screen micro-organisms for inducing the production of dragon's blood, which is normally produced by stem xylem and by leaf of Dracaena cochinchinensis, and to evaluate the product by comparing with the standard. Thirty microbial strains were isolated from D. cochinchinensis leaves. Three of them were confirmed to elicit the leaf of D. cochinchinensis producing dragon's blood after inoculation. Upon elicitation, all of the 6-month-old leaves of the inducible trees produced dragon's blood; 60-70% of the 1-year-old leaves elicited produced the resin. All the three strains were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioide by morphological and molecular methods. The leaf resin had a similar TLC profile and antioxidant activities to the standard resin. In particular, it had a higher total flavonol content and antimicrobial activity than the standard. Upon the induction of the screened C. gloeosporioide mycelia, D. cochinchinensis leaf produced dragon's blood with higher total flavone content and antimicrobial activity than the standard dragon's blood. This work has provided a strategy for producing dragon's blood in a sustainable way using leaves of C. gloeosporioides by fungal elicitation. © 2010 The Authors. © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Volume increment in dragon spruce trees in western Tianshan Mountain of Xinjiang and its impact factors%新疆天山西部云杉生长量变化及其影响因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽; 陈蜀江

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The present study was aimed to observe the volume increment in dragon spruce trees in western Tianshan Mountain of Xinjiang, and to analyze the correlations between the volume increment and its impact factors in order to monitor its growth and study the forest ecological system of Tianshan Mountain. [ Method ] Empirical volume equation and single entry volume table were worked out using the diameter data of 5682 dragon spruces trees at 218 sample locations belonging to 8 forest farms in 1996. The GIS and SPSS software were used to analyze the correlations between the volume increment and its impact factors. [ Result ]The periodic increment of dragon spruce trees was recorded as 20.487482 m3 from 1996-2006 and its average periodic increment was 2.048748 m3. The volume increment of dragon spruce was found significantly correlated with red band, near-infrared wave band and green band, and found to be followed by elevation, NDVI and slope. The weakest impact faetors were found to be blue band, short-infrared wave band and graclient. [Conclusion]In future, the growth of dragon spruce trees in Tianshan Mountain may be dynamically monitored according to the dominant factors affecting its volume increment using GIS in order to protect dragon spruce trees better.%[目的]计算新疆天山西部云杉生长量,对云杉生长量影响因子进行相关性分析,为监测云杉生长和研究天山森林生态系统提供参考.[方法]根据1996年天山西部8个林场218个样地5682株云杉的实地测量值推算出天山西部云杉的材积经验式和一元材积表;利用GIS和SPSS软件对利用遥感手段提取的生长量影响因子进行相关性分析.[结果]1996~2006年,天山云杉定期生长量为20.487482m3,1996~2006年定期平均生长量为2.048748m3.生长量影响因子相关性分析表明灰度值中的红光波段、近红外波段、绿光波段与云杉生长量显著相关,其次是海拔、NDVI和坡向,相关性最弱的为

  8. Variation of morphology, isozymic and vitamin C content of dragon fruit varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Rahmawati B, Mahajoeno E. 2009. Variation of morphology, isozymic and vitamin C content of dragon fruit varieties. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 131-137. The aims of the research was to study the variation of morphology, the band pattern of isozyme, and vitamin C content of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp. varieties such as super red, red and white from Pasuruan (East Java, Sukoharjo and Klaten (Central Java, and Bantul districts (Yogyakarta. Morphological character were carried include fruit, stem, and flowers of each variety of dragon fruit. The isozymic pattern was analyzed using NTSYS 2.02i. The data matrix was counted based on the DICE coefficient. The clustering was done by applying UPGMA which counted through SHAN. Vitamin C content measured by titration method then analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the higher vitamin C content was found from super red of Pasuruan (6.00 and then followed by red color (5.376 and super red (5.113 both from Bantul. The morphological variation on the stem and petal colors, and fruits were also shown by the isozymic data of three varieties of dragon fruits collected from four separated locations. Esterase (EST showed 18 bands and forming four (4 groups based on 75% genetic similarity index. The specific band occurred on Rf 0.633 of red varieties of dragon fruit from Bantul and on Rf 0.755 from Pasuruan. The specific band also occurs on Rf 0.347 of white variety from Bantul and on Rf 0.510 and on Rf 0.633 from Klaten. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT enzyme shows 12 bands and also forming four groups with a little difference for member in the fourth group. The specific band occurs on Rf 0.321 of red color fruit from Pasuruan. The specific band also occurs on the white from Pasuruan on Rf 0.446 and on Rf 0.482. The variation of dragon fruits were also supported by isozymic data indicated that the morphological character were in accordance with the genetics data.

  9. Physical therapy as an adjunctive treatment for severe osteoarthritis in a Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Tammy Culpepper; Stringer, Elizabeth; Krauss, Sue; Trout, Tim

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes a new physical therapy technique, specifically the Wolfe Kinetic Technique, as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis in a 20-yr-old Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). This animal was managed with oral analgesics for 3 yr with fair to minimal response over time. Due to worsening of lameness and mobility, physical therapy was initiated. Ten treatment sessions were administered at 1-wk intervals. Within 1 mo the Komodo dragon exhibited marked improvement in gait and function, increased responsiveness to his environment, and increased mobility which continued to improve over the subsequent sessions. Although outcomes could not be measured by standardized objective measures, this study provides a reference for treatment of future cases and a foundation for future research substantiating treatment practices in animal physical therapy.

  10. DRAGONS-A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Hamilton, J.; Liolios, S.; Anderson, C.; Sadilek, A.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Burchell, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Debris Resistive/Acoustic Grid Orbital Navy-NASA Sensor (DRAGONS) is intended to be a large area impact sensor for in situ measurements of micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) in the sub-millimeter to millimeter size regime in the near Earth space environment. These MMOD particles are too small to be detected by ground-based radars and optical telescopes, but still large enough to be a serious threat to human space activities and robotic missions in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region. The nominal detection area of DRAGONS is 1 sq m, consisting of four 0.5 m × 0.5 m independent panels, but the dimensions of the panels can easily be modified to accommodate different payload constraints. The approach of the DRAGONS design is to combine three particle impact detection concepts to maximize information that can be extracted from each detected impact. The first is a resistive grid consisting of 75-micrometer-wide resistive lines, coated in parallel and separated by 75 micrometer gaps on a 25-micrometer thin film. When a particle a few hundred micrometers or larger strikes the grid, it would penetrate the film and sever some resistive lines. The size of the damage area can be estimated from the increased resistance. The second concept is based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) acoustic impact sensors. Multiple PVDF sensors are attached to the thin film to provide the impact timing information. From the different signal arrival times at different acoustic sensors, the impact location can be calculated via triangulation algorithms. The third concept employs a dual-layer film system where a second 25-micrometer film is placed 15 cm behind the resistive-grid film. Multiple PVDF acoustic sensors are also attached to the second film. The combination of impact timing and location information from the two films allows for direct measurements of the impact direction and speed. The DRAGONS technology development has been funded by several NASA organizations since 2002, first

  11. Structure characteristics of a water-soluble polysaccharide purified from dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lishan; Zhang, Yaojie; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    Dragon fruit is a tropical fruit with good taste. It can bring health benefits to human body. As one of the major bioactive components in this fruit, the polysaccharides might contribute to the health benefits. However, the precise structure information remains unknown. A leading polysaccharide of dragon fruit pulp, DFPP, was purified and identified by NMR and GC-MS. →4-β-d-GlcpA-1→, →6-β-d-Galp-1→ and →4-α-l-Rhap-1→ constituted the backbone and α-l-Araf-1→5-α-l-Araf-1→ formed the branch chain. The precise structure was putatively identified as below. The molecular weight was 2.2×10(3)kDa. The structure information of polysaccharides will be helpful to understand this fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antidiabetic effect of an active fraction extracted from dragon's blood (Dracaena Cochinchinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hui-Juan; Lv, Jing-Ci; Yong, Ke-Lan; Chen, Xu; Liu, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Xia-Bing

    2009-02-01

    The active fraction extracted from dragon's blood displayed an inhibitory effect on alpha-glucosidase activity with an IC50 of 0.152 microg/mL, which is nearly half of the crude material. Its inhibition on alpha-glucosidase was noncompetitive. In addition, when this fraction was orally administered to mice dosed with Acarbose (20 mg/kg), the active fraction (100, 300, 500 mg/kg) significantly suppressed increase of blood glucose levels after sucrose loading in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that this extract from dragon's blood exerts an anti-diabetic effect by suppressing intestinal carbohydrate absorption and thereby reducing the postprandial increase of blood glucose.

  13. Establishment of an agamid cell line and isolation of adenoviruses from central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Inna; Hoferer, Marc; Marschang, Rachel E

    2014-03-01

    A cell line was established from whole 6-8-week-old central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) embryos. Cells were mid-sized and showed an elongated and polymorphic form. The cell line grew in a monolayer and has been serially passaged for 17 passages at time of publication. This cell line has been used with samples from adenovirus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive bearded dragons, and 2 virus isolates have been obtained so far. The isolates show a clear cytopathic effect in inoculated cells. Both virus isolates have been serially passaged on this cell line, and have been identified by PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene and show 100% nucleotide identity to the corresponding region of an agamid adenovirus. Electron microscopic examination of supernatant from infected cells demonstrated the presence of nonenveloped particles, with a diameter of approximately 80 nm in both virus isolates.

  14. Cosmic-ray propagation with DRAGON2: I. numerical solver and astrophysical ingredients

    CERN Document Server

    Evoli, Carmelo; Vittino, Andrea; Di Bernardo, Giuseppe; Di Mauro, Mattia; Ligorini, Arianna; Ullio, Piero; Grasso, Dario

    2016-01-01

    We present version 2 of the DRAGON code designed for computing realistic predictions of the CR densities in the Galaxy. The code numerically solves the interstellar CR transport equation (including inhomogeneous and anisotropic diffusion, either in space and momentum, advective transport and energy losses), under realistic conditions. The new version includes an updated numerical solver and several models for the astrophysical ingredients involved in the transport equation. Improvements in the accuracy of the numerical solution are proved against analytical solutions and in reference diffusion scenarios. The novel features implemented in the code allow to simulate the diverse scenarios proposed to reproduce the most recent measurements of local and diffuse CR fluxes, going beyond the limitations of the homogeneous galactic transport paradigm. To this end, several applications using DRAGON2 are presented as well. The new version facilitates the users to include their own physical models by means of a modular C...

  15. Cosmic-ray propagation with DRAGON2: I. numerical solver and astrophysical ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evoli, Carmelo; Gaggero, Daniele; Vittino, Andrea; Di Bernardo, Giuseppe; Di Mauro, Mattia; Ligorini, Arianna; Ullio, Piero; Grasso, Dario

    2017-02-01

    We present version 2 of the DRAGON code designed for computing realistic predictions of the CR densities in the Galaxy. The code numerically solves the interstellar CR transport equation (including inhomogeneous and anisotropic diffusion, either in space and momentum, advective transport and energy losses), under realistic conditions. The new version includes an updated numerical solver and several models for the astrophysical ingredients involved in the transport equation. Improvements in the accuracy of the numerical solution are proved against analytical solutions and in reference diffusion scenarios. The novel features implemented in the code allow to simulate the diverse scenarios proposed to reproduce the most recent measurements of local and diffuse CR fluxes, going beyond the limitations of the homogeneous galactic transport paradigm. To this end, several applications using DRAGON2 are presented as well. This new version facilitates the users to include their own physical models by means of a modular C++ structure.

  16. 民间龙舞文化旅游资源整合开发研究①--以安仁板凳龙石桥火龙为例%The integrated development of cultural tourism resources of folk dragon dance Research--On the Anren bench dragon stone dragon as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史明娜; 孙亮亮

    2015-01-01

    By using the method of literature,logical analysis and other research methods,on the Anren bench dragon and the stone dragon is the representative of the folk dragon dance culture of quality of historical culture and the origin of the myth of scanning, dragon culture process from cultural production situation formed interactive experience,but also stimulating economic development, culture and customs of dragon dance culture rich local experience show and profound cultural accumulation, cultural and artistic scene ornamental show authentic aspects of dragon dance culture and art attraction analysis,based on this proposed space-time dragon dance culture tourism street building, Long Wuwen in the travel scene reappearance,Dragon Culture Museum Construction of creative tourism, so as to promote the cultural heritage folk dragon dance and dragon dance culture tourism development.%采用文献资料法、逻辑分析法等研究方法,对以安仁板凳龙和石桥火龙为代表的民间龙舞文化精品进行了历史文化及起源神话扫描,从龙舞文化工艺文化制作形成互动体验的局面,同时也拉动经济发展、文化习俗体验展现当地龙舞文化的浓郁和深厚的文化积淀、文化艺术场景观赏展现龙舞文化艺术的本真性等方面进行旅游卖点分析,基于此提出龙舞文化旅游一条街打造、龙舞文化在旅游场景的时空再现、龙舞文化博物馆构建等旅游创意,以此促进民间龙舞文化传承及龙舞文化旅游发展。

  17. THE GENERATIVE REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF RED DRAGON FRUIT (Hylocereus.polyrhizus (Web.) Britton & Rose, CACTACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Eniek Kriswiyanti

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the generative reproductive characteristics of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Web.) Britton & Rose), that is the characteristics and the development of male and female reproductive system and the embryo. The flowering morphology was observed through the gametogenesis process and the process of embryogenesis was observed using the methods of squash, cytolysis, and embedding of flower before anthesis, during and after anthesis. The results showed th...

  18. Inside the Sea Dragon: The Generations within the Current Peoples Liberation Army Navy Officer Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    force. This includes not just the physical aspects of warfighting but includes how to live in the barracks, interact with people of different ranks, and...by the fact that Fujian was along the coast , and Navies are formed from regions where the people are “following the sea.”57 However, a map analysis...INSIDE THE SEA DRAGON: THE GENERATIONS WITHIN THE CURRENT PEOPLES LIBERATION ARMY NAVY OFFICER CORPS A thesis presented to

  19. Proximate Analysis of Dragon Fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzainah A. Jaafar; Ahmad R.B.A.L. Rahman; Nor Z.C. Mahmod; Vasudevan, R.

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Dragon fruit (Hylecereus polyhizus) is well known for the rich nutrient contents and it is commercially available worldwide for improving many health problems. Several studies show the proximity value of red pitaya fruits but the nutrient composition of the stem has not been extensively studied. Approach: This study was carried out to measure the proximate analysis of moisture content, water activity, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, glucose and ascorbic acids co...

  20. Are dragon-king neuronal avalanches dungeons for self-organized brain activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arcangelis, L.

    2012-05-01

    Recent experiments have detected a novel form of spontaneous neuronal activity both in vitro and in vivo: neuronal avalanches. The statistical properties of this activity are typical of critical phenomena, with power laws characterizing the distributions of avalanche size and duration. A critical behaviour for the spontaneous brain activity has important consequences on stimulated activity and learning. Very interestingly, these statistical properties can be altered in significant ways in epilepsy and by pharmacological manipulations. In particular, there can be an increase in the number of large events anticipated by the power law, referred to herein as dragon-king avalanches. This behaviour, as verified by numerical models, can originate from a number of different mechanisms. For instance, it is observed experimentally that the emergence of a critical behaviour depends on the subtle balance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms acting in the system. Perturbing this balance, by increasing either synaptic excitation or the incidence of depolarized neuronal up-states causes frequent dragon-king avalanches. Conversely, an unbalanced GABAergic inhibition or long periods of low activity in the network give rise to sub-critical behaviour. Moreover, the existence of power laws, common to other stochastic processes, like earthquakes or solar flares, suggests that correlations are relevant in these phenomena. The dragon-king avalanches may then also be the expression of pathological correlations leading to frequent avalanches encompassing all neurons. We will review the statistics of neuronal avalanches in experimental systems. We then present numerical simulations of a neuronal network model introducing within the self-organized criticality framework ingredients from the physiology of real neurons, as the refractory period, synaptic plasticity and inhibitory synapses. The avalanche critical behaviour and the role of dragon-king avalanches will be discussed in

  1. Atherosclerosis associated with pericardial effusion in a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilliger, Lionel; Lemberger, Karin; Chai, Norin; Bourgeois, Aude; Charpentier, Maud

    2010-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a common disease in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and is frequently found when performing postmortem examinations on adult and old dogs, in which it is mainly associated with endocrine diseases, such as hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. However, atherosclerosis is poorly documented in reptiles and consequently poorly understood. In the current case report, atherosclerosis and pericardial effusion were diagnosed in a 2-year-old male central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) based on ultrasound visualization, necropsy, and histologic examination.

  2. The Application of Dragon Fruit Peels as A Dye in Red Velvet Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianka Wahyuningtias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Red Dragon fruit peel that has a high antioxidant content is very useful and suitable processed into natural coloring in household industry are easily processed. One product to apply it is the Red Velvet Cake. Red Velvet Cake is basically uses natural coloring from the bits fruit and instant food coloring. This discussion will create a research that is attempting to replace the instant food coloring and natural food coloring from the bit that is commonly used in Red Velvet Cake by making use of the Dragon fruit that is considered to be food wastes. This research aims to provide a new alternative natural food coloring in the Red Velvet Cake. Experimental research is used by doing experiments and planned and systematic testing to Red Velvet Cake, and by collecting primary data and secondary data as well. All data is presented in a descriptive with SPSS. From the results of mean average can be inferred that the Red Velvet Cake using natural food coloring from Red Dragon fruit is acceptable to the community.

  3. The Application of Dragon Fruit Peels as a Dye in Red Velvet Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianka Wahyuningtias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Red Dragon fruit peel that has a high antioxidant content is very useful and suitable processed into natural coloring in household industry are easily processed. One product to apply it is the Red Velvet Cake. Red Velvet Cake is basically uses natural coloring from the bits fruit and instant food coloring. This discussion will create a research that is attempting to replace the instant food coloring and natural food coloring from the bit that is commonly used in Red Velvet Cake by making use of the Dragon fruit that is considered to be food wastes. This research aims to provide a new alternative natural food coloring in the Red Velvet Cake. Experimental research is used by doing experiments and planned and systematic testing to Red Velvet Cake, and by collecting primary data and secondary data as well. All data is presented in a descriptive with SPSS. From the results of mean average can be inferred that the Red Velvet Cake using natural food coloring from Red Dragon fruit is acceptable to the community.

