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Sample records for wave dispersion ultrasound

  1. Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (LDUV) method for quantifying mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Mitchell, Scott A; Greenleaf, James F [Basic Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2011-04-07

    Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle to supply sufficient stroke volumes under normal physiological conditions and is often accompanied by stiffening of the left-ventricular myocardium. A noninvasive technique capable of quantifying viscoelasticity of the myocardium would be beneficial in clinical settings. Our group has been investigating the use of shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV), a noninvasive ultrasound-based method for quantifying viscoelasticity of soft tissues. The primary motive of this study is the design and testing of viscoelastic materials suitable for validation of the Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (LDUV), an SDUV-based technique for measuring viscoelasticity of tissues with plate-like geometry. We report the results of quantifying viscoelasticity of urethane rubber and gelatin samples using LDUV and an embedded sphere method. The LDUV method was used to excite antisymmetric Lamb waves and measure the dispersion in urethane rubber and gelatin plates. An antisymmetric Lamb wave model was fitted to the wave speed dispersion data to estimate elasticity and viscosity of the materials. A finite element model of a viscoelastic plate submerged in water was used to study the appropriateness of the Lamb wave dispersion equations. An embedded sphere method was used as an independent measurement of the viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin. The FEM dispersion data were in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Viscoelasticity of the urethane rubber and gelatin obtained using the LDUV and embedded sphere methods agreed within one standard deviation. LDUV studies on excised porcine myocardium sample were performed to investigate the feasibility of the approach in preparation for open-chest in vivo studies. The results suggest that the LDUV technique can be used to quantify the mechanical properties of soft tissues with a plate-like geometry.

  2. Lamb wave dispersion and anisotropy profiling of composite plates via non-contact air-coupled and laser ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, M. S.; Yuan, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional ultrasound inspection has been a standard non-destructive testing method for providing an in-service evaluation and noninvasive means of probing the interior of a structure. In particular, measurement of the propagation characteristics of Lamb waves allows inspection of plates that are typical components in aerospace industry. A rapid, complete non-contact hybrid approach for excitation and detection of Lamb waves is presented and applied for non-destructive evaluation of composites. An air-coupled transducer (ACT) excites ultrasonic waves on the surface of a composite plate, generating different propagating Lamb wave modes and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is used to measure the out-of-plane velocity of the plate. This technology, based on direct waveform imaging, focuses on measuring dispersive curves for A0 mode in a composite laminate and its anisotropy. A two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) is applied to out-of-plane velocity data captured experimentally using LDV to go from the time-spatial domain to frequency-wavenumber domain. The result is a 2D array of amplitudes at discrete frequencies and wavenumbers for A0 mode in a given propagation direction along the composite. The peak values of the curve are then used to construct frequency wavenumber and phase velocity dispersion curves, which are also obtained directly using Snell's law and the incident angle of the excited ultrasonic waves. A high resolution and strong correlation between numerical and experimental results are observed for dispersive curves with Snell's law method in comparison to 2D-FFT method. Dispersion curves as well as velocity curves for the composite plate along different directions of wave propagation are measured. The visual read-out of the dispersion curves at different propagation directions as well as the phase velocity curves provide profiling and measurements of the composite anisotropy. The results proved a high sensitivity of the air-coupled and laser

  3. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-12-08

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  4. Nonlinear ultrasound wave propagation in thermoviscous fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter

    Traditional ultrasound theory is based on linear theory, however, for strongly focused sound beams, the pressure levels are sufficiently high to generate nonlinear waves. In thermoviscous fluids nonlinearity arises as a result of a nonlinear equation of state together with nonlinear advection...... is interpreted as a shock wave formation, similar in nature to those of the simple Burgers equation. The results are relevant for medical ultrasound imaging....

  5. QT dispersion and P wave dispersion in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolbaş, Servet; Yıldırım, Ahmet; Düzenci, Deccane; Karakaya, Bülent; Dağlı, Mustafa Necati; Koca, Süleyman Serdar

    2016-12-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain. Somatic complaints associated with the cardiovascular system, such as chest pain and palpitations, are frequently seen in FM patients. P and QT dispersions are simple and inexpensive measurements reflecting the regional heterogeneity of atrial and ventricular repolarization, respectively. QT dispersion can cause serious ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of the present study was to evaluate QT dispersion and P wave dispersion in patients with FM. The study involved 48 FM patients who fulfilled the established criteria and 32 healthy controls (HC). A standard 12-lead electrocardiogram was performed on all participants. QT dispersion was defined as the difference between the longest and the shortest QT intervals. Similarly, the differences between the shortest and longest P waves were defined as P wave dispersion. The QT dispersion and corrected QT dispersion were shorter in the FM group compared with the HC group (pQT and P wave dispersions are not problems in patients with FM. Therefore, it may be concluded that fibromyalgia does not include an increased risk of atrial and/or ventricular arrhythmias.

  6. Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-09-06

    We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel-time inversion, the complicated surface-wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the (kx,ω) domain. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2D or 3D velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is less prone to the cycle skipping problems of full waveform inversion (FWI). The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distribution in laterally heterogeneous media.

  7. Ultrasound visualization using polymer dispersed liquid crystal sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R. S.; Trushkevych, O.; Eriksson, T. J. R.; Ramadas, S. N.; Dixon, S.

    2017-02-01

    The acousto-optic effect in liquid crystals (LCs) has previously been exploited to build large area acoustic sensors for visualising ultrasound fields, opening up the field of acoustography. There is an opportunity to simplify this technique and open new application areas by employing polymer dispersed LC (PDLC) thin films instead of aligned LC layers. In PDLCs, the normally opaque film becomes transparent under the influence of an acoustic field (e.g. when surface acoustic waves are propagating in the material under the film). This is called acoustic clearing and is visible by eye. There is potential for producing ultrasonic sensors which can be `painted on' to a component, giving direct visualisation of the ultrasonic field without requiring scanning. We demonstrate the effect by using PDLC films to characterise a resonant mode of a flexural air-coupled transducer. Visualisation was quick, with a switching time of a few seconds. The effect shows promise for ultrasound sensing applications for transducer characterisation and NDE.

  8. Modeling of Rayleigh wave dispersion in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Badal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase and group velocities of 15–70 s Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian Peninsula have been transformed into local dispersion curves by linear inversion of travel times. The procedure permits that the waveform dispersion to be obtained as a continuous period-dependent velocity function at grid points belonging to the area probed by the waves, thus providing phase- and group-velocity contour maps for several periods within the interval of interest. The regionalization process rests on a homogeneous initial data set in which the number of observations remains almost constant for all periods of reference. Damped least-squares inversion of the local dispersion curves for shear-wave velocity structure is performed to obtain depth-dependent S-wave velocity profiles at the grid points covering the model region. The reliability of the results should improve significantly owing to the use of phase and group velocities simultaneously. On this basis, we have built horizontal depth sections that give an updated view of the seismic velocity structure of the peninsula at lithospheric and upper mantle depths (20–200 km. After averaging all the pure-path S-wave velocities previously determined at each grid point, the velocity-depth models so obtained for major tectonic units allow the comparison between the Hercynian basement and other areas of Mesozoic folding and Tertiary basins.

  9. Increasing vaccine production using pulsed ultrasound waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jida Xing

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a safe and effective approach to prevent deadly diseases. To increase vaccine production, we propose that a mechanical stimulation can enhance protein production. In order to prove this hypothesis, Sf9 insect cells were used to evaluate the increase in the expression of a fusion protein from hepatitis B virus (HBV S1/S2. We discovered that the ultrasound stimulation at a frequency of 1.5 MHz, intensity of 60 mW/cm2, for a duration of 10 minutes per day increased HBV S1/S2 by 27%. We further derived a model for transport through a cell membrane under the effect of ultrasound waves, tested the key assumptions of the model through a molecular dynamics simulation package, NAMD (Nanoscale Molecular Dynamics program and utilized CHARMM force field in a steered molecular dynamics environment. The results show that ultrasound waves can increase cell permeability, which, in turn, can enhance nutrient / waste exchange thus leading to enhanced vaccine production. This finding is very meaningful in either shortening vaccine production time, or increasing the yield of proteins for use as vaccines.

  10. Broadband Acoustic Cloak for Ultrasound Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Xia, Chunguang; Fang, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely, serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Because of the nonresonant nature of the building elements, this low-loss (˜6dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz. Furthermore, our experimental study indicates that this design approach should be scalable to different acoustic frequencies and offers the possibility for a variety of devices based on coordinate transformation.

  11. Absorption and dispersion of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Herzfeld, Karl F; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A

    1959-01-01

    Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves focuses on the influence of ultrasonics on molecular processes in liquids and gases, including hydrodynamics, energy exchange, and chemical reactions. The book first offers information on the Stokes-Navier equations of hydrodynamics, as well as equations of motion, viscosity, formal introduction of volume viscosity, and linearized wave equation for a nonviscous fluid. The manuscript then ponders on energy exchange between internal and external degrees of freedom as relaxation phenomenon; effect of slow energy exchange on sound propagation; differe

  12. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  13. Wideband dispersion reversal of lamb waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; Hu, Bo; Laugier, Pascal; Wang, Weiqi

    2014-06-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely acknowledged as the most promising tools for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). However, because of the multimodal dispersion, the received guided modes usually overlap in both time and frequency, which highly complicates the mode separation and signal interpretation. The time-reversal technique can be used to realize the time recompression of the Lamb waves, but because of the multimode excitation and reception, it still may not be able to remove the mode ambiguity and achieve the pure pulse compression. With the goal of overcoming this limitation, a wideband dispersion reversal (WDR) technique is proposed. The technique makes use of a priori knowledge of the guided dispersion characteristics to synthesize the corresponding dispersion reversal excitations, which are able to selectively excite the self-compensation pure mode pulse. The theoretical basis of the technique is thoroughly described. A two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) method is employed to simulate the propagation of two fundamental Lamb modes, the symmetrical S0 and antisymmetrical A0 modes in a steel plate. The proposed method was verified through experimental investigation. Finally, the advantages and potential applications of the method are briefly discussed.

  14. Generalized dispersive wave emission in nonlinear fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, K E; Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We show that the emission of dispersive waves in nonlinear fiber optics is not limited to soliton-like pulses propagating in the anomalous dispersion regime. We demonstrate, both numerically and experimentally, that pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime can excite resonant dispersive radiation across the zero-dispersion wavelength into the anomalous regime.

  15. Fundamental modes of new dispersive SH-waves in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 5. Fundamental modes of new dispersive SH-waves in ... Fundamental modes of new dispersive shear-horizontal (SH) acoustic waves propagating in the (6 mm) piezoelectromagnetic plate are studied. These SH-waves can propagate when the following ...

  16. P-wave dispersion: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ricardo Pérez-Riera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available P-wave dispersion (PWD, Pd or Pdis is a noninvasive electrocardiographic (ECG marker for atrial remodeling and predictor for atrial fibrillation (AF. PWD is defined as the difference between the widest and the narrowest P-wave duration recorded from the 12 ECG leads. Increased P-wave duration and PWD reflect prolongation of intraatrial and interatrial conduction time with lack of a well-coordinated conduction system within the atrial muscles, with inhomogeneous, asynchronic, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effect mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6 in patients with the CG + GG genotype IL-6 -634C/G polymorphism [1] and discontinuous propagation of sinus impulses mainly between the left and right atria, interstitial/extracellular fibroblast activation and collagen deposition with fibrosis (via TGF-β in atrial tissue, insufficient blood supply, significant not isotropic myoelectric activity, and thin wall thickness and consequent expansion tendency all well-known electrophysiological characteristics in patients with atrial arrhythmias and especially paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF [2].

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Ultrasound Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Sylvia Kay

    The specific aim of this work is to model diagnostic ultrasound under strong acoustic scattering conditions. This work is divided into three main sub-topics. The first concerns the solution of the Helmholtz integral equation in three-dimensions. The Pade approximant method for accelerating the convergence of the Neumann series, first proposed by Chandra and Thompson for two-dimensional acoustic scattering problems, is extended to three-dimensions. Secondly, the propagation of acoustic pulses through a medium that is characterized by spatial variations in compressibility is considered. The medium is excited using an ideal, bandlimited acoustic transducer having a Gaussian radiation profile. The time response is determined by using a spatial Fourier wavenumber decomposition of the incident and scattered pressure fields. Using the Pade approximant method, the pressure is evaluated for each wavenumber at each spatial grid location. By taking the inverse Fourier transform of the result, the temporal and spatial evolution of the pressure field is obtained. The third part examines acoustic wave propagation in simulated soft tissue. Methods for generating spatially correlated random media are discussed and applied to simulating the structure of soft tissue. Simulated sonograms are constructed and the effects of strong scattering are considered.

  18. Dispersion-based short-time Fourier transform applied to dispersive wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin-Chul; Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Yoon Young

    2005-05-01

    Although time-frequency analysis is effective for characterizing dispersive wave signals, the time-frequency tilings of most conventional analysis methods do not take into account dispersion phenomena. An adaptive time-frequency analysis method is introduced whose time-frequency tiling is determined with respect to the wave dispersion characteristics. In the dispersion-based time-frequency tiling, each time-frequency atom is adaptively rotated in the time-frequency plane, depending on the local wave dispersion. Although this idea can be useful in various problems, its application to the analysis of dispersive wave signals has not been made. In this work, the adaptive time-frequency method was applied to the analysis of dispersive elastic waves measured in waveguide experiments and a theoretical investigation on its time-frequency resolution was presented. The time-frequency resolution of the proposed transform was then compared with that of the standard short-time Fourier transform to show its effectiveness in dealing with dispersive wave signals. In addition, to facilitate the adaptive time-frequency analysis of experimentally measured signals whose dispersion relations are not known, an iterative scheme for determining the relationships was developed. The validity of the present approach in dealing with dispersive waves was verified experimentally. .

  19. Dispersion of P wave duration and P wave vector in patients with atrial septal aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janion, Marianna; Kurzawski, Jacek; Sielski, Janusz; Ciuraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Sadowski, Marcin; Radomska, Edyta

    2007-07-01

    Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) may be involved in the genesis of atrial arrhythmias as a consequence of disturbances in the propagation of depolarization, which may be easily assessed by P wave dispersion measurement. The aim of this study is to assess the dispersion of P wave duration and P wave vector in patients with ASA and to determine the effect of associated interatrial shunt on the magnitude of P wave dispersion. The study population consisted of 23 healthy volunteers and 88 patients with ASA base more than 15 mm and protrusion more than 7.5 mm. The size of aneurysms and atria was determined by echocardiography and P wave dispersion was measured on the surface ECG. In ASA patients, dispersion of P wave duration was significantly increased when compared with healthy controls (7.8 +/- 12.1 vs. 3.7 +/- 3.5 ms; P wave vector was also significantly increased (8.5 +/- 10.1 degrees vs. 4.6 +/- 3.6 degrees ; P wave duration and P wave vector. Variation in P wave duration was significantly correlated with the dispersion of P wave vector and age of these patients. Dispersion of P wave vector was significantly decreased in ASA patients with interatrial shunt. P wave dispersion in ASA patients may predispose to the development of atrial arrhythmias.

  20. Wave equation dispersion inversion using a difference approximation to the dispersion-curve misfit gradient

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2016-07-26

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh wave dispersion curve using a difference approximation to the gradient of the misfit function. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the skeletonized dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the multi-dimensional elastic wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Our method can invert for lateral velocity variations and also can mitigate the local minimum problem in full waveform inversion with a reasonable computation cost for simple models. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  1. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  2. Single-mode dispersive waves and soliton microcomb dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xu; Zhang, Xueyue; Yang, Ki Youl; Vahala, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative Kerr solitons are self-sustaining optical wavepackets in resonators. They use the Kerr nonlinearity to both compensate dispersion and to offset optical loss. Besides providing insights into nonlinear resonator physics, they can be applied in frequency metrology, precision clocks, and spectroscopy. Like other optical solitons, the dissipative Kerr soliton can radiate power in the form of a dispersive wave through a process that is the optical analogue of Cherenkov radiation. Dispersive waves typically consist of an ensemble of optical modes. A limiting case is demonstrated in which the dispersive wave is concentrated into a single cavity mode. In this limit, its interaction with the soliton is shown to induce bistable behavior in the spectral and temporal properties of the soliton. Also, an operating point of enhanced repetition-rate stability is predicted and observed. The single-mode dispersive wave can therefore provide quiet states of soliton comb operation useful in many applications.

  3. Duplex ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular ultrasound; Peripheral vascular ultrasound ... A duplex ultrasound combines: Traditional ultrasound: This uses sound waves that bounce off blood vessels to create pictures. Doppler ultrasound: This ...

  4. Theoretical and experimental investigation of surface acoustic wave propagation on a hollow spherical shell using laser ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Tang, Xing; Wang, Zongwei; Gao, Dangzhong; Tang, Yongjian

    2016-12-01

    An analytical model of surface acoustic waves on the surface of a hollow spherical shell generated by a pulsed laser source is proposed using the Legendre polynomials expansion and contour integration method. The model predicts two interesting phenomena. The dispersive characteristic of thick spherical shells is mainly determined by the spherical Rayleigh waves, but the corresponding characteristic of thin spherical shells is dominated by zero-order anti-symmetric plate waves; The hollow spherical spheres with the same ratio of thickness to radius have the same dispersive characteristic. Using laser ultrasound technique, the proposed model is confirmed experimentally on a hollow polymer sphere of mm-sized diameter.

  5. Mathematical models for dispersive electromagnetic waves: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Cassier, Maxence; Joly, Patrick; Kachanovska, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigate mathematical models for electromagnetic wave propagation in dispersive isotropic media. We emphasize the link between physical requirements and mathematical properties of the models. A particular attention is devoted to the notion of non-dissipativity and passivity. We consider successively the case of so-called local media and general passive media. The models are studied through energy techniques, spectral theory and dispersion analysis of plane waves. For makin...

  6. Acoustic Wave Dispersion and Scattering in Complex Marine Sediment Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Acoustic wave dispersion and scattering in complex marine sediment structures Charles W. Holland The Pennsylvania State University Applied...shear waves on dispersion in marine sediments . The first step will be development of the theory. WORK COMPLETED A brief summary of the work...propagation and scattering in the seabed. OBJECTIVES The objectives are to advance understanding of 1) the nature and mechanisms leading to sediment

  7. Amplitude Dispersion Compensation for Damage Detection Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zeng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Besides the phase and group velocities, the amplitude of guided wave mode is also frequency dependent. This amplitude dispersion also influences the performance of guided wave methods in nondestructive evaluation (NDE and structural health monitoring (SHM. In this paper, the effects of amplitude dispersion to the spectrum and waveform of a propagating wave-packet are investigated. It is shown that the amplitude dispersion results in distortion in the spectrum of guided wave response, and thus influences the waveform of the wave-packet. To remove these effects, an amplitude dispersion compensation method is established on the basis of Vold–Kalman filter and Taylor series expansion. The performance of that method is then investigated by experimental examples. The results show that with the application of the amplitude dispersion compensation, the time reversibility could be preserved, which ensures the applicability of the time reversal method for damage detection. Besides, through amplitude dispersion compensation, the testing resolution of guided waves could be improved, so that the structural features located in the close proximity may be separately identified.

  8. Ionospheric effects of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves: Dispersion relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. Michael; Ostrovsky, Lev A.; Bedard, Alfred J.

    2017-06-01

    There is extensive evidence for ionospheric effects associated with earthquake-related atmospheric disturbances. Although the existence of earthquake precursors is controversial, one suggested method of detecting possible earthquake precursors and tsunamis is by observing possible ionospheric effects of atmospheric waves generated by such events. To study magneto-acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere, we have derived a general dispersion relation including the effects of the Earth's magnetic field. This dispersion relation can be used in a general atmospheric ray tracing program to calculate the propagation of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves from the ground to the ionosphere. The presence of the Earth's magnetic field in the ionosphere can radically change the dispersion properties of the wave. The general dispersion relation obtained here reduces to the known dispersion relations for magnetoacoustic waves and acoustic-gravity waves in the corresponding particular cases. The work described here is the first step in achieving a generalized ray tracing program permitting propagation studies of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves.

  9. Variational Boussinesq model for strongly nonlinear dispersive waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrence, C.; Adytia, D.; van Groesen, E.

    2018-01-01

    For wave tank, coastal and oceanic applications, a fully nonlinear Variational Boussinesq model with optimized dispersion is derived and a simple Finite Element implementation is described. Improving a previous weakly nonlinear version, high waves over flat and varying bottom are shown to be

  10. Rogue and shock waves in nonlinear dispersive media

    CERN Document Server

    Resitori, Stefania; Baronio, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained set of lectures addresses a gap in the literature by providing a systematic link between the theoretical foundations of the subject matter and cutting-edge applications in both geophysical fluid dynamics and nonlinear optics. Rogue and shock waves are phenomena that may occur in the propagation of waves in any nonlinear dispersive medium. Accordingly, they have been observed in disparate settings – as ocean waves, in nonlinear optics, in Bose-Einstein condensates, and in plasmas. Rogue and dispersive shock waves are both characterized by the development of extremes: for the former, the wave amplitude becomes unusually large, while for the latter, gradients reach extreme values. Both aspects strongly influence the statistical properties of the wave propagation and are thus considered together here in terms of their underlying theoretical treatment. This book offers a self-contained graduate-level text intended as both an introduction and reference guide for a new generation of scientists ...

  11. The dispersion of magnetic-Coriolis waves in planetary cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, O. P.; Davidson, P. A.

    2017-07-01

    We consider the dispersion of waves in a rapidly rotating, Boussinesq fluid which is threaded by a magnetic field and stirred by slowly gravitating buoyant blobs. Motivated by dynamics in the core of the Earth, we focus on the evolution of inertial-Alfvén wave packets radiated from the buoyant anomalies. These waves resemble conventional low-frequency inertial waves, in the sense that energy disperses on the fast timescale of the background rotation rate, though they also exhibit slower Alfvén-like propagation along magnetic field lines. When the magnetic field is uniform, inertial-Alfvén waves automatically focus energy radiation onto the rotation axis, a property they share with conventional low-frequency inertial waves in the hydrodynamic case, and which ensures that they dominate the dispersion pattern. However, the situation changes significantly when the magnetic field, B, is non-uniform. In particular, we show any non-uniformity of B causes inertial-Alfvén waves to evolve into a more general form of magnetic-Coriolis (MC) wave, and that these waves refract, dispersing somewhat off-axis. Moreover, if inertial-Alfvén waves are launched near the equator they can be confined to low latitudes by a critical layer at which the axial group velocity drops to zero. Given that the magnetic field in a planetary core is inevitably non-uniform, we conclude that quasi-geostrophy is most likely achieved through a combination of weakly modified inertial waves and a form of slightly off-axis MC wave in which the inertial and Alfvén frequencies are comparable.

  12. Dispersive shock waves in nonlinear and atomic optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamchatnov Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review is given of dispersive shock waves observed in nonlinear optics and dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. The theory of dispersive shock waves is developed on the basis of Whitham modulation theory for various situations taking place in these two fields. In particular, the full classification is established for types of wave structures evolving from initial discontinuities for propagation of long light pulses in fibers with account of steepening effect and for dynamics of the polarization mode in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.

  13. Wakefield and wave propagation at non-linear dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, A V

    2002-01-01

    Synchronous wakefield excitation and wave propagation along a dispersive slow-wave structure is considered. An explicit form for wakefields is obtained for a single bunch in the second and third approximations of dispersion while taking into account the effect of substantial group velocity with respect to charge velocity. Generalized differential equations describing diffused fields induced by a beam current or generated by an external source are derived. Field excitation and propagation near the cut-off is considered including trapped modes in the stopband. This theory can be applied to the fields induced by single bunch and bunch train in Standing Wave and Traveling Wave devices operating near pi-mode, self-consistent beam break-up simulations, RF-generation, pulse propagation, and breakdown study in waveguides as well as some of new methods of acceleration in a dispersive medium.

  14. Propagation and dispersion of shock waves in magnetoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, R. S.; Domann, J. P.; Carman, G. P.; Gupta, V.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies examining the response of magnetoelastic materials to shock waves have predominantly focused on applications involving pulsed power generation, with limited attention given to the actual wave propagation characteristics. This study provides detailed magnetic and mechanical measurements of magnetoelastic shock wave propagation and dispersion. Laser generated rarefacted shock waves exceeding 3 GPa with rise times of 10 ns were introduced to samples of the magnetoelastic material Galfenol. The resulting mechanical measurements reveal the evolution of the shock into a compressive acoustic front with lateral release waves. Importantly, the wave continues to disperse even after it has decayed into an acoustic wave, due in large part to magnetoelastic coupling. The magnetic data reveal predominantly shear wave mediated magnetoelastic coupling, and were also used to noninvasively measure the wave speed. The external magnetic field controlled a 30% increase in wave propagation speed, attributed to a 70% increase in average stiffness. Finally, magnetic signals propagating along the sample over 20× faster than the mechanical wave were measured, indicating these materials can act as passive antennas that transmit information in response to mechanical stimuli.

  15. Spatial Statistics of Deep-Water Ambient Noise; Dispersion Relations for Sound Waves and Shear Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Propeller noise from a light aircraft for low-frequency measurements of the speed of sound in a marine sediment,” J. Comp. Acoust., 10 (4), 445-464...Dispersion Relations for Sound Waves and Shear Waves Michael J. Buckingham Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography University...propagation in saturated, unconsolidated marine sediments. New focus is on: 1) the dispersion associated with a frequency power law attenuation; 2) wave

  16. Conical dispersion of Lamb waves in elastic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbe, David M.; Murray, Todd W.

    2017-10-01

    Guided elastic waves in homogeneous isotropic plates exhibit conical dispersion at zero wave number for discrete values of Poisson's ratio where accidental degeneracy between longitudinal and transverse thickness resonances occur. Waves excited at the coincidence frequency have the infinite phase velocity associated with thickness mode resonances, but the group velocity remains finite. This leads to propagating waves that oscillate in time but are spatially uniform over the plate surface. Here, accidental degeneracy is induced in an aluminum plate by cooling the plate to tune the Poisson's ratio through the degenerate point. We measure linear dispersion in the transition from forward to backward propagating waves near zero wave number. In addition, we demonstrate that waves generated near the coincidence frequency exhibit spatially uniform phase over the plate surface, and show angle independent mode conversion upon encountering the free edge of the plate. We propose that elastic plates offer a simple system to explore the physics of conical dispersion at zero wave number, and that this phenomenon may find application in acoustic devices and nondestructive testing.

  17. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reflect off body structures. A computer receives the waves and uses them to create a picture. Unlike with an x-ray or CT scan, this test does not use ionizing radiation. The test is done in the ultrasound ...

  18. Mathematical models for dispersive electromagnetic waves: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Cassier, Maxence; Joly, Patrick; Kachanovska, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this work, we investigate mathematical models for electromagnetic wave propagation in dispersive isotropic media. We emphasize the link between physical requirements and mathematical properties of the models. A particular attention is devoted to the notion of non-dissipativity and passivity. We consider successively the case of so-called local media and general passive media. The models are studied through energy techniques, spectral theory and dispersion analysis o...

  19. Curvature-Induced Asymmetric Spin-Wave Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora, Jorge A.; Yan, Ming; Schultheiss, Helmut; Hertel, Riccardo; Kákay, Attila

    2016-11-01

    In magnonics, spin waves are conceived of as electron-charge-free information carriers. Their wave behavior has established them as the key elements to achieve low power consumption, fast operative rates, and good packaging in magnon-based computational technologies. Hence, knowing alternative ways that reveal certain properties of their undulatory motion is an important task. Here, we show using micromagnetic simulations and analytical calculations that spin-wave propagation in ferromagnetic nanotubes is fundamentally different than in thin films. The dispersion relation is asymmetric regarding the sign of the wave vector. It is a purely curvature-induced effect and its fundamental origin is identified to be the classical dipole-dipole interaction. The analytical expression of the dispersion relation has the same mathematical form as in thin films with the Dzyalonshiinsky-Moriya interaction. Therefore, this curvature-induced effect can be seen as a "dipole-induced Dzyalonshiinsky-Moriya-like" effect.

  20. Plane-Wave Imaging Challenge in Medical Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebgott, Herve; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-01-01

    Plane-Wave imaging enables very high frame rates, up to several thousand frames per second. Unfortunately the lack of transmit focusing leads to reduced image quality, both in terms of resolution and contrast. Recently, numerous beamforming techniques have been proposed to compensate...... for this effect, but comparing the different methods is difficult due to the lack of appropriate tools. PICMUS, the Plane-Wave Imaging Challenge in Medical Ultrasound aims to provide these tools. This paper describes the PICMUS challenge, its motivation, implementation, and metrics....

  1. QT Dispersion and T Wave Peak–to–end Interval Dispersion in Children with Kawasaki Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Amoozgar; Maryam Ahmadipour; Anis Amirhakimi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main complication of Kawasaki disease is the Coronary Artery (CA) involvement and long term follow up of patients depends on the severity of coronary arterial aneurysms, ischemia, and thrombosis. Early diagnosis of these complications can lead to a more desirable outcome for patients. Myocardial ischemia can prolong QT dispersion and increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias as well as sudden cardiac arrests. Also, T wave peak–to–end (Tp-Te) interval dispersion, which provides ...

  2. Evolution of Modulated Dispersive Electron Waves in a Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugai, H.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1979-01-01

    The linear propagation of amplitude-modulated electron waves was examined in a low-density Q-machine plasma. Three effects of the strong dispersion on the modulated wave have been demonstrated: (i) a wavepacket expands along its direction of propagation, followed by a shift of the frequency through...... the wavepacket, (ii) the number of oscillations in the temporally observed packet is not identical with that in the spatially observed packet and (iii) continuously modulated waves exhibit recurrence of modulation. The experimental results agree with both a simple analysis based on the Schrodinger equation...

  3. Defocusing regimes of nonlinear waves in media with negative dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Kuznetsov, E.A.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Defocusing regimes of quasimonochromatic waves governed by a nonlinear Schrodinger equation with mixed-sign dispersion are investigated. For a power-law nonlinearity, we show that localized solutions to this equation defined at the so-called critical dimension cannot collapse in finite time...

  4. Creation evidence of the second non-dispersive Zakharenko wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, the experimental results of the creation of the second non-dispersive Zakharenko wave (ph = g ≠ 0) in the negative roton branch (the so-called second sound) of the bulk elementary excitations (BEEs) energy spectra are introduced. Several BEE signals detected by a bolometer situated in the isotopically ...

  5. Waves of seed propagation induced by delayed animal dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierski, Laila D; Kuperman, Marcelo N; Wio, Horacio S; Abramson, Guillermo

    2018-01-07

    We study a model of seed dispersal that considers the inclusion of an animal disperser moving diffusively, feeding on fruits and transporting the seeds, which are later deposited and capable of germination. The dynamics depends on several population parameters of growth, decay, harvesting, transport, digestion and germination. In particular, the deposition of transported seeds at places away from their collection sites produces a delay in the dynamics, whose effects are the focus of this work. Analytical and numerical solutions of different simplified scenarios show the existence of travelling waves. The effect of zoochory is apparent in the increase of the velocity of these waves. The results support the hypothesis of the relevance of animal mediated seed dispersion when trying to understand the origin of the high rates of vegetable invasion observed in real systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Histoscanning and shear wave ultrasound elastography for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Amosov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The shear wave ultrasound elastography is a recently developed ultrasound-based method in the clinical practice, which allows the qualitative visual and quantitative measurements of tissue stiffness. In the 2010 this technology of the shear wave was called Shear Wave Elastograhpy. Due to the front of the shear waves the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the tissue stiffness is possible.Objective is to examine the efficacy of the shear wave ultrasound elastography in the evaluation of the prevalence of the oncological disease in patients with the prostate cancer and to compare the obtained results with the routine method X-ray diagnostics.Materials and methods. From the april 2015 in the I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University Urology Clinic there were conducted 314 shear wave ultrasound elastography examinations of the prostate. The ultrasound system Aixplorer® by SuperSonic Imagine was used. This system provides information provided by B-mode and shear wave ultrasound elastography mode. The transrectal echograms were made in 6 dimensions, so called Q-boxes (3 demensions in the every lobe on the segments from the base to the apex, according to the biopsy zone. The unit of measurement was the mean value in the kilopaskals (kPa. All the patients were randomized into 3 groups. There were 146 men with the possible prostate cancer in the first group (prospective study, 120 men with the certain diagnosis of the prostate cancer in the second group (retrospective study and 48 healthy men in the third group (control study. In all the patients of the first and the second groups the routine complete examination, including the prostate specific antigen (PSA level examination, digital rectal examination (DRE, doppler transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS, histoscanning and ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE, was conducted. In the 229 patients of the first and the second groups the prostatectomy with the

  7. Dynamics of Dispersive Wave Generation in Gas-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber with the Normal Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of Raman and unique pressure-tunable dispersion is the characteristic feature of gas-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF, and its zero dispersion points can be extended to the near-infrared by increasing gas pressure. The generation of dispersive wave (DW in the normal group velocity dispersion (GVD region of PCF is investigated. It is demonstrated that considering the self-steepening (SS and introducing the chirp of the initial input pulse are two suitable means to control the DW generation. The SS enhances the relative average intensity of blue-shift DW while weakening that of red-shift DW. The required propagation distance of DW emission is markedly varied by introducing the frequency chirp. Manipulating DW generation in gas-filled PCF by the combined effects of either SS or chirp and three-order dispersion (TOD provides a method for a concentrated transfer of energy into the targeted wavelengths.

  8. Some aspects of dispersive horizons: lessons from surface waves

    CERN Document Server

    Chaline, J; Maïssa, P; Rousseaux, G

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic surface waves propagating on a moving background flow experience an effective curved space-time. We discuss experiments with gravity waves and capillary-gravity waves in which we study hydrodynamic black/white-hole horizons and the possibility of penetrating across them. Such possibility of penetration is due to the interaction with an additional "blue" horizon, which results from the inclusion of surface tension in the low-frequency gravity-wave theory. This interaction leads to a dispersive cusp beyond which both horizons completely disappear. We speculate the appearance of high-frequency "superluminal" corrections to be a universal characteristic of analogue gravity systems, and discuss their relevance for the trans-Planckian problem. We also discuss the role of Airy interference in hybridising the incoming waves with the flowing background (the effective spacetime) and blurring the position of the black/white-hole horizon.

  9. Nonlinear waves in electromigration dispersion in a capillary

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact solutions to an unusual nonlinear advection--diffusion equation arising in the study of Taylor--Aris (also known as shear) dispersion due to electroosmotic flow during electromigration in a capillary. An exact reduction to a Darboux equation is found under a traveling-wave anzats. The equilibria of this ordinary differential equation are analyzed, showing that their stability is determined solely by the (dimensionless) wave speed without regard to any (dimensionless) physical parameters. Integral curves, connecting the appropriate equilibria of the Darboux equation that governs traveling waves, are constructed, which in turn are shown to be asymmetric kink solutions ({\\it i.e.}, non-Taylor shocks). Furthermore, it is shown that the governing Darboux equation exhibits bistability, which leads to two coexisting non-negative kink solutions for (dimensionless) wave speeds greater than unity. Finally, we give some remarks on other types of traveling-wave solutions and a discussion of some approx...

  10. Modal analysis of wave propagation in dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, M. Ismail; Gralak, B.

    2018-01-01

    Surveys on wave propagation in dispersive media have been limited since the pioneering work of Sommerfeld [Ann. Phys. 349, 177 (1914), 10.1002/andp.19143491002] by the presence of branches in the integral expression of the wave function. In this article a method is proposed to eliminate these critical branches and hence to establish a modal expansion of the time-dependent wave function. The different components of the transient waves are physically interpreted as the contributions of distinct sets of modes and characterized accordingly. Then, the modal expansion is used to derive a modified analytical expression of the Sommerfeld precursor improving significantly the description of the amplitude and the oscillating period up to the arrival of the Brillouin precursor. The proposed method and results apply to all waves governed by the Helmholtz equations.

  11. Dispersive Evolution of Nonlinear Fast Magnetoacoustic Wave Trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M., E-mail: D.J.Pascoe@warwick.ac.uk [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-01

    Quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wave trains are frequently observed in extreme ultraviolet observations of the solar corona, or are inferred by the quasi-periodic modulation of radio emission. The dispersive nature of fast magnetohydrodynamic waves in coronal structures provides a robust mechanism to explain the detected quasi-periodic patterns. We perform 2D numerical simulations of impulsively generated wave trains in coronal plasma slabs and investigate how the behavior of the trapped and leaky components depend on the properties of the initial perturbation. For large amplitude compressive perturbations, the geometrical dispersion associated with the waveguide suppresses the nonlinear steepening for the trapped wave train. The wave train formed by the leaky components does not experience dispersion once it leaves the waveguide and so can steepen and form shocks. The mechanism we consider can lead to the formation of multiple shock fronts by a single, large amplitude, impulsive event and so can account for quasi-periodic features observed in radio spectra.

  12. Lamb wave interactions through dispersion 2D filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L.; Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Caplain, E.; Sarens, B.; Glorieux, C.

    2012-03-01

    Acoustic surface waves are widely used to sense and map the properties of the propagation media. In order to characterise local space-time waves, methods such as Gabor analysis are powerful. Nevertheless, knowing which wave is observed, extracting its full bandwidth contribution from the others and to map it in the signal domain is also of great interest. In the Fourier domain, the acoustic energy of a wave is concentrated along the wave-number frequency (k-ω) dispersion curve, a way to extract one wave from others is to filter the signals by mean of k-ω band-pass area that keeps only the selected surface wave. The objective of the present paper is to propose 2D Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters based on an arbitrary area shape designed to extract selected waves. FIR filtering is based on convolving the impulse response of the filter with the signals. Impulse responses derived from using k-ω elliptical areas (E-FIR) are presented. The E-FIR filters are successfully tested on three experimental space-time signals corresponding to the propagation of Lamb waves measured by standard transducers on a cylindrical shell, by laser Doppler on a plate and generated by a circular pulse and observed by shearography on a rectangular plate.

  13. Wave-equation dispersion inversion of surface waves recorded on irregular topography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-08-17

    Significant topographic variations will strongly influence the amplitudes and phases of propagating surface waves. Such effects should be taken into account, otherwise the S-velocity model inverted from the Rayleigh dispersion curves will contain significant inaccuracies. We now show that the recently developed wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) method naturally takes into account the effects of topography to give accurate S-velocity tomograms. Application of topographic WD to demonstrates that WD can accurately invert dispersion curves from seismic data recorded over variable topography. We also apply this method to field data recorded on the crest of mountainous terrain and find with higher resolution than the standard WD tomogram.

  14. Width-modulated square-wave pulses for ultrasound applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter R; Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven

    2013-11-01

    A method of output pressure control for ultrasound transducers using switched excitation is described. The method generates width-modulated square-wave pulse sequences that are suitable for driving ultrasound transducers using MOSFETs or similar devices. Sequences are encoded using an optimized level-shifted, carrier-comparison, pulse-width modulation (PWM) strategy derived from existing PWM theory, and modified specifically for ultrasound applications. The modifications are: a reduction in carrier frequency so that the smallest number of pulses are generated and minimal switching is necessary; alteration of a linear carrier form to follow a trigonometric relationship in accordance with the expected fundamental output; and application of frequency modulation to the carrier when generating frequency-modulated, amplitude- tapered signals. The PWM method permits control of output pressure for arbitrary waveform sequences at diagnostic frequencies (approximately 5 MHz) when sampled at 100 MHz, and is applicable to pulse shaping and array apodization. Arbitrary waveform generation capability is demonstrated in simulation using convolution with a transducer's impulse response, and experimentally with hydrophone measurement. Benefits in coded imaging are demonstrated when compared with fixed-width square-wave (pseudo-chirp) excitation in coded imaging, including reduction in image artifacts and peak side-lobe levels for two cases, showing 10 and 8 dB reduction in peak side-lobe level experimentally, compared with 11 and 7 dB reduction in simulation. In all cases, the experimental observations correlate strongly with simulated data.

  15. Dispersion analysis for waves propagated in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesniak, A.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Dispersion of velocity is defined as a variation of the phase velocity with frequency. This paper describes the dispersion analysis of compressional body waves propagated in the heterogeneous fractured media. The new method proposed and discussed here permitted the evaluation of the variation in P wave arrival with frequency. For this processing method, any information about the attenuation of the medium are not required, and only an assumption of weak heterogeneity is important. It was shown that different mechanisms of dispersion can be distinguished and its value can be quantitatively estimated. Although the frequency used in this study was lower than those in most previous experiments reported in literature, the evaluated dispersion was large. It was suggested that such a large dispersion may be caused by the velocity structure of the media studied and by frequency dependent processes in a highly fractured zone. It was demonstrated that the present method can be used in the evaluation of subsurface fracture systems or characterization of any kind of heterogeneities. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Increased P wave dispersion in patients with liver steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aparci

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim Hepatic steatosis is associated with metabolic and hemodynamicabnormalities induced by insulin resistance and inflammatory state. Since abnormalities of P wave dispersion may be accompanied with latter issues we evaluated this subject in patients with hepatic steatosis. Methods Total of 106 patients and 56 healthy subjects were enrolled and performed hepatic ultrasonography, echocardiography, electrocardiogram, and biochemistry tests. Clinical features, laboratory and echocardiographic parameters, P wave dispersion were compared between groups and analyzed for any correlation among parameters. Results Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, levels of total and LDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose (FBG, and left atrial diameter were significantly higher in patients with hepatic steatosis. Peak velocities of mitral E and A waves and their ratio were abnormally changed in patients compared to normals. In multiple linear regression analysis, approximately all of the variables previously correlated within Pearsons’ correlation test were found to be significantly correlated with P wave dispersion [ waist circumference (ß=0.151, p=0.048, LDL cholesterol (ß=0.234, p=0.000, FBG (ß=0.402, p= 0.000, alanine aminotransferase (ALT (ß=0.205, p= 0.006, alkaline phosphatase (ALP (ß=0.277, p=0.000, γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT (ß=0.240, p=0.000, left atrial diameter (ß=0.204, p=0.003, heart rate (ß=0.123, p=0.037]. Conclusion Increased P wave dispersion may indicate a risk of atrial arrhythmia which may be complicated with disabling symptoms and thromboembolism in patients with hepatic steatosis. Consequently, hepatic steatosis is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease due to metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalitiesprobably induced by insulin resistance and inflammatory state.

  17. Lyapunov exponents and particle dispersion in drift wave turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Hasegawa-Wakatani model equations for resistive drift waves are solved numerically for a range of values of the coupling due to the parallel electron motion. The largest Lyapunov exponent, lambda(1), is calculated to quantify the unpredictability of the turbulent flow and compared to other...... characteristic inverse time scales of the turbulence such as the linear growth rate and Lagrangian inverse time scales obtained by tracking virtual fluid particles. The results show a correlation between lambda(1) and the relative dispersion exponent, lambda(p), as well as to the inverse Lagrangian integral time...... contribute most to the relative dispersion of particles. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....

  18. A heterogeneous nonlinear attenuating full-wave model of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Gianmarco F; Dahl, Jeremy; Rosenzweig, Stephen; Trahey, Gregg E

    2009-03-01

    A full-wave equation that describes nonlinear propagation in a heterogeneous attenuating medium is solved numerically with finite differences in the time domain (FDTD). Three-dimensional solutions of the equation are verified with water tank measurements of a commercial diagnostic ultrasound transducer and are shown to be in excellent agreement in terms of the fundamental and harmonic acoustic fields and the power spectrum at the focus. The linear and nonlinear components of the algorithm are also verified independently. In the linear nonattenuating regime solutions match results from Field II, a well established software package used in transducer modeling, to within 0.3 dB. Nonlinear plane wave propagation is shown to closely match results from the Galerkin method up to 4 times the fundamental frequency. In addition to thermoviscous attenuation we present a numerical solution of the relaxation attenuation laws that allows modeling of arbitrary frequency dependent attenuation, such as that observed in tissue. A perfectly matched layer (PML) is implemented at the boundaries with a numerical implementation that allows the PML to be used with high-order discretizations. A -78 dB reduction in the reflected amplitude is demonstrated. The numerical algorithm is used to simulate a diagnostic ultrasound pulse propagating through a histologically measured representation of human abdominal wall with spatial variation in the speed of sound, attenuation, nonlinearity, and density. An ultrasound image is created in silico using the same physical and algorithmic process used in an ultrasound scanner: a series of pulses are transmitted through heterogeneous scattering tissue and the received echoes are used in a delay-and-sum beam-forming algorithm to generate a images. The resulting harmonic image exhibits characteristic improvement in lesion boundary definition and contrast when compared with the fundamental image. We demonstrate a mechanism of harmonic image quality

  19. Unstructured Spectral Element Model for Dispersive and Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes; Bigoni, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    ). In the present paper we use a single layer of quadratic (in 2D) and prismatic (in 3D) elements. The model has been stabilized through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild modal filter. We present numerical tests of nonlinear waves serving as a proof-of-concept validation......We introduce a new stabilized high-order and unstructured numerical model for modeling fully nonlinear and dispersive water waves. The model is based on a nodal spectral element method of arbitrary order in space and a -transformed formulation due to Cai, Langtangen, Nielsen and Tveito (1998...

  20. On the propagation of truncated localized waves in dispersive silica

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica and free space are numerically analyzed. It is shown that those characteristics are affected by the changes in the relation between the transverse spatial spectral components and the wave vector. Numerical experiments demonstrate that as the non-linearity of this relation gets stronger, the pulses propagating in silica become more immune to decay and distortion whereas the pulses propagating in free-space suffer from early decay and distortion. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  1. Dispersion-Engineered Traveling Wave Kinetic Inductance Parametric Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas (Inventor); Day, Peter K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier comprises a superconducting transmission line and a dispersion control element. The transmission line can include periodic variations of its dimension along its length. The superconducting material can include a high normal state resistivity material. In some instances the high normal state resistivity material includes nitrogen and a metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, niobium and vanadium. The traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier is expected to exhibit a noise temperature below 100 mK/GHz.

  2. Stolt's f-k migration for plane wave ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Damien; Le Tarnec, Louis; Muth, Stéphan; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Porée, Jonathan; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound is an emerging modality that offers new perspectives and opportunities in medical imaging. Plane wave imaging (PWI) allows one to attain very high frame rates by transmission of planar ultrasound wave-fronts. As a plane wave reaches a given scatterer, the latter becomes a secondary source emitting upward spherical waves and creating a diffraction hyperbola in the received RF signals. To produce an image of the scatterers, all the hyperbolas must be migrated back to their apexes. To perform beamforming of plane wave echo RFs and return high-quality images at high frame rates, we propose a new migration method carried out in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain. The f-k migration for PWI has been adapted from the Stolt migration for seismic imaging. This migration technique is based on the exploding reflector model (ERM), which consists in assuming that all the scatterers explode in concert and become acoustic sources. The classical ERM model, however, is not appropriate for PWI. We showed that the ERM can be made suitable for PWI by a spatial transformation of the hyperbolic traces present in the RF data. In vitro experiments were performed to outline the advantages of PWI with Stolt's f-k migration over the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) approach. The Stolt's f-k migration was also compared with the Fourier-based method developed by J.-Y. Lu. Our findings show that multi-angle compounded f-k migrated images are of quality similar to those obtained with a stateof- the-art dynamic focusing mode. This remained true even with a very small number of steering angles, thus ensuring a highly competitive frame rate. In addition, the new FFT-based f-k migration provides comparable or better contrast-to-noise ratio and lateral resolution than the Lu's and DAS migration schemes. Matlab codes for the Stolt's f-k migration for PWI are provided.

  3. Effect of CABG on P-wave Dispersion and the Relationship between AF and P-wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Khosropanah

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a common complication after CABG. It is associated with doubling ofmortality rate and increased incidence of CHF, MI, renal insufficiency, and stroke which prolongs hospital stayand is associated with increased rate of re-hospitalization.In this study we examined the effect of CABG on atrial electrophysiology as reflected by P-wave dispersion.Patients and Methods: A total of 197 consecutive patients undergoing elective CABG due to CAD were monitoredfor 4 days in hospital and their daily ECGs were obtained. .Differences in P-wave dispersions were comparedbetween the patients who developed AF and those maintaining sinus rhythms.Results: Post-operative AF occurred in 18.2% of patients, who showed statistically significant increase of Pwave duration, in lead aVL of pre-op ECG (79.4±25.0 vs 70.1±22.4; P = 0.032. In addition, P wave dispersionwas significantly increased on first and third days of post-op period (77.2±22.0 vs 67.5±22.2; P=0.018 and(69.4±22.7 vs 61.1±20.3; P= 0.035 respectively, in those developing AF rhythm compared to patients remainingin sinus rhythm .Conclusion: Our result indicates that P-wave dispersion is a risk factor for development of AF in patients undergoingCABG.

  4. Modeling Gravitational Waves to Test GR Dispersion and Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Rhondale; Chen, Yanbei; Isi, Maximilliano

    2017-01-01

    Given continued observation runs from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory Scientific Collaboration, further gravitational wave (GW) events will provide added constraints on beyond-general relativity (b-GR) theories. One approach, independent of the GW generation mechanism at the source, is to look at modification to the GW dispersion and propagation, which can accumulate over vast distances. Generic modification of GW propagation can also, in certain b-GR theories, impact the polarization content of GWs. To this end, a comprehensive approach to testing the dispersion and polarization content is developed by modeling anisotropic deformations to the waveforms' phase, along with birefringence effects and corollary consequences for b-GR polarizations, i.e., breathing, vector, and longitudinal modes. Such an approach can be mapped to specific theories like Lorentz violation, amplitude birefringence in Chern-Simons, and provide hints at additional theories to be included. An overview of data analysis routines to be implemented will also be discussed.

  5. Full-wave intravascular ultrasound simulation from histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Silvan; Conjeti, Sailesh; Noél, Peter B; Carlier, Stéphane; Navab, Nassir; Katouzian, Amin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a framework for simulating intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images and radiofrequency (RF) signals from histology image counterparts. We modeled the wave propagation through the Westervelt equation, which is solved explicitly with a finite differences scheme in polar coordinates by taking into account attenuation and non-linear effects. Our results demonstrate good correlation for textural and spectral information driven from simulated IVUS data in contrast to real data, acquired with single-element mechanically rotating 40 MHZ transducer, as ground truth.

  6. P Wave Dispersion in Children with Breath-holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Tahsin Gider; Bülent Koca; Mustafa Çalık; Ali Yıldırım; Savaş Demirpençe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A breath-holding spell (BHS) is a clinical feature frequently seen in infancy and early childhood and generally bringing children to pediatric cardiology outpatient clinics with the suspicion of cardiac disease. In this study, P wave dispersion (PWD), which is a marker of regional differences in atrial depolarization in electrocardiography and has been demonstrated to be beneficial in defining the risk of supraventricular tachycardia in various patient groups, was studied in childr...

  7. Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Wind Observation and Wave Dispersion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, L. K.; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A. F.; Stevens, M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and alpha-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.

  8. Volumetric characterization of delamination fields via angle longitudinal wave ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, John; Wallentine, Sarah; Welter, John; Dierken, Josiah; Aldrin, John

    2017-02-01

    The volumetric characterization of delaminations necessarily precedes rigorous composite damage progression modeling. Yet, inspection of composite structures for subsurface damage remains largely focused on detection, resulting in a capability gap. In response to this need, angle longitudinal wave ultrasound was employed to characterize a composite surrogate containing a simulated three-dimensional delamination field with distinct regions of occluded features (shadow regions). Simple analytical models of the specimen were developed to guide subsequent experimentation through identification of optimal scanning parameters. The ensuing experiments provided visual evidence of the complete delamination field, including indications of features within the shadow regions. The results of this study demonstrate proof-of-principle for the use of angle longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection for volumetric characterization of three-dimensional delamination fields. Furthermore, the techniques developed herein form the foundation of succeeding efforts to characterize impact delaminations within inhomogeneous laminar materials such as polymer matrix composites.

  9. Examination of the forces controlling dust dispersion by shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, O. J.; Houim, R. W.; Oran, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and a thin layer of inert dust is studied by solving unsteady, multidimensional Navier-Stokes equations representing the interactions between a compressible gas and incompressible particles. The system studied consists of a layer of densely packed limestone dust containing particles of uniform diameter (40 μ m ) that interact with a shock of strength Ms=1.4 . Particle dispersion is investigated by comparing vertical particle accelerations due to Archimedes, gravitational, intergranular, and aerodynamic drag and lift forces. The simulations show that the shock produces two dust regions: a compacted layer and a dispersed region. The layer compaction, which increases the intergranular particle stress, is produced by drag and Archimedes forces. The dispersed dust is produced by forces that change in time as the shock passes. Initially, the dispersion is caused by intergranular forces. Later it is driven by a tradeoff between lift and drag forces. Eventually, drag forces dominate. Comparisons of the computations to experimental shock-tube data reproduced the observed initial growth of the dispersed dust and later leveled off. Particle agglomeration in the experiments made it difficult to determine a true particle size experimentally, although the computations for 40-μ m particles explain the experimental data.

