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Sample records for wave dispersion curves

  1. Parametric study of guided waves dispersion curves for composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predoi, Mihai Valentin; Petre, Cristian Cǎtǎlin; Kettani, Mounsif Ech Cherif El; Leduc, Damien

    2018-02-01

    Nondestructive testing of composite panels benefit from the relatively long range propagation of guided waves in sandwich structures. The guided waves are sensitive to delamination, air bubbles inclusions and cracks and can thus bring information about hidden defects in the composite panel. The preliminary data in all such inspections is represented by the dispersion curves, representing the dependency of the phase/group velocity on the frequency for the propagating modes. In fact, all modes are more or less attenuated, so it is even more important to compute the dispersion curves, which provide also the modal attenuation as function of frequency. Another important aspect is the sensitivity of the dispersion curves on each of the elastic constant of the composite, which are orthotropic in most cases. All these aspects are investigated in the present work, based on our specially developed finite element numerical model implemented in Comsol, which has several advantages over existing methods. The dispersion curves and modal displacements are computed for an example of composite plate. Comparison with literature data validates the accuracy of our results.

  2. Wave equation dispersion inversion using a difference approximation to the dispersion-curve misfit gradient

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Schuster, Gerard T.; Liu, Yike; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh wave dispersion curve using a difference approximation to the gradient of the misfit function. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized

  3. Wave equation dispersion inversion using a difference approximation to the dispersion-curve misfit gradient

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2016-07-26

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh wave dispersion curve using a difference approximation to the gradient of the misfit function. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the skeletonized dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the multi-dimensional elastic wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Our method can invert for lateral velocity variations and also can mitigate the local minimum problem in full waveform inversion with a reasonable computation cost for simple models. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Utilization of multimode Love wave dispersion curve inversion for geotechnical site investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamimu, La; Nawawi, Mohd; Safani, Jamhir

    2011-01-01

    Inversion codes based on a modified genetic algorithm (GA) have been developed to invert multimode Love wave dispersion curves. The multimode Love wave dispersion curves were synthesized from the profile representing shear-wave velocity reversal using a full SH (shear horizontal) waveform. In this study, we used a frequency–slowness transform to extract the dispersion curve from the full SH waveform. Dispersion curves overlain in dispersion images were picked manually. These curves were then inverted using the modified GA. To assess the accuracy of the inversion results, differences between the true and inverted shear-wave velocity profile were quantified in terms of shear-wave velocity and thickness errors, E S and E H . Our numerical modeling showed that the inversion of multimode dispersion curves can significantly provide the better assessment of a shear-wave velocity structure, especially with a velocity reversal profile at typical geotechnical site investigations. This approach has been applied on field data acquired at a site in Niigata prefecture, Japan. In these field data, our inversion results show good agreement between the calculated and experimental dispersion curves and accurately detect low velocity layer targets

  5. Lamb wave extraction of dispersion curves in micro/nano-plates using couple stress theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, Behnam; Yaghootian, Amin; Ghanbar Zadeh, Afshin; Mohammad-Sedighi, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, Lamb wave propagation in a homogeneous and isotropic non-classical micro/nano-plates is investigated. To consider the effect of material microstructure on the wave propagation, three size-dependent models namely indeterminate-, modified- and consistent couple stress theories are used to extract the dispersion equations. In the mentioned theories, a parameter called 'characteristic length' is used to consider the size of material microstructure in the governing equations. To generalize the parametric studies and examine the effect of thickness, propagation wavelength, and characteristic length on the behavior of miniature plate structures, the governing equations are nondimensionalized by defining appropriate dimensionless parameters. Then the dispersion curves for phase and group velocities are plotted in terms of a wide frequency-thickness range to study the lamb waves propagation considering microstructure effects in very high frequencies. According to the illustrated results, it was observed that the couple stress theories in the Cosserat type material predict more rigidity than the classical theory; so that in a plate with constant thickness, by increasing the thickness to characteristic length ratio, the results approach to the classical theory, and by reducing this ratio, wave propagation speed in the plate is significantly increased. In addition, it is demonstrated that for high-frequency Lamb waves, it converges to dispersive Rayleigh wave velocity.

  6. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained

  7. Using Floquet periodicity to easily calculate dispersion curves and wave structures of homogeneous waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Christopher; Rose, Joseph; Shokouhi, Parisa; Lissenden, Clifford

    2018-04-01

    Dispersion curves are essential to any guided-wave-related project. The Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method has become the conventional way to compute dispersion curves for homogeneous waveguides. However, only recently has a general SAFE formulation for commercial and open-source software become available, meaning that until now SAFE analyses have been variable and more time consuming than desirable. Likewise, the Floquet boundary conditions enable analysis of waveguides with periodicity and have been an integral part of the development of metamaterials. In fact, we have found the use of Floquet boundary conditions to be an extremely powerful tool for homogeneous waveguides, too. The nuances of using periodic boundary conditions for homogeneous waveguides that do not exhibit periodicity are discussed. Comparisons between this method and SAFE are made for selected homogeneous waveguide applications. The COMSOL Multiphysics software is used for the results shown, but any standard finite element software that can implement Floquet periodicity (user-defined or built-in) should suffice. Finally, we identify a number of complex waveguides for which dispersion curves can be found with relative ease by using the periodicity inherent to the Floquet boundary conditions.

  8. A numerical study of wave dispersion curves in cylindrical rods with circular cross-section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamos G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a finite element approach for modeling longitudinal wave propagation in thick cylindrical rods with circular cross-section. The formulation is based on simple time domain response of the structure to a properly chosen excitation, and is calculated with an explicit finite element solver. The proposed post-treatment procedure identifies the wavenumber for each mode of wave propagation at the desired frequency. The procedure is implemented and integrated in an efficient way in the explicit finite element code Europlexus. The numerical results are compared to the analytical ones obtained from the solution of the Pochhammer — Chree equation, which provides the dispersion curves for wavetrains in solid cylinders of infinite length.

  9. A method for the measurement of dispersion curves of circumferential guided waves radiating from curved shells: experimental validation and application to a femoral neck mimicking phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauleau, Pierre; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Chekroun, Mathieu; Cassereau, Didier; Laugier, Pascal; Prada, Claire; Grimal, Quentin

    2016-07-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop an ultrasonic method to characterize the thickness, stiffness and porosity of the cortical shell of the femoral neck, which could enhance hip fracture risk prediction. To this purpose, we proposed to adapt a technique based on the measurement of guided waves. We previously evidenced the feasibility of measuring circumferential guided waves in a bone-mimicking phantom of a circular cross-section of even thickness. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the complex geometry of the femoral neck on the measurement of guided waves. Two phantoms of an elliptical cross-section and one phantom of a realistic cross-section were investigated. A 128-element array was used to record the inter-element response matrix of these waveguides. This experiment was simulated using a custom-made hybrid code. The response matrices were analyzed using a technique based on the physics of wave propagation. This method yields portions of dispersion curves of the waveguides which were compared to reference dispersion curves. For the elliptical phantoms, three portions of dispersion curves were determined with a good agreement between experiment, simulation and theory. The method was thus validated. The characteristic dimensions of the shell were found to influence the identification of the circumferential wave signals. The method was then applied to the signals backscattered by the superior half of constant thickness of the realistic phantom. A cut-off frequency and some portions of modes were measured, with a good agreement with the theoretical curves of a plate waveguide. We also observed that the method cannot be applied directly to the signals backscattered by the lower half of varying thicknesses of the phantom. The proposed approach could then be considered to evaluate the properties of the superior part of the femoral neck, which is known to be a clinically relevant site.

  10. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-12-08

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  11. Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel

  12. Theoretical Magnon Dispersion Curves for Gd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Harmon, B. N.; Freeman, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The magnon dispersion curve of Gd metal has been determined from first principles by use of augmented-plane-wave energy bands and wave functions. The exchange matrix elements I(k⃗, k⃗′) between the 4f electrons and the conduction electrons from the first six energy bands were calculated under...

  13. NOISY DISPERSION CURVE PICKING (NDCP): a Matlab friendly suite package for fully control dispersion curve picking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, I.; Calo, M.; Ramos, V.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a Matlab suite package (NDCP, Noisy Dispersion Curve Picking) that allows a full control over parameters to identify correctly group velocity dispersion curves in two types of datasets: correlograms between two stations or surface wave records from earthquakes. Using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN), the procedure to obtain the dispersion curves from records with a high noise level becomes difficult, and sometimes, the picked curve result in a misinterpreted character. For correlogram functions, obtained with cross-correlation of noise records or earthquake's coda, a non-homogeneous noise sources distribution yield to a non-symmetric Green's function (GF); to retrieve the complete information contained in there, NDCP allows to pick the dispersion curve in the time domain both in the causal and non-causal part of the GF. Then the picked dispersion curve is displayed on the FTAN diagram to in order to check if it matches with the maximum of the signal energy avoiding confusion with overtones or spike of noise. To illustrate how NDCP performs, we show exemple using: i) local correlograms functions obtained from sensors deployed into a volcanic caldera (Los Humeros, in Puebla, Mexico), ii) regional correlograms functions between two stations of the National Seismological Service (SSN, Servicio Sismológico Nacional in Spanish), and iii) surface wave seismic record for an earthquake located in the Pacific Ocean coast of Mexico and recorded by the SSN. This work is supported by the GEMEX project (Geothermal Europe-Mexico consortium).

  14. Rayleigh Wave Dispersion Due to Spatial (FEM) Discretization of a thin Elastic Solid Having Non-Curved Boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brepta, R.; Valeš, F.; Červ, Jan; Tikal, B.

    1996-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 6 (1996), s. 1233-1244 ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/93/1195 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : thin elastic body * Rayleigh waves * grid dispersion Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.254, year: 1996 http://apps.isiknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=1&SID=U2EJknka3H@mKemE37@&page=1&doc=1&colname=WOS

  15. Skeletonized wave equation of surface wave dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-09-06

    We present the theory for wave equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. Similar to wave-equation travel-time inversion, the complicated surface-wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the (kx,ω) domain. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2D or 3D velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is less prone to the cycle skipping problems of full waveform inversion (FWI). The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distribution in laterally heterogeneous media.

  16. Phonon dispersion curves for CsCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, N.K.; Singh, Preeti; Rini, E.G.; Galgale, Jyostna; Singh, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The motivation for the present work was gained from the recent publication on phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) of CsCN from the neutron scattering technique. We have applied the extended three-body force shell model (ETSM) by incorporating the effect of coupling between the translation modes and the orientation of cyanide molecules for the description of phonon dispersion curves of CsCN between the temperatures 195 and 295 K. Our results on PDCs in symmetric direction are in good agreement with the experimental data measured with inelastic neutron scattering technique. (author)

  17. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  18. Study on evaluation methods for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Tao, X.; Kayen, R.; Shi, H.; Yan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic is the key step for detecting S-wave velocity structure. By comparing the dispersion curves directly with the spectra analysis of surface waves (SASW) method, rather than comparing the S-wave velocity structure, the validity and precision of microtremor-array method (MAM) can be evaluated more objectively. The results from the China - US joint surface wave investigation in 26 sites in Tangshan, China, show that the MAM has the same precision with SASW method in 83% of the 26 sites. The MAM is valid for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic testing and has great application potentiality for site S-wave velocity structure detection.

  19. Modeling of Rayleigh wave dispersion in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Badal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase and group velocities of 15–70 s Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian Peninsula have been transformed into local dispersion curves by linear inversion of travel times. The procedure permits that the waveform dispersion to be obtained as a continuous period-dependent velocity function at grid points belonging to the area probed by the waves, thus providing phase- and group-velocity contour maps for several periods within the interval of interest. The regionalization process rests on a homogeneous initial data set in which the number of observations remains almost constant for all periods of reference. Damped least-squares inversion of the local dispersion curves for shear-wave velocity structure is performed to obtain depth-dependent S-wave velocity profiles at the grid points covering the model region. The reliability of the results should improve significantly owing to the use of phase and group velocities simultaneously. On this basis, we have built horizontal depth sections that give an updated view of the seismic velocity structure of the peninsula at lithospheric and upper mantle depths (20–200 km. After averaging all the pure-path S-wave velocities previously determined at each grid point, the velocity-depth models so obtained for major tectonic units allow the comparison between the Hercynian basement and other areas of Mesozoic folding and Tertiary basins.

  20. Wave dispersion relations in two-dimensional Yukawa systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanhong; Liu Bin; Chen Yanping; Yang Size; Wang Long; Wang Xiaogang

    2003-01-01

    Collective modes in a two-dimensional Yukawa system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation in a wide range of coupling parameter Γ and screening strength κ. The dispersion relations and sound speeds of the transverse and longitudinal waves obtained for hexagonal lattice are in agreement with the theoretical results. The negative dispersion of the longitudinal wave is demonstrated. Frequency gaps are found on the dispersion curves of the transverse wave due to scattering of the waves on lattice defects for proper values of Γ. The common frequency of transverse and longitudinal waves drops dramatically with the increasing screening strength κ

  1. Phonon dispersion curves of fcc La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassis, C.; Loong, C.; Zarestky, J.

    1982-01-01

    Large single crystals of fcc La were grown in situ and were used to study the lattice dynamics of this phase of La by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves have been measured along the [xi00], [xixi0], [xixixi], and [0xi1] symmetry directions at 660 and 1100 K. The T[xixixi] branch exhibits anomalous dispersion for xi>0.25 and, in addition, close to the zone boundary, the phonon frequencies of this branch decrease with decreasing temperature. This soft-mode behavior may be related to the #betta→α# transformation in La, an assumption supported by recent band-theoretical calculations of the generalized susceptibility of fcc La. At X the frequencies of the L[xi00] branch are considerably lower than those of the corresponding branch of #betta#-Ce; a similar but not as pronounced effect is observed for the frequencies of the L[xixixi] branch close to the point L. Since the calculated generalized susceptibility of fcc La exhibits strong peaks at X and L, these anomalies may be due to the renormalization of the phonon frequencies by virtual fbold-arrow-left-rightd transitions to the unoccupied 4f level in La. The data were used to evaluate the elastic constants, the phonon density of states, and the lattice specific heat at constant pressure C/sub P//sup

  2. Theoretical Aspects of Phonon Dispersion Curves for Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, W.

    1965-01-01

    Reasonably complete knowledge of the phonon dispersion curves for at least a dozen metallic elements and intermetallic compounds has now been obtained from neutron inelastic scattering experiments. The results have one feature in common: when analysed in terms of interatomic force constants they reveal the presence of comparatively long-range forces extending over several atomic spacings. The results for lead are particularly interesting; it did not prove possible to fit them by a force-constant model, but the dispersion curves for wave vectors in symmetry directions when analysed in terms of force constants between planes of atoms showed an oscillatory interatomic potential extending over distances of more than 20Å. This review is concerned with recent theoretical work which has a bearing on the calculation of phonon dispersion curves for metals and the explanation of the long range of the interatomic potential. The best hope at present for a general treatment of atomic interaction in metals appears to lie in the ''method of neutral pseudo-atoms'', (a description recently coined by Ziman). This approximate theory is outlined and its relevance to Kohn anomalies in phonon dispersion curves is discussed. Experimental data for sodium is consistent with the theory, and the interatomic potential in sodium varies periodically in a distance π/k F , where fik F is the Fermi momentum, as has already been demonstrated by Koenig in a different way. More exact calculations have been made for sodium by Toya and by Sham. The relationship between the different methods and other work of a more general character such as that of Harrison are discussed. (author) [fr

  3. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1973-01-01

    A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  4. Databases of surface wave dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Boschi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations of seismic surface waves provide the most important constraint on the elastic properties of the Earth’s lithosphere and upper mantle. Two databases of fundamental mode surface wave dispersion were recently compiled and published by groups at Harvard (Ekström et al., 1997 and Utrecht/Oxford (Trampert and Woodhouse, 1995, 2001, and later employed in 3-d global tomographic studies. Although based on similar sets of seismic records, the two databases show some significant discrepancies. We derive phase velocity maps from both, and compare them to quantify the discrepancies and assess the relative quality of the data; in this endeavour, we take careful account of the effects of regularization and parametrization. At short periods, where Love waves are mostly sensitive to crustal structure and thickness, we refer our comparison to a map of the Earth’s crust derived from independent data. On the assumption that second-order effects like seismic anisotropy and scattering can be neglected, we find the measurements of Ekström et al. (1997 of better quality; those of Trampert and Woodhouse (2001 result in phase velocity maps of much higher spatial frequency and, accordingly, more difficult to explain and justify geophysically. The discrepancy is partly explained by the more conservative a priori selection of data implemented by Ekström et al. (1997. Nevertheless, it becomes more significant with decreasing period, which indicates that it could also be traced to the different measurement techniques employed by the authors.

  5. Ablation front rayleigh taylor dispersion curve in indirect drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budil, K.S.; Lasinski, B.; Edwards, M.J.; Wan, A.S.; Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Glendinning, S.G.; Suter, L.; Stry, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, which occurs when a lower-density fluid accelerates a higher-density layer, is common in nature. At an ablation front a sharp reduction in the growth rate of the instability at short wave-lengths can occur, in marked contrast to the classical case where growth rates are highest at the shortest wavelengths. Theoretical and numerical investigations of the ablative RT instability are numerous and differ considerably on the level of stabilization expected. We present here the results of a series of laser experiments designed to probe the roll-over and cutoff region of the ablation-front RT dispersion curve in indirect drive. Aluminum foils with imposed sinusoidal perturbations ranging in wavelength from 10 to 70 pm were ablatively accelerated with a radiation drive generated in a gold cylindrical hohlraum. A strong shock wave compresses the package followed by an ∼2 ns period of roughly constant acceleration and the experiment is diagnosed via face-on radiography. Perturbations with wavelengths (ge) 20 (micro)m experienced substantial growth during the acceleration phase while shorter wavelengths showed a sharp drop off in overall growth. These experimental results compared favorably to calculations with a 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics code, however, the growth is significantly affected by the rippled shock launched by the drive. We performed numerical simulations to elucidate the influence of the rippled shock wave on the eventual growth of the perturbations, allowing comparisons to the analytic model developed by Betti et al. This combination of experiments, simulations and analytic modeling illustrates the qualitative simplicity yet quantitative complexity of the compressible RT instability. We have measured the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) dispersion curve for a radiatively-driven sample in a series of experiments on the Nova laser facility. Planar aluminum foils were ablatively-accelerated and the subsequent perturbation growth was

  6. Wave-equation dispersion inversion of surface waves recorded on irregular topography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-08-17

    Significant topographic variations will strongly influence the amplitudes and phases of propagating surface waves. Such effects should be taken into account, otherwise the S-velocity model inverted from the Rayleigh dispersion curves will contain significant inaccuracies. We now show that the recently developed wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) method naturally takes into account the effects of topography to give accurate S-velocity tomograms. Application of topographic WD to demonstrates that WD can accurately invert dispersion curves from seismic data recorded over variable topography. We also apply this method to field data recorded on the crest of mountainous terrain and find with higher resolution than the standard WD tomogram.

  7. Wave-equation dispersion inversion of surface waves recorded on irregular topography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.; Lin, Fan-Chi; Alam, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Significant topographic variations will strongly influence the amplitudes and phases of propagating surface waves. Such effects should be taken into account, otherwise the S-velocity model inverted from the Rayleigh dispersion curves will contain significant inaccuracies. We now show that the recently developed wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) method naturally takes into account the effects of topography to give accurate S-velocity tomograms. Application of topographic WD to demonstrates that WD can accurately invert dispersion curves from seismic data recorded over variable topography. We also apply this method to field data recorded on the crest of mountainous terrain and find with higher resolution than the standard WD tomogram.

  8. Wave modulation in a nonlinear dispersive medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.C.; Khadra, L.; Powers, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    A model describing the simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation of a carrier wave propagating in a nonlinear dispersive medium is developed in terms of nonlinear wave-wave interactions between the sidebands and a low frequency wave. It is also shown that the asymmetric distribution of sidebands is determined by the wavenumber dependence of the coupling coefficient. Digital complex demodulation techniques are used to study modulated waves in a weakly ionized plasma and the experimental results support the analytical model

  9. Determination of Dispersion Curves for Composite Materials with the Use of Stiffness Matrix Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barski Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Elastic waves used in Structural Health Monitoring systems have strongly dispersive character. Therefore it is necessary to determine the appropriate dispersion curves in order to proper interpretation of a received dynamic response of an analyzed structure. The shape of dispersion curves as well as number of wave modes depends on mechanical properties of layers and frequency of an excited signal. In the current work, the relatively new approach is utilized, namely stiffness matrix method. In contrast to transfer matrix method or global matrix method, this algorithm is considered as numerically unconditionally stable and as effective as transfer matrix approach. However, it will be demonstrated that in the case of hybrid composites, where mechanical properties of particular layers differ significantly, obtaining results could be difficult. The theoretical relationships are presented for the composite plate of arbitrary stacking sequence and arbitrary direction of elastic waves propagation. As a numerical example, the dispersion curves are estimated for the lamina, which is made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin. It is assumed that elastic waves travel in the parallel, perpendicular and arbitrary direction to the fibers in lamina. Next, the dispersion curves are determined for the following laminate [0°, 90°, 0°, 90°, 0°, 90°, 0°, 90°] and hybrid [Al, 90°, 0°, 90°, 0°, 90°, 0°], where Al is the aluminum alloy PA38 and the rest of layers are made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin.