  4. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from fermented red dragon fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yien Yien; Tan, Wen Siang; Rosfarizan, Mohamad; Chan, Eng Seng; Tey, Beng Ti

    2012-10-01

    Red dragon fruit or red pitaya is rich in potassium, fiber, and antioxidants. Its nutritional properties and unique flesh color have made it an attractive raw material of various types of food products and beverages including fermented beverages or enzyme drinks. In this study, phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to confirm the identity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appeared in fermented red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) beverages. A total of 21 isolates of LAB were isolated and characterized. They belonged to the genus of Enterococcus based on their biochemical characteristics. The isolates can be clustered into two groups by using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method. Nucleotide sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA region suggested that they were either Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus durans. Current research revealed the use of biochemical analyses and molecular approaches to identify the microbial population particularly lactic acid bacteria from fermented red dragon fruit juices. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Analysis of Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light Detector Anomalies on WFC3/UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Julia; Markwardt, Larissa; Bourque, Matthew; Anderson, Jay

    2017-02-01

    We summarize the examination of the light anomalies known as Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light for the UVIS channel of Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We present three methods for WFC3 users to help avoid these effects during observation planning. We analyzed all of the full-frame wide and long pass filters with exposure times ≥ 300 seconds, comprising ∼13% of WFC3/UVIS on-orbit data (∼20% of all full-frame data, and ∼35% of all full-frame ≥300 second exposures.) We find that stars producing Dragon's Breath peak at specific orientations to the detector and V-band magnitudes. The bulk of these stars fall along the vertical and horizontal edges, within ∼490 pixels of the image frame. The corners of the detector show significantly fewer instances of Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light, though still a few occurrences. Furthermore, matching stars outside the field of the image to V-band magnitude data from the Hubble Guide Star Catalog II (GSC-II) shows that stars causing the anomaly consistently peak around a V-band magnitude of 11.9 or 14.6, whereas the general trend of objects lying outside the field instead peaks around a magnitude of 16.5 within our exposure time and filter selection.

  6. Life-history and spatial determinants of somatic growth dynamics in Komodo dragon populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Laver

    Full Text Available Somatic growth patterns represent a major component of organismal fitness and may vary among sexes and populations due to genetic and environmental processes leading to profound differences in life-history and demography. This study considered the ontogenic, sex-specific and spatial dynamics of somatic growth patterns in ten populations of the world's largest lizard the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis. The growth of 400 individual Komodo dragons was measured in a capture-mark-recapture study at ten sites on four islands in eastern Indonesia, from 2002 to 2010. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs and information-theoretic methods were used to examine how growth rates varied with size, age and sex, and across and within islands in relation to site-specific prey availability, lizard population density and inbreeding coefficients. Growth trajectories differed significantly with size and between sexes, indicating different energy allocation tactics and overall costs associated with reproduction. This leads to disparities in maximum body sizes and longevity. Spatial variation in growth was strongly supported by a curvilinear density-dependent growth model with highest growth rates occurring at intermediate population densities. Sex-specific trade-offs in growth underpin key differences in Komodo dragon life-history including evidence for high costs of reproduction in females. Further, inverse density-dependent growth may have profound effects on individual and population level processes that influence the demography of this species.

  7. DRAGON-NG: a configurable and capable AO test-bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharmal, Nazim A.; Bitenc, Urban; Bramall, David G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Dubbeldam, Cornelis M.; Reeves, Andrew P.; Dunlop, Colin; Rolt, Stephen; Younger, Eddy J.; Myers, Richard M.

    2016-07-01

    An astronomical adaptive optics test-bench, designed to replicate the conditions of a 4 m-class telescope, is presented. Named DRAGON-Next Generation, it is constructed primarily from commercial off-the-shelf components with minimal customization (approximately a 90:10 ratio). This permits an optical design which is modular and this leads to a reconfigurability. DRAGON-NG has been designed for operation for the following modes: (high-order) SCAO, (twin-DM) MOAO, and (twin-DM) MCAO. It is capable of open-loop or closed-loop operation, with (3) natural and (3) laser guide-star emulation at loop rates of up to 200Hz. Field angles of up-to 2.4 arcmin (4m pupil emulation) can pass through the system. The design is dioptric and permits long cable runs to a compact real-time control system which is on-sky compatible. Therefore experimental validation can be carried out on DRAGON-NG before transferring to an on-sky system, which is a significant risk mitigation.

  8. Endophytic fungi from Dragon's blood specimens: isolation, identification, phylogenetic diversity and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin-long; Guo, Shun-xing; Dong, Hailing; Xiao, Peigen

    2011-08-01

    Endophytic fungi from Dragon's blood specimens of different locations of China were characterized taxonomically and investigated concerning their antimicrobial and antitumor activity against six pathogenic microbes and five tumor cells. A total of 49 endophytic fungi were obtained from Dragon's blood materials of Dracaena spp., 18 taxa were represented by 43 (87.8%) isolates and only six (12.2%) isolates were unknown. Twenty (40.8%) of the isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic microorganism. Three isolates YNDC07, BJDC06 and BJDC09 displayed significant antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigates, respectively. The results of antitumor activity by the MTT assay revealed that 26.5%, 69.4%, 48.9%, 6.1% and 42.9% of isolate fermentation broths displayed growth inhibition on HepG2 cells, SKVO3 cells, MCF7 cells, HL-60 cells and 293-T cells, respectively. HNDC09 and HNDC10 showed very strong antitumor activity against MCF7 and 293-T, respectively. The results showed that endophytic fungi in Dragon's blood samples were valuable in screening antitumor and antimicrobial bioactivity agents. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Robust Statistical Tests of Dragon-Kings beyond Power Law Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Pisarenko, V F

    2011-01-01

    We ask the question whether it is possible to diagnose the existence of "Dragon-Kings" (DK), namely anomalous observations compared to a power law background distribution of event sizes. We present two new statistical tests, the U-test and the DK-test, aimed at identifying the existence of even a single anomalous event in the tail of the distribution of just a few tens of observations. The DK-test in particular is derived such that the p-value of its statistic is independent of the exponent characterizing the null hypothesis. We demonstrate how to apply these two tests on the distributions of cities and of agglomerations in a number of countries. We find the following evidence for Dragon-Kings: London in the distribution of city sizes of Great Britain; Moscow and St-Petersburg in the distribution of city sizes in the Russian Federation; and Paris in the distribution of agglomeration sizes in France. True negatives are also reported, for instance the absence of Dragon-Kings in the distribution of cities in Ger...

  10. Effects of vitamin D3 supplementation and UVb exposure on the growth and plasma concentration of vitamin D3 metabolites in juvenile bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Stevens, Y.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Leeuwen, van J.P.T.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of dietary vitamin D3 and UVb exposure on plasma vitamin D metabolites in growing bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) was studied. A total of 84 (40 males and 44 females) newly hatched bearded dragons were allocated to six levels of oral vitamin D3 supplementation (0 to 400%) or six

  11. PEMANFAATAN KULIT BUAH NAGA (Dragon Fruit SEBAGAI PEWARNA ALAMI MAKANAN PENGGANTI PEWARNA SINTETIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Astuti Handayani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kulit buah naga merupakan limbah hasil pertanian yang mengandung zat warna alami antosianin cukup tinggi. Antosianin merupakan zat warna yang berperan memberikan warna merah yang berpotensi menjadi pewarna alami untuk pangan dan dapat dijadikan alternatif pengganti pewarna sintetis yang lebih aman bagi kesehatan. Pengambilan zat warna antosianin dilakukan dengan metode ekstraksi. Pelarut yang digunakan adalah aquades. Variabel penelitian antara lain varietas buah naga, konsentrasi asam sitrat dalam pelarut, suhu ekstraksi, dan waktu ekstraksi. Potongan kulit buah naga diekstraksi dengan pelarut aquades dan asam sitrat dengan perbandingan tertentu, pada suhu ekstraksi 25-800C dan waktu ekstraksi 0,5-3 jam. Analisis kadar antosianin dilakukan dengan analisa antosianin metode Glusti dan Wrolstad. Hasil percobaan diperoleh bahwa varietas buah naga daging merah menghasilkan kadar antosianin terbesar 22,59335 ppm. Selain itu kadar antosianin terbesar diperoleh pada variasi pelarut aquades:asam sitrat (5:1 26,4587 ppm, variasi pada suhu kamar menghasilkan 21,5028 ppm dan waktu pengadukan  3 jam menghasilkan 23,3027 ppm. Pewarna alami ini telah diaplikasikan pada makanan dan diujikan pada tikus putih, hasil uji coba menunjukkan pewarna buah naga dapat dipakai sebagai pewarna alami makanan. Dragon fruit peel is agricultural waste which contains quite high natural pigments of anthocyanins. Anthocyanin is a dye that potentially provides a red natural colorant for food and alternatively used as synthetic dye which is safe for health. In this study, the process of taking anthocyanin was conducted using extraction method. The solvent used was distilled water. The variables observed in the research include dragon fruit varieties, the concentration of citric acid in the solvent, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The dragon fruit peel was extracted using solvents of distilled water and citric acid at a certain ratio, at extraction temperature

  12. [Effect of dragon's blood powder with different grain size on transdermal absorption and adhesion of ZJHX paste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qin; Sun, E; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Zhu, Jing; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2012-12-01

    To study the effect of dragon's blood powder with different grain size on the transdermal permeability and adhesion of ZJHX paste. Dragon's blood powder with grain sizes of 4, 19, 55 microm were got by ultrafine grinding technology, and then prepared into rubber pastes A, B, C and D, together with dragon's blood powder with grain size of 93 microm of original description. Franz diffusion cell method was adopted to compare the difference in transdermal permeability of dragon's blood powder with different grain sizes, with dracorhodin as the index, and compared their effect on the adhesion of pastes with initial adhesion, permanent adhesion and peel strength as the indexes. Q(s)-t equations of pastes A, B, C, D were as follows: Q(s)=1.369 6t + 3.985 5, Q(s) = 1.262 8t +3.738 1, Q(s) = 1.192 3t + 3.320 6, Q(s) = 1.152 2t + 2.366 1, respectively, which showed that the adhesion of A was the best good. With the decrease in the grain size of dragon's blood powder, accumulative penetration of dracorhodin increases, which facilitates transdermal permeability and adhesion.

  13. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (pdragon's blood sap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (pdragon's blood sap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  14. Plasma biochemical reference values in clinically healthy captive bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) and the effects of sex and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamukai, Kenichi; Takami, Yoshinori; Akabane, Yoshihito; Kanazawa, Yuko; Une, Yumi

    2011-09-01

    Bearded dragons are one of the most popular pet lizard species, and biochemical reference values are useful for health management of these reptiles. The objectives of this study were to measure plasma biochemical values in healthy captive bearded dragons, determine reference values, and evaluate the effects of sex and season on the results. Blood samples were collected from 100 captive healthy bearded dragons in Tokyo during the summer and winter. Plasma biochemical measurements were performed using a dry-slide automated biochemical analyzer. The data were then compared based on sex and season using 2-way ANOVA. Globulin, cholesterol, and calcium concentrations of females were higher in both summer and winter compared with the values obtained for males. Both males and females had higher uric acid concentrations in winter than in summer. When compared with males, females had a higher chloride concentration in summer and a higher total protein concentration and aspartate aminotransferase activity in winter. Potassium concentration in males was lower in winter than in summer, whereas in females cholesterol concentration was lower in winter than in summer. Biochemical values that differed based on sex and season in bearded dragons were similar to those in other lizards. These differences reflect physiologic differences in reproductive status in females and seasonal changes in temperature and hydration status. Plasma biochemical values established for bearded dragons in this study will be useful in the diagnostic assessment of captive animals. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  15. Becoming Dragon: a mixed reality durational performance in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Micha; Head, Christopher; Margolis, Todd; Greco, Kael

    2009-02-01

    The goal for Becoming Dragon was to develop a working, immersive Mixed Reality system by using a motion capture system and head mounted display to control a character in Second Life - a Massively Multiplayer Online 3D environment - in order to examine a number of questions regarding identity, gender and the transformative potential of technology. This performance was accomplished through a collaboration between Micha Cardenas, the performer and technical director, Christopher Head, Kael Greco, Benjamin Lotan, Anna Storelli and Elle Mehrmand. The plan for this project was to model the performer's physical environment to enable them to live in the virtual environment for extended amounts of time, using an approach of Mixed Reality, where the physical world is mapped into the virtual. I remain critical of the concept of Mixed Reality, as it presents an idea of realities as totalities and as objective essences independent of interpretation through the symbolic order. Part of my goal with this project is to explore identity as a process of social feedback, in the sense that Donna Haraway describes "becoming with"iii, as well as to explore the concept of Reality Spectrum that Augmentology.com discusses, thinking about states such as AFK (Away From Keyboard) that are in-between virtual and corporeal presence.iv Both of these ideas are ways of overcoming the dualisms of mind/body, real/virtual and self/other that have been a problematic part of thinking about technology for so long. Towards thinking beyond these binaries, Anna Munster offers a concept of enfolding the body and technologyv, building on Gilles Deleuze's notion of the baroque fold. She says "the superfold... opens up for us a twisted topology of code folding back upon itself without determinate start or end points: we now live in a time and space in which body and information are thoroughly imbricated."vi She elaborates on this notion of body and code as becoming with each other saying "the incorporeal

  16. Melt extraction and mantle source at a Southwest Indian Ridge Dragon Bone amagmatic segment on the Marion Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changgui; Dick, Henry J. B.; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Huaiyang

    2016-03-01

    This paper works on the trace and major element compositions of spatially associated basalts and peridotites from the Dragon Bone amagmatic ridge segment at the eastern flank of the Marion Platform on the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge. The rare earth element compositions of basalts do not match the pre-alteration Dragon Bone peridotite compositions, but can be modeled by about 5 to 10% non-modal batch equilibrium melting from a DMM source. The Dragon Bone peridotites are clinopyroxene-poor harzburgite with average spinel Cr# ~ 27.7. The spinel Cr# indicates a moderate degree of melting. However, CaO and Al2O3 of the peridotites are lower than other abyssal peridotites at the same Mg# and extent of melting. This requires a pyroxene-poor initial mantle source composition compared to either hypothetical primitive upper mantle or depleted MORB mantle sources. We suggest a hydrous melting of the initial Dragon Bone mantle source, as wet melting depletes pyroxene faster than dry. According to the rare earth element patterns, the Dragon Bone peridotites are divided into two groups. Heavy REE in Group 1 are extremely fractionated from middle REE, which can be modeled by ~ 7% fractional melting in the garnet stability field and another ~ 12.5 to 13.5% in the spinel stability field from depleted and primitive upper mantle sources, respectively. Heavy REE in Group 2 are slightly fractionated from middle REE, which can be modeled by ~ 15 to 20% fractional melting in the spinel stability field from a depleted mantle source. Both groups show similar melting degree to other abyssal peridotites. If all the melt extraction occurred at the middle oceanic ridge where the peridotites were dredged, a normal ~ 6 km thick oceanic crust is expected at the Dragon Bone segment. However, the Dragon Bone peridotites are exposed in an amagmatic ridge segment where only scattered pillow basalts lie on a partially serpentinized mantle pavement. Thus their depletion requires an

  17. Predictability of the Power Output of Three Wave Energy Technologies in the Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Jensen, N. E. Helstrup; Sørensen, H. C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses an important challenge ahead the integration of the electricity generated by wave energy conversion technologies into the electric grid. Particularly, it looks into the role of wave energy within the day-ahead electricity market. For that the predictability of the theoretical...... of the study is to provide an indication on the accuracy of the forecast of i) wave parameters, ii) the normalised theoretical power productions from each of the selected technologies (Pelamis, Wave Dragon and Wavestar), and iii) the normalised theoretical power production of a combination of the three devices......, during a very energetic time period. Results show that for the 12 to 36 hours time horizon forecast, the accuracy in the predictions (in terms of scatter index) of the significant wave height, zero crossing period and wave power are 22%, 11% and 68%, respectively; and the accuracy in the predictions...

  18. Assessing DRAGON Measurements for Evaluation and Assimilation in the GEOS-5 Aerosol Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A.; Colarco, P. R.; Darmenov, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    GEOS-5 is the latest version of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) earth system model. GEOS-5 contains components for atmospheric circulation and composition (including data assimilation), ocean circulation and biogeochemistry, and land surface processes. In addition to traditional meteorological parameters, GEOS-5 includes modules representing the atmospheric composition, most notably aerosols and tropospheric/stratospheric chemical constituents, taking explicit account of the impact of these constituents on the radiative processes of the atmosphere. The assimilation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in GEOS-5 involves very careful cloud screening and homogenization of the observing system by means of a Neural Net scheme that translates MODIS radiances into AERONET calibrated AOD. These measurements are further quality controlled using an adaptive buddy check scheme, and assimilated using the Local Displacement Ensemble (LDE) methodology. The near real-time GEOS-5 aerosol forecasting system runs at a nominal 25km horizontal resolution with 72 vertical layers (top at ~85km). GEOS-5 is driven by daily biomass burning emissions derived from MODIS fire radiative power retrievals. In this talk we will utilize aerosol measurements from the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) to evaluate the temporal and spatial distribution of aerosols in GEOS-5. While NRT assimilation of MODIS optical depth observations constrains the GEOS-5 aerosol distributions during satellite overpasses, the diurnal cycle, mixing state and optical properties are internally determined by the model parameterizations and require careful validation. By combining DRAGON with other in-situ and remotely sensed measurements from the DISCOVER-AQ and SEAC4RS field campaigns we will present a comprehensive evaluation of the GEOS-5 aerosol state, and examine the impact of assimilating the DRAGON measurements on the quality of the GEOS-5 analysis and forecasts

  19. Autovaccination confers protection against Devriesea agamarum associated septicemia but not dermatitis in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hellebuyck

    Full Text Available Devrieseasis caused by Devriesea agamarum is a highly prevalent disease in captive desert lizards, resulting in severe dermatitis and in some cases mass mortality. In this study, we assessed the contribution of autovaccination to devrieseasis control by evaluating the capacity of 5 different formalin-inactivated D. agamarum vaccines to induce a humoral immune response in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps. Each vaccine contained one of the following adjuvants: CpG, incomplete Freund's, Ribi, aluminium hydroxide, or curdlan. Lizards were administrated one of the vaccines through subcutaneous injection and booster vaccination was given 3 weeks after primo-vaccination. An indirect ELISA was developed and used to monitor lizard serological responses. Localized adverse effects following subcutaneous immunization were observed in all but the Ribi adjuvanted vaccine group. Following homologous experimental challenge, the incomplete Freund's as well as the Ribi vaccine were observed to confer protection in bearded dragons against the development of D. agamarum associated septicemia but not against dermatitis. Subsequently, two-dimensional gelelectrophoresis followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry was conducted with serum obtained from 3 lizards that showed seroconversion after immunisation with the Ribi vaccine. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and aldo-keto reductase of D. agamarum reacted with serum from the latter lizards. Based on the demonstrated seroconversion and partial protection against D. agamarum associated disease following the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines as well as the identification of target antigens in Ribi vaccinated bearded dragons, this study provides promising information towards the development of a vaccination strategy to control devrieseasis in captive lizard collections.

  20. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: in vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2011-02-17

    Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f., with a view to develop safer food preservatives. In this study, three solvents of varying polarity were used to extract and separate the medium and high polarity compounds from the non-polar compounds of the Dragon's blood resin. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the food borne pathogens. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, FRAP, metal chelating and reducing power assays. Total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of extracts were also estimated using the standard methods. Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed high phenolic content in CH(2)Cl(2) extract of resin. Free radical scavenging of CH(2)Cl(2) extract was found to be highest which is in good correlation with its total phenolic content. All test microorganisms were also inhibited by CH(2)Cl(2) extract. Our result provide evidence that CH(2)Cl(2) extract is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and exhibited good inhibitory activity against various food borne pathogens. Thus, CH(2)Cl(2) extract of Dragon's blood resin could be considered as possible source of food preservative.