  10. Mirror force induced wave dispersion in Alfvén waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Recent hybrid MHD-kinetic electron simulations of global scale standing shear Alfvén waves along the Earth's closed dipolar magnetic field lines show that the upward parallel current region within these waves saturates and broadens perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field and that this broadening increases with the electron temperature. Using resistive MHD simulations, with a parallel Ohm's law derived from the linear Knight relation (which expresses the current-voltage relationship along an auroral field line), we explore the nature of this broadening in the context of the increased perpendicular Poynting flux resulting from the increased parallel electric field associated with mirror force effects. This increased Poynting flux facilitates wave energy dispersion across field lines which in-turn allows for electron acceleration to carry the field aligned current on adjacent field lines. This mirror force driven dispersion can dominate over that associated with electron inertial effects for global scale waves.

  11. Dispersive photonic crystals from the plane wave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Cabrera, E.; Palomino-Ovando, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Flores-Desirena, B., E-mail: bflores@fcfm.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Gaspar-Armenta, J.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Física de la Universidad de Sonora Apdo, Post 5-088, Hermosillo Sonora 83190, México (Mexico)

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays photonic crystals are widely used in many different applications. One of the most used methods to compute their band structure is the plane wave method (PWM). However, it can only be applied directly to non-dispersive media and be extended to systems with a few model dielectric functions. We explore an extension of the PWM to photonic crystals containing dispersive materials, that solves an eigenvalue equation for the Bloch wave vectors. First we compare our calculation with analytical results for one dimensional photonic crystals containing Si using experimental values of its optical parameters, and obtainig very well agreement, even for the spectrum region with strong absorption. Then, using the same method, we computed the band structure for a two dimensional photonic crystal without absorption, formed by an square array of MgO cylinders in air. The optical parameters for MgO were modeled with the Lorentz dielectric function. Finally, we studied an array of MgO cylinders in a metal, using Drude model without absorption, for the metal dielectric function. For this last case, we study the gap–midgap ratio as a function of the filling fraction for both the square and triangular lattice. The gap–midgap ratio is larger for the triangular lattice, with a maximum value of 10% for a filling fraction of 0.6. Our results show that the method can be applied to dispersive materials, and then to a wide range of applications where photonic crystals can be used.

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures and ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  15. Preparation of a stable graphene dispersion with high concentration by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weina; He, Wei; Jing, Xinli

    2010-08-19

    With unique structure and extraordinary electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties, graphene fascinates the scientific community. Due to its hydrophobic feature, preparation of a stable and highly concentrated graphene dispersion without the assistance of dispersing agents has generally been considered a challenge. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is one of the most important methods for preparing a graphene dispersion. The aggregation of graphene sheets is a key reason to destabilize the resulting dispersion during conversion of aqueous GO dispersion to graphene. In this study, by replacing mechanical stirring with ultrasonic irradiation, the aggregation of various intermediates is effectively suppressed during the process of reduction of GO. Hence, a stable graphene dispersion with a high concentration of 1 mg.mL(-1) and relatively pure graphene sheets are achieved, and the as-prepared graphene paper exhibits a high electric conductivity of 712 S.m(-1). Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that ultrasound is the essence of enhancing chemical reaction rate. Fourier transformed infrared spectra and Raman spectra indicate that ultrasound has less damage to the chemical and crystal structures of graphene.

  16. Concrete wave dispersion interpretation through Mindlin's strain gradient elastic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N; Malm, Fabian; Grosse, Christian U; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Polyzos, Demosthenes

    2017-07-01

    Classical elastic wave features like pulse velocity and attenuation have been used for decades for concrete condition characterization. Relatively recently the effect of frequency has been studied showing no doubt over the dispersive behavior of the material. Despite the experimental evidence, there is no unified theory to model the material and explain this phase velocity change at frequencies below 200 kHz. Herein, the Mindlin's strain gradient elastic theory including the additional micro-stiffness and micro-inertia parameters is considered as an alternative of multiple scattering theory. Experimental results are produced from material with dictated microstructure using a specific diameter of glass beads in cement paste. Results show that Mindlin's theory provides conclusions on the microstructure of the material and is suitable for describing the observed dispersion in different length scales (from millimeters in the case of mortar to several centimeters in the case of concrete).

  17. QT Dispersion and T Wave Peak-to-end Interval Dispersion in Children with Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozgar, Hamid; Ahmadipour, Maryam; Amirhakimi, Anis

    2013-09-01

    The main complication of Kawasaki disease is the Coronary Artery (CA) involvement and long term follow up of patients depends on the severity of coronary arterial aneurysms, ischemia, and thrombosis. Early diagnosis of these complications can lead to a more desirable outcome for patients. Myocardial ischemia can prolong QT dispersion and increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias as well as sudden cardiac arrests. Also, T wave peak-to-end (Tp-Te) interval dispersion, which provides a valuable index of transmural dispersion of repolarization, can trigger the arrhythmia. We evaluated the non-corrected QT interval dispersion (QTD) and the corrected QT (QTc) dispersion and measured Tp-Te interval dispersion in 49 Iranian children (28 males and 21 females) with the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD) in the acute phase and 49 age-matched controls in a prospective study from 2009 to 2012. Student's t-test and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. All the statistical analyses were performed through the SPSS 16. Besides, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Patients with KD had significantly longer QTc dispersion (0.099±0.055 s versus. 0.040±0.018 s; P<0.001), non-corrected QT dispersion (0.075±0.046 versus 0.042±0.019; P<0.001), and Tp-Te dispersion (0.047±0.054 versus 0.022±0.011; P=0.015). The patients with elevation in white blood cell count (above 15000) had a statistically significant increased in QTD (P=0.011). No significant correlation was found between coronary involvement and repolarization indexes. In conclusion, the QT interval (corrected or non-corrected) and the Tp-Te dispersion significantly increased in the patients with KD which shows repolarization changes during the acute phase of KD. However, there is no correlation between the QT interval and the coronary involvement.

  18. QT Dispersion and T Wave Peak–to–end Interval Dispersion in Children with Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Amoozgar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main complication of Kawasaki disease is the Coronary Artery (CA involvement and long term follow up of patients depends on the severity of coronary arterial aneurysms, ischemia, and thrombosis. Early diagnosis of these complications can lead to a more desirable outcome for patients. Myocardial ischemia can prolong QT dispersion and increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias as well as sudden cardiac arrests. Also, T wave peak–to–end (Tp-Te interval dispersion, which provides a valuable index of transmural dispersion of repolarization, can trigger the arrhythmia. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the non-corrected QT interval dispersion (QTD and the corrected QT (QTc dispersion and measured Tp–Te interval dispersion in 49 Iranian children (28 males and 21 females with the diagnosis of Kawasaki disease (KD in the acute phase and 49 age-matched controls in a prospective study from 2009 to 2012. Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. All the statistical analyses were performed through the SPSS 16. Besides, P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Patients with KD had significantly longer QTc dispersion (0.099±0.055 s versus. 0.040±0.018 s; P<0.001, non-corrected QT dispersion (0.075±0.046 versus 0.042±0.019; P<0.001, and Tp-Te dispersion (0.047±0.054 versus 0.022±0.011; P=0.015. The patients with elevation in white blood cell count (above 15000 had a statistically significant increased in QTD (P=0.011. No significant correlation was found between coronary involvement and repolarization indexes. Conclusions: In conclusion, the QT interval (corrected or non-corrected and the Tp-Te dispersion significantly increased in the patients with KD which shows repolarization changes during the acute phase of KD. However, there is no correlation between the QT interval and the coronary involvement.

  19. Robust Imaging Methodology for Challenging Environments: Wave Equation Dispersion Inversion of Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-12-22

    A robust imaging technology is reviewed that provide subsurface information in challenging environments: wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) of surface waves for the shear velocity model. We demonstrate the benefits and liabilities of the method with synthetic seismograms and field data. The benefits of WD are that 1) there is no layered medium assumption, as there is in conventional inversion of dispersion curves, so that the 2D or 3D S-velocity model can be reliably obtained with seismic surveys over rugged topography, and 2) WD mostly avoids getting stuck in local minima. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic media and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love wave. The liability is that is almost as expensive as FWI and only recovers the Vs distribution to a depth no deeper than about 1/2~1/3 wavelength.

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves ... the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to ... Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  2. P Wave Dispersion is Increased in Pulmonary Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Ozmen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The right atrium pressure load is increased in pulmonary stenosis (PS that is a congenital anomaly and this changes the electrophysiological characteristics of the atria. However, there is not enough data on the issue of P wave dispersion (PWD in PS. Methods: Forty- two patients diagnosed as having valvular PS with echocardiography and 33 completely healthy individuals as the control group were included in the study. P wave duration, p wave maximum (p max and p minimum (p min were calculated from resting electrocariography (ECG obtained at the rate of 50 mm/sec. P wave dispersion was derived by subtracting p min from p max. The mean pressure gradient (MPG at the pulmonary valve, structure of the valve and diameters of the right and left atria were measured with echocardiography. The data from two groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test and correlation analysis was performed with the Pearson correlation technique. Results: There wasn’t any statistically significance in the comparison of age, left atrial diameter and p min between two groups. While the MPG at the pulmonary valve was 43.11 ± 18.8 mmHg in PS patients, it was 8.4 ± 4.5 mmHg in the control group. While p max was 107.1 ± 11.5 in PS group, it was 98.2 ± 5.1 in control group (p=0.01, PWD was 40.4 ± 1.2 in PS group, and 27.2 ± 9.3 in the control group (p=0.01Moreover, while the diameter of the right atrium in PS group was greater than that of the control group, (38.7 ± 3.9 vs 30.2 ± 2.5, p=0.02. We detected a correlation between PWD and pressure gradient in regression analysis. Conclusion: P wave dispersion and p max are increased in PS. While PWD was correlated with the pressure gradient that is the degree of narrowing, it was not correlated with the diameters of the right and left atria.

  3. Thermographic image reconstruction using ultrasound reconstruction from virtual waves

    CERN Document Server

    Burgholzer, Peter; Gruber, Jürgen; Mayr, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of subsurface features from ultrasound signals measured on the surface is widely used in medicine and non-destructive testing. In this work, we introduce a concept how to use image reconstruction methods known from ultrasonic imaging for thermographic signals, i.e. on the measured temperature evolution on a sample surface. Before using these imaging methods a virtual signal is calculated by applying a transformation to the measured temperature evolution. The virtual signal is calculated locally for every detection point and has the same initial temperature distribution as the measured signal, but is a solution of the wave equation. The introduced transformation can be used for every shape of the detection surface and in every dimension. It describes all the irreversibility of the heat diffusion, which is responsible that the spatial resolution gets worse with increasing depth. Up to now, for thermographic imaging mostly one-dimensional methods, e.g., for depth-profiling were used, which are sui...

  4. Dispersive waves induced by self-defocusing temporal solitons in a beta-barium-borate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally observe dispersive waves in the anomalous dispersion regime of a beta-barium-borate (BBO) crystal, induced by a self-defocusing few-cycle temporal soliton. Together the soliton and dispersive waves form an energetic octave-spanning supercontinuum. The soliton was excited...

  5. Ultrasound influence on the solubility of solid dispersions prepared for a poorly soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Simone Vieira; Colombo, Fábio Belotti; de Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Solid dispersions have been successfully used to enhance the solubility of several poorly water soluble drugs. Solid dispersions are produced by melting hydrophilic carriers and mixing in the poorly water soluble drug. Supersaturation is obtained by quickly cooling the mixture until it solidifies, thereby entrapping the drug. The effects of using ultrasound to homogenize the molten carrier and drug mixture were studied. In particular, the increase in drug solubility for the resulting solid dispersions was analyzed. Piroxicam, which has very low water solubility, was used as a model drug. A full factorial design was used to analyze how sonication parameters affected the solubility and in vitro release of the drug. The results show that the use of ultrasound can significantly increase the solubility and dissolution rate of the piroxicam solid dispersion. Pure piroxicam presented a solubility of 13.3 μg/mL. A maximum fourfold increase in solubility, reaching 53.8 μg/mL, was observed for a solid dispersion sonicated at 19 kHz for 10 min and 475 W. The in vitro dissolution rate test showed the sonicated solid dispersion reached a maximum rate of 18%/min, a sixfold increase over the piroxicam rate of 2.9%/min. Further solid state characterization by thermal, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analyses also showed that the sonication process, in the described conditions, did not adversely alter the drug or significantly change its polymorphic form. Ultrasound is therefore an interesting technique to homogenize drug/carrier mixtures with the objective of increasing the solubility of drugs with poor water solubility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiating dispersive shock waves in non-local optical media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, Gennady A; Smyth, Noel F

    2016-03-01

    We consider the step Riemann problem for the system of equations describing the propagation of a coherent light beam in nematic liquid crystals, which is a general system describing nonlinear wave propagation in a number of different physical applications. While the equation governing the light beam is of defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation type, the dispersive shock wave (DSW) generated from this initial condition has major differences from the standard DSW solution of the defocusing NLS equation. In particular, it is found that the DSW has positive polarity and generates resonant radiation which propagates ahead of it. Remarkably, the velocity of the lead soliton of the DSW is determined by the classical shock velocity. The solution for the radiative wavetrain is obtained using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. It is shown that for sufficiently small initial jumps the nematic DSW is asymptotically governed by a Korteweg-de Vries equation with the fifth-order dispersion, which explicitly shows the resonance generating the radiation ahead of the DSW. The constructed asymptotic theory is shown to be in good agreement with the results of direct numerical simulations.

  7. Dispersal, landscape and travelling waves in cyclic vole populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Karine; Piry, Sylvain; Cosson, Jean-François; Giraudoux, Patrick; Foltête, Jean-Christophe; Defaut, Régis; Truchetet, Denis; Lambin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Travelling waves (TW) are among the most striking ecological phenomena emerging in oscillating populations. Despite much theory, understanding how real-world TW arise remains a challenge for ecology. Herein, we analyse 16-year time series of cyclic vole populations collected at 314 localities covering 2500 km² in France. We found evidence for a linear front TW spreading at a speed of 7.4 km year(-1) along a north-west/south-east direction and radiating away from a major landscape discontinuity as predicted by recent theory. The spatial signature of vole dispersal was assessed using genetic data collected at 14 localities. Both data sets were handled using similar autocorrelation approaches. Our results revealed a remarkable congruence of the spatial extent and direction of anisotropy of both demographic and genetic structures. Our results constitute the first empirical evidence that effective dispersal is limited in the direction of TW while most of the individual exchanges occur along the wave front. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Lithospheric Thickness Modeled from Long Period Surface Wave Dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M E

    2008-05-15

    The behavior of surface waves at long periods is indicative of subcrustal velocity structure. Using recently published dispersion models, we invert surface wave group velocities for lithospheric structure, including lithospheric thickness, over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, encompassing Eurasia, Africa, and the Indian Ocean. Thicker lithosphere under Precambrian shields and platforms are clearly observed, not only under the large cratons (West Africa, Congo, Baltic, Russia, Siberia, India), but also under smaller blocks like the Tarim Basin and Yangtze craton. In contrast, it is found that remobilized Precambrian structures like the Saharan Shield and Sino-Korean Paraplatform do not have well-established lithospheric keels. The thinnest lithospheric thickness is found under oceanic and continental rifts, as well as along convergence zones. We compare our results to thermal models of continental lithosphere, lithospheric cooling models of oceanic lithosphere, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) estimates from S-wave receiver functions, and velocity variations of global tomography models. In addition to comparing results for the broad region, we examine in detail the regions of Central Africa, Siberia, and Tibet. While there are clear differences in the various estimates, overall the results are generally consistent. Inconsistencies between the estimates may be due to a variety of reasons including lateral and depth resolution differences and the comparison of what may be different lithospheric features.

  9. Scaling-up ultrasound standing wave enhanced sedimentation filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Jeff E; Treves Brown, Bernard J; Fielden, Peter R; Wilkinson, Stephen J; Hawkes, Jeremy J

    2015-02-01

    Particle concentration and filtration is a key stage in a wide range of processing industries and also one that can be present challenges for high throughput, continuous operation. Here we demonstrate some features which increase the efficiency of ultrasound enhanced sedimentation and could enable the technology the potential to be scaled up. In this work, 20 mm piezoelectric plates were used to drive 100 mm high chambers formed from single structural elements. The coherent structural resonances were able to drive particles (yeast cells) in the water to nodes throughout the chamber. Ultrasound enhanced sedimentation was used to demonstrate the efficiency of the system (>99% particle clearance). Sub-wavelength pin protrusions were used for the contacts between the resonant chamber and other elements. The pins provided support and transferred power, replacing glue which is inefficient for power transfer. Filtration energies of ∼4 J/ml of suspension were measured. A calculation of thermal convection indicates that the circulation could disrupt cell alignment in ducts >35 mm high when a 1K temperature gradient is present; we predict higher efficiencies when this maximum height is observed. For the acoustic design, although modelling was minimal before construction, the very simple construction allowed us to form 3D models of the nodal patterns in the fluid and the duct structure. The models were compared with visual observations of particle movement, Chladni figures and scanning laser vibrometer mapping. This demonstrates that nodal planes in the fluid can be controlled by the position of clamping points and that the contacts could be positioned to increase the efficiency and reliability of particle manipulations in standing waves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electromagnetic wave propagation through a slab of a dispersive medium

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    A method is proposed for the analysis of the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a homogeneous slab of a medium with Drude-Lorentz dispersion behavior, and excited by a causal sinusoidal source. An expression of the time dependent field, free from branch-cuts in the plane of complex frequencies, is established. This method provides the complete temporal response in both the steady-state and transient regimes in terms of discrete poles contributions. The Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursors are retrieved and the corresponding set of poles are identified. In addition, the contribution in the transient field of the resonance frequency in the Drude-Lorentz model is exhybited, and the effect of reflections resulting from the refractive index mismatch at the interfaces of the slab are analyzed.

  11. Applying the cold plasma dispersion relation to whistler mode chorus waves: EMFISIS wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, D P; Chen, Y; Kletzing, C A; Denton, M H; Kurth, W S

    2015-02-01

    Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.1-0.9 f ce ). Results from this study indicate that the calculated wave intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10 -3 nT 2 , using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.

  12. Scalable Directed Self-Assembly Using Ultrasound Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-04

    at Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), to discuss a possible collaboration. The idea is to integrate the ultrasound directed self- assembly technique ...difference between the ultrasound technology studied in this project, and other directed self-assembly techniques is its scalability and...deliverable: A scientific tool to predict particle organization, pattern, and orientation, based on the operating and design parameters of the ultrasound

  13. Ultrasound assisted dispersal of a copper nanopowder for electroless copper activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, John E; Sugden, Mark; Litchfield, Robert E; Hutt, David A; Mason, Timothy J; Cobley, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the ultrasound assisted dispersal of a low wt./vol.% copper nanopowder mixture and determines the optimum conditions for de-agglomeration. A commercially available powder was added to propan-2-ol and dispersed using a magnetic stirrer, a high frequency 850 kHz ultrasonic cell, a standard 40 kHz bath and a 20 kHz ultrasonic probe. The particle size of the powder was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Z-Average diameters (mean cluster size based on the intensity of scattered light) and intensity, volume and number size distributions were monitored as a function of time and energy input. Low frequency ultrasound was found to be more effective than high frequency ultrasound at de-agglomerating the powder and dispersion with a 20 kHz ultrasonic probe was found to be very effective at breaking apart large agglomerates containing weakly bound clusters of nanoparticles. In general, the breakage of nanoclusters was found to be a factor of ultrasonic intensity, the higher the intensity the greater the de-agglomeration and typically micron sized clusters were reduced to sub 100 nm particles in less than 30 min using optimum conditions. However, there came a point at which the forces generated by ultrasonic cavitation were either insufficient to overcome the cohesive bonds between smaller aggregates or at very high intensities decoupling between the tip and solution occurred. Absorption spectroscopy indicated a copper core structure with a thin oxide shell and the catalytic performance of this dispersion was demonstrated by drop coating onto substrates and subsequent electroless copper metallization. This relatively inexpensive catalytic suspension has the potential to replace precious metal based colloids used in electronics manufacturing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of attenuation and dispersion of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media by finite-difference modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shichuan; Song, Xianhai; Cai, Wei; Hu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Viscoelasticity of Earth media has an important influence on Rayleigh-wave propagation. Therefore, it is necessary to study the attenuation and dispersion of Rayleigh-wave by numerical modeling to better understand Rayleigh-wave behaviors in Earth media. Modeling adopts a staggered finite-difference (FD) scheme, which calculates the spatial derivatives by a 12th-order operator and the time derivatives by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. In time-space domain, the accuracy of FD method is demonstrated through comparing the modeling results with the analytical solution in an elastic half-space. In frequency-velocity domain, the correctness of modeling results is verified via comparing the dispersive images with the theoretical dispersion curves of Rayleigh-wave. The attenuation and dispersion of Rayleigh-wave are analyzed by comparisons between elastic and viscoelastic modeling results in the homogeneous half-space models in terms of the wave field snapshots, the synthetic seismograms, and the dispersive images, respectively. The two-layer models are also simulated to further investigate the attenuation and dispersion of Rayleigh-wave in viscoelastic layered media. Results show that the viscoelastic Rayleigh-wave presents substantial differences in amplitude and phase velocity compared with the elastic case. Viscoelasticity of media arouses amplitude attenuation of Rayleigh-wave. The high-frequency waves are attenuated more severely than the lower-frequency waves, and the attenuation degree is severe increasingly with offset increasing. Viscoelasticity of media also causes the phase velocity dispersion of Rayleigh-wave. The phase velocity ratio of viscoelastic Rayleigh-wave respecting to the corresponding elastic one increases with frequency, and the resolution of dispersion energy is lower than the elastic one. The attenuation and dispersion of Rayleigh-wave are prominent increasingly with Q decreasing.

  15. Comparison of fractional wave equations for power law attenuation in ultrasound and elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sverre; Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2014-04-01

    A set of wave equations with fractional loss operators in time and space are analyzed. The fractional Szabo equation, the power law wave equation and the causal fractional Laplacian wave equation are all found to be low-frequency approximations of the fractional Kelvin-Voigt wave equation and the more general fractional Zener wave equation. The latter two equations are based on fractional constitutive equations, whereas the former wave equations have been derived from the desire to model power law attenuation in applications like medical ultrasound. This has consequences for use in modeling and simulation, especially for applications that do not satisfy the low-frequency approximation, such as shear wave elastography. In such applications, the wave equations based on constitutive equations are the viable ones. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship Between Aging and P Wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Barutçu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF, commonly observed in advanced ages, displays striking age dependent increase and increased P wave dispersion (PWD has been shown to be a predictor of AF. In this studywe sought to determine whether P wave duration and PWD increase with aging. Method and Results: Eighty-three elderly subjects (group-I mean age 75±8 years and 40 healthy young subjects (group-II, mean age 37±6 years participated in this study. 12-lead ECG recorded at a paper speed of 50mm/s was obtained from each participant. Maximum (Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin was measured manually with a caliper and the difference between two values was defined asPWD. Pmax and PWD were significantly higher in group-I compared to group-II. (98±8 vs. 93±8 p=0.01, 41±12 vs. 34±13 p=0.002, respectively. Among the elderly population when those with cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, coronary artery disease and heart failure were excluded, Pmax and PWD were still significantly higher than the young population. (Pmax: 98±7 vs. 93±7, p=0.02 and PWD: 42±11 vs. 34±13, p=0.002. Moreover, on correlation analysis a positive correlation was detected between Pmaxand PWD and aging. (r=0.29, p=0.004; r=0.30, p=0.003 respectively.Conclusion: PWD shows age dependent increase and may be a useful marker for estimation the risk of developing AF seen in advanced ages.

  17. Determination of aflatoxins in rice samples by ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoochehri, Mahboobeh; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Safaei, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the application of ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion as an extraction and sample preparation approach for aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and subsequent determination of them by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. A Box-Behnken design in combination with response surface methodology was used to determine the affecting parameters on the extraction procedure. The influence of different variables including type of dispersing phase, sample-to-dispersing phase ratio, type and quantity of clean-up phase, ultrasonication time, ultrasonication temperature, nature and volume of the elution solvent was investigated in the optimization study. C18, primary-secondary amine (PSA) and acetonitrile were selected as dispersing phase, clean-up phase and elution solvent, respectively. The obtained optimized values were sample-to-dispersing phase ratio of 1 : 1, 60 mg of PSA, 11 min ultrasonication time, 30°C ultrasonication temperature and 4 mL acetonitrile. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection were ranged from 0.09 to 0.14 ng g(-1) and the precisions [relative standard deviation (RSD%)] were aflatoxins in rice samples. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Dispersion analysis of passive surface-wave noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Willis, Mark; Snieder, Roel; Haines, Seth S.; Behura, Jyoti; Batzle, Mike; Davidson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Surface-wave dispersion analysis is useful for estimating near-surface shear-wave velocity models, designing receiver arrays, and suppressing surface waves. Here, we analyze whether passive seismic noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations can be used to extract surface-wave dispersion characteristics. Applying seismic interferometry to noise measurements, we extract surface waves by cross-correlating several minutes of passive records; this approach is distinct from previous studies that used hours or days of passive records for cross-correlation. For comparison, we also perform dispersion analysis for an active-source array that has some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive character of the fundamental-mode surface-waves. For the higher mode surface waves, however, active and passive data resolve the dispersive properties at different frequency ranges. To demonstrate an application of dispersion analysis, we invert the observed surface-wave dispersion characteristics to determine the near-surface, one-dimensional shear-wave velocity.

  19. Simulated Obstructive Sleep Apnea Increases P-Wave Duration and P-Wave Dispersion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gaisl

    Full Text Available A high P-wave duration and dispersion (Pd have been reported to be a prognostic factor for the occurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF, a condition linked to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. We tested the hypothesis of whether a short-term increase of P-wave duration and Pd can be induced by respiratory manoeuvres simulating OSA in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF.12-lead-electrocardiography (ECG was recorded continuously in 24 healthy subjects and 33 patients with PAF, while simulating obstructive apnea (Mueller manoeuvre, MM, obstructive hypopnea (inspiration through a threshold load, ITH, central apnea (AP, and during normal breathing (BL in randomized order. The P-wave duration and Pd was calculated by using dedicated software for ECG-analysis.P-wave duration and Pd significantly increased during MM and ITH compared to BL in all subjects (+13.1 ms and +13.8 ms during MM; +11.7 ms and +12.9 ms during ITH; p<0.001 for all comparisons. In MM, the increase was larger in healthy subjects when compared to patients with PAF (p<0.05.Intrathoracic pressure swings through simulated obstructive sleep apnea increase P-wave duration and Pd in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Our findings imply that intrathoracic pressure swings prolong the intra-atrial and inter-atrial conduction time and therefore may represent an independent trigger factor for the development for PAF.

  20. Mesoscopics of ultrasound and seismic waves: application to passive imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, É.

    2006-05-01

    This manuscript deals with different aspects of the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in heterogeneous media, both simply and multiply scattering ones. After a short introduction on conventional imaging techniques, we describe two observations that demonstrate the presence of multiple scattering in seismic records: the equipartition principle, and the coherent backscattering effect (Chap. 2). Multiple scattering is related to the mesoscopic nature of seismic and acoustic waves, and is a strong limitation for conventional techniques like medical or seismic imaging. In the following part of the manuscript (Chaps. 3 5), we present an application of mesoscopic physics to acoustic and seismic waves: the principle of passive imaging. By correlating records of ambient noise or diffuse waves obtained at two passive sensors, it is possible to reconstruct the impulse response of the medium as if a source was placed at one sensor. This provides the opportunity of doing acoustics and seismology without a source. Several aspects of this technique are presented here, starting with theoretical considerations and numerical simulations (Chaps. 3, 4). Then we present experimental applications (Chap. 5) to ultrasound (passive tomography of a layered medium) and to seismic waves (passive imaging of California, and the Moon, with micro-seismic noise). Physique mésoscopique des ultrasons et des ondes sismiques : application à l'imagerie passive. Cet article de revue rassemble plusieurs aspects fondamentaux et appliqués de la propagation des ondes acoustiques et élastiques dans les milieux hétérogènes, en régime de diffusion simple ou multiple. Après une introduction sur les techniques conventionelles d'imagerie sismique et ultrasonore, nous présentons deux expériences qui mettent en évidence la présence de diffusion multiple dans les enregistrements sismologiques : l'équipartition des ondes, et la rétrodiffusion cohérente (Chap. 2). La diffusion multiple des

  1. Wave model for longitudinal dispersion: application to the laminar-flow tubular reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronberg, Alexandre E.; Benneker, A.H.; Benneker, A.H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    The wave model for longitudinal dispersion, published elsewhere as an alternative to the commonly used dispersed plug-flow model, is applied to the classic case of the laminar-flow tubular reactor. The results are compared in a wide range of situations to predictions by the dispersed plug-flow model

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures and organs ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  3. P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration are independently associated with rapid renal function decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Ming Su

    Full Text Available The P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG are commonly used as noninvasive tools to assess for left atrial enlargement. There are limited studies to evaluate whether P wave parameters are independently associated with decline in renal function. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to assess whether P wave parameters are independently associated with progression to renal end point of ≥25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. This longitudinal study included 166 patients. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected by heart rate, i.e. corrected P wave dispersion (PWdisperC and corrected P wave maximum duration (PWdurMaxC. Heart function and structure were measured from echocardiography. Clinical data, P wave parameters, and echocardiographic measurements were compared and analyzed. Forty-three patients (25.9% reached renal end point. Kaplan-Meier curves for renal end point-free survival showed PWdisperC > median (63.0 ms (log-rank P = 0.004 and PWdurMaxC > median (117.9 ms (log-rank P<0.001 were associated with progression to renal end point. Multivariate forward Cox-regression analysis identified increased PWdisperC (hazard ratio [HR], 1.024; P = 0.001 and PWdurMaxC (HR, 1.029; P = 0.001 were independently associated with progression to renal end point. Our results demonstrate that increased PWdisperC and PWdurMaxC were independently associated with progression to renal end point. Screening patients by means of PWdisperC and PWdurMaxC on 12 lead ECG may help identify a high risk group of rapid renal function decline.

  4. Arterial pulse wave propagation velocity in healthy dogs by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Rodrigo B; Pereira, Lucas A; Basso, Alice F; da Fonseca, Ingrid S; Alves, Lorena A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) values in healthy dogs using pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. A secondary aim was to determine the feasibility of this method and to report the intra- and interobserver reproducibilities of the PWV in conscious dogs. The data were studied in 30 healthy, adult, male (n = 15) and female (n = 15) dogs. The time interval marked between the R wave peak of the electrocardiogram and the intersection of the blood flow wave upstroke of the Doppler spectrum with the baseline of zero frequency was determined for the carotid (T1) and for the femoral (T2) arteries. The distance covered by the pulse wave (L) was determined. The PWV was then calculated using the following formula: L/T2 - T1. The mean values of PWV calculated from the total sample (n = 30) evaluated were 13.41 ± 2.20 m/s. No significant statistical difference was observed for the PWV measurements between males (14.82 ± 3.18 m/s) and females (12.64 ± 2.45 m/s). The analysis revealed no intra nor interobserver differences. A reasonable reproducibility of the PWV measurements was showed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and the coefficients of variation (CV). These data demonstrate that noninvasive vascular Doppler analysis is a feasible and reproducible method to determine the carotid-femoral PWV in dogs.

  5. Sparse and Dispersion-Based Matching Pursuit for Minimizing the Dispersion Effect Occurring when Using Guided Wave for Pipe Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Rostami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic guided wave is an effective tool for structural health monitoring of structures for detecting defects. In practice, guided wave signals are dispersive and contain multiple modes and noise. In the presence of overlapped wave-packets/modes and noise together with dispersion, extracting meaningful information from these signals is a challenging task. Handling such challenge requires an advanced signal processing tool. The aim of this study is to develop an effective and robust signal processing tool to deal with the complexity of guided wave signals for non-destructive testing (NDT purpose. To achieve this goal, Sparse Representation with Dispersion Based Matching Pursuit (SDMP is proposed. Addressing the three abovementioned facts that complicate signal interpretation, SDMP separates overlapped modes and demonstrates good performance against noise with maximum sparsity. With the dispersion taken into account, an overc-omplete and redundant dictionary of basic atoms based on a narrowband excitation signal is designed. As Finite Element Method (FEM was used to predict the form of wave packets propagating along structures, these atoms have the maximum resemblance with real guided wave signals. SDMP operates in two stages. In the first stage, similar to Matching Pursuit (MP, the approximation improves by adding, a single atom to the solution set at each iteration. However, atom selection criterion of SDMP utilizes the time localization of guided wave reflections that makes a portion of overlapped wave-packets to be composed mainly of a single echo. In the second stage of the algorithm, the selected atoms that have frequency inconsistency with the excitation signal are discarded. This increases the sparsity of the final representation. Meanwhile, leading to accurate approximation, as discarded atoms are not representing guided wave reflections, it simplifies extracting physical meanings for defect detection purpose. To verify the

  6. Dispersive nature of high mach number collisionless plasma shocks: Poynting flux of oblique whistler waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundkvist, David; Krasnoselskikh, V; Bale, S D; Schwartz, S J; Soucek, J; Mozer, F

    2012-01-13

    Whistler wave trains are observed in the foot region of high Mach number quasiperpendicular shocks. The waves are oblique with respect to the ambient magnetic field as well as the shock normal. The Poynting flux of the waves is directed upstream in the shock normal frame starting from the ramp of the shock. This suggests that the waves are an integral part of the shock structure with the dispersive shock as the source of the waves. These observations lead to the conclusion that the shock ramp structure of supercritical high Mach number shocks is formed as a balance of dispersion and nonlinearity.

  7. Transverse wave propagation in photonic crystal based on holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Li, Ming Shian; Wu, Shing Trong

    2011-07-04

    This study investigates the transversely propagating waves in a body-centered tetragonal photonic crystal based on a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film. Rotating the film reveals three different transverse propagating waves. Degeneracy of optical Bloch waves from reciprocal lattice vectors explains their symmetrical distribution.

  8. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted cloud point extraction and ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction for copper coupled with spectrophotometric determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengchun; Fang, Xiang; Duan, Liju; Yang, Shu; Lei, Zirong; Wen, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, ultrasound-assisted cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) and ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) were investigated and compared firstly as ultrasound-assisted liquid phase microextraction methods, which were coupled with spectrophotometer for copper preconcentration and detection. Compared to conventional CPE and DLLME, the extraction patterns were changed and improved by the effect of ultrasound. As novel methods, their applications were expanded and the analytical performance of spectrophotometric determination for copper was considerably improved. The influence factors of UA-CPE and UA-DLLME were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for copper were 0.7 μg L-1 of UA-CPE and 0.8 μg L-1 of UA-DLLME with sensitivity enhancement factors (EFs) of 17 and 16. The developed methods were applied to the determination of trace copper in real water samples with satisfactory analytical results.

  9. Parametric instabilities of circularly polarized large-amplitude dispersive Alfven waves: excitation of parallel-propagating electromagnetic daughter waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, A.F.; Goldstein, M.L. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center)

    1991-08-01

    The parametric decay and modulational instabilities of a large-amplitude circularly polarized dispersive Alfven wave are investigated. The treatment is more general than that of previous derivations based on the two-fluid equations in that allowance is made for propagation of the unstable daughter waves at arbitrary angles to the background magnetic field, although the main concern is the exploration of new aspects of propagation parallel to the DC magnetic field. In addition to the well-known coupling of pump waves to electrostatic daughter waves, a new parametric channel is found where the pump wave couples directly to electromagnetic daughter waves. The growth rate of the electromagnetic instability increases monotonically with increasing pump wave amplitude. Analysis confirms that, for decay, the dominant process is coupling to electrostatic daughter waves, at least for parallel propagation. For modulation, the coupling to electromagnetic daughter waves usually dominates, suggesting that the parametric modulational instability is really an electromagnetic phenomena. (author).

  10. The nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity wave packets: dispersion and polarization relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. Zhang

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the results of the numerical simulations of nonlinear propagation of three Gaussian gravity-wave packets in isothermal atmosphere individually, the nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity waves are studied quantitatively. The analyses show that during the nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packets the mean flows are accelerated and the vertical wavelengths show clear reduction due to nonlinearity. On the other hand, though nonlinear effects exist, the time variations of the frequencies of gravity wave packets are close to those derived from the dispersion relation and the amplitude and phase relations of wave-associated disturbance components are consistent with the predictions of the polarization relation of gravity waves. This indicates that the dispersion and polarization relations based on the linear gravity wave theory can be applied extensively in the nonlinear region.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  11. Model of the electromagnetic waves processing in ultrasound; Modelo de procesamiento de ondas electromagneticas en ultrasonido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrego L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Siles A, S. [CICATA, IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cruz O, A. [CINVESTAV, IPN, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, a model to process the electromagnetic waves in ultrasonic equipment is proposed and it is experimentally demonstrated that, the origin of the ultrasound is electronic and non mechanic. The above mentioned, it has been demonstrated when making in an electronic equipment a spectral analysis the one that indicated an unfolding of the original ultrasonic pulses of 17 K Hz., to 88 K Hz., and of 5 MHz., to 23 GHz. Also, it was obtained the degradation with ultrasound of particles of Hematite and of Galena, as well as the fading of the methylene blue and the generation of an electric current exciting with ultrasound. (Author)

  12. Reduced clot debris size using standing waves formed via high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shifang; Du, Xuan; Wang, Xin; Lu, Shukuan; Shi, Aiwei; Xu, Shanshan; Bouakaz, Ayache; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-09-01

    The feasibility of utilizing high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to induce thrombolysis has been demonstrated previously. However, clinical concerns still remain related to the clot debris produced via fragmentation of the original clot potentially being too large and hence occluding downstream vessels, causing hazardous emboli. This study investigates the use of standing wave fields formed via HIFU to disintegrate the thrombus while achieving a reduced clot debris size in vitro. The results showed that the average diameter of the clot debris calculated by volume percentage was smaller in the standing wave mode than in the travelling wave mode at identical ultrasound thrombolysis settings. Furthermore, the inertial cavitation dose was shown to be lower in the standing wave mode, while the estimated cavitation bubble size distribution was similar in both modes. These results show that a reduction of the clot debris size with standing waves may be attributed to the particle trapping of the acoustic potential well which contributed to particle fragmentation.

  13. Long-distance dispersal and accelerating waves of disease: empirical relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Christopher C; Sackett, Kathryn E; Wallace, LaRae D; Cowger, Christina; Dudley, Joseph P

    2009-04-01

    Classic approaches to modeling biological invasions predict a "traveling wave" of constant velocity determined by the invading organism's reproductive capacity, generation time, and dispersal ability. Traveling wave models may not apply, however, for organisms that exhibit long-distance dispersal. Here we use simple empirical relationships for accelerating waves, based on inverse power law dispersal, and apply them to diseases caused by pathogens that are wind dispersed or vectored by birds: the within-season spread of a plant disease at spatial scales of distance; regression slopes varied over a relatively narrow range among data sets. Estimates of the inverse power law exponent for dispersal that would be required to attain the rates of disease spread observed in the field also varied relatively little (1.74-2.36), despite more than a fivefold range of spatial scale among the data sets.

  14. A heat wave and dispersal cause dominance shift and decrease biomass in experimental metacommunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, Sarah Lena; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Matthiessen, Birte

    In experimental metacommunities with marine benthic microalgae, we tested whether heat stress changes effects of connectivity and habitat heterogeneity on metacommunity structure and functioning, by manipulating a simulated heat wave, dispersal frequency and a light intensity gradient. We found that

  15. Ultrasound sensing using the acousto-optic effect in polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushkevych, O.; Eriksson, T. J. R.; Ramadas, S. N.; Dixon, S.; Edwards, R. S.

    2015-08-01

    Acousto-optic effects are demonstrated in polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films, showing promise for applications in ultrasound sensing. The PDLC films are used to image two displacement profiles of air-coupled flexural transducers' resonant modes at 295 kHz and 730 kHz. Results are confirmed using laser vibrometry. The regions on the transducers with the largest displacements are clearly imaged by the PDLC films, with the resolution agreeing well with laser vibrometry scanning. Imaging takes significantly less time than a scanning system (switching time of a few seconds, as compared to 8 h for laser vibrometry). Heating effects are carefully monitored using thermal imaging and are found not to be the main cause of PDLC clearing.

  16. Lithospheric Structure of the Arabian Shield From the Joint Inversion of Receiver Function and Surface-Wave Dispersion Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Robert B; Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J

    2007-01-01

    .... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrast and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...

  17. Lithospheric Structure of the Arabian Shield from the Joint Inversion of Receiver Function and Surface-Wave Dispersion Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J; Herrimann, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    .... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...

  18. Dispersion free control of hydroelastic waves down to sub-wavelength scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Lucie; Fermigier, Marc; Fort, Emmanuel; Eddi, Antonin

    2017-11-01

    Hydroelastic surface waves propagate at the surface of water covered by a thin elastic sheet and can be directly measured with accurate space and time resolution. We present an experimental approach using hydroelastic waves that allows us to control waves down to the sub-wavelength scale. We tune the wave dispersion relation by varying locally the properties of the elastic cover and we introduce a local index contrast. This index contrast is independent of the frequency leading to a dispersion-free Snell-Descartes law for hydroelastic waves. We then show experimental evidence of broadband focusing, reflection and refraction of the waves. We also investigate the limits of diffraction through the example of a macroscopic analog to optical nanojets, revealing that any sub-wavelength configuration gives access to new features for surface waves.

  19. Development of oil-in-gelatin phantoms for viscoelasticity measurement in ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Man M; Zhou, Shiwei; Robert, Jean-Luc; Shamdasani, Vijay; Xie, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Because tissues consist of solid and fluid materials, their mechanical properties should be characterized in terms of both elasticity and viscosity. Although the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms have been extensively studied and well characterized in commercially available phantoms, their viscous properties have not been fully investigated. In this article, a set of 14 tissue-mimicking phantoms with different concentrations of gelatin and castor oil were fabricated and characterized in terms of acoustic and viscoelastic properties. The results indicate that adding castor oil to gelatin phantoms decreases shear modulus, but increases shear wave dispersion. For 3% gelatin phantoms containing 0%, 10%, 20% and 40% oil, the measured shear moduli are 2.01 ± 0.26, 1.68 ± 0.25, 1.10 ± 0.22 and 0.88 ± 0.17 kPa, and the Voigt-model coupled shear viscosities are 0.60 ± 0.11, 0.89 ± 0.07, 1.05 ± 0.11 and 1.06 ± 0.13 Pa·s, respectively. The results also confirm that increasing the gelatin concentration increases shear modulus. For phantoms containing 3%, 4%, 5%, 6% and 7% gelatin, the measured shear moduli are 2.01 ± 0.26, 3.10 ± 0.34, 4.18 ± 0.84, 8.05 ± 1.00 and 10.24 ± 1.80 kPa at 0% oil and 1.10 ± 0.22, 1.97 ± 0.20, 3.13 ± 0.63, 4.60 ± 0.60 and 8.43 ± 1.39 kPa at 20% oil, respectively. The phantom recipe developed in this study can be used in validating ultrasound shear wave elastography techniques for soft tissues. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulations of ultrasound propagation in random arrangements of elliptic scatterers: occurrence of two longitudinal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mézière, Fabien; Muller, Marie; Dobigny, Blandine; Bossy, Emmanuel; Derode, Arnaud

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound propagation in clusters of elliptic (two-dimensional) or ellipsoidal (three-dimensional) scatterers randomly distributed in a fluid is investigated numerically. The essential motivation for the present work is to gain a better understanding of ultrasound propagation in trabecular bone. Bone microstructure exhibits structural anisotropy and multiple wave scattering. Some phenomena remain partially unexplained, such as the propagation of two longitudinal waves. The objective of this study was to shed more light on the occurrence of these two waves, using finite-difference simulations on a model medium simpler than bone. Slabs of anisotropic, scattering media were randomly generated. The coherent wave was obtained through spatial and ensemble-averaging of the transmitted wavefields. When varying relevant medium parameters, four of them appeared to play a significant role for the observation of two waves: (i) the solid fraction, (ii) the direction of propagation relatively to the scatterers orientation, (iii) the ability of scatterers to support shear waves, and (iv) a continuity of the solid matrix along the propagation. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that fast waves are guided by the locally plate/bar-like solid matrix. If confirmed, this interpretation could significantly help developing approaches for a better understanding of trabecular bone micro-architecture using ultrasound.

  1. Two-dimensional shear-wave elastography on conventional ultrasound scanners with time-aligned sequential tracking (TAST) and comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pengfei; Macdonald, Michael; Behler, Russell; Lanning, Justin; Wang, Michael; Urban, Matthew; Manduca, Armando; Zhao, Heng; Callstrom, Matthew; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James; Chen, Shigao

    2015-02-01

    Two-dimensional shear-wave elastography presents 2-D quantitative shear elasticity maps of tissue, which are clinically useful for both focal lesion detection and diffuse disease diagnosis. Realization of 2-D shear-wave elastography on conventional ultrasound scanners, however, is challenging because of the low tracking pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) of these systems. Although some clinical and research platforms support software beamforming and plane-wave imaging with high PRF, the majority of current clinical ultrasound systems do not have the software beamforming capability, which presents a critical challenge for translating the 2-D shear-wave elastography technique from laboratory to clinical scanners. To address this challenge, this paper presents a time-aligned sequential tracking (TAST) method for shear-wave tracking on conventional ultrasound scanners. TAST takes advantage of the parallel beamforming capability of conventional systems and realizes high-PRF shear-wave tracking by sequentially firing tracking vectors and aligning shear wave data in the temporal direction. The comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) technique was used to simultaneously produce multiple shear wave sources within the field-of-view (FOV) to enhance shear wave SNR and facilitate robust reconstructions of 2-D elasticity maps. TAST and CUSE were realized on a conventional ultrasound scanner. A phantom study showed that the shear-wave speed measurements from the conventional ultrasound scanner were in good agreement with the values measured from other 2-D shear wave imaging technologies. An inclusion phantom study showed that the conventional ultrasound scanner had comparable performance to a state-of-the-art shear-wave imaging system in terms of bias and precision in measuring different sized inclusions. Finally, in vivo case analysis of a breast with a malignant mass, and a liver from a healthy subject demonstrated the feasibility of using the conventional ultrasound

  2. WAVE DISPERSION STUDY IN THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI OF DECEMBER 26, 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Horrillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study which takes into account wave dispersion effects has been carried out in the Indian Ocean to reproduce the initial stage of wave propagation of the tsunami event occurred on December 26, 2004. Three different numerical models have been used: the nonlinear shallow water (nondispersive, the nonlinear Boussinesq and the full Navier-Stokes aided by the volume of fluid method to track the free surface. Numerical model results are compared against each other. General features of the wave propagation agreed very well in all numerical studies. However some important differences are observed in the wave patterns, i.e., the development in time of the wave front is shown to be strongly connected to the dispersion effects. Discussions and conclusions are made about the spatial and temporal distribution of the free surface reaffirming that the dispersion mechanism is important for tsunami hazard mitigation.

  3. On Wave-Ice Interaction in the Arctic Marginal Ice Zone: Dispersion, Attenuation, and Ice Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    attention is given to formulations of the dispersion relation. The dispersion relation determines the wave attenuation for non- conservative dissipation...41 4.3 FINAL THOUGHTS ...2.0 M, AND 3.5 M ARE SHOWN FROM LEFT TO RIGHT , TOP TO BOTTOM. THE SHEAR MODULUS RANGES FROM 1 PA (DARK BLUE) TO 1010 PA (DARK RED) WITH

  4. Surface refraction of sound waves affects calibration of three-dimensional ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhausen, Hendrik; Ballhausen, Bianca Désirée; Lachaine, Martin; Li, Minglun; Parodi, Katia; Belka, Claus; Reiner, Michael

    2015-05-27

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) is used in planning and treatment during external beam radiotherapy. The accuracy of the technique depends not only on the achievable image quality in clinical routine, but also on technical limitations of achievable precision during calibration. Refraction of ultrasound waves is a known source for geometric distortion, but such an effect was not expected in homogenous calibration phantoms. However, in this paper we demonstrate that the discontinuity of the refraction index at the phantom surface may affect the calibration unless the ultrasound probe is perfectly perpendicular to the phantom. A calibration phantom was repeatedly scanned with a 3D-US system (Elekta Clarity) by three independent observers. The ultrasound probe was moved horizontally at a fixed angle in the sagittal plane. The resulting wedge shaped volume between probe and phantom was filled with water to couple in the ultrasound waves. Because the speed of sound in water was smaller than the speed of sound in Zerdine, the main component of the phantom, the angle of the ultrasound waves inside the phantom increased. This caused an apparent shift in the calibration features which was recorded as a function of the impeding angle. To confirm the magnitude and temperature dependence, the experiment was repeated by two of the observers with a mixture of ice and water at 0 °C and with thermalized tap water at 21 °C room temperature. During the first series of measurements, a linear dependency of the displacements dx of the calibration features on the angle α of the ultrasound probe was observed. The three observers recorded significantly nonzero (p sound of 1,402 m/s at the melting point of ice. At 21 °C, slopes of 0.11 and 0.12 mm/° were recorded in agreement with the first experiment at about room temperature. The difference to the theoretical expectation of 0.07 mm/° was not significant (p = 0.09). The surface refraction of sound waves my affect the

  5. On the dissipation and dispersion of entropy waves in heat transferring channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, A.; Hosseinalipour, S. M.; Karimi, N.

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the hydrodynamic and heat transfer effects on the dissipation and dispersion of entropy waves in non-reactive flows. These waves, as advected density inhomogeneities downstream of unsteady flames, may decay partially or totally before reaching the exit nozzle, where they are converted into sound. Attenuation of entropy waves dominates the significance of the subsequent acoustic noise generation. Yet, the extent of this decay process is currently a matter of contention and the pertinent mechanisms are still largely unexplored. To resolve this issue, a numerical study is carried out by compressible large eddy simulation of the wave advection in a channel subject to convective and adiabatic thermal boundary conditions. The dispersion, dissipation, and spatial correlation of the wave are evaluated by post-processing of the numerical results. This includes application of the classical coherence function as well as development of nonlinear quantitative measures of wave dissipation and dispersion. The analyses reveal that the high frequency components of the entropy wave are always strongly damped. The survival of the low frequency components heavily depends on the turbulence intensity and thermal boundary conditions of the channel. In general, high turbulence intensities and particularly heat transfer intensify the decay and destruction of the spatial coherence of entropy waves. In some cases, they can even result in the complete annihilation of the wave. The current work can therefore resolve the controversies arising over the previous studies of entropy waves with different thermal boundary conditions.

  6. Carbon Nanofibers-Poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates Nanocomposite: Ultrasound-Assisted Dispersion and Thermostructural Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gumel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conductivity and high surface-to-volume ratio of carbon nanofibers (CNFs composited with the medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA have attracted much attention as smart biomaterial. However, poor CNF dispersion leads to tactoid agglomerated composite with poor crystallite morphology resulting in inferior thermomechanical properties. We employed acoustic sonication to enhance the construction of exfoliated PHA/CNFs nanocomposites. The effects of CNF loading and the insonation variables (power intensity, frequency, and time on the stability and microscopic morphology of the nanocomposites were studied. Sonication improved the dispersion of CNFs into the polymer matrix, thereby improving the physical morphology, crystallinity, and thermomechanical properties of the nanocomposites. For example, compositing the polymer with 10% w/w CNF resulted in 66% increase in crystallite size, 46% increase in micromolecular elastic strain, and 17% increase in lattice strain. Nevertheless, polymer degradation was observed following the ultrasound exposure. The constructed bionanocomposite could potentially be applied for organic electroconductive materials, biosensors and stimuli-responsive drug delivery devices.

  7. Slowing and stopping of wave in dispersive metamaterial loaded helical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dushyant K; Pathak, Surya K

    2016-02-08

    We propose a dispersive metamaterial loaded helical waveguide (DMLHG) structure that supports slowing and stopping of Electromagnetic (EM) wave. Analytical and computational characterizations have been done to visualize various modal characteristics in detail using the Drude model as a dispersive parameter. It is observed that metamaterial insertion enhances helical guide slow wave behaviour and it supports both forward wave (FW) and backward wave (BW) as well as mode degeneracy. Obtained mode degeneracy mechanism leads to trapping of EM wave. The proposed guide structure provides a dynamic control of wave velocity by varying its physical parameters. Two possible structures are designed and simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The simulation results verify the presence of similar characteristics as observed in analytical study such as FW, BW, mode-degeneracy, but in slightly shifted frequency spectrum.

  8. Dispersion of axially symmetric waves in fluid-filled cylindrical shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, X.L.; Überall, H.; Raju, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    Acoustic waves normally incident on an elastic cylindrical shell can cause the excitation of circumferential elastic waves on the shell. These shells may be empty and fluid immersed, or fluid filled in an ambient medium of air, or doubly fluid loaded inside and out. Circumferential waves......, 317 (1972)]. We have extended the work of Kumar to the case of fluid-filled aluminum shells and steel shells imbedded in air. These cases demonstrate the existence of circumferential waves traveling in the filler fluid, exhibiting a certain simplicity of the dispersion curves of these waves....... This is in striking contrast to the results for double (outside and inside) loading by two fluids of comparable density, where circumferential waves in both external and internal fluids were found, their interaction causing segmentation and repulsion phenomena of their dispersion curves. The condition of standing...

  9. Influence of high frequency electric field on the dispersion of ion-acoustic waves in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turky, A.; Cercek, M.; Tavzes, R.