  10. Optimized nonlinear inversion of surface-wave dispersion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raykova, Reneta B.

    2014-01-01

    A new code for inversion of surface wave dispersion data is developed to obtain Earth’s crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. The author developed Optimized Non–Linear Inversion ( ONLI ) software, based on Monte-Carlo search. The values of S–wave velocity VS and thickness h for a number of horizontal homogeneous layers are parameterized. Velocity of P–wave VP and density ρ of relevant layers are calculated by empirical or theoretical relations. ONLI explores parameters space in two modes, selective and full search, and the main innovation of software is evaluation of tested models. Theoretical dispersion curves are calculated if tested model satisfied specific conditions only, reducing considerably the computation time. A number of tests explored impact of parameterization and proved the ability of ONLI approach to deal successfully with non–uniqueness of inversion problem. Key words: Earth’s structure, surface–wave dispersion, non–linear inversion, software

  11. Electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Yun; Wang, Yong-Long; Liang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Fan; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2018-03-01

    By using the thin-layer approach, we derive the effective equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating along a space curve. We find intrinsic spin-orbit, extrinsic spin-orbit, and extrinsic orbital angular-momentum and intrinsic orbital angular-momentum couplings induced by torsion, which can lead to geometric phase, spin, and orbital Hall effects. And we show the helicity inversion induced by curvature that can convert a right-handed circularly polarized electromagnetic wave into a left-handed polarized one, vice versa. Finally, we demonstrate that the gauge invariance of the effective dynamics is protected by the geometrically induced gauge potential.

  12. Multimodal determination of Rayleigh dispersion and attenuation curves using the circle fit method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verachtert, R.; Lombaert, G.; Degrande, G.

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces the circle fit method for the determination of multi-modal Rayleigh dispersion and attenuation curves as part of a Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) experiment. The wave field is transformed to the frequency-wavenumber (fk) domain using a discretized Hankel transform. In a Nyquist plot of the fk-spectrum, displaying the imaginary part against the real part, the Rayleigh wave modes correspond to circles. The experimental Rayleigh dispersion and attenuation curves are derived from the angular sweep of the central angle of these circles. The method can also be applied to the analytical fk-spectrum of the Green's function of a layered half-space in order to compute dispersion and attenuation curves, as an alternative to solving an eigenvalue problem. A MASW experiment is subsequently simulated for a site with a regular velocity profile and a site with a soft layer trapped between two stiffer layers. The performance of the circle fit method to determine the dispersion and attenuation curves is compared with the peak picking method and the half-power bandwidth method. The circle fit method is found to be the most accurate and robust method for the determination of the dispersion curves. When determining attenuation curves, the circle fit method and half-power bandwidth method are accurate if the mode exhibits a sharp peak in the fk-spectrum. Furthermore, simulated and theoretical attenuation curves determined with the circle fit method agree very well. A similar correspondence is not obtained when using the half-power bandwidth method. Finally, the circle fit method is applied to measurement data obtained for a MASW experiment at a site in Heverlee, Belgium. In order to validate the soil profile obtained from the inversion procedure, force-velocity transfer functions were computed and found in good correspondence with the experimental transfer functions, especially in the frequency range between 5 and 80 Hz.

  13. Mode Identification of Guided Waves in a Curved Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung-Seop; Lim, Sa-Hoe; Kim, Jae-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave technique has been widely employed for the long range inspection of structures such as plates and pipes because it has the ability to propagate over long distances. In the nuclear power field, there recently appeared a need for on-line nondestructive monitoring which can be employed during the operation stage of power plants. As ultrasonic guided waves have shown promise for on-line monitoring of power plants, a lot of work has been done in the institutes and universities on this matter. In the case of detecting defects in simple straight pipes, the dispersion curves obtained from the modeling processes are closely akin to the experimental results. But the modeling of wave propagation in some structures, such as an elbow region of a pipe, is not practical due to elbow echo and unpredictable interface conditions. This paper presents an experimental approach to identify the most dominant modes of guided waves in a curved region of a pipe, which is a key factor in detecting flaws in a pipe

  14. Dispersion relation for pure dust Bernstein waves in a non-Maxwellian magnetized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeba, F.; Ahmad, Zahoor; Murtaza, G.

    2011-01-01

    Pure dust Bernstein waves are investigated using non-Maxwellian kappa and (r,q) distribution functions in a collisionless, uniform magnetized dusty plasma. Dispersion relations for both the distributions are derived by considering waves whose frequency is of the order of dust cyclotron frequency, and dispersion curves are plotted. It is observed that the propagation band for dust Bernstein waves is rather narrow as compared with that of the electron Bernstein waves. However, the band width increases for higher harmonics, for both kappa and (r,q) distributions. Effect of dust charge on dispersion curves is also studied, and one observes that with increasing dust charge, the dispersion curves shift toward the lower frequencies. Increasing the dust to ion density ratio ((n d0 /n i0 )) causes the dispersion curve to shift toward the higher frequencies. It is also found that for large values of spectral index kappa (κ), the dispersion curves approach to the Maxwellian curves. The (r,q) distribution approaches the kappa distribution for r = 0, whereas for r > 0, the dispersion curves show deviation from the Maxwellian curves as expected. Relevance of this work can be found in astrophysical plasmas, where non-Maxwellian velocity distributions as well as dust particles are commonly observed.

  15. Dispersion relation for pure dust Bernstein waves in a non-Maxwellian magnetized dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeba, F. [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PAEC, P.O. Box 3329, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Zahoor [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PAEC, P.O. Box 3329, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2011-07-15

    Pure dust Bernstein waves are investigated using non-Maxwellian kappa and (r,q) distribution functions in a collisionless, uniform magnetized dusty plasma. Dispersion relations for both the distributions are derived by considering waves whose frequency is of the order of dust cyclotron frequency, and dispersion curves are plotted. It is observed that the propagation band for dust Bernstein waves is rather narrow as compared with that of the electron Bernstein waves. However, the band width increases for higher harmonics, for both kappa and (r,q) distributions. Effect of dust charge on dispersion curves is also studied, and one observes that with increasing dust charge, the dispersion curves shift toward the lower frequencies. Increasing the dust to ion density ratio ((n{sub d0}/n{sub i0})) causes the dispersion curve to shift toward the higher frequencies. It is also found that for large values of spectral index kappa ({kappa}), the dispersion curves approach to the Maxwellian curves. The (r,q) distribution approaches the kappa distribution for r = 0, whereas for r > 0, the dispersion curves show deviation from the Maxwellian curves as expected. Relevance of this work can be found in astrophysical plasmas, where non-Maxwellian velocity distributions as well as dust particles are commonly observed.

  16. Dispersion curve estimation via a spatial covariance method with ultrasonic wavefield imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, See Yenn; Todd, Michael D

    2018-05-01

    Numerous Lamb wave dispersion curve estimation methods have been developed to support damage detection and localization strategies in non-destructive evaluation/structural health monitoring (NDE/SHM) applications. In this paper, the covariance matrix is used to extract features from an ultrasonic wavefield imaging (UWI) scan in order to estimate the phase and group velocities of S0 and A0 modes. A laser ultrasonic interrogation method based on a Q-switched laser scanning system was used to interrogate full-field ultrasonic signals in a 2-mm aluminum plate at five different frequencies. These full-field ultrasonic signals were processed in three-dimensional space-time domain. Then, the time-dependent covariance matrices of the UWI were obtained based on the vector variables in Cartesian and polar coordinate spaces for all time samples. A spatial covariance map was constructed to show spatial correlations within the full wavefield. It was observed that the variances may be used as a feature for S0 and A0 mode properties. The phase velocity and the group velocity were found using a variance map and an enveloped variance map, respectively, at five different frequencies. This facilitated the estimation of Lamb wave dispersion curves. The estimated dispersion curves of the S0 and A0 modes showed good agreement with the theoretical dispersion curves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Robust Imaging Methodology for Challenging Environments: Wave Equation Dispersion Inversion of Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-12-22

    A robust imaging technology is reviewed that provide subsurface information in challenging environments: wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) of surface waves for the shear velocity model. We demonstrate the benefits and liabilities of the method with synthetic seismograms and field data. The benefits of WD are that 1) there is no layered medium assumption, as there is in conventional inversion of dispersion curves, so that the 2D or 3D S-velocity model can be reliably obtained with seismic surveys over rugged topography, and 2) WD mostly avoids getting stuck in local minima. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can accurately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic media and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love wave. The liability is that is almost as expensive as FWI and only recovers the Vs distribution to a depth no deeper than about 1/2~1/3 wavelength.

  18. Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans

    2010-02-01

    The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].

  19. Absorption and dispersion of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Herzfeld, Karl F; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A

    1959-01-01

    Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves focuses on the influence of ultrasonics on molecular processes in liquids and gases, including hydrodynamics, energy exchange, and chemical reactions. The book first offers information on the Stokes-Navier equations of hydrodynamics, as well as equations of motion, viscosity, formal introduction of volume viscosity, and linearized wave equation for a nonviscous fluid. The manuscript then ponders on energy exchange between internal and external degrees of freedom as relaxation phenomenon; effect of slow energy exchange on sound propagation; differe

  20. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs

  1. Generalized dispersive wave emission in nonlinear fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, K E; Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We show that the emission of dispersive waves in nonlinear fiber optics is not limited to soliton-like pulses propagating in the anomalous dispersion regime. We demonstrate, both numerically and experimentally, that pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime can excite resonant dispersive radiation across the zero-dispersion wavelength into the anomalous regime.

  2. Dispersive Wave Analysis Using the Chirplet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerber, Florian; Luangvilai, Kritsakorn; Kuttig, Helge; Niethammer, Marc; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2007-01-01

    Time-frequency representations (TFR) are a widely used tool to analyze signals of guided waves such as Lamb waves. As a consequence of the uncertainty principle, however, the resolution in time and frequency is limited for all existing TFR methods. Due to the multi-modal and dispersive character of Lamb waves, displacement or energy related quantities can only be allocated to individual modes when they are well-separated in the time-frequency plane.The chirplet transform (CT) has been introduced as a generalization of both the wavelet and Short-time Fourier transform (STFT). It offers additional degrees of freedom to adjust time-frequency atoms which can be exploited in a model-based approach to match the group delay of individual modes. Thus, more exact allocation of quantities of interest is possible.The objective of this research is to use a previously developed adaptive algorithm based on the CT for nondestructive evaluation. Both numerically and experimentally generated data for a single aluminum plate is analyzed to determine the accuracy and robustness of the new method in comparison the classical STFT

  3. Dispersion of axially symmetric waves in fluid-filled cylindrical shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, X.L.; Überall, H.; Raju, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    Acoustic waves normally incident on an elastic cylindrical shell can cause the excitation of circumferential elastic waves on the shell. These shells may be empty and fluid immersed, or fluid filled in an ambient medium of air, or doubly fluid loaded inside and out. Circumferential waves...... on such shells have been investigated for the case of aluminum shells, and their phase-velocity dispersion curves have been obtained for double fluid loading [Bao, Raju, and Überall, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 2704 (1999)]. Similar results were obtained for empty or fluid-filled brass shells [Kumar, Acustica 27......, 317 (1972)]. We have extended the work of Kumar to the case of fluid-filled aluminum shells and steel shells imbedded in air. These cases demonstrate the existence of circumferential waves traveling in the filler fluid, exhibiting a certain simplicity of the dispersion curves of these waves...

  4. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Liu, Yike; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve

  5. P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration are independently associated with rapid renal function decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ho-Ming; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    The P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as noninvasive tools to assess for left atrial enlargement. There are limited studies to evaluate whether P wave parameters are independently associated with decline in renal function. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to assess whether P wave parameters are independently associated with progression to renal end point of ≥25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This longitudinal study included 166 patients. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected by heart rate, i.e. corrected P wave dispersion (PWdisperC) and corrected P wave maximum duration (PWdurMaxC). Heart function and structure were measured from echocardiography. Clinical data, P wave parameters, and echocardiographic measurements were compared and analyzed. Forty-three patients (25.9%) reached renal end point. Kaplan-Meier curves for renal end point-free survival showed PWdisperC > median (63.0 ms) (log-rank P = 0.004) and PWdurMaxC > median (117.9 ms) (log-rank Pfunction decline.

  6. Deep structure of the Alborz Mountains by joint inversion of P receiver functions and dispersion curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastgoo, Mehdi; Rahimi, Habib; Motaghi, Khalil; Shabanian, Esmaeil; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2018-04-01

    The Alborz Mountains represent a tectonically and seismically active convergent boundary in the Arabia - Eurasia collision zone, in western Asia. The orogenic belt has undergone a long-lasted tectono-magmatic history since the Cretaceous. The relationship between shallow and deep structures in this complex tectonic domain is not straightforward. We present a 2D velocity model constructed by the assemblage of 1D shear wave velocity (Vs) models from 26 seismic stations, mainly distributed along the southern flank of the Alborz Mountains. The shear wave velocity structure has been estimated beneath each station using joint inversion of P-waves receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. A substantiation of the Vs inversion results sits on the modeling of Bouguer gravity anomaly data. Our velocity and density models show low velocity/density anomalies in uppermost mantle of western and central Alborz at a depth range of ∼50-100 km. In deeper parts of the uppermost mantle (depth range of 100-150 km), a high velocity/density anomaly is located beneath most of the Mountain range. The spatial pattern of these low and high velocity/density structures in the upper mantle is interpreted as the result of post collisional delamination of lower part of the western and central Alborz lithosphere.

  7. Quaternion wave equations in curved space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J. D., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The quaternion formulation of relativistic quantum theory is extended to include curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time in order to provide a framework for a unified quantum/gravity theory. Six basic quaternion fields are identified in curved space-time, the four-vector basis quaternions are identified, and the necessary covariant derivatives are obtained. Invariant field equations are derived, and a general invertable coordinate transformation is developed. The results yield a way of writing quaternion wave equations in curvilinear coordinates and curved space-time as well as a natural framework for solving the problem of second quantization for gravity.

  8. Anomalous dispersion properties of TM waves in subwavelength metallic waveguides loaded by uniaxial metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanghui, E-mail: wanggh@scnu.edu.cn; Lei, Yuandong; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-02-20

    Dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) waves in a subwavelength metallic waveguide loaded by uniaxial metamaterials are investigated, based on two kinds of uniaxial metamaterials with different orientations of optical axis. The numerical results show that the existence of fundamental TM{sub 0} mode and high-order TM modes in the waveguide system is dependent on the orientation of optical axis. In addition, their anomalous dispersion properties are clarified. When the orientation of optical axis is selected properly, there are two branches of dispersion curves for each high-order mode—one is normal dispersion and another belongs to anomalous dispersion, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one with the increase of working frequency. Moreover, the group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM{sub 1} mode are also demonstrated. These properties may have potential applications in optical information storage, integrated optics and nanophotonic devices. - Highlights: • Two kinds of subwavelength uniaxial metamaterial waveguides are constructed. • We demonstrate anomalous dispersion properties of transverse magnetic (TM) guided modes. • There are two branches of dispersion curves for high-order TM modes, showing a transition from a backward wave to a forward one. • Group velocity can approach to zero, having potential application in optical information storage. • Negative group velocity and energy flow distribution for TM modes are shown.

  9. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)], E-mail: pintu@ipr.res.in; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2007-09-03

    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and MnO{sub 2} dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of {partial_derivative}{omega}/{partial_derivative}k<0 are identified as signatures of dust-dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects.

  10. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and $MnO_2$ dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of $\\partial\\omega/\\partial k < 0$ are identified as signatures of du...

  11. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and MnO 2 dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of ∂ω/∂k<0 are identified as signatures of dust-dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects

  12. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.

    2007-09-01

    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and MnO2 dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of ∂ω/∂k<0 are identified as signatures of dust dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects.

  13. Model-based dispersive wave processing: A recursive Bayesian solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.; Chambers, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Wave propagation through dispersive media represents a significant problem in many acoustic applications, especially in ocean acoustics, seismology, and nondestructive evaluation. In this paper we propose a propagation model that can easily represent many classes of dispersive waves and proceed to develop the model-based solution to the wave processing problem. It is shown that the underlying wave system is nonlinear and time-variable requiring a recursive processor. Thus the general solution to the model-based dispersive wave enhancement problem is developed using a Bayesian maximum a posteriori (MAP) approach and shown to lead to the recursive, nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF) processor. The problem of internal wave estimation is cast within this framework. The specific processor is developed and applied to data synthesized by a sophisticated simulator demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. copyright 1999 Acoustical Society of America.

  14. On the effect of damping on dispersion curves in plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manconia, Elisabetta; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study on quantitative prediction and understanding of time-harmonic wave characteristics in damped plates. Material dissipation is modelled by using complex-valued velocities of free dilatation and shear waves in an unbounded volume. As a numerical example, solution...

  15. Creation evidence of the second non-dispersive Zakharenko wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    create the third non-dispersive Zakharenko wave [1] (the positive roton or fourth sound) by ..... ('thermal phonons' or 'resistive phonons') instead of 'negative rotons' in the liquid ... the energy conservation law that allow us to state that such BEE ...

  16. On the propagation of truncated localized waves in dispersive silica

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica and free space are numerically analyzed. It is shown that those characteristics are affected by the changes in the relation between the transverse spatial

  17. Robust Imaging Methodology for Challenging Environments: Wave Equation Dispersion Inversion of Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Schuster, Gerard T.; Zeng, Zhaofa

    2017-01-01

    A robust imaging technology is reviewed that provide subsurface information in challenging environments: wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD) of surface waves for the shear velocity model. We demonstrate the benefits and liabilities of the method

  18. Pc1 pearl waves with magnetosonic dispersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feygin, F. Z.; Nekrasov, A. K.; Pikkarainen, T.; Raita, T.; Prikner, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 14 (2007), s. 1644-1650 ISSN 1364-6826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : magnetosphere * geomagnetic pulsations * Alfvén waves * magnetosonic waves Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.566, year: 2007

  19. Evolution of Modulated Dispersive Electron Waves in a Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugai, H.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1979-01-01

    The linear propagation of amplitude-modulated electron waves was examined in a low-density Q-machine plasma. Three effects of the strong dispersion on the modulated wave have been demonstrated: (i) a wavepacket expands along its direction of propagation, followed by a shift of the frequency through...

  20. Competition and Dispersal in Predator-Prey Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savill, N.J.; Hogeweg, P.

    1998-01-01

    Dispersing predators and prey can exhibit complex spatio-temporal wave-like patterns if the interactions between them cause oscillatory dynamics. We study the effect of these predator- prey density waves on the competition between prey populations and between predator popu- lations with different

  1. Variational Boussinesq model for strongly nonlinear dispersive waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrence, C.; Adytia, D.; van Groesen, E.

    2018-01-01

    For wave tank, coastal and oceanic applications, a fully nonlinear Variational Boussinesq model with optimized dispersion is derived and a simple Finite Element implementation is described. Improving a previous weakly nonlinear version, high waves over flat and varying bottom are shown to be

  2. Rogue and shock waves in nonlinear dispersive media

    CERN Document Server

    Resitori, Stefania; Baronio, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained set of lectures addresses a gap in the literature by providing a systematic link between the theoretical foundations of the subject matter and cutting-edge applications in both geophysical fluid dynamics and nonlinear optics. Rogue and shock waves are phenomena that may occur in the propagation of waves in any nonlinear dispersive medium. Accordingly, they have been observed in disparate settings – as ocean waves, in nonlinear optics, in Bose-Einstein condensates, and in plasmas. Rogue and dispersive shock waves are both characterized by the development of extremes: for the former, the wave amplitude becomes unusually large, while for the latter, gradients reach extreme values. Both aspects strongly influence the statistical properties of the wave propagation and are thus considered together here in terms of their underlying theoretical treatment. This book offers a self-contained graduate-level text intended as both an introduction and reference guide for a new generation of scientists ...