  1. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajinder K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f., with a view to develop safer food preservatives. Methods In this study, three solvents of varying polarity were used to extract and separate the medium and high polarity compounds from the non-polar compounds of the Dragon's blood resin. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the food borne pathogens. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, FRAP, metal chelating and reducing power assays. Total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of extracts were also estimated using the standard methods. Results Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed high phenolic content in CH2Cl2 extract of resin. Free radical scavenging of CH2Cl2 extract was found to be highest which is in good correlation with its total phenolic content. All test microorganisms were also inhibited by CH2Cl2 extract. Conclusions Our result provide evidence that CH2Cl2 extract is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and exhibited good inhibitory activity against various food borne pathogens. Thus, CH2Cl2 extract of Dragon's blood resin could be considered as possible source of food preservative.

  2. Autovaccination confers protection against Devriesea agamarum associated septicemia but not dermatitis in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Van Steendam, Katleen; Deforce, Dieter; Blooi, Mark; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bullaert, Evelien; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2014-01-01

    Devrieseasis caused by Devriesea agamarum is a highly prevalent disease in captive desert lizards, resulting in severe dermatitis and in some cases mass mortality. In this study, we assessed the contribution of autovaccination to devrieseasis control by evaluating the capacity of 5 different formalin-inactivated D. agamarum vaccines to induce a humoral immune response in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Each vaccine contained one of the following adjuvants: CpG, incomplete Freund's, Ribi, aluminium hydroxide, or curdlan. Lizards were administrated one of the vaccines through subcutaneous injection and booster vaccination was given 3 weeks after primo-vaccination. An indirect ELISA was developed and used to monitor lizard serological responses. Localized adverse effects following subcutaneous immunization were observed in all but the Ribi adjuvanted vaccine group. Following homologous experimental challenge, the incomplete Freund's as well as the Ribi vaccine were observed to confer protection in bearded dragons against the development of D. agamarum associated septicemia but not against dermatitis. Subsequently, two-dimensional gelelectrophoresis followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry was conducted with serum obtained from 3 lizards that showed seroconversion after immunisation with the Ribi vaccine. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and aldo-keto reductase of D. agamarum reacted with serum from the latter lizards. Based on the demonstrated seroconversion and partial protection against D. agamarum associated disease following the use of formalin-inactivated vaccines as well as the identification of target antigens in Ribi vaccinated bearded dragons, this study provides promising information towards the development of a vaccination strategy to control devrieseasis in captive lizard collections.

  3. Cholelithiasis in adult bearded dragons: retrospective study of nine adult bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) with cholelithiasis between 2013 and 2015 in southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmel, A; Kempf, H; Öfner, S; Müller, D; Liesegang, A

    2017-06-01

    With an increased number of pet reptiles, many diseases occur due to nutritional disorders. Between 2013 and 2015, irregular gallbladder contents (sludge/choleliths) in adult bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were recorded in many of the routinely conducted necropsies at the reptile rescue station in Munich (Auffangstation für Reptilien, München e.V., Munich, Germany). Nine animals, six from the rescue station and three from an associated veterinary practice (Tierärztliche Praxis für Exoten, Augsburg, Germany), were studied. Gallbladder contents from all animals were analysed at the Institute for Clinical Chemistry in Zurich, Switzerland. In three of nine animals, one cholelith composed of 100% calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) was detected and it precipitated either as pure calcite or as a calcite:vaterite combination. In the remaining six animals, analyses suggested a protein-based material. The detection of choleliths/sludge was not anticipated at necropsy or surgery in eight of nine animals. The diet of the six animals from the rescue station was retrospectively described as mainly insects, whereas the diet of the three animals from the veterinary practice also contained little plant matter. Fed insect species were mealworm larva (Tenebrio molitor), house cricket (Acheta domestica), migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) and zophobas larva (Zophobas morio), all high in protein and fat. In other species, a nidus must be present for CaCO3 to precipitate. As a protein-based sludge was detected in six gallbladders, it is possible that a high-protein diet could lead to such a nidus and subsequently to cholelith formation. Cholelithiasis seems to be a rising problem in adult bearded dragons and is likely underdiagnosed, as many choleliths were found at necropsy. This rise in cholelithiasis may correlate with an unnatural high-protein, high-fat insect-based diet instead of a balanced plant-based diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell

  4. The origins of dragon-kings and their occurrence in society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Artemy; Zinkina, Julia; Korotayev, Andrey

    2012-11-01

    A society is a medium with a complex structure of one-to-one relations between people. Those could be relations between friends, wife-husband relationships, relations between business partners, and so on. At a certain level of analysis, a society can be regarded as a gigantic maze constituted of one-to-one relationships between people. From a physical standpoint it can be considered as a highly porous medium. Such media are widely known for their outstanding properties and effects like self-organized criticality, percolation, power-law distribution of network cluster sizes, etc. In these media supercritical events, referred to as dragon-kings, may occur in two cases: when increasing stress is applied to a system (self-organized criticality scenario) or when increasing conductivity of a system is observed (percolation scenario). In social applications the first scenario is typical for negative effects: crises, wars, revolutions, financial breakdowns, state collapses, etc. The second scenario is more typical for positive effects like emergence of cities, growth of firms, population blow-ups, economic miracles, technology diffusion, social network formation, etc. If both conditions (increasing stress and increasing conductivity) are observed together, then absolutely miraculous dragon-king effects can occur that involve most human society. Historical examples of this effect are the emergence of the Mongol Empire, world religions, World War II, and the explosive proliferation of global internet services. This article describes these two scenarios in detail beginning with an overview of historical dragon-king events and phenomena starting from the early human history till the last decades and concluding with an analysis of their possible near future consequences on our global society. Thus we demonstrate that in social systems dragon-king is not a random outlier unexplainable by power-law statistics, but a natural effect. It is a very large cluster in a porous

  5. The Application of Dragon Fruit Peels as a Dye in Red Velvet Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Dianka Wahyuningtias

    2015-01-01

    Red Dragon fruit peel that has a high antioxidant content is very useful and suitable processed into natural coloring in household industry are easily processed. One product to apply it is the Red Velvet Cake. Red Velvet Cake is basically uses natural coloring from the bits fruit and instant food coloring. This discussion will create a research that is attempting to replace the instant food coloring and natural food coloring from the bit that is commonly used in Red Velvet Cake by making use ...

  6. 血竭的现代研究%Modern Research of Dragon's Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军霞; 邱碧菡; 潘林梅; 卞凌

    2011-01-01

    @@ 血竭(Dragon's Blood),又名麒麟竭,为传统名贵中药,始载于,为中医常用的活血散瘀和止血药.主要来源于棕榈科黄藤属Daemonorops和百合科龙血树属Dracaena 10多种植物的树脂,长期以来以进口为主.龙血竭为血竭的替代品,二者功效基本一致,作为国产血竭使用.

  7. Three new flavanoids from artificially induced dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Xiang; Wang, Hui; Gai, Cui-Juan; Chen, Hui-Qin; Li, Wei; Mei, Wen-Li; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2017-06-09

    Three new flavanoids, (2R)-7,4'-dihydroxy-8-methylflavan (1), (2R)-7,4'-dihydroxy-6-methylflavan (2), and (3R)-7,3',4'-trihydroxyhomoisoflavan (3), together with seven known compounds (4-10), were isolated from artificially induced dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana, and their structures were determined based on HR-ESI-MS and extensive spectroscopic techniques (UV, IR, 1D-, and 2D-NMR). Compound 2 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against BEL-7402 cells line with the IC50 value of 39.2 μM. In addition, compound 3 showed significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity.

  8. Antibacterial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum of phenolic constituents isolated from dragon's blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu; Mei, Wenli

    2013-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a worldwide and devastating plant pathogen infesting over 200 host species. Synthetic bactericides against the pathogen have only achieved limited success and always cause both crop contamination and environmental pollution. However, natural bactericides are effective for protecting cultivated crops from destruction by disease, without the adverse effects of chemical bactericides. In this paper, fifteen phenolic constituents from dragon's blood were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Ralstonia solanacearum, and all exhibited inhibitory activity. These compounds are potential leading compounds for the development of bactericides against wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum.

  9. A double sided silicon strip detector as a DRAGON end detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wrede, C; Rogers, J G; D'Auria, J M

    2003-01-01

    The new DRAGON facility (detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions), located at the TRlUMF-ISAC Radioactive Beams facility in Vancouver, Canada is now operational. This facility is used to study radiative proton capture reactions in inverse kinematics (heavy ion beam onto a light gaseous target) with both stable beams and radioactive beams of mass A=13-26 in the energy range 0.15-1.5 MeV/u. A double sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD) has been used to detect recoil ions. Tests have been performed to determine the performance of this DSSSD.

  10. Validation of a thermal threshold nociceptive model in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Émilie L; Monteiro, Beatriz P; Aymen, Jessica; Troncy, Eric; Steagall, Paulo V

    2017-05-01

    To validate a thermal threshold (TT) nociceptive model in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) and to document TT changes after administration of morphine. A two-part randomized, blinded, controlled, experimental study. Five adult bearded dragons (242-396 g). A TT device delivered a ramped nociceptive stimulus (0.6 °C second(-1)) to the medial thigh until a response (leg kick/escape behavior) was observed or maximum (cut-off) temperature of 62 °C was reached. In phase I, period 1, six TT readings were determined at 20 minute intervals for evaluation of repeatability. Two of these readings were randomly assigned to be sham to assess specificity of the behavioral response. The same experiment was repeated 2 weeks later (period 2) to test reproducibility. In phase II, animals were administered either intramuscular morphine (10 mg kg(-1)) or saline 0.9%. TTs (maximum 68 °C) were determined before and 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after treatment administration. Data were analyzed using one-way anova (temporal changes and repeatability) and paired t tests (reproducibility and treatment comparisons) using Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05). Mean TT values were 57.4 ± 3.8 °C and 57.3 ± 4.3 °C for periods 1 and 2, respectively. Data were repeatable within each period (p = 0.83 and p = 0.07, respectively). Reproducibility between periods was remarkable (p = 0.86). False-positive responses during sham testing were 10%. TTs were significantly increased after morphine administration at 2, 4 and 8 hours compared with baseline, and at 2 and 4 hours compared with saline 0.9%. The highest TT was 67.7 ± 0.7 °C at 4 hours after morphine administration. Testing was repeatable, reproducible and well tolerated in bearded dragons. TT nociceptive testing detected morphine administration and may be suitable for studying opioid regimens in bearded dragons. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and

  11. Modulation of dragon's blood on tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons and identification of its material basis for efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangming; Chen, Su; Zhang, Yuxia; Zhang, Fan

    2006-06-01

    To clarify the modulation of dragon's blood on the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and explore its corresponding material basis for the efficacy, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, the effects of dragon's blood and the combined effects of three components (cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B) extracted from dragon's blood on the TTX-R sodium currents in acute-isolated DRG neurons of rats were observed. According to the operational definition of material basis for the efficacy of TCM established, the material basis of the modulation on the TTX-R sodium currents in DRG neurons of dragon's blood was judged from the experimental results. The drug interaction equation of Greco et al. was used to assess the interaction of the three components extracted from dragon's blood. This investigation demonstrated that dragon's blood suppressed the peak TTX-R sodium currents in a dose-dependent way and affected the activations of TTX-R sodium currents. The effects of the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B were in good agreement with those of dragon's blood. Although the three components used alone could modulate TTX-R sodium currents, the concentrations of the three components used alone were respectively higher than those used in combination when the inhibition rates on the TTX-R sodium currents of them used alone and in combination were the same. The combined effects of the three components were synergistic. These results suggested that the interference with pain messages caused by the modulation of dragon's blood on TTX-R sodium currents in DRG neurons may explain some of the analgesic effect of dragon's blood and the corresponding material basis for the efficacy is the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B.

  12. Modulation of dragon's blood on tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons and identification of its material basis for efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xiangming; CHEN; Su; ZHANG; Yuxia

    2006-01-01

    To clarify the modulation of dragon's blood on the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and explore its corresponding material basis for the efficacy, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, the effects of dragon's blood and the combined effects of three components (cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B) extracted from dragon's blood on the TTX-R sodium currents in acute-isolated DRG neurons of rats were observed. According to the operational definition of material basis for the efficacy of TCM established, the material basis of the modulation on the TTX-R sodium currents in DRG neurons of dragon's blood was judged from the experimental results. The drug interaction equation of Greco et al. was used to assess the interaction of the three components extracted from dragon's blood. This investigation demonstrated that dragon's blood suppressed the peak TTX-R sodium currents in a dose-dependent way and affected the activations of TTX-R sodium currents. The effects of the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B were in good agreement with those of dragon's blood. Although the three components used alone could modulate TTX-R sodium currents, the concentrations of the three components used alone were respectively higher than those used in combination when the inhibition rates on the TTX-R sodium currents of them used alone and in combination were the same. The combined effects of the three components were synergistic. These results suggested that the interference with pain messages caused by the modulation of dragon's blood on TTX-R sodium currents in DRG neurons may explain some of the analgesic effect of dragon's blood and the corresponding material basis for the efficacy is the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B.

  13. Using Paraffin with -10 deg C to 10 deg C Melting Point for Payload Thermal Energy Storage in SpaceX Dragon Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using paraffin wax phase change material (PCM) with a melting point between -10 deg C and 10 deg C for payload thermal energy storage in a Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) Dragon trunk is presented. It overcomes the problem of limited heater power available to a payload with significant radiators when the Dragon is berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). It stores adequate thermal energy to keep a payload warm without power for 6 hours during the transfer from the Dragon to an ExPRESS logistics carrier (ELC) on the ISS.

  14. Dining in the lions� den � Bel and the dragon, verses 28�42 (Old Greek/Theodotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. de Bruyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a series of articles written on Bel and the dragon. This series of articles is an investigation into the Greek editor/author�s use of body, space, narrative and genre in creating a new reality regarding the Jewish deity. A spatial framework is used to specifically examine the third episode of Bel and the dragon, entitled Dining in the lions� den. It is suggested that the third episode of Bel and the dragon should be read in a reciprocal relationship with not only Bel and the dragon but also the larger book of Daniel. Firstly, such an analysis indicates that the smaller episode is part of a larger clash of deities. Secondly, it shows that the editor/ author utilises the episode to recreate a new cosmology. In this new cosmology, the God of Israel is an almighty deity whilst other deities are revealed as false and not real living gods. In his own way, the editor/author contributes to the way in which Jews regarded their God within the reality of the diaspora.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The aim with this article was to analyse Daniel 14 by means of new insights from developments in language studies. Until now, scholars tended to repeat each other in their analysis of Daniel 14. No attention was given to space, body or other aspects of new developments in the field of language. This article challenges the repetitive research previously done on Daniel 14.

  15. The Dragon in School Backyards: The Influence of Mandated Testing on School Contexts and Educators' Narrative Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2004-01-01

    Researched in the narrative inquiry tradition, this article examines the influence of state-mandated accountability testing on Eagle High School's dramatically shifting context and the embodied knowledge held and expressed by principal, Henry Richards, and the Eagle teachers. Through carefully unpacking Richards's dragon in school backyards…

  16. Design and commissioning of a timestamp-based data acquisition system for the DRAGON recoil mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, G.; Fallis, J.; Hutcheon, D.; Olchanski, K.; Ruiz, C. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); Akers, C. [TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada); University of York, Department of Physics, Heslington, York (United Kingdom); Connolly, D. [Colorado School of Mines, Department of Physics, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The DRAGON recoil mass separator at TRIUMF exists to study radiative proton and alpha capture reactions, which are important in a variety of astrophysical scenarios. DRAGON experiments require a data acquisition system that can be triggered on either reaction product (γ-ray or heavy ion), with the additional requirement of being able to promptly recognize coincidence events in an online environment. To this end, we have designed and implemented a new data acquisition system for DRAGON, which consists of two independently triggered readouts. Events from both systems are recorded with timestamps from a 20 MHz clock that are used to tag coincidences in the earliest possible stage of the data analysis. Here we report on the design, implementation, and commissioning of the new DRAGON data acquisition system, including the hardware, trigger logic, coincidence reconstruction algorithm, and live time considerations. We also discuss the results of an experiment commissioning the new system, which measured the strength of the E{sub c.m.} = 1113 keV resonance in the {sup 20} Ne(p, γ){sup 21} Na radiative proton capture reaction. (orig.)

  17. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dr

  18. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, Guido; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936; Kik, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/080432565

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded

  19. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P < 0.0088 and 0.0016, respectively), values were within the reference range. Plasma ionized Ca tended (P = 0.0525) to decrease during the study. Adult female bearded dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genotype differentiation of Agamid Adenovirus 1 in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) in the USA by hexon gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Derek B; Archer, Linda L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2009-07-01

    Bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) are popular pets in the United States. Agamid Adenovirus 1 (AgAdV1) is an important infectious agent of bearded dragons. The only AgAdV1 sequences available to date are from a highly conserved region of the DNA polymerase gene. Degenerate primers were designed to amplify a variable region of the AgAdV1 hexon gene for sequencing. Genetic differences were identified within the hexon gene of 17 bearded dragons from 4 collections. Much less diversity was present in the polymerase gene. Bayesian analysis of the hexon nucleotide alignment identified two larger groups and two isolates that did not tightly cluster with these two groups. Multiple genotypes were identified within collections, and individual genotypes were seen in different collections. Three bearded dragons appeared to be infected by multiple strains. These findings show that this hexon region is useful for AgAdV1 genotyping, which can be used epidemiologically as well as in future investigations of AgAdV1 evolution and clinical implications of strain differences.

  1. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Wal, van de M.D.; Bosch, G.; Stumpel, J.B.G.; Heijboer, A.C.; Leeuwen, van J.P.T.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Kik, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded

  2. Behavior of Salmonella spp. and natural microbiota on fresh-cut dragon fruits at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hui Li; Hong, Yoon-Ki; Yoon, Won Byong; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine survival or growth of unadapted, acid-adapted and cold-stressed Salmonella spp., and natural microbiota on fresh-cut dragon fruits at different storage temperatures. Dragon fruits were sliced and spot inoculated with five-strain cocktail of Salmonella spp. at two inoculum levels (2.5 or 5.5 log CFU/g). Inoculated fruits were stored at 28°C for 48h and at 4°C and 12°C for 96 h. Salmonella population significantly increased by 2.4 to 3.0 log CFU/g at low inoculum level, whereas the numbers increased by 0.4 to 0.7 log CFU/g at the high inoculum level on fruits held at 28°C for 48h. Only unadapted and acid-adapted cells grew with 0.7 to 0.9log increase at the low inoculum level at 12°C for 96h. No significant growth was observed at both inoculum levels during storage at 4°C. Overall, acid, starved and cold adaptation of Salmonella spp. did not show significant difference in survival or growth on fresh-cut dragon fruits during storage compared to unadapted control cells. For natural microbiota on the fruit, mesophilic bacterial counts reached to 5-log CFU/g at 28 and 12°C by 9.9 and 52.9h. Similar with Salmonella spp. there was no growth of natural microbiota at 4°C. These results showed that Salmonella spp. could grow on fresh-cut dragon fruits under inappropriate storage conditions, indicating that fresh-cut dragon fruits could be a potential vehicle for salmonellosis. Thus, this study suggests that fresh-cut dragon fruits should be stored at 4°C to ensure the safety as well as to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut dragon fruits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Deathly drool: evolutionary and ecological basis of septic bacteria in Komodo dragon mouths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J J Bull

    Full Text Available Komodo dragons, the world's largest lizard, dispatch their large ungulate prey by biting and tearing flesh. If a prey escapes, oral bacteria inoculated into the wound reputedly induce a sepsis that augments later prey capture by the same or other lizards. However, the ecological and evolutionary basis of sepsis in Komodo prey acquisition is controversial. Two models have been proposed. The "bacteria as venom" model postulates that the oral flora directly benefits the lizard in prey capture irrespective of any benefit to the bacteria. The "passive acquisition" model is that the oral flora of lizards reflects the bacteria found in carrion and sick prey, with no relevance to the ability to induce sepsis in subsequent prey. A third model is proposed and analyzed here, the "lizard-lizard epidemic" model. In this model, bacteria are spread indirectly from one lizard mouth to another. Prey escaping an initial attack act as vectors in infecting new lizards. This model requires specific life history characteristics and ways to refute the model based on these characteristics are proposed and tested. Dragon life histories (some details of which are reported here prove remarkably consistent with the model, especially that multiple, unrelated lizards feed communally on large carcasses and that escaping, wounded prey are ultimately fed on by other lizards. The identities and evolutionary histories of bacteria in the oral flora may yield the most useful additional insights for further testing the epidemic model and can now be obtained with new technologies.