    1981-01-01

    The modification of the ion-acoustic wave dispersion under the action of a high frequency electric field was studied experimentally, the wave propagating along and against the plasma stream. The frequency of the field amounted to approximately half the electron plasma frequency. It was found that the phase velocity of the ion wave and the plasma drift velocity decrease as the effective high frequency field power increases.

  10. Wave model for longitudinal dispersion: Development of the model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Dil`man, V.V.; Kronberg, A.E. [Twente Univ. of Technology, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1995-09-01

    A new 1-D model for longitudinal dispersion is proposed as an alternative to the Fickian-type dispersed plug-flow model. Accounting for significant features of longitudinal mixing gives rise to a quasilinear hyperbolic system of two first-order equations for the average concentration and the dispersion flux instead of one second-order parabolic equation for the average concentration. The model equations are obtained based on minor extensions of the heuristic equilibrium analysis of Taylor. A qualitative, more general derivation of the equations is given on the basis of a simple generalization of Fick`s law, taking into account the finite velocity of fluid elements. For linear problems the mean concentration and the dispersion flux obey a hyperbolic equation of the second order. The proposed hyperbolic model contains three parameters that depend only on the flow conditions, the physical properties of the fluid, and the geometry of the system. It effectively resolves the well-known problem of boundary conditions that, for unidirectional flow, are formulated now only at the reactor inlet. The new model eliminates the conceptual shortcoming inherent to the Fickian dispersed plug-flow model: it predicts a finite velocity of signal propagation and does not involve backmixing in the case of unidirectional flow.

  11. Three dimensional full-wave nonlinear acoustic simulations: Applications to ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinton, Gianmarco [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina - North Carolina State University, 348 Taylor Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA gfp@unc.edu (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Characterization of acoustic waves that propagate nonlinearly in an inhomogeneous medium has significant applications to diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. The generation of an ultrasound image of human tissue is based on the complex physics of acoustic wave propagation: diffraction, reflection, scattering, frequency dependent attenuation, and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of wave propagation is used to the advantage of diagnostic scanners that use the harmonic components of the ultrasonic signal to improve the resolution and penetration of clinical scanners. One approach to simulating ultrasound images is to make approximations that can reduce the physics to systems that have a low computational cost. Here a maximalist approach is taken and the full three dimensional wave physics is simulated with finite differences. This paper demonstrates how finite difference simulations for the nonlinear acoustic wave equation can be used to generate physically realistic two and three dimensional ultrasound images anywhere in the body. A specific intercostal liver imaging scenario for two cases: with the ribs in place, and with the ribs removed. This configuration provides an imaging scenario that cannot be performed in vivo but that can test the influence of the ribs on image quality. Several imaging properties are studied, in particular the beamplots, the spatial coherence at the transducer surface, the distributed phase aberration, and the lesion detectability for imaging at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The results indicate, counterintuitively, that at the fundamental frequency the beamplot improves due to the apodization effect of the ribs but at the same time there is more degradation from reverberation clutter. At the harmonic frequency there is significantly less improvement in the beamplot and also significantly less degradation from reverberation. It is shown that even though simulating the full propagation physics is computationally challenging it

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  14. Fundamental modes of new dispersive SH-waves in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and α2 = 0.99εμ) are studied because they satisfy the limitation condition of α2 < εμ. Keywords. ... can have combined large and robust electric and magnetic polarizations at room tempera- ture, except for the .... SH-waves because as soon as α becomes zero, the other new SH-waves given in [53] can exist, except the case ...

  15. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simonetti, Francesco [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Huthwaite, Peter [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Rosenberg, Robert [UNM; Williamson, Michael [UNM

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and form images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  16. Shear wave elastography contribution in ultrasound diagnosis management of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, T; Boussion, V; Kwiatkowski, F; Dieu-de Fraissinette, V; Bailly-Glatre, A; Lemery, S; Boyer, L

    2014-09-01

    To determine the diagnosis performance of shear wave elastography in the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions and the factors influencing the elasticity values. To suggest an appropriate management of breast lesions using the ultrasound-elastography combination. Monocentric retrospective study of 167 breast lesions classified by conventional ultrasound as BI-RADS category 3 or higher that underwent an elastography study and histological analysis. The analysis of qualitative parameters, according to the classification established in this study, allows us to obtain a sensitivity of 91.1% and a specificity of 92.3%. These values are very close to or better than the quantitative parameters Emax and Emean. Different Emax thresholds values were established based on the long axis of the lesion and its palpable character, which appeared to be significant factors influencing elasticity. The management of breast lesions by combining ultrasound and elastography, as proposed here, allows us to keep the sensitivity of an ultrasound (96%), while doubling its specificity (86.2% versus 43.1%). With the complementary nature of their performance, the combination of conventional ultrasound and shear wave elastography can improve the management of breast lesions. The qualitative classification proposed appears to be relevant assistance in lesion characterization. Copyright © 2014 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures ... limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  18. Projected constraints on the dispersion of gravitational waves using advanced ground- and space-based interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samajdar, Anuradha; Arun, K. G.

    2017-11-01

    Certain alternative theories of gravity predict that gravitational waves will disperse as they travel from the source to the observer. The recent binary black hole observations by Advanced-LIGO have set limits on a modified dispersion relation from the constraints on their effects on gravitational-wave propagation. Using an identical modified dispersion, of the form E2=p2c2+A pαcα , where A denotes the magnitude of dispersion and E and p are the energy and momentum of the gravitational wave, we estimate the projected constraints on the modified dispersion from observations of compact binary mergers by third-generation ground-based detectors such as the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer as well as the space-based detector Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. We find that third-generation detectors would bound dispersion of gravitational waves much better than their second-generation counterparts. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, with its extremely good low-frequency sensitivity, would place stronger constraints than the ground-based detectors for α ≤1 , whereas for α >1 , the bounds are weaker. We also study the effect of the spins of the compact binary constituents on the bounds.

  19. Dispersion durations of P-wave and QT interval in children treated with a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksöz, Önder; Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Ünsal; Işgüder, Rana; Çeleğen, Kübra; Meşe, Timur

    2014-04-01

    Limited data are available on the effects of a ketogenic diet on dispersion duration of P-wave and QT-interval measures in children. We searched for the changes in these measures with serial electrocardiograms in patients treated with a ketogenic diet. Twenty-five drug-resistant patients with epilepsy treated with a ketogenic diet were enrolled in this study. Electrocardiography was performed in all patients before the beginning and at the sixth month after implementation of the ketogenic diet. Heart rate, maximum and minimum P-wave duration, P-wave dispersion, and maximum and minimum corrected QT interval and QT dispersion were manually measured from the 12-lead surface electrocardiogram. Minimum and maximum corrected QT and QT dispersion measurements showed nonsignificant increase at month 6 compared with baseline values. Other previously mentioned electrocardiogram parameters also showed no significant changes. A ketogenic diet of 6 months' duration has no significant effect on electrocardiogram parameters in children. Further studies with larger samples and longer duration of follow-up are needed to clarify the effects of ketogenic diet on P-wave dispersion and corrected QT and QT dispersion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dispersion curve extraction of Lamb waves in metallic plates by matrix pencil method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. Y.; Yuan, F. G.

    2017-04-01

    Lamb wave dispersion curves for isotropic plates are extracted from measured sensor data by matrix pencil (MP) method. A piezoelectric wafer emits a linear chirp signal as broadband excitation to generate Lamb waves in isotropic plates. The propagating waves are measured at discrete locations along a wave ray direction with a sensor 1-D laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The out-of-plane velocities are first Fourier transformed into either space-frequency x-ω domain or wavenumber-time k-t domain. The matrix pencil method is then employed to extract the dispersion curves for various wave modes simultaneously. In addition, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves are deduced by the relation between wavenumber and frequency. In this research, the inspections for dispersion relations on isotropic plates are demonstrated and compared by two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FFT) and MP method. The results are confirmed by theoretical curves computed numerically. It has demonstrated that the MP method is robust in recognining/differentiating different wave modes, including higher order ones.

  1. Shear wave velocity models retrieved using Rg wave dispersion data in shallow crust in some regions of southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shutian; Motazedian, Dariush; Corchete, Victor

    2013-04-01

    Many crucial tasks in seismology, such as locating seismic events and estimating focal mechanisms, need crustal velocity models. The velocity models of shallow structures are particularly important in the simulation of ground motions. In southern Ontario, Canada, many small shallow earthquakes occur, generating high-frequency Rayleigh ( Rg) waves that are sensitive to shallow structures. In this research, the dispersion of Rg waves was used to obtain shear-wave velocities in the top few kilometers of the crust in the Georgian Bay, Sudbury, and Thunder Bay areas of southern Ontario. Several shallow velocity models were obtained based on the dispersion of recorded Rg waves. The Rg waves generated by an m N 3.0 natural earthquake on the northern shore of Georgian Bay were used to obtain velocity models for the area of an earthquake swarm in 2007. The Rg waves generated by a mining induced event in the Sudbury area in 2005 were used to retrieve velocity models between Georgian Bay and the Ottawa River. The Rg waves generated by the largest event in a natural earthquake swarm near Thunder Bay in 2008 were used to obtain a velocity model in that swarm area. The basic feature of all the investigated models is that there is a top low-velocity layer with a thickness of about 0.5 km. The seismic velocities changed mainly within the top 2 km, where small earthquakes often occur.

  2. Nonlinear wave propagation studies, dispersion modeling, and signal parameters correction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk

    ..: ..., 2004, 00. [European Workshop on FP6-AERONEWS /1./. Naples (IT), 13.09.2004-16.09.2004] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 502927 - AERO-NEWS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : nodestructive testing * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  3. Estimation of femoral bone density from trabecular direct wave and cortical guided wave ultrasound velocities measured at the proximal femur in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkmann, Reinhard; Dencks, Stefanie; Bremer, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur is a predictor of hip fracture risk. We developed a Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) scanner for measurements at this site with similar performance (FemUS). In this study we tested if ultrasound velocities of direct waves through trabecular bone and o...

  4. Anisotropic S-wave velocity structure from joint inversion of surface wave group velocity dispersion: A case study from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, S.; Dey, S.; Siddartha, G.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2016-12-01

    We estimate 1-dimensional path average fundamental mode group velocity dispersion curves from regional Rayleigh and Love waves sampling the Indian subcontinent. The path average measurements are combined through a tomographic inversion to obtain 2-dimensional group velocity variation maps between periods of 10 and 80 s. The region of study is parametrised as triangular grids with 1° sides for the tomographic inversion. Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves from each node point is subsequently extracted and jointly inverted to obtain a radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model through global optimisation using Genetic Algorithm. The parametrization of the model space is done using three crustal layers and four mantle layers over a half-space with varying VpH , VsV and VsH. The anisotropic parameter (η) is calculated from empirical relations and the density of the layers are taken from PREM. Misfit for the model is calculated as a sum of error-weighted average dispersion curves. The 1-dimensional anisotropic shear wave velocity at each node point is combined using linear interpolation to obtain 3-dimensional structure beneath the region. Synthetic tests are performed to estimate the resolution of the tomographic maps which will be presented with our results. We envision to extend this to a larger dataset in near future to obtain high resolution anisotrpic shear wave velocity structure beneath India, Himalaya and Tibet.

  5. Integration of SH seismic reflection and Love-wave dispersion data for shear wave velocity determination over quick clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Cesare; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Polom, Ulrich; Socco, Laura Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Quick clay is a water-saturated formation originally formed through flocculation and deposition in a marine to brackish environment. It is subsequently leached to low salinity by freshwater flow. If its strength decreases, then the flocculated structure collapses leading to landslides of varying destructiveness. Leaching can result in a reduction of the undisturbed shear strength of these clays and suggestions exist that a reduction in shear wave velocities is also possible. Integration of SH seismic reflection and Love-wave dispersion data was undertaken, in an area near the Göta River in southwest Sweden, to evaluate the potential of shear wave velocity imaging for detecting quick clays. Seismic reflection processing evidenced several geologically interesting interfaces related to the probable presence of quick clays (locally confirmed by boreholes) and sand-gravelly layers strongly contributing to water circulation within them. Dispersion data were extracted with a Gaussian windowing approach and inverted with a laterally constrained inversion using a priori information from the seismic reflection imaging. The inversion of dispersion curves has evidenced the presence of a low velocity layer (lvl, with a velocity reduction of ca. 30 per cent) probably associable to quick clays. This velocity reduction is enough to produce detectable phase-velocity differences in the field data and to achieve a better velocity resolution if compared to reflection seismic velocity analyses. The proposed approach has the potential of a comprehensive determination of the shear wave velocity distribution in the shallow subsurface. A sensitivity analysis of Love-wave dispersion data is also presented underlining that, despite limited dispersion of the data set and the velocity-reducing effect of quick-clay leaching, the proposed interpretation procedure arises as a valuable approach in quick clay and other lvl identification.

  6. Superficial Ultrasound Shear Wave Speed Measurements in Soft and Hard Elasticity Phantoms: Repeatability and Reproducibility Using Two Different Ultrasound Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R.; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S.; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W.; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. Purpose To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three different imaging methods, two different ultrasound systems, and multiple operators. Methods and Materials Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution #1 used an Acuson S3000 ultrasound system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.) and three different shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution #2 used an Aixplorer ultrasound system (Supersonic Imagine) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student’s t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single measure intra-class correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. Results For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (p=0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (p>0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5–6.8%), and inter-operator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth

  7. Pseudospectral modeling and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Chen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of the most widely used techniques in environmental and engineering geophysics to determine shear-wave velocities and dynamic properties, which is based on the elastic layered system theory. Wave propagation in the Earth, however, has been recognized as viscoelastic and the propagation of Rayleigh waves presents substantial differences in viscoelastic media as compared with elastic media. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulation and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media to better understand Rayleigh-wave behaviors in the real world. We apply a pseudospectral method to the calculation of the spatial derivatives using a Chebyshev difference operator in the vertical direction and a Fourier difference operator in the horizontal direction based on the velocity-stress elastodynamic equations and relations of linear viscoelastic solids. This approach stretches the spatial discrete grid to have a minimum grid size near the free surface so that high accuracy and resolution are achieved at the free surface, which allows an effective incorporation of the free surface boundary conditions since the Chebyshev method is nonperiodic. We first use an elastic homogeneous half-space model to demonstrate the accuracy of the pseudospectral method comparing with the analytical solution, and verify the correctness of the numerical modeling results for a viscoelastic half-space comparing the phase velocities of Rayleigh wave between the theoretical values and the dispersive image generated by high-resolution linear Radon transform. We then simulate three types of two-layer models to analyze dispersive-energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media is relatively higher than in elastic media and the fundamental mode increases by 10-16% when the frequency is above 10. Hz due to the velocity dispersion of P

  8. A new coupling of spectrophotometric determination with ultrasound-assisted emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of trace silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaodong; Kong, Lamei; Chen, Meihui; Deng, Qingwen; Zhao, Xia; Guo, Jie

    2012-11-01

    In this work, a new coupling of spectrophotometric determination with preconcentration method named as ultrasound-assisted emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UAE-DLLME) for trace silver was firstly established. Disperser solvent in traditional DLLME was substituted by ultrasound-assisted emulsification, which could afford more effective emulsification and make the extraction method greener. The extraction was accomplished efficiently in only 3 min during ultrasound-assisted emulsification. Compared to traditional DLLME, the established pretreatment was simpler, greener and more effective. The UAE-DLLME technique was effectively coupled with ordinary spectrophotometer to improve the analytical performance and expand the application of spectrophotometric determination. The factors influencing UAE-DLLME, such as concentration of chelating agent, kind and volume of extractant, pH, conditions of phase separation, ultrasound extraction time and instrumental conditions, were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for silver was 0.45 μg L-1, with sensitivity enhancement factor (EF) of 35. The established method was applied to the determination of trace silver in real and certified reference samples with satisfactory analytical results.

  9. Impact of Ring Current Ions on Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Dispersion Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of the ring current ions in the real part of electromagnetic ion Cyclotron wave dispersion relation is studied on global scale. Recent Cluster observations by Engebretson et al. showed that although the temperature anisotropy of is energetic (> 10 keV) ring current protons was high during the entire 22 November 2003 perigee pass, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves were observed only in conjunction with intensification of the ion fluxes below 1 keV by over an order of magnitude. To study the effect of the ring current ions on the wave dispersive properties and the corresponding global wave redistribution, we use a self-consistent model of interacting ring current and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and simulate the May 1998 storm. The main findings of our simulation can be summarized as follows: First, the plasma density enhancement in the night MLT sector during the main and recovery storm phases is mostly caused by injection of suprathermal plasma sheet H + (approximately wave dispersion relation leads to a qualitative change of the wave patterns in the postmidnight-dawn sector for L > 4.75. This "new" wave activity is well organized by outward edges of dense suprathermal ring current spots, and the waves are not observed if the ring current ions are not included in the real part of dispersion relation. Third, the most intense wave-induced ring current precipitation is located in the night MLT sector and caused by modification of the wave dispersion relation. The strongest precipitating fluxes of about 8 X 10(exp 6)/ (cm(exp 2) - s X st) are found near L=5.75, MLT=2 during the early recovery phase on 4 May. Finally, the nightside precipitation is more intense than the dayside fluxes, even if there are less intense waves, because the convection field moves ring current ions into the loss cone on the nightside, but drives them out of the loss cone on the dayside. So convection and wave scattering reinforce each other in the nightside, but interfere in

  10. Deciphering Lower Mantle Structure With the Dispersion of Core-Diffracted Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, G. G.; Wysession, M. E.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Shore, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate lateral variations of the D'' region beneath the West Coast of North America using the dispersion signatures of Pdiff and Sdiff waves originating from the Western Pacific Rim. Data come from large earthquakes recorded by over 50 3-component broadband seismic stations stretched across North America as part of seismic networks including the IRIS Global Seismograph Network, U.S. National Seismic Network, Canadian National Seismic Network, and the IRIS PASSCAL Florida-to-Edmonton Seismic Experiment. All data were obtained from the IRIS DMC, resampled at a constant sample rate (20 sps), converted to displacements, and had the instrument responses removed. When the seismic energy of core-diffracted waves occupies a wide frequency band, the structure at the base of the mantle is sampled differently by the energy at various frequencies. The higher-frequency waves stay closer to the core-mantle boundary, while the longer-frequency waves sample more of the lower mantle. This creates dispersion because of the differences in mantle velocities as a function of depth. Using dispersion slowness curves derived from diffracted body waves sampling the thermal and chemical boundary layer region at the base of the mantle, lateral structural variations can not only be resolved but also their nature may be inferred through comparison with synthetic seismic modeling. For this study, the determination of slownesses of incoming diffracted body waves at periods ranging from 150 to 5 seconds was facilitated by an iterative multiple cross-correlation algorithm. Typical results in our calculation of slownesses show r-squared correlations between arrival times and distances above 0.999. We find that dispersion overall causes the slowness to decrease with shorter periods (also found in the synthetic models) and that the dispersion curves we found for different paths resemble the dispersion curves from several different synthetic structural models of D'', thus quantifying the

  11. Ultrasound wave propagation through rough interfaces: Iterative methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Thijssen, J.M.; van den Berg, P.M.

    Two iterative methods for the calculation of acoustic transmission through a rough interface between two media are compared. The methods employ a continuous version of the conjugate gradient technique. One method is based on plane-wave expansions and the other on boundary integral equations and

  12. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, P; Sen, A; Kaw, P K

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and $MnO_2$ dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of $\\partial\\omega/\\partial k < 0$ are identified as signatures of dust-dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects.

  13. Signal Construction-Based Dispersion Compensation of Lamb Waves Considering Signal Waveform and Amplitude Spectrum Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Wang, Tongguang

    2016-12-23

    The results of Lamb wave identification for the aerospace structures could be easily affected by the nonlinear-dispersion characteristics. In this paper, dispersion compensation of Lamb waves is of particular concern. Compared with the similar research works on the traditional signal domain transform methods, this study is based on signal construction from the viewpoint of nonlinear wavenumber linearization. Two compensation methods of linearly-dispersive signal construction (LDSC) and non-dispersive signal construction (NDSC) are proposed. Furthermore, to improve the compensation effect, the influence of the signal construction process on the other crucial signal properties, including the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum, is considered during the investigation. The linear-dispersion and non-dispersion effects are firstly analyzed. Then, after the basic signal construction principle is explored, the numerical realization of LDSC and NDSC is discussed, in which the signal waveform and amplitude spectrum preservation is especially regarded. Subsequently, associated with the delay-and-sum algorithm, LDSC or NDSC is employed for high spatial resolution damage imaging, so that the adjacent multi-damage or quantitative imaging capacity of Lamb waves can be strengthened. To verify the proposed signal construction and damage imaging methods, the experimental and numerical validation is finally arranged on the aluminum plates.

  14. Two-dimensional Shear Wave Elastography on Conventional Ultrasound Scanners with Time Aligned Sequential Tracking (TAST) and Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pengfei; Macdonald, Michael C.; Behler, Russell H.; Lanning, Justin D.; Wang, Michael H.; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Zhao, Heng; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Alizad, Azra; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastography presents 2D quantitative shear elasticity maps of tissue, which are clinically useful for both focal lesion detection and diffuse disease diagnosis. Realization of 2D shear wave elastography on conventional ultrasound scanners, however, is challenging due to the low tracking pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) of these systems. While some clinical and research platforms support software beamforming and plane wave imaging with high PRF, the majority of current clinical ultrasound systems do not have the software beamforming capability, which presents a critical challenge for translating the 2D shear wave elastography technique from laboratory to clinical scanners. To address this challenge, this paper presents a Time Aligned Sequential Tracking (TAST) method for shear wave tracking on conventional ultrasound scanners. TAST takes advantage of the parallel beamforming capability of conventional systems and realizes high PRF shear wave tracking by sequentially firing tracking vectors and aligning shear wave data in the temporal direction. The Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) technique was used to simultaneously produce multiple shear wave sources within the field-of-view (FOV) to enhance shear wave signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) and facilitate robust reconstructions of 2D elasticity maps. TAST and CUSE were realized on a conventional ultrasound scanner (the General Electric LOGIQ E9). A phantom study showed that the shear wave speed measurements from the LOGIQ E9 were in good agreement to the values measured from other 2D shear wave imaging technologies. An inclusion phantom study showed that the LOGIQ E9 had comparable performance to the Aixplorer (Supersonic Imagine) in terms of bias and precision in measuring different sized inclusions. Finally, in vivo case analysis of a breast with a malignant mass, and a liver from a healthy subject demonstrated the feasibility of using the LOGIQ E9 for in vivo 2D shear wave

  15. Shear-wave velocity structure of young Atlantic Lithosphere from dispersion analysis and waveform modelling of Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Lange, Dietrich; Schippkus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The lithosphere is the outermost solid layer of the Earth and includes the brittle curst and brittle uppermost mantle. It is underlain by the asthenosphere, the weaker and hotter portion of the mantle. The boundary between the brittle lithosphere and the asthenosphere is call the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, or LAB. The oceanic lithosphere is created at spreading ridges and cools and thickens with age. Seismologists define the LAB by the presence of a low shear wave velocity zone beneath a high velocity lid. Surface waves from earthquakes occurring in young oceanic lithosphere should sample lithospheric structure when being recorded in the vicinity of a mid-ocean ridge. Here, we study group velocity and dispersion of Rayleigh waves caused by earthquakes occurring at transform faults in the Central Atlantic Ocean. Earthquakes were recorded either by a network of wide-band (up to 60 s) ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15°N or at the Global Seismic Network (GSN) Station ASCN on Ascension Island. Surface waves sampling young Atlantic lithosphere indicate systematic age-dependent changes of group velocities and dispersion of Rayleigh waves. With increasing plate age maximum group velocity increases (as a function of period), indicating cooling and thickening of the lithosphere. Shear wave velocity is derived inverting the observed dispersion of Rayleigh waves. Further, models derived from the OBS records were refined using waveform modelling of vertical component broadband data at periods of 15 to 40 seconds, constraining the velocity structure of the uppermost 100 km and hence in the depth interval of the mantle where lithospheric cooling is most evident. Waveform modelling supports that the thickness of lithosphere increases with age and that velocities in the lithosphere increase, too.

  16. Exact Time-Dependent Nonlinear Dispersive Wave Solutions in Compressible Magnetized Plasmas Exhibiting Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Maity, Chandan; Schamel, Hans

    2011-04-01

    Compressional waves in a magnetized plasma of arbitrary resistivity are treated with the Lagrangian fluid approach. An exact nonlinear solution with a nontrivial space and time dependence is obtained with boundary conditions as in Harris’ current sheet. The solution shows competition among hydrodynamic convection, magnetic field diffusion, and dispersion. This results in a collapse of density and the magnetic field in the absence of dispersion. The dispersion effects arrest the collapse of density but not of the magnetic field. A possible application is in the early stage of magnetic star formation.

  17. Solitary waves for a coupled nonlinear Schrodinger system with dispersion management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotis Panayotaros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a system of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations with periodically varying dispersion coefficient that arises in the context of fiber-optics communication. We use Lions's Concentration Compactness principle to show the existence of standing waves with prescribed L^2 norm in an averaged equation that approximates the coupled system. We also use the Mountain Pass Lemma to prove the existence of standing waves with prescribed frequencies.

  18. Coherent structural trapping through wave packet dispersion during photoinduced spin state switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Hartsock, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The description of ultrafast nonadiabatic chemical dynamics during molecular photo-transformations remains challenging because electronic and nuclear configurations impact each other and cannot be treated independently. Here we gain experimental insights, beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation...... is distinguished from the structural trapping dynamics, which launches a coherent oscillating wave packet (265 fs period), clearly identified as molecular breathing. Throughout the structural trapping, the dispersion of the wave packet along the reaction coordinate reveals details of intramolecular vibronic...

  19. Military jet pilots have higher p-wave dispersions compared to the transport aircraft aircrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çakar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: For the purpose of flight safety military aircrew must be healthy. P-wave dispersion (PWD is the p-wave length difference in an electrocardiographic (ECG examination and represents the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In the study we aimed at investigating PWD in healthy military aircrew who reported for periodical examinations. Material and Methods: Seventy-five asymptomatic military aircrew were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent physical, radiologic and biochemical examinations, and a 12-lead electrocardiography. P-wave dispersions were calculated. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 36.15±8.97 years and the mean p-wave duration was 100.8±12 ms in the whole group. Forty-seven subjects were non-pilot aircrew, and 28 were pilots. Thirteen study subjects were serving in jets, 49 in helicopters, and 13 were transport aircraft pilots. Thirty-six of the helicopter and 11 of the transport aircraft aircrew were non-pilot aircrew. P-wave dispersion was the lowest in the transport aircraft aircrew, and the highest in jet pilots. P-wave dispersions were similar in the pilots and non-pilot aircrew. Twenty-three study subjects were overweight, 19 had thyroiditis, 26 had hepatosteatosis, 4 had hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had hypertension, and 5 had hyperlipidemia. The PWD was significantly associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Serum uric acid levels were associated with p-wave durations. Serum TSH levels were the most important predictor of PWD. Conclusions: When TSH levels were associated with PWD, uric acid levels were associated with p-wave duration in the military aircrew. The jet pilots had higher PWDs. These findings reveal that military jet pilots may have a higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation, and PWD should be recorded during periodical examinations.

  20. Counter-propagating wave interaction for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, G.; Bosch, J. G.; ten Kate, G. L.; Shamdasani, V.; Entrekin, R.; de Jong, N.; van der Steen, A. F. W.

    2012-11-01

    Most techniques for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging require linear propagation to detect nonlinear scattering of contrast agent microbubbles. Waveform distortion due to nonlinear propagation impairs their ability to distinguish microbubbles from tissue. As a result, tissue can be misclassified as microbubbles, and contrast agent concentration can be overestimated; therefore, these artifacts can significantly impair the quality of medical diagnoses. Contrary to biological tissue, lipid-coated gas microbubbles used as a contrast agent allow the interaction of two acoustic waves propagating in opposite directions (counter-propagation). Based on that principle, we describe a strategy to detect microbubbles that is free from nonlinear propagation artifacts. In vitro images were acquired with an ultrasound scanner in a phantom of tissue-mimicking material with a cavity containing a contrast agent. Unlike the default mode of the scanner using amplitude modulation to detect microbubbles, the pulse sequence exploiting counter-propagating wave interaction creates no pseudoenhancement behind the cavity in the contrast image.

  1. Effect of Ring Current Ions on Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Dispersion Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are widely observed in the inner and outer magnetosphere, at geostationary orbit, at high latitudes along the plasmapause, and at the ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of the Ring Current (RC) ions and EMIC waves causes ion scattering into the loss cone and leads to decay of the RC, especially during the main phase of storms when the RC decay times of about one hour or less are observed. The oblique EMIC waves damp due to Landau resonance with the thermal plasmaspheric electrons, and subsequent transport of the dissipating wave energy into the ionosphere below causes an ionosphere temperature enhancement. Induced scattering of these waves by the plasmaspheric thermal ions leads to ion temperature enhancement, and forms a so-called hot zone near the plasmapause where the temperature of core plasma ions can reach tens of thousands of degrees. Relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt also interact well with the EMIC waves, and during the main and/or recovery phases of the storms these electrons can easily be scattered into the loss cone over a time scale from several hours to a day. The plasma density distribution in the magnetosphere and the ion content play a critical role in EMIC wave generation and propagation, but the wave dispersion relation in the known RC-EMIC wave interaction models is assumed to be determined by the thermal plasma distribution only. In these models, the modification of the EMIC wave dispersion relation caused by the RC ions is not taken into account, and the RC ions are only treated as a source of free energy in order to generate EMIC waves. At the same time, the RC ions can dominate the thermal magnetospheric content in the night MLT sector at great L shells during the main and/or recovery storm phase. In this study, using our self-consistent RC-EMIC wave model [Khazanov et al., 2006], we simulate the May 1998 storm in order to quantify the global EMIC wave redistribution caused by

  2. Streaming flow from ultrasound contrast agents by acoustic waves in a blood vessel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunjin; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of streaming flow on ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-assisted drug delivery, streaming velocity fields from sonicated UCA microbubbles were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a blood vessel model. At the beginning of ultrasound sonication, the UCA bubbles formed clusters and translated in the direction of the ultrasound field. Bubble cluster formation and translation were faster with 2.25MHz sonication, a frequency close to the resonance frequency of the UCA. Translation of bubble clusters induced streaming jet flow that impinged on the vessel wall, forming symmetric vortices. The maximum streaming velocity was about 60mm/s at 2.25MHz and decreased to 15mm/s at 1.0MHz for the same acoustic pressure amplitude. The effect of the ultrasound frequency on wall shear stress was more noticeable. Maximum wall shear stress decreased from 0.84 to 0.1Pa as the ultrasound frequency decreased from 2.25 to 1.0MHz. The maximum spatial gradient of the wall shear stress also decreased from 1.0 to 0.1Pa/mm. This study showed that streaming flow was induced by bubble cluster formation and translation and was stronger upon sonication by an acoustic wave with a frequency near the UCA resonance frequency. Therefore, the secondary radiant force, which is much stronger at the resonance frequency, should play an important role in UCA-assisted drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Calcifications on Breast Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography: An Investigational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Gregory; Mohammad Mehrmohammadi; Max Denis; Mahdi Bayat; Stan, Daniela L.; Mostafa Fatemi; Azra Alizad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of macrocalcifications and clustered microcalcifications associated with benign breast masses on shear wave elastography (SWE). Methods SuperSonic Imagine (SSI) and comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) were performed on three sets of phantoms to investigate how calcifications of different sizes and distributions influence measured elasticity. To demonstrate the effect in vivo, three female patients with benign breast masses associated with mammogra...

  4. Relation between the behaviors of P-wave and QT dispersions in elderly patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlejf Cláudia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between P-wave and QT dispersions in elderly patients with heart failure. METHODS: Forty-seven elderly patients (75.6±6 years with stable heart failure in NYHA functional classes II or III and with ejection fractions of 37±6% underwent body surface mapping to analyze P-wave and QT dispersions. The degree of correlation between P-wave and QT dispersions was assessed, and P-wave dispersion values in patients with QT dispersion greater than and smaller than 100 ms were compared. RESULTS: The mean values of P-wave and QT dispersions were 54±14 ms and 68±27 ms, respectively. The correlation between the 2 variables was R=0.41 (p=0.04. In patients with QT dispersion values > 100 ms, P-wave dispersion was significantly greater than in those with QT dispersion values < 100 ms (58±16 vs 53±12 ms, p=0.04 . CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that, in elderly patients with heart failure, a correlation between the values of P-wave and QT dispersions exists. These findings may have etiopathogenic, pathophysiologic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications, which should be investigated in other studies.

  5. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Arinc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or those P-waves and QT intervals unavailable in at least eight ECG leads were excluded. Subjects having insomnia, lactose intolerance, caffeine allergy, recurrent headaches, depression, any psychiatric condition, and history of alcohol or drug abuse, pregnant or lactating women were also excluded from participation. 12 lead ECG was obtained before and after consumption of 250 cc enegry drink. QT and P-wave dispersion was calculated. RESULTS: No significant difference have occurred in heart rate (79 ± 14 vs.81 ±13, p=0.68, systolic pressure (114 ± 14 vs.118 ± 16,p=0.38, diastolic blood pressure (74 ± 12 vs.76 ± 14, p=0.64, QT dispersion (58 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 22, p= 0.785 and P-wave dispersion (37 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 13, p= 0.755 between before and 2 hours after consumption of energy drink. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Consumption of single dose energy drink doesn't affect QT dispersion and P-wave dispersion, heart rate and blood pressure in healthy adults.

  6. A Numerical Analysis of Phononic-Assisted Control of Ultrasound Waves in Acoustofluidic Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    diffractors, which can be introduced in acoustofluidic structures. These diffractors can be applied in the design of efficient resonant cavities, directional sound waves for new types of particle sorting methods, or acoustically controlled deterministic lateral displacement. The PnC-diffractor-based devices...... and streaming has received much attention, since it relies solely on mechanical properties such as particle size and contrast in density and compressibility. We present a theoretical study of phononic-assisted control of ultrasound waves in acoustofluidic devices. We propose the use of phononic crystal...

  7. 1D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; Brandenburg, Martijn

    2017-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Last year an approach was presented using a phase inversion of guided waves that propagated around the circumference of a pipe. This approach works well for larger corrosion spots, but shows significant under-sizing of small spots due to lack of sufficient phase rotation. In this paper the use of arrival time and amplitude loss of higher order circumferential passes is evaluated. Using higher order passes increases sensitivity for sizing smaller defects. Different defect profiles are assumed and the change in arrival time and amplitude loss are calculated using a wave equation based approach for different defect widths and depths. This produces a differential travel time and amplitude change map as function of defect depth and defect width. The actually measured travel time change and amplitude change produces two contours in these maps. Calculating the intersection point gives the defect dimensions. The contours for amplitude loss and travel time change are quite orthogonal, this yields a good discrimination between deep and shallow defects. The approach is evaluated using experimental data from different pipes contain artificial and real defects.

  8. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of PMMA/clay nanocomposites: Study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    free emulsion polymerization technique. Ultrasound waves of different power and frequencies were applied to enhance the dispersion of the clay layers with polymer matrix. The structural information of the synthesized materials was studied by ...

  9. Application of particle swarm optimization to interpret Rayleigh wave dispersion curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xianhai; Tang, Li; Lv, Xiaochun; Fang, Hongping; Gu, Hanming

    2012-09-01

    Rayleigh waves have been used increasingly as an appealing tool to obtain near-surface shear (S)-wave velocity profiles. However, inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves is challenging for most local-search methods due to its high nonlinearity and to its multimodality. In this study, we proposed and tested a new Rayleigh wave dispersion curve inversion scheme based on particle swarm optimization (PSO). PSO is a global optimization strategy that simulates the social behavior observed in a flock (swarm) of birds searching for food. A simple search strategy in PSO guides the algorithm toward the best solution through constant updating of the cognitive knowledge and social behavior of the particles in the swarm. To evaluate calculation efficiency and stability of PSO to inversion of surface wave data, we first inverted three noise-free and three noise-corrupted synthetic data sets. Then, we made a comparative analysis with genetic algorithms (GA) and a Monte Carlo (MC) sampler and reconstructed a histogram of model parameters sampled on a low-misfit region less than 15% relative error to further investigate the performance of the proposed inverse procedure. Finally, we inverted a real-world example from a waste disposal site in NE Italy to examine the applicability of PSO on Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. Results from both synthetic and field data demonstrate that particle swarm optimization can be used for quantitative interpretation of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. PSO seems superior to GA and MC in terms of both reliability and computational efforts. The great advantages of PSO are fast in locating the low misfit region and easy to implement. Also there are only three parameters to tune (inertia weight or constriction factor, local and global acceleration constants). Theoretical results exist to explain how to tune these parameters.

  10. Deterministic and stochastic evolution equations for fully dispersive and weakly nonlinear waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldeberky, Y.; Madsen, Per A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new and more accurate set of deterministic evolution equations for the propagation of fully dispersive, weakly nonlinear, irregular, multidirectional waves. The equations are derived directly from the Laplace equation with leading order nonlinearity in the surface boundary c...

  11. Efficient Femtosecond Mid-infrared Pulse Generation by Dispersive Wave Radiation in Bulk Lithium Niobate Crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8-2.92 μm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25-1.45 μm. © 2014 Optical Society of America...

  12. Dissipative shock waves in all-normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecaplain, C; Soto-Crespo, J M; Grelu, Ph; Conti, C

    2014-01-15

    We propose an interpretation of the pronounced "M" spectral shape that is a recurrent feature in all-normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber laser dynamics. Our interpretation involves shock wave formation regularized by dissipation, modeled by a modified Burgers equation. The large fringes appearing at the edges of the spectrum result from discontinuities in the spectral phase.

  13. 3D Quasi-Static Ultrasound Elastography With Plane Wave In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadacci, Clement; Bunting, Ethan A; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2017-02-01

    In biological tissue, an increase in elasticity is often a marker of abnormalities. Techniques such as quasi-static ultrasound elastography have been developed to assess the strain distribution in soft tissues in two dimensions using a quasi-static compression. However, as abnormalities can exhibit very heterogeneous shapes, a three dimensional approach would be necessary to accurately measure their volume and remove operator dependency. Acquisition of volumes at high rates is also critical to performing real-time imaging with a simple freehand compression. In this study, we developed for the first time a 3D quasi-static ultrasound elastography method with plane waves that estimates axial strain distribution in vivo in entire volumes at high volume rate. Acquisitions were performed with a 2D matrix array probe of 2.5 MHz frequency and 256 elements. Plane waves were emitted at a volume rate of 100 volumes/s during a continuous motorized and freehand compression. 3D B-mode volumes and 3D cumulative axial strain volumes were successfully estimated in inclusion phantoms and in ex vivo canine liver before and after a high intensity focused ultrasound ablation. We also demonstrated the in vivo feasibility of the method using freehand compression on the calf muscle of a human volunteer and were able to retrieve 3D axial strain volume at a high volume rate depicting the differences in stiffness of the two muscles which compose the calf muscle. 3D ultrasound quasi-static elastography with plane waves could become an important technique for the imaging of the elasticity in human bodies in three dimensions using simple freehand scanning.

  14. Propagation and dispersion of electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iranpour

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the ionospheric E region were detected by instruments on the ROSE rockets. The phase velocity and dispersion of plasma waves in the ionospheric E region are determined by band-pass filtering and cross-correlating data of the electric-field fluctuations detected by the probes on the ROSE F4 rocket. The results were confirmed by a different method of analysis of the same data. The results show that the waves propagate in the Hall-current direction with a velocity somewhat below the ion sound speed obtained for ionospheric conditions during the flight. It is also found that the waves are dispersive, with the longest wavelengths propagating with the lowest velocity.

  15. Measurements of Finite Dust Temperature Effects in the Dispersion Relation of the Dust Acoustic Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Erica; Williams, Jeremiah

    2009-04-01

    A dusty plasma is a four-component system composed of ions, electrons, neutral particles and charged microparticles. The presence of these charged microparticles gives rise to new plasma wave modes, including the dust acoustic wave. Recent measurements [1, 2] of the dispersion relationship for the dust acoustic wave in a glow discharge have shown that finite temperature effects are observed at higher values of neutral pressure. Other work [3] has shown that these effects are not observed at lower values of neutral pressure. We present the results of ongoing work examining finite temperature effects in the dispersion relation as a function of neutral pressure. [4pt] [1] E. Thomas, Jr., R. Fisher, and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Plasmas 14, 123701 (2007). [0pt] [2] J. D. Williams, E. Thomas Jr., and L. Marcus, Phys. Plasmas 15, 043704 (2008). [0pt] [3] T. Trottenberg, D. Block, and A. Piel, Phys. Plasmas 13, 042105 (2006).

  16. Dispersive MHD waves and alfvenons in charge non-neutral plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stasiewicz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dispersive properties of linear and nonlinear MHD waves, including shear, kinetic, electron inertial Alfvén, and slow and fast magnetosonic waves are analyzed using both analytical expansions and a novel technique of dispersion diagrams. The analysis is extended to explicitly include space charge effects in non-neutral plasmas. Nonlinear soliton solutions, here called alfvenons, are found to represent either convergent or divergent electric field structures with electric potentials and spatial dimensions similar to those observed by satellites in auroral regions. Similar solitary structures are postulated to be created in the solar corona, where fast alfvenons can provide acceleration of electrons to hundreds of keV during flares. Slow alfvenons driven by chromospheric convection produce positive potentials that can account for the acceleration of solar wind ions to 300–800 km/s. New results are discussed in the context of observations and other theoretical models for nonlinear Alfvén waves in space plasmas.

  17. Propagation and dispersion of electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iranpour

    Full Text Available Low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the ionospheric E region were detected by instruments on the ROSE rockets. The phase velocity and dispersion of plasma waves in the ionospheric E region are determined by band-pass filtering and cross-correlating data of the electric-field fluctuations detected by the probes on the ROSE F4 rocket. The results were confirmed by a different method of analysis of the same data. The results show that the waves propagate in the Hall-current direction with a velocity somewhat below the ion sound speed obtained for ionospheric conditions during the flight. It is also found that the waves are dispersive, with the longest wavelengths propagating with the lowest velocity.

  18. An investigation into the dispersion of ocean surface waves in sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clarence Olin; Rogers, William Erick; Lund, Björn

    2017-02-01

    This investigation considers theoretical models and empirical studies related to the dispersion of ocean surface gravity waves propagating in ice covered seas. In theory, wave dispersion is related to the mechanical nature of the ice. The change of normalized wavenumber is shown for four different dispersion models: the mass-loading model, an elastic plate model, an elastic plate model extended to include dissipation, and a viscous-layer model. For each dispersion model, model parameters are varied showing the dependence of deviation from open water dispersion on ice thickness, elasticity, and viscosity. In all cases, the deviation of wavenumber from the open water relation is more pronounced for higher frequencies. The effect of mass loading, a component of all dispersion models, tends to shorten the wavelength. The Voigt model of dissipation in an elastic plate model does not change the wavelength. Elasticity in the elastic plate model and viscosity in the viscous-layer model tend to increase the wavelength. The net effect, lengthening or shortening, is a function of the particular combination of ice parameters and wave frequency. Empirical results were compiled and interpreted in the context of these theoretical models of dispersion. A synopsis of previous measurements is as follows: observations in a loose pancake ice in the marginal ice zone, often, though not always, showed shortened wavelengths. Both lengthening and shortening have been observed in compact pancakes and pancakes in brash ice. Quantitative matches to the flexural-gravity model have been found in Arctic interior pack ice and sheets of fast ice.

  19. Dispersion of low frequency plasma waves upstream of the quasi-perpendicular terrestrial bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimmock

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency waves in the foot of a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock front have been observed since the very early in situ observations of the terrestrial bow shock (Guha et al., 1972. The great attention that has been devoted to these type of waves since the first observations is explained by the key role attributed to them in the processes of energy redistribution in the shock front by various theoretical models. In some models, these waves play the role of the intermediator between the ions and electrons. It is assumed that they are generated by plasma instability that exist due to the counter-streaming flows of incident and reflected ions. In the second type of models, these waves result from the evolution of the shock front itself in the quasi-periodic process of steepening and overturning of the magnetic ramp. However, the range of the observed frequencies in the spacecraft frame are not enough to distinguish the origin of the observed waves. It also requires the determination of the wave vectors and the plasma frame frequencies. Multipoint measurements within the wave coherence length are needed for an ambiguous determination of the wave vectors. In the main multi-point missions such as ISEE, AMPTE, Cluster and THEMIS, the spacecraft separation is too large for such a wave vector determination and therefore only very few case studies are published (mainly for AMPTE UKS AMPTE IRM pair. Here we present the observations of upstream low frequency waves by the Cluster spacecraft which took place on 19 February 2002. The spacecraft separation during the crossing of the bow shock was small enough to determine the wave vectors and allowed the identification of the plasma wave dispersion relation for the observed waves. Presented results are compared with whistler wave dispersion and it is shown that contrary to previous studies based on the AMPTE data, the phase velocity in the shock frame is directed downstream. The consequences of this

  20. Rayleigh wave dispersion on the Acapulco-Tampico transect in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubailo, I.; Beghein, C.; Davis, P.

    2008-12-01

    In a previous study we have analyzed the data from 100 broadband stations installed from Acapulco to Tampico in Mexico over a period of 1.5 years. Those instruments were a part of the MASE (Middle America Subduction Experiment), and were deployed to build a geodynamical model of the subduction process in the Middle America Trench. The stations were installed with a spacing of 5-6km and provided a unique data set which would allow us to determine the upper mantle velocity structure in great details. The main focus was on a body wave tomography, receiver functions, and shear-wave splitting. The tomographic results in this area showed the presence of a flat slab under the western part of the array, and a steeply dipping slab beneath its center with its truncation at ~400km depth. However, the splitting analysis of the data revealed fast directions perpendicular to the trench not noticeably affected by the dipping slab. The purpose of this study is to identify the slab using a traditional fundamental mode surface wave interstation method. We will measure the dispersion of Rayleigh waves between periods of about 16 to 170s and will invert the measured dispersion curves to model the depth-dependence of the velocity structure within the upper part of the slab. Considering that Rayleigh waves at 170s are sensitive to shear-wave velocity structure down to about 300 km, this should enable us to reveal the upper part of the slab.

  1. Hybrid dispersive media with controllable wave propagation: A new take on smart materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamini, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.bergamini@empa.ch [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zündel, Manuel [ETH Zürich, Institute of Mechanical Systems, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Flores Parra, Edgar A.; Ermanni, Paolo [ETH Zürich, Composite Materials and Adaptive Structures Laboratory, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Delpero, Tommaso [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Ruzzene, Massimo [Georgia Institute of Technology, G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    In this paper, we report on the wave transmission characteristics of a hybrid one dimensional (1D) medium. The hybrid characteristic is the result of the coupling between a 1D mechanical waveguide in the form of an elastic beam, supporting the propagation of transverse waves and a discrete electrical transmission line, consisting of a series of inductors connected to ground through capacitors. The capacitors correspond to a periodic array of piezoelectric patches that are bonded to the beam and that couple the two waveguides. The coupling leads to a hybrid medium that is characterized by a coincidence condition for the frequency/wavenumber value corresponding to the intersection of the branches of the two waveguides. In the frequency range centered at coincidence, the hybrid medium features strong attenuation of wave motion as a result of the energy transfer towards the electrical transmission line. This energy transfer, and the ensuing attenuation of wave motion, is alike the one obtained through internal resonating units of the kind commonly used in metamaterials. However, the distinct shape of the dispersion curves suggests how this energy transfer is not the result of a resonance and is therefore fundamentally different. This paper presents the numerical investigation of the wave propagation in the considered media, it illustrates experimental evidence of wave transmission characteristics and compares the performance of the considered configuration with that of internal resonating metamaterials. In addition, the ability to conveniently tune the dispersion properties of the electrical transmission line is exploited to adapt the periodicity of the domain and to investigate diatomic periodic configurations that are characterized by a richer dispersion spectrum and broader bandwidth of wave attenuation at coincidence. The medium consisting of mechanical, piezoelectric, and analog electronic elements can be easily interfaced to digital devices to offer a novel

  2. Complex dispersion relation of surface acoustic waves at a lossy metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, Logan; Geslain, Alan; Romero-García, Vicente; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The complex dispersion relation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at a lossy resonant metasurface is theoretically and experimentally reported. The metasurface consists of the periodic arrangement of borehole resonators in a rigid substrate. The theoretical model relies on a boundary layer approach that provides the effective metasurface admittance governing the complex dispersion relation in the presence of viscous and thermal losses. The model is experimentally validated by measurements in the semi-anechoic chamber. The complex SAW dispersion relation is experimentally retrieved from the analysis of the spatial Laplace transform of the pressure scanned along a line at the metasurface. The geometrical spreading of the energy from the speaker is accounted for, and both the real and imaginary parts of the SAW wavenumber are obtained. The results show that the strong reduction of the SAW group velocity occurs jointly with a drastic attenuation of the wave, leading to the confinement of the field close to the source and preventing the efficient propagation of such slow-sound surface modes. The method opens perspectives to theoretically predict and experimentally characterize both the dispersion and the attenuation of surface waves at structured surfaces.

  3. Added value of Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the ultrasound assessment of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianculescu, Victor; Ciolovan, Laura Maria [Radiology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dunant, Ariane [Department of Statistics, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Vielh, Philippe [Department of Biopathology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Mazouni, Chafika [Department of Surgery, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Delaloge, Suzette [Department of Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dromain, Clarisse [Radiology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Blidaru, Alexandru [Department of Surgery, Bucharest Institute of Oncology, Bucharest (Romania); Balleyguier, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.balleyguier@gustaveroussy.fr [Radiology Department, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); UMR 8081, IR4M, Paris-Sud University, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To determine the diagnostic performance of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Virtual Touch IQ shear wave elastography in the discrimination of benign and malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods: Conventional B-mode and elasticity imaging were used to evaluate 110 breast lesions. Elastographic assessment of breast tissue abnormalities was done using a shear wave based technique, Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ), implemented on a Siemens Acuson S3000 ultrasound machine. Tissue mechanical properties were interpreted as two-dimensional qualitative and quantitative colour maps displaying relative shear wave velocity. Wave speed measurements in m/s were possible at operator defined regions of interest. The pathologic diagnosis was established on samples obtained by ultrasound guided core biopsy or fine needle aspiration. Results: BIRADS based B-mode evaluation of the 48 benign and 62 malignant lesions achieved 92% sensitivity and 62.5% specificity. Subsequently performed VTIQ elastography relying on visual interpretation of the colour overlay displaying relative shear wave velocities managed similar standalone diagnostic performance with 92% sensitivity and 64.6% specificity. Lesion and surrounding tissue shear wave speed values were calculated and a significant difference was found between the benign and malignant populations (Mann–Whitney U test, p < 0.0001). By selecting a lesion cut-off value of 3.31 m/s we achieved 80.4% sensitivity and 73% specificity. Applying this threshold only to BIRADS 4a masses, we reached overall levels of 92% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity. Conclusion: VTIQ qualitative and quantitative elastography has the potential to further characterise B-mode detected breast lesions, increasing specificity and reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies.

  4. Controllable wave propagation of hybrid dispersive medium with LC high-pass network (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Parra, Edgar; Bergamini, Andrea E.; Ermanni, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    This work reports on the wave transmission characteristics of a hybrid one dimensional (1D) medium. The hybrid characteristic is the result of the coupling between a mechanical waveguide in the form of an elastic beam, and an electrical network. The network configuration investigated is an LC high-pass, consisting of a series of capacitors connected in series through grounded inductors. The capacitors correspond to a periodic array of piezoelectric patches that are bonded to the beam thus coupling the two waveguides. The coupling is characterized by a coincidence frequency/wavenumber corresponding to the intersection of the dispersion curves. At this coincidence frequency, the hybrid medium features attenuation of wave motion as a result of the energy transfer to the electrical network. This energy exchange is depicted in the dispersion by eigenvalue crossing, a particular case of eigenvalue veering. This paper presents the numerical investigations of the wave propagation in the considered medium, and validates the numerical findings with experimental evidence of the wave transmission characteristics. Moreover, the dispersion properties of the electrical network are further studied by varying the inductances thus exploiting the tunability of the periodic electrical domain, i.e: monoatomic and diatmomic unit cell configurations. The LC high-pass network offers several advantages over other configurations, from ease of implementation as the piezoelectric elements are not grounded, to a smaller inductance values to achieve attenuation at a given frequency. Such media could be interfaced with more complex electrical networks to create a new type of smart materials.