  3. Dispersion calculation method based on S-transform and coordinate rotation for Love channel waves with two components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Zhang, Yugui

    2017-08-01

    Dispersion analysis is an important part of in-seam seismic data processing, and the calculation accuracy of the dispersion curve directly influences pickup errors of channel wave travel time. To extract an accurate channel wave dispersion curve from in-seam seismic two-component signals, we proposed a time-frequency analysis method based on single-trace signal processing; in addition, we formulated a dispersion calculation equation, based on S-transform, with a freely adjusted filter window width. To unify the azimuth of seismic wave propagation received by a two-component geophone, the original in-seam seismic data undergoes coordinate rotation. The rotation angle can be calculated based on P-wave characteristics, with high energy in the wave propagation direction and weak energy in the vertical direction. With this angle acquisition, a two-component signal can be converted to horizontal and vertical directions. Because Love channel waves have a particle vibration track perpendicular to the wave propagation direction, the signal in the horizontal and vertical directions is mainly Love channel waves. More accurate dispersion characters of Love channel waves can be extracted after the coordinate rotation of two-component signals.

  4. Travelling wave solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arshad

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we constructed different form of new exact solutions of generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov and dispersive long wave equations by utilizing the modified extended direct algebraic method. New exact traveling wave solutions for both equations are obtained in the form of soliton, periodic, bright, and dark solitary wave solutions. There are many applications of the present traveling wave solutions in physics and furthermore, a wide class of coupled nonlinear evolution equations can be solved by this method. Keywords: Traveling wave solutions, Elliptic solutions, Generalized coupled Zakharov–Kuznetsov equation, Dispersive long wave equation, Modified extended direct algebraic method

  5. The collapse of acoustic waves in dispersive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, E.A.; Musher, S.L.; Shafarenko, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    The existence of the collapse of acoustic waves with a positive dispersion is demonstrated. A qualitative description of wave collapse, based on the analysis of invariants, is proposed. Through the use of a numerical simulation, it is established that, in the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili three-dimensional equation, collapse is accompanied by the formation of a weakly turbulent background by the wave radiation from the cavity

  6. Dispersive shock waves in nonlinear and atomic optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamchatnov Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review is given of dispersive shock waves observed in nonlinear optics and dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. The theory of dispersive shock waves is developed on the basis of Whitham modulation theory for various situations taking place in these two fields. In particular, the full classification is established for types of wave structures evolving from initial discontinuities for propagation of long light pulses in fibers with account of steepening effect and for dynamics of the polarization mode in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.

  7. Propagation and dispersion of shock waves in magnetoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, R. S.; Domann, J. P.; Carman, G. P.; Gupta, V.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies examining the response of magnetoelastic materials to shock waves have predominantly focused on applications involving pulsed power generation, with limited attention given to the actual wave propagation characteristics. This study provides detailed magnetic and mechanical measurements of magnetoelastic shock wave propagation and dispersion. Laser generated rarefacted shock waves exceeding 3 GPa with rise times of 10 ns were introduced to samples of the magnetoelastic material Galfenol. The resulting mechanical measurements reveal the evolution of the shock into a compressive acoustic front with lateral release waves. Importantly, the wave continues to disperse even after it has decayed into an acoustic wave, due in large part to magnetoelastic coupling. The magnetic data reveal predominantly shear wave mediated magnetoelastic coupling, and were also used to noninvasively measure the wave speed. The external magnetic field controlled a 30% increase in wave propagation speed, attributed to a 70% increase in average stiffness. Finally, magnetic signals propagating along the sample over 20× faster than the mechanical wave were measured, indicating these materials can act as passive antennas that transmit information in response to mechanical stimuli.

  8. Dispersion surfaces and ion wave instabilities in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M

    1985-08-01

    In this thesis, the dispersion relation of linear waves in a non-relativistic, collisionless and homogeneous plasma in a uniform magnetic field, is solved numerically. Both electrostatic and elecromagnetic waves with frequencies from below the ion gyrofrequency to above the electron gyrofrequency are studied for all angles of propagation. Modes occurring in a cold plasma as well as waves dependent on thermal effects are included. Dispersion surfaces, that is plots of frequency versus wavevector components, are presented for some models of space plasmas. Waves with frequencies of the order of the ion gyrofrequency (ion waves), are well known to exist in space plasmas. In this thesis, the generation of ion waves by ion distributions with loss-cones or temperature anisotropies, or by beams of charged particles, is investigated by numerical methods. Effects of heavy ions are considered. Dispersion surfaces and analytical arguments are used to clarify the results. It is shown that particle beams and ion loss-cone distributions can generate electrostatic ion waves, even when a significant amount of the electrons are cool. These calculations are in agreement with simultaneous observatons of waves and particles obtained by a satellite on auroral field lines. (author)

  9. Dispersion of acoustic surface waves by velocity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S. D.; Kim, H. C.

    1987-10-01

    The perturbation theory of Auld [Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids (Wiley, New York, 1973), Vol. II, p. 294], which describes the effect of a subsurface gradient on the velocity dispersion of surface waves, has been modified to a simpler form by an approximation using a newly defined velocity gradient for the case of isotropic materials. The modified theory is applied to nitrogen implantation in AISI 4140 steel with a velocity gradient of Gaussian profile, and compared with dispersion data obtained by the ultrasonic right-angle technique in the frequency range from 2.4 to 14.8 MHz. The good agreement between experiments and our theory suggests that the compound layer in the subsurface region plays a dominant role in causing the dispersion of acoustic surface waves.

  10. PARTICLE SCATTERING OFF OF RIGHT-HANDED DISPERSIVE WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, C.; Kilian, P.; Spanier, F., E-mail: cschreiner@astro.uni-wuerzburg.de [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2017-01-10

    Resonant scattering of fast particles off low frequency plasma waves is a major process determining transport characteristics of energetic particles in the heliosphere and contributing to their acceleration. Usually, only Alfvén waves are considered for this process, although dispersive waves are also present throughout the heliosphere. We investigate resonant interaction of energetic electrons with dispersive, right-handed waves. For the interaction of particles and a single wave a variable transformation into the rest frame of the wave can be performed. Here, well-established analytic models derived in the framework of magnetostatic quasi-linear theory can be used as a reference to validate simulation results. However, this approach fails as soon as several dispersive waves are involved. Based on analytic solutions modeling the scattering amplitude in the magnetostatic limit, we present an approach to modify these equations for use in the plasma frame. Thereby we aim at a description of particle scattering in the presence of several waves. A particle-in-cell code is employed to study wave–particle scattering on a micro-physically correct level and to test the modified model equations. We investigate the interactions of electrons at different energies (from 1 keV to 1 MeV) and right-handed waves with various amplitudes. Differences between model and simulation arise in the case of high amplitudes or several waves. Analyzing the trajectories of single particles we find no microscopic diffusion in the case of a single plasma wave, although a broadening of the particle distribution can be observed.

  11. Dispersion properties of transverse waves in electrically polarized BECs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A; Kuz'menkov, L S

    2014-01-01

    Further development of the method of quantum hydrodynamics in applications for Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) is presented. To consider the evolution of polarization direction along with particle movement, we have developed a corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. It includes equations of the polarization evolution and the polarization-current evolution along with the continuity equation and the Euler equation (the momentum-balance equation). Dispersion properties of the transverse waves, including the electromagnetic waves propagating through the BECs, are considered. To this end, we consider a full set of the Maxwell equations for the description of electromagnetic field dynamics. This approximation gives us the possibility of considering the electromagnetic waves along with the matter waves. We find a splitting of the electromagnetic-wave dispersion on two branches. As a result, we have four solutions, two for the electromagnetic waves and two for the matter waves; the last two are the concentration-polarization waves appearing as a generalization of the Bogoliubov mode. We also find that if the matter wave propagates perpendicular to the external electric field then the dipolar contribution does not disappear (as it follows from our generalization of the Bogoliubov spectrum). A small dipolar frequency shift exists in this case due to the transverse electric field of perturbation. (paper)

  12. Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio

    1975-12-15

    A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.

  13. Langmuir wave dispersion relation in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouazene, M.; Annou, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Langmuir wave dispersion relation is derived in partially ionized plasmas, where free electrons are confined to move in a nearest neighbor ions' potential well. The equilibrium velocity distribution function experiences then, a departure from Maxwell distribution function. The effect of the non-Maxwellian character of the distribution function on the Langmuir phase and group velocities as well as the phase matching conditions and the nonlinear growth rate of decay instability is investigated. The proposed Langmuir wave dispersion relation is relevant to dense and cryogenic plasmas.

  14. Generalized dispersion relation for electron Bernstein waves in a non-Maxwellian magnetized anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeba, F.; Ahmad, Zahoor; Murtaza, G.

    2010-01-01

    A generalized dielectric constant for the electron Bernstein waves using non-Maxwellian distribution functions is derived in a collisionless, uniform magnetized plasma. Using the Neumann series expansion for the products of Bessel functions, we can derive the dispersion relations for both kappa and the generalized (r,q) distributions in a straightforward manner. The dispersion relations now become dependent upon the spectral indices κ and (r,q) for the kappa and the generalized (r,q) distribution, respectively. Our results show how the non-Maxwellian dispersion curves deviate from the Maxwellian depending upon the values of the spectral indices chosen. It may be noted that the (r,q) dispersion relation is reduced to the kappa distribution for r=0 and q=κ+1, which, in turn, is further reducible to the Maxwellian distribution for κ→∞.

  15. DNA fingerprinting validates seed dispersal curves from observational studies in the neotropical legume parkia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Eckhard W; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants.

  16. DNA Fingerprinting Validates Seed Dispersal Curves from Observational Studies in the Neotropical Legume Parkia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Eckhard W.; Lüttmann, Kathrin; Michalczyk, Inga M.; Saboya, Pedro Pablo Pinedo; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Bialozyt, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Background Determining the distances over which seeds are dispersed is a crucial component for examining spatial patterns of seed dispersal and their consequences for plant reproductive success and population structure. However, following the fate of individual seeds after removal from the source tree till deposition at a distant place is generally extremely difficult. Here we provide a comparison of observationally and genetically determined seed dispersal distances and dispersal curves in a Neotropical animal-plant system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field study on the dispersal of seeds of three Parkia (Fabaceae) species by two Neotropical primate species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax, in Peruvian Amazonia, we observationally determined dispersal distances. These dispersal distances were then validated through DNA fingerprinting, by matching DNA from the maternally derived seed coat to DNA from potential source trees. We found that dispersal distances are strongly right-skewed, and that distributions obtained through observational and genetic methods and fitted distributions do not differ significantly from each other. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed that seed dispersal distances can be reliably estimated through observational methods when a strict criterion for inclusion of seeds is observed. Furthermore, dispersal distances produced by the two primate species indicated that these primates fulfil one of the criteria for efficient seed dispersers. Finally, our study demonstrated that DNA extraction methods so far employed for temperate plant species can be successfully used for hard-seeded tropical plants. PMID:22514748

  17. Simultaneous realization of slow and fast acoustic waves using a fractal structure of Koch curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin; Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Wei-Wei

    2018-01-24

    An acoustic metamaterial based on a fractal structure, the Koch curve, is designed to simultaneously realize slow and fast acoustic waves. Owing to the multiple transmitting paths in the structure resembling the Koch curve, the acoustic waves travelling along different paths interfere with each other. Therefore, slow waves are created on the basis of the resonance of a Koch-curve-shaped loop, and meanwhile, fast waves even with negative group velocities are obtained due to the destructive interference of two acoustic waves with opposite phases. Thus, the transmission of acoustic wave can be freely manipulated with the Koch-curve shaped structure.

  18. Defocusing regimes of nonlinear waves in media with negative dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Kuznetsov, E.A.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Defocusing regimes of quasimonochromatic waves governed by a nonlinear Schrodinger equation with mixed-sign dispersion are investigated. For a power-law nonlinearity, we show that localized solutions to this equation defined at the so-called critical dimension cannot collapse in finite time...

  19. Unstructured Spectral Element Model for Dispersive and Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes; Bigoni, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new stabilized high-order and unstructured numerical model for modeling fully nonlinear and dispersive water waves. The model is based on a nodal spectral element method of arbitrary order in space and a -transformed formulation due to Cai, Langtangen, Nielsen and Tveito (1998). In...

  20. Sabot Front Borerider Stiffness vs. Dispersion: Finding the Knee in the Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Hathaway

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design of armor piercing, fin-stabilized, discarding sabot projectiles, the radial stiffness of the sabot front borerider has a significant impact on the projectile's dispersion and is, therefore, an important design consideration. Whether designing a new projectile or trying to improve an existing design, projectile designers can achieve front borerider stiffness without understanding its affect on dispersion characteristics. There is a knee in the stiffness vs. dispersion curve at which a change in the sabot front borerider stiffness will have a significant impact on dispersion or no impact at all depending on whether the stiffness is increased or decreased. The subject of this paper is an analytical approach to quantitatively determine the knee in the curve. Results from using this approach on the M865 APFSDS projectile are also presented.

  1. Dynamics of Dispersive Wave Generation in Gas-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber with the Normal Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of Raman and unique pressure-tunable dispersion is the characteristic feature of gas-filled photonic crystal fiber (PCF, and its zero dispersion points can be extended to the near-infrared by increasing gas pressure. The generation of dispersive wave (DW in the normal group velocity dispersion (GVD region of PCF is investigated. It is demonstrated that considering the self-steepening (SS and introducing the chirp of the initial input pulse are two suitable means to control the DW generation. The SS enhances the relative average intensity of blue-shift DW while weakening that of red-shift DW. The required propagation distance of DW emission is markedly varied by introducing the frequency chirp. Manipulating DW generation in gas-filled PCF by the combined effects of either SS or chirp and three-order dispersion (TOD provides a method for a concentrated transfer of energy into the targeted wavelengths.

  2. Dispersive Evolution of Nonlinear Fast Magnetoacoustic Wave Trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoe, D. J.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M., E-mail: D.J.Pascoe@warwick.ac.uk [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-01

    Quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wave trains are frequently observed in extreme ultraviolet observations of the solar corona, or are inferred by the quasi-periodic modulation of radio emission. The dispersive nature of fast magnetohydrodynamic waves in coronal structures provides a robust mechanism to explain the detected quasi-periodic patterns. We perform 2D numerical simulations of impulsively generated wave trains in coronal plasma slabs and investigate how the behavior of the trapped and leaky components depend on the properties of the initial perturbation. For large amplitude compressive perturbations, the geometrical dispersion associated with the waveguide suppresses the nonlinear steepening for the trapped wave train. The wave train formed by the leaky components does not experience dispersion once it leaves the waveguide and so can steepen and form shocks. The mechanism we consider can lead to the formation of multiple shock fronts by a single, large amplitude, impulsive event and so can account for quasi-periodic features observed in radio spectra.

  3. Modal analysis of wave propagation in dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, M. Ismail; Gralak, B.

    2018-01-01

    Surveys on wave propagation in dispersive media have been limited since the pioneering work of Sommerfeld [Ann. Phys. 349, 177 (1914), 10.1002/andp.19143491002] by the presence of branches in the integral expression of the wave function. In this article a method is proposed to eliminate these critical branches and hence to establish a modal expansion of the time-dependent wave function. The different components of the transient waves are physically interpreted as the contributions of distinct sets of modes and characterized accordingly. Then, the modal expansion is used to derive a modified analytical expression of the Sommerfeld precursor improving significantly the description of the amplitude and the oscillating period up to the arrival of the Brillouin precursor. The proposed method and results apply to all waves governed by the Helmholtz equations.

  4. Long wave dispersion relations for surface waves in a magnetically structured atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, I.C.; Roberts, B.

    1983-01-01

    A means of obtaining approximate dispersion relations for long wavelength magnetoacoustic surface waves propagating in a magnetically structured atmosphere is presented. A general dispersion relation applying to a wide range of magnetic profiles is obtained, and illustrated for the special cases of a single interface and a magnetic slab. In the slab geometry, for example, the dispersion relation contains both the even (sausage) and odd (kink) modes in one formalism

  5. Velocity model of the Hronov-Poříčí Fault Zone from Rayleigh wave dispersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolínský, Petr; Valenta, Jan; Málek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2014), s. 617-635 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1244; GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * surface waves * phase-velocity * dispersion curve Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014

  6. A phase space approach to wave propagation with dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Benjamin, Jonathan S; Cohen, Leon; Loughlin, Patrick J

    2015-08-01

    A phase space approximation method for linear dispersive wave propagation with arbitrary initial conditions is developed. The results expand on a previous approximation in terms of the Wigner distribution of a single mode. In contrast to this previously considered single-mode case, the approximation presented here is for the full wave and is obtained by a different approach. This solution requires one to obtain (i) the initial modal functions from the given initial wave, and (ii) the initial cross-Wigner distribution between different modal functions. The full wave is the sum of modal functions. The approximation is obtained for general linear wave equations by transforming the equations to phase space, and then solving in the new domain. It is shown that each modal function of the wave satisfies a Schrödinger-type equation where the equivalent "Hamiltonian" operator is the dispersion relation corresponding to the mode and where the wavenumber is replaced by the wavenumber operator. Application to the beam equation is considered to illustrate the approach.

  7. Dispersion analysis for waves propagated in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesniak, A; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Dispersion of velocity is defined as a variation of the phase velocity with frequency. This paper describes the dispersion analysis of compressional body waves propagated in the heterogeneous fractured media. The new method proposed and discussed here permitted the evaluation of the variation in P wave arrival with frequency. For this processing method, any information about the attenuation of the medium are not required, and only an assumption of weak heterogeneity is important. It was shown that different mechanisms of dispersion can be distinguished and its value can be quantitatively estimated. Although the frequency used in this study was lower than those in most previous experiments reported in literature, the evaluated dispersion was large. It was suggested that such a large dispersion may be caused by the velocity structure of the media studied and by frequency dependent processes in a highly fractured zone. It was demonstrated that the present method can be used in the evaluation of subsurface fracture systems or characterization of any kind of heterogeneities. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.

    2017-10-19

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  9. On the propagation of truncated localized waves in dispersive silica

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica and free space are numerically analyzed. It is shown that those characteristics are affected by the changes in the relation between the transverse spatial spectral components and the wave vector. Numerical experiments demonstrate that as the non-linearity of this relation gets stronger, the pulses propagating in silica become more immune to decay and distortion whereas the pulses propagating in free-space suffer from early decay and distortion. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  10. Dispersion-Engineered Traveling Wave Kinetic Inductance Parametric Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmuidzinas, Jonas (Inventor); Day, Peter K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier comprises a superconducting transmission line and a dispersion control element. The transmission line can include periodic variations of its dimension along its length. The superconducting material can include a high normal state resistivity material. In some instances the high normal state resistivity material includes nitrogen and a metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, niobium and vanadium. The traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifier is expected to exhibit a noise temperature below 100 mK/GHz.

  11. Dispersive shock waves in systems with nonlocal dispersion of Benjamin-Ono type

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, G. A.; Nguyen, L. T. K.; Smyth, N. F.

    2018-04-01

    We develop a general approach to the description of dispersive shock waves (DSWs) for a class of nonlinear wave equations with a nonlocal Benjamin-Ono type dispersion term involving the Hilbert transform. Integrability of the governing equation is not a pre-requisite for the application of this method which represents a modification of the DSW fitting method previously developed for dispersive-hydrodynamic systems of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type (i.e. reducible to the KdV equation in the weakly nonlinear, long wave, unidirectional approximation). The developed method is applied to the Calogero-Sutherland dispersive hydrodynamics for which the classification of all solution types arising from the Riemann step problem is constructed and the key physical parameters (DSW edge speeds, lead soliton amplitude, intermediate shelf level) of all but one solution type are obtained in terms of the initial step data. The analytical results are shown to be in excellent agreement with results of direct numerical simulations.

  12. Hybrid dispersive media with controllable wave propagation: A new take on smart materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamini, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.bergamini@empa.ch [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zündel, Manuel [ETH Zürich, Institute of Mechanical Systems, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Flores Parra, Edgar A.; Ermanni, Paolo [ETH Zürich, Composite Materials and Adaptive Structures Laboratory, Leonhardstrasse 21, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Delpero, Tommaso [Empa, Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanical Integrity of Energy Systems, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Ruzzene, Massimo [Georgia Institute of Technology, G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, 801 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    In this paper, we report on the wave transmission characteristics of a hybrid one dimensional (1D) medium. The hybrid characteristic is the result of the coupling between a 1D mechanical waveguide in the form of an elastic beam, supporting the propagation of transverse waves and a discrete electrical transmission line, consisting of a series of inductors connected to ground through capacitors. The capacitors correspond to a periodic array of piezoelectric patches that are bonded to the beam and that couple the two waveguides. The coupling leads to a hybrid medium that is characterized by a coincidence condition for the frequency/wavenumber value corresponding to the intersection of the branches of the two waveguides. In the frequency range centered at coincidence, the hybrid medium features strong attenuation of wave motion as a result of the energy transfer towards the electrical transmission line. This energy transfer, and the ensuing attenuation of wave motion, is alike the one obtained through internal resonating units of the kind commonly used in metamaterials. However, the distinct shape of the dispersion curves suggests how this energy transfer is not the result of a resonance and is therefore fundamentally different. This paper presents the numerical investigation of the wave propagation in the considered media, it illustrates experimental evidence of wave transmission characteristics and compares the performance of the considered configuration with that of internal resonating metamaterials. In addition, the ability to conveniently tune the dispersion properties of the electrical transmission line is exploited to adapt the periodicity of the domain and to investigate diatomic periodic configurations that are characterized by a richer dispersion spectrum and broader bandwidth of wave attenuation at coincidence. The medium consisting of mechanical, piezoelectric, and analog electronic elements can be easily interfaced to digital devices to offer a novel

  13. Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Wind Observation and Wave Dispersion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, L. K.; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A. F.; Stevens, M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and alpha-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.