  4. Comparative of Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Four Commercial Mandarin Cultivars on 'Flying Dragon' Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abedi Gheshlaghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Flying dragon' is one of the citrus rootstocks that are considered to be a promised dwarfing rootstock in the world. This experiment was conducted in the Astara research station for study of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of 4 mandarin cultivars (Unshiu, Clementine, Page, and Yunesi budded on 'Flying dragon'. This experiment was carried out with four cultivars in randomized complete bloke design (RCBD with three replications. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of fruits, as well as vegetative traits were recorded and analyzed for 3, 6 and 1 years, respectively. The highest yield was observed on Yunesi cultivar in the final year of experiments and the lowest yield was on Unshiu cultivar in the fifth year. TSS/TA and means of fruit weight were affected by interaction of year and cultivar. The highest means of fruit weight was on Yunesi in the years of 85 and the highest TSS/TA was in years of 88 on Clementine cultivar. The highest alternate bearing index obtained in years of 88 on the Unshiu cultivar and the lowest that was on the Page cultivar. The highest yield efficiency, cumulative yield and plant height were observed on Yunesi cultivar, and the highest width and canopy of tree were on Unshiu cultivar. The lowest yield and tree size were on Page cultivar.

  5. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  6. [Determination of loureirin A and loureirin B in dragon's blood by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueying; Hu, Xufang; Li, Fei; Wang, Xinghong; Cao, Qiue

    2012-05-01

    A capillary zone electrophoresis method (CZE) for the simultaneous determination of loureirin A and loureirin B was developed based on the optimized conditions of the pH, composition and concentration of the running buffer solution. Loureirin A and loureirin B were separated and determined effectively within 15 min in a running buffer solution of 20 mmol/L Na2B4O7 (pH 9.98 adjusted with NaOH solution) containing 10.0% (v/v) acetonitrile, 5.0% (v/v) ethylene glycol and 1.0% (v/v) butanol, with the applied voltage of 20 kV, capillary temperature of 25 degrees C, detection wavelength of 211 nm, and injection of 5 s at 3447 Pa. The linear ranges for the determination of loureirin A and loureirin B were 1.00-100 mg/L and 0.50-100 mg/L, respectively. The determination of loureirin A and loureirin B in dragon's blood from natural and artificial inoculation was performed by the proposed method. The relative standard deviations for the determination of the two constituents in samples were from 0.6% to 3.8%, and the recoveries ranged between 95.1% and 105.8%. The method is simple, rapid and possesses higher reproducibility and efficiency. It can be used for the determination of loureirin A and loureirin B in dragon's blood.

  7. Digit ratio, color polymorphism and egg testosterone in the Australian painted dragon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tobler

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to sex hormones during early development contributes to phenotypic plasticity in vertebrate offspring. As a proposed marker for prenatal sex hormone exposure and because of their association with various physiological and behavioral characteristics, digit ratio and/or digit length have received notable interest within the field of evolutionary ecology. However, the validity of digit measures as a proxy of prenatal sex hormone exposure is controversial and only few studies have provided direct evidence for the link between digit development and prenatal sex hormones. Here, we report morph- and sex-specific variation in digit ratio in wild painted dragon lizards (Ctenophorus pictus. Lizards expressing a yellow bib have significantly larger third-to-fourth toe ratios (3D:4D than lizards without a bib. Males have significantly smaller 3D:4D than females. Furthermore, we show that experimental elevation of yolk testosterone significantly increases 3D:4D in hatchling painted dragon lizards, but has no influence on hatchling size. Our results provide direct and indirect evidence for the involvement of prenatal sex steroids in digit development and it is suggested that digit ratio may be used as a biomarker for prenatal steroid exposure in this reptilian species. As such, digit ratio may provide a useful tool to study temporal or spatial differences in the proximate hormonal mechanisms modulating physiological and behavioural phenotypes.

  8. Here There Be Dragons: Characterization of ACS/WFC Scattered Light Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, Blair; Coe, Dan A.; ACS

    2016-01-01

    We present a study characterizing scattered light anomalies that occur around the edge of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC). The study is based on all full-frame WFC raw images ever produced by ACS. Using the 2MASS catalog, we identified stars outside of the ACS/WFC field of view which cause two particular scattered light artifacts known as "dragon's breath" and edge glow. We determined which regions around the chip the stars must fall in to cause dragons breath to occur and characterized the amount of stellar flux received during an integration (expressed in instrumental magnitudes) needed to cause scattering. We have completed this study for the ACS F606W and F814W filters. We provide a map of risky areas around the ACS chips and an upper limit of magnitudes to be concerned about. We will use these results to develop interactive tools that will aid the astronomical community in the proposal process for ACS/WFC.

  9. Dragon Boat training exerts a positive effect on myocardial function in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Laura; Galanti, Giorgio; Di Tante, Valentina; Klika, Riggs J; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-07-01

    Dragon Boat training is often suggested to control upper limb edema in breast cancer (BC) survivors, but little information is available regarding the cardiac impact of such activity. The present study evaluates this aspect during a 4-year follow-up of BC survivors. From 2006 to 2010, 55 women diagnosed with BC in 2005, treated with adjuvant therapy without evidence of metastases, were enrolled for competitive Dragon Boat training. They underwent ergometric tests yearly, and 2D echocardiography to evaluate hemodynamic, morphological and functional cardiac parameters. The data were compared with those from a group of 36 healthy women (HW). Both groups maintained normal systolic function throughout the period, with Cardiac Mass index, Body Mass Index and Ejection Fraction values being higher in HW. At the onset of the study, the diastolic function of BC survivors was normal though compatible with initial diastolic dysfunction when compared to the diastolic function of HW. After 4 years of competitive activity, the diastolic parameters improved in both groups and particularly in BC survivors (A peak: from 68.5 ± 15.1 cm/s to 50 ± 14.1 cm/s, p sport activity in myocardial function of BC survivors.

  10. Ranavirus in an outbreak of dermatophilosis in captive inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamukai, Kenichi; Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hideki; Une, Yumi

    2016-04-01

    Various pathogens cause skin diseases in lizards. An outbreak of skin disease occurred in a population of 100 inland bearded dragons at a breeding facility in Japan; 50 developed skin lesions and 15 mortalities were reported. To identify the pathogens responsible for the skin lesions and to determine the cause of death. Eight specimens (three dead, two euthanized, three living) were randomly selected from a group of inland bearded dragons with skin lesions consisting of multifocal superficial dermatitis. Biopsy samples were taken from skin lesions and healthy skin of the live specimens. Postmortem examinations were performed on the dead and euthanized specimens. Skin samples were processed for microbiological culture, 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing for bacteria, ranavirus major capsid protein (MCP) gene sequencing and histopathological examination. Histopathological examinations were also performed on postmortem tissue samples. Both Austwickia chelonae and ranavirus (DNA) were detected in the skin lesions. Pathological examination revealed no significant visceral lesions caused by A. chelonae or ranavirus infection in dead specimens. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report of dermatophilosis due to A. chelonae infection in lizards and the first description of a concurrent infection with a ranavirus. The combined infection associated with the skin lesions may have been the primary cause of death. Co-infection with a ranavirus should be considered as a possible factor in cases of reptilian dermatophilosis. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. A description of Isospora amphiboluri (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the inland bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Sauria: Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Jacobson, E R; Kopit, W

    1995-04-01

    Fecal samples from 50 captive inland bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps (Ahl, 1926), bred in California, were examined for coccidian parasites. Sixteen (32%) of the lizards were found to be passing oocysts of Isospora amphiboluri Cannon, 1967, previously described from bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829) from Australia. Sporulated oocytes were spherical to subspherical, 25.3 x 25.1 (23-26 x 23-26) microns, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.0 (1.0-1.1). A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. Sporocyts were ovoidal, 17.0 x 11.4 (16-18 x 11-12) microns, with a shape index of 1.5 (1.4-1.7). A sporocyst residuum, Stieda, and substieda bodies were present, but parastieda bodies were absent. Sporozoites were elongated, 13.9 x 3.5 (12-15 x 3-4) microns in situ, containing spherical anterior and posterior refractile bodies. The occurrence of I. amphiboluri in P. vitticeps is a new host and geographic record for the parasite. Photomicrographs of the oocysts and endogenous life cycle stages of I. amphiboluri are presented for the first time.

  12. Comparison of the Import and Chinese Dragon's Blood%进口血竭与国内血竭的研究对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石聪; 于浩飞; 胡炜彦; 张荣平

    2011-01-01

    Dragon' blood is a kind of traditional valuable Chinese herbal medicine of our country. It is widely used all over the world. In this paper, we have compared the imported and Chinese dragon's blood in plant source and biological characteristics plant source and biological characteristics, in our country we called dragon's blood "Chinese dragon's blood" and we offer several simple methods on the identification of dragon's blood. Although the import and Chinese blood have different on the Chemical composition but similar in the pharmacologic actions, Chinese dragon's can completely replace imported dragon's blood on the clinical use. There is a lot of different dragon's blood dosage forms appeared on our market According to the dragon's blood resources in the endangered condition now, we need to strengthen the dragon 'blood resources protection consciousness, and make the dragon's blood resources can be sustainable utilization.%血竭是我国传统名贵中药,在世界各地广泛使用.本文对进口血竭与国产血竭在植物基源及生物学特征进行了比较,我们又把国内血竭称为“龙血竭”,并对血竭真伪的鉴别提供了几种简单的方法.进口与国产的血竭虽然在化学成分上有很大不同,但是药理作用很相似,所以我国的龙血竭完全可以替代进口血竭在临床上使用,市场上出现了很多不同的血竭剂型.针对现在国内外血竭资源的处于濒危的状况,我们需要增强血竭资源保护意识,使血竭资源能可持续利用.

  13. Regional and local variations in atmospheric aerosols using ground-based sun photometry during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo; Nakata, Makiko; Holben, Brent N.

    2016-11-01

    Aerosol mass concentrations are affected by local emissions as well as long-range transboundary (LRT) aerosols. This work investigates regional and local variations of aerosols based on Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON). We constructed DRAGON-Japan and DRAGON-Osaka in spring of 2012. The former network covers almost all of Japan in order to obtain aerosol information in regional scale over Japanese islands. It was determined from the DRAGON-Japan campaign that the values of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) decrease from west to east during an aerosol episode. In fact, the highest AOT was recorded at Fukue Island at the western end of the network, and the value was much higher than that of urban areas. The latter network (DRAGON-Osaka) was set as a dense instrument network in the megalopolis of Osaka, with a population of 12 million, to better understand local aerosol dynamics in urban areas. AOT was further measured with a mobile sun photometer attached to a car. This transect information showed that aerosol concentrations rapidly changed in time and space together when most of the Osaka area was covered with moderate LRT aerosols. The combined use of the dense instrument network (DRAGON-Osaka) and high-frequency measurements provides the motion of aerosol advection, which coincides with the wind vector around the layer between 700 and 850 hPa as provided by the reanalysis data of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP).

  14. CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF DRAGON FRUIT EXTRACT SKIN BETACYANIN OF HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS AND HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS WITH TEST OF STABILITY ORGANOLEPTIC JELLY AS ATLAS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutut Puji Lestari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dragon fruit Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus are familiy of cactus, grown in Malang. The high consumption of dragon fruit, have an impact on the fruit skin buildup that simply disposed of as trash. Dragon fruit skin is known to have a source of natural red dye, which is Betacyanin. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the dragon fruit peel extract Betacyanin Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus as well as the stability of the organoleptic jelly, which will be developed into a learning materials atlas for class VIII Junior High School. The study was conducted in September-October 2015. The study was conducted in three stages. This type of research phase I and II is True Experimental, and phase III is development. The results of phase I shows that various concentrations of ethanol (70% and 90% have an effect on the characteristics of the extract Betacyanin skin dragon fruit Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus, but very significant effect on skin extract dragon fruit Hylocereus undatus the treatment of N2, EI at pH 4,5. Later in the phase II study results showed that different concentrations of extracts of the best Betacyanin significantly affect the organoleptic stability of jelly. The results of phase III is the development of phase I and II studies into Atlas media for 8th grade of Junior High School.

  15. EKSTRAKSI PEKTIN KULIT BUAH NAGA (Dragon fruit DAN APLIKASINYA SEBAGAI EDIBLE FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati -

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ekstraksi pektin kulit buah naga dilakukan menggunakan metode Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE dengan variasi berat bahan (10, 15, and 20 gram dan waktu ekstraksi (15, 20, and 25 minute. Ekstraksi dengan variasi berat bahan dilakukan pada waktu ekstraksi 25 menit dan daya 600 W, sedangkan ekstraksi dengan variasi waktu dilakukan pada berat bahan 10 gram dan daya 600 W. Pektin yang diperoleh dianalisis kadar pektinnya menggunakan uji Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR dan diproses menjadi edible film. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa yield pektin kulit buah naga  dengan metode MAE  lebih besar dibandingkan metode konvensional. Variasi berat bahan mempengaruhi yield pektin yang dihasilkan, semakin sedikit bahan yang digunakan dalam ekstraksi, semakin besar yield pektin kulit buah naga yang dihasilkan. Yield pektin terbesar (72 % dihasilkan pada variasi berat 10 gram. Variasi waktu ekstraksi juga memberikan pengaruh terhadap yield pektin, semakin lama waktu ekstraksi semakin besar yield pektin kulit buah naga yang dihasilkan. Yield pektin terbesar dihasilkan pada waktu ekstraksi 25 menit. Pektin hasil ekstraksi dapat digunakan sebagai bahan edible film. Extraction of pectinfrom dragon fruit peel is conducted using Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE method with the variation of the weight of the raw materials are 10, 15, and 20 gram and the time of the extraction are 15, 20 and 25 minutes. Extraction with the variation of the weight of raw material is conducted in 25 minutes using power of 600 W, whereas the extraction with the variation of time is conducted with 10 gram of raw material using power of 600 W. The obtained pectin was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR and processed into edible film. The result of the research shows that MAE method provides more yield of dragon fruit peel rather than the conventional method. The variation of the weight affecting the amount of the obtained pectin, the less material used in the

  16. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  17. Wave energy power take off system control and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhoul, Z.; Holland, P.M.; Igic, P. [Swansea Univ., Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom). School of Engineering; Knapp, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Munich (Germany); MacEnri, J. [ESB International, Dublin (Ireland); Srensen, H.Ch.; Friis-Madsen, E. [Wave Dragon APS and LTD, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The generation of electric power from wave energy using an offshore wave energy take-off system has received global interest. Several different wave energy take off techniques have been suggested. Among these, the Wave Dragon is one of the most efficient wave energy conversion systems. This paper presented a wave energy power take off system control and simulation scheme. The characteristics of low pressure hydro turbine were described. A variable speed control scheme using IGBT alternating current/direct current converter for low-head hydro-turbine was described in order to achieve maximum efficiency. The electrical system configuration, operation and grid connection issues were presented. Last, in order to investigate the long electro-mechanical process, a simulation model was developed for simulating the generator-turbine starting-stop process. The simulated parameters included the effects of the water head on the torque, speed and output power. Simulation results were presented and discussed. It was concluded that the proposed model is suitable for investigating the overall performance of a wave energy power take off system. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  18. Licensing and Environmental Issues of Wave Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Frank; Tedd, James; Prado, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    The major non-technical barrier for large-scale wave energy implementation is the wide range of licensing issues and potential environmental concerns, in addition to significant National/regional differences in licensing procedures and permit requirements. Whereas some pilot plants have had...... as concerning ocean space use and environmental concerns. Despite recent efforts to streamline European EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) in general, potential project developers are far from having a clear view of present and future requirements concerning these barriers on a trans-national level...... pilot plants and exemplary presents the ongoing permitting process of the Wave Dragon in Wales. Comments on future park-scale application issues are made based on the present situation in different countries....

  19. Dihydrochalcones and homoisoflavanes from the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Qin; Song, Yue-Lin; Zhang, Jing; Huo, Hui-Xia; Huang, Zheng; Zheng, Jiao; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yun-Fang; Xiao, Wei; Li, Jun; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-12-01

    Two new dihydrochalcones, 4-hydroxy-2,4'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (1) and 3,4'-dihydroxy-2,4,6-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (2), and a new homoisoflavane, 7,3'-dihydroxy-8,4'-dimethoxyhomoisoflavane (3), along with 12 known compounds (4-15), were isolated from the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Chinese dragon's blood). Their structures were assigned by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Diversity of cleavage pathways were proposed for dihydrochalcones and homoisoflavanes based on the mass spectroscopic behaviors of those identified compounds using hybrid ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. All the compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, and compound 9 exhibited mild inhibition of NO production in this assay with IC₅₀ value of 50.3 μM.

  20. Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V; Prakash Maran, J

    2014-11-04

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed for the extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. The extracting parameters were optimized by using four-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM). RSM analysis indicated good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. 3D response surface plots were used to study the interactive effects of process variables on extraction of pectin. The optimum extraction conditions for the maximum yield of pectin were power of 400 W, temperature of 45 °C, extracting time of 20 min and solid-liquid ratio of 24 g/mL. Under these conditions, 7.5% of pectin was extracted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microwave assisted extraction process of betalain from dragon fruit and its antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thirugnanasambandham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to optimize the operating parameters in microwave assisted extraction process (MIE such as temperature, mass of the sample, extraction time on the betalain content from dragon fruit peel using response surface methodology (RSM. Three factors three levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD was used for optimization and mathematical model development. Significant quadratic polynomial model was obtained (R2 = 0.9892 for betalain content with high coefficient determination value and numerical optimization was employed to achieve optimum conditions which was found to be; temperature of 35 °C, mass of the sample of 20 g, and treatment time of 8 min. Under these conditions, 9 mg/L of betalain content was obtained and it was validated using experimental values.