  5. Quantitative shear wave ultrasound elastography: initial experience in solid breast masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Shear wave elastography is a new method of obtaining quantitative tissue elasticity data during breast ultrasound examinations. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the reproducibility of shear wave elastography (2) to correlate the elasticity values of a series of solid breast masses with histological findings and (3) to compare shear wave elastography with greyscale ultrasound for benign/malignant classification. Methods Using the Aixplorer® ultrasound system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix en Provence, France), 53 solid breast lesions were identified in 52 consecutive patients. Two orthogonal elastography images were obtained of each lesion. Observers noted the mean elasticity values in regions of interest (ROI) placed over the stiffest areas on the two elastography images and a mean value was calculated for each lesion. A sub-set of 15 patients had two elastography images obtained by an additional operator. Reproducibility of observations was assessed between (1) two observers analysing the same pair of images and (2) findings from two pairs of images of the same lesion taken by two different operators. All lesions were subjected to percutaneous biopsy. Elastography measurements were correlated with histology results. After preliminary experience with 10 patients a mean elasticity cut off value of 50 kilopascals (kPa) was selected for benign/malignant differentiation. Greyscale images were classified according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). BI-RADS categories 1-3 were taken as benign while BI-RADS categories 4 and 5 were classified as malignant. Results Twenty-three benign lesions and 30 cancers were diagnosed on histology. Measurement of mean elasticity yielded an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 for two observers assessing the same pairs of elastography images. Analysis of images taken by two independent operators gave an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.80. Shear

  6. Ultrasound shear wave simulation based on nonlinear wave propagation and Wigner-Ville Distribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidari, Pooya Sobhe; Alirezaie, Javad; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a method for modeling and simulation of shear wave generation from a nonlinear Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) that is considered as a distributed force applied at the focal region of a HIFU transducer radiating in nonlinear regime. The shear wave propagation is simulated by solving the Navier's equation from the distributed nonlinear ARFI as the source of the shear wave. Then, the Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) as a time-frequency analysis method is used to detect the shear wave at different local points in the region of interest. The WVD results in an estimation of the shear wave time of arrival, its mean frequency and local attenuation which can be utilized to estimate medium's shear modulus and shear viscosity using the Voigt model.

  7. Fast characterization of two ultrasound longitudinal waves in cancellous bone using an adaptive beamforming technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Hirofumi; Nagatani, Yoshiki; Matsukawa, Mami; Mizuno, Katsunori; Sato, Toru

    2015-04-01

    The received signal in through-transmission ultrasound measurements of cancellous bone consists of two longitudinal waves, called the fast and slow waves. Analysis of these fast and slow waves may reveal characteristics of the cancellous bone that would be good indicators of osteoporosis. Because the two waves often overlap, decomposition of the received signal is an important problem in the characterization of bone quality. This study proposes a fast and accurate decomposition method based on the frequency domain interferometry imaging method with a modified wave transfer function that uses a phase rotation parameter. The proposed method accurately characterized the fast and slow waves in the experimental study, and the residual intensity, which was normalized with respect to the received signal intensity, was less than -20 dB over the bone specimen thickness range from 6 to 15 mm. In the simulation study, the residual intensity was less than -20 dB over the specimen thickness range from 3 to 8 mm. Decomposition of a single received signal takes only 5 s using a laptop personal computer with a single central processing unit. The proposed method has great potential to provide accurate and rapid measurements of indicators of osteoporosis in cancellous bone.

  8. Broadband light generation at ~1300 nm through spectrally recoiled solitons and dispersive waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Peter Andreas; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Bang, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally study the generation of broadband light at ~1300 nm from an 810 nm Ti:sapphire femtosecond pump laser. We use two photonic crystal fibers with a second infrared zero-dispersion wavelength (λZ2) and compare the efficiency of two schemes: in one fiber λZ2=1400 nm and the light...... at 1300 nm is composed of spectrally recoiled solitons; in the other fiber λZ2=1200 nm and the light at 1300 nm is composed of dispersive waves....

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... both sexes without x-ray exposure. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal ...

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  11. Stochastic piecewise linear function fitting with application to ultrasound shear wave imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Atul; Varghese, Tomy; Sethares, William; Bucklew, James

    2014-01-01

    Piecewise linear function fitting is ubiquitous in many signal processing applications. Inspired by an application to shear wave velocity imaging in ultrasound elastography, this paper presents a discrete state-space Markov model for noisy piecewise linear data and also proposes a tractable algorithm for maximum a posteriori estimation of the slope of each segment in the piecewise linear function. The number and locations of breaks is handled indirectly by the stochastics of the Markov model. In the ultrasound shear wave imaging application, these slope values have concrete physical interpretation as being the reciprocal of the shear wave velocities in the imaged medium. Data acquired on an ellipsoidal inclusion phantom shows that this algorithm can provide good contrast of around 6 dB and contrast to noise ratio of 25 dB between the stiff inclusion and surrounding soft background. The phantom validation study also shows that this algorithm can be used to preserve sharp boundary details, which would otherwise be blurred out if a sliding window least squares filter is applied.

  12. A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M E

    2005-03-21

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant

  13. Heat distribution in the lower leg from pulsed short-wave diathermy and ultrasound treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C L; Draper, D O; Knight, K L

    2000-01-01

    To compare tissue temperature rise and decay after 20-minute diathermy and ultrasound treatments. We inserted 3 26-gauge thermistor microprobes into the medial aspect of the anesthetized triceps surae muscle at a depth of 3 cm and spaced 5 cm apart. Eight subjects received the diathermy treatment first, followed by the ultrasound treatment. This sequence was reversed for the remaining 8 subjects. The diathermy was applied at a frequency of 27.12 MHz at the following settings: 800 bursts per second, 400-microsecond burst duration, 850-microsecond interburst interval, peak root mean square amplitude of 150 W per burst, and an average root mean square output of 48 W per burst. The ultrasound was delivered at a frequency of 1 MHz and an intensity of 1.5 W/cm(2) in the continuous mode for 20 minutes over an area of 40 times the effective radiating area. The study was performed in a ventilated research laboratory. Sixteen (11 men, 5 women) healthy subjects (mean age = 23.56 +/- 4.73 years) volunteered to participate in this study. We recorded baseline, final, and decay temperatures for each of the 3 sites. The average temperature increases over baseline temperature after pulsed short-wave diathermy were 3.02 degrees C +/- 1.02 degrees C in site 1, 4.58 degrees C +/- 0.87 degrees C in site 2, and 3.28 degrees C +/- 1.64 degrees C in site 3. The average temperature increases over baseline temperature after ultrasound were only 0.17 degrees C +/- 0.40 degrees C, 0.09 degrees C +/- 0.56 degrees C, and -0.43 degrees C +/- 0.41 degrees C in sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The temperature dropped only 1 degrees C in 7.65 +/- 4.96 minutes after pulsed short-wave diathermy. We conclude that pulsed short-wave diathermy was more effective than 1-MHz ultrasound in heating a large muscle mass and resulted in the muscles' retaining heat longer.

  14. PROPAGATION AND DISPERSION OF SAUSAGE WAVE TRAINS IN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ruderman, M. S., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-10

    A localized perturbation of a magnetic flux tube produces wave trains that disperse as they propagate along the tube, where the extent of dispersion depends on the physical properties of the magnetic structure, on the length of the initial excitation, and on its nature (e.g., transverse or axisymmetric). In Oliver et al. we considered a transverse initial perturbation, whereas the temporal evolution of an axisymmetric one is examined here. In both papers we use a method based on Fourier integrals to solve the initial value problem. We find that the propagating wave train undergoes stronger attenuation for longer axisymmetric (or shorter transverse) perturbations, while the internal to external density ratio has a smaller effect on the attenuation. Moreover, for parameter values typical of coronal loops axisymmetric (transverse) wave trains travel at a speed 0.75–1 (1.2) times the Alfvén speed of the magnetic tube. In both cases, the wave train passage at a fixed position of the magnetic tube gives rise to oscillations with periods of the order of seconds, with axisymmetric disturbances causing more oscillations than transverse ones. To test the detectability of propagating transverse or axisymmetric wave packets in magnetic tubes of the solar atmosphere (e.g., coronal loops, spicules, or prominence threads) a forward modeling of the perturbations must be carried out.

  15. Energy storage and dispersion of surface acoustic waves trapped in a periodic array of mechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    confined to the electrode as compared to the total mechanical energy is calculated and is found to be increasing for increasing aspect ratio and to tend to a definite limit for the two families of surface waves. This observation is in support of the interpretation that high aspect ratio electrodes act...... as resonators storing mechanical energy. These resonators are evanescently coupled by the surface. The dispersion diagram is presented and shows very low group velocities as the wave vector approaches the limit of the first Brillouin zone. ©2009 American Institute of Physics...

  16. Dispersion and Polarization of Surface Waves Trapped in High Aspect Ratio Electrode Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laude, Vincent; Dühring, Maria Bayard; Moubchir, Hanane

    2007-01-01

    Interdigital transducers (IDT) is a classical technique for surface acoustic wave transduction. Usual IDT's make use of electrodes with limited heights, so that surface mode properties do not differ significantly from those of a free or a fully metalized surface. We have proposed previously (J Appl......, was implemented. The modal shapes of all resonances can thus be identified precisely, giving access to the polarization of the surface waves. In addition, the vertical vibrations of the IDT surface were monitored using a heterodyne optical probe and confirm computations. The dispersion of the surface modes...

  17. Longitudinal dispersion of heavy particles in an oscillating tunnel and application to wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V. S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Steffensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    is studied numerically, using a random-walk particle model with the input data for the mean and turbulence characteristics of the wave boundary layer picked up from a transitional two-equation k–ω Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes model and plugged in the random-walk model. First, the flowmodel is validated...... are found to be in general agreement both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the last part of the study, an example application of the present model for fine sand dispersing in a wave boundary layer under storm conditions is given....

  18. Differential evolution algorithm for nonlinear inversion of high-frequency Rayleigh wave dispersion curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xianhai; Li, Lei; Zhang, Xueqiang; Huang, Jianquan; Shi, Xinchun; Jin, Si; Bai, Yiming

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, Rayleigh waves are gaining popularity to obtain near-surface shear (S)-wave velocity profiles. However, inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves is challenging for most local-search methods due to its high nonlinearity and to its multimodality. In this study, we proposed and tested a new Rayleigh wave dispersion curve inversion scheme based on differential evolution (DE) algorithm. DE is a novel stochastic search approach that possesses several attractive advantages: (1) Capable of handling non-differentiable, non-linear and multimodal objective functions because of its stochastic search strategy; (2) Parallelizability to cope with computation intensive objective functions without being time consuming by using a vector population where the stochastic perturbation of the population vectors can be done independently; (3) Ease of use, i.e. few control variables to steer the minimization/maximization by DE's self-organizing scheme; and (4) Good convergence properties. The proposed inverse procedure was applied to nonlinear inversion of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves for near-surface S-wave velocity profiles. To evaluate calculation efficiency and stability of DE, we firstly inverted four noise-free and four noisy synthetic data sets. Secondly, we investigated effects of the number of layers on DE algorithm and made an uncertainty appraisal analysis by DE algorithm. Thirdly, we made a comparative analysis with genetic algorithms (GA) by a synthetic data set to further investigate the performance of the proposed inverse procedure. Finally, we inverted a real-world example from a waste disposal site in NE Italy to examine the applicability of DE on Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. Furthermore, we compared the performance of the proposed approach to that of GA to further evaluate scores of the inverse procedure described here. Results from both synthetic and actual field data demonstrate that differential evolution algorithm applied

  19. Ultrasonic guided waves dispersion reversal for long bone thickness evaluation: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Liu, Chengcheng; Ta, Dean

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that ultrasonic guided waves have great potentials for long cortical bone evaluation. However, due to the multimodal dispersion, the received signals usually contain several mixed guided modes, which highly complicates the mode separation and signal processing. In the study, we showed that the use of dispersion reversal excitation allows the self-compensation of the dispersive modes in the long cortical bone. Two-dimension finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) method was employed to simulate the propagation of two fundamental guided modes, symmetrical S0 and anti-symmetrical A0, in the long cortical bones. It was demonstrated that the pulse-like modes of S0 and A0 can be detected under the dispersion reversal excitations. The simulations also illustrated that the proposed dispersion reversal method can be used to evaluate the cortical thickness. Results are promising for the application of dispersion reversal method in ultrasonic assessment of the long cortical bone.

  20. Measurement of dispersion curves of circumferential guided waves radiating from curved shells: Theory and numerical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekroun, Mathieu; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Prada, Claire; Laugier, Pascal; Grimal, Quentin

    2016-02-01

    A method is proposed to evaluate in a non-contact way the phase velocity dispersion curves of circumferential waves around a shell of arbitrary shape immersed in a fluid. No assumptions are made about the thickness or the material of the shell. A geometrical model is derived to describe the shape of the radiated wavefronts in the surrounding fluid, and predict the positions of its centers of curvature. Then the time-reversal principle is applied to recover these positions and to calculate the phase velocity of the circumferential waves. Numerical finite-difference simulations are performed to evaluate the method on a circular and on an elliptic thin shell. Different dispersion curves can be recovered with an error of less than 10%.

  1. A Simple FDTD Algorithm for Simulating EM-Wave Propagation in General Dispersive Anisotropic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, an finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for simulating propagation of EM waves in anisotropic material is presented. The algorithm is based on the auxiliary differential equation and the general polarization formulation. In anisotropic materials, electric fields are coupled and elements in the permittivity tensor are, in general, multiterm dispersive. The presented algorithm resolves the field coupling using a formulation based on electric polarizations. It also offers a simple procedure for the treatment of multiterm dispersion in the FDTD scheme. The algorithm is tested by simulating wave propagation in 1-D magnetized plasma showing excellent agreement with analytical solutions. Extension of the algorithm to multidimensional structures is straightforward. The presented algorithm is efficient and simple compared to other algorithms found in the literature. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Effect of ultrasound waves pretreatment on quantity and antioxidant capacity of extracted beta-carotene from carrot residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Seyedifar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the tendency towards the extraction of phytochemicals by ultrasound method has been increased. In this research, the effect of ultrasound waves pretreatment on extraction of beta-carotene from carrot residue was studied. Carrot residues were treated with ultrasound waves with 205 W power, constant 35 KHz frequency during  six stages of 0 (without ultrasound, 16, 20, 30, 40 and 44 min and at temperatures of 66, 70, 80, 90 and 94 ºC and using ethyl acetate as solvents. Then, the extract from each sample was evaluated considering the amount of total phenolic components as well as beta-carotene and antioxidant capacity of beta-carotene. According to the results, it was observed that, there was a significant difference (P

  3. Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves

    KAUST Repository

    Armaroli, Andrea

    2009-11-03

    We investigate the impact of nonlocality, owing to diffusive behavior, on transverse instabilities of a dark stripe propagating in a defocusing cubic medium. The nonlocal response turns out to have a strongly stabilizing effect both in the case of a single soliton input and in the regime where dispersive shock waves develop (multisoliton regime). Such conclusions are supported by the linear stability analysis and numerical simulation of the propagation. © 2009 The American Physical Society.

  4. Understanding of Materials State and its Degradation using Non-Linear Ultrasound Approaches for Lamb Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-31

    different regions of damage. The improved understanding of the non-linear ultrasound is anticipated to lead to new measurement techniques that have... technique that enables evaluation of the present state of materials and predicts their remaining life. Conventional ultrasonic methods and all other...Linear Ultrasound Approaches for Lamb Wave Propagation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-13-1-4001 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 13RSZ070_134001 5c. PROGRAM

  5. Phononic and magnonic dispersions of surface waves on a permalloy/BARC nanostructured array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Zhang, Vanessa Li; Di, Kai; Kuok, Meng Hau; Lim, Hock Siah; Ng, Ser Choon; Singh, Navab; Adeyeye, Adekunle Olusola

    2013-03-01

    Phononic and magnonic dispersions of a linear array of periodic alternating Ni80Fe20 and bottom anti-reflective coating nanostripes on a Si substrate have been measured using Brillouin light scattering. The observed phononic gaps are considerably larger than those of laterally patterned multi-component crystals previously reported, mainly a consequence of the high elastic and density contrasts between the stripe materials. Additionally, the phonon hybridization bandgap has an unusual origin in the hybridization and avoided crossing of the zone-folded Rayleigh and pseudo-Sezawa waves. The magnonic band structure features near-dispersionless branches, with unusual vortex-like dynamic magnetization profiles, some of which lie below the highly-dispersive fundamental mode branch. Finite element calculations of the phononic and magnonic dispersions of the magphonic crystal accord well with experimental data.

  6. Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy for the determination of wave propagation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Barnana

    2017-01-01

    The reported results for ultrasonic wave attenuation constant (α) in pure water show noticeable inconsistency in magnitude. A "Propagating-Wave" model analysis of the most popular pulse-echo technique indicates that this is a consequence of the inherent wave propagation characteristics in a bounded medium. In the present work Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy (FTUS) is adopted to determine ultrasonic wave propagation parameters, the wave number (k) and attenuation constant (α) at 1MHz frequency in tri-distilled water at room temperature (25°C). Pulse-echo signals obtained under same experimental conditions regarding the exciting input signal and reflecting boundary wall of the water container for various lengths of water columns are captured. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) components of the echo signals are taken to compute k, α and r, the reflection constant at the boundary, using Oak Ridge and Oxford method. The results are compared with existing literature values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tweaking the spin-wave dispersion and suppressing the incommensurate phase in LiNiPO4 by iron substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiying; Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2009-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering studies of Li(Ni1−xFex)PO4 single crystals reveal anomalous spin-wave dispersions along the crystallographic direction parallel to the characteristic wave vector of the magnetic incommensurate phase. The anomalous spin-wave dispersion (magnetic soft mode) ......, sufficient to suppress the incommensurate phase. An energy gap in the dispersion curves gradually decreases with the increase in Fe content from ∼2 meV for the pure system (x=0) to ∼0.9 meV for x=0.2....

  8. Increased range of ultrasonic guided wave testing of overhead transmission line cables using dispersion compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Mathew; Yücel, Mehmet K; Kappatos, Vassilios; Selcuk, Cem; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2015-09-01

    Overhead Transmission Line (OVTL) cables can experience structural defects and are, therefore, inspected using Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques. Ultrasonic Guided Waves (UGW) is one NDT technique that has been investigated for inspection of these cables. For practical use, it is desirable to be able to inspect as long a section of cable as possible from a single location. This paper investigates increasing the UGW inspection range on Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cables by compensating for dispersion using dispersion curve data. For ACSR cables, it was considered to be difficult to obtain accurate dispersion curves using modelling due to the complex geometry and unknown coupling between wire strands. Group velocity dispersion curves were, therefore, measured experimentally on an untensioned, 26.5m long cable and a method of calculating theoretical dispersion curves was obtained. Attenuation and dispersion compensation were then performed for a broadband Maximum Length Sequence (MLS) excitation signal. An increase in the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of about 4-8dB compared to that of the dispersed signal was obtained. However, the main benefit was the increased ability to resolve the individual echoes from the end of the cable and an introduced defect in the form of a cut, which was 7 to at least 13dB greater than that of the dispersed signal. Five echoes were able to be clearly detected using MLS excitation signal, indicating the potential for an inspection range of up to 130m in each direction. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the longest inspection range for ACSR cables reported in the literature, where typically cables, which were only one or two meter long, have been investigated previously. Narrow band tone burst and Hann windowed tone burst excitation signal also showed increased SNR and ability to resolve closely spaced echoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of multiwavelets for uncertainty estimation in seismic surface wave dispersion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppeliers, Christian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report describes a new single-station analysis method to estimate the dispersion and uncer- tainty of seismic surface waves using the multiwavelet transform. Typically, when estimating the dispersion of a surface wave using only a single seismic station, the seismogram is decomposed into a series of narrow-band realizations using a bank of narrow-band filters. By then enveloping and normalizing the filtered seismograms and identifying the maximum power as a function of frequency, the group velocity can be estimated if the source-receiver distance is known. However, using the filter bank method, there is no robust way to estimate uncertainty. In this report, I in- troduce a new method of estimating the group velocity that includes an estimate of uncertainty. The method is similar to the conventional filter bank method, but uses a class of functions, called Slepian wavelets, to compute a series of wavelet transforms of the data. Each wavelet transform is mathematically similar to a filter bank, however, the time-frequency tradeoff is optimized. By taking multiple wavelet transforms, I form a population of dispersion estimates from which stan- dard statistical methods can be used to estimate uncertainty. I demonstrate the utility of this new method by applying it to synthetic data as well as ambient-noise surface-wave cross-correlelograms recorded by the University of Nevada Seismic Network.

  10. Dispersion calculation method based on S-transform and coordinate rotation for Love channel waves with two components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Zhang, Yugui

    2017-08-01

    Dispersion analysis is an important part of in-seam seismic data processing, and the calculation accuracy of the dispersion curve directly influences pickup errors of channel wave travel time. To extract an accurate channel wave dispersion curve from in-seam seismic two-component signals, we proposed a time-frequency analysis method based on single-trace signal processing; in addition, we formulated a dispersion calculation equation, based on S-transform, with a freely adjusted filter window width. To unify the azimuth of seismic wave propagation received by a two-component geophone, the original in-seam seismic data undergoes coordinate rotation. The rotation angle can be calculated based on P-wave characteristics, with high energy in the wave propagation direction and weak energy in the vertical direction. With this angle acquisition, a two-component signal can be converted to horizontal and vertical directions. Because Love channel waves have a particle vibration track perpendicular to the wave propagation direction, the signal in the horizontal and vertical directions is mainly Love channel waves. More accurate dispersion characters of Love channel waves can be extracted after the coordinate rotation of two-component signals.

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, ... to four hours before the ultrasound to clean out the bowel. top of page What does the ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with your knees toward your chest. To obtain high-quality images, an ultrasound transducer – a plastic cylinder ... and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature waves are instantly measured and displayed ... ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move ...

  16. Development of Surface Wave Dispersion and Attenuation Maps and Improved Methods for Measuring Surface Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-30

    same order and normalized by the 40-50 second surface wave amplitudes, but recorded at KMI (~130º azimuth, away from the Tarim Basin). The amplitudes...amplitudes, but recorded at KMI (~130º azimuth, away from the Tarim Basin). The amplitudes are more consistent and waveforms much less complex

  17. Rayleigh wave dispersion curve inversion by using particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuk, Ersin; Zor, Ekrem; Karaman, Abdullah

    2017-04-01

    Inversion of surface wave dispersion curves with its highly nonlinear nature has some difficulties using traditional linear inverse methods due to the need and strong dependence to the initial model, possibility of trapping in local minima and evaluation of partial derivatives. There are some modern global optimization methods to overcome of these difficulties in surface wave analysis such as Genetic algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). GA is based on biologic evolution consisting reproduction, crossover and mutation operations, while PSO algorithm developed after GA is inspired from the social behaviour of birds or fish of swarms. Utility of these methods require plausible convergence rate, acceptable relative error and optimum computation cost that are important for modelling studies. Even though PSO and GA processes are similar in appearence, the cross-over operation in GA is not used in PSO and the mutation operation is a stochastic process for changing the genes within chromosomes in GA. Unlike GA, the particles in PSO algorithm changes their position with logical velocities according to particle's own experience and swarm's experience. In this study, we applied PSO algorithm to estimate S wave velocities and thicknesses of the layered earth model by using Rayleigh wave dispersion curve and also compared these results with GA and we emphasize on the advantage of using PSO algorithm for geophysical modelling studies considering its rapid convergence, low misfit error and computation cost.

  18. Higher P-Wave Dispersion in Migraine Patients with Higher Number of Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koçer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Aim. An imbalance of the sympathetic system may explain many of the clinical manifestations of the migraine. We aimed to evaluate P-waves as a reveal of sympathetic system function in migraine patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods. Thirty-five episodic type of migraine patients (complained of migraine during 5 years or more, BMI < 30 kg/m2 and 30 controls were included in our study. We measured P-wave durations (minimum, maximum, and dispersion from 12-lead ECG recording during pain-free periods. ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then used for magnification of x400 by Adobe Photoshop software. Results. P-wave durations were found to be similar between migraine patients and controls. Although P WD (P-wave dispersion was similar, the mean value was higher in migraine subjects. P WD was positively correlated with P max (P<0.01. Attacks number per month and male gender were the factors related to the P WD (P<0.01. Conclusions. Many previous studies suggested that increased sympathetic activity may cause an increase in P WD. We found that P WD of migraine patients was higher than controls, and P WD was related to attacks number per month and male gender. Further studies are needed to explain the chronic effects of migraine.

  19. Crustal thickness estimates for Baja California, Sonora, and Sinaloa, Mexico, using disperse surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pineda, Leobardo; Rebollar, Cecilio J.; Quintanar, Luis

    2007-04-01

    Dispersed surface waves of regional events recorded at Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs (NARS)-Baja and Red Sísmica de Banda Ancha (RESBAN) networks located over the Baja California Peninsula, Sonora, and Sinaloa, Mexico, were used to estimate shear wave elastic models and crustal thickness. We analyzed fundamental modes of surface waves with period between 10 and 40 s. Multiple filter analysis and the inversion method described by Herrmann and Ammon (2003) was used. Crustal thickness estimates for the Peninsular Ranges of Northern Baja California agree with those obtained by previous studies in the Peninsular Ranges of Northern Baja California. We analyzed dispersion of surface waves with northwest-southeast travel paths along the east and west sides of the Baja California Peninsula as well as a northwest-southeast travel path along the western sides of the Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa. It was found that the crustal structure east of the Baja California Peninsula is similar to the structure of Sonora and Sinaloa. The correlation between those two structures suggests dextral offset of the order of 275 ± 25 km if we consider Baja California Peninsula as a rigid body moving toward the northwest relative to the North America plate. This displacement between the structures is in agreement with the displacement determined by the dating of Miocene deposits located in San Felipe on the Baja California Peninsula (Pacific plate), and Isle Tiburon located west of Sonora (North America plate).

  20. Propagation and dispersion of transverse wave trains in magnetic flux tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ruderman, M. S., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The dispersion of small-amplitude, impulsively excited wave trains propagating along a magnetic flux tube is investigated. The initial disturbance is a localized transverse displacement of the tube that excites a fast kink wave packet. The spatial and temporal evolution of the perturbed variables (density, plasma displacement, velocity, ...) is given by an analytical expression containing an integral that is computed numerically. We find that the dispersion of fast kink wave trains is more important for shorter initial disturbances (i.e., more concentrated in the longitudinal direction) and for larger density ratios (i.e., for larger contrasts of the tube density with respect to the environment density). This type of excitation generates a wave train whose signature at a fixed position along a coronal loop is a short event (duration ≅ 20 s) in which the velocity and density oscillate very rapidly with typical periods of the order of a few seconds. The oscillatory period is not constant but gradually declines during the course of this event. Peak values of the velocity are of the order of 10 km s{sup –1} and are accompanied by maximum density variations of the order of 10%-15% the unperturbed loop density.

  1. The role of viscosity estimation for oil-in-gelatin phantom in shear wave based ultrasound elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Dong, Changfeng; Yin, Yin; Chen, Xin; Guo, Yanrong; Zheng, Yi; Shen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Tianfu; Zhang, Xinyu; Chen, Siping

    2015-02-01

    Shear wave based ultrasound elastography utilizes mechanical excitation or acoustic radiation force to induce shear waves in deep tissue. The tissue response is monitored to obtain elasticity information about the tissue. During the past two decades, tissue elasticity has been extensively studied and has been used in clinical disease diagnosis. However, biological soft tissues are viscoelastic in nature. Therefore, they should be simultaneously characterized in terms of elasticity and viscosity. In this study, two shear wave-based elasticity imaging methods, shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) and acoustic radiation force impulsive (ARFI) imaging, were compared. The discrepancy between the measurements obtained by the two methods was analyzed, and the role of viscosity was investigated. To this end, four types of gelatin phantoms containing 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% castor oil were fabricated to mimic different viscosities of soft tissue. For the SDUV method, the shear elasticity μ1 was 3.90 ± 0.27 kPa, 4.49 ± 0.16 kPa, 2.41 ± 0.33 kPa and 1.31 ± 0.09 kPa; and the shear viscosity μ2 was 1.82 ± 0.31 Pa•s, 2.41 ± 0.35 Pa•s, 2.65 ± 0.13 Pa•s and 2.89 ± 0.14 Pa•s for 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% oil, respectively in both cases. For the ARFI measurements, the shear elasticity μ was 7.30 ± 0.20 kPa, 8.20 ± 0.31 kPa, 7.42 ± 0.21 kPa and 5.90 ± 0.36 kPa for 0%, 20%, 30% and 40% oil, respectively. The SDUV results demonstrated that the elasticity first increased from 0% to 20% oil and then decreased for the 30% and 40% oil. The viscosity decreased consistently as the concentration of castor oil increased from 0% to 40%. The elasticity measured by ARFI showed the same trend as that of the SDUV but exceeded the results measured by SDUV. To clearly validate the impact of viscosity on the elasticity estimation, an independent measurement of the elasticity and viscosity by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was conducted on these four types of gelatin

  2. Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE): A High Frame-Rate Method for Two-Dimensional Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, Daniel C; Song, Pengfei; Kinnick, Randall R; Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F; Manduca, Armando; Chen, Shigao

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) utilizes the propagation of induced shear waves to characterize the shear modulus of soft tissue. Many methods rely on an acoustic radiation force (ARF) "push beam" to generate shear waves. However, specialized hardware is required to generate the push beams, and the thermal stress that is placed upon the ultrasound system, transducer, and tissue by the push beams currently limits the frame-rate to about 1 Hz. These constraints have limited the implementation of ARF to high-end clinical systems. This paper presents Probe Oscillation Shear Elastography (PROSE) as an alternative method to measure tissue elasticity. PROSE generates shear waves using a harmonic mechanical vibration of an ultrasound transducer, while simultaneously detecting motion with the same transducer under pulse-echo mode. Motion of the transducer during detection produces a "strain-like" compression artifact that is coupled with the observed shear waves. A novel symmetric sampling scheme is proposed such that pulse-echo detection events are acquired when the ultrasound transducer returns to the same physical position, allowing the shear waves to be decoupled from the compression artifact. Full field-of-view (FOV) two-dimensional (2D) shear wave speed images were obtained by applying a local frequency estimation (LFE) technique, capable of generating a 2D map from a single frame of shear wave motion. The shear wave imaging frame rate of PROSE is comparable to the vibration frequency, which can be an order of magnitude higher than ARF based techniques. PROSE was able to produce smooth and accurate shear wave images from three homogeneous phantoms with different moduli, with an effective frame rate of 300 Hz. An inclusion phantom study showed that increased vibration frequencies improved the accuracy of inclusion imaging, and allowed targets as small as 6.5 mm to be resolved with good contrast (contrast-to-noise ratio ≥ 19 dB) between the target and

  3. Propagation, dispersion and interference of spin waves in ferromagnetic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perzlmaier, Korbinian; Scheibenzuber, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Frank; Woltersdorf, Georg; Back, Christian H. [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The propagation and interference of spin waves has been observed in 20 nm thick Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} films by time and space resolved scanning Kerr microscopy. The sample is a continuous thin film with a CPS (coplanar stripline) patterned along one edge of the sample. Using cw (continuous wave) or pulsed microwave excitation, the phase velocities, group velocities, and dispersion relations have been determined in two geometries of an externally applied magnetic in plane bias field, namely the DE (Damon Eshbach) and MSBV (Magneto Static Backward Volume) geometries. Analytical calculations based on the linearized LLG (Landau Lifshitz Gilbert) equation reproduce the experimental findings. Further on, we report on the interference of propagating spin waves in continuous ferromagnetic films.

  4. Dispersive solvent-free ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with HPLC for determination of ulipristal acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Aiqin; Zhu, Xiashi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a simple and efficient ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA IL-DLLME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of ulipristal acetate (UPA) was developed. UPA could be easily migrated into 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C8mimPF6] IL phase without dispersive solvent. The research of extraction mechanism showed that hydrophobic interaction force played a key role in the IL-DLLME. Several important parameters affecting the extraction recovery were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, 25-fold enrichment factor was obtained and the limit of detection (LOD) was 6.8 ng mL(-1) (tablet) or 9.3 ng mL(-1) (serum) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.03-6.0 µg mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the UPA tablets and the real mice serum samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of PMMA/clay nanocomposites: Study ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. PMMA/clay nanocomposites were synthesized by ultrasound assisted emulsifier-free emulsion polymeri- zation technique. Ultrasound waves of different power and frequencies were applied to enhance the dispersion of the clay layers with polymer matrix. The structural information of the synthesized materials was ...

  6. Crust and upper mantle shear wave structure of Northeast Algeria from Rayleigh wave dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Zohir; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdelkrim; Corchete, Victor; Guettouche, Salim

    2017-09-01

    We resolve the crust and upper mantle structure beneath Northeast Algeria at depths of 0-400 km, using inversion of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave. Our data set consists of 490 earthquakes recorded between 2007 and 2014 by five permanent broadband seismic stations in the study area. Applying a combination of different filtering technics and inversion method shear wave velocities structure were determined as functions of depth. The resolved changes in Vs at 50 km depth are in perfect agreement with crustal thickness estimates, which reflect the study area's orogenic setting, partly overlying the collision zone between the African and Eurasian plates. The inferred Moho discontinuity depths are close to those estimated for other convergent areas. In addition, there is good agreement between our results and variations in orientations of regional seismic anisotropy. At depths of 80-180 km, negative Vs anomalies at station CBBR suggest the existence of a failed subduction slab.

  7. On the dispersion law of low-frequency electron whistler waves in a multi-ion plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Lundin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new and simple dispersion law for extra-low-frequency electron whistler waves in a multi-ion plasma is derived. It is valid in a plasma with finite ratio ωc/ωpe of electron gyro-to-plasma frequency and is suitable for wave frequencies much less than ωpe but well above the gyrofrequencies of most heavy ions. The resultant contribution of the ions to the dispersion law is expressed by means of the lower hybrid resonance frequency, the highest ion cutoff frequency and the relative content of the lightest ion. In a frequency domain well above the ions' gyrofrequencies, this new dispersion law merges with the "modified electron whistler dispersion law" determined in previous works by the authors. It is shown that it fits well to the total cold plasma electron whistler dispersion law, for different orientations of the wave vectors and different ion constituents, including negative ions or negatively charged dust grains.

  8. Suppressing bubble shielding effect in shock wave lithotripsy by low intensity pulsed ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Chieh; Zhou, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been used as an effective modality to fragment kidney calculi. Because of the bubble shielding effect in the pre-focal region, the acoustic energy delivered to the focus is reduced. Low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) will be applied to dissolve these bubbles for better stone comminution efficiency. In this study, low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) beam was aligned perpendicular to the axis of a shock wave (SW) lithotripter at its focus. The light transmission was used to evaluate the compressive wave and cavitation induced by SWs without or with a combination of LIPUS for continuous sonication. It is found that bubble shielding effect becomes dominated with the SW exposure and has a greater significant effect on cavitation than compressive wave. Using the combined wave scheme, the improvement began at the 5th pulse and gradually increased. Suppression effect on bubble shielding is independent on the trigger delay, but increases with the acoustic intensity and pulse duration of LIPUS. The peak negative and integral area of light transmission signal, which present the compressive wave and cavitation respectively, using our strategy at PRF of 1 Hz are comparable to those using SW alone at PRF of 0.1 Hz. In addition, high-speed photography confirmed the bubble activities in both free field and close to a stone surface. Bubble motion in response to the acoustic radiation force by LIPUS was found to be the major mechanism of suppressing bubble shielding effect. There is a 2.6-fold increase in stone fragmentation efficiency after 1000 SWs at PRF of 1 Hz in combination with LIPUS. In summary, combination of SWs and LIPUS is an effective way of suppressing bubble shielding effect and, subsequently, improving cavitation at the focus for a better outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dispersion relations for low-frequency waves in a warm, underdense, two-fluid plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuwa, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Analytical forms of dispersion relations for three lower-frequency waves in a two-fluid plasma are presented. In underdense plasmas, ωp2≲Ωce 2, that is, low density or strongly magnetized plasmas, where ωp and Ωce are respectively the plasma frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency, the displacement current can become important in higher-frequency (non-magnetohydrodynamic) region. Focusing on only three branches that become magnetohydrodynamic waves in the low-frequency limit, we derive dispersion relations applicable to both underdense and overdense plasmas by the full set of equations of two-fluid plasmas including the displacement current. It is shown that our analytical results well agree with the exact numerical ones in all frequency ranges when the following conditions are satisfied: normal (i.e., not pair) plasma; low plasma β, and not extremely small electron to ion temperature ratio, me/mi≪Te/Ti, while more exact dispersion relations are needed to perform polarization analysis.

  10. Multi-source and multi-directional shear wave generation with intersecting steered ultrasound push beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Alireza; Song, Pengfei; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F; Urban, Matthew W

    2015-04-01

    Elasticity imaging is becoming established as a means of assisting in diagnosis of certain diseases. Shear wave-based methods have been developed to perform elasticity measurements in soft tissue. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) is one of these methods that apply acoustic radiation force to induce the shear wave in soft tissues. CUSE uses multiple ultrasound beams that are transmitted simultaneously to induce multiple shear wave sources into the tissue, with improved shear wave SNR and increased shear wave imaging frame rate. We propose a novel method that uses steered push beams (SPB) that can be applied for beam formation for shear wave generation. In CUSE beamforming, either unfocused or focused beams are used to create the propagating shear waves. In SPB methods we use unfocused beams that are steered at specific angles. The interaction of these steered beams causes shear waves to be generated in more of a random nature than in CUSE. The beams are typically steered over a range of 3 to 7° and can either be steered to the left (-θ) or right (+θ).We performed simulations of 100 configurations using Field II and found the best configurations based on spatial distribution of peaks in the resulting intensity field. The best candidates were ones with a higher number of the intensity peaks distributed over all depths in the simulated beamformed results. Then these optimal configurations were applied on a homogeneous phantom and two different phantoms with inclusions. In one of the inhomogeneous phantoms we studied two spherical inclusions with 10 and 20 mm diameters, and in the other phantom we studied cylindrical inclusions with diameters ranging from 2.53 to 16.67 mm. We compared these results with those obtained using conventional CUSE with unfocused and focused beams. The mean and standard deviation of the resulting shear wave speeds were used to evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructions by examining bias with nominal values for the phantoms

  11. Dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in axisymmetric magnetospheric plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Grishanov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in two-dimensional (2-D magnetospheric plasmas with anisotropic temperature. Two magnetic field configurations are considered with dipole and circular magnetic field lines. The main contribution of the trapped particles to the transverse dielectric permittivity is estimated by solving the linearized Vlasov equation for their perturbed distribution functions, accounting for the cyclotron and bounce resonances, neglecting the drift effects, and assuming the weak connection of the left-hand and right-hand polarized waves. Both the bi-Maxwellian and bi-Lorentzian distribution functions are considered to model the ring current ions and electrons in the dipole magnetosphere. A numerical code has been developed to analyze the dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in an electron-proton magnetospheric plasma with circular magnetic field lines, assuming that the steady-state distribution function of the energetic protons is bi-Maxwellian. As in the uniform magnetic field case, the growth rate of the proton-cyclotron instability (PCI in the 2-D magnetospheric plasmas is defined by the contribution of the energetic ions/protons to the imaginary part of the transverse permittivity elements. We demonstrate that the PCI growth rate in the 2-D axisymmetric plasmasphere can be significantly smaller than that for the straight magnetic field case with the same macroscopic bulk parameters.

  12. Competing four-wave mixing processes in dispersion oscillating telecom fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finot, Christophe; Fatome, Julien; Sysoliatin, Alexej; Kosolapov, A; Wabnitz, Stefan

    2013-12-15

    We experimentally study the dynamics of the generation of multiple sidebands by means of a quasi-phase-matched four-wave mixing (FWM) process occurring in a dispersion-oscillating, highly nonlinear optical fiber. The fiber under test is pumped by a ns microchip laser operating in the normal average group-velocity dispersion regime and in the telecom C band. We reveal that the growth of higher-order sidebands is strongly influenced by the competition with cascade FWM between the pump and the first-order quasi-phase matched sidebands. The properties of these competing FWM processes are substantially affected when a partially coherent pump source is used, leading to a drastic reduction of the average power needed for sideband generation.

  13. Evanescent-wave comb spectroscopy of liquids with strongly dispersive optical fiber cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avino, S.; Giorgini, A.; Salza, M.; Fabian, M.; Gagliardi, G.; De Natale, P.

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate evanescent-wave fiber cavity-enhanced spectroscopy in the liquid phase using a near-infrared frequency comb. Exploiting strong fiber-dispersion effects, we show that liquid absorption spectra can be recorded without any external dispersive element. The fiber cavity is used both as sensor and spectrometer. The resonance modes are frequency locked to the comb teeth while the cavity photon lifetime is measured over 155 nm, from 1515 nm to 1670 nm, where absorption bands of liquid polyamines are detected as a proof of concept. Our fiber spectrometer lends itself to in situ, real-time chemical analysis in environmental monitoring, biomedical assays, and micro-opto-fluidic systems.

  14. Quantitative ultrasound mapping of regional variations in shear wave speeds of the aging Achilles tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Laura Chernak; Martin, Jack; DeWall, Ryan; Thelen, Darryl; Lee, Kenneth

    2017-02-01

    Evaluate the effects of aging on healthy Achilles tendon and aponeurosis shear wave speed (SWS), a quantitative metric which reflects tissue elasticity. Shear wave elastography was used to measure spatial variations in Achilles tendon SWS in healthy young (n = 15, 25 ± 4 years), middle-aged (n = 10, 49 ± 4 years) and older (n = 10, 68 ± 5 years) adults. SWS was separately measured in the free Achilles tendon, soleus aponeurosis and gastrocnemius aponeurosis in resting (R), stretched (dorsiflexed 15° from R) and slack (plantarflexed 15° from R) postures. SWS significantly increased with stretch and varied with age in all tendon regions. Slack free tendon SWS was significantly higher in older adults than young adults (p = 0.025). However, stretched soleus aponeurosis SWS was significantly lower in older adults than young adults (p = 0.01). Stretched gastrocnemius aponeurosis SWS was significantly lower in both middle-aged (p = 0.003) and older (p = 0.001) adults, relative to younger adults. These results suggest that aging alters spatial variations in Achilles tendon elasticity, which could alter deformations within the triceps surae muscle-tendon units, thus affecting injury potential. The observed location- and posture-dependent variations highlight the importance of controlling ankle posture and imaging location when using shear wave approaches clinically to evaluate tendon disorders. • Shear wave elastography shows promise as a clinical quantitative ultrasound-based technique. • Aging induces location-dependent changes in Achilles tendon shear wave speed. • Spatial and postural dependence necessitates careful integration of this approach clinically.

  15. The Use of Flexible Ultrasound Transducers for the Detection of Laser-Induced Guided Waves on Curved Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tai Chieh; Kobayashi, Makiko; Tanabe, Masayuki; Yang, Che Hua

    2017-06-04

    In this study, a flexible ultrasonic transducer (FUT) was applied in a laser ultrasonic technique (LUT) for non-destructive characterization of metallic pipes at high temperatures of up to 176 °C. Compared with normal ultrasound transducers, a FUT is a piezoelectric film made of a PZT/PZT sol-gel composite which has advantages due to its high sensitivity, curved surface adaptability and high temperature durability. By operating a pulsed laser in B-scan mode along with the integration of FUT and LUT, a multi-mode dispersion spectrum of a stainless steel pipe at high temperature can be measured. In addition, dynamic wave propagation behaviors are experimentally visualized with two dimensional scanning. The images directly interpret the reflections from the interior defects and also can locate their positions. This hybrid technique shows great potential for non-destructive evaluation of structures with complex geometry, especially in high temperature environments.

  16. The Use of Flexible Ultrasound Transducers for the Detection of Laser-Induced Guided Waves on Curved Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Chieh Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a flexible ultrasonic transducer (FUT was applied in a laser ultrasonic technique (LUT for non-destructive characterization of metallic pipes at high temperatures of up to 176 °C. Compared with normal ultrasound transducers, a FUT is a piezoelectric film made of a PZT/PZT sol-gel composite which has advantages due to its high sensitivity, curved surface adaptability and high temperature durability. By operating a pulsed laser in B-scan mode along with the integration of FUT and LUT, a multi-mode dispersion spectrum of a stainless steel pipe at high temperature can be measured. In addition, dynamic wave propagation behaviors are experimentally visualized with two dimensional scanning. The images directly interpret the reflections from the interior defects and also can locate their positions. This hybrid technique shows great potential for non-destructive evaluation of structures with complex geometry, especially in high temperature environments.

  17. Modulation control over ultrasound-mediated gene delivery: evaluating the importance of standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mariame A; Buldakov, Mikhail A; Ogawa, Ryohei; Zhao, Qing-Li; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Kudo, Nobuki; Kondo, Takashi; Riesz, Peter

    2010-01-04

    Low modulation frequencies from 0.5 to 100Hz were shown to alter the characteristics of the ultrasound field producing solution agitation (5Hz; region of standing waves establishment) (Buldakov et al., Ultrason. Sonochem., 2009). In this study, the same conditions were used to depict the changes in exogenous DNA delivery in these regions. The luciferase expression data revealed that lower modulations were more capable of enhancing delivery at the expense of viability. On the contrary, the viability was conserved at higher modulations whereas delivery was found to be null. Cavitational activity and acoustic streaming were the effecters beyond the observed pattern and delivery enhancement was shown to be mediated mainly through sonopermeation. To promote transfection, the addition of calcium ions or an echo contrast agent (Levovist((R))) was proposed. Depending on the mechanism involved in each approach, differential enhancement was observed in both regions and at the interim zone (5Hz). In both cases, enhancement in standing waves field was significant reaching 16.0 and 3.3 folds increase, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded that although the establishment of standing waves is not the only prerequisite for high transfection rates, yet, it is a key element in optimization when other factors such as proximity and cavitation are considered.

  18. A dispersive wave pattern on Jupiter's fastest retrograde jet at 20°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. H.; Fletcher, L. N.; Adamoli, G.; Jacquesson, M.; Vedovato, M.; Orton, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    A compact wave pattern has been identified on Jupiter's fastest retrograding jet at 20°S (the SEBs) on the southern edge of the South Equatorial Belt. The wave has been identified in both reflected sunlight from amateur observations between 2010 and 2015, thermal infrared imaging from the Very Large Telescope and near infrared imaging from the Infrared Telescope Facility. The wave pattern is present when the SEB is relatively quiescent and lacking large-scale disturbances, and is particularly notable when the belt has undergone a fade (whitening). It is generally not present when the SEB exhibits its usual large-scale convective activity ('rifts'). Tracking of the wave pattern and associated white ovals on its southern edge over several epochs have permitted a measure of the dispersion relationship, showing a strong correlation between the phase speed (-43.2 to -21.2 m/s) and the longitudinal wavelength, which varied from 4.4 to 10.0° longitude over the course of the observations. Infrared imaging sensing low pressures in the upper troposphere suggest that the wave is confined to near the cloud tops. The wave is moving westward at a phase speed slower (i.e., less negative) than the peak retrograde wind speed (-62 m/s), and is therefore moving east with respect to the SEBs jet peak. Unlike the retrograde NEBn jet near °N, which is a location of strong vertical wind shear that sometimes hosts Rossby wave activity, the SEBs jet remains retrograde throughout the upper troposphere, suggesting the SEBs pattern cannot be interpreted as a classical Rossby wave. 2D windspeeds and thermal gradients measured by Cassini in 2000 are used to estimate the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity gradient as a means of understanding the origin of the a wave. We find that the vorticity gradient is dominated by the baroclinic term and becomes negative (changes sign) in a region near the cloud-top level (400-700 mbar) associated with the SEBs. Such a sign reversal is a necessary (but

  19. Self-adjointness and conservation law of nonlinear dispersive wave equations modelling elasto-plastic flows

    OpenAIRE

    Ermstål, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Two nonlinear dispersive wave equations arising in elasto-plastic flow have been investigated for self-adjointness. For these equations their symmetries are calculated and conservation laws are constructed using two different methods: an old method based on Noether´s Theorem and a new one developed by Prof. Nail Ibragimov. The new method works for a larger number of equations than the old one. It is complementing the old one in the way that it gives some conservation laws that otherwise would...

  20. Spectral broadening of picosecond pulses forming dispersive shock waves in optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriaux, A; Conforti, M; Bendahmane, A; Fatome, J; Finot, C; Trillo, S; Picqué, N; Millot, G

    2017-08-01

    We investigate analytically, numerically, and experimentally the spectral broadening of pulses that undergo the formation of dispersive shocks, addressing in particular pulses in the range of tens of ps generated via electro-optic modulation of a continuous-wave laser. We give an analytical estimate of the maximal spectral extension and show that super-Gaussian waveforms favor the generation of flat-topped spectra. We also show that the weak residual background of the modulator produces undesired spectral ripples. Spectral measurements confirm our estimates and agree well with numerical integration of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  1. Zone Boundary Softening of the Spin-Wave Dispersion in Doped Ferromagnetic Manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyev, I. V.; Terakura, K.

    1999-04-01

    We argue that the new distinct features observed in doped ferromagnetic manganites R1-xDxMnO3 ( RD = LaSr, PrSr, NdSr, and LaCa), the softening of the spin-wave dispersion at the zone boundary and the increase of the spin-wave stiffness constant with x, have purely magnetic spin origin. They indicate the breakdown of the canonical double-exchange limit, and reflect otherwise natural consequence of the eg-band filling in the half-metallic regime. Details of the realistic electronic structure are important and significantly modify the analysis based on the minimal tight-binding Hamiltonian for eg electrons.

  2. Role of spatial dispersion of electromagnetic wave at its transmission through quantum well

    CERN Document Server

    Korovin, L I; Contreras-Solorio, D A; Pavlov, S T

    2001-01-01

    The theory on the light transmission through the quantum well, placed in the strong magnetic field, perpendicular to the well plane, wherein the interzone transitions take place, is developed. The light wave length is assumed to be comparable with the well width. The formulae for reflection, absorption and transmission wherein the spatial dispersion of the monochromatic light wave and the difference in the reflection indices of the quantum well and the barrier are accounted for, are obtained. It is shown that accounting for these factors effects the reflection most of all, because along with the reflection, caused by the interzonal transitions in the quantum well there appears the additional reflection from the well boundaries. The most radical changes in the reflection take place in the case, when the reverse radiation lifetime of the excited state in the quantum well is shorter as compared to the reverse non-radiation lifetime

  3. Efficient uncertainty quantification of a fully nonlinear and dispersive water wave model with random inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in next-generation industrial applications is to improve numerical analysis by quantifying uncertainties in predictions. In this work we present a formulation of a fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow water wave model with random inputs for the probabilistic description...... at different points in the parameter space, allowing for the reuse of existing simulation software. The choice of the applied methods is driven by the number of uncertain input parameters and by the fact that finding the solution of the considered model is computationally intensive. We revisit experimental...... by the variability in the model input. Finally, we present a synthetic experiment studying the variance-based sensitivity of the wave load on an offshore structure to a number of input uncertainties. In the numerical examples presented the PC methods exhibit fast convergence, suggesting that the problem is amenable...

  4. Impulsive dispersion of a granular layer by a weak blast wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, V.; Saurel, R.; Jourdan, G.; Houas, L.

    2017-03-01

    The dispersion of particles by blast or shock waves induces the formation of coherent structures taking the shape of particle jets. In the present study, a blast wave, issued from an open shock tube, is generated at the center of a granular ring initially confined in a Hele-Shaw cell. With the present experimental setup, solid particle jet formation is clearly observed in a quasi-two-dimensional configuration. In all instances, the jets are initially generated inside the particle ring and thereafter expelled outward. Furthermore, thanks to the two-dimensional experimental configuration, a general study of the main parameters involved in these types of flows can be performed. Among them, the particle diameter, the density of the particles, the initial size of the ring, the shape of the overpressure generated and the surface friction of the Hele-Shaw cell are investigated. Empirical relationships are deduced from experimental results.

  5. Comparison of shear-wave and strain ultrasound elastography in the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung Min; Won, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Park, In Ae; Yi, Ann; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the diagnostic performances of shearwave and strain elastography for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions. B-mode ultrasound and shear-wave and strain elastography were performed in 150 breast lesions; 71 were malignant. BI-RADS final assessment, elasticity values in kilopascals, and elasticity scores on a 5-point scale were assessed before biopsy. The results were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The AUC for shear-wave elastography was similar to that of strain elastography (0.928 vs 0.943). The combined use of B-mode ultrasound and either elastography technique improved diagnostic performance in the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions compared with the use of B-mode ultrasound alone (B-mode alone, AUC = 0.851; B-mode plus shear-wave elastography, AUC = 0.964; B-mode plus strain elastography, AUC = 0.965; p < 0.001). With the best cutoff points of 80 kPa on shear-wave elastography and a score between 3 and 4 on strain elastography, the sensitivity was higher in shear-wave elastography, and specificity was higher in strain elastography (95.8% vs 81.7%, p = 0.002; 93.7% vs 84.8%, p = 0.016). In cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma, mean elasticity scores were lower in grade 3 than in grade 1 and 2 cancers (p = 0.017) with strain elastography causing false-negative findings. The diagnostic performance of shear-wave and strain elastography was similar. Either elastography technique can improve overall diagnostic performance in the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions when combined with B-mode ultrasound. However, the sensitivity and specificity of shear-wave and strain elastography were different according to lesion histologic profile, tumor grade, and breast thickness.

  6. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.