  14. How valuable is P-wave dispersion in the determination of carboxyhemoglobin levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, M T; Anci, Y; Kalkan, K; Kir, M Z; Emet, M

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether or not wave/interval dispersions in electrocardiography (ECG) are increased, and to define whether wave and interval dispersions are correlated with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. ECG, complete blood count, and biochemical parameters were taken from 87 patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning as well as 90 control patients with similar age, gender, and body mass index distribution. COHb levels were recorded in CO-poisoning patients. The COHb levels and the relationships with ECG parameters were studied. Pmax, Pmin, Pd, PRmax, PRmin, PRd, QTmax, QTmin, QTd, cQTmax, cQTmin, cQTd, Tmax, Tmin, and Td in ECG were higher in intoxicated patients than the control group (p < 0.05 for all). Pearson's correlation analyses showed moderately significant positive correlations between COHb level and Pmax (r = 0.224; p = 0.037) and Pd (r = 0.222; p = 0.039). The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve showed that a Pd value of 38 ms determined by ECG separates patients with a COHb ≥ 20% with area under the ROC curve of 0.78 (95%CI = 0.71-0.83), a sensitivity of 67.9% (95%CI = 59.4-75.6), a specificity of 95% (95%CI = 83.0-99.2], a positive predictive value of 97.9% (95%CI = 92.5-99.7), and a negative predictive value of 46.3% (95%CI = 35.3-57.7.) A significant increase in wave/interval dispersions in the ECG of CO-poisoning patients compared with controls may show that not only a part is affected but both atrium and the ventricles as a whole are affected by hypoxic ischemia. When COHb levels of the patients are unavailable, P dispersion on ECG may show CO poisoning level of the patient.

  15. Dispersion Energy Analysis of Rayleigh and Love Waves in the Presence of Low-Velocity Layers in Near-Surface Seismic Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Binbin; Xia, Jianghai; Shen, Chao; Wang, Limin

    2018-03-01

    High-frequency surface-wave analysis methods have been effectively and widely used to determine near-surface shear (S) wave velocity. To image the dispersion energy and identify different dispersive modes of surface waves accurately is one of key steps of using surface-wave methods. We analyzed the dispersion energy characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves in near-surface layered models based on numerical simulations. It has been found that if there is a low-velocity layer (LVL) in the half-space, the dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves is discontinuous and ``jumping'' appears from the fundamental mode to higher modes on dispersive images. We introduce the guided waves generated in an LVL (LVL-guided waves, a trapped wave mode) to clarify the complexity of the dispersion energy. We confirm the LVL-guided waves by analyzing the snapshots of SH and P-SV wavefield and comparing the dispersive energy with theoretical values of phase velocities. Results demonstrate that LVL-guided waves possess energy on dispersive images, which can interfere with the normal dispersion energy of Rayleigh or Love waves. Each mode of LVL-guided waves having lack of energy at the free surface in some high frequency range causes the discontinuity of dispersive energy on dispersive images, which is because shorter wavelengths (generally with lower phase velocities and higher frequencies) of LVL-guided waves cannot penetrate to the free surface. If the S wave velocity of the LVL is higher than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves only contaminates higher mode energy of surface waves and there is no interlacement with the fundamental mode of surface waves, while if the S wave velocity of the LVL is lower than that of the surface layer, the energy of LVL-guided waves may interlace with the fundamental mode of surface waves. Both of the interlacements with the fundamental mode or higher mode energy may cause misidentification for the dispersion curves of surface

  16. Particle dispersion and mixing induced by breaking internal gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Koudella, C.; Staquet, C.; Winters, K. B.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze diapycnal mixing induced by the breaking of an internal gravity wave — the primary wave — either standing or propagating. To achieve this aim we apply two different methods. The first method consists of a direct estimate of vertical eddy diffusion from particle dispersion while the second method relies upon potential energy budgets [Winters, K.B., Lombard, P.N., Riley, J.J., D'Asaro, E.A., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 289, 115-128; Winters, K.B., D'Asaro, E.A., 1996. J. Fluid Mech. 317, 179-193]. The primary wave we consider is of small amplitude and is statically stable, a case for which the breaking process involves two-dimensional instabilities. The dynamics of the waves have been previously analyzed by means of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations [Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 285, 265-301; Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1996. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 29, 41-63; Koudella, C., Staquet, C., 1998. In: Davis, P. (Ed.), Proceedings of the IMA Conference on Mixing and Dispersion on Stably-stratified Flows, Dundee, September 1996. IMA Publication]. High resolution three-dimensional calculations of the same wave are also reported here [Koudella, C., 1999]. A local estimate of mixing is first inferred from the time evolution of sets of particles released in the flow during the breaking regime. We show that, after an early evolution dominated by shear effects, a diffusion law is reached and the dispersion coefficient is fairly independent of the initial seeding location of the particles in the flow. The eddy diffusion coefficient, K, is then estimated from the diapycnal diffusive flux. A good agreement with the value inferred from particle dispersion is obtained. This finding is of particular interest regarding the interpretation of in situ estimates of K inferred either from tracer dispersion or from microstructure measurements. Computation of the Cox number, equal to the

  17. Tweaking the spin-wave dispersion and suppressing the incommensurate phase in LiNiPO4 by iron substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiying; Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2009-01-01

    ) indicates the instability of the Ising-type ground state that eventually evolves into the incommensurate phase as the temperature is raised. The pure LiNiPO4 system (x=0) undergoes a first-order magnetic phase transition from a long-range incommensurate phase to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state at TN......Elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering studies of Li(Ni1−xFex)PO4 single crystals reveal anomalous spin-wave dispersions along the crystallographic direction parallel to the characteristic wave vector of the magnetic incommensurate phase. The anomalous spin-wave dispersion (magnetic soft mode......=20.8 K. At 20% Fe concentrations, although the AFM ground state is to a large extent preserved as that of the pure system, the phase transition is second order, and the incommensurate phase is completely suppressed. Analysis of the dispersion curves using a Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian that includes...

  18. Three-dimensional charge dispersion curves from interactions of 11--29 GeV protons with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental nuclear charge dispersion curves from interactions of 11--29 Gev protons with 238 U have been used in the construction of three-dimensional charge dispersion curves. They show the yield variation with mass number A. Neutron-deficient products are distributed over the entire mass range with a peak at A near 87, while the yield of neutron-excessive products is distributed only in the relatively narrow mass region between A=70 and A=150 and has a maximum around A=115. An isobaric yield curve has been obtained by summing up each of the charge dispersion curves and shows a peak, rather than the flat top, in the mass region A=80 to 140 reported previously. The mass yield curves of neutron-excessive and neutron-deficient products are obtained by a decomposition of the charge dispersion curve with two Gaussians, and the mechanism of formation is suggested

  19. 1-D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently, inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness of steel pipes. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pitch-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. After dispersion correction the data collapses to a short pulse, any residual dispersion indicates wall loss. The phase spectrum is used to invert for the wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. The approach is evaluated on numerically simulated and on measured data. The method is intended for rapid, semi-quantitative screening of pipes

  20. 1-D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; van Zon, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently, inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness of steel pipes. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pitch-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. After dispersion correction the data collapses to a short pulse, any residual dispersion indicates wall loss. The phase spectrum is used to invert for the wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. The approach is evaluated on numerically simulated and on measured data. The method is intended for rapid, semi-quantitative screening of pipes.

  1. Dispersive photonic crystals from the plane wave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Cabrera, E.; Palomino-Ovando, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Flores-Desirena, B., E-mail: bflores@fcfm.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Gaspar-Armenta, J.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Física de la Universidad de Sonora Apdo, Post 5-088, Hermosillo Sonora 83190, México (Mexico)

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays photonic crystals are widely used in many different applications. One of the most used methods to compute their band structure is the plane wave method (PWM). However, it can only be applied directly to non-dispersive media and be extended to systems with a few model dielectric functions. We explore an extension of the PWM to photonic crystals containing dispersive materials, that solves an eigenvalue equation for the Bloch wave vectors. First we compare our calculation with analytical results for one dimensional photonic crystals containing Si using experimental values of its optical parameters, and obtainig very well agreement, even for the spectrum region with strong absorption. Then, using the same method, we computed the band structure for a two dimensional photonic crystal without absorption, formed by an square array of MgO cylinders in air. The optical parameters for MgO were modeled with the Lorentz dielectric function. Finally, we studied an array of MgO cylinders in a metal, using Drude model without absorption, for the metal dielectric function. For this last case, we study the gap–midgap ratio as a function of the filling fraction for both the square and triangular lattice. The gap–midgap ratio is larger for the triangular lattice, with a maximum value of 10% for a filling fraction of 0.6. Our results show that the method can be applied to dispersive materials, and then to a wide range of applications where photonic crystals can be used.

  2. Dispersion of extensional waves in fluid-saturated porous cylinders at ultrasonic frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic dispersion of extensional waves in fluid-saturated porous cylinders is studied by analyzing generalized Pochhammer equations derived using Biot's theory. Cases with open-pore surface and closed-pore surface boundary conditions are considered. For both cases, the dispersion of the fast extensional wave does not differ much qualitatively from the dispersion expected for extensional waves in isotropic elastic cylinders. A slow extensional wave propagates in the case with a closed-pore surface but not in the case with an open-pore surface. The propagating slow wave has very weak dispersion and its speed is always lower than, but close to, the bulk slow wave speed

  3. The influence of multiple ion species on Alfven wave dispersion and Alfven wave plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfimov, A.G.; Tataronis, J.A.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of light impurities, such as deuterium, helium, or carbon, on Alfven wave dispersion characteristics are explored. It is shown that a small population of light impurities in a hydrogen plasma modify the dispersion of the global Alfven waves and the Alfven continuum in such a way that the wave frequency depends weakly on the toroidal wave number. It is also shown that the global Alfven wave enters into the Alfven continuum. Under these conditions, it is possible to heat plasma efficiently by employing an antenna with a broad toroidal wavelength spectrum. The relationship between impurity concentration and the efficiency of Alfven wave heating is explored. Under appropriate conditions, the results indicate that in the presence of impurities, Alfven waves can heat electrons predominantly in the central part of the plasma. This effect is explored via a series of numerical calculations of the heating specifically for the Phaedrus-T Alfven wave heating experiment [Phys. Fluids B 5, 2506 (1993)

  4. Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.

    2012-01-01

    The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.

  5. Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.

  6. Some results of a numerical calculation of plasma dispersion curves including collisions; Quelques resultats de calcul de courbes de dispersion avec collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepechinsky, D; Parlange, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Dispersion curves including the effect of collisions have been calculated with a 7090 IBM computer for several types of laboratory hydrogen plasmas; Te = Ti = 1 eV; Te = 1 eV, Ti = 0,1 eV; Te = 10 eV, Ti = 2 eV; Te = 50 eV, Ti 10 eV, with neutral gas pressures of 10{sup -1}, 10{sup -3} and 10{sup -4} mmHg and electron densities of 10{sup 10}, 10{sup 13} and eventually 10{sup 15} el/cc. The corresponding collision frequencies with neutrals and between electrons and ions have been derived using appropriate relationships The dispersion equations used correspond to the macroscopic treatment. The real and imaginary parts of the wave number K are presented as a function of real values of the frequency {omega}, for electrostatic and electromagnetic waves and for e.m. waves propagating parallel to a permanent magnetic field of 500 gauss and 12.5 Kgauss. (authors) [French] Des courbes de dispersion tenant compte de l'effet des collisions ont ete calculees a l'aide d'un ordinateur IBM 7090 pour differents types de plasmas d'hydrogene se presentant au laboratoire; les temperatures electroniques et ioniques envisagees ont ete les suivantes: Te = Ti = 1 Ev; Te = 1 eV, Ti 0,1 eV; Te = 10 eV, Ti = 2 eV; Te = 50 eV, Ti = 10 eV; les pressions de neutres - de 10{sup -1}, 10{sup -3} et 10{sup -4} mmHg; les densites electroniques - de 10{sup 10}, 10{sup 13} et eventuellement de 10{sup 15} el/cc. Les frequences de collision avec les neutres et entre electrons et ions ont ete evaluees en fonction de ces donnees. Les equations, de dispersion utilisees correspondant au traitement macroscopique. On presente les valeurs des parties reelle et imaginaire du nombre d'ondes K en fonction de valeurs reelles de la frequence {omega} pour les ondes electrostatiques et electromagnetiques et pour les ondes e.m. se propageant parallelement a un champ magnetique permanent de 500 gauss et de 12,5 kgauss. (auteurs)

  7. Transonic shock wave. Turbulent boundary layer interaction on a curved surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nebbeling, C.; Koren, B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of a transonic shock wave - turbulent boundary layer interaction in a curved test section, in which the flow has been computed by a 2-D Euler flow method. The test section has been designed such that the flow near the shock wave on the convex curved

  8. P Wave Dispersion is Increased in Pulmonary Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Ozmen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The right atrium pressure load is increased in pulmonary stenosis (PS that is a congenital anomaly and this changes the electrophysiological characteristics of the atria. However, there is not enough data on the issue of P wave dispersion (PWD in PS. Methods: Forty- two patients diagnosed as having valvular PS with echocardiography and 33 completely healthy individuals as the control group were included in the study. P wave duration, p wave maximum (p max and p minimum (p min were calculated from resting electrocariography (ECG obtained at the rate of 50 mm/sec. P wave dispersion was derived by subtracting p min from p max. The mean pressure gradient (MPG at the pulmonary valve, structure of the valve and diameters of the right and left atria were measured with echocardiography. The data from two groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test and correlation analysis was performed with the Pearson correlation technique. Results: There wasn’t any statistically significance in the comparison of age, left atrial diameter and p min between two groups. While the MPG at the pulmonary valve was 43.11 ± 18.8 mmHg in PS patients, it was 8.4 ± 4.5 mmHg in the control group. While p max was 107.1 ± 11.5 in PS group, it was 98.2 ± 5.1 in control group (p=0.01, PWD was 40.4 ± 1.2 in PS group, and 27.2 ± 9.3 in the control group (p=0.01Moreover, while the diameter of the right atrium in PS group was greater than that of the control group, (38.7 ± 3.9 vs 30.2 ± 2.5, p=0.02. We detected a correlation between PWD and pressure gradient in regression analysis. Conclusion: P wave dispersion and p max are increased in PS. While PWD was correlated with the pressure gradient that is the degree of narrowing, it was not correlated with the diameters of the right and left atria.

  9. Dispersive waves induced by self-defocusing temporal solitons in a beta-barium-borate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally observe dispersive waves in the anomalous dispersion regime of a beta-barium-borate (BBO) crystal, induced by a self-defocusing few-cycle temporal soliton. Together the soliton and dispersive waves form an energetic octave-spanning supercontinuum. The soliton was excited...

  10. Soliton shock wave fronts and self-similar discontinuities in dispersion hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.V.; Meshcherkin, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear flows in nondissipative dispersion hydrodynamics are examined. It is demonstrated that in order to describe such flows it is necessary to incorporate a new concept: a special discontinuity called a ''self-similar'' discontinuity consisting of a nondissipative shock wave and a powerful slow wave discontinuity in regular hydrodynamics. The ''self similar discontinuity'' expands linearly over time. It is demonstrated that this concept may be introduced in a solution to Euler equations. The boundary conditions of the ''self similar discontinuity'' that allow closure of Euler equations for dispersion hydrodynamics are formulated, i.e., those that replace the shock adiabatic curve of standard dissipative hydrodynamics. The structure of the soliton front and of the trailing edge of the shock wave is investigated. A classification and complete solution are given to the problem of the decay of random initial discontinuities in the hydrodynamics of highly nonisothermic plasma. A solution is derived to the problem of the decay of initial discontinuities in the hydrodynamics of magnetized plasma. It is demonstrated that in this plasma, a feature of current density arises at the point of soliton inversion

  11. P-wave dispersion in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, R; Akbay, E; Camsari, A; Ozcan, T

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure maximum P wave duration (Pmax) and P wave dispersion (PWD), which can be indicators for the risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation when increased, and to reveal their relationship with thyroid hormone levels in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Seventy-one patients with sublinical thyrotoxicosis (34 endogenous, 37 exogenous) and 69 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin) on electrocardiogram recordings were measured and PWD was calculated as Pmax-Pmin. Pmax (pendogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with the control group. Pmax (pexogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis compared with the control group. Pmax (p=0.710) and PWD (p=0.127) were not significantly different in patients with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients. Pmax and PWD negatively associated with TSH in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. In the present study, we observed that Pmax and PWD were longer in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Lack of a difference in Pmax and PWD between patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism seems to support the idea that hormone levels rather than the etiology of thyrotoxicosis affect the heart.

  12. Increased P-wave dispersion a risk for atrial fibrillation in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğrul, İlker; Akgül, Sinem; Derman, Orhan; Karagöz, Tevfik; Kanbur, Nuray

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that a prolonged P-wave dispersion is a risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate P-wave dispersion in adolescents with anorexia nervosa at diagnosis. We evaluated electrocardiographic findings, particularly the P-wave dispersion, at initial assessment in 47 adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Comparison of P-wave dispersion between adolescents with anorexia nervosa and controls showed a statistically significant higher P-wave dispersion in patients with anorexia nervosa (72 ± 16.3 msec) when compared to the control group (43.8 ± 9.5 msec). Percent of body weight lost, lower body mass index, and higher weight loss rate in the patients with anorexia nervosa had no effect on P-wave dispersion. Due to the fact that anorexia nervosa has a high mortality rate we believe that cardiac pathologies such as atrial fibrillation must also be considered in the medical evaluation.

  13. First principles electronic band structure and phonon dispersion curves for zinc blend beryllium chalcogenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabhi, Shweta, E-mail: venu.mankad@gmail.com; Mankad, Venu, E-mail: venu.mankad@gmail.com; Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: venu.mankad@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumasinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2014-04-24

    A detailed theoretical study of structural, electronic and Vibrational properties of BeX compound is presented by performing ab-initio calculations based on density-functional theory using the Espresso package. The calculated value of lattice constant and bulk modulus are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data and agree reasonably well. BeX (X = S,Se,Te) compounds in the ZB phase are indirect wide band gap semiconductors with an ionic contribution. The phonon dispersion curves are represented which shows that these compounds are dynamically stable in ZB phase.

  14. Approximate Dispersion Relations for Waves on Arbitrary Shear Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, S. À.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    An approximate dispersion relation is derived and presented for linear surface waves atop a shear current whose magnitude and direction can vary arbitrarily with depth. The approximation, derived to first order of deviation from potential flow, is shown to produce good approximations at all wavelengths for a wide range of naturally occuring shear flows as well as widely used model flows. The relation reduces in many cases to a 3-D generalization of the much used approximation by Skop (1987), developed further by Kirby and Chen (1989), but is shown to be more robust, succeeding in situations where the Kirby and Chen model fails. The two approximations incur the same numerical cost and difficulty. While the Kirby and Chen approximation is excellent for a wide range of currents, the exact criteria for its applicability have not been known. We explain the apparently serendipitous success of the latter and derive proper conditions of applicability for both approximate dispersion relations. Our new model has a greater range of applicability. A second order approximation is also derived. It greatly improves accuracy, which is shown to be important in difficult cases. It has an advantage over the corresponding second-order expression proposed by Kirby and Chen that its criterion of accuracy is explicitly known, which is not currently the case for the latter to our knowledge. Our second-order term is also arguably significantly simpler to implement, and more physically transparent, than its sibling due to Kirby and Chen.Plain Language SummaryIn order to answer key questions such as how the ocean surface affects the climate, erodes the coastline and transports nutrients, we must understand how waves move. This is not so easy when depth varying currents are present, as they often are in coastal waters. We have developed a modeling tool for accurately predicting wave properties in such situations, ready for use, for example, in the complex oceanographic computer models. Our

  15. Existence of traveling waves for diffusive-dispersive conservation laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar I. Kondo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we show the existence existence and uniqueness of traveling waves for diffusive-dispersive conservation laws with flux function in $C^{1}(mathbb{R}$, by using phase plane analysis. Also we estimate the domain of attraction of the equilibrium point attractor corresponding to the right-hand state. The equilibrium point corresponding to the left-hand state is a saddle point. According to the phase portrait close to the saddle point, there are exactly two semi-orbits of the system. We establish that only one semi-orbit come in the domain of attraction and converges to $(u_{-},0$ as $yo -infty$. This provides the desired saddle-attractor connection.