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AS TOOL TO VERIFY GENETIC VARIABILITY OF INTERSPECIFIC DRAGON FRUIT HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA DE CASTRO CORREIA DA SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT With recent cultivation in Brazil, the dragon fruit still have lacks related to the selection of promising materials and there are not yet commercial varieties in the country. Therefore, manual pollination cross were held in 2010, between plants of H. undatus x H. polyrhizus and H. undatus x H. setaceus. Aiming evaluate the genetic diversity of the progenies for future use in breeding program, based on cladodes characteristics, six characters were assessed: length and diameter of stem, distance between areoles, arch height, number and size of spines/areole. From the Euclidean distance matrix analysis was constructed a dendrogram by the UPGMA method. There was great variability among hybrids, and eight of them have shown promise for use in breeding program.

  3. Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2014-09-01

    Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

  4. Mechanistic origin of dragon-kings in a population of competing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.; Tivnan, B.

    2012-05-01

    We analyze the mechanistic origins of the extreme behaviors that arise in an idealized model of a population of competing agents, such as traders in a market. These extreme behaviors exhibit the defining characteristics of `dragon-kings'. Our model comprises heterogeneous agents who repeatedly compete for some limited resource, making binary choices based on the strategies that they have in their possession. It generalizes the well-known Minority Game by allowing agents whose strategies have not made accurate recent predictions, to step out of the competition until their strategies improve. This generates a complex dynamical interplay between the number V of active agents (mimicking market volume) and the imbalance D between the decisions made (mimicking excess demand). The wide spectrum of extreme behaviors which emerge, helps to explain why no unique relationship has been identified between the price and volume during real market crashes and rallies.

  5. Ageing and the cost of maintaining coloration in the Australian painted dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Friesen, Christopher R; Sudyka, Joanna; Rollings, Nicky; Whittington, Camilla M; Wilson, Mark R; Olsson, Mats

    2016-07-01

    There is now good evidence in several taxa that animal coloration positively reflects an individual's antioxidant capacity. However, even though telomeres, a marker of ageing, are known to be vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) attacks, no studies have ever assessed whether colour fading reflects the rate of biological ageing in any taxa. Here, we measured colour fading, telomere erosion (a measure of biological ageing) and ROS levels in painted dragons. We show that individuals that were better at maintaining their coloration during the three months of the study suffered a higher cost in terms of telomere erosion, but overall ROS levels measured at the start of the study were not significantly related to colour maintenance and telomere shortening. We therefore suggest that colour maintenance is a costly phenomenon in terms of telomere erosion, and that overall ROS levels do not seem to be a crucial component linking ornamental coloration and telomere erosion in our study system.

  6. Uncertainties analysis of fission fraction for reactor antineutrino experiments using DRAGON

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, X B; Chen, Y X; Zhong, W L; An, F P

    2014-01-01

    Rising interest in nuclear reactors as a source of antineutrinos for experiments motivates validated, fast, and accessible simulation to predict reactor rates. First, DRAGON was developed to calculate the fission rates of the four most important isotopes in fissions,235U,238U,239Pu and141Pu, and it was validated for PWRs using the Takahama benchmark. The fission fraction calculation function was validated through comparing our calculation results with MIT's results. we calculate the fission fraction of the Daya Bay reactor core, and compare its with those calculated by the commercial reactor simulation program SCIENCE, which is used by the Daya Bay nuclear power plant, and the results was consist with each other. The uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction was studied, and the uncertainty of the antineutrino flux by the fission fraction simulation is 0.6% per core for Daya Bay antineutrino experiment.

  7. Calibration and simulation of a gamma array for DRAGON at ISAC

    CERN Document Server

    Gigliotti, D G; Hussein, A H

    2003-01-01

    A gamma ray detector has been built for the DRAGON facility at TRIUMF to detect the gamma ray emitted in astrophysically important proton and alpha radiative capture reactions. The gamma detector was designed to balance cost with maximum solid angle coverage and efficiency. To study the properties of the current design, GEANT simulations are being carried out and compared with prototype measurements using calibration sources and radioactive beams supplied by ISAC. Simulations will be compared with data allowing a realistic simulation to be produced. This modified simulation will then be used to provide efficiency predictions of the gamma array when an actual experiment's parameters are inputted. Using the simulated efficiency of the array, cross sections for radiative capture can be calculated from the measured gamma ray yields, for the individual reactions. The following will outline some initial results of background suppression of beam related experiments. Also shown, are some preliminary comparison of poi...

  8. Chalcane-stilbene conjugates and oligomeric flavonoids from Chinese Dragon's Blood produced from Dracaena cochinchinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qian; Saito, Yoshinori; Matsuo, Yosuke; Li, Hai-Zhou; Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    A detailed chemical investigation of Chinese Dragon's Blood, which is a traditional medicine produced form the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis, yielded two chalcane-stilbene conjugates, named cochinchinenenes G and H, together with 25 known compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic examination. HPLC analysis of the resin indicated that the major constituents were a complex mixture of oligomeric polyphenols, which were detected as a broad hump on the base line of a HPLC chromatogram. (13)C NMR analysis indicated that the oligomers were mainly composed of oxygenated chalcane units. This suggestion was supported by the results of a thiol degradation experiment with mercaptoethanol, which yielded a thioether of 4-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)propyl]-3-methoxyphenol. Furthermore, methylation followed by electrospray ionization mass spectroscopic analysis of the resulting fractions established the presence of at least one heptamer of chalcane units. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study and orientation of the Mt. Oche `Dragon House' in Euboea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Katsiotis, M.; Papanikolaou, D.

    2009-07-01

    In southern Euboea, Central Greece, there are several megalithic buildings known as ‘drakospita’ (or dragon houses) whose builders and purpose are unknown. On 22 March 2002 and 4 July 2004 we visited the bestpreserved of all drakospita on top of Mt. Oche, measured its dimensions and calculated its orientation based on the azimuth of sunset and moonrise. A Sirius-rise orientation corresponding to ca 1100 B.C., not inconsistent with previous archaeological dating based on artefacts found inside the structure, indicates a religious/astronomical purpose for the building. It could probably be argued that at least the famous drakospito at Mt. Oche was not only a place of worship but also an ancient astronomical observatory.

  10. Performance and capabilities of the Canadian Dragon: The SGM beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regier, T. [Canadian Light Source, Inc. (CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)], E-mail: tom.regier@lightsource.ca; Krochak, J. [Canadian Light Source, Inc. (CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Sham, T.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Hu, Y.F. [Canadian Light Source, Inc. (CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Thompson, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Blyth, R.I.R. [Canadian Light Source, Inc.(CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-11-11

    The Canadian Dragon is a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) beamline for the photon energy range between 250 and 2000 eV. The high flux from the source, a 45 mm planar undulator, allows for excellent performance in the difficult 1-2 keV range. Resolving powers comparable to those of the leading spectroscopy beamlines are routinely available. The beamline design employs toroidal refocusing optics to allow for two in-line endstation areas. The upstream experimental area hosts a dedicated UHV endstation with a Scienta SES-100 photoelectron energy analyzer. The downstream experimental area is primarily used for solid sample X-ray absorption studies, but can be fitted with a number of different endstations. A 1 metre long differential pumping section between the beamline optics and the second endstation area permits the analysis of non-UHV compatible samples, making the beamline suitable for many environmental or biological experiments.

  11. Estimation of Control Rod Worth in a VVER-1000 Reactor using DRAGON4 and DONJON4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadatian-derakhshandeh Farahnaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main issues in safety and control systems design of power and research reactors is to prevent accidents or reduce the imposed hazard. Control rod worth plays an important role in safety and control of reactors. In this paper, we developed a justifiable approach called D4D4 to estimate the control rod worth of a VVER-1000 reactor that enables to perform the best estimate analysis and reduce the conservatism that utilize DRAGON4 and DONJON4. The results are compared with WIMS-D4/CITATION to show the effectiveness and superiority of the developed package in predicting reactivity worth of the rod and also other reactor physics parameters of the VVER-1000 reactor. The results of this study are in good agreement with the plant's FSAR.

  12. Dragon-I injector based on the induction voltage adder technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kaizhi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The Dragon-I injector based on the induction voltage adder technique is introduced. Twelve ferrite loaded induction cells are connected in a series through central conducting stalks to achieve a pulsed voltage higher than 3.5 MV across the diode. Electrons are extracted from the velvet emitter and guided through the anode pipe by the magnets placed inside the cathode and anode shrouds. Measurements at the exit of injector show that, with an electric field of 200  kV/cm near the velvet surface and suitable magnetic field distribution, an electron beam up to 2.8 kA can be obtained with a normalized emittance of 1040π   mm mrad, and energy spread of 2.1% (3σ around the central energy of 3.5 MeV.

  13. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet.

  14. [Myocardiosis in a 6-month-old Lawson's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsonii)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, P; Wohlsein, P; Junginger, J; Dziallas, P; Fehr, M; Mathes, K

    2013-01-01

    In a 6-month-old, chronically inappetent Lawsons's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsonii) with stunted growth a hyperdense cardiac region was found using radiology and computed tomography. At necropsy a profound necrosis of the myocardium with dystrophic calcification was diagnosed. In contrast to the frequently seen metastatic mineralisation of soft tissues, mainly due to poor husbandry, primary tissue destruction is the cause for dystrophic calcification. In reptiles, this is a rarely described form of calcification. Possible causes are infectious processes, nutritional or metabolic insufficiencies, intoxications or genetic components. In the presented case the aetiology could not be determined. In conclusion, dystrophic calcifications should be considered as a differential diagnosis in reptiles with soft tissue mineralisation.

  15. Multicentric benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors in two related bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemberger, K Y; Manharth, A; Pessier, A P

    2005-07-01

    Multiple subcutaneous masses from two sibling bearded dragons were removed. Nodules were well demarcated, restricted to the subcutis, and soft, white to yellow, resembling adipose tissue. Histologically, the masses were composed of short interlacing streams and bundles of spindle cells, with regions of vague nuclear palisading. Two of the tumors contained a subpopulation of polygonal cells with abundant periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cytoplasmic granules. Neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for S100 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) but negative for desmin and smooth muscle actin. Electron microscopy and reticulin stains demonstrated a continuous basal lamina separating intertwining cells. Histologic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features were consistent with a peripheral nerve sheath origin. At 1 year postexcision, local reoccurrence of a single incompletely excised mass from the left shoulder was noted.

  16. Isolation of a variant Porphyromonas sp. from polymicrobial infections in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemis, David A; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Bryant, Mary Jean; Jones, Rebekah D; Kania, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    Isolates of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria from reptiles have only occasionally been identified to the genus and species level in the veterinary medical literature. In particular, reports identifying Porphyromonas spp. from infections in reptiles are scarce. The present report describes unique Porphyromonas isolates obtained from necrosuppurative infections in central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). The isolates grew in the presence of oxygen, were strongly hemolytic, and did not produce detectable black, iron porphyrin pigment. Biochemical identification kit numeric biocodes gave high but unreliable probabilities (>99.9%) for identification as Porphyromonas gingivalis. Partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of the isolates were identical to each other and shared 91% identity with those of Porphyromonas gulae. The isolates may represent a new reptile-associated Porphyromonas species.

  17. A gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma expressing somatostatin in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jeremiah A; Newman, Shelley J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Dunlap, John

    2010-03-01

    A metastatic gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma in a 2.5-year-old inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) with a chronic history of anorexia, weight loss, depression, and acute melena is described. Histologic examination of the gastric mass revealed a densely cellular tumor arranged in nests and occasional rosettes of hyperchromatic cells with oval to spindle-shaped nuclei and minimal cytoplasm; the tumor was supported by a moderate fibrovascular stroma. Similar cells invaded through the gastric mucosa, and there were multiple hepatic metastases. The neoplastic cells were weakly immunopositive for neuron-specific enolase and moderately positive for somatostatin but were negative for chromogranin AB and gastrin. Ultrastructural studies revealed scattered neurosecretory granules in the neoplastic cells, confirming the diagnosis of a neuroendocrine carcinoma.

  18. Systemic adenovirus infection in Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps): histological, ultrastructural and molecular findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, S; Seehusen, F; Reckling, D; Kilwinski, J; Puff, C; Elhensheri, M; Wohlsein, P; Peters, M

    2009-07-01

    Three Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps) from two breeding groups were humanely destroyed following a period of anorexia. Two of the animals were 8-months old and related and one animal was approximately 2-weeks old. Necropsy examination revealed poor bodily condition but no other gross abnormalities. Microscopically there was non-suppurative hepatitis and interstitial nephritis. Multiple large, amphophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies were present within hepatocytes and epithelial cells of the bile ducts, renal tubules, small and large intestinal mucosa, pancreatic acini and oral mucous membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the inclusions comprised viral particles with morphology consistent with an adenovirus. A fragment of the adenoviral polymerase gene was amplified, sequenced and compared with other reptilian adenoviral sequences.

  19. A commercial large-vocabulary discrete speech recognition system: DragonDictate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, M A

    1992-01-01

    DragonDictate is currently the only commercially available general-purpose, large-vocabulary speech recognition system. It uses discrete speech and is speaker-dependent, adapting to the speaker's voice and language model with every word. Its acoustic adaptability is based in a three-level phonology and a stochastic model of production. The phonological levels are phonemes, augmented triphones (phonemes-in-context or PICs), and steady-state spectral slices that are concatenated to approximate the spectra of these PICs (phonetic elements or PELs) and thus of words. Production is treated as a hidden Markov process, which the recognizer has to identify from its output, the spoken word. Findings of practical value to speech recognition are presented from research on six European languages.

  20. On the identification of Dragon Kings among extreme-valued outliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme values of earth, environmental, ecological, physical, biological, financial and other variables often form outliers to heavy tails of empirical frequency distributions. Quite commonly such tails are approximated by stretched exponential, log-normal or power functions. Recently there has been an interest in distinguishing between extreme-valued outliers that belong to the parent population of most data in a sample and those that do not. The first type, called Gray Swans by Nassim Nicholas Taleb (often confused in the literature with Taleb's totally unknowable Black Swans, is drawn from a known distribution of the tails which can thus be extrapolated beyond the range of sampled values. However, the magnitudes and/or space–time locations of unsampled Gray Swans cannot be foretold. The second type of extreme-valued outliers, termed Dragon Kings by Didier Sornette, may in his view be sometimes predicted based on how other data in the sample behave. This intriguing prospect has recently motivated some authors to propose statistical tests capable of identifying Dragon Kings in a given random sample. Here we apply three such tests to log air permeability data measured on the faces of a Berea sandstone block and to synthetic data generated in a manner statistically consistent with these measurements. We interpret the measurements to be, and generate synthetic data that are, samples from α-stable sub-Gaussian random fields subordinated to truncated fractional Gaussian noise (tfGn. All these data have frequency distributions characterized by power-law tails with extreme-valued outliers about the tail edges.

  1. Production of Dragon's Blood in Dracaena cambodiana Plants by Inoculation of Fusarium graminearum%真菌诱导海南龙血树生产血竭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小凤; 李尚真; 宋启示

    2013-01-01

    Dragon's blood is a precious traditional medicine. Physical damage and fungi induction are two main factors affecting the production of dragon's blood. In this study,fungi induction was used to produce dragon's blood. Loureirin A and loureirin B.the major compounds of the dragon's bloods induced, were analyzed by HPLC to evaluate the results of each treatment. The results showed that the contents of loureirin A of the dragon's bloods induced by different treatments were similar, while the contents of loureirin B of the dragon's bloods induced by inoculating fungus Fusarium graminearum and exposing wound was the highest. The treatment of inoculating fungus and exposing wound was the most efficient way to induce dragon's blood. The HPLC fingerprints showed that the dragon's bloods induced were similar to the dragon's blood drug. This may add weight to the feasibility of artificial production of dragon's blood.%血竭是一种名贵的传统中药.影响血竭产生的主要原因是物理损伤和真菌诱导.本研究是以打孔接菌方法诱导生产血竭,并运用高效液相色谱方法检测诱导产生的血竭中主要成分龙血素A和龙血素B的含量,探讨不同处理方法对这两种成分含量的影响,以确定最佳的人工接菌方法.研究结果显示不同的处理方法得到的血竭中龙血素A的含量变化不大,而树体接人镰刀菌属真菌并将伤口暴露于空气得到的血竭中龙血素B的含量最高,诱导效果最好.指纹图谱比对结果显示诱导产生的血竭成分与血竭药品成分相似,进一步说明人工接菌诱导血竭生产具有可行性.

  2. Humanism in War—Analysis on Pearl S. Buck's War Outlook in Dragon Seed%Humanism in War—Analysis on Pearl S.Buck's War Outlook in Dragon Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷

    2015-01-01

    Pearl S.Buck is a controversial American writer.Dragon Seed is one of her war novels and arouses some readers'mis-understanding because of the vivid description of human loss.This research will focus on the analysis of the characters'person-ality change before and during the enemies'invasion.And then explore Pearl S.Buck's real attitude towards Chinese Anti-Japa-nese War and her buried war outlook.

  3. Dragon Kilns" in Chaozhou%对潮州“龙窑”的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林高翥

    2012-01-01

    龙窑是优良古窑种之一,潮州龙窑在潮州陶瓷文化占据很重要的位置,并在潮州地区广泛分布。其传统的生产工艺,特别是烧成过程的一些特性,是历代陶瓷窑炉技术改造的基础,可以说,潮州历代陶瓷业的发展,潮州龙窑功不可没。%Dragon kilns, a type of ancient kilns, widely distributed in and around Chaozhou, have claimed an important position in the ceramic culture of this area. Their production technology, especially their firing techniques, laid the foundation for the development of ceramic kilns in different dynasties. Literally, prosperity of ceramic industry in Chaozhou throughout the history owes a great debt to Chaozhou dragon kilns.

  4. The development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth in a dragon boating team for breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Meghan H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Ullrich-French, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity experiences may contribute to psychological and social wellbeing among breast cancer survivors. The main purpose of the current study was to qualitatively explore the development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors participating in a dragon boat program over 19 months. Guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009), semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 breast cancer survivors on five occasions over their first two seasons of dragon boating. Narrative accounts were developed for each participant, and four profiles emerged describing processes of social and posttraumatic growth development over time: "developing a feisty spirit of survivorship," "I don't want it to be just about me," "it's not about the pink it's about the paddling," and "hard to get close." Profiles were discussed in terms of developing social relationships and support, providing support to others, physicality and athleticism, and negative interactions and experiences.

  5. The dragon on the gold: myths and realities for data mining in biomedicine and biotechnology using digital and molecular libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry

    2004-01-01

    To develop bioscience and personalized medicine in the post-genomic era, the biggest problem may be how to extract knowledge from the rich libraries of biomedical data. A particular dragon protects the gold therein: the dragon is the "curse of dimensionality" and its formidable fire weapon, which is burning researchers, is the "combinatorial explosion". This arises because many genomic, proteomic, clinical, and lifestyle factors may interact that cannot necessarily be considered on a simple pairwise or additive basis. A suggested theoretical solution--or at least "road map" that ameliorates management of these problems--borrows from several disciplines. It is undertaken also in the hope might also lead to research with broader impact on several unresolved issues in biotechnology: conversely, mathematical understanding of processes involving molecular libraries, such as cDNA libraries and DNA in the living cell itself, may open the opportunities to use biotechnology to construct nanotechnological storage and query systems.