    2017-10-19

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  7. Ultrasound and Point Shear Wave Elastography in Livers of Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelle, Anders Batman; Mulabecirovic, Anesa; Hausken, Trygve; Havre, Roald Flesland; Gilja, Odd Helge; Vesterhus, Mette

    2016-09-01

    Point shear wave elastography (pSWE) is an ultrasound-based method for non-invasive quantification of liver fibrosis. The objective of this study was to explore liver pSWE in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) for assessment of fibrosis. Fifty-five non-transplant patients with PSC (38 males, 17 females; mean age: 46.4 y) were included and compared with 24 matched controls. Median (range) PSC duration was 8.1 (0-33) y. Ultrasonographic scanning followed by liver stiffness measurement by pSWE was performed using a conventional ultrasound system (Philips iU22). Signs of liver fibrosis on B-mode were identified in 21 patients (38%). Splenomegaly was found in 19 patients (35%) and ascites in two patients (4%). Successful pSWE measurements were achieved in the right liver lobe of all individuals and in the left liver lobe of 36 patients (65.5%). PSC patients had significantly higher median shear wave velocity (SWV) than controls in the right liver (median [range] SWV 1.26 [0.73-2.57] m/s vs. 1.09 [0.88-1.25] m/s, p liver lobe and spleen did not differ between PSC patients and controls. Our findings indicate that PSC patients have increased median SWV, indicating more fibrosis compared with controls; however, a wide range of SWV values were obtained among PSC patients, possibly reflecting the various stages in disease development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of power-dependent phase-matched four-wave mixing in dispersion-managed transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shiming; Yang, Changxi; Jin, Guofan

    2003-12-20

    We investigate power-dependent phase-matched four-wave mixing (FWM) in wavelength division multiplexing transmission lines, in which positive and negative dispersion fibers are alternately arranged to manage the dispersion and the dispersion slope. The FWM effect shows power-independent phase matching when the channel power is low. However, it is power dependent at high power. The maximum FWM conversion efficiency is shifted away from the zero channel space in the case of power-dependent phase matching. Optimization of the dispersion system for suppression of the FWM effect is determined.

  9. Stolt’s f-k migration for plane wave ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Damien; Le Tarnec, Louis; Muth, Stéphan; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Porée, Jonathan; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound is an emerging modality that offers new perspectives and opportunities in medical imaging. Plane wave imaging (PWI) allows one to attain very high frame rates by transmission of planar ultrasound wavefronts. As a plane wave reaches a given scatterer, the latter becomes a secondary source emitting upward spherical waves and creating a diffraction hyperbola in the received RF (radio-frequency) signals. To produce an image of the scatterers, all the hyperbolas must be migrated back to their apexes. In order to perform beamforming of plane wave echo RFs and return high-quality images at high frame rates, we propose a new migration method carried out in the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain. The f-k migration for PWI has been adapted from the Stolt migration for seismic imaging. This migration technique is based on the exploding reflector model (ERM), which consists in assuming that all the scatterers explode in concert and become acoustic sources. The classical ERM model, however, is not appropriate for PWI. We showed that the ERM can be made suitable for PWI by a spatial transformation of the hyperbolic traces present in the RF data. In vitro experiments were performed to sketch the advantages of PWI with Stolt’s f-k migration over the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) approach. The Stolt’s f-k migration was also compared with the Fourier-based method developed by J-Y Lu. Our findings show that multi-angle compounded f-k migrated images are of quality similar to those obtained with a state-of-the-art dynamic focusing mode. This remained true even with a very small number of steering angles thus ensuring a highly competitive frame rate. In addition, the new FFT-based f-k migration provides comparable or better contrast-to-noise ratio and lateral resolution than the Lu’s and DAS migration schemes. Matlab codes of the Stolt’s f-k migration for PWI are provided. PMID:24626107

  10. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  12. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, ... capabilities) during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe ... during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through ... a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) ...

  15. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through ... a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures and organs in the lower abdomen and pelvis. There are three types of pelvic ultrasound: abdominal, ...

  17. Electromagnetic Waves Dispersion and Interaction of an Annular Beam-Ion Channel System in Plasma Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear theory for the electromagnetic properties and interactions of an annular beam-ion channel system in plasma waveguide is presented. The dispersion relations for two families of propagating modes, including the electrostatic and transverse magnetic modes, are derived. The dependencies of the dispersion behavior and interaction for different wave modes on the thickness of the annular beam and betatron oscillation frequency are studied in detail by numerical calculations. The results show that the inner and outer radii of the beam have different influences on propagation properties of the electrostatic and electromagnetic modes with different betatron oscillation parameters. In the weak ion channel situation, the two types of electrostatic waves, that is, space charge and betatron modes, have no interaction with the transverse magnetic modes. However, in the strong ion channel situation, the transverse magnetic modes will have two branches and a low frequency mode emerged as the new branch. In this case, compared with the solid beam case, the betatron modes not only can interact with the high frequency branch at small wavenumber but also can interact with the low frequency branch at large wavenumber.

  18. Mechanical balance laws for fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive water waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kalisch, Henrik; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The Serre-Green-Naghdi system is a coupled, fully nonlinear system of dispersive evolution equations which approximates the full water wave problem. The system is an extension of the well known shallow-water system to the situation where the waves are long, but not so long that dispersive effects can be neglected. In the current work, the focus is on deriving mass, momentum and energy densities and fluxes associated with the Serre-Green-Naghdi system. These quantities arise from imposing balance equations of the same asymptotic order as the evolution equations. In the case of an even bed, the conservation equations are satisfied exactly by the solutions of the Serre-Green-Naghdi system. The case of variable bathymetry is more complicated, with mass and momentum conservation satisfied exactly, and energy conservation satisfied only in a global sense. In all cases, the quantities found here reduce correctly to the corresponding counterparts in both the Boussinesq and the shallow-water scaling. One consequence o...

  19. A numerical dispersion compensation technique for time recompression of Lamb wave signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, René; Goyette, Jacques; Zellouf, Djamel

    2002-05-01

    A Fourier domain numerical reconstruction technique has been created in order to eliminate the time spread of Lamb wave signals caused by their dispersive nature. This method allows a good time compaction of the echoes obtained from a Lamb wave inspection. In a pulse-echo setup, reflection peaks coming from targets located close one from each other that could not be separated or seen within raw signals are identified using this procedure. The utility of this new technique goes from simple signal analysis to imaging purposes such as the improvement of B-scan images or SAFT processing. It has been tested in three different situations with the S0 mode generated in a frequency bandwidth where it is highly dispersive. The reconstruction of a pure reflection coming from the edge of a plate, the separation of the echoes resulting from reflections on two targets near one each other and the effects of the presence of an obstacle between the emitter and the receiver are treated. Good results are obtained for every case studied.

  20. Plastic deformation and wave formation on the interface of metals welded by ultrasound-assisted explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz’min, E. V.; Kuz’min, S. V.; Lysak, V. I.; Lata, A. N.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the influence of the effect of ultrasound on the wave formation and plastic deformation in the metals welded by ultrasound-assisted explosive welding. It has been established that the influence of high-frequency acoustic waves on the metal leads to a reduction of the dynamic yield stress, which in turn leads to changes in the properties of the surface layers of metal and in the conditions of bonding between the collided plates upon explosive welding. It has been shown that the changes in the length and amplitude of waves that arise in the weld joint upon the explosive welding with the simultaneous action of ultrasonic vibrations is connected with a decrease in the magnitude of the deforming pulse and time of action of the compressive stresses that exceed the dynamic yield stress behind the point of contact.

  1. Seismic wave attenuation and dispersion due to wave-induced fluid flow in rocks with strong permeability fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Rubino, J; Monachesi, Leonardo B; Müller, Tobias M; Guarracino, Luis; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Oscillatory fluid movements in heterogeneous porous rocks induced by seismic waves cause dissipation of wave field energy. The resulting seismic signature depends not only on the rock compressibility distribution, but also on a statistically averaged permeability. This so-called equivalent seismic permeability does not, however, coincide with the respective equivalent flow permeability. While this issue has been analyzed for one-dimensional (1D) media, the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cases remain unexplored. In this work, this topic is analyzed for 2D random medium realizations having strong permeability fluctuations. With this objective, oscillatory compressibility simulations based on the quasi-static poroelasticity equations are performed. Numerical analysis shows that strong permeability fluctuations diminish the magnitude of attenuation and velocity dispersion due to fluid flow, while the frequency range where these effects are significant gets broader. By comparing the acoustic responses obtained using different permeability averages, it is also shown that at very low frequencies the equivalent seismic permeability is similar to the equivalent flow permeability, while for very high frequencies this parameter approaches the arithmetic average of the permeability field. These seemingly generic findings have potentially important implications with regard to the estimation of equivalent flow permeability from seismic data.

  2. Crustal Structure Beneath the Tibetan Plateau Using Receiver Functions and Surface Wave Dispersion Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, T.; Ammon, C. J.; Mejia, J.

    2002-12-01

    Despite substantial effort, some uncertainty in the bulk crustal geology beneath the Tibetan Plateau remains. Recent experiments have provided a wealth of seismic data for investigating structures within the Tibetan lithosphere. We investigate the subsurface Tibetan geology using receiver functions from the 1991-1992 Passive Source and the 1997-1999 INDEPTH III experiments. We have completed joint inversions of surface-wave dispersion and select receiver functions for the older data and plan to explore and invert receiver functions from select stations from the INDEPTH III experiment. The combination of receiver functions with surface-wave dispersion does much to improve P- and S-velocity structure resolution, but modeling is most appropriate for relatively simple structures. We begin our analyses with the depth-velocity stacking estimation of Zhu and Kanamori [2000] where we attempt to extract thickness, P-velocity, and Vp/Vs ratios compatible with the move-out of the Ps conversion and multiples from velocity contrasts within the lithosphere. Again, the main limitation of the technique is the assumption of a simple structure to insure consistency with a set of straightforward travel-time equations used to compute arrival-time move-out (as a function of incident-wave ray parameter). Poisson's ratio values from the 1991-1992 deployment were difficult to extract because of complex structure. The station with simplest response, WNDO, suggests a ratio of 0.28 beneath the north-central Plateau, which is slightly above average for continental crust. These results are lower than some earlier values which suggested that the lower crust beneath central and northern Tibet may contain substantial partial melt. The joint inversion of the simplest available receiver functions, and global long-period and local short-period surface-wave dispersion observations suggests that the crustal thickness for the northern Plateau ranges from 60-70 km (stations ERDO, BUDO, TUNL). Thickness

  3. Comparison Between Neck and Shoulder Stiffness Determined by Shear Wave Ultrasound Elastography and a Muscle Hardness Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Kusama, Saki

    2015-08-01

    The goals of this study were to compare neck and shoulder stiffness values determined by shear wave ultrasound elastography with those obtained with a muscle hardness meter and to verify the correspondence between objective and subjective stiffness in the neck and shoulder. Twenty-four young men and women participated in the study. Their neck and shoulder stiffness was determined at six sites. Before the start of the measurements, patients rated their present subjective symptoms of neck and shoulder stiffness on a 6-point verbal scale. At all measurement sites, the correlation coefficients between the values of muscle hardness indices determined by the muscle hardness meter and shear wave ultrasound elastography were not significant. Furthermore, individuals' subjective neck and shoulder stiffness did not correspond to their objective symptoms. These results suggest that the use of shear wave ultrasound elastography is essential to more precisely assess neck and shoulder stiffness. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wave dispersion in viscoelastic single walled carbon nanotubes based on the nonlocal strain gradient Timoshenko beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yugang; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Dong

    2017-03-01

    Based on the nonlocal strain gradient theory and Timoshenko beam model, the properties of wave propagation in a viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) are investigated. The characteristic equations for flexural and shear waves in visco-SWCNTs are established. The influence of the tube size on the wave dispersion is clarified. For a low damping coefficient, threshold diameter for shear wave (SW) is observed, below which the phase velocity of SW is equal to zero, whilst flexural wave (FW) always exists. For a high damping coefficient, SW is absolutely constrained, and blocking diameter for FW is observed, above which the wave propagation is blocked. The effects of the wave number, nonlocal and strain gradient length scale parameters on the threshold and blocking diameters are discussed in detail.

  5. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Thyroid Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures ... the Thyroid? What is an Ultrasound of the Thyroid? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  6. Comparison of Ambient Noise Methods to Find Surface - Wave Dispersion Curves at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Prathamesh Vijay

    The application of ambient noise analysis to active volcanic systems represents a recent technique to model seismic structure without distinct sources. All the existing methods are based on the fact that surface waves are dispersive and most of them require a large number of available days and inter-station distances larger than 2-3 wavelengths. We apply multiple techniques to seismic data recorded during a temporary deployment of 19 seismic stations in January 2015 at Pacaya volcano, Guatemala, a dataset with some distinct differences from those typically used for ambient noise analysis. Despite having less than a week of data and relatively close inter-station spacing, we find a good agreement between the approaches. In particular, we find that the SPAC method (Aki, 1957) is applicable not only for a seismic array, but also for single pairs of stations. It may be particularly favorable in those conditions characterized by small set of data and small inter-station distances. We also noted linear relationship between phase velocity and inter-station distance might suggest a contribution of body/scattered waves within the surface waves and it is probably due to the seismic station configuration in proximity of the Pacaya vent.

  7. Dispersion Relations and Polarizations of Low-frequency Waves in Two-fluid Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the dispersion relations and polarizations of low-frequency waves in magnetized plasmas based on two-fluid model are obtained. The properties of waves propagating at different angles (to the ambient magnetic field $\\mathbf{B}_{0}$) and \\beta (the ratio of the plasma to magnetic pressures) values are investigated. It is shown that two linearly polarized waves, namely the fast and Alfv\\'{e}n modes in the low-\\beta $\\left( \\beta \\ll 1\\right)$ plasmas, the fast and slow modes in the \\beta \\sim 1 plasmas, and the Alfv\\'{e}n and slow modes in the high-\\beta $\\left( \\beta \\gg 1\\right)$ plasmas, become circularly polarized at the near-parallel (to $\\mathbf{B}_{0}$) propagation. The negative magnetic-helicity of the Alfv\\'{e}n mode occurs only at small or moderate angles in the low-\\beta plasmas, and the ion cross-helicity of the slow mode is nearly the same as that of the Alfv\\'{e}n mode in the high-\\beta plasmas. It also shown the electric polarization $\\delta E_{z}/\\delta E_{y}$ decreases...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. It is ... Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound ...

  9. Impact of hemodialysis on P-wave amplitude, duration, and dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafae Fadili

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is a frequent arrhythmia in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD. P wave duration (PWdu and P wave dispersion (PWdi have been shown to be predictors of emerging AF in different clinical conditions. We sought to study the impact of HD on PWdu, PWdi, and P wave amplitude in a cohort of patients undergoing HD. Seventeen patients (8 men, 31±10 years were studied. Echocardiography parameters, the sum of the amplitude of P waves in all 12 ECG leads (SP, mean PWdu, and PWdi, along with a host of other parameters (body weight, heart rate, electrolytes and hemoglobin/hematochrit were measured 1/2h, before and after, HD. SP increased (11.8±3.9 vs 15.3±4.0 mm, p = 0.004, mean PWdu remained stable (82.7±11.1 vs 81.6±10.5 ms, p = 0.606, PWdi decreased (51.7±19.1 vs 41.7±19.1 ms, p = 0.03, and left atrial dimension decreased (37.96±3.90 vs 30.62±3.38 mm, p = 0.0001, after HD. The change in PWdi correlated with fluid removed by HD (r = -0.55, p = 0.022. Re-measurements of P-wave parameters in a random group of 11 of the 17 patients revealed augmented SP (p = 0.01, and stable mean PWdu (p = 0.36, and PWdi (p = 0.31, after HD. Fluid removed by HD leads to an increase in SP, a stable mean PWdu, and decrease (or stability on re-measurement in a subgroup of patients in PWdi. Stability of PWdu may be due to the effects of augmentation of the P-wave amplitude and the reduction of the left atrial volume, cancelling each other. Variability of PWdi may stem from the occasional impossibility to measure PWdu (or measure it correctly in minute P-waves in certain ECG leads, which in turn profoundly affects the PWdi.

  10. Impact of hemodialysis on P-wave amplitude, duration, and dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drighil, Abdenasser; Madias, John E; Mosalami, Hanane El; Badaoui, Nadia El; Mouine, Bahija; Fadili, Wafae; Ramdani, Beenyouness; Bennis, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). P wave duration (PWdu) and P wave dispersion (PWdi) have been shown to be predictors of emerging AF in different clinical conditions. We sought to study the impact of HD on PWdu, PWdi, and P wave amplitude in a cohort of patients undergoing HD. Seventeen patients (8 men, 31±10 years) were studied. Echocardiography parameters, the sum of the amplitude of P waves in all 12 ECG leads (SP), mean PWdu, and PWdi, along with a host of other parameters (body weight, heart rate, electrolytes and hemoglobin/hematochrit) were measured 1/2h, before and after, HD. SP increased (11.8±3.9 vs 15.3±4.0 mm, p = 0.004), mean PWdu remained stable (82.7±11.1 vs 81.6±10.5 ms, p = 0.606), PWdi decreased (51.7±19.1 vs 41.7±19.1 ms, p = 0.03), and left atrial dimension decreased (37.96±3.90 vs 30.62±3.38 mm, p = 0.0001), after HD. The change in PWdi correlated with fluid removed by HD (r = -0.55, p = 0.022). Re-measurements of P-wave parameters in a random group of 11 of the 17 patients revealed augmented SP (p = 0.01), and stable mean PWdu (p = 0.36), and PWdi (p = 0.31), after HD. Fluid removed by HD leads to an increase in SP, a stable mean PWdu, and decrease (or stability on re-measurement in a subgroup of patients) in PWdi. Stability of PWdu may be due to the effects of augmentation of the P-wave amplitude and the reduction of the left atrial volume, cancelling each other. Variability of PWdi may stem from the occasional impossibility to measure PWdu (or measure it correctly) in minute P-waves in certain ECG leads, which in turn profoundly affects the PWdi. PMID:17538700

  11. Investigation of the acute plantar fasciitis with contrast-enhanced ultrasound and shear wave elastography - first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Franz Josef; Hautmann, Matthias G; Banas, Miriam; Jung, Ernst Michael

    2017-09-04

    The plantar fasciitis is a common disease with a high prevalence in public and a frequent cause of heel pain. In our pilot study, we wanted to characterise the feasibility of shear-wave elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the assessment of the plantar fasciitis. 23 cases of painful heels were examined by B-Mode ultrasound, Power Doppler (PD), shear wave elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound before anti-inflammatory radiation. Time-intensity-curves were analysed by the integrated software. The results for area-under-the-curve (AUC), peak, time-to-peak (TTP) and mean-transit-time (MTT) were compared between the plantar fascia and the surrounding tissue. All cases showed thickening of the plantar fascia, in most cases with interstitial oedema (87.0%). Shear wave elastography showed inhomogeneous stiffness of the plantar fascia. 83.3% of cases showed a visible hyperperfusion in CEUS at the proximal plantar fascia in comparison to the surrounding tissue. This hyperperfusion could also be found in 75.0% of cases with no signs of vascularisation in PD. AUC (p = 0.0005) and peak (p = 0.037) were significantely higher in the plantar fascia than in the surrounding tissue. CEUS and shear wave elastography are new diagnostic tools in the assessment of plantar fasciitis and can provide quantitative parameters for monitoring therapy.

  12. Dispersion Energy Analysis of Rayleigh and Love Waves in the Presence of Low-Velocity Layers in Near-Surface Seismic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Binbin; Xia, Jianghai; Shen, Chao; Wang, Limin

    2017-10-01

    High-frequency surface-wave analysis methods have been effectively and widely used to determine near-surface shear (S) wave velocity. To image the dispersion energy and identify different dispersive modes of surface waves accurately is one of key steps of using surface-wave methods. We analyzed the dispersion energy characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves in near-surface layered models based on numerical simulations. It has been found that if there is a low-velocity layer (LVL) in the half-space, the dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves is discontinuous and ``jumping'' appears from the fundamental mode to higher modes on dispersive images. We introduce the guided waves generated in an LVL (LVL-guided waves, a trapped wave mode) to clarify the complexity of the dispersion energy. We confirm the LVL-guided waves by analyzing the snapshots of SH and P-SV wavefield and comparing the dispersive energy with theoretical values of phase velocities. Results demonstrate that LVL-guided waves possess energy on dispersive images, which can interfere with the normal dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves. Each mode of LVL-guided waves having lack of energy at the free surface in some high frequency range causes the discontinuity of dispersive energy on dispersive images, which is because shorter wavelengths (generally with lower phase velocities and higher frequencies) of LVL-guided waves cannot penetrate to the free surface. If the S wave velocity of the LVL is higher than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves only contaminates higher mode energy of surface waves and there is no interlacement with the fundamental mode of surface waves, while if the S wave velocity of the LVL is lower than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves may interlace with the fundamental mode of surface waves. Both of the interlacements with the fundamental mode or higher mode energy may cause misidentification for the dispersion curves of surface

  13. Analysis of dispersion and attenuation of surface waves in poroelastic media in the exploration-seismic frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Xia, J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse dispersion and attenuation of surface waves at free surfaces of possible vacuum/poroelastic media: permeable-'open pore', impermeable-'closed pore' and partially permeable boundaries, which have not been previously reported in detail by researchers, under different surface-permeable, viscous-damping, elastic and fluid-flowing conditions. Our discussion is focused on their characteristics in the exploration-seismic frequency band (a few through 200 Hz) for near-surface applications. We find two surface-wave modes exist, R1 waves for all conditions, and R2 waves for closed-pore and partially permeable conditions. For R1 waves, velocities disperse most under partially permeable conditions and least under the open-pore condition. High-coupling damping coefficients move the main dispersion frequency range to high frequencies. There is an f1 frequency dependence as a constant-Q model for attenuation at high frequencies. R1 waves for the open pore are most sensitive to elastic modulus variation, but least sensitive to tortuosities variation. R1 waves for partially permeable surface radiate as non-physical waves (Im(k) attenuation are diffusive of f1/2 frequency dependence, as P2 waves. It is found that for partially permeable surfaces, the attenuation displays -f1 frequency dependence as frequency increasing. High surface permeability, low-coupling damping coefficients, low Poisson's ratios, and low tortuosities increase the slope of the -f1 dependence. When the attenuation coefficients reach 0, R2 waves for partially permeable surface begin to radiate as non-physical waves. ?? 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

  14. In vivo evaluation of the elastic anisotropy of the human Achilles tendon using shear wave dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, J.; Bernal, M.; Gennisson, J. L.; Tanter, M.

    2014-02-01

    Non-invasive evaluation of the Achilles tendon elastic properties may enhance diagnosis of tendon injury and the assessment of recovery treatments. Shear wave elastography has shown to be a powerful tool to estimate tissue mechanical properties. However, its applicability to quantitatively evaluate tendon stiffness is limited by the understanding of the physics on the shear wave propagation in such a complex medium. First, tendon tissue is transverse isotropic. Second, tendons are characterized by a marked stiffness in the 400 to 1300 kPa range (i.e. fast shear waves). Hence, the shear wavelengths are greater than the tendon thickness leading to guided wave propagation. Thus, to better understand shear wave propagation in tendons and consequently to properly estimate its mechanical properties, a dispersion analysis is required. In this study, shear wave velocity dispersion was measured in vivo in ten Achilles tendons parallel and perpendicular to the tendon fibre orientation. By modelling the tendon as a transverse isotropic viscoelastic plate immersed in fluid it was possible to fully describe the experimental data (deviation<1.4%). We show that parallel to fibres the shear wave velocity dispersion is not influenced by viscosity, while it is perpendicularly to fibres. Elasticity (found to be in the range from 473 to 1537 kPa) and viscosity (found to be in the range from 1.7 to 4 Pa.s) values were retrieved from the model in good agreement with reported results.

  15. Dispersion spectrum of acoustoelectric waves in 1D piezoelectric crystal coupled with 2D infinite network of capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsenko, A. A.; Shuvalov, A. L.; Poncelet, O.

    2018-01-01

    A one-dimensional piezoelectric crystal coupled through periodically embedded electrodes with a two-dimensional semi-infinite periodic network of capacitors is considered. The unit cell of the network contains two capacitors with capacitances C1 and C2 which are in parallel and in series, respectively, with the electrodes. The dispersion spectrum of the longitudinal acoustoelectric wave in the piezoelectric crystal coupled with the electric wave of potentials and charges in the network of capacitors is investigated. It is shown that when C1 and C2 are of the same sign, the dispersion spectrum consists of a discrete set of curves, for which the electric wave exponentially decays into the depth of the network of capacitors. In contrast, if C1 and C2 are of the opposite sign and |C1/C2|<1 , then the spectrum simultaneously includes the discrete set of dispersion curves, corresponding to the localized waves, and the continuous band, which admits a finite but not localized (not decaying into the depth) wave field at any frequency and wavenumber within the band. Finally, when C1 and C2 are of the opposite sign and |C1/C2|≥1 , the whole dispersion spectrum is a continuous band. The width of the continuous band and the equation describing the dispersion curves are found explicitly; the equation for the wave field is also obtained. Another interesting spectral feature is the unusual non-monotonic shape of the dispersion curves for a certain range of C1(<0), C2. This shape is due to the hybridization of the individual spectra of the crystal and of the network of capacitors.

  16. The effect of diabetes mellitus on the P-wave dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Altunkeser, Bulent B; Kayrak, Mehmet; Duzenli, M Akif; Vatankulu, M Akif; Soylu, Ahmet; Ulgen, Mehmet S

    2007-06-01

    P-wave dispersion (PD), a measure of heterogeneity of atrial refractoriness, is defined as the difference between the minimum (P min) and maximum P-wave (P max) durations on standard 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). Increase in PD shows the intra-atrial and inter-atrial non-uniform conduction. In the present study the evaluation of the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on PD in patients without coronary artery disease and hypertension was carried out. Seventy-six diabetic patients who had no coronary artery disease or hypertension (group 1; mean age 48+/-9) and 40 healthy volunteer individuals (group 2; mean age 46+/-13) were enrolled in the study. After obtaining 12-lead surface ECG of all cases, P max and P min P-wave durations were measured and the differences between them were taken as PD (PD=P max-P min). Left atrium diameter, left ventricular end systolic and end diastolic diameters were measured and left ventricular ejection fraction was determined by echocardiography. Pulse wave mitral flow velocities were measured from the apical 4-chamber view. Mitral early diastolic velocity (E), late diastolic velocity (A), E/A, E deceleration time and isovolumetric relaxation time were determined. In comparison of the 2 groups there was no statistically significant difference among age, sex, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate and body mass index of the cases. Although PD and P max were significantly higher in diabetic patients, there was no difference between P min values (33+/-12 vs 28+/-10, p=0.02; 99+/-12 vs 93+/-10, p=0.011; 66+/-9 vs 65+/-10, p=NS; respectively). DM might increase PD even without ischemia, hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy.

  17. Influence of the Wavelength Dependence of Birefringence in the Generation of Supercontinuum and Dispersive Wave in Fiber Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Acuna Herrera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform numerical analysis about the influence of the wavelength dependence of birefringence (WDB in the Supercontinuum (SC and dispersive wave (DW generation. We study different birefringence profiles such as constant, linear, and parabolic. We see that, for a linear and parabolic profile, the generation of SC practically does not change, while this does so when the constant value of the birefringence varies. Similar situation happens with the generation of dispersive waves. In addition, we observe that the broadband of the SC increases when the Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS is neglected for all WDB profiles.

  18. Impact of spatial dispersion, evolution, and selection on Ebola Zaire Virus epidemic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarian, Taj; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Giovanetti, Marta; Cella, Eleonora; Rife, Brittany; Lai, Alessia; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Salemi, Marco

    2015-05-14

    Ebola virus Zaire (EBOV) has reemerged in Africa, emphasizing the global importance of this pathogen. Amidst the response to the current epidemic, several gaps in our knowledge of EBOV evolution are evident. Specifically, uncertainty has been raised regarding the potential emergence of more virulent viral variants through amino acid substitutions. Glycoprotein (GP), an essential component of the EBOV genome, is highly variable and a potential site for the occurrence of advantageous mutations. For this study, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of EBOV by analyzing 65 GP sequences from humans and great apes over diverse locations across epidemic waves between 1976 and 2014. We show that, although patterns of spatial dispersion throughout Africa varied, the evolution of the virus has largely been characterized by neutral genetic drift. Therefore, the radical emergence of more transmissible variants is unlikely, a positive finding, which is increasingly important on the verge of vaccine deployment.

  19. Differentiating benign from malignant solid breast masses: value of shear wave elastography according to lesion stiffness combined with greyscale ultrasound according to BI-RADS classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, A; Whelehan, P; Thomson, K; Brauer, K; Jordan, L; Purdie, C; McLean, D; Baker, L; Vinnicombe, S; Thompson, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of shear wave elastography combined with BI-RADS classification of greyscale ultrasound images for benign/malignant differentiation in a large group of patients...

  20. Influence of Complete Coriolis Force on the Dispersion Relation of Ocean Internal-wave in a Background Currents Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.

  1. Dispersion analysis of leaky guided waves in fluid-loaded waveguides of generic shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, M; Marzani, A; Bartoli, I

    2014-01-01

    A fully coupled 2.5D formulation is proposed to compute the dispersive parameters of waveguides with arbitrary cross-section immersed in infinite inviscid fluids. The discretization of the waveguide is performed by means of a Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) approach, whereas a 2.5D BEM formulation is used to model the impedance of the surrounding infinite fluid. The kernels of the boundary integrals contain the fundamental solutions of the space Fourier-transformed Helmholtz equation, which governs the wave propagation process in the fluid domain. Numerical difficulties related to the evaluation of singular integrals are avoided by using a regularization procedure. To improve the numerical stability of the discretized boundary integral equations for the external Helmholtz problem, the so called CHIEF method is used. The discrete wave equation results in a nonlinear eigenvalue problem in the complex axial wavenumbers that is solved at the frequencies of interest by means of a contour integral algorithm. In order to separate physical from non-physical solutions and to fulfill the requirement of holomorphicity of the dynamic stiffness matrix inside the complex wavenumber contour, the phase of the radial bulk wavenumber is uniquely defined by enforcing the Snell-Descartes law at the fluid-waveguide interface. Three numerical applications are presented. The computed dispersion curves for a circular bar immersed in oil are in agreement with those extracted using the Global Matrix Method. Novel results are presented for viscoelastic steel bars of square and L-shaped cross-section immersed in water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The dispersion of adhered marine bacteria by pyrophosphate and ultrasound prior to direct counting.

    OpenAIRE

    Velji, M; Albright, L

    1984-01-01

    Une technique pour disperser les bactéries marines des différentes surfaces avant les numérations directes a été testée. Les cellules bactériennes sont fixées et rendues plus fermes par addition de formaldehyde à 3.7% (concentration finale v/v). Les échantillons d'eau de mer sont ensuite traités par une solution de tetrasodium pyrophosphate 0.001 M (concentration finale), utilisée comme agent défloculant et séquestrant. Les échantillons de la surface du sédiment et des grandes algues sont tra...

  3. Leading-order nonlocal kinetic energy in peridynamics for consistent energetics and wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Kaushik

    2017-08-01

    This work considers the approximation of peridynamics by strain-gradient models in the linear, one-dimensional setting. Strain-gradient expansions that approximate the peridynamic dispersion relation using Taylor series are compared to strain-gradient models that approximate the peridynamic elastic energy. The dynamic and energetic expansions differ from each other, and neither captures an important feature of peridynamics that mimics atomic-scale dynamics, namely that the frequency of short waves is bounded and non-zero. The paper next examines peridynamics as the limit model along a sequence of strain-gradient models that consistently approximate both the energetics and the dispersion properties of peridynamics. Formally examining the limit suggests that the inertial term in the dynamical equation of peridynamics - or equivalently, the peridynamic kinetic energy - is necessarily nonlocal in space to balance the spatial nonlocality in the elastic energy. The nonlocality in the kinetic energy is of leading-order in the following sense: classical elasticity is the zeroth-order theory in both the kinetically nonlocal peridynamics and the classical peridynamics, but once nonlocality in the elastic energy is introduced, it must be balanced by nonlocality in the kinetic energy at the same order. In that sense, the kinetic nonlocality is not a higher-order correction; rather, the kinetic nonlocality is essential for consistent energetics and dynamics even in the simplest setting. The paper then examines the implications of kinetically nonlocal peridynamics in the context of stationary and propagating discontinuities of the kinematic fields.

  4. Ultrasound assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by injector port silylation: a novel method for rapid determination of quinine in urine by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajeev; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Chauhan, Abhishek; Khan, Haider A; Murthy, Rc

    2013-09-01

    Silylation is a widely used derivatization method for the analysis of polar analytes by GC-MS. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) is an ecofriendly, rapid and simple microextraction method. For the first time, a novel approach has been developed and applied for the analysis of quinine in urine by combining UA-DLLME with injection port silylation. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 5.4 and 18 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 5 and 8%, respectively. Mean recoveries of quinine were found to be in the range of 87 to 96%. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction is rapid, simple and consumes less reagent for the analysis of polar analytes such as quinine.

  5. Multiple wave compression of poly-disperse granular materials using the Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Danyal; Smith, Liam; Proud, William

    2017-06-01

    The compaction of poly-disperse granular materials under compression in a Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar was investigated for multiple wave traversals through the specimen. Rough sand and fine soda-lime glass granular specimens were studied to provide a comparison between materials of differing strength and morphology. Both materials had a nominal average grain diameter of 0.5 mm. By observing compression of the granular specimen for long-durations (up to 10 ms), the global plastic response of the granular specimen was observed. After an initial compaction, the material behaviour was found to depend upon strength, achieving either a locked-up state for the glass spheres indicative of force equilibrium, or a ``quasi-locked-up'' state indicative of continued deformation/fracture. In the case of force equilibrium, this is associated with the formation of a force chain network. Hence, any assumption of force equilibrium may only apply after an initial rearrangement within the granular bed. The number of wave reflections before compaction was found to depend on volume fraction. Similarly, the macroscopic sound speed was observed to increase with time during compaction.

  6. Spin-wave dispersion of nanostructured magnonic crystals with periodic defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The spin-wave dispersions in nanostructured magnonic crystals with periodic defects have been mapped by Brillouin light scattering. The otherwise perfect crystals are one-dimensional arrays of alternating 460nm-wide Ni80Fe20 stripes and 40nm-wide air gaps, where one in ten Ni80Fe20 stripes is a defect of width other than 460 nm. Experimentally, the defects are manifested as additional Brillouin peaks, lying within the first and second bandgaps of the perfect crystal, whose frequencies decrease with increasing defect stripe width. Finite-element calculations, based on a supercell comprising one defect and nine perfect Py stripes, show that the defect modes are localized about the defects, with the localization exhibiting an approximate U-shaped dependence on defect size. Calculations also reveal extra magnon branches and the opening of mini-bandgaps, within the allowed bands of the perfect crystal, arising from Bragg reflections at the boundaries of the shorter supercell Brillouin zone. Simulated magnetization profiles of the band-edge modes of the major and mini-bandgaps reveal their different symmetries and localization properties. The findings could find application in microwave magnonic devices like single-frequency passband spin-wave filters.

  7. Analytical study of dispersion relations for shear horizontal wave propagation in plates with periodic stubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-08-01

    The coupled mode theory with coupling of diffraction modes and waveguide modes is usually used on the calculations of transmission and reflection coefficients for electromagnetic waves traveling through periodic sub-wavelength structures. In this paper, I extend this method to derive analytical solutions of high-order dispersion relations for shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in elastic plates with periodic stubs. In the long wavelength regime, the explicit expression is obtained by this theory and derived specially by employing an effective medium. This indicates that the periodical stubs are equivalent to an effective homogenous layer in the long wavelength. Notably, in the short wavelength regime, high-order diffraction modes in the plate and high-order waveguide modes in the stubs are considered with modes coupling to compute the band structures. Numerical results of the coupled mode theory fit pretty well with the results of the finite element method (FEM). In addition, the band structures' evolution with the height of the stubs and the thickness of the plate shows clearly that the method can predict well the Bragg band gaps, locally resonant band gaps and high-order symmetric and anti-symmetric thickness-twist modes for the periodically structured plates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluid identification based on P-wave anisotropy dispersion gradient inversion for fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. W.; Huang, H. D.; Zhu, B. H.; Liao, W.

    2017-10-01

    Fluid identification in fractured reservoirs is a challenging issue and has drawn increasing attentions. As aligned fractures in subsurface formations can induce anisotropy, we must choose parameters independent with azimuths to characterize fractures and fluid effects such as anisotropy parameters for fractured reservoirs. Anisotropy is often frequency dependent due to wave-induced fluid flow between pores and fractures. This property is conducive for identifying fluid type using azimuthal seismic data in fractured reservoirs. Through the numerical simulation based on Chapman model, we choose the P-wave anisotropy parameter dispersion gradient (PADG) as the new fluid factor. PADG is dependent both on average fracture radius and fluid type but independent on azimuths. When the aligned fractures in the reservoir are meter-scaled, gas-bearing layer could be accurately identified using PADG attribute. The reflection coefficient formula for horizontal transverse isotropy media by Rüger is reformulated and simplified according to frequency and the target function for inverting PADG based on frequency-dependent amplitude versus azimuth is derived. A spectral decomposition method combining Orthogonal Matching Pursuit and Wigner-Ville distribution is used to prepare the frequency-division data. Through application to synthetic data and real seismic data, the results suggest that the method is useful for gas identification in reservoirs with meter-scaled fractures using high-qualified seismic data.

  9. Coherent structural trapping through wave packet dispersion during photoinduced spin state switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Kjær, Kasper S.; Hartsock, Robert; van Driel, Tim B.; Chollet, Matthieu; Glownia, James M.; Song, Sanghoon; Zhu, Diling; Pace, Elisabetta; Matar, Samir F.; Nielsen, Martin M.; Benfatto, Maurizio; Gaffney, Kelly J.; Collet, Eric; Cammarata, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The description of ultrafast nonadiabatic chemical dynamics during molecular photo-transformations remains challenging because electronic and nuclear configurations impact each other and cannot be treated independently. Here we gain experimental insights, beyond the Born–Oppenheimer approximation, into the light-induced spin-state trapping dynamics of the prototypical [Fe(bpy)3]2+ compound by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy at sub-30-femtosecond resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. The electronic decay from the initial optically excited electronic state towards the high spin state is distinguished from the structural trapping dynamics, which launches a coherent oscillating wave packet (265 fs period), clearly identified as molecular breathing. Throughout the structural trapping, the dispersion of the wave packet along the reaction coordinate reveals details of intramolecular vibronic coupling before a slower vibrational energy dissipation to the solution environment. These findings illustrate how modern time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy can provide key information to unravel dynamic details of photo-functional molecules. PMID:28537270

  10. Coherent structural trapping through wave packet dispersion during photoinduced spin state switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Kjær, Kasper S.; Hartsock, Robert; van Driel, Tim B.; Chollet, Matthieu; Glownia, James M.; Song, Sanghoon; Zhu, Diling; Pace, Elisabetta; Matar, Samir F.; Nielsen, Martin M.; Benfatto, Maurizio; Gaffney, Kelly J.; Collet, Eric; Cammarata, Marco

    2017-05-01

    The description of ultrafast nonadiabatic chemical dynamics during molecular photo-transformations remains challenging because electronic and nuclear configurations impact each other and cannot be treated independently. Here we gain experimental insights, beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, into the light-induced spin-state trapping dynamics of the prototypical [Fe(bpy)3]2+ compound by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy at sub-30-femtosecond resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. The electronic decay from the initial optically excited electronic state towards the high spin state is distinguished from the structural trapping dynamics, which launches a coherent oscillating wave packet (265 fs period), clearly identified as molecular breathing. Throughout the structural trapping, the dispersion of the wave packet along the reaction coordinate reveals details of intramolecular vibronic coupling before a slower vibrational energy dissipation to the solution environment. These findings illustrate how modern time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy can provide key information to unravel dynamic details of photo-functional molecules.

  11. Analytical study of dispersion relations for shear horizontal wave propagation in plates with periodic stubs

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-08-01

    The coupled mode theory with coupling of diffraction modes and waveguide modes is usually used on the calculations of transmission and reflection coefficients for electromagnetic waves traveling through periodic sub-wavelength structures. In this paper, I extend this method to derive analytical solutions of high-order dispersion relations for shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in elastic plates with periodic stubs. In the long wavelength regime, the explicit expression is obtained by this theory and derived specially by employing an effective medium. This indicates that the periodical stubs are equivalent to an effective homogenous layer in the long wavelength. Notably, in the short wavelength regime, high-order diffraction modes in the plate and high-order waveguide modes in the stubs are considered with modes coupling to compute the band structures. Numerical results of the coupled mode theory fit pretty well with the results of the finite element method (FEM). In addition, the band structures\\' evolution with the height of the stubs and the thickness of the plate shows clearly that the method can predict well the Bragg band gaps, locally resonant band gaps and high-order symmetric and anti-symmetric thickness-twist modes for the periodically structured plates. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  12. P-wave and QT dispersion in patients with conversion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izci F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Filiz Izci,1 Hilal Hocagil,2 Servet Izci,3 Vedat Izci,4 Merve Iris Koc,5 Rezzan Deniz Acar3 1Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul Bilim University, Sisli Florence Nightingale Hospital; 2Department of Emergency, Faculty of Medicine Hospital Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey; 3Department of Cardiology, Kosuyolu High Specialization Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Emergency, Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Erenköy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate QT dispersion (QTd, which is the noninvasive marker of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, and P-wave dispersion, which is the noninvasive marker of atrial arrhythmia, in patients with conversion disorder (CD.Patients and methods: A total of 60 patients with no known organic disease who were admitted to outpatient emergency clinic and were diagnosed with CD after psychiatric consultation were included in this study along with 60 healthy control subjects. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Scale were administered to patients and 12-lead electrocardiogram measurements were obtained. Pd and QTd were calculated by a single blinded cardiologist.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, education level, socioeconomic status, weight, height, and body mass index between CD patients and controls. Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (25.2±10.8 and 3.8±3.2, respectively, P<0.001 and Beck Depression Scale scores (11.24±6.15 and 6.58±5.69, respectively, P<0.01 were significantly higher in CD patients. P-wave dispersion measurements did not show any significant differences between conversion patients and control group (46±5.7 vs 44±5.5, respectively, P=0.156. Regarding QTc and QTd, there was a statistically significant increase in all intervals in conversion patients (416

  13. Effect of Calcifications on Breast Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography: An Investigational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gregory

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of macrocalcifications and clustered microcalcifications associated with benign breast masses on shear wave elastography (SWE.SuperSonic Imagine (SSI and comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE were performed on three sets of phantoms to investigate how calcifications of different sizes and distributions influence measured elasticity. To demonstrate the effect in vivo, three female patients with benign breast masses associated with mammographically-identified calcifications were evaluated by CUSE.Apparent maximum elasticity (Emax estimates resulting from individual macrocalcifications (with diameters of 2mm, 3mm, 5mm, 6mm, 9mm, 11mm, and 15mm showed values over 50 kPa for all cases, which represents more than 100% increase over background (~21kPa. We considered a 2cm-diameter circular region of interest for all phantom experiments. Mean elasticity (Emean values varied from 26 kPa to 73 kPa, depending on the macrocalcification size. Highly dense clusters of microcalcifications showed higher Emax values than clusters of microcalcification with low concentrations, but the difference in Emean values was not significant.Our results demonstrate that the presence of large isolated macrocalcifications and highly concentrated clusters of microcalcifications can introduce areas with apparent high elasticity in SWE. Considering that benign breast masses normally have significantly lower elasticity values than malignant tumors, such areas with high elasticity appearing due to presence of calcification in benign breast masses may lead to misdiagnosis.

  14. The Comparision of the Effectiveness of Short Wave Diathermy and Ultrasound in the Treatment of Gonarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Sarıfakıoğlu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the efficacy of ultrasound (US and short wave diathermy (SWD in the gonarthrosis patients. Materials and Methods: Patients who had been diagnosed gonarthrosis according to American College of Rheumatology (ACR classification criteria were included into the study. Patients who have undergone knee surgery, had trauma, had knee injection into the knee in the last six months, and had received physical therapy (PT in the past year were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two groups (US group and SWD group. HP (20 min, US (1.5 w/cm2, continuous, TENS (20 min, exercise were administered to the first group. HP (20 min, SWD (15 min, TENS (20 min, exercise were implemented to the second group. PT was administered for five days a week, for 15 sessions in total. Visual analog scale (VAS and Western Ontario and MacMaster osteoarthritis index (WOMAC were used to assess function and pain before and after PT. Results: 132 patients were included into the study, 63 patients (47.7% were in SWD group, and 69 patients (52.3% were in US group. There were no statistically difference between the VAS, WOMAC values of the groups before and after PT. In both groups, VAS, WOMAC were scores statistically significantly decreased with treatment (all p<0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that both these PT modalities are effective in treating the gonarthrosis, but not superior to each other. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2014;20: 16-20

  15. Effect of Calcifications on Breast Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography: An Investigational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Adriana; Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Denis, Max; Bayat, Mahdi; Stan, Daniela L.; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of macrocalcifications and clustered microcalcifications associated with benign breast masses on shear wave elastography (SWE). Methods SuperSonic Imagine (SSI) and comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) were performed on three sets of phantoms to investigate how calcifications of different sizes and distributions influence measured elasticity. To demonstrate the effect in vivo, three female patients with benign breast masses associated with mammographically-identified calcifications were evaluated by CUSE. Results Apparent maximum elasticity (Emax) estimates resulting from individual macrocalcifications (with diameters of 2mm, 3mm, 5mm, 6mm, 9mm, 11mm, and 15mm) showed values over 50 kPa for all cases, which represents more than 100% increase over background (~21kPa). We considered a 2cm-diameter circular region of interest for all phantom experiments. Mean elasticity (Emean) values varied from 26 kPa to 73 kPa, depending on the macrocalcification size. Highly dense clusters of microcalcifications showed higher Emax values than clusters of microcalcification with low concentrations, but the difference in Emean values was not significant. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the presence of large isolated macrocalcifications and highly concentrated clusters of microcalcifications can introduce areas with apparent high elasticity in SWE. Considering that benign breast masses normally have significantly lower elasticity values than malignant tumors, such areas with high elasticity appearing due to presence of calcification in benign breast masses may lead to misdiagnosis. PMID:26368939

  16. On the dispersion law of low-frequency electron whistler waves in a multi-ion plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Lundin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new and simple dispersion law for extra-low-frequency electron whistler waves in a multi-ion plasma is derived. It is valid in a plasma with finite ratio ωcpe of electron gyro-to-plasma frequency and is suitable for wave frequencies much less than ωpe but well above the gyrofrequencies of most heavy ions. The resultant contribution of the ions to the dispersion law is expressed by means of the lower hybrid resonance frequency, the highest ion cutoff frequency and the relative content of the lightest ion. In a frequency domain well above the ions' gyrofrequencies, this new dispersion law merges with the "modified electron whistler dispersion law" determined in previous works by the authors. It is shown that it fits well to the total cold plasma electron whistler dispersion law, for different orientations of the wave vectors and different ion constituents, including negative ions or negatively charged dust grains.

  17. Theory of dispersive wave frequency shift via trapping by a soliton in an axially nonuniform optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Judge, Alexander C.; Bang, Ole; de Sterke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We extend the analytical theory explaining the trapping of normally dispersive waves by a Raman soliton in an axially uniform optical fiber to include axially nonuniform fibers. It is shown how a changing group velocity in such a fiber leads to the same trapping mechanism as for a decelerating...

  18. Power and chirp effects on the frequency stability of resonant dispersive waves generated in photonic crystal fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tao; Liu, Mingchen; Xu, Chang; Yan, Jikun; Shen, Chaochao; Liu, Shaozhen; Peng, Hao; Peng, Jiahui; Sokolov, Alexei V

    2018-01-09

    Optimization of laser output parameters vs. f-to-2f beating signals can be mutually contradicting, when an octave-spanning supercontinuum is employed for f-to-2f measurements. We show that resonant dispersive waves will solve this issue, thanks to their frequency stability against changes in laser power and chirping.

  19. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; Placenta previa - ultrasound; Multiple pregnancy - ...

  20. Jet formation and shock wave emission during collapse of ultrasound-induced cavitation bubbles and their role in the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brujan, E A [Department of Hydraulics, University Polytechnica, Spl. Independentei 313, 060042 Bucharest (Romania); Ikeda, T [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Matsumoto, Y [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2005-10-21

    The dynamics of inertial cavitation bubbles produced by short pulses of high-intensity focused ultrasound near a rigid boundary are studied to get a better understanding of the role of jet formation and shock wave emission during bubble collapse in the therapeutic applications of ultrasound. The bubble dynamics are investigated by high-speed photography with up to 2 million frames/s and acoustic measurements, as well as by numerical calculations. The significant parameter of this study is the dimensionless stand-off, {gamma}, which is defined as the distance of the bubble centre at its maximum expansion scaled by the maximum bubble radius. High-speed photography is applied to observe the bubble motion and the velocity of the liquid jet formed during bubble collapse. Hydrophone measurements are used to determine the pressure and the duration of the shock wave emitted during bubble rebound. Calculations yield the variation with time of the bubble wall, the maximum velocity and the kinetic energy of the re-entrant jet. The comparisons between experimental and numerical data are favourable with regard to both shape history and translational motion of the bubble. The acoustic energy constitutes the largest individual amount in the energy balance of bubble collapse. The ratio of the shock wave energy, measured at 10 mm from the emission centre, to the cavitation bubble energy was 1:2.4 at {gamma} = 1.55 and 1:3.5 at {gamma} = 1. At this distance, the shock wave pressure ranges from 0.122 MPa, at {gamma} = 1, to 0.162 MPa, at {gamma} 1.55, and the temporal duration at the half maximum level is 87 ns. The maximum jet velocity ranges from 27 m s{sup -1}, at {gamma} = 1, to 36 m s{sup -1}, at {gamma} = 1.55. For {gamma} < 1.2, the re-entrant jet can generate an impact pressure on the nearby boundary larger than 50 MPa. We discuss the implications of the results for the therapeutic applications of high-intensity focused ultrasound.

  1. A phase-preserving and low-dispersive symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta method for solving seismic wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Yang, Dinghui

    2017-06-01

    The finite-difference method, which is an important numerical tool for solving seismic wave equations, is widely applied in simulation, wave-equation-based migration and inversion. As the seismic wave phase plays a critical role in forward simulation and inversion, it should be preserved during wavefield simulation. In this paper, we propose a type of phase-preserving stereomodelling method, which is simultaneously symplectic and low numerical dispersive. First, we propose three new time-marching schemes for solving wave equations that are optimal symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta schemes with minimized phase errors. Relevant simulations on a harmonic oscillator show that even after 200 000 temporal iterations, our schemes can still avoid the phase drifting issue that appears in other symplectic schemes. We use these symplectic schemes as time integrators, and a numerically low dispersive operator called the stereomodelling discrete operator as a spatial discretization approach to solve seismic wave equations. Theoretical analysis on the stability conditions shows that the new methods are more stable than previous methods. We also investigate the numerical dispersion relations of the methods proposed in this study. To further investigate phase accuracy, we compare the numerical solutions generated by the proposed methods with analytic solutions. Several numerical experiments indicate that our proposed methods are efficient for various models and perform well with perfectly matched layer boundary conditions.

  2. Variability of Liver Shear Wave Measurements Using a New Ultrasound Elastographic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadebaum, David P; Nicoll, Amanda J; Sood, Siddharth; Gorelik, Alexandra; Gibson, Robert N

    2017-09-29

    A new 2-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastographic (SWE) device has been developed for the noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. Guidelines on measurement acquisition parameters are not yet well established for this technique. Our study aimed to assess 2D SWE measurement variability and to determine the number of measurements required per patient to reliably assess liver stiffness. Two-dimensional SWE was assessed in 55 patients with mixed-etiology chronic liver disease on an Aplio 500 ultrasound system (Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Tochigi, Japan). Ten measurements were obtained per patient by an operator blinded to all preceding readings. Results were analyzed with clinical information obtained from medical records. The median interquartile range/median ratio for 2D SWE was 0.131 (quartiles 1-3, 0.089-0.174). Five readings provided an approximation within 0.11 m/s, or 4.2% of the median velocity of 10 measurements. Factors associated with increased measurement variability included body mass index (ρ = 0.388; P = .01), increased skin-to-liver capsule distance (ρ = 0.426; P = .002), and measurements taken within 1.5 cm of the liver capsule (P  0.15) showed greater deviation from the set's median velocity than those with an ROI SD/speed ratio of 0.15 or lower (0.42 versus 0.22 m/s; P = .001). Two-dimensional SWE showed low overall measurement variability, with a minimum of 5 readings providing equivalent precision to the existing method using 10 samples. Obesity, increasing abdominal wall thickness, subcapsular measurements and an ROI SD/speed ratio of greater than 0.15 were all associated with increased measurement variability. The ROI SD/speed ratio warrants further evaluation as a quality assessment metric, to allow objective operator assessment of individual 2D SWE measurement reliability in real time. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. New non-local lattice models for the description of wave dispersion in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N.; Polyzos, Demosthenes; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

    2015-03-01

    The propagation of longitudinal waves through concrete materials is strongly affected by dispersion. This is clearly indicated experimentally from the increase of phase velocity at low frequencies whereas many attempts have been made to explain this behavior analytically. Since the classical elastic theory for bulk media is by default non-dispersive, enhanced theories have been developed. The most commonly used higher order theory is the dipolar gradient elastic theory which takes into account the microstructural effects in heterogeneous media like concrete. The microstructural effects are described by two internal length scale parameters (g and h) which correspond to the micro-stiffness and micro-inertia respectively. In the current paper, this simplest possible version of the general gradient elastic theory proposed by Mindlin is reproduced through non-local lattice models consisting of discrete springs and masses. The masses simulate the aggregates of the concrete specimen whereas the springs are the mechanical similitude of the concrete matrix. The springs in these models are connecting the closest masses between them as well as the second or third closest to each other masses creating a non-local system of links. These non-neighboring interactions are represented by massless springs of constant stiffness while on the other hand one cannot neglect the significant mass of the springs connecting neighboring masses as this is responsible for the micro-inertia term. The major advantage of the presented lattice models is the fact that the considered microstructural effects can be accurately expressed as a function of the size and the mechanical properties of the microstructure.