  16. Polarization waves in dielectric films with spatial dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, Jean-Pierre; Moch, Philippe; Dvorak, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The polarization waves propagating in a slab-shaped or in a semi-infinite dielectric medium with spatial dispersion characterized by a volume free-energy density and by a boundary-surface energy density are studied, taking into account Maxwell's equations, in the framework of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism. It is shown that two independent extrapolation lengths providing for the required additional boundary conditions need to be specified at each surface limiting the medium. Complete calculations are performed in the electrostatic approximation: they provide evidence of the differences between the transverse in-plane polarized modes (s modes) and the sagittal plane polarized modes (p modes). True surface modes exist only in the case of negative extrapolation lengths. A detailed analysis of the symmetry properties of the surface and of the guided bulk modes in a slab is developed. Finally, our results are compared with those from previous models describing the boundary conditions in media where spatial dispersion is present. (author)

  17. Dispersion of linearly polarized electromagnetic wave in magnetized quantum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Abhisek Kumar; Kumar, Punit

    2015-01-01

    The generation of harmonic radiation is significant in terms of laser-plasma interaction and has brought interesting notice due to the diversity of its applications. The odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated in the majority of laser interactions with homogenous plasma. It has been remarked that second harmonic generation takes place in the presence of density gradient which gives rise to perturbation in the electron density at the laser frequency. The density perturbation coupled with the quiver motion of the electrons produces a source current at the second harmonic frequency. Second harmonic generation has also been related with filamentation. In the present paper, a study of second harmonic generation by propagation of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave through homogeneous high density quantum plasma in the presence of transverse magnetic field. The nonlinear current density and dispersion relations for the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies have been obtained using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The effect of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and the electron spin have been taken into account. The second harmonic is found to be less dispersed than the first. (author)

  18. 1D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van; Enthoven, Daniel; Verburg, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pit-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. The phase spectrum is used to invert for a wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. An EMAT sensor design has been made to measure at the 12 o'clock position of a pipe. The concept is evaluated on measured data, showing good sizing capabilities on a variety simple defect profiles

  19. The Relationship Between Aging and P Wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Barutçu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF, commonly observed in advanced ages, displays striking age dependent increase and increased P wave dispersion (PWD has been shown to be a predictor of AF. In this studywe sought to determine whether P wave duration and PWD increase with aging. Method and Results: Eighty-three elderly subjects (group-I mean age 75±8 years and 40 healthy young subjects (group-II, mean age 37±6 years participated in this study. 12-lead ECG recorded at a paper speed of 50mm/s was obtained from each participant. Maximum (Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin was measured manually with a caliper and the difference between two values was defined asPWD. Pmax and PWD were significantly higher in group-I compared to group-II. (98±8 vs. 93±8 p=0.01, 41±12 vs. 34±13 p=0.002, respectively. Among the elderly population when those with cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, coronary artery disease and heart failure were excluded, Pmax and PWD were still significantly higher than the young population. (Pmax: 98±7 vs. 93±7, p=0.02 and PWD: 42±11 vs. 34±13, p=0.002. Moreover, on correlation analysis a positive correlation was detected between Pmaxand PWD and aging. (r=0.29, p=0.004; r=0.30, p=0.003 respectively.Conclusion: PWD shows age dependent increase and may be a useful marker for estimation the risk of developing AF seen in advanced ages.

  20. Crustal structure of northern Egypt from joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Hegazi, Mona; Gaber, Hanan; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we used a combined inversion of body wave receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements to provide constraints on the crustal structure of northern Egypt. The two techniques are complementary to each other: receiver functions (RFs) are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts, while surface wave dispersion (SWD) measurements are sensitive to finite variations of shear-wave velocity with depth. A database of 122 teleseismic events digitally recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) stations has been used as well. To enhance the resulting RFs at each ENSN station, the H-k stacking method was applied. A joint inversion process between the resulting receiver functions and the surface wave dispersion curves was applied as well. We have produced three averaged velocity structure models for distinct geographic and tectonic provinces namely Sinai, eastern desert, and western desert from east to the west respectively. These models will deeply help in estimation the epicenter distance of earthquake, focal mechanism solutions, and earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt. An obvious image of the subsurface structure has been determined which shows that generally the crustal structure of northern Egypt consists of three layers covered with a sequence of sediments that differs in thickness from across the region except in the Sharm area where the sedimentary cover is absent. The obtained results indicate that crustal thickness differs from east to west and reaches its maximum value of about 36 km at Siwa station (SWA) in the western desert and its minimum value of about 28 km at Sharm station (SHR) of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. The Vp/Vs ratio varies between 1.71 and 2.07 in northern Egypt. Generally, the high values (1.93) of (Vp/Vs) at SWA station may reflect the well-known rich aquifer with fully saturated sediments of the Swia Oasis in the Western Desert. Moreover, the highest value (2.07) of (Vp/Vs) at

  1. Crustal structure of northern Egypt from joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Hegazi, Mona; Gaber, Hanan; Korrat, Ibrahim

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we used a combined inversion of body wave receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements to provide constraints on the crustal structure of northern Egypt. The two techniques are complementary to each other: receiver functions (RFs) are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts, while surface wave dispersion (SWD) measurements are sensitive to finite variations of shear-wave velocity with depth. A database of 122 teleseismic events digitally recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) stations has been used as well. To enhance the resulting RFs at each ENSN station, the H-k stacking method was applied. A joint inversion process between the resulting receiver functions and the surface wave dispersion curves was applied as well. We have produced three averaged velocity structure models for distinct geographic and tectonic provinces namely Sinai, eastern desert, and western desert from east to the west respectively. These models will deeply help in estimation the epicenter distance of earthquake, focal mechanism solutions, and earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt. An obvious image of the subsurface structure has been determined which shows that generally the crustal structure of northern Egypt consists of three layers covered with a sequence of sediments that differs in thickness from across the region except in the Sharm area where the sedimentary cover is absent. The obtained results indicate that crustal thickness differs from east to west and reaches its maximum value of about 36 km at Siwa station (SWA) in the western desert and its minimum value of about 28 km at Sharm station (SHR) of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. The Vp/Vs ratio varies between 1.71 and 2.07 in northern Egypt. Generally, the high values (1.93) of (Vp/Vs) at SWA station may reflect the well-known rich aquifer with fully saturated sediments of the Swia Oasis in the Western Desert. Moreover, the highest value (2.07) of (Vp/Vs) at

  2. The wave equation on a curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that chapters on differential geometry, distribution theory, and characteristics and the propagation of discontinuities are preparatory. The main matter is in three chapters, entitled: fundamental solutions, representation theorems, and wave equations on n-dimensional space-times. These deal with general construction of fundamental solutions and their application to the Cauchy problem. (U.K.)

  3. An Experimental Study on the Impact of Different-frequency Elastic Waves on Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J. H.; Dai, J. Y.; Lee, J. W.; Lo, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    ABSTEACTOver the past few decades, theoretical and experimental studies on the connection between elastic wave attributes and the physical properties of a fluid-bearing porous medium have attracted the attention of many scholars in fields of porous medium flow and hydrogeology. It has been previously determined that the transmission of elastic waves in a porous medium containing two immiscible fluids will have an effect on the water retention curve, but it has not been found that the water retention curve will be affected by the frequency of elastic vibration waves or whether the effect on the soil is temporary or permanent. This research is based on a sand box test in which the soil is divided into three layers (a lower, middle, and upper layer). In this case, we discuss different impacts on the water retention curve during the drying process under sound waves (elastic waves) subject to three frequencies (150Hz, 300Hz, and 450Hz), respectively. The change in the water retention curve before and after the effect is then discussed. In addition, how sound waves affect the water retention curve at different depths is also observed. According to the experimental results, we discover that sound waves can cause soil either to expand or to contract. When the soil is induced to expand due to sound waves, it can contract naturally and return to the condition it was in before the influence of the sound waves. On the contrary, when the soil is induced to contract, it is unable to return to its initial condition. Due to the results discussed above, it is suggested that sound waves causing soil to expand have a temporary impact while those causing soil to contract have a permanent impact. In addition, our experimental results show how sound waves affect the water retention curve at different depths. The degree of soil expansion and contraction caused by the sound waves will differ at various soil depths. Nevertheless, the expanding or contracting of soil is only subject to the

  4. Quantum X waves with orbital angular momentum in nonlinear dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornigotti, Marco; Conti, Claudio; Szameit, Alexander

    2018-06-01

    We present a complete and consistent quantum theory of generalised X waves with orbital angular momentum in dispersive media. We show that the resulting quantised light pulses are affected by neither dispersion nor diffraction and are therefore resilient against external perturbations. The nonlinear interaction of quantised X waves in quadratic and Kerr nonlinear media is also presented and studied in detail.

  5. Wave power balance in resonant dissipative media with spatial and temporal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokman, M.D.; Gavrilova, M.A.; Westerhof, E. . www.rijnh.nl

    2003-01-01

    A power balance for waves in resonant dissipative media is formulated, which generalizes well-known expressions for dielectric wave energy density, wave energy flux, and dissipated power density. The identification of the different terms with wave energy density and flux remains only phenomenological. The result is better viewed as an equation for the evolution of wave intensity. In that form, its consequences are discussed in particular in relation to anomalous dispersion. A discrimination is made between boundary and initial value problems. For boundary value problems, anomalous dispersion is shown not to lead to unphysical results. In contrast, for initial value problems the solution for the evolution of wave intensity is shown to be at fault in the case of anomalous dispersion. Further illustration is provided by consideration of wave dispersion in a medium of charged harmonic oscillators and of ordinary-mode dispersion in plasma. Both are characterized by anomalous dispersion and show marked differences in the solutions of the dispersion relation solved either for complex wave vector at real frequency, k(ω) (applicable to boundary value problems), or for complex frequency at real wave vector ω(k) (applicable to initial value problems). (author)

  6. Acoustic propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface in a homogeneous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yimin; Verschuur, Eric; van Borselen, Roald

    2018-03-01

    The Rayleigh integral solution of the acoustic Helmholtz equation in a homogeneous medium can only be applied when the integral surface is a planar surface, while in reality almost all surfaces where pressure waves are measured exhibit some curvature. In this paper we derive a theoretically rigorous way of building propagation operators for pressure waves on an arbitrarily curved surface. Our theory is still based upon the Rayleigh integral, but it resorts to matrix inversion to overcome the limitations faced by the Rayleigh integral. Three examples are used to demonstrate the correctness of our theory - propagation of pressure waves acquired on an arbitrarily curved surface to a planar surface, on an arbitrarily curved surface to another arbitrarily curved surface, and on a spherical cap to a planar surface, and results agree well with the analytical solutions. The generalization of our method for particle velocities and the calculation cost of our method are also discussed.

  7. Compositional Variation of the Phonon Dispersion Curves of bcc Fe-Ga Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarestky, Jerel L.; Garlea, Vasile O.; Lograsso, Tom; Schlagel, D.L.; Stassis, C.

    2005-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering techniques have been used to measure the phonon dispersion curves of bcc Fe1-xGax x=10.8, 13.3, 16.0, 22.5 alloys as a function of Ga concentration. The phonon frequencies of every branch were found to decrease significantly with increasing Ga concentration. The softening was most pronounced for the T2 0 branch and, to a lesser extent, the L branch in the vicinity of = 2 3. The concentration dependence of the shear elastic constant C =1/2 C11-C12 , calculated from the slope of the T2 0 branch, was found to agree with the results of sound velocity measurements. For the higher concentration sample measured, 22.5 at. % Ga, new branches appeared, an effect associated with the increase in the number of atoms per unit cell.

  8. On Phonons in Simple Metals II. Calculated Dispersion Curves In Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Westin, A [Dept. of Theore tical Physics, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1969-07-15

    The real part of the dynamical matrix, derived earlier in a weak local potential ion-electron interaction model of the metal, is investigated in the case of aluminium. It is shown that the free electron, or Lindhard, dielectric function leads to a picture of the metal which is inconsistent with the dHvA observations of the Fermi surface. By adjusting one parameter, however, the experimental phonon frequencies are reproduced satisfactorily. Even some simple structure in the derivative d{omega}/dq can be reproduced in this way. Although corrections to the Lindhard dielectric matrix give no essential contributions to the dynamical matrix, the first order corrections, which are the most important, can explain the observed Fermi surface. Much of the observed structure in the phonon dispersion curves seems also to be due to these non-diagonal terms in the dielectric matrix.

  9. An Alternative to Wave Mechanics on Curved Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1992-01-01

    Geodesic motion in infinite spaces of constant negative curvature provides for the first time an example where a basically quantum mechanical quantity, a ground-state energy, is derived from Newtonian mechanics in a rigorous, non-semiclassical way. The ground state energy emerges as the Hausdorff dimension of a quasi-self-similar curve at infinity of three-dimensional hyperbolic space H in which our manifolds are embedded and where their universal covers are realized. This curve is just the locus of the limit set L(G) of the Kleinian group G of covering transformations, which determines the bounded trajectories in the manifold; all of them lie in the quotient C(L)/G, C(L) being the hyperbolic convex hull of L(G). The three-dimensional hyperbolic manifolds we construct can be visualized as thickened surfaces, topological products I x S, I a finite open interval, the fibers S compact Riemann surfaces. We give a short derivation of the Patterson formula connecting the ground-state energy with the Hausdorff dimen...

  10. An alternative to wave mechanics on curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschitz, R.

    1992-01-01

    Geodesic motion in infinite spaces of constant negative curvature provides for the first time an example where a basically quantum mechanical quantity, a ground-state energy, is derived from Newtonian mechanics in a rigorous, non-semiclassical way. The ground state energy emerges as the Hausdorff dimension of a quasi-self-similar curve at infinity of three-dimensional hyperbolic space H 3 in which our manifolds are embedded and where their universal covers are realized. This curve is just the locus of the limit set Λ(Γ) of the Kleinian group Γ of covering transformations, which determines the bounded trajectories in the manifold; all of them lie in the quotient C(Λ)/Γ, C(Γ) being the hyperbolic convex hull of Λ(Γ). The three-dimensional hyperbolic manifolds we construct can be visualized as thickened surfaces, topological products IxS, I a finite open interval, the fibers S compact Riemann surfaces. We give a short derivation of the Patterson formula connecting the ground-state energy with the Hausdorff dimension δ of Λ, and give various examples for the calculation of δ from the tessellations of the boundary of H 3 , induced by the universal coverings of the manifolds. 33 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Phonon dispersion curves determination in (delta)-phase Pu-Ga alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J; Clatterbuck, D; Occelli, F; Farber, D; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Boro, C; Krisch, M; Beraud, A; Chiang, T; Xu, R; Hong, H; Zschack, P; Tamura, N

    2006-02-07

    We have designed and successfully employed a novel microbeam on large grain sample concept to conduct high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) experiments to map the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc {delta}-phase Pu-Ga alloy. This approach obviates experimental difficulties with conventional inelastic neutron scattering due to the high absorption cross section of the common {sup 239}Pu isotope and the non-availability of large (mm size) single crystal materials for Pu and its alloys. A classical Born von-Karman force constant model was used to model the experimental results, and no less than 4th nearest neighbor interactions had to be included to account for the observation. Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus, (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the T[111] branch towards the L point in the Brillouin are found. These features may be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the crystal structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results represent the first full phonon dispersions ever obtained for any Pu-bearing material, thus ending a 40-year quest for this fundamental data. The phonon data also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. We also conducted thermal diffuse scattering experiments to study the T(111) dispersion at low temperatures with an attempt to gain insight into bending of the T(111) branch in relationship to the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation.

  12. Shear wave crustal velocity model of the Western Bohemian Massif from Love wave phase velocity dispersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolínský, Petr; Málek, Jiří; Brokešová, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2011), s. 81-104 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602; GA AV ČR IAA300460705; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/1780 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : love waves * phase velocity dispersion * frequency-time analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2011 www.springerlink.com/content/w3149233l60111t1/

  13. Dispersion characteristics of plasmonic waveguides for THz waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markides, Christos; Viphavakit, Charusluk; Themistos, Christos; Komodromos, Michael; Kalli, Kyriacos; Quadir, Anita; Rahman, Azizur

    2013-05-01

    Today there is an increasing surge in Surface Plasmon based research and recent studies have shown that a wide range of plasmon-based optical elements and techniques have led to the development of a variety of active switches, passive waveguides, biosensors, lithography masks, to name just a few. The Terahertz (THz) frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum is located between the traditional microwave spectrum and the optical frequencies, and offers a significant scientific and technological potential in many fields, such as in sensing, in imaging and in spectroscopy. Waveguiding in this intermediate spectral region is a major challenge. Amongst the various THz waveguides suggested, the metal-clad waveguides supporting surface plasmon modes waves and specifically hollow core structures, coated with insulating material are showing the greatest promise as low-loss waveguides for their use in active components and as well as passive waveguides. The H-field finite element method (FEM) based full-vector formulation is used to study the vectorial modal field properties and the complex propagation characteristics of Surface Plasmon modes of a hollow-core dielectric coated rectangular waveguide structure. Additionally, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to estimate the dispersion parameters and the propagation loss of the rectangular waveguide.

  14. Sparse and Dispersion-Based Matching Pursuit for Minimizing the Dispersion Effect Occurring when Using Guided Wave for Pipe Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Javad; Tse, Peter W T; Fang, Zhou

    2017-06-06

    Ultrasonic guided wave is an effective tool for structural health monitoring of structures for detecting defects. In practice, guided wave signals are dispersive and contain multiple modes and noise. In the presence of overlapped wave-packets/modes and noise together with dispersion, extracting meaningful information from these signals is a challenging task. Handling such challenge requires an advanced signal processing tool. The aim of this study is to develop an effective and robust signal processing tool to deal with the complexity of guided wave signals for non-destructive testing (NDT) purpose. To achieve this goal, Sparse Representation with Dispersion Based Matching Pursuit (SDMP) is proposed. Addressing the three abovementioned facts that complicate signal interpretation, SDMP separates overlapped modes and demonstrates good performance against noise with maximum sparsity. With the dispersion taken into account, an overc-omplete and redundant dictionary of basic atoms based on a narrowband excitation signal is designed. As Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to predict the form of wave packets propagating along structures, these atoms have the maximum resemblance with real guided wave signals. SDMP operates in two stages. In the first stage, similar to Matching Pursuit (MP), the approximation improves by adding, a single atom to the solution set at each iteration. However, atom selection criterion of SDMP utilizes the time localization of guided wave reflections that makes a portion of overlapped wave-packets to be composed mainly of a single echo. In the second stage of the algorithm, the selected atoms that have frequency inconsistency with the excitation signal are discarded. This increases the sparsity of the final representation. Meanwhile, leading to accurate approximation, as discarded atoms are not representing guided wave reflections, it simplifies extracting physical meanings for defect detection purpose. To verify the effectiveness of SDMP for

  15. Sparse and Dispersion-Based Matching Pursuit for Minimizing the Dispersion Effect Occurring when Using Guided Wave for Pipe Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Rostami

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic guided wave is an effective tool for structural health monitoring of structures for detecting defects. In practice, guided wave signals are dispersive and contain multiple modes and noise. In the presence of overlapped wave-packets/modes and noise together with dispersion, extracting meaningful information from these signals is a challenging task. Handling such challenge requires an advanced signal processing tool. The aim of this study is to develop an effective and robust signal processing tool to deal with the complexity of guided wave signals for non-destructive testing (NDT purpose. To achieve this goal, Sparse Representation with Dispersion Based Matching Pursuit (SDMP is proposed. Addressing the three abovementioned facts that complicate signal interpretation, SDMP separates overlapped modes and demonstrates good performance against noise with maximum sparsity. With the dispersion taken into account, an overc-omplete and redundant dictionary of basic atoms based on a narrowband excitation signal is designed. As Finite Element Method (FEM was used to predict the form of wave packets propagating along structures, these atoms have the maximum resemblance with real guided wave signals. SDMP operates in two stages. In the first stage, similar to Matching Pursuit (MP, the approximation improves by adding, a single atom to the solution set at each iteration. However, atom selection criterion of SDMP utilizes the time localization of guided wave reflections that makes a portion of overlapped wave-packets to be composed mainly of a single echo. In the second stage of the algorithm, the selected atoms that have frequency inconsistency with the excitation signal are discarded. This increases the sparsity of the final representation. Meanwhile, leading to accurate approximation, as discarded atoms are not representing guided wave reflections, it simplifies extracting physical meanings for defect detection purpose. To verify the