  6. An outbreak of adenoviral infection in inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) coinfected with dependovirus and coccidial protozoa (Isospora sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Young; Mitchell, Mark A; Bauer, Rudy W; Poston, Rob; Cho, Doo-Youn

    2002-07-01

    Thirty of 200 (15%) hatchling inland bearded dragons were found dead after a short period (48 hours) of weakness and lethargy. The most common clinical signs were head tilt and circling. Six bearded dragons with neurological signs were euthanized, and postmortem examination revealed no gross abnormalities. Microscopically, severe, randomly distributed hepatocellular necrosis with large basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in numerous hepatocytes was noted. Small-intestinal enterocytes contained intracytoplasmic coccidial protozoa (Isospora sp.) and occasional enterocytes had basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy revealed both 80- and 20-nm-diameter viral particles, which were consistent with adenoviruses and dependoviruses, respectively. Adenoviral outbreaks in groups of animals are uncommon. An adverse synergistic effect of the coccidiosis with the adenoviral infection may have played a critical role in the high morbidity and mortality in this case.

  7. Deep fungal dermatitis caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii in captive coastal bearded dragons (Pogona barbata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R S P; Sangster, C R; Sigler, L; Hambleton, S; Paré, J A

    2011-12-01

    Deep fungal dermatitis caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) was diagnosed in a group of coastal bearded dragons (Pogona barbata). The outbreak extended over a 6-month period, with four of six lizards from the same zoological outdoor enclosure succumbing to infection. A fifth case of dermatomycosis was identified in a pet lizard originally sourced from the wild. Diagnosis of infection with the CANV was based on similar clinical signs and histopathology in all animals and confirmed by culture and sequencing of the fungus from one animal. This is the first report of the CANV causing disease in a terrestrial reptile species in Australia and the first in the coastal bearded dragon. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. HISTOLOGIC, IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL, AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A MALIGNANT IRIDOPHOROMA IN A DWARF BEARDED DRAGON (POGONA HENRYLAWSONI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brot, Simone; Sydler, Titus; Nufer, Lisbeth; Ruetten, Maja

    2015-09-01

    A dwarf bearded dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) was presented with a white subcutaneous mandibular mass and multiple nodules in the oral mucosa, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, and visceral fat. Histologically, the tumor consisted of densely packed spindle-shaped cells with brow intracytoplasmic pigment that exhibited white-blue birefringence with polarized light. Immunohistochemical staining was negative for S-100 and weakly positive with melan A. Electron microscopic examination revealed cytoplasmic irregular and oblong empty spaces, laminated and often arranged into short stacks, compatible with reflecting platelet profiles typically seen in iridophores. However, in unstained ultrathin sections, electron-dense crystalline material was present, which filled the empty spaces described for stained sections before. Based on histology, immunohistochemistry, and biologic behavior, a malignant iridophoroma was diagnosed. To the authors' knowledge, iridophoromas in lizards have rarely been characterized by using electronic microscopy. Moreover, this is the first description of an iridophoroma in a dwarf bearded dragon.

  9. Dermatomycosis in a pet inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) caused by a Chrysosporium species related to Nannizziopsis vriesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Martorell, J; Castellá, G; Ramis, A; Cabañes, F J

    2009-08-01

    A Chrysosporium sp. related to Nannizziopsis vriesii was isolated in pure culture from squames and biopsies of facial lesions in a pet inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) in Spain. The presence in histological sections of morphologically consistent fungal elements strongly incriminates this fungus as the aetiological agent of infection. Lesions regressed following treatment with oral ketoconazole and topical chlorhexidine and terbinafine until the lizard was lost to follow up 1 month later. The ITS-5.8S rRNA gene of the isolate was sequenced and a search on the GenBank database revealed a high match with the sequences of two Chrysosporium sp. strains recently isolated from green iguanas (Iguana iguana) with dermatomycosis, also in Spain. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed that all these strains are related to N. vriesii. This is the first report of dermatomycoses caused by a Chrysosporium species related to N. vriesii in a bearded dragon outside North America.

  10. Evaluation of the Wave Energy Conversion Efficiency in Various Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Rusu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work was to assess and compare the wave power resources in various offshore and nearshore areas. From this perspective, three different groups of coastal environments were considered: the western Iberian nearshore, islands and an enclosed environment with sea waves, respectively. Some of the most representative existent wave converters were evaluated in the analysis and a second objective was to compare their performances at the considered locations, and in this way to determine which is better suited for potential commercial exploitation. In order to estimate the electric power production expected in a certain location, the bivariate distributions of the occurrences corresponding to the sea states, defined by the significant wave height and the energy period, were constructed in each coastal area. The wave data were provided by hindcast studies performed with numerical wave models or based on measurements. The transformation efficiency of the wave energy into electricity is evaluated via the load factor and also through the capture width, defined as the ratio between the electric power estimated to be produced by each specific wave energy converters (WEC and the expected wave power corresponding to the location considered. Finally, by evaluating these two different indicators, comparisons of the performances of three WEC types (Aqua Buoy, Pelamis and Wave Dragon in the three different groups of coastal environments considered have been also carried out. The work provides valuable information related to the effectiveness of various technologies for the wave energy extraction that would operate in different coastal environments.

  11. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Rajinder K; Gupta Deepika

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabar...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous versus intramuscular administration of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid to bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churgin, Sarah M; Musgrave, Kari E; Cox, Sherry K; Sladky, Kurt K

    2014-05-01

    To compare pharmacokinetics after a single IM or SC injection of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) to bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). 8 adult male bearded dragons. In a preliminary experiment, doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg, SC, were compared in 2 animals, and 30 mg/kg resulted in a more desirable pharmacokinetic profile. Then, in a randomized, complete crossover experimental design, each bearded dragon (n = 6) received a single dose of 30 mg of CCFA/kg IM or SC; the experiment was repeated after a 28-day washout period with the other route of administration. Blood samples were collected at 10 time points for 288 hours after injection. Plasma concentrations of ceftiofur and desfuroylceftiofur metabolites were measured via reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed with a noncompartmental model. No adverse effects were observed. Plasma concentrations greater than a target minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 μg/mL were achieved by 4 hours after administration by both routes. Mean plasma concentrations remained > 1 μg/mL for > 288 hours for both routes of administration. A single dose of CCFA (30 mg/kg) administered IM or SC to bearded dragons yielded plasma concentrations of ceftiofur and its metabolites > 1 μg/mL for > 288 hours. The SC route would be preferred because of less variability in plasma concentrations and greater ease of administration than the IM route. Future studies should include efficacy data as well as evaluation of the administration of multiple doses.

  13. Language and Cross-Culture Understanding—Through Cross-Culture Study of the Word'Dragon'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玲

    2016-01-01

    This essay contributes to the analysis of the significance of cross-culture understanding in connection with language. It is important and necessary to promote cross-cultural understanding in order to communicate with people from various cultural backgrounds with the development of globalization. This essay also gives the example of the word'dragon'to illustrate that the cross-culture understanding of language will make us communicate with each other more effectively.

  14. Material basis for inhibition of Dragon's Blood on evoked discharges of wide dynamic range neurons in spinal dorsal horn of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Min; CHEN Su; LIU XiangMing

    2008-01-01

    In vivo experiments were designed to verify the analgesic effect of Dragon's Blood and the material basis for this effect. Extracellular microelectrode recordings were used to observe the effects of Dragon's Blood and various combinations of the three components (cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and Ioureirin B) extracted from Dragon's Blood on the discharge activities of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) of intact male Wistar rats evoked by electric stimulation at sciatic nerve. When the Hill's coefficients describing the dose-response relations of drugs were dif-ferent, based on the concept of dose equivalence, the equations of addillvity surfaces which can be applied to assess the interaction between three drugs were derived. Adopting the equations and Tal-larida's isobole equations used to assess the interaction between two drugs with dissimilar dose-response relations, the effects produced by various combinations of the three components in modulating the evoked discharge activities of WDR neurons were evaluated. Results showed that Dragon's Blood and its three components could inhibit the evoked discharge frequencies of WDR neurons in a concentration-dependent way. The Hill's coefficients describing dose-response relations of three components were different. Only the combined effect of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B and Ioureirin B was similar to that of Dragons Blood. Furthermore, the combined effect was synergistic. This investigation demonstrated that through the synergistic interaction of the three components Dragon's Blood could interfere with the transmission and processing of pain signals in spinal dorsal horn. All these further proved that the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and Ioureirin B was the material basis for the analgesic effect of Dragon's Blood.

  15. Material basis for inhibition of dragon's blood on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 receptor currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li-Si; Chen, Su; Huang, Xian-Ju; Yao, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Ming

    2013-02-28

    The effects of dragon's blood and its components cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, loureirin B as well as various combinations of the three components on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 receptor currents were studied in acutely dissociated DRG neurons using both voltage and current whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results indicated that dragon's blood and its three components concentration-dependently reduce the peak amplitudes of capsaicin-induced TRPV1 receptor currents. There was no significant difference between the effects of dragon's blood and the combination wherein the three components were present in respective mass fractions in dragon's blood. The respective concentrations of the three components used alone were all higher than the total concentration of three components used in combination when the percentage inhibition of the peak amplitude was 50%. The proportion of three components was adjusted and the total concentration reduced, the resulting combination still inhibit the currents with a lower IC50 value, and inhibit capsaicin-induced membrane depolarization on current clamp. The combination of three components not only increase the capsaicin IC50 value, but also reduce the capsaicin maximal response. These result suggested that analgesic effect of dragon's blood may be partly explained on the basis of silencing pain signaling pathways caused by the inhibition of dragon's blood on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 receptor currents in DRG neurons and could be due to the synergistic effect of the three components. Antagonism of the capsaicin response by the combination of three components is not competitive. The analgesic effect of dragon's blood was also confirmed using animal models. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Material basis for inhibition of Dragon's Blood on evoked discharges of wide dynamic range neurons in spinal dorsal horn of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Chen, Su; Liu, Xiangming

    2008-11-01

    In vivo experiments were designed to verify the analgesic effect of Dragon's Blood and the material basis for this effect. Extracellular microelectrode recordings were used to observe the effects of Dragon's Blood and various combinations of the three components (cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B) extracted from Dragon's Blood on the discharge activities of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) of intact male Wistar rats evoked by electric stimulation at sciatic nerve. When the Hill's coefficients describing the dose-response relations of drugs were different, based on the concept of dose equivalence, the equations of additivity surfaces which can be applied to assess the interaction between three drugs were derived. Adopting the equations and Tallarida's isobole equations used to assess the interaction between two drugs with dissimilar dose-response relations, the effects produced by various combinations of the three components in modulating the evoked discharge activities of WDR neurons were evaluated. Results showed that Dragon's Blood and its three components could inhibit the evoked discharge frequencies of WDR neurons in a concentration-dependent way. The Hill's coefficients describing dose-response relations of three components were different. Only the combined effect of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B and loureirin B was similar to that of Dragons Blood. Furthermore, the combined effect was synergistic. This investigation demonstrated that through the synergistic interaction of the three components Dragon's Blood could interfere with the transmission and processing of pain signals in spinal dorsal horn. All these further proved that the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B was the material basis for the analgesic effect of Dragon's Blood.

  17. Physico-chemical and structural changes of red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Nur Adilla; Ding, Phebe; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2011-01-30

    Determination of physico-chemical (weight, length, diameter, stomatal density, respiration rate, colour, soluble solids concentration, titratable acidity, chlorophyll and betacyanin content) and structural changes of red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose) was carried out from 5 to 35 days after pollination (DAP) in order to explain their growth, development, maturations and ripening stages. Fruit growth of red-fleshed dragon fruit followed a sigmoid growth pattern. Significant changes in colour were obtained in both peel and pulp as DAP progressed, which were indicated by reductions of L*, C* and h° values as both changed from green to red-violet colour at ripening. Red-violet betacyanin was manifested earlier in pulp at 25 DAP, followed by peel 4-5 days later, and finally both peel and pulp turned full red-violet by 30 DAP. There was a significant increase in soluble solids concentration and titratable acidity with the continuous increase in betacyanin content as DAP progressed. The physico-chemical and betacyanin accumulation of red-fleshed dragon fruit changed as it developed, matured and ripened which coincided with structural changes. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Intercomparison of Aerosol Optical Properties Derived from PREDE Skyradiometer and CIMEL Sunphotometer Measurements for the DRAGON-Korea Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y.; Ghim, Y.; Holben, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    The Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) campaign for validation of satellite aerosol products and comparison/validation of ground-based aerosol retrievals has been launched in Asia. It was conducted in Korea (DRAGON-Korea) between March and May 2012, with CIMEL sunphotometers being operated at around 20 sites throughout the country. The Hankuk University of Foreign Studies site (Hankuk_UFS, 37.02oN, 127.16oE, 167 m above sea level) is located about 35 km southeast of downtown Seoul. A PREDE skyradiometer (POM-02) is operated along with CIMEL sunphotometer (CE 318-1) to compare the aerosol optical properties derived from the two instruments. The operation for intercomparison study started with the DRAGON-Korea campaign and will continue for a year. POM-02 and CE 318-1 measure diffuse radiation at 6-minute intervals and 11 wavelengths and at 1-hour intervals and 4 wavelengths, respectively. Aerosol optical depths from these two instruments are compared at 440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm when the measurement time coincides within 3 minutes. Other aerosol optical properties such as Angstrom exponent and single scattering albedo (SSA) from the two instruments are also compared in a similar way. It is reported that SSA from the skyradiometer tends to be larger than that from sunphotometer. Factors causing the difference are closely examined.

  19. Dragon kings of the deep sea: marine particles deviate markedly from the common number-size spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochdansky, Alexander B.; Clouse, Melissa A.; Herndl, Gerhard J.

    2016-03-01

    Particles are the major vector for the transfer of carbon from the upper ocean to the deep sea. However, little is known about their abundance, composition and role at depths greater than 2000 m. We present the first number-size spectrum of bathy- and abyssopelagic particles to a depth of 5500 m based on surveys performed with a custom-made holographic microscope. The particle spectrum was unusual in that particles of several millimetres in length were almost 100 times more abundant than expected from the number spectrum of smaller particles, thereby meeting the definition of “dragon kings.” Marine snow particles overwhelmingly contributed to the total particle volume (95-98%). Approximately 1/3 of the particles in the dragon-king size domain contained large amounts of transparent exopolymers with little ballast, which likely either make them neutrally buoyant or cause them to sink slowly. Dragon-king particles thus provide large volumes of unique microenvironments that may help to explain discrepancies in deep-sea biogeochemical budgets.

  20. De Novo transcriptome characterization of Dracaena cambodiana and analysis of genes involved in flavonoid accumulation during formation of dragon's blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Hong; Cao, Tian-Jun; Dai, Hao-Fu; Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Mei, Wen-Li; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-12-06

    Dragon's blood is a red resin mainly extracted from Dracaena plants, and has been widely used as a traditional medicine in East and Southeast Asia. The major components of dragon's blood are flavonoids. Owing to a lack of Dracaena plants genomic information, the flavonoids biosynthesis and regulation in Dracaena plants remain unknown. In this study, three cDNA libraries were constructed from the stems of D. cambodiana after injecting the inducer. Approximately 266.57 million raw sequencing reads were de novo assembled into 198,204 unigenes, of which 34,873 unique sequences were annotated in public protein databases. Many candidate genes involved in flavonoid accumulation were identified. Differential expression analysis identified 20 genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, 27 unigenes involved in flavonoid modification and 68 genes involved in flavonoid transport that were up-regulated in the stems of D. cambodiana after injecting the inducer, consistent with the accumulation of flavonoids. Furthermore, we have revealed the differential expression of transcripts encoding for transcription factors (MYB, bHLH and WD40) involved in flavonoid metabolism. These de novo transcriptome data sets provide insights on pathways and molecular regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis and transport, and improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of dragon's blood formation in D. cambodiana.

  1. Lack of consistent hormonal responses to capture during the breeding season of the bearded dragon, Pogona barbata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, A; Amey, A P; Whittier, J M

    2000-06-01

    The bearded dragon (Pogona barbata: Agamidae) is a diurnal, oviparous, multi-clutching lizard from Australia. We examined plasma hormonal responses to capture in males and females during the spring breeding season. Corticosterone concentrations at capture (0 h; < or =3 min after capture) were low (males: 1.81+/-0.63 ng/ml; females 2. 23+/-0.47 ng/ml) and within sexes were unrelated to the time of the day, snout-vent length or, in females, reproductive condition (vitellogenic, gravid, assumed spent). Corticosterone concentrations at capture were significantly and inversely correlated with body condition in males, but not in females. Unexpectedly, neither sex showed significant changes in mean concentrations of corticosterone at 3.5 or 24 h after capture compared with 0 h values. Corticosterone concentrations at 3.5 h after capture did not differ between dragons bled at capture or not. Concentrations of progesterone in both the sexes did not change between 0 h and 3.5 or 24 h after capture. Testosterone concentrations in males at capture were moderate (10.1+/-2.2 ng/ml), and unchanged at 3.5 h after capture. The adrenocortical axis of adult bearded dragons in the breeding season seems remarkably unresponsive to capture compared with many other reptiles. Low adrenocortical responses to capture may be a feature of reptiles known to adjust well to captivity.

  2. Claudin-7-positive synchronous spontaneous intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma and adenomas of the gallbladder in a Bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Szabó, Zoltán; Gálfi, Péter; Marosán, Miklós; Kulka, Janina; Gál, János

    2011-03-01

    In this study, synchronous spontaneous, independent liver and gallbladder tumours were detected in a Bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). The multiple tumours consisted of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma as well as in situ adenocarcinoma and two adenomas of the gallbladder. The biliary epithelial cells and the cholangiocarcinoma showed membranous cross-immunoreactivity for claudin-7. The gallbladder epithelial cells, its adenoma and adenocarcinoma showed basolateral cross-reactivity for claudin-7. We think that the humanised anti-claudin-7 antibody is a good marker for the detection of different primary cholangiocellular and gallbladder tumours in Bearded dragons. The cholangiocytes, the cholangiocarcinoma, the endothelial cells of the liver and the epithelial cells and gallbladder tumours all showed claudin-5 cross-reactivity. The humanised anti-cytokeratin AE1-AE3 antibody showed cross-reactivity in the biliary epithelial cells, cholangiocarcinoma cells, epithelial cells and tumour cells of the gallbladder. It seems that this humanised antibody is a useful epithelial marker for the different neoplastic lesions of epithelial cells in reptiles. The humanised anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibody showed intense cross-reactivity in the smooth muscle cells of the hepatic vessels and in the muscle layer of the gallbladder. The portal myofibroblasts, the endothelial cells of the sinusoids and the stromal cells of the cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder tumours were positive for α-SMA. The antibovine anti-vimentin and humanised anti-Ki-67 antibodies did not show crossreactivity in the different samples from the Bearded dragon.