  4. Determination of aminophenols and phenol in hair colorants by ultrasound-assisted solid-phase dispersion extraction coupled with ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Li, Gongke; Wu, Rong; Zhu, Binghui; Luo, Zhibin

    2014-08-01

    A simple and reliable ultrasound-assisted solid-phase dispersion extraction coupled with ion chromatography was developed for the determination of aminophenols and phenol. The highly viscous hair colorant was dispersed in solvents using anhydrous sodium sulfite having dual functions of dispersant and antioxidant. The use of anhydrous sodium sulfite did not change the sample volume because it could completely dissolve in solution after matrix dispersion. The extraction and cleanup were combined in one single step for simplifying operation. The extraction process could be rapidly accomplished within 9 min with high sample throughput under the synergistic effects of vibration, ultrasound, and heating. Satisfactory linearity was observed with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9992, and the limits of detection varied from 0.02 to 0.09 mg/L. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated by measuring the concentrations of aminophenols and phenol in 32 different commercial hair color products. The recoveries ranged from 86.4-101.2% with the relative standard deviations in the range of 0.52-4.3%. The method offers an attractive alternative for the analysis of trace phenols in complex matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid supported on linear viscoelastic two-parameter foundation including thermal and small-scale effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Nima; Moosavi, Hassan; Aghaei, Hosein; Afrand, Masoud; Wongwises, Somchai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a nonlocal Timoshenko beam model is employed for studying the wave dispersion of a fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube on Viscoelastic Pasternak foundation under high and low temperature change. In addition, the phase and group velocity for the nanotube are discussed, respectively. The influences of Winkler and Pasternak modulus, homogenous temperature change, steady flow velocity and damping factor of viscoelastic foundation on wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes are investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of the wave for carbon nanotubes conveying fluid is the normal dispersion. Moreover, implying viscoelastic foundation leads to increasing the wave frequencies.

  6. Numerical Analysis of Ultrasound Backscattered Waves in Cancellous Bone Using a Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method: Isolation of the Backscattered Waves From Various Ranges of Bone Depths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Atsushi

    2015-06-01

    Using a finite-difference time-domain method, ultrasound backscattered waves inside cancellous bone were numerically analyzed to investigate the backscatter mechanism. Two bone models with different thicknesses were modeled with artificial absorbing layers positioned at the back surfaces of the model, and an ultrasound pulse wave was transmitted toward the front surface. By calculating the difference between the simulated waveforms obtained using the two bone models, the backscattered waves from a limited range of depths in cancellous bone could be isolated. The results showed that the fast and slow longitudinal waves, which have previously been observed only in the ultrasound waveform transmitted through the bone, could be distinguished in the backscattered waveform from a deeper bone depth when transmitting the ultrasound wave parallel to the main orientation of the trabecular network. The amplitudes of the fast and slow backscattered waves were more closely correlated with the bone porosity [R2 = 0.84 and 0.66 (p waves [R2 = 0.48 (p waves could be regarded as the superposition of the fast and slow waves reflected from various bone depths, returning at different times.

  7. The influence of precompression on elasticity of thyroid nodules estimated by ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, A C L; Pang, S W A; Ahuja, A T; Bhatia, K S S

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the influence of variations in resting pressure (precompression) on thyroid ultrasound supersonic shear wave elastography (SWE). Thirty-five normal thyroid glands (Norm), 55 benign hyperplastic nodules (BHN), and 17 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) in 96 subjects underwent thyroid SWE. Four precompression levels were applied manually by the operator, ranging from A (baseline, 0 % strain) to D (high, 22-30 % strain). SWE results at each precompression level were compared using ANOVA tests with P < 0.05 indicating significance. SWE indices were highest in PTC, followed by BHN and Norm at each precompression level (P < 0.05). All tissue types showed successive increases in SWE results as precompression increased, although the rate was higher for PTC than BHN and Norm (Ps < 0.05). SWE values (kPa) of Norm, BHN, and PTC at baseline precompression (A) were 10.3 ± 3.3, 17.7 ± 7.6, and 22.2 ± 11.9 compared with 21.1 ± 4.2, 42.3 ± 16.0, and 97.6 ± 46.8 at high precompression (D). SWE index differences between precompression levels A and D were 10.8 kPa for Norm, 24.6 kPa for BHN, and 75.4 kPa for PTC. PTCs show greater SWE stiffening than BHN as precompression rises. Precompression effects on thyroid nodules are not negligible and may account for wide discrepancies in published SWE discriminatory performance results for thyroid malignancy. • Increases in resting pressure (precompression) applied by the operator increases thyroid stiffness. • Papillary cancers show greater increases in stiffness (strain hardening) than benign nodules. • Precompression may affect the diagnostic performance of shearwave elastography for thyroid malignancy.

  8. Comparison of the efficacy of ketoprofen phonophoresis, ultrasound, and short-wave diathermy in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyaci, Ahmet; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Aridici, Rifat; Koca, Irfan

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of three different deep heating modalities: phonophoresis (PH), short-wave diathermy (SWD), and ultrasound (US), in knee osteoarthritis. Patients who consented to participate in the study were randomly divided into the following three groups. Group 1 (n = 33) received PH, Group 2 (n = 33) received US, and Group 3 (n = 35) received SWD. These deep heating therapies were applied by the same therapist. Each therapy began with 20-min hot pack application. Each of the three physical therapy modalities was applied 5 days a week for 2 weeks (a total of 10 sessions). The patients were evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest, 15-m walking time, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) both before and after the treatment. Moreover, at the end of the treatment, both the physician and the patient made an overall evaluation, by rating the treatment efficacy. The results of the study showed that VAS, 15-m walking time, and WOMAC parameters were improved with all three deep heating modalities, and all the three modalities were effective. However, there was no significant difference between the three modalities in terms of efficacy. There was also no significant difference between the three groups in terms of post-treatment general evaluation of the physician and the patient. The present study is the first to suggest that choosing one of PH/US/SWD therapy options would provide effective results and none of them are superior to the others, and we believe that these findings will be a basis for further studies.

  9. Clinical ultrasound physics

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Hefny, Ashraf F; Corr, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the basic physics of ultrasound is essential for acute care physicians. Medical ultrasound machines generate and receive ultrasound waves. Brightness mode (B mode) is the basic mode that is usually used. Ultrasound waves are emitted from piezoelectric crystals of the ultrasound transducer. Depending on the acoustic impedance of different materials, which depends on their density, different grades of white and black images are produced. There are different methods that can contro...

  10. Changes in clot lysis levels of reteplase and streptokinase following continuous wave ultrasound exposure, at ultrasound intensities following attenuation from the skull bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roijer Anders

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound (US has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US exposure. Methods Clots were made from fresh venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers. Each clot was made from 1.4 ml blood and left to coagulate for 1 hour in a plastic test-tube. The thrombolytic drugs used were, 3600 IU streptokinase (SK or 0.25 U reteplase (r-PA, which were mixed in 160 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. Continuous-wave US exposure was applied at a frequency of 1 MHz and intensities ranging from 0.0125 to 1.2 W/cm2. For each thrombolytic drug (n = 2, SK and r-PA and each intensity (n = 9 interventional clots (US-exposed, n = 6 were submerged in thrombolytic solution and exposed to CW-US while control clots (also submerged in thrombolytic solution, n = 6 were left unexposed to US. To evaluate the effect on clot lysis, the haemoglobin (Hb released from each clot was measured every 20 min for 1 hour (20, 40 and 60 min. The Hb content (mg released was estimated by spectrophotometry at 540 nm. The difference in effect on clot lysis was expressed as the difference in the amount of Hb released between pairs of US-exposed clots and control clots. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results Continuous-wave ultrasound significantly decreased the effects of SK at intensities of 0.9 and 1.2 W/cm2 at all times (P 2 and at 1.2 W/cm2, following 40 min exposure at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2, and following 60 min of exposure at 0.05 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2 (all P Conclusion Increasing intensities of CW-US exposure resulted in increased clot lysis of r-PA-treated blood clots, but decreased clot lysis of SK-treated clots.

  11. Ultrasound-Based Shear Wave Elastography in the Assessment of Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Flaviu; Grosu, Iulia; Sporea, Ioan; Bota, Simona; Popescu, Alina; Sima, Alexandra; Şirli, Roxana; Petrica, Ligia; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert

    2017-10-01

    In previous studies of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, using Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) (Siemens Acuson S2000), it was reported that the measurement of renal shear wave speed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not influenced exclusively by renal fibrosis. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the role of VTQ in patients with diabetic kidney disease, considered the main cause of CKD. The study group included 164 patients: 80 patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and 84 without renal disease or diabetes mellitus. In each subject in lateral decubitus, five valid VTQ measurements were performed in each kidney and a median value was calculated, the result being expressed in meters/second. The following means of the median values were obtained In DKD patients, the means of the median values were for VTQ right kidney, 2.21 ± 0.71 m/s, and for VTQ left kidney, 2.13 ± 0.72 m/s, whereas in the normal controls statistically significant higher values were obtained: 2.58 ± 0.78 m/s for VTQ right kidney (p = 0.0017) and 2.46 ± 0.81 m/s for VTQ left kidney (p = 0.006). Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 mL/min (DKD stages 1 and 2 together with normal controls) had a significantly higher kidney shear wave speed compared with patients with an eGFR 60 mL/min (either normal controls or diabetic patients with DKD stages 1 and 2), and values decrease with the decrease in eGFR. However, proteinuria, diabetic retinopathy and glycated hemoglobin have no influence on VTQ. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Guided waves dispersion equations for orthotropic multilayered pipes solved using standard finite elements code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predoi, Mihai Valentin

    2014-09-01

    The dispersion curves for hollow multilayered cylinders are prerequisites in any practical guided waves application on such structures. The equations for homogeneous isotropic materials have been established more than 120 years ago. The difficulties in finding numerical solutions to analytic expressions remain considerable, especially if the materials are orthotropic visco-elastic as in the composites used for pipes in the last decades. Among other numerical techniques, the semi-analytical finite elements method has proven its capability of solving this problem. Two possibilities exist to model a finite elements eigenvalue problem: a two-dimensional cross-section model of the pipe or a radial segment model, intersecting the layers between the inner and the outer radius of the pipe. The last possibility is here adopted and distinct differential problems are deduced for longitudinal L(0,n), torsional T(0,n) and flexural F(m,n) modes. Eigenvalue problems are deduced for the three modes classes, offering explicit forms of each coefficient for the matrices used in an available general purpose finite elements code. Comparisons with existing solutions for pipes filled with non-linear viscoelastic fluid or visco-elastic coatings as well as for a fully orthotropic hollow cylinder are all proving the reliability and ease of use of this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Controllable wave propagation of hybrid dispersive media with LC high-pass and band-pass networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Parra, Edgar A.; Bergamini, Andrea; Van Damme, Bart; Ermanni, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports on the wave transmission characteristics of two configurations of a hybrid one dimensional (1D) medium. The hybrid characteristic is the result of the coupling between a 1D mechanical waveguide in the form of an elastic beam and an electrical network. The first configuration investigated is based on an LC high-pass network, while the second configuration is based on an LC band-pass network. For both networks, the capacitors are represented by a periodic array of piezoelectric elements that are bonded to the beam coupling, the mechanical and electrical domains, and thus the two waveguides. The coupling is characterized by a coincidence in frequency/wavenumber corresponding to the intersection of the dispersion curves. At this coincidence frequency, the hybrid medium features attenuation of wave motion as a result of the energy transfer to the electrical network. This energy exchange is depicted in the dispersion curves by eigenvalue crossing, a particular case of eigenvalue veering. This paper presents the numerical investigation of the wave propagation in the considered media along with experimental evidence of the wave transmission characteristics. The ability to conveniently tune the dispersion properties of the electrical network by varying the inductance is exploited to adapt the periodicity of the domain, i.e., monoatomic and diatomic unit cell configurations.

  14. Toxicity of crude oil chemically dispersed in a wave tank to embryos of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Colleen D; Hodson, Peter V; Li, Zhengkai; King, Thomas; Lee, Kenneth

    2012-06-01

    Tests of crude oil toxicity to fish are often chronic, exposing embryos from fertilization to hatch to oil solutions prepared using standard mixing procedures. However, during oil spills, fish are not often exposed for long periods and the dynamic nature of the ocean is not easily replicated in the lab. Our objective was to determine if brief exposures of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) embryos to dispersed oil prepared by standard mixing procedures was as toxic as oil dispersed in a more realistic model system. Embryos were first exposed to chemically dispersed Alaska North Slope crude and Arabian light crude oil for 2.4 h to 14 d from fertilization to determine if exposure time affected toxicity. Toxicity increased with exposure time, but 2.4-h exposures at realistic concentrations of oil induced blue-sac disease and reduced the percentage of normal embryos at hatch; there was little difference in toxicity between the two oils. Secondly, oil was chemically dispersed in a wave tank to determine if the resultant oil solutions were as toxic to herring embryos as laboratory-derived dispersed oil using a single exposure period of 24 h. Samples taken 15 min postdispersion were more toxic than laboratory-prepared solutions, but samples taken at 5, 30, and 60 min postdispersion were less toxic. Overall, the laboratory- and wave tank-derived solutions of dispersed oil provided similar estimates of toxicity despite differences in the methods for preparing test solutions, suggesting that laboratory and wave tank data are a reliable basis for ecological risk assessments of spilled oil. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  15. MODELING THE ASIAN TSUNAMI EVOLUTION AND PROPAGATION WITH A NEW GENERATION MECHANISM AND A NON-LINEAR DISPERSIVE WAVE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Rivera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A common approach in modeling the generation and propagation of tsunami is based on the assumption of a kinematic vertical displacement of ocean water that is analogous to the ocean bottom displacement during a submarine earthquake and the use of a non-dispersive long-wave model to simulate its physical transformation as it radiates outward from the source region. In this study, a new generation mechanism and the use of a highly-dispersive wave model to simulate tsunami inception, propagation and transformation are proposed. The new generation model assumes that transient ground motion during the earthquake can accelerate horizontal currents with opposing directions near the fault line whose successive convergence and divergence generate a series of potentially destructive oceanic waves. The new dynamic model incorporates the effects of earthquake moment magnitude, ocean compressibility through the buoyancy frequency, the effects of focal and water depths, and the orientation of ruptured fault line in the tsunami magnitude and directivity.For tsunami wave simulation, the nonlinear momentum-based wave model includes important wave propagation and transformation mechanisms such as refraction, diffraction, shoaling, partial reflection and transmission, back-scattering, frequency dispersion, and resonant wave-wave interaction. Using this model and a coarse-resolution bathymetry, the new mechanism is tested for the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004. A new flooding and drying algorithm that consider waves coming from every direction is also proposed for simulation of inundation of low-lying coastal regions.It is shown in the present study that with the proposed generation model, the observed features of the Asian tsunami such as the initial drying of areas east of the source region and the initial flooding of western coasts are correctly simulated. The formation of a series of tsunami waves with periods and lengths comparable to observations

  16. Role of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in complex cystic and solid breast lesions in comparison with conventional ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo Eun; Chung, Jin; Cha, Eun-Suk; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Jeoung Hyun

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the additional role of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in differential diagnosis of complex cystic and solid breast lesions. From January 2013 to November 2013, 140 complex cystic and solid breast lesions from 139 consecutive patients were performed ultrasound and SWE prior to biopsy. BI-RADS ultrasound final assessment and SWE parameters were recorded for each lesion. Histopathologic diagnosis was used as the reference standard. Among the 140 lesions, 30 lesions (21.4%) were malignant. The mean maximum elasticity (Emax) of malignant lesions (184.3 kPa) was significantly higher than that of benign lesions (45.5 kPa) (Pelasticity and color pattern were significantly different from malignancy and benign lesions (Pbreast lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding the role of Whistler waves at the Bow shock of Earth: MMS observations and dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H.; Russell, C.; Schwartz, S. J.; An, X.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Abundant wave activity is generated at the bow shock of the Earth, that plays an important role in heating the electrons and ions and dissipating the excess energy of supercritical shocks. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecrafts, with their state-of-the-art plasma and field instruments onboard, allow us to study these waves and better understand the role they play at the bow shock. We have find broad-band waves up to the electron cyclotron frequency across the shock ramp and slightly downstream of it, with large propagation angles with respect to the background magnetic field direction. Simultaneously, the electrons have quite disturbed velocities and are anisotropic in velocity space. In the same region, narrow-band waves at a few hundred Hertz are also observed with durations under a second. These waves are right-handed circularly polarized and propagate along the magnetic field lines. Both wave types are likely to be whistler mode, probably associated with electron streams in the shock ramp. We perform wave analysis of the magnetic and electric fields observed by MMS and carry out dispersion analysis with the guidance of the plasma observations to understand the wave generation and their effects on the shock and magnetosheath plasmas.

  18. Study of dispersive and nonlinear effects of coastal wave dynamics with a fully nonlinear potential flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Michel; Yates, Marissa L.; Raoult, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    Efficient and accurate numerical models simulating wave propagation are required for a variety of engineering projects including the evaluation of coastal risks, the design of protective coastal structures, and the estimation of the potential for marine renewable energy devices. Nonlinear and dispersive effects are particularly significant in the coastal zone where waves interact with the bottom, the shoreline, and coastal structures. The main challenge in developing a numerical models is finding a compromise between computational efficiency and the required accuracy of the simulated wave field. Here, a potential approach is selected and the (fully nonlinear) water wave problem is formulated using the Euler-Zakharov equations (Zakharov, 1968) describing the temporal evolution of the free surface elevation and velocity potential. The proposed model (Yates and Benoit, 2015) uses a spectral approach in the vertical (i.e. the vertical variation of the potential is approximated by a linear combination of the first NT+1 Chebyshev polynomials, following the work of Tian and Sato (2008)). The Zakharov equations are integrated in time using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. At each sub-timestep, the Laplace Boundary Value Problem (BVP) is solved to estimate the free surface vertical velocity using the spectral approach, with typical values of NT between 5 to 8 for practical applications. The 1DH version of the code is validated with comparisons to the experimental data set of Becq-Girard et al. (1999), which studied the propagation of irregular waves over a beach profile with a submerged bar. The nonlinear and dispersive capacities of the model are verified with the correct representation of wave-wave interactions, in particular the transfer of energy between different harmonic components during wave propagation (analysis of the transformation of the variance spectrum along the channel). Evolution of wave skewness, asymmetry and kurtosis along the

  19. Dispersive-wave-based octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in InGaP membrane waveguides on a silicon substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Utsav D; Ciret, Charles; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Combrie, Sylvain; De Rossi, Alfredo; Raineri, Fabrice; Roelkens, Gunther; Kuyken, Bart

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an octave-spanning supercontinuum in InGaP membrane waveguides on a silicon substrate pumped by a 1550-nm femtosecond source. The broadband nature of the supercontinuum in these dispersion-engineered high-index-contrast waveguides is enabled by dispersive wave generation on both sides of the pump as well as by the low nonlinear losses inherent to the material. We also measure the coherence properties of the output spectra close to the pump wavelength and find that the supercontinuum is highly coherent at least in this wavelength range.

  20. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... body. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have ...

  2. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... then uses those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show ...

  3. Ultrasound - Scrotum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... then uses those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... then uses those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  6. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... Ultrasound scanners consist of a console containing a computer and electronics, a video display screen and a ...

  7. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible ... principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a sound wave strikes an ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible ... principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a sound wave strikes an ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ... standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer ...

  13. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds ...

  16. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help ... Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound ...

  18. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... of the pelvis uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures and organs in the lower ... Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound ...

  19. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature waves are instantly measured and displayed ... may be present in the sperm or urine following the procedure. After an ultrasound examination, you should ...

  1. Dispersion of Own Frequency of Ion-Dipole by Supersonic Transverse Wave in Solid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minasyan V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available First, we predict an existence of transverse electromagnetic field formed by supersonic transverse wave in solid. This electromagnetic wave acquires frequency and speed of sound, and it propagates along of direction propagation of supersonic wave. We also show that own frequency of ion-dipole depends on frequency of supersonic transverse wave.

  2. The association of muscle and tendon elasticity with passive joint stiffness: In vivo measurements using ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2015-12-01

    Passive joint stiffness is associated with various tissues, including muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules. The specific elasticity of muscles or tendons can be measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography. To examine the association of muscle and tendon elasticity with passive joint stiffness, in vivo measurements of muscle and tendon elasticity were performed using ultrasound shear wave elastography. In 25 subjects, passive ankle joint stiffness was determined using the joint angle-passive torque relationship. The stiffness index of the muscle belly of the medial gastrocnemius (MG)--influenced by the muscle fascicles, its aponeuroses, and the proximal tendon--was quantified by the displacement of the muscle-tendon junction, which was visualized using B-mode ultrasonography during passive dorsiflexion. The stiffness index of the Achilles tendon--influenced by the tendon and the ligaments and joint capsule of the ankle--was similarly determined. The MG and Achilles tendon elasticity was measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Simple regression indicated a significant correlation between passive joint stiffness and stiffness index of the MG muscle belly (r=0.80) and Achilles tendon (r=0.60), but no correlation with elasticity of the MG (r=-0.37) or Achilles tendon (r=-0.39). Individual variations in the elasticity of either the MG or Achilles tendon are not associated with variations in passive ankle joint stiffness; however, variations in the elasticity of other tissues, including MG aponeuroses or the ligaments and joint capsule of the ankle, would be associated with the variations in joint stiffness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cranial Ultrasound/Head Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... then uses those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show ...

  4. Three-dimensional dispersion of spin waves measured in NiO by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betto, D.; Peng, Y. Y.; Porter, S. B.; Berti, G.; Calloni, A.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Brookes, N. B.

    2017-07-01

    We used resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Ni L3 edge to measure the dispersion of spin waves in NiO thin films along the [101], [001], and [111] directions. Samples with tensile and compressive in-plane strain show identical dispersion within the experimental uncertainty. The fitting of the data with a linear spin wave model applied to a three-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic lattice provides a leading superexchange parameter J'=18 meV . The magnon energy at the Brillouin zone boundary and the value of J' are 5 % smaller than those determined by inelastic neutron scattering on bulk single crystals. This discrepancy is likely induced by the strain or other structural differences between bulk and epitaxially grown samples. These results demonstrate the capabilities of high-resolution RIXS in the study of the magnetic structure of thin films and heterostructures for which neutron scattering is not sensitive enough.

  5. Interaction of elliptically polarised cross-degenerate cnoidal waves in an isotropic gyrotropic medium with spatial dispersion of cubic nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, V. A.; Petnikova, V. M.; Shuvalov, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    Three unusual classes of particular analytical solutions to a system of four nonlinear equations are found for slowly varying complex amplitudes of circularly polarised components of the electric field. The system describes the self-action and interaction of two elliptically polarised plane waves collinearly propagating in an isotropic medium with second-order frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion of cubic nonlinearity. The solutions correspond to self-consistent combinations of two elliptically polarised cnoidal waves whose mutually orthogonal polarisation components vary in accordance with pairwise identical laws during propagation. At the same time, the amplitudes of the component with the same circular polarisation are proportional to two different elliptic Jacobi functions with the same periods.

  6. Ultrasound-promoted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction of trace anti-hypertensive drugs from biological matrices using a sonochemically synthesized conductive polymer nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Maryam; Rajabi, Maryam; Asghari, Alireza

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a rapid and efficient procedure named ultrasound meliorated dispersive micro solid-phase extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet detection (US-D-μSPE-HPLC-UV) was developed for the pre-concentration of the main trace anti-hypertensive drugs in complex matrices. The basis of this procedure was a polypyrrole-sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate/zinc oxide (PPy-DBSNa/ZnO) nanocomposite. It was readily synthesized by the impressive way of in situ sonochemical oxidative polymerization in the presence of some additives such as FeCl3 and DBSNa, ultimately leading to the effective coating of PPy on the ZnO nanoparticle cores. Characterization of the proposed nanosorbent was performed by different techniques such as FESEM, XRD,EDX, and TGA, confirming the high quality and proper physico-chemical properties of the proposed sorbent. In order to better investigate the input variables, the central composite design (CCD) combined with the desirability function (DF) was utilized. The enriched optimum conditions consisted of the initial pH value of 11.8, 15mg of the PPy-DBSNa/ZnO nanocomposite, a sonication time of 4.6min, and 100μL of methanol, resulting in maximum responses at a relatively low extraction time with a logical DF. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity (5-5000, 2.5-3500, and 2.5-3000ngmL-1 for metoprolol, propranolol, and carvedilol, respectively, with the correlation of determinations (R2s) higher than 0.99), low limits of detection (LODs) (0.8-1.5ngmL-1), proper repeatabilities (relative standard deviation values (RSDs) below 6.3%, n=3), reasonable enrichment factors (EFs) (60-72), and good extraction recoveries (ERs) (higher than %75) were obtainable. These appropriate validations corroborated a good effectiveness of ultrasonic waves in the achievement of a supreme solid phase as well as a facile and efficient microextraction of the low therapeutic concentrations in human plasma and urine samples. Copyright

  7. Excitation and reception of non-dispersive guided waves using face-shear d24 mode piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hongchen; Li, Faxin

    2017-04-01

    The non-dispersive fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) and torsional [T(0,1)] waves are extremely useful in guidedwave-based inspection techniques. However, excitation of SH0 and T(0,1) waves using piezoelectrics is always a challenge. In this work, firstly, a newly defined face-shear d24 PZT wafer is proposed to excite and receive SH0 wave mode. The d24 wafer is in-plane poled and its working electric field is applied along another orthogonal in-plane direction. Both finite element simulations and experiments show that single SH0 mode can be excited by using the d24 wafer along two orthogonal directions (0° and 90°). Then an omnidirectional SH0 wave piezoelectric transducer (OSHPT) is developed which consists of a circular array of twelve face-shear d24 trapezoidal PZT elements. Results show that the proposed OSH-PT exhibits good omnidirectional properties, no matter it is used as a SH0 wave transmitter or receiver. Finally, the development of a T(0,1) wave transducer for pipes based on a ring array of d24 PZT elements is described. Both finite element simulations and experiments show that the d24 elements ring can excite single T(0,1) mode and suppress all the unwanted non-axisymmetric modes. This work may greatly promote the applications of SH0 and T(0,1) waves in nondestructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM).

  8. Evaluation of the Tp-Te Interval, QTc and P-Wave Dispersion in Patients With Coronary Artery Ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Ronan; Tanner, Richard; David, Santhosh; Szeplaki, Gabor; Galvin, Joseph; Keaney, John; Keelan, Edward; Boles, Usama

    2017-12-01

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is defined as a diffuse dilatation of the diameter of the ectatic segment of the coronary artery, 1.5 times greater than that of the adjacent segment. The Tp-Te interval, P-wave and QTc dispersions are relatively new electrocardiographic markers associated with an increased risk of developing arrhythmias. Despite CAE increasing in prevalence in recent years, there is a sparsity of data available about its arrhythmogenic effect. The aim of the study was to evaluate QTc, P-wave dispersion and Tp-Te and Tp-Te/QT ratio in patients with CAE. A retrospective comparative study was designed for consecutive age- and sex-matched patients. Twenty patients with isolated CAE (group 1) and 20 control subjects (group 2), with normal coronary arteries, were included. All patients presented with chest pain and coronary angiogram was indicated. Outcome measures included Tp-Te interval, Tp-Te/QT ratio, QTc dispersion and P-wave dispersion. Measurement of electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters was conducted using standardized digital online software. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Mean Tp-Te (95.5 ± 9.01 ms) and Tp-Te/QT ratio (0.22 ± 0.02) were significantly prolonged in CAE group (Tp-Te: 84 ± 5.62 ms, P = 0.00009; Tp-Te/QT ratio: 0.20 ± 0.01, P = 0.00004). In addition, QTc (31.2 ± 3.71 ms) and P-wave dispersion (31.9 ± 5.46 ms) were significantly increased in comparison to the control group (QTc: 27.6 ± 2.82 ms, P = 0.00532 and 20 ± 3.77 ms, P = 0.00003 respectively). However, there was no difference in ventricular activation time (VAT) between groups. CAE ECGs were found to be associated with increased Tp-Te, Tp-Te/QT ratio, QTc intervals and P-wave dispersions. This may suggest that CAE existence has a pro-arrhythmogenic nature.

  9. The set valued unified model of dispersion and attenuation for wave propagation in dielectric (and anelastic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caputo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the dispersion and attenuation properties of dielectric and anelastic media, in the frequency domain, are expressed by similar formulae, as shown experimentally by Cole and Cole (1941 and Bagley and Torvik (1983, 1986 respectively, we note that the same properties may be represented in the time domain by means of an equation of the same form; this is obtained by introducing derivatives of fractional order into the system functions of the media. The Laplace Transforms (LT of such system functions contain fractional powers of the imaginary frequency and are, therefore, multivalued functions defined in the Riemann Sheets (RS of the function. We determine the response of the medium (dielectric o anelastic to a generic signal summing the time domain representation due to the branches of the solutions in the RSs of the LT. It is found that, if the initial conditions are equal in all the RSs, the solution is a sum of two exponentials with complex exponents, if the initial conditions are different in some of the RSs, then a transient for each of those RSs is added to the exponentials. In all cases a monochromatic wave is split into a set of waves with the same frequency and slightly different wavelengths which interfere and disperse. As a consequence a monochromatic electromagnetic wave with frequency around 1 MHz in water has a relevant dispersion and beats generating a tunnel effect. In the atmosphere of the Earth the dispersion of a monochromatic wave with frequency around 1 GHz, like those used in tracking artificial satellites, has a negligible effect on the accuracy of the determination of the position of the satellites and the positioning of the bench marks on the Earth. We also find the split eigenfunctions of the free modes of infinite plates and shells made of dielectric and anelastic media.

  10. Clinical ultrasound physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Hefny, Ashraf F; Corr, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the basic physics of ultrasound is essential for acute care physicians. Medical ultrasound machines generate and receive ultrasound waves. Brightness mode (B mode) is the basic mode that is usually used. Ultrasound waves are emitted from piezoelectric crystals of the ultrasound transducer. Depending on the acoustic impedance of different materials, which depends on their density, different grades of white and black images are produced. There are different methods that can control the quality of ultrasound waves including timing of ultrasound wave emission, frequency of waves, and size and curvature of the surface of the transducer. The received ultrasound signal can be amplified by increasing the gain. The operator should know sonographic artifacts which may distort the studied structures or even show unreal ones. The most common artifacts include shadow and enhancement artifacts, edge artifact, mirror artifact and reverberation artifact.

  11. P-Wave Dispersion and Atrial Electromechanical Delay in Patients with Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnci, Sinan; Nar, Gökay; Aksan, Gökhan; Sipahioğlu, Haydar; Soylu, Korhan; Dogan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the duration of atrial electromechanical delay (EMD) and left atrial mechanical function in patients with preeclampsia. This study included 26 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 24 age-matched pregnant women without preeclampsia (control group). Atrial electromechanical coupling (PA) and intra-atrial and interatrial EMD were measured using tissue Doppler echocardiography. P-wave dispersion (PWD) was measured via 12-lead electrocardiography. All data were analyzed using SPSS v.15.0 for Windows (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Ill., USA). Differences in continuous variables between groups were examined using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Correlation analysis was performed using Spearman's coefficient of correlation. Categorical values were compared using a χ2 test. PA lateral and PA septal durations were significantly longer in the preeclampsia group than in the control group [74.6 ± 8.1 vs. 62.3 ± 5.3 ms (p < 0.001) and 59.7 ± 5.3 vs. 56.2 ± 4.9 ms (p = 0.005), respectively]. The duration of interatrial EMD and intra-atrial EMD in the preeclampsia group was significantly longer than in the control group [25.4 ± 4.6 vs. 13.2 ± 3.9 ms (p < 0.001) and 10.5 ± 1.9 vs. 7.1 ± 1.2 ms (p < 0.001), respectively]. PWD was significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (43.1 ± 9.1 ms) than in the controls (37.6 ± 7.9 ms; p = 0.008). There was a significant correlation between PWD and interatrial EMD and intra-atrial EMD [r = 0.46 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.39 (p < 0.001), respectively]. The duration of atrial EMD and PWD was prolonged in patients with preeclampsia. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Northern Korean Peninsula 1-D velocity model from surface wave dispersion and full-waveform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J.; Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Kang, T. S.; Cho, C.

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring seismic activities in the northern Korean Peninsula is important not only for understanding the characteristics of earthquakes but also for watching nuclear tests. To better monitor those natural and man-made seismic activities, reliable seismic velocity models are required. However, the seismic velocity structure of the region is not known well due to the lack of available seismic data directly measured in the region. This study presents 1-D velocity models of the region using two different datasets comprised of two-year-long continuous waveform and the 2013 North Korea nuclear test event waveform recorded at stations surrounding the region. Two reference 1-D models for the inland and offshore areas (Western East Sea) were estimated by 1-D inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements from ambient noise cross-correlations of the continuous waveform. To investigate the variations in the velocity models, many 1-D models for the paths between the 2013 nuclear test site and stations in China and South Korea were constructed by forward waveform modeling. The velocity variations are not significant for both models representing the inland and offshore paths, respectively. The 1-D models for the inland paths are similar to the models constructed for the southern Korean Peninsula. Interestingly, waveforms sampling through the offshore paths are not well explained by simple 1-D isotropic models. The preliminary result indicates that there exists radial anisotropy with SH being faster than SV by 3-5% in the upper mantle beneath the offshore northern Korean Peninsula, although further studies are necessary to explain the origin of anisotropy. A proper characterization of propagation effects along the offshore paths would be useful for monitoring future nuclear tests because many seismic stations in the eastern South Korea record waveforms sampling the offshore region from the nuclear test site to those stations.

  13. Relationships of CRP and P wave dispersion with atrial fibrillation in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsioufis, Costas; Syrseloudis, Dimitris; Hatziyianni, Awalia; Tzamou, Vanessa; Andrikou, Ioannis; Tolis, Panaglotis; Toutouzas, Kostas; Michaelidis, Andreas; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2010-02-01

    Although inflammation has been shown to be implicated in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF), little is known about its involvement in the accompanying atrial electrical remodeling expressed by P wave dispersion (P(disp)). Fifty hypertensive subjects with documented paroxysmal AF (AF group) and 50 matched for body mass index, sex and office systolic blood pressure (BP) subjects with no history of AF (SR group) were subjected to electrocardiogram (ECG) and P(disp) assessment, hs-CRP determination, a complete echocardiographic study and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. The AF as compared to the SR subjects were older by 14 years (P < 0.0001) and they exhibited lower office and 24-h diastolic BP (7 mm Hg, P < 0.0001 and by 8 mm Hg, P < 0.0001, respectively) and higher office and 24-h pulse pressure (by 4 mm Hg, P = 0.03 and 6 mm Hg, P = 0.001, respectively) mean values. A higher mean of left atrial (LA) diameter index (by 1.9 mm/m(2), P < 0.0001) and left ventricular mass index (by 16 g/m(2), P < 0.0001) were observed in the AF vs. SR group. P(disp) mean and hs-CRP median values were higher in the AF group (by 22 ms, P < 0.0005 and by 4.63 mg/l, P < 0.0005, respectively). Standard multiple and multiple logistic regression analysis identified log(10)(hs-CRP) as independent determinant of P(disp) and log(10)(CRP) and P(disp) as independent determinants of AF. In hypertensive subjects hs-CRP and P(disp) are interrelated and associated with AF, suggesting an active implication of inflammation in the atrial electrophysiological remodeling predisposing to AF.

  14. Near-field investigation of the explosive dispersal of radioactive material based on a reconstructed spherical blast-wave flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, David; Ivan, Lucian

    2017-06-01

    A "dirty bomb" is a type of radiological dispersal device (RDD) that has been the subject of significant safety and security concerns given the disruption that would result from a postulated terrorist attack. Assessing the risks of radioactive dose in a hypothetical scenario requires models that can accurately predict dispersion in a realistic environment. Modelling a RDD is complicated by the fact that the most important phenomena occur over vastly disparate spatial and temporal length scales. Particulate dispersion in the air is generally considered on scales of hundreds to thousands of meters, and over periods of minutes and hours. Dispersion models are extremely sensitive, however, to the particle size and source characterization, which are determined in distances measured in micrometers to meters, over milliseconds or less. This study examines the extent to which the explosive blast determines the transport of contaminant particles relative to the atmospheric wind over distances relevant to "near-field" dispersion problems (i.e., hundreds of meters), which are relevant to urban environments. Our results indicate that whether or not the effect of the blast should be included in a near-field dispersion model is largely dependent on the size of the contaminant particle. Relatively large particles (i.e., >40 μm in diameter), which are most likely to be produced by a RDD, penetrate the leading shock front, thereby avoiding the reverse blast wind. Consequently, they travel much farther than suspended aerosols (dispersion problems in urban environments, the transport of contaminants from the blast wave may be integral to accurately predicting their dispersion. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment with focused ultrasound waves softens the rat cervix during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Daishen; Yu, Heng; Garfield, Robert E; Shi, Shao-Qing; Towe, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    Application of focused ultrasound stimulation (FUS) to the rat cervix during pregnancy has significant physiologic effects. One-millisecond-long pulses of 680-kHz ultrasound with a repetition frequency of 25 Hz, at ISPTA (spatial-peak, temporal-average intensity) of 1, 2 and 4W/cm(2), were applied to the rat abdomen over the cervix. FUS produced a significant change in cervical elasticity known as softening, which is part of the ripening process, comparable to the degree seen just before delivery. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40) were used. During gestation, the FUS system was applied to the cervix for variable times up to 1 h. Daily measurements of cervix light-induced florescence were made to estimate changes in softening. In addition, cervical stretch estimates of softening were made of isolated cervices of control and FUS-treated rats to measure distensiblity. The ultrasound power with ISPPA (spatial-peak, pulse-average intensity) of 40 W/cm(2) was considered tolerable; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory limit is 190 W/cm(2) for both the body periphery and the fetus. This is the first report of alterations induced by ultrasound in the connective tissue of the cervix and suggests the therapeutic application of ultrasound for the facilitation of labor and delivery. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal ...

  17. Ultrasound physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriki, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Bedside ultrasound has become an important modality for obtaining critical information in the acute care of patients. It is important to understand the physics of ultrasound in order to perform and interpret images at the bedside. The physics of both continuous wave and pulsed wave sound underlies diagnostic ultrasound. The instrumentation, including transducers and image processing, is important in the acquisition of appropriate sonographic images. Understanding how these concepts interplay with each other enables practitioners to obtain the best possible images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  19. Nonlinear-dispersive mechanism of the freak wave formation in shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Talipova, Tatiana; Kharif, Christian

    2000-12-01

    The mechanism of the freak wave formation related to the spatial-temporal focusing is studied within the framework of the Korteweg-de Vries equation. A method to find the wave trains whose evolution leads to the freak wave formation is proposed. It is based on the solution of the Korteweg-de Vries equation with an initial condition corresponding to the expected freak wave. All solutions of this Cauchy problem by the reversal of abscissa represent the possible forms of wave trains which evolve into the freak wave. It is found that freak waves are almost linear waves, and their characteristic Ursell parameter is small. The freak wave formation is possible also from the random wave field and the numerical simulation describes the details of this phenomenon. It is shown that freak waves can be generated not only for specific conditions, but also for relative wide classes of the wave trains. This mechanism explains the rare and short-lived character of the freak wave.

  20. Performance assessment of Pulse Wave Imaging using conventional ultrasound in canine aortas ex vivo and normal human arteries in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronny X; Qaqish, William; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-09-01

    The propagation behavior of the arterial pulse wave may provide valuable diagnostic information for cardiovascular pathology. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique capable of mapping multiple wall motion waveforms along a short arterial segment over a single cardiac cycle, allowing for the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and propagation uniformity to be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to improve the clinical utility of PWI using a conventional ultrasound system. The tradeoff between PWI spatial and temporal resolution was evaluated using an ex vivo canine aorta (n = 2) setup to assess the effects of varying image acquisition and signal processing parameters on the measurement of the PWV and the pulse wave propagation uniformity r2. PWI was also performed on the carotid arteries and abdominal aortas of 10 healthy volunteers (24.8 ± 3.3 y.o.) to determine the waveform tracking feature that would yield the most precise PWV measurements and highest r2 values in vivo. The ex vivo results indicated that the highest precision for measuring PWVs ~ 2.5 - 3.5 m/s was achieved using 24-48 scan lines within a 38 mm image plane width (i.e. 0.63 - 1.26 lines/mm). The in vivo results indicated that tracking the 50% upstroke of the waveform would consistently yield the most precise PWV measurements and minimize the error in the propagation uniformity measurement. Such findings may help establish the optimal image acquisition and signal processing parameters that may improve the reliability of PWI as a clinical measurement tool.

  1. P wave dispersion and QT dispersion in adult Turkish migrants with familial mediterranean fever living in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Arnd; Ornek, Ahmet; Kurucay, Mustafa; Kara, Kaffer; Wittkowski, Helmut; Gohar, Faekah; Menge, Bjoern A; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Zeidler, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disease associated with subclinical inflammation, which includes atherosclerosis arising from endothelial inflammation, which in turn increases the risk of atrial or ventricular arrhythmias. Conduction abnormalities can be detected using the electrocardiographic (ECG) indices P and QT dispersion (Pdisp and QTdisp). Currently, it is unknown whether patients with FMF are more likely to have abnormalities of these ECG indices. Moreover, existing studies were conducted in countries with higher FMF prevalence. We therefore perform the first prospective study assessing Pdisp and QTdisp in adult FMF patients in Germany, where prevalence of FMF is low. Asymptomatic FMF patients (n=30) of Turkish ancestry living in Germany and age-matched healthy controls (n=37) were prospectively assessed using 12-lead ECG. Patients and controls were comparable in gender and body mass index, and patients had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) compared to controls (ESR: 23.7±14.3 vs. 16.1±13,3 mm/1(st)h, p=0.03, CRP: 0.73±0.9 vs. 0.26±0.4 g/dl, p=0.01, SAA: 3.14±4,8 vs. 0.37±0.3 mg/dl, pGermany show a Pdisp and QTdisp comparable to healthy controls, with no increased risk of atrial or ventricular arrhythmias indicated.

  2. Direct analysis of dispersive wave fields from near-field pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horchens, L.

    2011-01-01

    Flexural waves play a significant role for the radiation of sound from plates. The analysis of flexural wave fields enables the detection of sources and transmission paths in plate-like structures. The measurement of these wave fields can be carried out indirectly by means of near-field acoustic

  3. Dispersive Magnetosonic Waves and Turbulence in the Heliosheath: Multi-Fluid MHD Reconstruction of Voyager 2 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, B.; Opher, M.; Toth, G.

    2016-12-01

    Recently we demonstrated that our three-fluid MHD model of the solar wind plasma (where cold thermal solar wind ions, hot pickup ions, and electrons are treated as separate fluids) is able to reconstruct the microstructure of the termination shock observed by Voyager 2 [Zieger et al., 2015]. We constrained the unknown pickup ion abundance and temperature and confirmed the presence of a hot electron population at the termination shock, which has been predicted by a number of previous theoretical studies [e.g. Chasei and Fahr, 2014; Fahr et al., 2014]. We showed that a significant part of the upstream hydrodynamic energy is transferred to the heating of pickup ions and "massless" electrons. As shown in Zieger et al., [2015], three-fluid MHD theory predicts two fast magnetosonic modes, a low-frequency fast mode or solar wind ion (SW) mode and a high-frequency fast mode or pickup ion (PUI) mode. The coupling of the two ion populations results in a quasi-stationary nonlinear mode or oscilliton, which appears as a trailing wave train downstream of the termination shock. In single-fluid plasma, dispersive effects appear on the scale of the Debye length. However, in a non-equilibrium plasma like the solar wind, where solar wind ions and PUIs have different temperatures, dispersive effects become important on fluid scales [see Zieger et al., 2015]. Here we show that the dispersive effects of fast magnetosonic waves are expected on the scale of astronomical units (AU), and dispersion plays an important role producing compressional turbulence in the heliosheath. The trailing wave train of the termination shock (the SW-mode oscilliton) does not extend to infinity. Downstream propagating PUI-mode waves grow until they steepen into PUI shocklets and overturn starting to propagate backward. The upstream propagating PUI-mode waves result in fast magnetosonic turbulence and limit the downstream extension of the oscilliton. The overturning distance of the PUI-mode, where these waves

  4. Parametric instabilities of circularly polarized large-amplitude dispersive Alfven waves: excitation of obliquely-propagating daughter and side-band waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, A.F.; Goldstein, M.L. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center)

    1991-08-01

    The parametric instabilities of a large-amplitude circularly polarized dispersive parallel-propagating Alfven wave are investigated. The treatment is more general than that of previous derivations based on the two-fluid equations in that allowance is made for propagation of the unstable daughter and side-band waves at arbitrary angles to the background (DC) magnetic field. The characteristics of the decay and modulational instabilities as functions of propagation angle are presented. It is found that in addition to the well-known decay and modulational instabilities, that at oblique and perpendicular propagation there is another parametric instability, namely the filamentation instability, which is characterized by a broad band-width in wavenumber. A second parametric process at oblique and perpendicular angles of propagation, namely the parametric magneto-acoustic instability is also investigated. The magneto-acoustic instability extends over a broad angular range, but has a very narrow band-width in wavenumber. The dispersive characteristics of the filamentation and magneto-acoustic instabilities as functions of plasma {beta}, dispersion {kappa} and pump amplitude {eta} for arbitrary propagation angles are reported. (author).

  5. Spatial structure and dispersion of drift mirror waves coupled with Alfvén waves in a 1-D inhomogeneous plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Klimushkin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper employs the frame of a 1-D inhomogeneous model of space plasma,to examine the spatial structure and growth rate of drift mirror modes, often suggested for interpreting some oscillation types in space plasma. Owing to its coupling with the Alfvén mode, the drift mirror mode attains dispersion across magnetic shells (dependence of the frequency on the wave-vector's radial component, kr. The spatial structure of a mode confined across magnetic shells is studied. The scale of spatial localization of the wave is shown to be determined by the plasma inhomogeneity scale and by the azimuthal component of the wave vector. The wave propagates across magnetic shells, its amplitude modulated along the radial coordinate by the Gauss function. Coupling with the Alfvén mode strongly influences the growth rate of the drift mirror instability. The mirror mode can only exist in a narrow range of parameters. In the general case, the mode represents an Alfvén wave modified by plasma inhomogeneity.

  6. Trace determination of safranin O dye using ultrasound assisted dispersive solid-phase micro extraction: Artificial neural network-genetic algorithm and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dil, Ebrahim Alipanahpour; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Asfaram, Arash; Mehrabi, Fatemeh; Bazrafshan, Ali Akbar; Ghaedi, Abdol Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    In this study, ultrasound assisted dispersive solid-phase micro extraction combined with spectrophotometry (USA-DSPME-UV) method based on activated carbon modified with Fe2O3 nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs-AC) was developed for pre-concentration and determination of safranin O (SO). It is known that the efficiency of USA-DSPME-UV method may be affected by pH, amount of adsorbent, ultrasound time and eluent volume and the extent and magnitude of their contribution on response (in term of main and interaction part) was studied by using central composite design (CCD) and artificial neural network-genetic algorithms (ANN-GA). Accordingly by adjustment of experimental conditions suggested by ANN-GA at pH 6.5, 1.1mg of adsorbent, 10min ultrasound and 150μL of eluent volume led to achievement of best operation performance like low LOD (6.3ngmL(-1)) and LOQ (17.5ngmL(-1)) in the range of 25-3500ngmL(-1). In following stage, the SO content in real water and wastewater samples with recoveries between 93.27-99.41% with RSD lower than 3% was successfully determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of High Shear Dispersion on the Production of Cellulose Nanofibers by Ultrasound-Assisted TEMPO-Oxidation of Kraft Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Daneault

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanofibers can be produced using a combination of TEMPO, sodium bromide (NaBr and sodium hypochlorite, and mechanical dispersion. Recently, this process has been the subject of intensive investigation. However, studies on the aspects of mechanical treatment of this process remain marginal. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the high shear dispersion parameters (e.g., consistency, stator-rotor gap, recirculation rate and pH and determine their influences on nanocellulose production using ultrasound-assisted TEMPO-oxidation of Kraft pulp. All nanofiber gels produced in this study exhibited rheological behaviors known as shear thinning. From all the dispersion parameters, the following conditions were identified as optimal: 0.042 mm stator-rotor gap, 200 mL/min recycle rate, dispersion pH of 7 and a feed consistency of 2%. High quality cellulose gel could be produced under these conditions. This finding is surely of great interest for the pulp and paper industry.

  8. Hyperbolic shock waves of the optical self-focusing with normal group-velocity dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Germaschewski, K.; Grauer, R.

    2002-01-01

    The theory of focusing light pulses in Kerr media with normal group-velocity dispersion in (2+1) and (3+1) dimensions is revisited. It is shown that pulse splitting introduced by this dispersion follows from shock fronts that develop along hyperbolas separating the region of transverse self...

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Low-Density Solvent Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Extraction for the Determination of Amphetamines in Biological Samples Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to control drug crime effectively, it is necessary to develop selective analytical methods suitable for unambiguous identification and determination of drugs in illicit samples and biological matrices. A novel microextraction technique based on ultrasound-assisted low-density solvent dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, (UA-LDS-DLLME has been applied to the determination of four amphetamines (methamphetamine, amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine in urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The parameters affecting extraction efficiency have been investigated and optimized. UA-LDS-DLLME used ultrasound energy to assist in the emulsification process without any disperser solvent. Under the optimized conditions, linearity was observed for all analytes in the 0.15–10 μg/mL range with correlation coefficients (R ranging from 0.9886 to 0.9894. The recoveries of 75.6–91.4% with relative standard deviations of 2.5–4.0% were obtained. The limits of detection (S/N = 3 were estimated to be in the 5–10 ng/mL range. The UA-LDS-DLLME technique had the advantages of shorter extraction time, suitability for simultaneous pretreatments of batches of samples, and the higher extraction efficiency. It was successfully applied to the analysis of amphetamines in real human urine samples.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted low-density solvent dispersive liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of alkanolamines and alkylamines in cosmetics with ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Li, Gongke; Zhong, Xiuhua; Luo, Zhibin; Zhu, Binghui

    2013-10-15

    A new one-step sample preparation technique termed ultrasound-assisted low-density solvent dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (UA-LDS-DLLE) coupled with ion chromatography (IC) was developed for the determination of three alkanolamines and two alkylamines in complex samples. Sample matrices were rapidly dissolved and dispersed to form cloudy solutions by using two solvents, where target analytes were transferred into acid solutions, while liposoluble substances were dissolved in cyclohexane. The obtained extracts could be used directly for injection analysis without any additional purification because the potential matrix interferences had been effectively eliminated in extraction process. The extraction efficiency could be markedly enhanced and the extraction could be quickly accomplished within 13 min under the synergistic effects of ultrasound radiation, vibration and heating. Various parameters influencing extraction efficiency were evaluated using orthogonal array experimental design. The extraction performance of the approach was demonstrated for the determination of target analytes in 15 commercial cosmetics covering very different matrices. Linearity ranges of 0.3-50 mg L(-1) and limits of detection varying from 0.072 to 0.12 mg L(-1) were achieved. The recoveries ranged from 86.9-108.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.2-6.2%. The method was proved to be a simple and effective extraction technique that provided an attractive alternative to the analysis of trace amounts of target analytes in large numbers of cosmetics. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D) ultrasound that formats the sound wave data into 3-D images. A Doppler ultrasound study ... at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdomen is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a safe, noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a clear picture of the internal ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  14. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then listens for the returning echoes from ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top ... waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer ...

  15. Comparison of ultrasound B-mode, strain imaging, acoustic radiation force impulse displacement and shear wave velocity imaging using real time clinical breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Kavitha; Machireddy, Ramasubba Reddy; Raghavan, Bagyam

    2016-04-01

    It has been observed that many pathological process increase the elastic modulus of soft tissue compared to normal. In order to image tissue stiffness using ultrasound, a mechanical compression is applied to tissues of interest and local tissue deformation is measured. Based on the mechanical excitation, ultrasound stiffness imaging methods are classified as compression or strain imaging which is based on external compression and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging which is based on force generated by focused ultrasound. When ultrasound is focused on tissue, shear wave is generated in lateral direction and shear wave velocity is proportional to stiffness of tissues. The work presented in this paper investigates strain elastography and ARFI imaging in clinical cancer diagnostics using real time patient data. Ultrasound B-mode imaging, strain imaging, ARFI displacement and ARFI shear wave velocity imaging were conducted on 50 patients (31 Benign and 23 malignant categories) using Siemens S2000 machine. True modulus contrast values were calculated from the measured shear wave velocities. For ultrasound B-mode, ARFI displacement imaging and strain imaging, observed image contrast and Contrast to Noise Ratio were calculated for benign and malignant cancers. Observed contrast values were compared based on the true modulus contrast values calculated from shear wave velocity imaging. In addition to that, student unpaired t-test was conducted for all the four techniques and box plots are presented. Results show that, strain imaging is better for malignant cancers whereas ARFI imaging is superior than strain imaging and B-mode for benign lesions representations.