  16. Dispersion and energy conservation relations of surface waves in semi-infinite plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanassov, V.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrodynamic theory of surface wave propagation in semi-infinite homogeneous isotropic plasma is considered. Explicit linear surface wave solutions are given for the electric and magnetic fields, charge and current densities. These solutions are used to obtain the well-known dispersion relations and, together with the general energy conservation equation, to find appropriate definitions for the energy and the energy flow densities of surface waves. These densities are associated with the dispersion relation and the group velocity by formulae similar to those for bulk waves in infinite plasmas. Both cases of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) surface waves are considered. (author)

  17. Observation of spin-wave dispersion in Nd-Fe-B magnets using neutron Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Inami, N.; Saito, K.; Takeichi, Y.; Kawana, D.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Manabe, A.; Kato, A.; Kaneko, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The low-energy spin-wave dispersion in polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets was observed using neutron Brillouin scattering (NBS). Low-energy spin-wave excitations for the lowest acoustic spin-wave mode were clearly observed. From the spin-wave dispersion, we were able to determine the spin-wave stiffness constant D sw (100.0 ± 4.9 meV.Å 2 ) and the exchange stiffness constant A (6.6 ± 0.3 pJ/m)

  18. Evaluation of QT and P wave dispersion and mean platelet volume among inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yuksel; Soylu, Aliye; Eren, Gulay A; Poturoglu, Sule; Dolapcioglu, Can; Sonmez, Kenan; Duman, Habibe; Sevindir, Isa

    2011-01-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) number of thromboembolic events are increased due to hypercoagulupathy and platelet activation. Increases in mean platelet volume (MPV) can lead to platelet activation, this leads to thromboembolic events and can cause acute coronary syndromes. In IBD patients, QT-dispersion and P-wave dispersion are predictors of ventricular arrhythmias and atrial fibrilation; MPV is accepted as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes, we aimed at evaluating the correlations of these with the duration of disease, its localization and activity. The study group consisted of 69 IBD (Ulcerative colitis n: 54, Crohn's Disease n: 15) patients and the control group included 38 healthy individuals. Disease activity was evaluated both endoscopically and clinically. Patients with existing cardiac conditions, those using QT prolonging medications and having systemic diseases, anemia and electrolyte imbalances were excluded from the study. QT-dispersion, P-wave dispersion and MPV values of both groups were compared with disease activity, its localization, duration of disease and the antibiotics used. The P-wave dispersion values of the study group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Duration of the disease was not associated with QT-dispersion, and MPV levels. QT-dispersion, P-wave dispersion, MPV and platelet count levels were similar between the active and in mild ulcerative colitis patients. QT-dispersion levels were similar between IBD patients and the control group. No difference was observed between P-wave dispersion, QT-dispersion and MPV values; with regards to disease duration, disease activity, and localization in the study group (p>0.05). P-wave dispersion which is accepted as a risk factor for the development of atrial fibirilation was found to be high in our IBD patients. This demonstrates us that the risk of developing atrial fibrillation may be high in patients with IBD. No significant difference was found in the QT-dispersion

  19. Strongly nonlinear evolution of low-frequency wave packets in a dispersive plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Bernard J.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of strongly nonlinear, strongly modulated wave packets is investigated in a dispersive plasma using a hybrid numerical code. These wave packets have amplitudes exceeding the strength of the external magnetic field, along which they propagate. Alfven (left helicity) wave packets show strong steepening for p Schrodinger (DNLS) equation.

  20. Observation of the dispersion of wedge waves propagating along cylinder wedge with different truncations by laser ultrasound technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Han, Qingbang; Jing, Xueping

    2017-10-01

    The research focuses on study the influence of truncations on the dispersion of wedge waves propagating along cylinder wedge with different truncations by using the laser ultrasound technique. The wedge waveguide models with different truncations were built by using finite element method (FEM). The dispersion curves were obtained by using 2D Fourier transformation method. Multiple mode wedge waves were observed, which was well agreed with the results estimated from Lagasse's empirical formula. We established cylinder wedge with radius of 3mm, 20° and 60°angle, with 0μm, 5μm, 10μm, 20μm, 30μm, 40μm, and 50μm truncations, respectively. It was found that non-ideal wedge tip caused abnormal dispersion of the mode of cylinder wedge, the modes of 20° cylinder wedge presents the characteristics of guide waves which propagating along hollow cylinder as the truncation increasing. Meanwhile, the modes of 60° cylinder wedge with truncations appears the characteristics of guide waves propagating along hollow cylinder, and its mode are observed clearly. The study can be used to evaluate and detect wedge structure.

  1. Imaging the Earth's anisotropic structure with Bayesian Inversion of fundamental and higher mode surface-wave dispersion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenna, Matteo; Lebedev, Sergei; Celli, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    We develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion of fundamental and higher mode phase-velocity curves for radially and azimuthally anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. In the inversions of Rayleigh- and Love-wave dispersion curves for radially anisotropic structure, we obtain probabilistic 1D radially anisotropic shear-velocity profiles of the isotropic average Vs and anisotropy (or Vsv and Vsh) as functions of depth. In the inversions for azimuthal anisotropy, Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves at different azimuths are inverted for the vertically polarized shear-velocity structure (Vsv) and the 2-phi component of azimuthal anisotropy. The strength and originality of the method is in its fully non-linear approach. Each model realization is computed using exact forward calculations. The uncertainty of the models is a part of the output. In the inversions for azimuthal anisotropy, in particular, the computation of the forward problem is performed separately at different azimuths, with no linear approximations on the relation of the Earth's elastic parameters to surface wave phase velocities. The computations are performed in parallel in order reduce the computing time. We compare inversions of the fundamental mode phase-velocity curves alone with inversions that also include overtones. The addition of higher modes enhances the resolving power of the anisotropic structure of the deep upper mantle. We apply the inversion method to phase-velocity curves in a few regions, including the Hangai dome region in Mongolia. Our models provide constraints on the Moho depth, the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary, and the alignment of the anisotropic fabric and the direction of current and past flow, from the crust down to the deep asthenosphere.

  2. Parametric study of electromagnetic waves propagating in absorbing curved S ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    A finite-element Galerkin formulation has been developed to study attenuation of transverse magnetic (TM) waves propagating in two-dimensional S-curved ducts with absorbing walls. In the frequency range where the duct diameter and electromagnetic wave length are nearly equal, the effect of duct length, curvature (duct offset), and absorber wall thickness was examined. For a given offset in the curved duct, the length of the S-duct was found to significantly affect both the absorptive and reflective characteristics of the duct. For a straight and a curved duct with perfect electric conductor terminations, power attenuation contours were examined to determine electromagnetic wall properties associated with maximum input signal absorption. Offset of the S-duct was found to significantly affect the value of the wall permittivity associated with the optimal attenuation of the incident electromagnetic wave.

  3. Optical tsunamis: shoaling of shallow water rogue waves in nonlinear fibers with normal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wabnitz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In analogy with ocean waves running up towards the beach, shoaling of pre-chirped optical pulses may occur in the normal group-velocity dispersion regime of optical fibers. We present exact Riemann wave solutions of the optical shallow water equations and show that they agree remarkably well with the numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, at least up to the point where a vertical pulse front develops. We also reveal that extreme wave events or optical tsunamis may be generated in dispersion tapered fibers in the presence of higher-order dispersion. (paper)

  4. Effects of metal and 'magnetic wall' on the dispersion characteristic of magnetostatic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, Edwin H.; Vashkovsky, Anatoly V.

    2006-01-01

    The dispersion relation of magnetostatic waves tangentially magnetized to saturation ferrite film, with a 'magnetic wall' condition (tangential component of microwave magnetic field is equal to zero) on one of the film surface and with a metal condition on the opposite surface is analyzed. The dispersion characteristics show that unidirectional magnetostatic waves appear in this structure: they can transfer energy in one direction only and fundamentally cannot transfer energy in the opposite direction. The dispersion-free propagation of magnetostatic waves also is possible in the structure in a wide frequency interval

  5. Numerical study of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation and dispersive shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grava, T.; Klein, C.; Pitton, G.

    2018-02-01

    A detailed numerical study of the long time behaviour of dispersive shock waves in solutions to the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) I equation is presented. It is shown that modulated lump solutions emerge from the dispersive shock waves. For the description of dispersive shock waves, Whitham modulation equations for KP are obtained. It is shown that the modulation equations near the soliton line are hyperbolic for the KPII equation while they are elliptic for the KPI equation leading to a focusing effect and the formation of lumps. Such a behaviour is similar to the appearance of breathers for the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the semiclassical limit.

  6. The nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity wave packets: dispersion and polarization relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-D. Zhang

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the results of the numerical simulations of nonlinear propagation of three Gaussian gravity-wave packets in isothermal atmosphere individually, the nonlinear effects on the characteristics of gravity waves are studied quantitatively. The analyses show that during the nonlinear propagation of gravity wave packets the mean flows are accelerated and the vertical wavelengths show clear reduction due to nonlinearity. On the other hand, though nonlinear effects exist, the time variations of the frequencies of gravity wave packets are close to those derived from the dispersion relation and the amplitude and phase relations of wave-associated disturbance components are consistent with the predictions of the polarization relation of gravity waves. This indicates that the dispersion and polarization relations based on the linear gravity wave theory can be applied extensively in the nonlinear region.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides

  7. Competition between Dispersion and Absorption of Doubly-Dressed Four-Wave Mixing and Dressed Six-Wave Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei-Jian, Shen; Chuang-She, Li; Yi-Gang, Du; Cui-Cui, Zuo; Zhi-Qiang, Nie; Yan-Peng, Zhang; Yuan-Yuan, Li; Chen-Li, Gan; Ke-Qing, Lu

    2008-01-01

    We study the competition between dispersion and absorption of doubly-dressed four-wave mixing (DDFWM) and dressed six-wave mixing. In the case of weak coupling fields limit, we find DDFWM signal is affected by destructive interference between four-wave mixing(FWM) and six-wave mixing as well as constructive interference between FWM and eight-wave mixing. By analysing the difference between two kinds of doubly dressing mechanisms (parallel cascade and nested cascade) in this opening five-level system, we can further understand the generated high-order nonlinear optical signal dressed by multi-fields

  8. P-wave dispersion: relationship to left ventricular function in sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguanobi, N I; Onwubere, B J; Ike, S O; Anisiuba, B C; Ejim, E C; Ibegbulam, O G

    2011-01-01

    The prognostic implications of P-wave dispersion in patients with a variety of cardiac disease conditions are increasingly being recognised. The relationship between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular function in sickle cell anaemia is unknown. This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular function in adult Nigerian sickle cell anaemia patients. Between February and August 2007, a total of 62 sickle cell anaemia patients (aged 18-44 years; mean 28.27 ± 5.58) enrolled in the study. These were drawn from patients attending the adult sickle cell clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu. An equal number of age- and gender-matched normal subjects served as controls. All the participants were evaluated with electrocardiography and echocardiography. P-wave dispersion was defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum P-wave duration measured in a 12-lead electrocardiogram. P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Significant correlation was demonstrated between P-wave dispersion and age in the patients (r = 0.387; p = 0.031). A comparison of subsets of sickle cell anaemia patients and controls with comparable haematocrit values (30-35%) showed significantly higher P-wave duration and P-wave dispersion in the patients than in the controls. The P-wave duration in patients and controls, respectively, was 111.10 ± 14.53 ms and 89.14 ± 16.45 ms (t = 3.141; p = 0.006). P-wave dispersion was 64.44 ± 15.86 ms in the patients and 36.43 ± 10.35 ms in the controls (t = 2.752; p = 0.013). Significant negative correlation was found between P-wave dispersion and left ventricular transmitral E/A ratio (r = -0.289; p = 0.023). These findings suggest that P-wave dispersion could be useful in the evaluation of sickle cell patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Further prospective studies are recommended to evaluate

  9. Dispersion of repolarization in canine ventricle and the electrocardiographic T wave: Tp-e interval does not reflect transmural dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opthof, Tobias; Coronel, Ruben; Wilms-Schopman, Francien J. G.; Plotnikov, Alexei N.; Shlapakova, Iryna N.; Danilo, Peter; Rosen, Michael R.; Janse, Michiel J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept that the interval between the peak (T(peak)) and the end (T(end)) of the T wave (T(p-e)) is a measure of transmural dispersion of repolarization time is widely accepted but has not been tested rigorously by transmural mapping of the intact heart. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of

  10. Dispersion relation of test waves in an electron beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Test waves are propagated in an electron beam plasma system and the dispersion relation is measured. At the center of the experimental region a beam mode is excited. Near the chamber wall an electron plasma wave is excited and propagates from the chamber wall to the center of the experimental region. It is also found that observed unstable waves are standing wave which is formed by superposing the beam modes propagating in the opposite directions each other. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  11. Controllable behaviours of rogue wave triplets in the nonautonomous nonlinear and dispersive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Chaoqing; Tian Qing; Zhu Shiqun

    2012-01-01

    A similarity transformation connecting the variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation is constructed. The self-similar rogue wave triplet solutions (rational solutions) are analytically obtained for the nonautonomous nonlinear and dispersive system. The controllable behaviours of rogue wave triplets in two typical soliton management systems are discussed. In the exponential dispersion decreasing fibre, three kinds of rogue wave triplets with controllable behaviours are analysed. In the periodic distributed system, the rogue wave triplets recur periodically in the form of a cluster. (paper)

  12. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2015-08-19

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.

  13. Uncertainty Estimation of Shear-wave Velocity Structure from Bayesian Inversion of Microtremor Array Dispersion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosso, S. E.; Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J.

    2010-12-01

    Bayesian inversion of microtremor array dispersion data is applied, with evaluation of data errors and model parameterization, to produce the most-probable shear-wave velocity (VS) profile together with quantitative uncertainty estimates. Generally, the most important property characterizing earthquake site response is the subsurface VS structure. The microtremor array method determines phase velocity dispersion of Rayleigh surface waves from multi-instrument recordings of urban noise. Inversion of dispersion curves for VS structure is a non-unique and nonlinear problem such that meaningful evaluation of confidence intervals is required. Quantitative uncertainty estimation requires not only a nonlinear inversion approach that samples models proportional to their probability, but also rigorous estimation of the data error statistics and an appropriate model parameterization. A Bayesian formulation represents the solution of the inverse problem in terms of the posterior probability density (PPD) of the geophysical model parameters. Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods are used with an efficient implementation of Metropolis-Hastings sampling to provide an unbiased sample from the PPD to compute parameter uncertainties and inter-relationships. Nonparametric estimation of a data error covariance matrix from residual analysis is applied with rigorous a posteriori statistical tests to validate the covariance estimate and the assumption of a Gaussian error distribution. The most appropriate model parameterization is determined using the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), which provides the simplest model consistent with the resolving power of the data. Parameter uncertainties are found to be under-estimated when data error correlations are neglected and when compressional-wave velocity and/or density (nuisance) parameters are fixed in the inversion. Bayesian inversion of microtremor array data is applied at two sites in British Columbia, the area of highest seismic risk in

  14. Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves

    KAUST Repository

    Armaroli, Andrea; Trillo, Stefano; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    single soliton input and in the regime where dispersive shock waves develop (multisoliton regime). Such conclusions are supported by the linear stability analysis and numerical simulation of the propagation. © 2009 The American Physical Society.

  15. Rarefaction shock waves and Hugoniot curve in the presence of free and trapped particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, A. R.; Hashemzadeh, M.; Shokri, B.; Rouhani, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles in the presence of ponderomotive force on the rarefaction shock waves are investigated. The ponderomotive force alters the electron density distribution. This force and relativistic mass affect the plasma frequency. These physical parameters modify the total pressure and the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. Furthermore, the trapping of particles by the high frequency electromagnetic field considerably changes the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. The total pressure and Hugoniot curve are obtained by considering the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles.

  16. Rarefaction shock waves and Hugoniot curve in the presence of free and trapped particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, A. R.; Hashemzadeh, M.; Shokri, B.; Rouhani, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles in the presence of ponderomotive force on the rarefaction shock waves are investigated. The ponderomotive force alters the electron density distribution. This force and relativistic mass affect the plasma frequency. These physical parameters modify the total pressure and the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. Furthermore, the trapping of particles by the high frequency electromagnetic field considerably changes the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. The total pressure and Hugoniot curve are obtained by considering the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles.

  17. Lithospheric Structure of the Arabian Shield from the Joint Inversion of Receiver Function and Surface-Wave Dispersion Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J; Herrimann, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    .... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...

  18. Lithospheric Structure of the Arabian Shield From the Joint Inversion of Receiver Function and Surface-Wave Dispersion Observations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Robert B; Julia, Jordi; Ammon, Charles J

    2007-01-01

    .... Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrast and vertical travel times and surface-wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear-wave velocity averages...

  19. Traveling waves in a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and nonlinear incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-Peng; Yang, Yun-Rui; Zhou, Yong-Hui

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with traveling waves of a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and a general nonlinear incidence. The existence and nonexistence of traveling waves of the system are established respectively by Schauder's fixed point theorem and two-sided Laplace transform. It is also shown that the spread speed c is influenced by the dispersal rate of the infected individuals and the delay τ.

  20. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts. [acoustic propagation within rigid walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the ability of circular bends to transmit acoustic energy flux. A formulation of wave-energy flow is developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies shows the ability of circular bends to transmit energy in the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  1. Prediction of ion-exchange column breakthrough curves by constant-pattern wave approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2008-03-21

    The release of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters represents one of major threats to environment. Compared with chemical precipitation method, fixed-bed ion-exchange process can effectively remove heavy metals from wastewaters and generate no hazardous sludge. In order to design and operate fixed-bed ion-exchange processes successfully, it is very important to understand the column dynamics. In this study, the column experiments for Cu2+/H+, Zn2+/H+, and Cd2+/H+ systems using Amberlite IR-120 were performed to measure the breakthrough curves under varying operating conditions. The experimental results showed that total cation concentration in the mobile-phase played a key role on the breakthrough curves; a higher feed concentration resulted in an earlier breakthrough. Furthermore, the column dynamics was also predicted by self-sharpening and constant-pattern wave models. The self-sharpening wave model assuming local ion-exchange equilibrium could provide a simple and quick estimation for the breakthrough volume, but the predicted breakthrough curves did not match the experimental data very well. On the contrary, the constant-pattern wave model using a constant driving force model for finite ion-exchange rate provided a better fit to the experimental data. The obtained liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient was correlated to the flow velocity and other operating parameters; the breakthrough curves under varying operating conditions could thus be predicted by the constant-pattern wave model using the correlation.

  2. Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.

  3. Theoretical Aspects of Phonon Dispersion Curves for Metals; Aspects Theoriques des Courbes de Dispersion des Phonons pour les Metaux; Teoreticheskie aspekty fononnykh dispersionnykh krivykh dlya metallov; Aspectos Teoricos de las Curvas de Dispersion Fononica en Metales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, W. [Department of Natural Philosophy, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1965-04-15

    Reasonably complete knowledge of the phonon dispersion curves for at least a dozen metallic elements and intermetallic compounds has now been obtained from neutron inelastic scattering experiments. The results have one feature in common: when analysed in terms of interatomic force constants they reveal the presence of comparatively long-range forces extending over several atomic spacings. The results for lead are particularly interesting; it did not prove possible to fit them by a force-constant model, but the dispersion curves for wave vectors in symmetry directions when analysed in terms of force constants between planes of atoms showed an oscillatory interatomic potential extending over distances of more than 20A. This review is concerned with recent theoretical work which has a bearing on the calculation of phonon dispersion curves for metals and the explanation of the long range of the interatomic potential. The best hope at present for a general treatment of atomic interaction in metals appears to lie in the ''method of neutral pseudo-atoms'', (a description recently coined by Ziman). This approximate theory is outlined and its relevance to Kohn anomalies in phonon dispersion curves is discussed. Experimental data for sodium is consistent with the theory, and the interatomic potential in sodium varies periodically in a distance {pi}/k{sub F}, where fik{sub F} is the Fermi momentum, as has already been demonstrated by Koenig in a different way. More exact calculations have been made for sodium by Toya and by Sham. The relationship between the different methods and other work of a more general character such as that of Harrison are discussed. (author) [French] A la suite d'experiences de dispersion inelastique des neutrons, on a maintenant une connaissance assez complete des courbes de dispersion des phonons pour une douzaine de metaux et de composes intermetalliques au moins. Les resultats presentent le caractere commun suivant: si on les analyse en fonction

  4. Non-dispersive traveling waves in inclined shallow water channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2009-01-01

    Existence of traveling waves propagating without internal reflection in inclined water channels of arbitrary slope is demonstrated. It is shown that traveling non-monochromatic waves exist in both linear and nonlinear shallow water theories in the case of a uniformly inclined channel with a parabolic cross-section. The properties of these waves are studied. It is shown that linear traveling waves should have a sign-variable shape. The amplitude of linear traveling waves in a channel satisfies the same Green's law, which is usually derived from the energy flux conservation for smoothly inhomogeneous media. Amplitudes of nonlinear traveling waves deviate from the linear Green's law, and the behavior of positive and negative amplitudes are different. Negative amplitude grows faster than positive amplitude in shallow water. The phase of nonlinear waves (travel time) is described well by the linear WKB approach. It is shown that nonlinear traveling waves of any amplitude always break near the shoreline if the boundary condition of the full absorption is applied.