  3. Triple infection with agamid adenovirus 1, Encephaliton cuniculi-like microsporidium and enteric coccidia in a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilliger, Lionel; Mentré, Véronique; Marschang, Rachel E; Nicolier, Alexandra; Richter, Barbara

    2016-10-12

    A 2-month-old juvenile central bearded dragon was presented for anorexia and cachexia. Another specimen from the same cage had died suddenly 2 weeks prior. Fecal analysis revealed a high quantity of Isospora amphiboluri and a few pinworm eggs. Other examinations were not performed and the animal died a few days later despite supportive care. A third individual from the same cage presented with anorexia and a distended cœlom and was euthanized. In this third dragon, histological examination revealed intestinal coccidiosis, basophilic intranuclear inclusions compatible with adenovirus infection, acute hepatic necrosis with intrahepatocytic and intraenteritic organisms typical of microsporidia and renal gout. A PCR confirmed the diagnosis of adenovirosis. Sequencing showed that the PCR product was 100% identical to the corresponding portion of the agamid adenovirus 1 genome. A PCR for the detection of Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi was positive. Partial sequencing revealed 100% identity to an E. cuniculi-like organism previously found in bearded dragons. In cases where environmental factors such as poor hygiene or stress can be excluded, the presence of opportunistic pathogens in high numbers can be due to a systemic (viral) infection with temporary immunosuppression.

  4. Jumbo Dragon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Following the Chinese Government’s decision to devel-op the country’s own line of jumbo jets, Beijing Review spoke to aviation experts Li Guangyi, a senior research fel-low on industry strategy and Ren Xiaohua, an associate researcher on airplane man-ufa

  5. Vacuum flashover of Dragon-Ⅱ accelerator insulator ring%神龙二号加速器绝缘环真空沿面闪络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何佳龙; 陈思富; 张篁; 吕璐; 夏连胜; 石金水

    2016-01-01

    Two types of flashover phenomenons were discovered during the high voltage test of Dragon-Ⅱ linear induction ac-celerator insulator ring,which was made by cross-linked polystyrene.One type of the flashover was initialized from cathode and the other one was initialized from anode.The mechanism of the phenomenon was analyzed by comparing breakdown voltage wave-form and discharge trace,and calculating electric field combination with flashover experiment on little insulator samples.It is as-sumed that the cooperating problem of the insulator and cathode caused the difference between accelerator and injector insulator ring flashover.%在对神龙二号加速器绝缘环进行耐压考核时发现,感应腔中的绝缘支撑部件交联聚苯乙烯绝缘环在猝发多脉冲高压加载下出现的真空沿面闪络现象存在两种类型:阴极始发的闪络击穿和阳极始发的闪络击穿。通过计算绝缘环的沿面电场分布、对比击穿电压波形与绝缘环表面闪络放电烧蚀痕迹,结合小绝缘子样品实验结果对以上沿面击穿现象的机理进行了分析,认为可能是绝缘环端面与电极面的配合问题引起了加速段与注入器绝缘环击穿现象的差异。

  6. “We're All in the Same Boat”: A Review of the Benefits of Dragon Boat Racing for Women Living with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Harris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review summarizes findings from quantitative and qualitative research literature that has been published over the past 15 years since an initial, community-based pilot study first challenged the long-held medical belief that vigorous, upper-body exercise would lead to lymphedema in women who were at risk due to treatments for breast cancer. Dragon boat racing originated in China more than 2000 years ago and has become a popular recreational and competitive support around the world. From the advent of the world's first breast cancer survivor dragon boat team, Abreast in a Boat launched in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 1996, there are now more than 140 breast cancer survivor dragon boat teams paddling and competing in 12 different countries. The wealth of quantitative and qualitative research that has ensued since that pilot study further supports the initial hypothesis that resistance exercise, for example, dragon boat paddling, is not only safe for women recovering from conventional breast cancer therapies but also shows that dragon boating has been embraced as a complementary exercise therapy by the cancer survivors participating in this magical sport.

  7. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  8. GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm and validation during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myungje; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Jaehwa; Kim, Mijin; Park, Young-Je; Jeong, Ukkyo; Kim, Woogyung; Hong, Hyunkee; Holben, Brent; Eck, Thomas F.; Song, Chul H.; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Song, Chang-Keun

    2016-04-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) is the first multi-channel ocean color imager in geostationary orbit. Hourly GOCI top-of-atmosphere radiance has been available for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties over East Asia since March 2011. This study presents improvements made to the GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm together with validation results during the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks - Northeast Asia 2012 campaign (DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign). The evaluation during the spring season over East Asia is important because of high aerosol concentrations and diverse types of Asian dust and haze. Optical properties of aerosol are retrieved from the GOCI YAER algorithm including aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm, fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550 nm, single-scattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm, Ångström exponent (AE) between 440 and 860 nm, and aerosol type. The aerosol models are created based on a global analysis of the Aerosol Robotic Networks (AERONET) inversion data, and covers a broad range of size distribution and absorptivity, including nonspherical dust properties. The Cox-Munk ocean bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model is used over ocean, and an improved minimum reflectance technique is used over land. Because turbid water is persistent over the Yellow Sea, the land algorithm is used for such cases. The aerosol products are evaluated against AERONET observations and MODIS Collection 6 aerosol products retrieved from Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) algorithms during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign conducted from March to May 2012. Comparison of AOD from GOCI and AERONET resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.881 and a linear regression equation with GOCI AOD = 1.083 × AERONET AOD - 0.042. The correlation between GOCI and MODIS AODs is higher over ocean than land. GOCI AOD shows better

  9. GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER algorithm and validation during DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellites (COMS is the first multi-channel ocean color imager in geostationary orbit. Hourly GOCI top-of-atmosphere radiance has been available for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties over East Asia since March 2011. This study presents improvements to the GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER algorithm over ocean and land together with validation results during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign. Optical properties of aerosol are retrieved from the GOCI YAER algorithm including aerosol optical depth (AOD at 550 nm, fine-mode fraction (FMF at 550 nm, single scattering albedo (SSA at 440 nm, Angstrom exponent (AE between 440 and 860 nm, and aerosol type from selected aerosol models in calculating AOD. Assumed aerosol models are compiled from global Aerosol Robotic Networks (AERONET inversion data, and categorized according to AOD, FMF, and SSA. Nonsphericity is considered, and unified aerosol models are used over land and ocean. Different assumptions for surface reflectance are applied over ocean and land. Surface reflectance over the ocean varies with geometry and wind speed, while surface reflectance over land is obtained from the 1–3 % darkest pixels in a 6 km × 6 km area during 30 days. In the East China Sea and Yellow Sea, significant area is covered persistently by turbid waters, for which the land algorithm is used for aerosol retrieval. To detect turbid water pixels, TOA reflectance difference at 660 nm is used. GOCI YAER products are validated using other aerosol products from AERONET and the MODIS Collection 6 aerosol data from "Dark Target (DT" and "Deep Blue (DB" algorithms during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign from March to May 2012. Comparison of AOD from GOCI and AERONET gives a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.885 and a linear regression equation with GOCI AOD =1.086 × AERONET AOD – 0.041. GOCI and MODIS AODs are more

  10. GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm and validation during DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Park, Y. Je; Jeong, U.; Kim, W.; Holben, B.; Eck, T. F.; Lim, J. H.; Song, C. K.

    2015-09-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) onboard the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellites (COMS) is the first multi-channel ocean color imager in geostationary orbit. Hourly GOCI top-of-atmosphere radiance has been available for the retrieval of aerosol optical properties over East Asia since March 2011. This study presents improvements to the GOCI Yonsei Aerosol Retrieval (YAER) algorithm over ocean and land together with validation results during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign. Optical properties of aerosol are retrieved from the GOCI YAER algorithm including aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm, fine-mode fraction (FMF) at 550 nm, single scattering albedo (SSA) at 440 nm, Angstrom exponent (AE) between 440 and 860 nm, and aerosol type from selected aerosol models in calculating AOD. Assumed aerosol models are compiled from global Aerosol Robotic Networks (AERONET) inversion data, and categorized according to AOD, FMF, and SSA. Nonsphericity is considered, and unified aerosol models are used over land and ocean. Different assumptions for surface reflectance are applied over ocean and land. Surface reflectance over the ocean varies with geometry and wind speed, while surface reflectance over land is obtained from the 1-3 % darkest pixels in a 6 km × 6 km area during 30 days. In the East China Sea and Yellow Sea, significant area is covered persistently by turbid waters, for which the land algorithm is used for aerosol retrieval. To detect turbid water pixels, TOA reflectance difference at 660 nm is used. GOCI YAER products are validated using other aerosol products from AERONET and the MODIS Collection 6 aerosol data from "Dark Target (DT)" and "Deep Blue (DB)" algorithms during the DRAGON-NE Asia 2012 campaign from March to May 2012. Comparison of AOD from GOCI and AERONET gives a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.885 and a linear regression equation with GOCI AOD =1.086 × AERONET AOD - 0.041. GOCI and MODIS AODs are more highly correlated

  11. Dragon in Support Harmonizing European and Chinese Marine Monitoring for Environment and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Zmuda, Andy; Li, Zengyuan; Gao, Zhihai

    2008-04-01

    ESA has been cooperating with National Remote Sensing Center of China (NRSCC), Ministry Of Science and Technology of China (MOST) in the development of Earth Observation (EO) applications for the last 15 years. In 2004, this cooperation was reinforced with the creation of a dedicated three-year EO science and exploitation programme called "Dragon". The programme brings together joint Sino-European teams to address 16 identified priority themes investigating land, ocean and atmospheric applications using data from ESA's ERS and Envisat missions. Detailed coordination of all requested acquisitions over China has been performed since the programme started. Consequently a large amount of data has now been delivered.The results of the joint teams' research have been presented at annual Symposia and regular progress meeting with Chinese scientists in Beijing. The mid term results of the programme have been published as a joint ESA and NRSCC publication entitled "Proceedings of Dragon Programme Mid Term Results (SP-611)". Since then, notable results have been achieved in all the thematic areas under investigation exploiting both archive ERS and Envisat instrument data, for example: • Forest cover and forest biomass maps of NE China using ERS SAR tandem data from the 1990s and change detection using up-to-date forest maps based on ASAR AP data• Flood monitoring and mapping and NRT information provision to local and national authorities• Ship cruises for collection of validation data in support of ocean colour studies • Exploitation of the ASAR, RA, MERIS and AA TSR sensors for bio-physical parameter retrieval for China seas• Quantification and modelling of NO2, CO and CH4 levels and their increasing trend since the 1990s •Mixing and modelling and changes in NO2 distribution and concentration in the middle atmospheric layers • Rice mapping and methane modelling exploiting Envisat's optical, SAR and atmospheric sensors• Impact of the Olympic games on the

  12. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  13. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  14. "Snow Dragon" vessel braves the wind and the waves%乘风破浪"雪龙"船

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴福余; 楼晓燕

    2004-01-01

    @@ "雪龙"船全体同志以我国极地科学考察事业为使命,以邓小平同志"为人类和平利用南极做出贡献"题词为指针,以"建设国际一流的极地科学研究中心"为目标,发扬"爱国、爱船、团结、奉献"的"雪龙精神",在极其恶劣的自然环境和险象环生的工作条件下,团结奋斗,努力拼搏,先后执行了8次南极考察任务和2次北极考察任务,总航程14万海里,浮冰区航行2万海里,破坚冰200余海里,创下了我国极地科学考察史上单船一年走航南、北两极3个航次的先例;开辟了上海至北冰洋航线;2003年第二次北极科学考察,纵深北极破冰达80.15′N,突破了我国破冰最高纬度纪录.

  15. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  16. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  17. The effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on arm volume and arm circumference in women treated for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, K; Jespersen, D; McKenzie, D C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on changes in arm volume in breast cancer survivors. A total of 16 female breast cancer survivors with no clinical history of lymphoedema volunteered. The 20-week exercise programme consisted of resistance and aerobic exercise with the addition of dragon boat training at week 8. Arm circumference at two sites (CIRC10, CIRC15), arm volume (VOL), and upper body strength (1-RM) were measured at baseline (T1), week 8 (T2), and week 20 (T3). All statistical tests were two-sided (alpha exercise programme and dragon boat training resulted in a significant increase in upper extremity volume over time. However, the changes were consistent for both arms and the significant gain in upper body muscular strength likely accounted for the increase in arm volume.

  18. Direct measurement of several resonance strengths and energies in 34S(α , γ) 38 Ar within the T = 2 . 2 GK Gamow window with DRAGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, D.; O'Malley, P.; Akers, C.; Chen, A. A.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Erikson, L. E.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Greife, U.; Hager, Ulrike; Hutcheon, D. A.; Ilyushkin, S.; Laird, A. M.; Mahl, A.; Ruiz, C.

    2015-10-01

    Radiative α capture on 34S can impact nucleosynthesis in several astrophysical environments, including oxygen burning, explosive oxygen burning (Type II supernovae), and Type Ia supernovae. However, there exist discrepancies in the literature for the resonance strengths of two strong resonances within the Gamow window for oxygen burning temperatures (E0 +/- Δ / 2 = 3183 +/- 897 keV at T = 2 . 2 GK). Previous measurements suffered from systematic uncertainties inherent in the experimental technique. Furthermore, there are several states in 38Ar in the energy range of interest for which no 34S + α resonance strength/energy measurements have been performed. This measurement was performed in inverse kinematics at the DRAGON recoil separator at TRIUMF in BC, Canada. DRAGON's experimental technique allows direct measurement of quantities such as stopping power and resonance energy, alleviating the need for external inputs and reducing uncertainty. This talk will discuss DRAGON's experimental technique, analysis methods and results.

  19. DRAGON挂载WIMS-D核数据库的基准题计算验证%Benchmark Validation of DRAGON Program Using WIMS-D Nuclear Data Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 施工; 王侃

    2007-01-01

    通过一系列基于实验的基准题对DRAGON3.05B程序挂载WIMS-D核数据库的计算结果进行验证,综合检验了其对不同燃料、不同元件结构的临界计算以及燃耗中的核密度和κ∝的计算正确性.并通过DRAGON3.05B与WIMSD-5B分别挂载WIMS-D和ENDF/B-VI.8核数据库的计算结果进行比较.结果表明:DRAGON3.05B挂载WIMS-D库的计算结果是可靠的,其正确性可以满足对钍基先进CANDU堆的设计要求.

  20. Of Disasters and Dragon Kings: A Statistical Analysis of Nuclear Power Incidents & Accidents

    CERN Document Server

    Wheatley, Spencer; Sornette, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We provide, and perform a risk theoretic statistical analysis of, a dataset that is 75 percent larger than the previous best dataset on nuclear incidents and accidents, comparing three measures of severity: INES (International Nuclear Event Scale), radiation released, and damage dollar losses. The annual rate of nuclear accidents, with size above 20 Million US$, per plant, decreased from the 1950s until dropping significantly after Chernobyl (April, 1986). The rate is now roughly stable at 0.002 to 0.003, i.e., around 1 event per year across the current fleet. The distribution of damage values changed after Three Mile Island (TMI; March, 1979), where moderate damages were suppressed but the tail became very heavy, being described by a Pareto distribution with tail index 0.55. Further, there is a runaway disaster regime, associated with the "dragon-king" phenomenon, amplifying the risk of extreme damage. In fact, the damage of the largest event (Fukushima; March, 2011) is equal to 60 percent of the total damag...

  1. THE GENERATIVE REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF RED DRAGON FRUIT (Hylocereus.polyrhizus (Web. Britton & Rose, CACTACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniek Kriswiyanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the generative reproductive characteristics of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Web. Britton & Rose, that is the characteristics and the development of male and female reproductive system and the embryo. The flowering morphology was observed through the gametogenesis process and the process of embryogenesis was observed using the methods of squash, cytolysis, and embedding of flower before anthesis, during and after anthesis. The results showed that the flower funnelled form with many calyxes, stamens and crowns. The pollen was circular, sulcus, trilate, reticulate, and spheroid. The development of microgametophyte was at the 2nd stages with three nucleuses and the pistil developed after anthesis.  Anthesis was taken place at night time, fertilization and pollen developed before anthesis and has not germinating. A single pistil, the head of pistil with many branches, the style longer than the stamen, open type.  Seeds anathrophus, endosperm and embryo with the globular shaped, developed 5 days after anthesis, the embryo torpedo likes and the differentiation of primer tissues seen in the seeds 7 days after anthesis, and arilus generated from development of megasporangium. Keywords: embedding, self incompatibility, sferoidal, anatrophus, arillus.

  2. Combination of Dragon Fruit, Hibiscus and Bitterleaf as Dye Sensitizer to Increase Efficiency of DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asful Hariyadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC from natural products was being prominently developed in recent years. The main advantage of DSSC was its fabrication which did not require high process technology, so the production cost was lower than solar cells from crystalline materials. There were important materials in Dye-sensitized Solar Cell technology, such as: Zinc Oxide as an electrode, electrolyte solution and plant pigments as dye sensitizer to absorb light energy and convert it into a source of electrical energy. In this study, the combination of multiple dye mixture had been investigated to achieve high external quantum efficiency as sensitizers. Furthermore, each sample would be tested to determine the characteristics of natural dye and to calculate the power flow and efficiency of the electricity generated by each variable of dye solution. There would be four variables in this study, which was the composition (% v/v of the three main sources of natural dyes; hibiscus, bitter leaf and dragon fruit, respectively first (50% : 25% :25%, second (25% : 50% : 25%, third (25% : 25% : 50% and fourth (33,33% : 33,33% : 33,33%. The result of the study showed that efficiency of variable 1 to 4 was 1.9076%, 2.8739%, 0.8566% and 0.8344%, respectively

  3. Safety assessment of methanol extract of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus): acute and subchronic toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Yam, Mun Fei; Hashim, Mohd Akmal; Lim, Chung Pin; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus, known as red dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of a methanol extract of H. polyrhizus fruit after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In the acute toxicity study, single doses of fruit extract (1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg) were administered to rats by oral gavage, and the rats were then monitored for 14 days. In the subchronic toxicity study, the fruit extract was administered orally to rats at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. There was no mortality or signs of acute or subchronic toxicity. There was no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight or hematological parameters in the subchronic toxicity study. Biochemical analysis showed some significant changes, including creatinine, globulin, total protein and urea levels. No abnormality of internal organs was observed between treatment and control groups. The lethal oral dose of the fruit extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is considered to be 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Earth Observation in Support of Sustainable Urban Planning: Results of the Dragon-3 Monitor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartalis, C.; Polydoros, A.; Mavrakou, T.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    Sustainable urban planning increasingly demands innovative concepts and techniques to obtain up-to-date and area-wide information on the characteristics and development of the urban system. In this paper, a thorough and conclusive presentation is made in terms of the results of the DRAGON-3 MONITOR project as based on the use of Earth Observation. Results refer in particular to a set of EO based dynamic urban indicators (i.e. urban form and expansion, land use/land cover changes, land surface temperature distribution, the presence and strength of urban heat island) with the capacity to describe the state, dynamic changes and interaction of the land and thermal environment in urban areas. Furthermore results are assessed in terms of their potential to operationally support sustainable urban planning and bridge the gap between EO scientists and urban planners. Constraints related to the spatial resolution and revisit time of satellite sensors are discussed as they influence the accuracy and applicability of the indicators. Methodologies to improve the applicability of the indicators are also discussed along with the presentation of the respective results.