  16. Quantification of surface area and intrinsic mass transfer coefficient for ultrasound-assisted dissolution process of a sparingly soluble solid dispersed in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbha, Krishna Sandilya; Aravamudan, Kannan

    2012-05-01

    The efficacy of power ultrasound of 20 kHz in enhancing the volumetric mass transfer coefficient was investigated in this study. Breakage and dissolution of sparingly soluble benzoic acid dispersed in either water or 24% aqueous glycerol was monitored as a function of time and ultrasound power input. Particle size measurements were carried out at intermediate times during the experiment to estimate the mean particle size and surface area. Linear combination of lognormal distributions was found to fit the experimental particle size distribution data. The De Brouckere mean diameters (d(43)) obtained from the particle size distributions decreased with increase in the ultrasonic power level. Empirical correlations were developed for the evolution of surface area as a function of ultrasonic energy input per unit mass. The effect of ultrasound on the intrinsic mass transfer coefficient (k(c)) could be decoupled from the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(c)a) as the surface area was also estimated. Different approaches involving either constant or variable intrinsic mass transfer coefficients were employed when carrying out the delineation. Mass transfer rates were enhanced due to both higher ultrasound induced intrinsic convective mass transfer coefficient and additional surface area created from particle breakage. To delineate the effects of particle breakage from solid dissolution, experiments were also carried out under non-mass transfer conditions by pre-saturating the solvents with benzoic acid. Both the solid-liquid systems examined in the present study attained saturation concentration when the ultrasonic energy input per unit mass was approximately 60 kJ/kg, irrespective of the ultrasonic power level setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Counter-propagating wave interaction for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Renaud (G.); J.G. Bosch (Hans); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); V. Shamdasani (V.); R. Entrekin (R.); N. de Jong (Nico); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMost techniques for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging require linear propagation to detect nonlinear scattering of contrast agent microbubbles. Waveform distortion due to nonlinear propagation impairs their ability to distinguish microbubbles from tissue. As a result, tissue can be

  18. An Analysis of Pulsed Wave Ultrasound Systems for Blood Velocity Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    of the received signal. The time evolution and distribution of velocity can then be found by using samples from a number of pulse-echo lines. Making a short-time Fourier transform of the data reveals the velocity distribution in the range gate over time. Such systems are called Doppler ultrasound systems implying...

  19. Noncontact, nondestructive elasticity evaluation of sound and demineralized human dental enamel using a laser ultrasonic surface wave dispersion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Fleming, Simon; Lee, Yung-Chun; Law, Susan; Swain, Michael; Xue, Jing

    2009-09-01

    Laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been proposed to replace conventional in vivo dental clinical diagnosis tools that are either destructive or incapable of quantifying the elasticity of human dental enamel. In this work, a laser NDE system that can perform remote measurements on samples of small dimensions is presented. A focused laser line source is used to generate broadband surface acoustic wave impulses that are detected with a simplified optical fiber interferometer. The measured surface wave velocity dispersion spectrum is in turn used to characterize the elasticity of the specimen. The NDE system and the analysis technique are validated with measurements of different metal structures and then applied to evaluate human dental enamel. Artificial lesions are prepared on the samples to simulate different states of enamel elasticity. Measurement results for both sound and lesioned regions, as well as lesions of different severity, are clearly distinguishable from each other and fit well with physical expectations and theoretical value. This is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that a laser-based surface wave velocity dispersion technique is successfully applied on human dental enamel, demonstrating the potential for noncontact, nondestructive in vivo detection of the development of carious lesions.

  20. Phononic and magnonic dispersions of surface waves on a permalloy/BARC nanostructured array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Huihui; Zhang, Vanessa Li; Di, Kai; Kuok, Meng Hau; Lim, Hock Siah; Ng, Ser Choon; Singh, Navab; Adeyeye, Adekunle Olusola

    2013-01-01

    Phononic and magnonic dispersions of a linear array of periodic alternating Ni80Fe20 and bottom anti-reflective coating nanostripes on a Si substrate have been measured using Brillouin light scattering...

  1. Spectrally pure heralded single photons by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber: reducing impact of dispersion fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    We model the spectral quantum-mechanical purity of heralded single photons from a photon-pair source based on nondegenerate spontaneous four-wave mixing taking the impact of distributed dispersion fluctuations into account. The considered photon-pair-generation scheme utilizes pump-pulse walk......-off to produce pure heralded photons and phase matching is achieved through the dispersion properties of distinct spatial modes in a few-mode silica step-index fiber. We show that fiber-core-radius fluctuations in general severely impact the single-photon purity. Furthermore, by optimizing the fiber design we...... show that generation of single photons with very high spectral purity is feasible even in the presence of large core-radius fluctuations. At the same time, contamination from spontaneous Raman scattering is greatly mitigated by separating the single-photon frequency by more than 32 THz from the pump...

  2. Differentiating benign from malignant solid breast masses: value of shear wave elastography according to lesion stiffness combined with greyscale ultrasound according to BI-RADS classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A; Whelehan, P; Thomson, K; Brauer, K; Jordan, L; Purdie, C; McLean, D; Baker, L; Vinnicombe, S; Thompson, A

    2012-07-10

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of shear wave elastography combined with BI-RADS classification of greyscale ultrasound images for benign/malignant differentiation in a large group of patients. One hundred and seventy-five consecutive patients with solid breast masses on routine ultrasonography undergoing percutaneous biopsy had the greyscale findings classified according to the American College of Radiology BI-RADS. The mean elasticity values from four shear wave images were obtained. For mean elasticity vs greyscale BI-RADS, the performance results against histology were sensitivity: 95% vs 95%, specificity: 77% vs 69%, Positive Predictive Value (PPV): 88% vs 84%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV): 90% vs 91%, and accuracy: 89% vs 86% (all P>0.05). The results for the combination (positive result from either modality counted as malignant) were sensitivity 100%, specificity 61%, PPV 82%, NPV 100%, and accuracy 86%. The combination of BI-RADS greyscale and shear wave elastography yielded superior sensitivity to BI-RADS alone (P=0.03) or shear wave alone (P=0.03). The NPV was superior in combination compared with either alone (BI-RADS P=0.01 and shear wave P=0.02). Together, BI-RADS assessment of greyscale ultrasound images and shear wave ultrasound elastography are extremely sensitive for detection of malignancy.

  3. HAWASSI-AB Modelling and Simulation of Fully Dispersive Nonlinear Waves Above Bathymtery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurnia, Ruddy

    2016-01-01

    A challenge in the study of water waves is that the motion can exhibit qualitative differences at different scales such as deep water versus shallow water, long wavelength versus short wavelength, etc.. That leads to a restriction in the applicability of the existing wave models. This dissertation

  4. Hawassi-AB modelling and simulation of fully dispersive nonlinear waves above bathymetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurnia, Ruddy

    2016-01-01

    A challenge in the study of water waves is that the motion can exhibit qualitative differences at different scales such as deep water versus shallow water, long wavelength versus short wavelength, etc.. That leads to a restriction in the applicability of the existing wave models. This dissertation

  5. Synergistic effect of the combination of triethylene-glycol modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles and ultrasound wave on MCF-7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi Fard, Ali; Zarepour, Atefeh; Zarrabi, Ali; Shanei, Ahmad; Salehi, Hossein

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is a group of disease characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. The clinical treatments for cancer include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Currently, employing new approaches for treatment has attracted more attentions. One of these approaches is sonodynamic therapy, which is an analogous approach based on the synergistic effect of ultrasound and a chemical component referred to as sonosensitizer. Recent years applications of nanotechnology have witnessed a tremendous expansion of research in medicine especially in treatment of cancers. The combination of sonodynamic therapy and nanotechnology can introduce a new way for cancer therapy. In this study, we used therapeutic ultrasonic waves with intensity of 1 MHz and different concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, as sonosensitizer, to investigate their combination effect on MCF-7 cell line. Briefly, we divided cells into four different groups; control, cells which got in touch with nanoparticles, cells that with exposure to ultrasound waves and cells which were influenced with combination of nanoparticles and ultrasonic waves. Finally, cell viability assay was used for detection of cytotoxicity effects. Experimental results revealed a significant decrease in viability of cells, which were affected by the combined action of ultrasound field and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, compared to the separate exposure of Fe3O4 nanoparticles or ultrasonic field. The synergic effect of ultrasound waves and Fe ions might be due to the production of toxic free radicals.

  6. Comparison of P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs, dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background P-wave dispersion (Pd) is a new ECG index used in human cardiology and veterinary medicine. It is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different ECG leads. So far no studies were performed assessing the importance of P-wave dispersion in dogs. Methods The current study was aimed at determining proper value of Pd in healthy dogs (group I), dogs with chronic valvular disease (group II) and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction (group III). The tests were carried out in 53 healthy dogs, 23 dogs with chronic valvular disease and 12 dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction of various breeds, sexes and body weight from 1,5 to 80 kg, aged between 0,5 and 17 years, submitted to the ECG examination. ECG was acquired in dogs in a standing position with BTL SD-8 electrocardiographic device and analyzed once the recording was enlarged. P-wave duration was calculated in 9 ECG leads (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1, V2, V4) from 5 cardiac cycles. Results The proper P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs was determined at up to 24 ms. P-wave dispersion was statistically significant increased (p dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction. In dogs with the atrial enlargement the P-wave dispersion is also higher than in healthy dogs, although no significant correlation between the size of left atria and Pd was noticed (p = 0.1, r = 0,17). Conclusions The P-wave dispersion is a constant index in healthy dogs, that is why it can be used for evaluating P wave change in dogs with chronic valvular disease and in dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction. PMID:21396110

  7. Computation of 2D vibroacoustic wave's dispersion for optimizing acoustic power flow in interaction with adaptive metacomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, M.; Ouisse, M.; Ichchou, M.; Ohayon, R.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an integrated methodology for optimizing vibroacoustic energy flow in interaction between an adaptive metacomposite made of periodically distributed shunted piezoelectric material glued onto passive plate and open acoustic domain. The computation of interacting Floquet-Bloch propagators is also used to optimize vibroacoustic behavior. The main purpose of this work is first to propose a numerical methodology to compute the fluid-structure multi-modal wave dispersions. In a second step, optimization of electric circuit is used to control the acoustic power flow. 3D standard computation is used to confirm the efficiency of the designed metacomposite in terms of acoustic emissivity and absorption.

  8. Dispersion curves of viscoelastic plane waves and Rayleigh surface wave in high frequency range with fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Tsuneo

    2013-09-01

    The moduli of conventional elastic structural materials are extended to one of the viscoelastic materials through a modification whereby the dynamic moduli converge to the static moduli of elasticity as the fractional order approaches zero. By plotting phase velocity curves and group velocity curves of plane waves and Rayleigh surface wave for a viscoelastic material (polyvinyl chloride foam), the influence of the fractional order of viscoelasticity is examined. The phase and group velocity curves in the high frequency range were derived for longitudinal, transverse, and Rayleigh waves inherent to the viscoelastic material. In addition, the equation for the phase velocity was mathematically derived on the complex plane, too, and graphically illustrated. A phenomenon was found that, at the moment when the fractional order of the time derivative reaches an integer value 1, the curve on the complex plane becomes completely different, exhibiting snap-through behavior. We examined the mechanism of the snap-through mathematically. Numerical calculation examples were solved, and good agreement was confirmed between the numerical calculation and the analytical expression mentioned above. From the results of the numerical example, regularities were derived for the absolute value of the complex phase and group velocities on the complex plane.

  9. A rapid ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous determination of seven benzodiazepines in human plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Purificación; González, Cristina; Pena, M Teresa; Carro, Antonia M; Lorenzo, Rosa A

    2013-03-12

    A simple and efficient ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) method has been developed for the determination of seven benzodiazepines (alprazolam, bromazepam, clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, lormetazepam and tetrazepam) in human plasma samples. Chloroform and methanol were used as extractant and disperser solvents, respectively. The influence of several variables (e.g., type and volume of dispersant and extraction solvents, pH, ultrasonic time and ionic strength) was carefully evaluated and optimized, using an asymmetric screening design 3(2)4(2)//16. Analysis of extracts was performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA). Under the optimum conditions, two reversed-phases, Shield RP18 and C18 columns were successfully tested, obtaining good linearity in a range of 0.01-5μgmL(-1), with correlation coefficients r>0.996. Quantification limits ranged between 4.3-13.2ngmL(-1) and 4.0-14.8ngmL(-1), were obtained for C18 and Shield RP18 columns, respectively. The optimized method exhibited a good precision level, with relative standard deviation values lower than 8%. The recoveries studied at two spiked levels, ranged from 71 to 102% for all considered compounds. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of seven benzodiazepines in real human plasma samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Shear Wave Elastography May Add a New Dimension to Ultrasound Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules: Case Series with Comparative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Z. Slapa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although elastography can enhance the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, its diagnostic performance is not ideal at present. Further improvements in the technique and creation of robust diagnostic criteria are necessary. The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of strain elastography and a new generation of elasticity imaging called supersonic shear wave elastography (SSWE in differential evaluation of thyroid nodules. Six thyroid nodules in 4 patients were studied. SSWE yielded 1 true-positive and 5 true-negative results. Strain elastography yielded 5 false-positive results and 1 false-negative result. A novel finding appreciated with SSWE, were punctate foci of increased stiffness corresponding to microcalcifications in 4 nodules, some not visible on B-mode ultrasound, as opposed to soft, colloid-inspissated areas visible on B-mode ultrasound in 2 nodules. This preliminary paper indicates that SSWE may outperform strain elastography in differentiation of thyroid nodules with regard to their stiffness. SSWE showed the possibility of differentiation of high echogenic foci into microcalcifications and inspissated colloid, adding a new dimension to thyroid elastography. Further multicenter large-scale studies of thyroid nodules evaluating different elastographic methods are warranted.

  11. Fast decomposition of two ultrasound longitudinal waves in cancellous bone using a phase rotation parameter for bone quality assessment: Simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Hirofumi; Nagatani, Yoshiki; Matsukawa, Mami; Kanai, Hiroshi; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2017-10-01

    Ultrasound signals that pass through cancellous bone may be considered to consist of two longitudinal waves, which are called fast and slow waves. Accurate decomposition of these fast and slow waves is considered to be highly beneficial in determination of the characteristics of cancellous bone. In the present study, a fast decomposition method using a wave transfer function with a phase rotation parameter was applied to received signals that have passed through bovine bone specimens with various bone volume to total volume (BV/TV) ratios in a simulation study, where the elastic finite-difference time-domain method is used and the ultrasound wave propagated parallel to the bone axes. The proposed method succeeded to decompose both fast and slow waves accurately; the normalized residual intensity was less than -19.5 dB when the specimen thickness ranged from 4 to 7 mm and the BV/TV value ranged from 0.144 to 0.226. There was a strong relationship between the phase rotation value and the BV/TV value. The ratio of the peak envelope amplitude of the decomposed fast wave to that of the slow wave increased monotonically with increasing BV/TV ratio, indicating the high performance of the proposed method in estimation of the BV/TV value in cancellous bone.

  12. Synergistic effect of the combination of triethylene-glycol modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and ultrasound wave on MCF-7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi Fard, Ali, E-mail: a.ebrahimi2008@yahoo.com [Department of Medical Physics, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarepour, Atefeh [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarrabi, Ali, E-mail: a.zarrabi@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shanei, Ahmad [Department of Medical Physics, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, Hossein [Department of Anatomy, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan 81746-73461 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Cancer is a group of disease characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. The clinical treatments for cancer include surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Currently, employing new approaches for treatment has attracted more attentions. One of these approaches is sonodynamic therapy, which is an analogous approach based on the synergistic effect of ultrasound and a chemical component referred to as sonosensitizer. Recent years applications of nanotechnology have witnessed a tremendous expansion of research in medicine especially in treatment of cancers. The combination of sonodynamic therapy and nanotechnology can introduce a new way for cancer therapy. In this study, we used therapeutic ultrasonic waves with intensity of 1 MHz and different concentrations of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, as sonosensitizer, to investigate their combination effect on MCF-7 cell line. Briefly, we divided cells into four different groups; control, cells which got in touch with nanoparticles, cells that with exposure to ultrasound waves and cells which were influenced with combination of nanoparticles and ultrasonic waves. Finally, cell viability assay was used for detection of cytotoxicity effects. Experimental results revealed a significant decrease in viability of cells, which were affected by the combined action of ultrasound field and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, compared to the separate exposure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles or ultrasonic field. The synergic effect of ultrasound waves and Fe ions might be due to the production of toxic free radicals. - Highlights: • We examined the combination effect of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and ultrasound wave on MCF7. • The combination effect featured significant cytotoxic effects. • The cytotoxic effect is due to the production of reactive oxygen species.

  13. Physical enviroment of 2-D animal cell aggregates formed in a short pathlength ultrasound standing wave trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazou, Despina; Kuznetsova, Larisa A; Coakley, W Terence

    2005-03-01

    2-D mammalian cell aggregates can be formed and levitated in a 1.5 MHz single half wavelength ultrasound standing wave trap. The physical environment of cells in such a trap has been examined. Attention was paid to parameters such as temperature, acoustic streaming, cavitation and intercellular forces. The extent to which these factors might be intrusive to a neural cell aggregate levitated in the trap was evaluated. Neural cells were exposed to ultrasound at a pressure amplitude of 0.54 MPa for 30 s; a small aggregate had been formed at the center of the trap. The pressure amplitude was then decreased to 0.27 MPa for 2 min, at which level the aggregation process continued at a slower rate. The pressure amplitude was then decreased to 0.06 MPa for 1 h. Temperature measurements that were conducted in situ with a 200 microm thermocouple over a 30 min period showed that the maximum temperature rise was less than 0.5 K. Acoustic streaming was measured by the particle image velocimetry method (PIV). It was shown that the hydrodynamic stress imposed on cells by acoustic streaming is less than that imposed by gentle preparative centrifugation procedures. Acoustic spectrum analysis showed that cavitation activity does not occur in the cell suspensions sonicated at the above pressures. White noise was detected only at a pressure amplitude of 1.96 MPa. Finally, it was shown that the attractive acoustic force between ultrasonically agglomerated cells is small compared with the normal attractive van der Waals force that operates at close cell surface separations. It is concluded that the standing wave trap operates only to concentrate cells locally, as in tissue, and does not modify the in vitro expression of surface receptor interactions.

  14. Lamb wave dispersion time-domain study using a combined signal processing approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochoa, P.; Groves, R.M.; Benedictus, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic Lamb wave techniques are described as one of the most encouraging developments for structural health monitoring of aerospace composite structures. The reliability of those techniques is highly dependent on the quality of signal processing algorithms capable of extracting useful

  15. Spin-Wave Dispersion and Sublattice Magnetization in NiCl_2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Birgeneau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1975-01-01

    temperature dependence on the sublattice magnetization, gap energy and specific heat. The authors report an inelastic neutron scattering study of the spin waves both at low temperatures and, for selected q-vectors, for temperatures up to TN=52.3K. The sublattice magnetization has been measured from 1.5K to TN......NiCl2 is a Heisenberg planar antiferromagnet composed of hexagonal ferromagnetic Ni2+ sheets with effective XY symmetry weakly coupled antiferromagnetically to adjacent Ni2+ sheets. The near two-dimensionality dimples a directionally-dependent spin-wave renormalization together with an unusual....... A renormalized spin-wave theory, which does not contain any assumptions about the temperature dependence of the energy gap, has been developed. The authors deduce JNN=21.70K and JNNN=-4.85K (H=-2 Sigma i>jJijSi.Sj). Using these interaction constants and the renormalized spin-wave theory, the temperature...

  16. Lamb wave dispersion time-domain study using a combined signal processing approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa, P.; Groves, R.M.; Benedictus, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic Lamb wave techniques are described as one of the most encouraging developments for structural health monitoring of aerospace composite structures. The reliability of those techniques is highly dependent on the quality of signal processing algorithms capable of extracting useful information out of complex responses. When damage localization is involved, it is crucial to rigorously determine time-of-flight (TOF) of wave groups. Among the available methods for automated TOF extraction...

  17. Effect of Particular Nonlinear Dispersion in Photorefractive Four wave Mixing on Slow and Fast Light (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-31

    coupling strength increases. The conclusions of the theoretical analysis are confirmed experimentally for photorefractive four-wave mixing in...fast light Konstantin Shcherbin*a, Pierre Matheyb, and Dean R. Evansc aInstitute of Physics , National Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Nauki 46, 03680...conclusions of the theoretical analysis are confirmed experimentally for photorefractive four-wave mixing in barium titanate. Keywords: slow light

  18. Incorporating Floating Surface Objects into a Fully Dispersive Surface Wave Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    forcing of ice floes. J. Fluid Mech. 500, 145–167 . olojärvi, A. , Tuhkuri, J. , 2013. On modeling cohesive ridge keel punch through tests with a...dimensional (3D) finite-volume model NHWAVE was origi- nally developed to simulate wave propagation and landslide-generated tsunamis in finite water depth...axis is transformed to a σ -coordinate that tracks the bed and surface. As part of an ongoing effort to simulate waves in polar marginal ice zones

  19. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES SHIELDING BY THE PLANE ONE-LAYER SCREEN MADE FROM MATERIALS WITH SPACE DISPERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Erofeenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of the article is the development of the method for solving the boundary-value problem of penetrating the plane monochromatic electromagnetic fields through the screen made from the material with space dispersion. The problem is based on the use of the differential mathematical model of the medium with space dispersion, classical boundary conditions of continuity of the tangential components of the fields and complementary boundary conditions on the face surfaces of the screen. The article gives an analytical solution of the boundary-value problem and examines the ratio of screen performance by the reduction of the field while passing through the screen.

  20. One-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD method for simulating electromagnetic wave propagation in general dispersive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Hua; Yin, Wen-Yan; Chen, Zhi Zhang David

    2013-09-09

    The one-step leapfrog alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method is reformulated for simulating general electrically dispersive media. It models material dispersive properties with equivalent polarization currents. These currents are then solved with the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) and then incorporated into the one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD method. The final equations are presented in the form similar to that of the conventional FDTD method but with second-order perturbation. The adapted method is then applied to characterize (a) electromagnetic wave propagation in a rectangular waveguide loaded with a magnetized plasma slab, (b) transmission coefficient of a plane wave normally incident on a monolayer graphene sheet biased by a magnetostatic field, and (c) surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagation along a monolayer graphene sheet biased by an electrostatic field. The numerical results verify the stability, accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD algorithm in comparison with analytical results and the results obtained with the other methods.

  1. Crustal velocity structure of the Deccan Volcanic Province, Indian Peninsula, from observed surface wave dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaddale Suresh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Through inversion of fundamental mode group velocities of Love and Rayleigh waves, we study the crustal and subcrustal structure across the central Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP, which is one of the world’s largest terrestrial flood basalts. Our analysis is based on broadband seismograms recorded at seismological station Bhopal (BHPL in the central India from earthquakes located near west coast of India, with an average epicentral distance about 768 km. The recording station and epicentral zone are situated respectively on the northern and southern edges of DVP with wave paths across central DVP. The period of group velocity data ranges from 5 to 60 s for Rayleigh waves and 5 to 45 s for Love waves. Using the genetic algorithm, the observed data have been inverted to obtain the crust and subcrustal velocity structure along the wavepaths. Using this procedure, a similar velocity structure was also obtained earlier for the northwestern DVP, which is in the west of the present study region. Comparison of results show that the crustal thickness decreases westward from central DVP (39.6 km to northwestern DVP (37.8 km along with the decrease of thickness of upper crust; while the thickness of lower crust remains nearly same. From east to west S-wave velocity in the upper crust decreases by 2 to 3 per cent, while P-wave velocity in the whole crust and subcrust decreases by 3 to 6 per cent. The P- and S-wave velocities are positively correlated with crustal thickness and negatively correlated with earth’s heat flow. It appears that the elevated crustal and subcrustal temperature in the western side is the main factor for low velocities on this side.

  2. Plant species dispersed by Galapagos tortoises surf the wave of habitat suitability under anthropogenic climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ellis-Soto

    Full Text Available Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.. Tortoises transport large quantities of seeds over long distances into environments in which they have little or no chance of germination and survival under current climate conditions. However, climate change is projected to modify environmental conditions on Galapagos with unknown consequences for the distribution of native and introduced biodiversity. We quantified seed dispersal of guava and passion fruit in tortoise dung piles and the distribution of adult plants along two elevation gradients on Santa Cruz to assess current levels of 'wasted' seed dispersal. We computed species distribution models for both taxa under current and predicted future climate conditions. Assuming that tortoise migratory behaviour continues, current levels of "wasted" seed dispersal in lowlands were projected to decline dramatically in the future for guava but not for passion fruit. Tortoises will facilitate rapid range expansion for guava into lowland areas within the Galapagos National Park where this species is currently absent. Coupled with putative reduction in arid habitat for native species caused by climate change, tortoise driven guava invasion will pose a serious threat to local plant communities.

  3. Plant species dispersed by Galapagos tortoises surf the wave of habitat suitability under anthropogenic climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Soto, Diego; Blake, Stephen; Soultan, Alaaeldin; Guézou, Anne; Cabrera, Fredy; Lötters, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.). Tortoises transport large quantities of seeds over long distances into environments in which they have little or no chance of germination and survival under current climate conditions. However, climate change is projected to modify environmental conditions on Galapagos with unknown consequences for the distribution of native and introduced biodiversity. We quantified seed dispersal of guava and passion fruit in tortoise dung piles and the distribution of adult plants along two elevation gradients on Santa Cruz to assess current levels of 'wasted' seed dispersal. We computed species distribution models for both taxa under current and predicted future climate conditions. Assuming that tortoise migratory behaviour continues, current levels of "wasted" seed dispersal in lowlands were projected to decline dramatically in the future for guava but not for passion fruit. Tortoises will facilitate rapid range expansion for guava into lowland areas within the Galapagos National Park where this species is currently absent. Coupled with putative reduction in arid habitat for native species caused by climate change, tortoise driven guava invasion will pose a serious threat to local plant communities.

  4. Selective determination of inorganic cobalt in nutritional supplements by ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, Paula; Martinis, Estefania M. [Analytical Chemistry Research and Development Group (QUIANID), (LISAMEN-CCT-CONICET-Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Martinez, Luis D. [INQUISAL-CONICET, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar [Analytical Chemistry Research and Development Group (QUIANID), (LISAMEN-CCT-CONICET-Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy of ultrasound energy and TILDLME technique for improved metal extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly selective determination of inorganic Co species at trace levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speciation analysis of Co in several nutritional supplements with highly complex matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of an environmentally friendly microextraction technique with minimal waste production and sample consumption. - Abstract: In the present work, a simple and rapid analytical method based on application of ionic liquids (ILs) for inorganic Co(II) species (iCo) microextraction in a variety of nutrient supplements was developed. Inorganic Co was initially chelated with 1-nitroso-2-naphtol (1N2N) reagent followed by a modern technique named ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (USA-TILDLME). The extraction was performed with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C{sub 6}mim][PF{sub 6}] with the aid of ultrasound to improve iCo recovery. Finally, the iCo-enriched IL phase was solubilized in methanol and directly injected into an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Several parameters that could influence iCo microextraction and detection were carefully studied. Since the main difficulty in these samples is caused by high concentrations of potential interfering ions, different approaches were evaluated to eliminate interferences. The limit of detection (LOD) was 5.4 ng L{sup -1}, while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4.7% (at 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} Co level and n = 10), calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals. Selective microextraction of iCo species was achieved only by controlling the pH value during the procedure. The method was thus successfully applied for determination of iCo species in nutritional supplements.

  5. Sediment and Crustal Shear Velocity Structure offshore New Zealand from Seafloor Compliance, Receiver Functions and Rayleigh Wave Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J. S.; Sheehan, A. F.; Stachnik, J. C.; Lin, F.; Collins, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a joint Monte Carlo inversion of teleseismic receiver functions, seafloor compliance, and Rayleigh wave dispersion and apply it here to ocean bottom seismic (OBS) data from offshore New Zealand. With this method we estimate sediment and crustal thickness and shear velocity structure beneath the Bounty Trough and the Tasman Sea flanking the South Island of New Zealand. Teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements provide complementary constraints on shear velocity structure and interface depths beneath seismic stations. At ocean bottom seismic (OBS) stations the interpretation of these measurements is complicated by strong sediment reverberations that obscure deeper impedance contrasts such as the Moho. In principle, the seafloor's response to ocean loading from infragravity waves (seafloor compliance) can be used to determine shallow shear velocity information. This velocity information can subsequently be used to better model the receiver function reverberations, allowing deeper interfaces of tectonic interest to be resolved. Data for this study were acquired in 2009-2010 by the Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa (MOANA) experiment, which deployed 30 broadband OBS and differential pressure gauges (DPGs) off the South Island of New Zealand. High-frequency (5Hz) receiver functions were estimated using multitaper cross-correlation for events in a 30-90 degree epicentral distance range. Coherence-weighted stacks binned by epicentral distance were produced in the frequency domain to suppress noise. Seafloor compliance was measured using multitaper pressure and acceleration spectra averaged from 120 days of continuous data without large transient events. Seafloor compliance measurements on the order of 10-9 Pa-1 are sensitive to shear velocity structure in the uppermost 5km of the crust and sediments. Rayleigh dispersion measurements were obtained at periods of 6-27s from ambient noise cross correlation. Sediment

  6. Ionic liquid ultrasound assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for preconcentration of trace amounts of rhodium prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molaakbari, Elaheh [Chemistry Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Research Society, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafavi, Ali, E-mail: mostafavi.ali@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afzali, Daryoush [Environment and Nanochemistry Department, Research Institute of Environmental Science, International Center for Science, High Technology and Environmental Science, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mineral Industries Research Center, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-30

    In this article, we consider ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of trace amounts of rhodium from aqueous samples and show that this is a fast and reliable sample pre-treatment for the determination of rhodium ions by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Rh(III) was transferred into its complex with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylamino phenol as a chelating agent, and an ultrasonic bath with the ionic liquid, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide at room temperature was used to extract the analyte. The centrifuged rhodium complex was then enriched in the form of ionic liquid droplets and prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, 300 {mu}L ethanol was added to the ionic liquid-rich phase. Finally, the influence of various parameters on the recovery of Rh(III) was optimized. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 4.0-500.0 ng mL{sup -1}, the detection limit was 0.37 ng mL{sup -1} (3S{sub b}/m, n = 7) and the relative standard deviation was {+-}1.63% (n = 7, C = 200 ng mL{sup -1}). The results show that ionic liquid based ultrasound assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry, is a rapid, simple, sensitive and efficient analytical method for the separation and determination of trace amounts of Rh(III) ions with minimum organic solvent consumption.

  7. Sparse SVD Method for High-Resolution Extraction of the Dispersion Curves of Ultrasonic Guided Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Ta, Dean; Hu, Bo; Wang, Weiqi; Laugier, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    The 2-D Fourier transform analysis of multichannel signals is a straightforward method to extract the dispersion curves of guided modes. Basically, the time signals recorded at several positions along the waveguide are converted to the wavenumber-frequency space, so that the dispersion curves (i.e., the frequency-dependent wavenumbers) of the guided modes can be extracted by detecting peaks of energy trajectories. In order to improve the dispersion curve extraction of low-amplitude modes propagating in a cortical bone, a multiemitter and multireceiver transducer array has been developed together with an effective singular vector decomposition (SVD)-based signal processing method. However, in practice, the limited number of positions where these signals are recorded results in a much lower resolution in the wavenumber axis than in the frequency axis. This prevents a clear identification of overlapping dispersion curves. In this paper, a sparse SVD (S-SVD) method, which combines the signal-to-noise ratio improvement of the SVD-based approach with the high wavenumber resolution advantage of the sparse optimization, is presented to overcome the above-mentioned limitation. Different penalty constraints, i.e., l1 -norm, Frobenius norm, and revised Cauchy norm, are compared with the sparse characteristics. The regularization parameters are investigated with respect to the convergence property and wavenumber resolution. The proposed S-SVD method is investigated using synthetic wideband signals and experimental data obtained from a bone-mimicking phantom and from an ex-vivo human radius. The analysis of the results suggests that the S-SVD method has the potential to significantly enhance the wavenumber resolution and to improve the extraction of the dispersion curves.

  8. Remarks on the parallel propagation of small-amplitude dispersive Alfvénic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Champeaux

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The envelope formalism for the description of a small-amplitude parallel-propagating Alfvén wave train is tested against direct numerical simulations of the Hall-MHD equations in one space dimension where kinetic effects are neglected. It turns out that the magnetosonic-wave dynamics departs from the adiabatic approximation not only near the resonance between the speed of sound and the Alfvén wave group velocity, but also when the speed of sound lies between the group and phase velocities of the Alfvén wave. The modulational instability then does not anymore affect asymptotically large scales and strong nonlinear effects can develop even in the absence of the decay instability. When the Hall-MHD equations are considered in the long-wavelength limit, the weakly nonlinear dynamics is accurately reproduced by the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation on the expected time scale, provided no decay instabilities are present. The stronger nonlinear regime which develops at later time is captured by including the coupling to the nonlinear dynamics of the magnetosonic waves.

  9. Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography for Liver Disease. A Critical Appraisal of the Many Actors on the Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscaglia, F; Salvatore, V; Mulazzani, L; Cantisani, V; Schiavone, C

    2016-02-01

    In the last 12 - 18 months nearly all ultrasound manufacturers have arrived to implement ultrasound shear wave elastography modality in their equipment for the assessment of chronic liver disease; the few remaining players are expected to follow in 2016.When all manufacturers rush to a new technology at the same time, it is evident that the clinical demand for this information is of utmost value. Around 1990, there was similar demand for color Doppler ultrasound; high demand for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was evident at the beginning of this century, and around 2010 demand increased for strain elastography. However, some issues regarding the new shear wave ultrasound technologies must be noted to avoid misuse of the resulting information for clinical decisions. As new articles are expected to appear in 2016 reporting the findings of the new technologies from various companies, we felt that the beginning of this year was the right time to present an appraisal of these issues. We likewise expect that in the meantime EFSUMB will release a new update of the existing guidelines 1 2.The first ultrasound elastography method became available 13 years ago in the form of transient elastography with Fibroscan(®) 3. It was the first technique providing non-invasive quantitive information about the stiffness of the liver and hence regarding the amount of fibrosis in chronic liver disease 3. The innovation was enormous, since a non-invasive modality was finally available to provide findings otherwise achievable only by liver biopsy. In fact, prior to ultrasound elastography, a combination of conventional and Doppler ultrasound parameters were utilized to inform the physician about the presence of cirrhosis and portal hypertension 4. However, skilled operators were required, reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy were suboptimal, and it was not possible to differentiate the pre-cirrhotic stages of fibrosis. All these limitations were substantially improved by

  10. Imaging the Earth's anisotropic structure with Bayesian Inversion of fundamental and higher mode surface-wave dispersion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenna, Matteo; Lebedev, Sergei; Celli, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    We develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion of fundamental and higher mode phase-velocity curves for radially and azimuthally anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. In the inversions of Rayleigh- and Love-wave dispersion curves for radially anisotropic structure, we obtain probabilistic 1D radially anisotropic shear-velocity profiles of the isotropic average Vs and anisotropy (or Vsv and Vsh) as functions of depth. In the inversions for azimuthal anisotropy, Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves at different azimuths are inverted for the vertically polarized shear-velocity structure (Vsv) and the 2-phi component of azimuthal anisotropy. The strength and originality of the method is in its fully non-linear approach. Each model realization is computed using exact forward calculations. The uncertainty of the models is a part of the output. In the inversions for azimuthal anisotropy, in particular, the computation of the forward problem is performed separately at different azimuths, with no linear approximations on the relation of the Earth's elastic parameters to surface wave phase velocities. The computations are performed in parallel in order reduce the computing time. We compare inversions of the fundamental mode phase-velocity curves alone with inversions that also include overtones. The addition of higher modes enhances the resolving power of the anisotropic structure of the deep upper mantle. We apply the inversion method to phase-velocity curves in a few regions, including the Hangai dome region in Mongolia. Our models provide constraints on the Moho depth, the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary, and the alignment of the anisotropic fabric and the direction of current and past flow, from the crust down to the deep asthenosphere.

  11. P Wave Duration And Dispersion In Patients With Hyperthyroidism And The Short-term Effects Of Antithyroid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Guntekin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged P wave duration and P wave dispersion (PWD have been associated with an increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF. Hyperthytodism is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Methods: Forty-two patients with newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy people were enrolled in the study. Transthoracic echocardiography, 12 lead surface ECG and thyroid hormone levels were studied at the time of enrollment and after achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment. Results: Maximum P wave duration (Pmax (97.4±14.6 vs. 84.2±9.5 msec, p<0.001, PWD (42.9±10.7 vs. 31.0±6.2 msec, p<0.001, deceleration (DT (190.7±22.6 vs. 177.0±10.2 msec, p=0.013 and isovolumetric relaxation times (IVRT (90.9±11.2 vs. 79.6±10.5 msec, p<0.001 were significantly higher in hyperthyroid patients compared to control group. Pmax and PWD were significantly correlated with the presence of hyperthyroidism. Pmax (97.4±14.6 to 84.3±8.6 msec, p<0,001 Pmin (54.1±8.6 to 48.1±8.5 msec, p=0.002, PWD (42.9±10.7 to 35.9±8.1 msec, p=0.002 and DT (190.7±22.6 to 185.5±18.3, p=0.036 were significantly decreased after achievement of euthyroid state in patients with hyperthyroidism. Diastolic dyfunction was seen in 5 patients at hyperthroid state but only in one patient at euthyroid state. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism is associated with prolonged P wave duration and dispersion. Achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment results in shortening of P wave variables. Diastolic function may have a partial effect for the increased Pmax and PWD. Shortening of Pmax and PWD may be a marker for the prevention of AF with the anti-thyroid treatment.

  12. Dispersion properties of transverse waves propagating in the electrically polarized BECs

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, P. A.; Kuzmenkov, L. S.

    2012-01-01

    Further development of the method of quantum hydrodynamics in application for Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) is presented. To consider evolution of polarization direction along with particles movement we have developed corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. It includes equations of the polarization evolution and the polarization current evolution along with the continuity equation and the Euler equation (the momentum balance equation). Dispersion properties of the transverse w...

  13. Surface Wave Dispersion Measurements and Tomography from Ambient Seismic Noise Correlation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    dispersion maps .......................................................... 8 7. S velocities of our model at the depth of CRUST 2.0 Moho ...The 3D model shows some remarkable features, including slow sedimentary layers of all the major basins in China at the shallow depth, Moho depth...strong blocks thus seem to play an important role in confining the deformation of the TP to be a triangular shape. The Moho change from plateau to the

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. It is used to help ... safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, ...

  16. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe ... during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot ...

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through ... a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) ...

  18. Multidimensional guided wave dispersion recovery for locating defects in composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Joel B.; De Marchi, Luca

    2016-02-01

    This paper provides a framework for characterizing anisotropic guided waves to locate damage in composite structures. Composite guided wave structural health monitoring is a significant challenge due to anisotropy. Wave velocities and attenuation vary as a function of propagation direction. Traditional localization algorithms, such as triangulation and delay-and-sum beamforming, fail for composite monitoring because they rely on isotropic velocity assumptions. Estimating the anisotropic velocities is also challenging because the inverse problem is inherently ill-posed. We cannot solve for an infinite number of directions with a finite number of measurements. This paper addresses these challenges by deriving a physics-based model for unidirectional anisotropy and integrating it with sparse recovery tools and matched field processing to characterize composite guided waves and locate an acoustic source. We validate our approach with experimental laser doppler vibrometry measurements from a glass fiber reinforced composite panel. We achieve localization accuracies of more than 290 and 49 times better, respectively, than delay-and-sum and matched field processing with isotropic assumptions.

  19. Ultrasound: Pelvis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Top 10 Homework Tips Raising Confident Kids Ultrasound: Pelvis KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Pelvis Print A A A What's in this article? ... uses sound waves to make images of the pelvis. During the examination, an ultrasound machine sends sound ...

  20. Short-Period Rayleigh Wave Dispersion Measurements across the Cape Verde Archipelago using Ambient Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, M. M.; Matias, L. M.; Nunes, J.; Teves-Costa, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Cape Verde archipelago consists of 10 islands and several islets located on the southwest flank of the Cape Verde Rise, 500 to 800 km west of Senegal, off the African coast. This is an elevated region of ocean floor approximately 1200 km wide and encompassing an area greater than 3 x 105 km2. The islands form a horseshoe-shaped chain with a general age progression from east to west. Under the umbrella of the CV-PLUME and COBO projects, a temporary pool of 39 BB seismometers has been continuously recording between November 2007 and September 2008. This deployment provided a dense coverage of the archipelago with an unprecedented resolution. Ambient noise tomography has proved to be an efficient tool to construct high resolution maps of lithospheric shallower structures. Firstly, they allow measurements at periods shorter than 20 sec, which are hard to obtain from earthquake surface waves. Secondly, being independent of the epicentre-station geometry, they are suitable on regions of low seismicity. Cross-correlation of about 10 months of ambient seismic noise recorded at the CV-PLUME temporary network allowed us to measure short-period Rayleigh waves on all interstation paths. These cross-correlograms enabled us to compute short-period surface-wave group-velocity measurements on interstation paths. We used these measurements to construct maps of Rayleigh-wave group-velocity lateral variations at different periods. The most striking feature on the obtained record-sections is the presence of a secondary Rayleigh wave train in both causal and anti-causal parts of the cross-correlograms obtained for the paths crossing the western edge of the “horseshoe”. This study was supported by projects “CV-PLUME: An investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume” (PTDC/CTE-GIN/64330/2006) and “COBO: Cape Verdes Origin from Broadband Observations”, GDSS, GFZ-Potsdam.

  1. Simulation of guided-wave ultrasound propagation in composite laminates: Benchmark comparisons of numerical codes and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara A C; Wheeler, Kevin R; Hafiychuk, Vasyl N; Hafiychuk, Halyna; Timuçin, Doğan A

    2017-11-04

    Ultrasonic wave methods constitute the leading physical mechanism for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) of solid composite materials, such as carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. Computational models of ultrasonic wave excitation, propagation, and scattering in CFRP composites can be extremely valuable in designing practicable NDE and SHM hardware, software, and methodologies that accomplish the desired accuracy, reliability, efficiency, and coverage. The development and application of ultrasonic simulation approaches for composite materials is an active area of research in the field of NDE. This paper presents comparisons of guided wave simulations for CFRP composites implemented using four different simulation codes: the commercial finite element modeling (FEM) packages ABAQUS, ANSYS, and COMSOL, and a custom code executing the Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT). Benchmark comparisons are made between the simulation tools and both experimental laser Doppler vibrometry data and theoretical dispersion curves. A pristine and a delamination type case (Teflon insert in the experimental specimen) is studied. A summary is given of the accuracy of simulation results and the respective computational performance of the four different simulation tools. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Chemometric assisted ultrasound leaching-solid phase extraction followed by dispersive-solidification liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Kamyar; Abdollahzadeh, Yaser; Asadollahzadeh, Mehdi; Hemmati, Alireza; Tavakoli, Hamed; Torkaman, Rezvan

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound leaching-solid phase extraction (USL-SPE) followed by dispersive-solidification liquid-liquid microextraction (DSLLME) was developed for preconcentration and determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in soil samples prior gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. At first, OPPs were ultrasonically leached from soil samples by using methanol. After centrifugation, the separated methanol was diluted to 50 mL with double-distillated water and passed through the C18 SPE cartridge. OPPs were eluted with 1 mL acetonitrile. Thus, 1 mL acetonitrile extract (disperser solvent) and 10 µL 1-undecanol (extraction solvent) were added to 5 mL double-distilled water and a DSLLME technique was applied. The variables of interest in the USL-SPE-DSLLME method were optimized with the aid of chemometric approaches. First, in screening experiments, fractional factorial design (FFD) was used for selecting the variables which significantly affected the extraction procedure. Afterwards, the significant variables were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors were 6890-8830. The linear range was 0.025-625 ng g(-1) and limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.012 and 0.2 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 4.06-8.9% (n=6). The relative recoveries of OPPs from different soil samples were 85-98%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Machine-Learning Algorithm Toward Color Analysis for Chronic Liver Disease Classification, Employing Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Ilias; Tsantis, Stavros; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Theotokas, Ioannis; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos; Loupas, Thanasis; Hazle, John D; Kagadis, George C

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to employ a computer-aided diagnosis system that classifies chronic liver disease (CLD) using ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging, with a stiffness value-clustering and machine-learning algorithm. A clinical data set of 126 patients (56 healthy controls, 70 with CLD) was analyzed. First, an RGB-to-stiffness inverse mapping technique was employed. A five-cluster segmentation was then performed associating corresponding different-color regions with certain stiffness value ranges acquired from the SWE manufacturer-provided color bar. Subsequently, 35 features (7 for each cluster), indicative of physical characteristics existing within the SWE image, were extracted. A stepwise regression analysis toward feature reduction was used to derive a reduced feature subset that was fed into the support vector machine classification algorithm to classify CLD from healthy cases. The highest accuracy in classification of healthy to CLD subject discrimination from the support vector machine model was 87.3% with sensitivity and specificity values of 93.5% and 81.2%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis gave an area under the curve value of 0.87 (confidence interval: 0.77-0.92). A machine-learning algorithm that quantifies color information in terms of stiffness values from SWE images and discriminates CLD from healthy cases is introduced. New objective parameters and criteria for CLD diagnosis employing SWE images provided by the present study can be considered an important step toward color-based interpretation, and could assist radiologists' diagnostic performance on a daily basis after being installed in a PC and employed retrospectively, immediately after the examination. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A new computer aided diagnosis system for evaluation of chronic liver disease with ultrasound shear wave elastography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Ilias; Tsantis, Stavros; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Theotokas, Ioannis; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos; Loupas, Thanasis; Hazle, John D; Kagadis, George C

    2016-03-01

    Classify chronic liver disease (CLD) from ultrasound shear-wave elastography (SWE) imaging by means of a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The proposed algorithm employs an inverse mapping technique (red-green-blue to stiffness) to quantify 85 SWE images (54 healthy and 31 with CLD). Texture analysis is then applied involving the automatic calculation of 330 first and second order textural features from every transformed stiffness value map to determine functional features that characterize liver elasticity and describe liver condition for all available stages. Consequently, a stepwise regression analysis feature selection procedure is utilized toward a reduced feature subset that is fed into the support vector machines (SVMs) classification algorithm in the design of the CAD system. With regard to the mapping procedure accuracy, the stiffness map values had an average difference of 0.01 ± 0.001 kPa compared to the quantification results derived from the color-box provided by the built-in software of the ultrasound system. Highest classification accuracy from the SVM model was 87.0% with sensitivity and specificity values of 83.3% and 89.1%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis gave an area under the curve value of 0.85 with [0.77-0.89] confidence interval. The proposed CAD system employing color to stiffness mapping and classification algorithms offered superior results, comparing the already published clinical studies. It could prove to be of value to physicians improving the diagnostic accuracy of CLD and can be employed as a second opinion tool for avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures.

  5. Role of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in complex cystic and solid breast lesions in comparison with conventional ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo Eun; Chung, Jin, E-mail: aqua0724@ewha.ac.kr; Cha, Eun-Suk; Lee, Jee Eun; Kim, Jeoung Hyun

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Complex cystic lesions have a broad spectrum of malignancy rate. • SWE is useful to evaluate cystic breast lesions. • Cutoff value of Emax was 108.5 kPa, for predicting malignancy. • Using this cutoff value, sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 97.3%. • SWE could reduce unnecessary biopsies in complex cystic and solid breast lesions. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the additional role of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in differential diagnosis of complex cystic and solid breast lesions. Materials and methods: From January 2013 to November 2013, 140 complex cystic and solid breast lesions from 139 consecutive patients were performed ultrasound and SWE prior to biopsy. BI-RADS ultrasound final assessment and SWE parameters were recorded for each lesion. Histopathologic diagnosis was used as the reference standard. Results: Among the 140 lesions, 30 lesions (21.4%) were malignant. The mean maximum elasticity (Emax) of malignant lesions (184.3 kPa) was significantly higher than that of benign lesions (45.5 kPa) (P < 0.001). Homogeneity of elasticity and color pattern were significantly different from malignancy and benign lesions (P < 0.05). Emax with cutoff value at 108.5 kPa showed Az value of 0.968 (95% CI, 0.932–0.985) with sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 97.3%. Using this cutoff value, false-positive rate was 2.7% and false-negative rate was 13.3%. By applying an Emax value of 108.5 kPa or less as a criterion for downgrading BI-RADS category 4a lesions to category 3 lesions, 103/123 (83.7%) lesions could be downgraded to category 3 lesions. Conclusion: Additional use of SWE could reduce unnecessary benign biopsies in complex cystic and solid breast lesions.

  6. Ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for a sensitive determination of cadmium in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengqing; Cai, Shun; Hu, Wei; Chen, Hao; Liu, Hanlan

    2009-07-01

    A new method was developed for the determination of cadmium in water samples using ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-based USA-DLLME) followed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The IL-based USA-DLLME procedure is free of volatile organic solvents, and there is no need for a dispersive solvent, in contrast to conventional DLLME. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (HMIMPF 6), was quickly disrupted by an ultrasonic probe for 1 min and dispersed in water samples like a cloud. At this stage, a hydrophobic cadmium-DDTC complex was formed and extracted into the fine droplets of HMIMPF 6. After centrifugation, the concentration of the enriched cadmium in the sedimented phase was determined by ETAAS. Some effective parameters of the complex formation and microextraction, such as the concentration of the chelating agent, the pH, the volume of the extraction solvent, the extraction time, and the salt effect, have been optimized. Under optimal conditions, a high extraction efficiency and selectivity were reached for the extraction of 1.0 ng of cadmium in 10.0 mL of water solution employing 73 µL of HMIMPF 6 as the extraction solvent. The enrichment factor of the method is 67. The detection limit was 7.4 ng L - 1 , and the characteristic mass ( m0, 0.0044 absorbance) of the proposed method was 0.02 pg for cadmium (Cd). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 11 replicates of 50 ng L - 1 Cd was 3.3%. The method was applied to the analysis of tap, well, river, and lake water samples and the Environmental Water Reference Material GSBZ 50009-88 (200921). The recoveries of spiked samples were in the range of 87.2-106%.

  7. The assessment of P-wave dispersion and myocardial repolarization parameters in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollu, Korhan; Altintepe, Lutfullah; Duran, Cevdet; Topal, Mustafa; Ecirli, Samil

    2018-11-01

    The risks of sudden death and cardiac arrhythmia are increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here, we aimed to evaluate the indicators of arrhythmias, such as p-wave dispersion (P-WD), QTc dispersion, Tp-e and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with CKD stages 3-5 on no renal replacement therapy (RRT). One-hundred and thirty three patients with CKD stages 3-5 and 32 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. No patients received RRT. QTc dispersion, P-WD and Tp-e interval were measured using electrocardiogram and Tp-e/QT ratio was also calculated. Mean age rates were found similar in patients and controls (60.8 ± 14.2 and 61 ± 12.9 y, p = .937, respectively). Compared patients with controls, P-WD (45.85 ± 12.42 vs. 21.17 ± 6.6 msec, p < .001), QTc-min (366.99 ± 42.31 vs. 387.15 ± 20.5 msec, p < .001), QTc dispersion (71.13 ± 27.95 vs. 41.25 ± 14.55 msec, p < .001), Tp-e maximum (81.04 ± 10.34 vs. 75.49 ± 10.9 msec, p < .001), Tp-e minimum (62.25 ± 7.58 vs. 54.8 ± 6.72 msec, p < .001) and Tp-e/QTc ratio (0.19 ± 0.02 vs. 0.18 ± 0.01, p = .001) were found to be different. QTc-max and Tp-e interval were found to be similar in both groups. P-WD and QTc dispersion, Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QTc ratio were found to be increased in with CKD stages 3-5 on no RRT.

  8. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a safe and painless test that uses sound waves to make images of the brain. During the examination, an ultrasound machine sends sound ... The fontanel provides an opening for the sound waves to get through and reach the brain. Why It's Done Doctors order head ultrasounds when ...

  9. The impact of standing wave effects on transcranial focused ultrasound disruption of the blood-brain barrier in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Meaghan A.; Huang, Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2010-09-01

    Microbubble-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for targeted drug delivery using focused ultrasound shows great potential as a therapy for a wide range of brain disorders. This technique is currently at the pre-clinical stage and important work is being conducted in animal models. Measurements of standing waves in ex vivo rat skulls were conducted using an optical hydrophone and a geometry dependence was identified. Standing waves could not be eliminated through the use of swept frequencies, which have been suggested to eliminate standing waves. Definitive standing wave patterns were detected in over 25% of animals used in a single study. Standing waves were successfully eliminated using a wideband composite sharply focused transducer and a reduced duty cycle. The modified pulse parameters were used in vivo to disrupt the BBB in a rat indicating that, unlike some other bioeffects, BBB disruption is not dependent on standing wave conditions. Due to the high variability of standing waves and the inability to correctly estimate in situ pressures given standing wave conditions, attempts to minimize standing waves should be made in all future work in this field to ensure that results are clinically translatable.