  5. Dispersion relation for Bernstein waves using a new transformation for the modified Bessel function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masumi

    1985-01-01

    Aitken's or Shanks' transformation of the exponent-modified Bessel function produces better approximations. Dispersion relations for the hybrid and Bernstein waves using these provide better thermal and parallel wavenumber corrections. They also predict more closely the evolution and mode-conversion of these waves. (author)

  6. Dispersion formulae for waves in a magneto-active relativistic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, P.; Mohanty, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    Dispersion formulae are derived for the transverse waves propagating through a collisionless magneto-active plasma in the direction of the magnetic field valid for relativistic as well as non-relativistic temperatures. Wave propagation under various limiting conditions of temperatures and magnetic field are discussed. (author)

  7. Dispersion formulae for waves in a magneto-active relativistic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, P. (Ravenshaw Coll., Cuttack (India)); Mohanty, J.N. (F.M. College, Balasore (India). Dept. of Physics)

    1980-12-01

    Dispersion formulae are derived for the transverse waves propagating through a collisionless magneto-active plasma in the direction of the magnetic field valid for relativistic as well as non-relativistic temperatures. Wave propagation under various limiting conditions of temperatures and magnetic field are discussed.

  8. On the energy flux of stationary electromagnetic waves in anisotropic dissipative media with spatial dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tokman, M. D.; Westerhof, E.; Gavrilova, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The special features of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in gyrotropic medium with dispersion and resonant dissipation (specifically, in a magnetoactive plasma) are studied. Even though the anti-Hermitian components of the permittivity tensor are substantial in magnitude, weakly damped waves

  9. Dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Hitoshi; Mase, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    The dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals is studied. The plasma photonic crystal is a periodic array composed of alternating thin plasma and dielectric material. The dispersion relation is obtained by solving a Maxwell wave equation using a method analogous to Kronig-Penny's problem in quantum mechanics, and it is found that the frequency gap and cut-off appear in the dispersion relation. The frequency gap is shown to become larger with the increase of the plasma density as well as plasma width. (author)

  10. Wave dispersion relation of two-dimensional plasma crystals in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, G.; Konopka, U.; Morfill, G.

    2004-01-01

    The wave dispersion relation in a two-dimensional strongly coupled plasma crystal is studied by theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation taking into account a constant magnetic field parallel to the crystal normal. The expression for the wave dispersion relation clearly shows that high-frequency and low-frequency branches exist as a result of the coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes due to the Lorenz force acting on the dust particles. The high-frequency and the low-frequency branches are found to belong to right-hand and left-hand polarized waves, respectively

  11. On the relationship between magnetostatic wave energy and dispersion characteristics in ferrite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashkovsky, Anatolii V; Lock, Edwin H

    2011-01-01

    The energy and dispersion characteristics of a dipole spin wave in a ferrite-dielectric-metal structure are calculated. An analysis of spin wave dispersion characteristics with extreme points demonstrates how fundamental relationships among the propagation constant, phase and group velocities, Poynting vector, and power flux manifest themselves when the wavenumber changes near these points. A comparison of magnetostatic approximation results with calculations using Maxwell's equations shows the inadequacy of the magnetostatic approximation formulas currently used for calculating the Poynting vector and power flux of dipole spin waves. A correct alternative is proposed. (methodological notes)

  12. Dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves in high-energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation on the propagation of electromagnetic waves and electron plasma waves in high energy density plasmas using the covariant Wigner function approach. Based on the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, a relativistic quantum kinetic model is established to describe the physical processes in high-energy density plasmas. With the zero-temperature Fermi–Dirac distribution, the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves containing the relativistic quantum corrected terms are derived. The relativistic quantum corrections to the dispersion relation and Landau damping are analyzed by comparing our results with those obtained in classical and non-relativistic quantum plasmas. We provide a detailed discussion on the Landau damping obtained in classical plasmas, non-relativistic Fermi plasmas and relativistic Fermi plasmas. The contributions of the Bohm potential, the Fermi statistics pressure and relativistic effects to the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves are quantitatively calculated with real plasma parameters. (paper)

  13. Compact dispersion relations for parametric instabilities of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.

    1987-01-01

    The existence of compact dispersion relations for parametric instabilities of coherent electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas is addressed here. In general, comprehensive dispersion relations for parametric instabilities in unmagnetized plasmas become more complicated in the presence of an applied time-independent magnetic field. This is demonstrated with a fluid perturbation theory. A compact dispersion relation for parametric instabilities in unmagnetized plasma is heuristically extended here to the case of a magnetized plasma. This dispersion relation gives the correct results in a variety of circumstances of interest in considering electron cyclotron heating applications

  14. Measurements of the power spectrum and dispersion relation of self-excited dust acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Kim, S.-H.; Heinrich, J.; Merlino, R. L.; Morfill, G. E.

    2009-12-01

    The spectrum of spontaneously excited dust acoustic waves was measured. The waves were observed with high temporal resolution using a fast video camera operating at 1000 frames per second. The experimental system was a suspension of micron-size kaolin particles in the anode region of a dc discharge in argon. Wave activity was found at frequencies as high as 450 Hz. At high wave numbers, the wave dispersion relation was acoustic-like (frequency proportional to wave number). At low wave numbers, the wave frequency did not tend to zero, but reached a cutoff frequency instead. The cutoff value declined with distance from the anode. We ascribe the observed cutoff to the particle confinement in this region.

  15. Lamb wave tuning curve calibration for surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hoon; Lee, Sang Jun

    2010-01-01

    Surface-bonded lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers have been widely used for guided wave generation and measurement. For selective actuation and sensing of Lamb wave modes, the sizes of the transducers and the driving frequency of the input waveform should be tuned. For this purpose, a theoretical Lamb wave tuning curve (LWTC) of a specific transducer size is generally obtained. Here, the LWTC plots each Lamb wave mode' amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. However, a discrepancy between experimental and existing theoretical LWTCs has been observed due to little consideration of the bonding layer and the energy distribution between Lamb wave modes. In this study, calibration techniques for theoretical LWTCs are proposed. First, a theoretical LWTC is developed when circular PZT transducers are used for both Lamb wave excitation and sensing. Then, the LWTC is calibrated by estimating the effective PZT size with PZT admittance measurement. Finally, the energy distributions among symmetric and antisymmetric modes are taken into account for better prediction of the relative amplitudes between Lamb wave modes. The effectiveness of the proposed calibration techniques is examined through numerical simulations and experimental estimation of the LWTC using the circular PZT transducers instrumented on an aluminum plate

  16. Guided waves dispersion equations for orthotropic multilayered pipes solved using standard finite elements code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predoi, Mihai Valentin

    2014-09-01

    The dispersion curves for hollow multilayered cylinders are prerequisites in any practical guided waves application on such structures. The equations for homogeneous isotropic materials have been established more than 120 years ago. The difficulties in finding numerical solutions to analytic expressions remain considerable, especially if the materials are orthotropic visco-elastic as in the composites used for pipes in the last decades. Among other numerical techniques, the semi-analytical finite elements method has proven its capability of solving this problem. Two possibilities exist to model a finite elements eigenvalue problem: a two-dimensional cross-section model of the pipe or a radial segment model, intersecting the layers between the inner and the outer radius of the pipe. The last possibility is here adopted and distinct differential problems are deduced for longitudinal L(0,n), torsional T(0,n) and flexural F(m,n) modes. Eigenvalue problems are deduced for the three modes classes, offering explicit forms of each coefficient for the matrices used in an available general purpose finite elements code. Comparisons with existing solutions for pipes filled with non-linear viscoelastic fluid or visco-elastic coatings as well as for a fully orthotropic hollow cylinder are all proving the reliability and ease of use of this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Observation of Self-Cavitating Envelope Dispersive Shock Waves in Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janantha, P. A. Praveen; Sprenger, Patrick; Hoefer, Mark A.; Wu, Mingzhong

    2017-07-01

    The formation and properties of envelope dispersive shock wave (DSW) excitations from repulsive nonlinear waves in a magnetic film are studied. Experiments involve the excitation of a spin wave step pulse in a low-loss magnetic Y3Fe5O12 thin film strip, in which the spin wave amplitude increases rapidly, realizing the canonical Riemann problem of shock theory. Under certain conditions, the envelope of the spin wave pulse evolves into a DSW that consists of an expanding train of nonlinear oscillations with amplitudes increasing from front to back, terminated by a black soliton. The onset of DSW self-cavitation, indicated by a point of zero power and a concomitant 180° phase jump, is observed for sufficiently large steps, indicative of the bidirectional dispersive hydrodynamic nature of the DSW. The experimental observations are interpreted with theory and simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  18. Dispersion durations of P-wave and QT interval in children treated with a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksöz, Önder; Güzel, Orkide; Yılmaz, Ünsal; Işgüder, Rana; Çeleğen, Kübra; Meşe, Timur

    2014-04-01

    Limited data are available on the effects of a ketogenic diet on dispersion duration of P-wave and QT-interval measures in children. We searched for the changes in these measures with serial electrocardiograms in patients treated with a ketogenic diet. Twenty-five drug-resistant patients with epilepsy treated with a ketogenic diet were enrolled in this study. Electrocardiography was performed in all patients before the beginning and at the sixth month after implementation of the ketogenic diet. Heart rate, maximum and minimum P-wave duration, P-wave dispersion, and maximum and minimum corrected QT interval and QT dispersion were manually measured from the 12-lead surface electrocardiogram. Minimum and maximum corrected QT and QT dispersion measurements showed nonsignificant increase at month 6 compared with baseline values. Other previously mentioned electrocardiogram parameters also showed no significant changes. A ketogenic diet of 6 months' duration has no significant effect on electrocardiogram parameters in children. Further studies with larger samples and longer duration of follow-up are needed to clarify the effects of ketogenic diet on P-wave dispersion and corrected QT and QT dispersion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relation of wave energy and momentum with the plasma dispersion relation in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Pfirsch, D.

    1988-01-01

    The expressions for wave energy and angular momentum commonly used in homogeneous and near-homogeneous media is generalized to inhomogeneous media governed by a nonlocal conductivity tensor. The expression for wave energy applies to linear excitations in an arbitrary three-dimensional equilibrium, while the expression for angular momentum applies to linear excitations of azimuthally symmetric equilibria. The wave energy E-script/sub wave/ is interpreted as the energy transferred from linear external sources to the plasma if there is no dissipation. With dissipation, such a simple interpretation is lacking as energy is also thermally absorbed. However, for azimuthally symmetric equilibria, the expression for the wave energy in a frame rotating with a frequency ω can be unambiguously separated from thermal energy. This expression is given by E-script/sub wave/ -ωL/sub wave/ l, where L/sub wave/ is the wave angular momentum defined in the text and l the azimuthal wavenumber and it is closely related to the real part of a dispersion relation for marginal stability. The imaginary part of the dispersion is closely related to the energy input into a system. Another useful quantity discussed is the impedance form, which can be used for three-dimensional equilibrium without an ignorable coordinate and the expression is closely related to the wave impedance used in antenna theory. Applications to stability theory are also discussed

  20. Smooth and non-smooth travelling waves in a nonlinearly dispersive Boussinesq equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jianwei; Xu Wei; Lei Youming

    2005-01-01

    The dynamical behavior and special exact solutions of nonlinear dispersive Boussinesq equation (B(m,n) equation), u tt -u xx -a(u n ) xx +b(u m ) xxxx =0, is studied by using bifurcation theory of dynamical system. As a result, all possible phase portraits in the parametric space for the travelling wave system, solitary wave, kink and anti-kink wave solutions and uncountably infinite many smooth and non-smooth periodic wave solutions are obtained. It can be shown that the existence of singular straight line in the travelling wave system is the reason why smooth waves converge to cusp waves, finally. When parameter are varied, under different parametric conditions, various sufficient conditions guarantee the existence of the above solutions are given

  1. A water wave model with horizontal circulation and accurate dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotter, C.; Bokhove, Onno

    We describe a new water wave model which is variational, and combines a depth-averaged vertical (component of) vorticity with depth-dependent potential flow. The model facilitates the further restriction of the vertical profile of the velocity potential to n-th order polynomials or a finite element

  2. Nonlinear wave propagation studies, dispersion modeling, and signal parameters correction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk

    ..: ..., 2004, 00. [European Workshop on FP6-AERONEWS /1./. Naples (IT), 13.09.2004-16.09.2004] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 502927 - AERO-NEWS Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : nodestructive testing * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  3. Covariant kinetic dispersion theory of linear transverse waves parallel propagating in magnetized plasmas with thermal anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, M.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2006-01-01

    The properties of transverse waves parallel propagating in magnetized plasmas with arbitrary composition and thermally anisotropic, are investigated on the basis of relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The transverse dispersion relations for plasmas with arbitrary distribution functions are derived. These dispersion relations describe the linear response of the system to the initial perturbations and thus define all existing linear (transverse) plasma modes in the system. By analytic continuation the dispersion relations in the whole complex frequency plane are constructed. Further analysis is restricted to the important case of anisotropic bi-Maxwellian equilibrium plasma distribution functions. Explicit forms of the relativistically correct transverse dispersion relations are derived that hold for any values of the plasma temperatures and the temperature anisotropy. In the limit of nonrelativistic plasma temperatures the dispersion relations are expressed in terms of plasma dispersion function, however, the dependence on frequency and wave numbers is markedly different from the standard noncovariant nonrelativistic analysis. Only in the strictly unphysical formal limit of an infinitely large speed of light, c→∞, does the nonrelativistic dispersion relations reduce to the standard noncovariant dispersion relations

  4. Pseudospectral modeling and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Chen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of the most widely used techniques in environmental and engineering geophysics to determine shear-wave velocities and dynamic properties, which is based on the elastic layered system theory. Wave propagation in the Earth, however, has been recognized as viscoelastic and the propagation of Rayleigh waves presents substantial differences in viscoelastic media as compared with elastic media. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulation and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media to better understand Rayleigh-wave behaviors in the real world. We apply a pseudospectral method to the calculation of the spatial derivatives using a Chebyshev difference operator in the vertical direction and a Fourier difference operator in the horizontal direction based on the velocity-stress elastodynamic equations and relations of linear viscoelastic solids. This approach stretches the spatial discrete grid to have a minimum grid size near the free surface so that high accuracy and resolution are achieved at the free surface, which allows an effective incorporation of the free surface boundary conditions since the Chebyshev method is nonperiodic. We first use an elastic homogeneous half-space model to demonstrate the accuracy of the pseudospectral method comparing with the analytical solution, and verify the correctness of the numerical modeling results for a viscoelastic half-space comparing the phase velocities of Rayleigh wave between the theoretical values and the dispersive image generated by high-resolution linear Radon transform. We then simulate three types of two-layer models to analyze dispersive-energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media is relatively higher than in elastic media and the fundamental mode increases by 10-16% when the frequency is above 10. Hz due to the velocity dispersion of P

  5. Seismic wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in UAE carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsami, Abdulwaheed Remi

    Interpreting the seismic property of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs at low frequency scale has been a cherished goal of petroleum geophysics research for decades. Lately, there has been tremendous interest in understanding attenuation as a result of fluid flow in porous media. Although interesting, the emerging experimental and theoretical information still remain ambiguous and are practically not utilized for reasons not too obscure. Attenuation is frequency dependent and hard to measure in the laboratory at low frequency. This thesis describes and reports the results of an experimental study of low frequency attenuation and velocity dispersion on a selected carbonate reservoir samples in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the low frequency measurements, stress-strain method was used to measure the moduli from which the velocity is derived. Attenuation was measured as the phase difference between the applied stress and the strain. For the ultrasonic component, the pulse propagation method was employed. To study the fluid effect especially at reservoir in situ conditions, the measurements were made dry and saturated with liquid butane and brine at differential pressures of up to 5000 psi with pore pressure held constant at 500 psi. Similarly to what has been documented in the literatures for sandstone, attenuation of the bulk compressibility mode dominates the losses in these dry and somewhat partially saturated carbonate samples with butane and brine. Overall, the observed attenuation cannot be simply said to be frequency dependent within this low seismic band. While attenuation seems to be practically constant in the low frequency band for sample 3H, such conclusion cannot be made for sample 7H. For the velocities, significant dispersion is observed and Gassmann generally fails to match the measured velocities. Only the squirt model fairly fits the velocities, but not at all pressures. Although the observed dispersion is larger than Biot's prediction, the fact

  6. Dispersion of Lamb waves in a honeycomb composite sandwich panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baid, Harsh; Schaal, Christoph; Samajder, Himadri; Mal, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Composite materials are increasingly being used in advanced aircraft and aerospace structures. Despite their many advantages, composites are often susceptible to hidden damages that may occur during manufacturing and/or service of the structure. Therefore, safe operation of composite structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost effective method for defects monitoring in advanced structures due to their long propagation range and their sensitivity to defects in their propagation path. In this paper, some of the useful properties of guided Lamb type waves are investigated, using analytical, numerical and experimental methods, in an effort to provide the knowledge base required for the development of viable structural health monitoring systems for composite structures. The laboratory experiments involve a pitch-catch method in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on the outside surface of the structure for generating and recording the wave signals. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate, a woven composite laminate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The agreement between experimental, numerical and theoretical results are shown to be excellent in certain frequency ranges, providing a guidance for the design of effective inspection systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of exchange correlation potential on dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave in degenerate plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimza, Tripti; Sharma, Prerana

    2017-05-01

    The dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave are studied in electron-iondegenerate plasma with exchange effect in non-relativistic regime. It is found that the combined effect of Bohm potential and exchange correlation potential significantly modifies the dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave. The graphical results explicitly show the influence of degeneracy pressure, Bohm force and exchange correlation potential on the frequency of the lower hybrid mode. Present work should be of relevance for the dense astrophysical environments like white dwarfs and for laboratory experiments.

  8. Phase dispersion of Raman and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixings in femtosecond polarization beats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhao; Zhi-Qiang, Nie; Chang-Biao, Li; Yan-Peng, Zhang; Chen-Li, Gan; Huai-Bin, Zheng; Yuan-Yuan, Li; Ke-Qing, Lu

    2009-01-01

    Based on color-locking noisy field correlation in three Markovian stochastic models, phase dispersions of the Raman- and Rayleigh-enhanced four-wave mixing (FWM) have been investigated. The phase dispersions are modified by both linewidth and time delay for negative time delay, but only by linewidth for positive time delay. Moreover, the results under narrowband condition are close to the nonmodified nonlinear dispersion and absorption of the material. Homodyne and heterodyne detections of the Raman, the Rayleigh and the mixing femtosecond difference-frequency polarization beats have also been investigated, separately

  9. Solitary waves for a coupled nonlinear Schrodinger system with dispersion management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotis Panayotaros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a system of coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations with periodically varying dispersion coefficient that arises in the context of fiber-optics communication. We use Lions's Concentration Compactness principle to show the existence of standing waves with prescribed L^2 norm in an averaged equation that approximates the coupled system. We also use the Mountain Pass Lemma to prove the existence of standing waves with prescribed frequencies.

  10. Coherent structural trapping through wave packet dispersion during photoinduced spin state switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Hartsock, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The description of ultrafast nonadiabatic chemical dynamics during molecular photo-transformations remains challenging because electronic and nuclear configurations impact each other and cannot be treated independently. Here we gain experimental insights, beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation...... is distinguished from the structural trapping dynamics, which launches a coherent oscillating wave packet (265 fs period), clearly identified as molecular breathing. Throughout the structural trapping, the dispersion of the wave packet along the reaction coordinate reveals details of intramolecular vibronic...

  11. Military jet pilots have higher p-wave dispersions compared to the transport aircraft aircrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çakar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: For the purpose of flight safety military aircrew must be healthy. P-wave dispersion (PWD is the p-wave length difference in an electrocardiographic (ECG examination and represents the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In the study we aimed at investigating PWD in healthy military aircrew who reported for periodical examinations. Material and Methods: Seventy-five asymptomatic military aircrew were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent physical, radiologic and biochemical examinations, and a 12-lead electrocardiography. P-wave dispersions were calculated. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 36.15±8.97 years and the mean p-wave duration was 100.8±12 ms in the whole group. Forty-seven subjects were non-pilot aircrew, and 28 were pilots. Thirteen study subjects were serving in jets, 49 in helicopters, and 13 were transport aircraft pilots. Thirty-six of the helicopter and 11 of the transport aircraft aircrew were non-pilot aircrew. P-wave dispersion was the lowest in the transport aircraft aircrew, and the highest in jet pilots. P-wave dispersions were similar in the pilots and non-pilot aircrew. Twenty-three study subjects were overweight, 19 had thyroiditis, 26 had hepatosteatosis, 4 had hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had hypertension, and 5 had hyperlipidemia. The PWD was significantly associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Serum uric acid levels were associated with p-wave durations. Serum TSH levels were the most important predictor of PWD. Conclusions: When TSH levels were associated with PWD, uric acid levels were associated with p-wave duration in the military aircrew. The jet pilots had higher PWDs. These findings reveal that military jet pilots may have a higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation, and PWD should be recorded during periodical examinations.