  5. There be dragons: effects of unexplored religion on nurses' competence in spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesut, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    On ancient maps unexplored lands were simply labeled 'there be dragons' indicating the fear that attends the unknown. Despite three decades of theoretical and empirical work on spirituality in nursing, evidence still suggests that nurses do not feel competent to engage in spiritual care. In this paper I propose that one of the reasons for this is a theory-theory gap between religion and spirituality. Generalized anxiety about the role of religion in society has led to under-theorizing in nursing about religious care. As a result, when religion and spirituality overlap at the point of care, nurses are left without the substantive knowledge required for practice. Robust religious theorizing should include thick accounts of lived religion and integrative work that enables nurses to understand commonalities across religions that are relevant to practice. As a starting point to this integrative work, nurses can be introduced to the nature and lexicon of lived religion, religious perspectives on suffering, and religious reasoning that holds meaning and mystery in tension. Such an approach will better prepare them for the realities of practice where the complexities of spirituality and religion come to play.

  6. Power law scaling and ``Dragon-Kings'' in distributions of intraday financial drawdowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, Vladimir; Sornette, Didier

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the distributions of epsilon-drawdowns and epsilon-drawups of the most liquid futures financial contracts of the world at time scales of 30 seconds. The epsilon-drawdowns (resp. epsilon- drawups) generalise the notion of runs of negative (resp. positive) returns so as to capture the risks to which investors are arguably the most concerned with. Similarly to the distribution of returns, we find that the distributions of epsilon-drawdowns and epsilon-drawups exhibit power law tails, albeit with exponents significantly larger than those for the return distributions. This paradoxical result can be attributed to (i) the existence of significant transient dependence between returns and (ii) the presence of large outliers (dragon-kings) characterizing the extreme tail of the drawdown/drawup distributions deviating from the power law. The study of the tail dependence between the sizes, speeds and durations of drawdown/drawup indicates a clear relationship between size and speed but none between size and duration. This implies that the most extreme drawdown/drawup tend to occur fast and are dominated by a few very large returns. We discuss both the endogenous and exogenous origins of these extreme events.

  7. Radioprotective effects of Dragon's blood and its extract against gamma irradiation in mouse bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ran; Lin, Fankai; Hasan, Murtaza; Jia, Qiutian; Tang, Bo; Xia, Yu; Shan, Shuangquan; Wang, Xiao; Li, Qiang; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2014-06-01

    The radioprotective effects of Dragon's blood (DB) and its extracts (DBE) were investigated using the chromosomal aberrant test, micronucleus and oxidative stress assay for anti-clastogenic and anti-oxidative activity. Adult BALB/C mice were exposed to the whole body irradiation with 4 Gy (60)Co γ-rays. DB and DBE were administered orally once a day from 5 days prior to irradiation treatment to 1 day after irradiation. The mice were sacrificed on 24 h after irradiation. The cells of bone marrow were measured by counting different types of chromosomal aberrations and the frequency of micronuclei. Oxidative stress response was carried out by analysis of serum from blood. DB and DBE significantly decreased the number of bone marrow cells with chromosome aberrations after irradiation with respect to irradiated alone group. The administration of DB and DBE also significantly reduced the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) and micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (MNCE). In addition, DB and DBE markedly increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the level of antioxidant molecular. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in serum were significantly reduced by DB and DBE treatment. Our data suggested that DB and DBE have potential radioprotective properties in mouse bone marrow after (60)Co γ-ray exposure, which support their candidature as a potential radioprotective agent. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dragon's blood from Croton urucurana (Baill.) attenuates visceral nociception in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vietla S; Gurgel, Luilma A; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C P; Martins, Domingos T O; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Santos, Flávia A

    2007-09-05

    Dragon's blood, the red sap from Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) has a profound history of traditional use in conditions such as inflammation, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal distress. Previous studies established its anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal and analgesic properties and in this study we verified its potential to suppress visceral pain, using capsaicin- and cyclophosphamide-induced models of visceral nociception. Mice that received intra-colonic capsaicin (0.3%, 50 microl/animal) or intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg) manifested spontaneous nociceptive behaviors or crises, which were significantly suppressed in animal groups treated with red sap (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) or that received N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.), as positive controls. In capsaicin model, the antinociception produced by 200 mg/kg red sap was found to be naloxone-sensitive (2 mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting an opioid mechanism. In tests of open-field and pentobarbital-sleeping time, mice received 200mg/kg red sap showed no significant alterations in either locomotion frequency or on sleeping time, indicating that the observed antinociception is not a consequence of sedation or motor abnormality. These findings highlight the visceral antinociceptive property of Croton urucurana sap and further support its ethno-medical use to alleviate pain associated with gastrointestinal and other related disorders.

  9. Here Be Dragons: Characterization of ACS/WFC Scattered Light Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, B.; Coe, D.; Gonzaga, S.; Anderson, J.; Grogin, N.

    2016-11-01

    We present a study characterizing scattered light anomalies that occur near the edges of Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) images. We inspected all 8,573 full-frame ACS/WFC raw images with exposure times longer than 350 seconds obtained in the F606W and F814W filters from 2002 to October 2013. We visually identified two particular scattered light artifacts known as "dragon's breath" and edge glow. Using the 2MASS point source catalog and Hubble Guide Star Catalog (GSC II), we identified the stars that caused these artifacts. The stars are all located in narrow bands ( 3" across) just outside the ACS/WFC field of view (2" - 16" away). We provide a map of these risky areas around the ACS/WFC detectors - users should avoid positioning bright stars in these regions when designing ACS/WFC imaging observations. We also provide interactive webpages which display all the image artifacts we identified, allowing users to see examples of the severity of artifacts they might expect for a given stellar magnitude at a given position relative to the ACS/WFC field of view. On average, 10th (18th) magnitude stars produce artifacts about 1,000 (100) pixels long. But the severity of these artifacts can vary strongly with small positional shifts (∼ 1"). The results are similar for both filters (F606W and F814W) when expressed in total fluence, or flux multiplied by exposure time.

  10. G-dragon 时尚王你学不会!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>没有饰品的G-dragon,能想象吗男明星里,像G-gragon那么喜欢饰品的人是很少的。G-dragon别说五个手指都戴着戒指了,连手链的数量都难数清楚。甚至连女生用的饰品也能驾驭得无比顺眼,而据说G-dragon对饰品的选择丝毫没有价格的限制,几千万韩元的高价珠宝也会戴。GD&TOP组合开展活动的时候,G-dragon戴着自己国有标志性的项链引领了潮流。他说:"手臂空荡荡地站在舞台上会不安。"这样的话可见G-dragon对饰品的爱有多深。造型越是基础简单,他就会戴更多的饰品。G-dragon佩

  11. 'Chasing the Dragon' - imaging of heroin inhalation leukoencephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagel, J. [Vancouver General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: jeff_hagel@hotmail.com; Andrews, G. [UBC Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Vertinsky, T. [Vancouver General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Heran, M.K.S. [Vancouver General Hospital, Div. of Neuroradiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keogh, C. [BC Cancer Agency, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2005-10-15

    'Chasing the dragon' refers to the inhalation of heroin pyrolysate vapors produced when the freebase form of heroin is heated. Inhalation of these vapors can result in a rare toxic spongiform leukoencephalopathy. The patients may progress through 3 defined clinical stages, with one-quarter reaching the terminal stage, which invariably leads to death. Imaging and, in particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrates white matter findings that are felt to be specific for this entity and essential in its early diagnosis. We present the typical imaging findings in a pictorial essay format, using images taken from 9 patients who presented within an 18-month period at UBC-affiliated hospitals. These findings include low computed tomography (CT) attenuation and high T2 MRI signal most commonly in the posterior cerebral and cerebellar white matter, cerebellar peduncles, splenium of the corpus callosum, and posterior limb of the internal capsules. In addition, there is often selective, symmetric involvement of the corticospinal tract, the medial lemniscus, and the tractus solitarius. We also present the variable diffusion-weighted imaging arid apparent diffusion coefficient findings from 4 of our patients, which to our knowledge, have not been described in the literature. (author)

  12. Nannizziopsis guarroi infection in 2 Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps): clinical, cytologic, histologic, and ultrastructural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Viviana; Crossland, Nicholas; Brandão, João; Sokolova, Yuliya; Fowlkes, Natalie; Nevarez, Javier G; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Gaunt, Stephen D

    2016-06-01

    Chrysosporium-related infections have been increasingly reported in reptiles over the last 2 decades. In this report, we describe clinical, cytologic, histopathologic, and ultrastructural aspects of Chrysosporium-related infection in 2 Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Case 1 was presented for an enlarging raised lesion over the left eye and multiple additional masses over the dorsum. Case 2 was submitted to necropsy by the referring veterinarian for suspected yellow fungus disease. Impression smears of the nodules in case 1 revealed granulomatous to pyogranulomatous inflammation and many septate, variably long, 4-10 μm wide, often undulated hyphae, and very rare conidia. Postmortem impression smears of the superficial lesions of case 2 contained large numbers of solitary conidia and arthroconidia and low numbers of hyphae with similar morphology to case 1. Histopathology of the 2 cases revealed severe, multifocal, chronic, ulcerative, nodular pyogranulomatous dermatitis, with myriad intralesional septate hyphae, and arthroconidia. Fungal culture and molecular sequencing in both cases indicated infection with Nannizziopsis guarroi. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Coinfection of a bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps, with adenovirus- and dependovirus-like viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, E R; Kopit, W; Kennedy, F A; Funk, R S

    1996-05-01

    Four neonate bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps, from two collections became ill and died. Multiple tissues were collected and processed for light microscopy. In hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of liver of one lizard, numerous basophilic intranuclear inclusions were observed. In three lizards, intranuclear inclusions were primarily seen within enterocytes in the small intestine. A portion of paraffin-embedded liver of one lizard and small intestine of a second lizard were removed, deparaffinized, and examined by electron microscopy. For the most part, inclusions in the liver consisted of nonenveloped viral particles 60-66 nm in diameter. Smaller nonenveloped virions 15-17 nm in diameter were occasionally seen in association with these particles. In the intestine, inclusions consisted only of 60-70 nm particles. Based on morphology and location, the larger particles were consistent with an adenovirus. Based on size and presence within nuclei of host cells coinfected with the adenovirus-like virus, the smaller viral agent was consistent with members of the genus Dependovirus.

  14. Colour change on different body regions provides thermal and signalling advantages in bearded dragon lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Viviana; Porter, Warren P.; Kearney, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Many terrestrial ectotherms are capable of rapid colour change, yet it is unclear how these animals accommodate the multiple functions of colour, particularly camouflage, communication and thermoregulation, especially when functions require very different colours. Thermal benefits of colour change depend on an animal's absorptance of solar energy in both UV–visible (300–700 nm) and near-infrared (NIR; 700–2600 nm) wavelengths, yet colour research has focused almost exclusively on the former. Here, we show that wild-caught bearded dragon lizards (Pogona vitticeps) exhibit substantial UV–visible and NIR skin reflectance change in response to temperature for dorsal but not ventral (throat and upper chest) body regions. By contrast, lizards showed the greatest temperature-independent colour change on the beard and upper chest during social interactions and as a result of circadian colour change. Biophysical simulations of heat transfer predicted that the maximum temperature-dependent change in dorsal reflectivity could reduce the time taken to reach active body temperature by an average of 22 min per active day, saving 85 h of basking time throughout the activity season. Our results confirm that colour change may serve a thermoregulatory function, and competing thermoregulation and signalling requirements may be met by partitioning colour change to different body regions in different circumstances.

  15. Hypoxia progressively lowers thermal gaping thresholds in bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Gerlach, Rebecca M

    2005-09-01

    Most animals, including reptiles, lower body temperature (Tb) under hypoxic conditions. Numerous physiological and behavioural traits significant to the regulation of Tb are altered by hypoxia in ways that suggest an orchestrated adjustment of Tb at a new and lower regulated level. We examined this matter in bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps, a species of reptile that naturally exhibits open mouth gaping at high temperatures, presumably in order to promote evaporation and thus prevent or avoid further increases in Tb. The threshold for the onset of gaping (assessed as the temperature at which lizards spent 50% of their time gaping) was reduced from 36.9 degrees C in normoxia to 35.5 degrees C at 10% and 34.3 degrees C at 6% O2. The overall magnitude or degree of gaping, measured qualitatively, was more pronounced at lower temperatures in hypoxia. Females consistently had lower gaping threshold temperatures than did males, and this difference was retained throughout exposure to hypoxia. In addition to gaping, evaporative water loss from the cloaca may also play a significant role in temperature regulation, since the ambient temperature at which cloacal discharge occurred was also reduced significantly in hypoxia. The results reported herein strongly support the view that hypoxia reduces temperature set-point in lizards and that such changes are coordinated by specific behavioural thermoeffectors that modulate evaporative water loss and thus facilitate a high potential for controlling or modifying Tb.

  16. Lateralized eye use towards video stimuli in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frohnwieser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lateralized eye use is thought to increase brain efficiency, as the two hemispheres process different information perceived by the eyes. It has been observed in a wide variety of vertebrate species and, in general, information about conspecifics appears to elicit a left eye preference whilst information about prey elicits the opposite. In reptiles, this phenomenon has only been investigated using live conspecifics in agonistic contexts, and so it is not clear whether it can be found when using video stimuli. Here, bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps were presented with videos of female conspecifics and prey that either moved or were stationary, along with a control video of an empty background. Females exhibited a left eye bias towards conspecifics but males did not; however, both sexes looked at conspecifics significantly longer than prey. Further, animals used their left eye significantly longer when viewing moving stimuli of both categories. These results suggest that, in lizards, lateralized eye use when viewing conspecifics may be controlled by sex, and strongly influenced by stimulus movement. This study, therefore, provides important insights into the role of lateralized processing in lizard perception, and sets the scene for future work investigating the role of sex on perception of conspecifics and the role of motion in lateralized eye use.

  17. The dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps has ZZ/ZW micro-sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaz, Tariq; Quinn, Alexander E; Miura, Ikuo; Sarre, Stephen D; Georges, Arthur; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2005-01-01

    The bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae: Reptilia) is an agamid lizard endemic to Australia. Like crocodilians and many turtles, temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is common in agamid lizards, although many species have genotypic sex determination (GSD). P. vitticeps is reported to have GSD, but no detectable sex chromosomes. Here we used molecular cytogenetic and differential banding techniques to reveal sex chromosomes in this species. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), GTG- and C-banding identified a highly heterochromatic microchromosome specific to females, demonstrating female heterogamety (ZZ/ZW) in this species. We isolated the P. vitticeps W chromosome by microdissection, re-amplified the DNA and used it to paint the W. No unpaired bivalents were detected in male synaptonemal complexes at meiotic pachytene, confirming male homogamety. We conclude that P. vitticeps has differentiated previously unidentifable W and Z micro-sex chromosomes, the first to be demonstrated in an agamid lizard. Our finding implies that heterochromatinization of the heterogametic chromosome occurred during sex chromosome differentiation in this species, as is the case in some lizards and many snakes, as well as in birds and mammals. Many GSD reptiles with cryptic sex chromosomes may also prove to have micro-sex chromosomes. Reptile microchromosomes, long dismissed as non-functional minutiae and often omitted from karyotypes, therefore deserve closer scrutiny with new and more sensitive techniques.

  18. The diet of free-roaming Australian Central Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van Leeuwen, J P; Hendriks, W H; van der Poel, A F B

    2015-01-01

    The central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) is one of the most popular pet lizards. However, little is known regarding their nutrient requirement, or their natural diet. Therefore, the stomach contents of 14 free-roaming P. vitticeps were determined by flushing. These stomach contents were described taxonomically, and analyzed for crude protein content as well as fatty acid content and composition. Most of the dry matter intake was in the form of animal material (61%) stemming from nine arthropod orders. The most abundant were alates of the termite Drepanotermes sp., accounting for 95% of the total number of prey items and more than half of the total dry matter (DM) intake. Plant material contributed 16% of the total DM intake. The diets were high in crude protein (41-50% DM) and the total fatty acid content was 14-27% of the DM intake. The main fatty acid was C18:1n9c (51-56% of total fatty acids), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3 and n6) comprised 6-8% of the total fat intake. Our data suggest that P. vitticeps is an opportunistic predator, which exploits the seasonal availability of prey. Based on our data and other studies, a diet consisting of several insect species, supplemented with leafy vegetables, rich in n3 FA's, would best resemble the expected natural diet of P. vitticeps. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fiction et forme encyclopédique : Wookieepedia, Dragon Ball Wiki et Cie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Berthou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wookieepedia, Final Fantasy Wiki, Dragon Ball Wiki, Memory Alpha, WoWWiki… Autant d’encyclopédies en ligne abordant de célèbres fictions pour la jeunesse à travers un nombre parfois considérable d’articles abordant toutes sortes de sujets (récits, technologies, personnages, lieux, auteurs, fans…. Que nous apprennent ces dispositifs entendant prendre des fictions au sérieux, c’est-à-dire aborder un domaine relevant de l’imaginaire avec des outils relevant du domaine de la connaissance ? Deux pratiques se dégagent : la référence à des produits culturels prenant des formes fort diverses (romans, bandes dessinées, films, jeux vidéo… et le lien entre les divers articles. Ces deux pratiques montrent comment se développe une expertise quant à une fiction, une capacité à se situer dans une construction imaginaire.

  20. The Culture of Dragon and Lion Dance from the Perspective of Regional Culture%地域文化视野下舞龙舞狮文化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛浩

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes the region culture as a background, the use of literature, logical reasoning and empirical analysis methods to sort out and interpretation of the dragon and lion dance origin,regional culture,specific culture origin traced regional dragon and lion,through the analysis of different local idea and regional folk, derived from different regions of dragon and lion sports and cultural theme, and based on the geographical and cultural theme on the dragon and lion dance routines, the formation of the regional theme dragon and lion culture. From the region culture characteristic and the dragon lion sports culture and the formation of cultural characteristics, combined with the theme of dragon and lion dance, dragon and lion dance derived from the basic feature of culture, the dragon and lion dance culture characteristics show: the dragon and lion dance nationality culture, folk culture of dragon and lion dance dragon dance lion, rich culture,dynamic,dragon and lion dance culture.%以地域文化为背景,运用文献资料、逻辑推理和实证分析等方法对龙狮起源、地域性文化现象进行梳理和解读,追朔地域性龙狮的特定文化(源,通过不同乡土理念与地域民俗的分析,导出不同地域龙狮运动特点与文化主题,并依托于地域文化主题串编舞龙舞狮套路,形成各地域性的主题龙狮文化。从地域文化特点与龙狮运动的文化形成出发,结合龙狮的主题文化特点,衍生出舞龙舞狮文化的基本特征,其舞龙舞狮文化特征表现为:舞龙舞狮文化的民族性,舞龙舞狮文化的民间性,舞龙舞狮文化的丰富性,舞龙舞狮文化的动态性。