  10. A low-dispersive method using the high-order stereo-modelling operator for solving 2-D wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingshuang; Yang, Dinghui; Wu, Hao; Ma, Xiao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a 12th-order stereo-modelling operator to approximate the high-order spatial derivatives using both wavefield displacements and their gradients. On base of this compact operator (seven grids in one spatial direction) and a two-step time marching scheme, we get a new finite-difference method for solving 2-D seismic wave equations, which is 12th-order in space and fourth order in time (12-STEM). Theoretical properties of the 12-STEM including stability and errors are analysed and the numerical dispersion relationship of the 12-STEM for 1-D and 2-D cases are investigated. The computational efficiency is compared among the 12-STEM, the fourth-order stereo-modelling method and other high-order Lax-Wendroff correction (LWC) methods. Among those methods, the 12-STEM has the least computational time and memory requirement to achieve the same accuracy because large spatial and time increments can be used by the 12-STEM. What's more, for different acoustic and elastic cases, numerical simulations computed by the 12-STEM and the 12th-order LWC are presented and compared. Numerical results show that the 12-STEM can effectively suppress numerical dispersion in seismic modelling from acoustic/elastic homogeneous to heterogeneous and even complex heterogeneous models when coarse grid sizes are used or the medium has strong velocity contrast. Thus, the 12-STEM can be potentially used to solve large-scale wave-propagation problems and seismic inversion such as reverse-time migration, tomography and full waveform inversion, and so on.

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal ...

  12. Ultrasound viscoelasticity assessment using an adaptive torsional shear wave propagation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouared, Abderrahmane [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9, Canada and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Kazemirad, Siavash; Montagnon, Emmanuel [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9 (Canada); Cloutier, Guy, E-mail: guy.cloutier@umontreal.ca [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Different approaches have been used in dynamic elastography to assess mechanical properties of biological tissues. Most techniques are based on a simple inversion based on the measurement of the shear wave speed to assess elasticity, whereas some recent strategies use more elaborated analytical or finite element method (FEM) models. In this study, a new method is proposed for the quantification of both shear storage and loss moduli of confined lesions, in the context of breast imaging, using adaptive torsional shear waves (ATSWs) generated remotely with radiation pressure. Methods: A FEM model was developed to solve the inverse wave propagation problem and obtain viscoelastic properties of interrogated media. The inverse problem was formulated and solved in the frequency domain and its robustness to noise and geometric constraints was evaluated. The proposed model was validated in vitro with two independent rheology methods on several homogeneous and heterogeneous breast tissue-mimicking phantoms over a broad range of frequencies (up to 400 Hz). Results: Viscoelastic properties matched benchmark rheology methods with discrepancies of 8%–38% for the shear modulus G′ and 9%–67% for the loss modulus G″. The robustness study indicated good estimations of storage and loss moduli (maximum mean errors of 19% on G′ and 32% on G″) for signal-to-noise ratios between 19.5 and 8.5 dB. Larger errors were noticed in the case of biases in lesion dimension and position. Conclusions: The ATSW method revealed that it is possible to estimate the viscoelasticity of biological tissues with torsional shear waves when small biases in lesion geometry exist.

  13. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Dae Woo Park

    2016-01-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model...

  14. Ultrasound viscoelasticity assessment using an adaptive torsional shear wave propagation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouared, Abderrahmane; Kazemirad, Siavash; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Cloutier, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Different approaches have been used in dynamic elastography to assess mechanical properties of biological tissues. Most techniques are based on a simple inversion based on the measurement of the shear wave speed to assess elasticity, whereas some recent strategies use more elaborated analytical or finite element method (FEM) models. In this study, a new method is proposed for the quantification of both shear storage and loss moduli of confined lesions, in the context of breast imaging, using adaptive torsional shear waves (ATSWs) generated remotely with radiation pressure. A FEM model was developed to solve the inverse wave propagation problem and obtain viscoelastic properties of interrogated media. The inverse problem was formulated and solved in the frequency domain and its robustness to noise and geometric constraints was evaluated. The proposed model was validated in vitro with two independent rheology methods on several homogeneous and heterogeneous breast tissue-mimicking phantoms over a broad range of frequencies (up to 400 Hz). Viscoelastic properties matched benchmark rheology methods with discrepancies of 8%-38% for the shear modulus G' and 9%-67% for the loss modulus G″. The robustness study indicated good estimations of storage and loss moduli (maximum mean errors of 19% on G' and 32% on G″) for signal-to-noise ratios between 19.5 and 8.5 dB. Larger errors were noticed in the case of biases in lesion dimension and position. The ATSW method revealed that it is possible to estimate the viscoelasticity of biological tissues with torsional shear waves when small biases in lesion geometry exist.

  15. Factors influencing breast elasticity measured by the ultrasound Shear Wave elastography ? preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Rzymski, Pawe?; Sk?rzewska, Agnieszka; Skibi?ska-Zieli?ska, Myriam; Opala, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Many physiological changes of breast elasticity depend on the age, hormonal status, menstrual cycle and many others. The aim of this study was to evaluate viscoelastic properties of normal breast tissues in a large group of women and to search for factors which play a role in its mechanical properties. Material and methods 101 women aged 18-74 years who underwent B-mode sonography and additionally sonoelastography. We measured viscoelasticity in 8 quadrants by a share wave ultras...

  16. Optimized Plane Wave Imaging for Fast and High-Quality Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method for optimizing parameters affecting the image quality in plane wave imaging. More specifically, the number of emissions and steering angles is optimized to attain the best images with the highest frame rate possible. The method is applied to a specific problem, where...... image quality for a λ-pitch transducer is compared with a λ/2-pitch transducer. Grating lobe artifacts for λ-pitch transducers degrade the contrast in plane wave images, and the impact on frame rate is studied. Field II simulations of plane wave images are made for all combinations of the parameters...... at 9 mm (24λ). Using a λ/2-pitch transducer and only 21 emissions within the same angle range, the image quality is improved in terms of contrast, which is −37 dB. For imaging in regions deeper than 25 mm (66λ), only 21 emissions are optimal for both the transducers, resulting in a −36 dB contrast...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  18. Differentiating benign from malignant solid breast masses: value of shear wave elastography according to lesion stiffness combined with greyscale ultrasound according to BI-RADS classification

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, A; Whelehan, P; Thomson, K; Brauer, K; Jordan, L; Purdie, C; McLean, D; Baker, L; Vinnicombe, S; Thompson, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the performance of shear wave elastography combined with BI-RADS classification of greyscale ultrasound images for benign/malignant differentiation in a large group of patients. Methods: One hundred and seventy-five consecutive patients with solid breast masses on routine ultrasonography undergoing percutaneous biopsy had the greyscale findings classified according to the American College of Radiology BI-RADS. The mean elasticity values from fou...

  19. Imaging Yellowstone plume-lithosphere interactions from inversion of ballistic and diffusive Rayleigh wave dispersion and crustal thickness data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, J. C.; Dueker, K.; Schutt, D. L.; Yuan, H.

    2008-06-01

    Diffusive and ballistic Rayleigh wave dispersion data from three PASSCAL seismic deployments are combined with crustal thickness constraints from receiver function analysis to produce a high-resolution shear velocity image of the Yellowstone hot spot track crust and uppermost mantle. This synoptic image shows the following crustal features: the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) high-velocity midcrustal layer, low-velocity lower crust beneath the 4.0-6.6 Ma Heise caldera field, high-velocity lower crust beneath the fashion governed by preexisting lower crustal strength heterogeneity. Within the northern Wyoming province, the so-called 7.x km/s lower crustal magmatic layer is found to extend westward to the N-S oriented pre-Cambrian rift margin. The high-velocity, hence high-density, 7.x layer beneath the imaged by body wave tomograms, after being sheared to horizontal by plate drift, is manifest as a very low velocity (3.9 km/s) layer that is only about 110 km wide. The ESRP mantle lithosphere has been thinned to about 28 km thickness by the plume's transport of heat and magma upward, lateral advection of the lower lithosphere by plume shear, and ongoing lithospheric dilatation.

  20. Wave intensity analysis in mice: an ultrasound-based study in the abdominal aorta and common carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lascio, N.; Kusmic, C.; Stea, F.; Faita, F.

    2017-03-01

    Wave Intensity Analysis (WIA) can provide parameters representative of the interaction between the vascular network and the heart. It has been already demonstrated that WIA-derived biomarkes have a quantitative physiological meaning. Aim of this study was to develop an image process algorithm for performing non-invasive WIA in mice and correlate commonly used cardiac function parameters with WIA-derived indexes. Sixteen wild-type male mice (8 weeks-old) were imaged with high-resolution ultrasound (Vevo 2100). Abdominal aorta and common carotid pulse wave velocities (PWVabd, PWVcar) were obtained processing B-Mode and PW-Doppler images and employed to assess WIA. Amplitudes of the first (W1abd, W1car) and the second (W2abd, W2car) local maxima and minimum (Wbabd,Wbcar) were evaluated; areas under the negative part of the curve were also calculated (NAabd, NAcar). Cardiac output (CO), ejection fraction (EF) fractional shortening (FS) and stroke volume (SV) were estimated; strain analysis provided strain and strain rate values for longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions (LS, LSR, RS, RSR, CS, CSR). Isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) was calculated from mitral inflow PW-Doppler images; IVRT values were normalized for cardiac cycle length. W1abd was correlated with LS (R=0.65) and LSR (R=0.59), while W1car was correlated with CO (R=0.58), EF (R=0.72), LS (R=0.65), LSR (R=0.89), CS (R=0.71), CSR (R=0.70). Both W2abd and W2car were not correlated with IVRT. Carotid artery WIA-derived parameters are more representative of cardiac function than those obtained from the abdominal aorta. The described US-based method can provide information about cardiac function and cardio-vascular interaction simply studying a single vascular site.

  1. Mouse liver dispersion for the diagnosis of early-stage Fatty liver disease: a 70-sample study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Hah, Zaegyoo; Partin, Alexander; Mooney, Robert A; Chuang, Kuang-Hsiang; Augustine, Alicia; Almudevar, Anthony; Cao, Wenqing; Rubens, Deborah J; Parker, Kevin J

    2014-04-01

    The accumulation of fat droplets within the liver is an important marker of liver disease. This study assesses gradations of steatosis in mouse livers using crawling waves, which are interfering patterns of shear waves introduced into the liver by external sources. The crawling waves are detected by Doppler ultrasound imaging techniques, and these are analyzed to estimate the shear wave speed as a function of frequency between 200 and 360 Hz. In a study of 70 mice with progressive increases in steatosis from 0% to >60%, increases in steatosis are found to increase the dispersion, or frequency dependence, of shear wave speed. This finding confirms an earlier, smaller study and points to the potential of a scoring system for steatosis based on shear wave dispersion. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute effect of static stretching on passive stiffness of the human gastrocnemius fascicle measured by ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kosuke; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Naokazu

    2017-03-01

    Passive muscle stiffness and muscle architecture at a given joint angle, as well as slack angle of the muscle have been shown to change after an acute bout of stretching. However, it remains unclear whether passive muscle stiffness at a given fascicle length is reduced after stretching. We aimed to elucidate the acute effect of static stretching on the passive fascicle stiffness using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Shear modulus, fascicle length, and slack angle of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) as well as passive plantar flexion torque during passive dorsiflexion were measured before and after a 5-min static stretching in 14 healthy males. After stretching, passive torques were significantly reduced at >50% of range of motion (ROM). Shear modulus at a given fascicle length was significantly reduced at >80% of the change in fascicle length during passive dorsiflexion. Slack angle of MG was observed at the middle part of ROM and significantly shifted toward more dorsiflexed position after stretching. The present study showed the significant effectiveness of static stretching on the passive fascicle stiffness. Furthermore, the present results suggest that both the shift in slack angle and the reduction in passive fascicle stiffness contribute to produce the change in passive torque-joint angle relationship during passive dorsiflexion. Notably, the contribution of the reduced passive fascicle stiffness to the decrease in passive torque is substantial over the latter part of ROM.

  3. Effects of frequency-dependent attenuation and velocity dispersion on in vitro ultrasound velocity measurements in intact human femur specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haïat, Guillaume; Padilla, Frédéric; Cleveland, Robin O; Laugier, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that ultrasonic velocity measured in bone provides a good assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. However, a lack of standardization of signal processing techniques used to compute the speed of sound (SOS) complicates the comparison between data obtained with different commercial devices. In this study, 38 intact femurs were tested using a through-transmission technique and SOS determined using different techniques. The resulting difference in measured SOS was determined as functions of the attenuation and the velocity dispersion. A numerical simulation was used to explain how attenuation and dispersion impact two different SOS measurements (group velocity, velocity based on the first zero crossing of the signal). A new method aimed at compensating for attenuation was devised and led to a significant reduction in the difference between SOS obtained with both signal processing techniques. A comparison between SOS and X-ray density measurements indicated that the best correlation was reached for SOS based on the first zero crossing apparently because it used a marker located in the early part of the signal and was less sensitive to multipath interference. The conclusion is that first zero crossing velocity may be preferred to group velocity for ultrasonic assessment at this potential fracture site.

  4. Factors influencing breast elasticity measured by the ultrasound Shear Wave elastography – preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Paweł; Skórzewska, Agnieszka; Skibińska-Zielińska, Myriam; Opala, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Many physiological changes of breast elasticity depend on the age, hormonal status, menstrual cycle and many others. The aim of this study was to evaluate viscoelastic properties of normal breast tissues in a large group of women and to search for factors which play a role in its mechanical properties. Material and methods 101 women aged 18-74 years who underwent B-mode sonography and additionally sonoelastography. We measured viscoelasticity in 8 quadrants by a share wave ultrasonic device estimating Young modules in regions of interest. Results Mean elasticity measured in all 8 scans in glandular and fatty tissue were 11.28 ±5.79 kPa (0.1-46.26 kPa) and 9.24 ±4.48 kPa (0.1-29.78 kPa), respectively. The correlation between age and mean elasticity of glandular tissue was Rs = 0.27 (p = 0.007). The correlation between glandular tissue elasticity heterogeneity and breast mastalgia measured by VAS was Rs = –0.23 (p = 0.241). Fat tissue elasticity correlated with duration of lactation was Rs = 0.21 (p = 0.01). Conclusions There are several parameters influencing breast viscoelasticity measured by share wave sonoelastography. Glandular tissue elasticity correlates positively with age, fatty tissue elasticity correlates positively with duration of lactation and heterogeneity of the elasticity map of glandular tissue correlates with breast pain and fat tissue with BMI. PMID:22291745

  5. Factors influencing breast elasticity measured by the ultrasound Shear Wave elastography - preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Paweł; Skórzewska, Agnieszka; Skibińska-Zielińska, Myriam; Opala, Tomasz

    2011-02-01

    Many physiological changes of breast elasticity depend on the age, hormonal status, menstrual cycle and many others. The aim of this study was to evaluate viscoelastic properties of normal breast tissues in a large group of women and to search for factors which play a role in its mechanical properties. 101 women aged 18-74 years who underwent B-mode sonography and additionally sonoelastography. We measured viscoelasticity in 8 quadrants by a share wave ultrasonic device estimating Young modules in regions of interest. Mean elasticity measured in all 8 scans in glandular and fatty tissue were 11.28 ±5.79 kPa (0.1-46.26 kPa) and 9.24 ±4.48 kPa (0.1-29.78 kPa), respectively. The correlation between age and mean elasticity of glandular tissue was Rs = 0.27 (p = 0.007). The correlation between glandular tissue elasticity heterogeneity and breast mastalgia measured by VAS was Rs = -0.23 (p = 0.241). Fat tissue elasticity correlated with duration of lactation was Rs = 0.21 (p = 0.01). There are several parameters influencing breast viscoelasticity measured by share wave sonoelastography. Glandular tissue elasticity correlates positively with age, fatty tissue elasticity correlates positively with duration of lactation and heterogeneity of the elasticity map of glandular tissue correlates with breast pain and fat tissue with BMI.

  6. Generation of a pseudo-2D shear-wave velocity section by inversion of a series of 1D dispersion curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves utilizes a multichannel recording system to estimate near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities from high-frequency Rayleigh waves. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity (vS) section is constructed by aligning 1D models at the midpoint of each receiver spread and using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. The receiver spread length sets the theoretical lower limit and any vS structure with its lateral dimension smaller than this length will not be properly resolved in the final vS section. A source interval smaller than the spread length will not improve the horizontal resolution because spatial smearing has already been introduced by the receiver spread. In this paper, we first analyze the horizontal resolution of a pair of synthetic traces. Resolution analysis shows that (1) a pair of traces with a smaller receiver spacing achieves higher horizontal resolution of inverted S-wave velocities but results in a larger relative error; (2) the relative error of the phase velocity at a high frequency is smaller than at a low frequency; and (3) a relative error of the inverted S-wave velocity is affected by the signal-to-noise ratio of data. These results provide us with a guideline to balance the trade-off between receiver spacing (horizontal resolution) and accuracy of the inverted S-wave velocity. We then present a scheme to generate a pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section with high horizontal resolution using multichannel records by inverting high-frequency surface-wave dispersion curves calculated through cross-correlation combined with a phase-shift scanning method. This method chooses only a pair of consecutive traces within a shot gather to calculate a dispersion curve. We finally invert surface-wave dispersion curves of synthetic and real-world data. Inversion results of both synthetic and real-world data demonstrate that

  7. Increased P-wave and QT dispersions necessitate long-term follow-up evaluation of Down syndrome patients with congenitally normal hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Cem; Ozdemir, Rahmi; Demir, Fikri; Yozgat, Yılmaz; Küçük, Mehmet; Oner, Talia; Karaarslan, Utku; Meşe, Timur; Unal, Nurettin

    2014-12-01

    Reports state that Down syndrome (DS) patients with congenitally normal hearts might experience the development of cardiac abnormalities such as cardiac autonomic dysfunction, valvular lesions, bradycardia, and atrioventricular block. However, the presence of any difference in terms of P-wave dispersion (PWd) and QT dispersion (QTd) was not evaluated previously. This study prospectively investigated 100 DS patients with structurally normal hearts and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Standard 12-lead electrocardiograms were used to assess and compare P-wave and QT durations together with PWd and QTd. The median age of the DS patients and control subjects was 48 months. Heart rates and P-wave and QT dispersions were significantly greater in the DS group than in the control group (113 ± 22.9 vs 98.8 ± 16.6 bpm, p < 0.001; 31.3 ± 9.5 vs 24 ± 8.6 ms, p < 0.001; and 46.6 ± 15.9 vs 26 ± 9.1 ms, p < 0.001, respectively). A positive correlation was found between PWd and age in the DS patients (p < 0.05; r = 0.2). All children with DS should be followed up carefully with electrocardiography in terms of increased P-wave and QT dispersions even in the absence of concomitant congenital heart disease for management of susceptibility to arryhthmias.

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound ... from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds that bounce back ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... records tiny changes in the sound's pitch and direction. These signature waves are instantly measured and displayed ... ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns ... Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound ...

  11. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Woo Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE- based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard tumor and surrounding tissue (soft. The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  12. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  13. Breast lesion classification based on supersonic shear-wave elastography and automated lesion segmentation from B-mode ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanyan; Xiao, Yang; Cheng, Jieyu; Chiu, Bernard

    2018-02-01

    Supersonic shear-wave elastography (SWE) has emerged as a useful imaging modality for breast lesion assessment. Regions of interest (ROIs) were required to be specified for extracting features that characterize malignancy of lesions. Although analyses have been performed in small rectangular ROIs identified manually by expert observers, the results were subject to observer variability and the analysis of small ROIs would potentially miss out important features available in other parts of the lesion. Recent investigations extracted features from the entire lesion segmented by B-mode ultrasound images either manually or semi-automatically, but lesion delineation using existing techniques is time-consuming and prone to variability as intensive user interactions are required. In addition, rich diagnostic features were available along the rim surrounding the lesion. The width of the rim analyzed was subjectively and empirically determined by expert observers in previous studies after intensive visual study on the images, which is time-consuming and susceptible to observer variability. This paper describes an analysis pipeline to segment and classify lesions efficiently. The lesion boundary was first initialized and then deformed based on energy fields generated by the dyadic wavelet transform. Features of the SWE images were extracted from inside and outside of a lesion for different widths of the surrounding rim. Then, feature selection was performed followed by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification. This strategy obviates the empirical and time-consuming selection of the surrounding rim width before the analysis. The pipeline was evaluated on 137 lesions. Feature selection was performed 20 times using different sets of 14 lesions (7 malignant, 7 benign). Leave-one-out SVM classification was performed in each of the 20 experiments with a mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 95.1%, 94.6% and 94.8% respectively. The pipeline took an average of 20

  14. Experimental investigation of wave dispersion in hardened concrete and reference liquid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N.; Malm, Fabian; Grosse, Christian U.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, more and more, the monitoring of concrete's setting and hardening as well as concrete's condition assessment and mechanical characterization is realized with the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity technique. However, despite its increasing use, the high potential and the vast applicability over a wide range of materials and structures, the aforementioned nondestructive testing technique is only partially exploited since a) a default pulse usually not selected by the user is transmitted, b) a single frequency band dependent on the testing equipment (pulse generator and sensors) is excited and c) usually the first part of the signal is only considered. Moreover, the technique, as defined by its name, is based on pulse velocity measurements which strongly rely on a predefined threshold value for the calculation of the travel time between the transmitting and receiving sensor. To overcome all these issues, in the current experimental campaign, user-defined signals are generated, a broad range of ultrasonic frequencies is excited, while the full length of the signal is also taken into account. In addition, the pulse velocity measurements are replaced by the more advanced phase velocity calculations determined by reference phase points of the time domain signals or by phase differences of the signals transformed in the frequency domain. The experiments are mainly conducted in hardened concrete specimens but the aggregates are substituted by spherical glass beads of well-defined sizes and contents in order to better control the microstructure. Reference liquid media are also examined for comparison purposes. The results in both cases show strong dispersive trends indicated by significant changes in the phase velocity.

  15. Determination of phthalate esters in distillates by ultrasound-vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (USVADLLME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Zanasi, Luca; Antonelli, Andrea

    2017-04-15

    A method for the extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) by Ultrasound-Vortex-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro-Extraction (USVADLLME) approach was optimised and applied for the first time to a historical series of brandies. These contaminants are widely spread in the environment as a consequence of about half century of use in different fields of applications. The concern about these substances and the recent legal restrictions of China in distillates import need a quick and sensitive method for their quantification. The proposed method, moreover, is environmentally oriented due to the disposal of micro-quantities of solvent required. In fact, sub-ppm-limits of detection were achieved with a solvent volume as low as 160μL. The analysed samples were within the legal limits, except for some very ancient brandies whose contamination was probably due to a PAEs concentration effect as a consequence of long ageing and for the use of plastic pipelines no more operative. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of antimony and tin in beverages using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biata, N Raphael; Nyaba, Luthando; Ramontja, James; Mketo, Nomvano; Nomngongo, Philiswa N

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and fast ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid phase microextraction (UA-IL-DLLME) method for preconcetration of trace antimony and tin in beverage samples. The novelty of this study was based on the application of ligandless UA-IL-DLLME using low-density ionic liquid and organic solvents for preconcentration of Sb and Sn. The concentration of Sb and Sn were quantified using ICP-OES. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was found to be LOQ-250µgL(-1) (r(2)=0.9987) for Sb and LOQ-350µgL(-1) for Sn. The LOD and LOQ of Sb and Sn ranged from 1.2to 2.5ngL(-1) and 4.0 to 8.3ngL(-1), respectively, with high preconcentration factors. The precisions (%RSD) of the proposed method ranged from 2.1% to 2.5% and 3.9% to 4.7% for Sb and Sn, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of Sb and Sn in beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous determination of multiclass emerging contaminants in aquatic plants by ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Ramón; Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Martín-Girela, Isabel; Tadeo, José L

    2017-03-01

    A multiresidue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 31 emerging contaminants (pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, personal care products, biocides, and flame retardants) in aquatic plants. Analytes were extracted by ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (UA-MSPD) and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after sylilation, The method was validated for different aquatic plants (Typha angustifolia, Arundo donax, and Lemna minor) and a semiaquatic cultivated plant (Oryza sativa) with good recoveries at concentrations of 100 and 25 ng g -1 wet weight, ranging from 70 to 120 %, and low method detection limits (0.3 to 2.2 ng g -1 wet weight). A significant difference of the chromatographic response was observed for some compounds in neat solvent versus matrix extracts, and therefore, quantification was carried out using matrix-matched standards in order to overcome this matrix effect. Aquatic plants taken from rivers located at three Spanish regions were analyzed, and the compounds detected were parabens, bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin. The levels found ranged from 6 to 25 ng g -1 wet weight except for cypermethrin that was detected at 235 ng g -1 wet weight in O. sativa samples.

  18. Preconcentration and determination of chlordiazepoxide and diazepam drugs using dispersive nanomaterial-ultrasound assisted microextraction method followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebdani, A Amiri; Khodadoust, S; Talebianpoor, M S; Zargar, H R; Zarezade, V

    2016-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDs) are used widely in clinical practice, due to their multiple pharmacological functions. In this study a dispersive nanomaterial-ultrasound assisted- microextraction (DNUM) method followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the preconcentration and determination of chlordiazepoxide and diazepam drugs from urine and plasma samples. Various parameters such as amount of adsorbent (mg: ZnS-AC), pH and ionic strength of sample solution, vortex and ultrasonic time (min), and desorption volume (mL) were investigated by fractional factorial design (FFD) and central composite design (CCD). Regression models and desirability functions (DF) were applied to find the best experimental conditions for providing the maximum extraction recovery (ER). Under the optimal conditions a linear calibration curve were obtained in the range of 0.005-10μgmL(-1) and 0.006-10μgmL(-1) for chlordiazepoxide and diazepam, respectively. To demonstrate the analytical performance, figures of merits of the proposed method in urine and plasma spiked with chlordiazepoxide and diazepam were investigated. The limits of detection of chlordiazepoxide and diazepam in urine and plasma were ranged from 0.0012 to 0.0015μgmL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric for selenium speciation in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Pekiner, Ozlem Zeynep

    2015-12-01

    A rapid and environmentally friendly ultrasound assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (USA-IL-DLLME) was developed for the speciation of inorganic selenium in beverages and total selenium in food samples by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Some analytical parameters including pH, amount of complexing agent, extraction time, volume of ionic liquid, sample volume, etc. were optimized. Matrix effects were also investigated. Enhancement factor (EF) and limit of detection (LOD) for Se(IV) were found to be 150 and 12 ng L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was found 4.2%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with analysis of LGC 6010 Hard drinking water and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato leaves standard reference materials. Optimized method was applied to ice tea, soda and mineral water for the speciation of Se(IV) and Se(VI) and some food samples including beer, cow's milk, red wine, mixed fruit juice, date, apple, orange, grapefruit, egg and honey for the determination of total selenium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dispersive nano solid material-ultrasound assisted microextraction as a novel method for extraction and determination of bendiocarb and promecarb: response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, S; Ghaedi, M; Hadjmohammadi, M R

    2013-11-15

    A new extraction method, based on Dispersive Nano-Solid material-Ultrasound Assisted Micro-Extraction (DNSUAME), was used for the preconcentration of the bendiocarb and promecarb pesticides in the water samples prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The properties of NiZnS nanomaterial loaded on activated carbon (NiZnS-AC) are characterized by FT-IR, TEM, and BET. This novel nanomaterial showed great adsorptive ability towards the bendiocarb and promecarb pesticides. The effective variables such as the amount of adsorbent (mg: NiZnS-AC), the pH and ionic strength of sample solution, the vortex and ultrasonic time (min), the ultrasonic temperature (°C), and desorption volume (mL) are investigated by screening 2(7-4) experiments of Plackett-Burman (PB) design. The important variables optimized by using a central composite design (CCD) were combined by a desirability function (DF). At optimum conditions, the method has linear response over 0.0033-10 µg mL(-1) with detection limit between 0.0010 and 0.0015 µg mL(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 5.5% (n=3). The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the bendiocarb and promecarb pesticides in the water samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of regional pulse wave velocity using very high frame rate ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Hongo, Kazue; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the propagation velocity of the pressure wave along the artery due to the heartbeat. The PWV becomes faster with progression of arteriosclerosis and, thus, can be used as a diagnostic index of arteriosclerosis. Measurement of PWV is known as a noninvasive approach for diagnosis of arteriosclerosis and is widely used in clinical situations. In the traditional PWV method, the average PWV is calculated between two points, the carotid and femoral arteries, at an interval of several tens of centimeters. However, PWV depends on part of the arterial tree, i.e., PWVs in the distal arteries are faster than those in the proximal arteries. Therefore, measurement of regional PWV is preferable. To evaluate regional PWV in the present study, the minute vibration velocity of the human carotid arterial wall was measured at intervals of 0.2 mm at 72 points in the arterial longitudinal direction by the phased-tracking method at a high temporal resolution of 3472 Hz, and PWV was estimated by applying the Hilbert transform to those waveforms. In the present study, carotid arteries of three healthy subjects were measured in vivo. The PWVs in short segments of 14.4 mm in the arterial longitudinal direction were estimated to be 5.6, 6.4, and 6.7 m/s, which were in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, for one of the subjects, a component was clearly found propagating from the periphery to the direction of the heart, i.e., a well known component reflected by the peripheral arteries. By using the proposed method, the propagation speed of the reflection component was also separately estimated to be -8.4 m/s. The higher magnitude of PWV for the reflection component was considered to be the difference in blood pressure at the arrivals of the forward and reflection components. Such a method would be useful for more sensitive evaluation of the change in elasticity due to progression of arteriosclerosis by measuring the regional PWV

  2. Assessment of Atrial Fibrillation and Ventricular Arrhythmia Risk after Bariatric Surgery by P Wave/QT Interval Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Mustafa; Altın, Cihan; Tekin, Abdullah; Erol, Tansel; Arer, İlker; Nursal, Tarık Zafer; Törer, Nurkan; Erol, Varlık; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2017-09-13

    The association of obesity with atrial fibrillation (AF) and with ventricular arrhythmias is well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate whether weight reduction by a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has any effect on P wave dispersion (PWD), a predictor of AF, and corrected QT interval dispersion (CQTD), a marker of ventricular arrhythmias, in obese individuals. In a prospective study, a total of 114 patients (79 females, 35 males) who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy were examined. The patients were followed 1 year. PWD and CQTD values before and 3rd, 6th, and 12th months after the surgery were calculated and compared. There was a statistically significant decline in body mass index (BMI), PWD, and CQTD values among baseline, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months (p p p = 0.002), ΔPWD and Δleft atrial diameter (LAD) (r = 0.65, p p = 0.004), ΔCQTD and ΔLVEDD (r = 0.35, p p = 0.002). In multiple linear regression analysis, there was a statistically significant relationship between ΔPWD and ΔBMI (β = 0.713, p p = 0.016), ΔPWD and ΔLAD (β = 0.619, p p = 0.011), ΔCQTD and ΔLVEDD (β = 0.304, p p = 0.009). PWD and CQTD values of patients were shown to be attenuated after bariatric surgery. These results indirectly offer that there may be a reduction in risk of AF, ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death after obesity surgery.

  3. Simultaneous derivatization and ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of chloropropanols in soy milk and other aqueous matrices combined with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, A M; González, P; Lorenzo, R A

    2013-12-06

    A novel approach involving ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) and derivatization combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of chloropropanols in water and beverages. UA-DLLME was optimized as less solvent-consuming and cost-effective extraction method for water, fruit juice, milk and soy milk samples. The effect of parameters such as the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and volume of dispersive solvent, amount of derivatization agent, temperature, pH of sample and ionic strength was investigated and optimized for each specimen, using experimental designs. By adding acetonitrile as dispersive solvent, N-heptafluorobutyrylimizadole (HFBI) as derivatization agent and chloroform as extraction solvent, the extraction-derivatization and preconcentration were simultaneously performed. The analytical concentration range was investigated in detail for each analyte in the different samples, obtaining linearity with R(2) ranging between 0.9990 and 0.9999. The method detection limits were in the range of 0.2-1.8μgL(-1) (water), 0.5-15μgL(-1) (fruit juices) and 0.9-3.6μgkg(-1) (milk) and 0.1-1.0μgkg(-1) (soy milk). The method was applied to the analysis of a variety of specimens, with recoveries of 98-101% from water, 97-102% from juices, 99-103% from milk and 97-105% from soy beverage. The relative standard deviation (precision, n=6) varied between 1.3 and 4.9%RSD in water, 2.3 and 5.8%RSD in juices, 1.0 and 5.7%RSD in milk and 3.9 and 9.3%RSD in soy milk. The proposed method was applied to analysis of twenty-eight samples. 1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol was found in an influent water sample from urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (2.1±0.04mgL(-1)) but no chloropropanols were found in the corresponding effluent water sample. This result suggests that the purification system used in the WWTP has been effective for this compound. Moreover, the results revealed the presence of 3

  4. Changes in ultrasound shear wave elastography properties of normal breast during menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, P; Skórzewska, A; Opala, T

    2011-01-01

    Elastography is a novel technique capable of noninvasively assessing the elastic properties of breast tissue. Because the risk factors for breast cancer include hormonal status and proliferation, the aim of our study was to estimate the intensity of sonoelastographic changes during the menstrual cycle. Eight women aged 20-23 years with regular menstrual cycles underwent B-mode sonography and sonoelastography (ShearWave on Aixplorer, France) on days 3, 10, 17 and 24. Mean values of glandular and fat tissue elasticity did not change statistically significantly during the menstrual cycle as well as glandular to fat tissue ratio. During almost the whole cycle differences between outer and inner quadrants in glandular and fat tissue were statistically significant. The lowest values of elasticity occurred on the 10th day and the highest on the 24th of the menstrual cycle. There were statistically significant differences in elasticity between inner and outer quadrants of both breasts close to day 3 and 17 of the menstrual cycle.

  5. Microbubble Void Imaging: A Non-invasive Technique for Flow Visualisation and Quantification of Mixing in Large Vessels Using Plane Wave Ultrasound and Controlled Microbubble Contrast Agent Destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Chee Hau; Iori, Francesco; Corbett, Richard; Duncan, Neill; Caro, Colin; Vincent, Peter; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing recognition of the influence of the flow field on the physiology of blood vessels and their development of pathology. Preliminary work is reported on a novel non-invasive technique, microbubble void imaging, which is based on ultrasound and controlled destruction of microbubble contrast agents, permitting flow visualisation and quantification of flow-induced mixing in large vessels. The generation of microbubble voids can be controlled both spatially and temporally using ultrasound parameters within the safety limits. Three different model vessel geometries-straight, planar-curved and helical-with known effects on the flow field and mixing were chosen to evaluate the technique. A high-frame-rate ultrasound system with plane wave transmission was used to acquire the contrast-enhanced ultrasound images, and an entropy measure was calculated to quantify mixing. The experimental results were cross-compared between the different geometries and with computational fluid dynamics. The results indicated that the technique is able to quantify the degree of mixing within the different configurations, with a helical geometry generating the greatest mixing, and a straight geometry, the lowest. There is a high level of concordance between the computational fluid dynamics and experimental results. The technique could also serve as a flow visualisation tool. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. P-wave dispersion and its relationship with the severity of the disease in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Fatih; Firatli, Inci; Katkat, Fahrettin; Gurmen, Tevfik; Ayca, Burak; Kalyoncuoglu, Muhsin; Abaci, Okay; Sari, Mustafa; Ersanli, Murat; Kucukoglu, Serdar; Yigit, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    P- wave dispersion (PD) is an indicator of inhomogeneous and discontinuous propagation of sinus impulses. In the present study we aimed to investigate the PD and its association with the severity of the disease. in patients with stable coronary artery disease. We prospectively analyzed 60 subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 25 subjects with nor-mal coronary angiograms (control group). The maximum and minimum P-wave duration and PD were measured from the 12-lead surface electrocardiograms. The CAD severity was assessed by the severity score (Gensini score) and the number of vessels involved (vessel score). P max was longer in CAD group compared with the control group (p<0.001). PD was greater in the CAD group, compared with the control group (p<0.001). However, P min did not differ between the two groups. In bi-variate correlation, increased PD was correlated with presence of diabetes mellitus (r=0.316, p=0.014), smoking (r=0.348, p=0.006), left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.372, p=0.003), vessel score (r=0.848, p=0.001), and Gensini score (r=0.825, p=0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that PD was independently associ¬ated with vessel score ((3=0.139, p=0.002) and Gensini score ((3=0.132, p=0.007). PD was greater in patients with CAD than in controls and it was associated with CAD severity.

  7. The comparison of removing plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging for near-well ultrasonic processing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Bajracharya, Suman

    2015-11-01

    Near-well ultrasonic processing technology is characterized by high adaptability, simple operation, low cost and zero pollution. The main plugs of oil production include paraffin deposition plug, polymer plug, and drilling fluid plug etc. Although some good results have been obtained through laboratory experiments and field tests, systematic and intensive studies are absent for certain major aspects, such as: effects of ultrasonic treatment for different kinds of plugs and whether effect of ultrasound-chemicals combination deplugging is better than that of ultrasonic deplugging. In this paper, the experiments of removing drilling fluid plug, paraffin deposition plug and polymer plug by ultrasonic wave, chemical deplugging agent and ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging respectively are carried out. Results show that the effect of ultrasound-chemical combination deplugging is clearly better than that of using ultrasonic wave and chemical deplugging agent separately, which indicates that ultrasonic deplugging and chemical deplugging can produce synergetic effects. On the one hand, ultrasonic treatment can boost the activity of chemical deplugging agent and turn chemical deplugging into dynamic chemical process, promoting chemical agent reaction speed and enhancing deplugging effect; on the other hand, chemical agent can reduce the adhesion strength of plugs so that ultrasonic deplugging effect can be improved significantly. Experimental results provide important reference for near-well ultrasonic processing technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Abdomen Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer ...

  9. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... Children's (Pediatric) Ultrasound - Abdomen Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Kidney and Bladder Stones Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Ovarian Cancer Images related to Ultrasound - Pelvis Sponsored by Please ...

  10. Dispersive SH waves in a cylindrical multiferroic composite with interfacial irregularity: Approximate analysis on coordinate-dependent phase velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Dong; Liu, Shi-Lun; Jin, Ying; Wei, Hong-Xing; Guan, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Irregular interfaces may be formed between the neighboring ferromagnetic and ferroelectric layers of multiferroic composites during the hot-pressing process. They undoubtedly affects the mechanical behavior of multiferroic composites and this is a scientific problem deserving studying. In addition, phase velocity will be a function of coordinate if the interface is irregular, and this makes the governing equation so complicated that direct analytical solution is unobtainable. The present article proposes an approximate approach for analyzing SH waves in a cylindrical multiferroic composite with interfacial irregularity. The dispersion equation is analytically derived and numerically solved. After the validity range of the approximate treatment is clarified, parametric studies reveals that interfacial corrugations can give rise to an oscillatory distribution of phase velocity along the propagation direction. Because such oscillation can lead to unstable signal transmission, it should be avoided in engineering. Further discussion suggests three possible ways for suppressing the oscillation of phase velocity. The research results can provide references for optimizing the design, manufacture and application of multiferroic devices.

  11. Anesthesia Induction With Sevoflurane and Propofol: Evaluation of P-wave Dispersion, QT and Corrected QT Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hanci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the effects of anesthesia induction with sevoflurane and propofol on hemodynamics, P-wave dispersion (Pwd, QT interval and corrected QT (QTc interval. A total of 72 adult patients were included in this prospective study. All patients had control electrocardiograms (ECGs before anesthesia induction. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane inhalation or intravenous propofol. Electrocardiography for all patients was performed during the 1st and 3rd minutes of induction, 3 minutes after administration of muscle relaxant, and at 5 minutes and 10 minutes after intubation. Pwd and QT intervals were measured on all ECGs. QTc intervals were determined using the Bazett formula. There was no significant difference in Pwd and QT and QTc intervals on control ECGs. In the sevoflurane group, except for control ECGs, Pwd and QTc interval on all ECGs were significantly longer than those in the propofol group (p < 0.05. We conclude that propofol should be used for anesthesia induction in patients with a predisposition to preoperative arrhythmias, and in those whose Pwd and QTc durations are prolonged on preoperative ECGs.

  12. Ultrasound shear wave elastography helps discriminate low-grade from high-grade bowel wall fibrosis in ex vivo human intestinal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Stidham, Ryan W; Higgins, Peter D R; Moons, David S; Johnson, Laura A; Keshavarzi, Nahid R; Rubin, Jonathan M

    2014-12-01

    To determine whether bowel wall fibrosis can be detected in freshly resected human intestinal specimens based on ultrasound-derived shear wave speed. Seventeen intact (>3-cm) bowel segments (15 small and 2 large intestine) from 12 patients with known or suspected inflammatory bowel disease were procured immediately after surgical resection. Ultrasound shear wave elastography of the bowel wall was performed by two methods (Virtual Touch Quantification [VTQ] and Virtual Touch-IQ [VT-IQ]; Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc, Mountain View, CA). Eighteen short-axis shear wave speed measurements were acquired from each specimen: 3 from the 9-, 12-, and 3-o'clock locations for each method. Imaging was performed in two areas for specimens greater than 10 cm in length (separated by ≥5 cm). A gastrointestinal pathologist scored correlative histologic slides for inflammation and fibrosis. Differences in mean shear wave speed between bowel segments with low and high inflammation/fibrosis scores were assessed by a Student t test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. High-fibrosis score (n = 11) bowel segments had a significantly greater mean shear wave speed than low-fibrosis score (n = 6) bowel segments (mean ± SD: VTQ, 1.59 ± 0.37 versus 1.18 ± 0.08 m/s; P= .004; VT-IQ, 1.87 ± 0.44 versus 1.50 ± 0.26 m/s; P= .049). There was no significant difference in mean shear wave speed between high-and low-inflammation score bowel segments (P > .05 for both VTQ and VT-IQ). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed areas under the curve of 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.99) for VTQ and 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.94) for VT-IQ in distinguishing low-from high-fibrosis score bowel segments. Ex vivo bowel wall shear wave speed measurements increase when transmural intestinal fibrosis is present. © 2013 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Effect of action potential duration on Tpeak-Tendinterval, T-wave area and T-wave amplitude as indices of dispersion of repolarization: Theoretical and simulation study in the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteyeva, Natalia V; Azarov, Jan E

    The aim of the study was to differentiate the effect of dispersion of repolarization (DOR) and action potential duration (APD) on T-wave parameters being considered as indices of DOR, namely, Tpeak-Tend interval, T-wave amplitude and T-wave area. T-wave was simulated in a wide physiological range of DOR and APD using a realistic rabbit model based on experimental data. A simplified mathematical formulation of T-wave formation was conducted. Both the simulations and the mathematical formulation showed that Tpeak-Tend interval and T-wave area are linearly proportional to DOR irrespectively of APD range, while T-wave amplitude is non-linearly proportional to DOR and inversely proportional to the minimal repolarization time, or minimal APD value. Tpeak-Tend interval and T-wave area are the most accurate DOR indices independent of APD. T-wave amplitude can be considered as an index of DOR when the level of APD is taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dispersion relation for space-charge waves in a warm plasma-filled elliptical waveguide in an infinite axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli-Arani, A.; Safari, S.

    2015-04-01

    A perfectly conducting elliptical cylinder filled with a warm plasma and immersed in an infinite axial magnetic field is considered. Using Maxwell's equations and dielectric tensor, a Mathieu differential equation for axial component of electric field is obtained. Considering the boundary conditions, dispersion relation for waves in a plasma of warm electrons and immobile ions, which fills an elliptical waveguide and it is under the action of infinite axial magnetic field are calculated. Furthermore, dispersion relation and scalar potential in the quasi-static approximation in a cold magnetized plasma elliptical waveguide is calculated. The obtained results are graphically presented.

  15. Optimization and modeling of preconcentration and determination of dyes based on ultrasound assisted-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipanahpour Dil, Ebrahim; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Asfaram, Arash

    2017-01-01

    Present study is based on describing an ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with derivative spectrophotometry (UAS-DLLME-UV-vis) as useful technique for selective determination of crystal violet (CV) and azure b (Az-B). The significant factors like pH, extractor volume, disperser value and extraction time contribution and their numerical coefficient in quadratic model were calculated according to central composite design (CCD). According to desirability function (DF) as good criterion the best experimental conditions was adjusted and selected at pH of 7.0, 170μL of chloroform, 800μL of ethanol that strongly mixed with the aqueous phase via 4min sonication. Additionally, under study system was modeled by trained artificial neural networks (ANNs) as fitness function with acceptable error of MSE 2.97×10 -06 and 1.15×10 -05 with R 2 : 0.9999 and 0.9997 for CV and Az-B, respectively. The optimum conditions by using genetic algorithm (GA) method was pH of 6.3, 160μL of chloroform, 740μL of ethanol and 4.5min sonication. Under above specified and optimize conditions, the predicted extraction percentage were 99.80 and 102.20% for CV and Az-B, respectively. The present UAS-DLLME-UV-vis procedure has minimum interference from other substances assign to the matrix, which candidate this method as good alternative to quantify under study dyes content with recoveries in the range of 86-100% for dyes. The detection limits were 2.043ngmL -1 and 1.72ngmL -1 , and limits of quantitation were 6.81ngmL -1 and 5.727ngmL -1 for CV and Az-B, respectively. The proposed methodology was successfully applied for quantification of under study analytes at different media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Mathematical Analysis of the Strip-Element Method for the Computation of Dispersion Curves of Guided Waves in Anisotropic Layered Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Schöpfer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion curves of elastic guided waves in plates can be efficiently computed by the Strip-Element Method. This method is based on a finite-element discretization in the thickness direction of the plate and leads to an eigenvalue problem relating frequencies to wavenumbers of the wave modes. In this paper we present a rigorous mathematical background of the Strip-Element Method for anisotropic media including a thorough analysis of the corresponding infinite-dimensional eigenvalue problem as well as a proof of the existence of eigenvalues.

  17. Ultrasound -- Pelvis

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    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Pelvis Ultrasound imaging of the pelvis uses sound ... limitations of Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? What is Pelvic Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  18. Effects of Temperature and Axial Strain on Four-Wave Mixing Parametric Frequencies in Microstructured Optical Fibers Pumped in the Normal Dispersion Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Abreu-Afonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of temperature and axial strain on the parametric wavelengths produced by four-wave mixing in microstructured optical fibers is presented. Degenerate four-wave mixing was generated in the fibers by pumping at normal dispersion, near the zero-dispersion wavelength, causing the appearance of two widely-spaced four-wave mixing spectral bands. Temperature changes, and/or axial strain applied to the fiber, affects the dispersion characteristics of the fiber, which can result in the shift of the parametric wavelengths. We show that the increase of temperature causes the signal and idler wavelengths to shift linearly towards shorter and longer wavelengths, respectively. For the specific fiber of the experiment, the band shift at rates ­–0.04 nm/ºC and 0.3 nm/ºC, respectively. Strain causes the parametric bands to shift in the opposite way. The signal band shifted 2.8 nm/me and the idler -5.4 nm/me. Experimental observations are backed by numerical simulations.

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... saved. Doppler ultrasound, a special application of ultrasound, measures the direction and speed of blood cells as they move through vessels. The movement of blood cells causes a change in pitch of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects ...

  20. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... then uses those sound waves to create an image. Ultrasound examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. It is used to help diagnose the causes of pain, swelling and infection in the body’s internal organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s also used to ...

  2. Low-Pressure Burst-Mode Focused Ultrasound Wave Reconstruction and Mapping for Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: A Preclinical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingjing; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-06-01

    Burst-mode focused ultrasound (FUS) exposure has been shown to induce transient blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening for potential CNS drug delivery. FUS-BBB opening requires imaging guidance during the intervention, yet current imaging technology only enables postoperative outcome confirmation. In this study, we propose an approach to visualize short-burst low-pressure focal beam distribution that allows to be applied in FUS-BBB opening intervention on small animals. A backscattered acoustic-wave reconstruction method based on synchronization among focused ultrasound emission, diagnostic ultrasound receiving and passively beamformed processing were developed. We observed that focal beam could be successfully visualized for in vitro FUS exposure with 0.5-2 MHz without involvement of microbubbles. The detectable level of FUS exposure was 0.467 MPa in pressure and 0.05 ms in burst length. The signal intensity (SI) of the reconstructions was linearly correlated with the FUS exposure level both in-vitro (r2 = 0.9878) and in-vivo (r2 = 0.9943), and SI level of the reconstructed focal beam also correlated with the success and level of BBB-opening. The proposed approach provides a feasible way to perform real-time and closed-loop control of FUS-based brain drug delivery.

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... types of Doppler ultrasound: Color Doppler uses a computer to convert Doppler measurements into an array of ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... The principles are similar to sonar used by boats and submarines. The ultrasound image is immediately visible ... principles involved in the sonar used by bats, ships and fishermen. When a sound wave strikes an ...

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ... standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the ...

  6. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... sonography , involves the use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer ...

  7. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... use of a small transducer (probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through the gel into the body. The transducer collects the sounds ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... because greater amounts of tissue attenuate (weaken) the sound waves as they pass deeper into the body and need to be returned to the transducer for analysis. Ultrasound has difficulty penetrating bone and, therefore, can ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure to the patient. Because ultrasound images are captured ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  11. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  12. High frame rate and high line density ultrasound imaging for local pulse wave velocity estimation using motion matching: A feasibility study on vessel phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fubing; He, Qiong; Huang, Chengwu; Liu, Ke; Shao, Jinhua; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-04-01

    Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method to visualize the propagation of pulse wave and to quantitatively estimate regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the arteries within the imaging field of view (FOV). To guarantee the reliability of PWV measurement, high frame rate imaging is required, which can be achieved by reducing the line density of ultrasound imaging or transmitting plane wave at the expense of spatial resolution and/or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this study, a composite, full-view imaging method using motion matching was proposed with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data of 4 sub-sectors, each with 34 beams, including a common beam, were acquired successively to achieve a frame rate of ∼507 Hz at an imaging depth of 35 mm. The acceleration profiles of the vessel wall estimated from the common beam were used to reconstruct the full-view (38-mm width, 128-beam) image sequence. The feasibility of mapping local PWV variation along the artery using PWI technique was preliminarily validated on both homogeneous and inhomogeneous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel vessel phantoms. Regional PWVs for the three homogeneous phantoms measured by the proposed method were in accordance with the sparse imaging method (38-mm width, 32-beam) and plane wave imaging method. Local PWV was estimated using the above-mentioned three methods on 3 inhomogeneous phantoms, and good agreement was obtained in both the softer (1.91±0.24 m/s, 1.97±0.27 m/s and 1.78±0.28 m/s) and the stiffer region (4.17±0.46 m/s, 3.99±0.53 m/s and 4.27±0.49 m/s) of the phantoms. In addition to the improved spatial resolution, higher precision of local PWV estimation in low SNR circumstances was also obtained by the proposed method as compared with the sparse imaging method. The proposed method might be helpful in disease detections through mapping the local PWV of the vascular wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... probe) and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the ... the transducer (the device placed on the patient's skin to send and receive the returning sound waves), ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, ... capabilities) during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... and ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe ... during a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

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    Full Text Available ... ultrasound gel placed directly on the skin. High-frequency sound waves are transmitted from the probe through ... a single exam. The transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) ...

  17. Basics of biomedical ultrasound for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Azhari, Haim

    2010-01-01

    "Basics of Biomedical Ultrasound for Engineers is a structured textbook for university engineering courses in biomedical ultrasound and for researchers in the field. This book offers a tool for building a solid understanding of biomedical ultrasound, and leads the novice through the field in a step-by-step manner. The book begins with the most basic definitions of waves, proceeds to ultrasounds in fluids, and then delves into solid ultrasounds, the most complicated kind of ultrasound. It encompasses a wide range of topics within biomedical ultrasound, from conceptual definitions of waves to the intricacies of focusing devices, transducers, and acoustic fields"--Provided by publisher.

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy uses sound waves ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the ...

  19. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Soft Tissue with Ultrasound Vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadich, I.; Bernal, M.; Greenleaf, J. F.

    The cardiovascular diseases atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension and heart failure have been related to stiffening of vessels and myocardium. Noninvasive measurements of mechanical properties of cardiovascular tissue would facilitate detection and treatment of disease in early stages, thus reducing mortality and possibly reducing cost of treatment. While techniques capable of measuring tissue elasticity have been reported, the knowledge of both elasticity and viscosity is necessary to fully characterize mechanical properties of soft tissues. In this article, we summarize the Shearwave Dispersion Ultrasound Vibrometry (SDUV) method developed by our group and report on advances made in characterizing stiffness of large vessels and myocardium. The method uses radiation forceFadiation force to excite shear waves in soft tissue and pulse echo ultrasound to measure the motion. The speed of propagation of shear waves at different frequencies is used to generate dispersions curves for excised porcine left-ventricular free-wall myocardium and carotid arteries. An antisymmetric Lamb wave model was fitted to the LV myocardium dispersion curves to obtain elasticity and viscosity moduli. The results suggest that the speed of shear wave propagation in four orthogonal directions on the surface of the excised myocardium is similar. These studies show that the SDUV method has potential for clinical application in noninvasive quantification of elasticity and viscosity of vessels and myocardium.

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...