  12. Relativistic invariance of dispersion-relations and their associated wave-operators and Green-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censor, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Identifying invariance properties helps in simplifying calculations and consolidating concepts. Presently the Special Relativistic invariance of dispersion relations and their associated scalar wave operators is investigated for general dispersive homogeneous linear media. Invariance properties of the four-dimensional Fourier-transform integrals is demonstrated, from which the invariance of the scalar Green-function is inferred. Dispersion relations and the associated group velocities feature in Hamiltonian ray tracing theory. The derivation of group velocities for moving media from the dispersion relation for these media at rest is discussed. It is verified that the group velocity concept satisfies the relativistic velocity-addition formula. In this respect it is considered to be 'real', i.e., substantial, physically measurable, and not merely a mathematical artifact. Conversely, if we assume the group velocity to be substantial, it follows that the dispersion relation must be a relativistic invariant. (orig.)

  13. 1D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; Brandenburg, Martijn

    2017-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Last year an approach was presented using a phase inversion of guided waves that propagated around the circumference of a pipe. This approach works well for larger corrosion spots, but shows significant under-sizing of small spots due to lack of sufficient phase rotation. In this paper the use of arrival time and amplitude loss of higher order circumferential passes is evaluated. Using higher order passes increases sensitivity for sizing smaller defects. Different defect profiles are assumed and the change in arrival time and amplitude loss are calculated using a wave equation based approach for different defect widths and depths. This produces a differential travel time and amplitude change map as function of defect depth and defect width. The actually measured travel time change and amplitude change produces two contours in these maps. Calculating the intersection point gives the defect dimensions. The contours for amplitude loss and travel time change are quite orthogonal, this yields a good discrimination between deep and shallow defects. The approach is evaluated using experimental data from different pipes contain artificial and real defects.

  14. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Arinc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or those P-waves and QT intervals unavailable in at least eight ECG leads were excluded. Subjects having insomnia, lactose intolerance, caffeine allergy, recurrent headaches, depression, any psychiatric condition, and history of alcohol or drug abuse, pregnant or lactating women were also excluded from participation. 12 lead ECG was obtained before and after consumption of 250 cc enegry drink. QT and P-wave dispersion was calculated. RESULTS: No significant difference have occurred in heart rate (79 ± 14 vs.81 ±13, p=0.68, systolic pressure (114 ± 14 vs.118 ± 16,p=0.38, diastolic blood pressure (74 ± 12 vs.76 ± 14, p=0.64, QT dispersion (58 ± 12 vs. 57 ± 22, p= 0.785 and P-wave dispersion (37 ± 7 vs. 36 ± 13, p= 0.755 between before and 2 hours after consumption of energy drink. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Consumption of single dose energy drink doesn't affect QT dispersion and P-wave dispersion, heart rate and blood pressure in healthy adults.

  15. Relation between the behaviors of P-wave and QT dispersions in elderly patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlejf Cláudia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between P-wave and QT dispersions in elderly patients with heart failure. METHODS: Forty-seven elderly patients (75.6±6 years with stable heart failure in NYHA functional classes II or III and with ejection fractions of 37±6% underwent body surface mapping to analyze P-wave and QT dispersions. The degree of correlation between P-wave and QT dispersions was assessed, and P-wave dispersion values in patients with QT dispersion greater than and smaller than 100 ms were compared. RESULTS: The mean values of P-wave and QT dispersions were 54±14 ms and 68±27 ms, respectively. The correlation between the 2 variables was R=0.41 (p=0.04. In patients with QT dispersion values > 100 ms, P-wave dispersion was significantly greater than in those with QT dispersion values < 100 ms (58±16 vs 53±12 ms, p=0.04 . CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that, in elderly patients with heart failure, a correlation between the values of P-wave and QT dispersions exists. These findings may have etiopathogenic, pathophysiologic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications, which should be investigated in other studies.

  16. On spherical harmonic representation of transient waves in dispersive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Victor V

    2003-01-01

    Axisymmetric transient solutions to the inhomogeneous telegraph equation are constructed in terms of spherical harmonics. Explicit solutions of the initial-value problem are derived in the spacetime domain by means of the Smirnov method of incomplete separation of variables and the Riemann formula. The corresponding Riemann function is constructed with the help of the Olevsky theorem. Solutions for some source distributions on a sphere expanding with a velocity greater than the wavefront velocity are obtained. This allows an analogous solution in the case of a circle belonging to a sphere expanding with the wavefront velocity to be written at once. Application of the scalar solution to a description of electromagnetic waves is also discussed

  17. Scaling relations for soliton compression and dispersive-wave generation in tapered optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, scaling relations for soliton compression in tapered optical fibers are derived and discussed. The relations allow simple and semi-accurate estimates of the compression point and output noise level, which is useful, for example, for tunable dispersive-wave generation with an agile ...

  18. Dispersion-Flattened Composite Highly Nonlinear Fibre Optimised for Broadband Pulsed Four-Wave Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a segmented composite HNLF optimised for mitigation of dispersion-fluctuation impairments for broadband pulsed four-wave mixing. The HNLF-segmentation allows for pulsed FWMprocessing of a 13-nm wide input WDM-signal with -4.6-dB conversion efficiency...

  19. The upper mantle beneath the Gulf of California from surface wave dispersion. Geologica Ultraiectina (299)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is a study on upper mantle shear velocity structure beneath the Gulf of California. Surface wave interstation dispersion data were measured in the Gulf of California area and vicinity to obtain a 3-D shear velocity structure of the upper mantle. This work has particular significance for

  20. Symmetries of the triple degenerate DNLS equations for weakly nonlinear dispersive MHD waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G. M.; Brio, M.; Zank, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    A formulation of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian variational principles, Lie point symmetries and conservation laws for the triple degenerate DNLS equations describing the propagation of weakly nonlinear dispersive MHD waves along the ambient magnetic field, in β∼1 plasmas is given. The equations describe the interaction of the Alfven and magnetoacoustic modes near the triple umbilic point, where the fast magnetosonic, slow magnetosonic and Alfven speeds coincide and a g 2 =V A 2 where a g is the gas sound speed and V A is the Alfven speed. A discussion is given of the travelling wave similarity solutions of the equations, which include solitary wave and periodic traveling waves. Strongly compressible solutions indicate the necessity for the insertion of shocks in the flow, whereas weakly compressible, near Alfvenic solutions resemble similar, shock free travelling wave solutions of the DNLS equation

  1. Deterministic and stochastic evolution equations for fully dispersive and weakly nonlinear waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldeberky, Y.; Madsen, Per A.

    1999-01-01

    and stochastic formulations are solved numerically for the case of cross shore motion of unidirectional waves and the results are verified against laboratory data for wave propagation over submerged bars and over a plane slope. Outside the surf zone the two model predictions are generally in good agreement......This paper presents a new and more accurate set of deterministic evolution equations for the propagation of fully dispersive, weakly nonlinear, irregular, multidirectional waves. The equations are derived directly from the Laplace equation with leading order nonlinearity in the surface boundary...... is significantly underestimated for larger wave numbers. In the present work we correct this inconsistency. In addition to the improved deterministic formulation, we present improved stochastic evolution equations in terms of the energy spectrum and the bispectrum for multidirectional waves. The deterministic...

  2. Impact localization in dispersive waveguides based on energy-attenuation of waves with the traveled distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajlouni, Sa'ed; Albakri, Mohammad; Tarazaga, Pablo

    2018-05-01

    An algorithm is introduced to solve the general multilateration (source localization) problem in a dispersive waveguide. The algorithm is designed with the intention of localizing impact forces in a dispersive floor, and can potentially be used to localize and track occupants in a building using vibration sensors connected to the lower surface of the walking floor. The lower the wave frequencies generated by the impact force, the more accurate the localization is expected to be. An impact force acting on a floor, generates a seismic wave that gets distorted as it travels away from the source. This distortion is noticeable even over relatively short traveled distances, and is mainly caused by the dispersion phenomenon among other reasons, therefore using conventional localization/multilateration methods will produce localization error values that are highly variable and occasionally large. The proposed localization approach is based on the fact that the wave's energy, calculated over some time window, decays exponentially as the wave travels away from the source. Although localization methods that assume exponential decay exist in the literature (in the field of wireless communications), these methods have only been considered for wave propagation in non-dispersive media, in addition to the limiting assumption required by these methods that the source must not coincide with a sensor location. As a result, these methods cannot be applied to the indoor localization problem in their current form. We show how our proposed method is different from the other methods, and that it overcomes the source-sensor location coincidence limitation. Theoretical analysis and experimental data will be used to motivate and justify the pursuit of the proposed approach for localization in a dispersive medium. Additionally, hammer impacts on an instrumented floor section inside an operational building, as well as finite element model simulations, are used to evaluate the performance of

  3. Propagation and dispersion of electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iranpour

    Full Text Available Low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the ionospheric E region were detected by instruments on the ROSE rockets. The phase velocity and dispersion of plasma waves in the ionospheric E region are determined by band-pass filtering and cross-correlating data of the electric-field fluctuations detected by the probes on the ROSE F4 rocket. The results were confirmed by a different method of analysis of the same data. The results show that the waves propagate in the Hall-current direction with a velocity somewhat below the ion sound speed obtained for ionospheric conditions during the flight. It is also found that the waves are dispersive, with the longest wavelengths propagating with the lowest velocity.

  4. Propagation and dispersion of electrostatic waves in the ionospheric E region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iranpour

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the ionospheric E region were detected by instruments on the ROSE rockets. The phase velocity and dispersion of plasma waves in the ionospheric E region are determined by band-pass filtering and cross-correlating data of the electric-field fluctuations detected by the probes on the ROSE F4 rocket. The results were confirmed by a different method of analysis of the same data. The results show that the waves propagate in the Hall-current direction with a velocity somewhat below the ion sound speed obtained for ionospheric conditions during the flight. It is also found that the waves are dispersive, with the longest wavelengths propagating with the lowest velocity.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF WHISTLER WAVE DISPERSION RELATION IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansby, D.; Horbury, T. S.; Chen, C. H. K.; Matteini, L., E-mail: david.stansby14@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-20

    The origins and properties of large-amplitude whistler wavepackets in the solar wind are still unclear. In this Letter, we utilize single spacecraft electric and magnetic field waveform measurements from the ARTEMIS mission to calculate the plasma frame frequency and wavevector of individual wavepackets over multiple intervals. This allows direct comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical dispersion relations to identify the observed waves as whistler waves. The whistlers are right-hand circularly polarized, travel anti-sunward, and are aligned with the background magnetic field. Their dispersion is strongly affected by the local electron parallel beta in agreement with linear theory. The properties measured are consistent with the electron heat flux instability acting in the solar wind to generate these waves.

  6. Effects of temperature and wave conditions on chemical dispersion efficacy of heavy fuel oil in an experimental flow-through wave tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengkai; Lee, Kenneth; King, Thomas; Boufadel, Michel C; Venosa, Albert D

    2010-09-01

    The effectiveness of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500 and SPC 1000) on heavy fuel oil (IFO180 as test oil) has been evaluated under different wave conditions in a flow-through wave tank. The dispersant effectiveness was determined by measuring oil concentrations and droplet size distributions. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model indicated that wave type and temperature significantly (p or = 400 microm). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [P wave dispersion increased in childhood depending on blood pressure, weight, height, and cardiac structure and function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-González, Elibet; González-Rodríguez, Emilio; Llanes-Camacho, María Del Carmen; Garí-Llanes, Merlin; García-Nóbrega, Yosvany; García-Sáez, Julieta

    2014-01-01

    Increased P wave dispersion are identified as a predictor of atrial fibrillation. There are associations between hypertension, P wave dispersion, constitutional and echocardiographic variables. These relationships have been scarcely studied in pediatrics. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between P wave dispersion, blood pressure, echocardiographic and constitutional variables, and determine the most influential variables on P wave dispersion increases in pediatrics. In the frame of the PROCDEC II project, children from 8 to 11 years old, without known heart conditions were studied. Arterial blood pressure was measured in all the children; a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram and an echocardiogram were done as well. Left ventricular mass index mean values for normotensive (25.91±5.96g/m(2.7)) and hypertensive (30.34±8.48g/m(2.7)) showed significant differences P=.000. When we add prehypertensive and hypertensive there are 50.38% with normal left ventricular mass index and P wave dispersion was increased versus 13.36% of normotensive. Multiple regression demonstrated that the mean blood pressure, duration of A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height have a value of r=0.88 as related to P wave dispersion. P wave dispersion is increased in pre- and hypertensive children compared to normotensive. There are pre- and hypertensive patients with normal left ventricular mass index and increased P wave dispersion. Mean arterial pressure, duration of the A wave of mitral inflow, weight and height are the variables with the highest influence on increased P wave dispersion. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Nonlinear Dispersive Elastic Waves in Solids: Exact, Approximate, and Numerical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehtourian, Romik

    Wave motion lies at the heart of many disciplines in the physical sciences and engineering. For example, problems and applications involving light, sound, heat, or fluid flow are all likely to involve wave dynamics at some level. A particular class of problems is concerned with the propagation of elastic waves in a solid medium, such as a fiber-reinforced composite material responding to vibratory excitations, or soil and rock admitting seismic waves moments after the onset of an earthquake, or phonon transport in a semiconducting crystal like silicon. Regardless of the type of wave, the dispersion relation provides a fundamental characterization of the elastodynamic properties of the medium. The first part of the dissertation examines the propagation of a large-amplitude elastic wave in a one-dimensional homogeneous medium with a focus on the effects of inherent nonlinearities on the dispersion relation. Considering a thin rod, where the thickness is small compared to the wavelength, an exact, closed-form formulation is presented for the treatment of two types of nonlinearity in the strain-displacement gradient relation: Green-Lagrange and Hencky. The derived relation is then verified by direct time-domain simulations, examining both instantaneous dispersion (by direct observation) and short-term, pre-breaking dispersion (by Fourier transformation). A high-order perturbation analysis is also conducted yielding an explicit analytical space-time solution, which is shown to be spectrally accurate. The results establish a perfect match between theory and simulation and reveal that regardless of the strength of the nonlinearity, the dispersion relation fully embodies all information pertaining to the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism that unfolds as an arbitrary-profiled wave evolves in the medium. In the second part of the dissertation, the analysis is extended to a continuous periodic thin rod exhibiting multiple phases or embedded local resonators. The

  9. The influence of the directional energy distribution on the nonlinear dispersion relation in a random gravity wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Tung, C.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the directional distribution of wave energy on the dispersion relation is calculated numerically using various directional wave spectrum models. The results indicate that the dispersion relation varies both as a function of the directional energy distribution and the direction of propagation of the wave component under consideration. Furthermore, both the mean deviation and the random scatter from the linear approximation increase as the energy spreading decreases. Limited observational data are compared with the theoretical results. The agreement is favorable.

  10. Imaging ultrasonic dispersive guided wave energy in long bones using linear radon transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tho N H T; Nguyen, Kim-Cuong T; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Le, Lawrence H

    2014-11-01

    Multichannel analysis of dispersive ultrasonic energy requires a reliable mapping of the data from the time-distance (t-x) domain to the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) or frequency-phase velocity (f-c) domain. The mapping is usually performed with the classic 2-D Fourier transform (FT) with a subsequent substitution and interpolation via c = 2πf/k. The extracted dispersion trajectories of the guided modes lack the resolution in the transformed plane to discriminate wave modes. The resolving power associated with the FT is closely linked to the aperture of the recorded data. Here, we present a linear Radon transform (RT) to image the dispersive energies of the recorded ultrasound wave fields. The RT is posed as an inverse problem, which allows implementation of the regularization strategy to enhance the focusing power. We choose a Cauchy regularization for the high-resolution RT. Three forms of Radon transform: adjoint, damped least-squares, and high-resolution are described, and are compared with respect to robustness using simulated and cervine bone data. The RT also depends on the data aperture, but not as severely as does the FT. With the RT, the resolution of the dispersion panel could be improved up to around 300% over that of the FT. Among the Radon solutions, the high-resolution RT delineated the guided wave energy with much better imaging resolution (at least 110%) than the other two forms. The Radon operator can also accommodate unevenly spaced records. The results of the study suggest that the high-resolution RT is a valuable imaging tool to extract dispersive guided wave energies under limited aperture. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Dispersion of the Axisymmetric Longitudinal Waves in the Pre-Strained Bi-Material Hollow Cylinder with the Imperfect Interface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, S. D.; Ipek, C.

    This work studies the influence of the imperfectness of the interface conditions on the dispersion of the axisymmetric longitudinal waves in the pre-strained bi-material hollow cylinder. The investigations are made within the 3D linearized theory of elastic waves in elastic bodies with initial stresses. It is assumed that the materials of the layers of the hollow cylinder are made from hyper elastic compressible materials and the elasticity relations of those are given through the harmonic potential. The shear spring type imperfectness of the interface conditions is considered and the degree of this imperfectness is estimated by the shear-spring parameter. Numerical results on the influence of this parameter on the behavior of the dispersion curves are presented and discussed.

  12. Dispersion relation for long-wave neutrons and the possibility of its precise experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.I.; Nosov, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    Modern theoretical concepts concerning the dispersion relation for slow neutrons in matter are considered. The generally accepted optical-potential model is apparently not quite accurate and should be supplemented with some small corrections in the energy range attainable in experiments. For ultracold neutrons, these corrections are related to the proximity of the applicability boundary of the theory; for cold neutrons, these corrections are due to correlations in the positions of scatters. The accuracy of existing experiments is insufficient for confirmation or refutation these conclusions. A precision experiment is proposed to verify the dispersion relation for long-wave neutrons. 30 refs., 3 figs

  13. Broadband light generation at ~1300 nm through spectrally recoiled solitons and dispersive waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Peter Andreas; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Bang, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally study the generation of broadband light at ~1300 nm from an 810 nm Ti:sapphire femtosecond pump laser. We use two photonic crystal fibers with a second infrared zero-dispersion wavelength (λZ2) and compare the efficiency of two schemes: in one fiber λZ2=1400 nm and the light...... at 1300 nm is composed of spectrally recoiled solitons; in the other fiber λZ2=1200 nm and the light at 1300 nm is composed of dispersive waves....

  14. Energy storage and dispersion of surface acoustic waves trapped in a periodic array of mechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown previously that surface acoustic waves can be efficiently trapped and slowed by steep ridges on a piezoelectric substrate, giving rise to two families of shear-horizontal and vertically polarized surface waves. The mechanisms of energy storage and dispersion are explored by using...... the finite element method to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes. A periodic model is proposed including a perfectly matched layer to simulate radiation conditions away from the sources, from which the modal distributions are found. The ratio of the mechanical energy...... confined to the electrode as compared to the total mechanical energy is calculated and is found to be increasing for increasing aspect ratio and to tend to a definite limit for the two families of surface waves. This observation is in support of the interpretation that high aspect ratio electrodes act...

  15. Wave dispersion characteristics of axially loaded magneto-electro-elastic nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza; Dabbagh, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of wave propagation behavior of a magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) nanobeam is performed in the framework of classical beam theory. To capture small-scale effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen is applied. Furthermore, the material properties of nanobeam are assumed to vary gradually through the thickness based on power-law form. Nonlocal governing equations of MEE-FG nanobeam have been derived employing Hamilton's principle. The results of present research have been validated by comparing with those of previous investigations. An analytical solution of governing equations is utilized to obtain wave frequencies, phase velocities and escape frequencies. Effects of various parameters such as wave number, nonlocal parameter, gradient index, axial load, magnetic potential and electric voltage on wave dispersion characteristics of MEE-FG nanoscale beams are studied in detail.

  16. Dispersion relation and growth rate of a relativistic electron beam propagating through a Langmuir wave wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, H.; Jafari, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a theory of free-electron laser (FEL) with a Langmuir wave wiggler in the presence of an axial magnetic field has been presented. The small wavelength of the plasma wave (in the sub-mm range) allows obtaining higher frequency than conventional wiggler FELs. Electron trajectories have been obtained by solving the equations of motion for a single electron. In addition, a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to simulate the electron trajectories. Employing a perturbation analysis, the dispersion relation for an electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been derived by solving the momentum transfer, continuity, and wave equations. Numerical calculations show that the growth rate increases with increasing the e-beam energy and e-beam density, while it decreases with increasing the strength of the axial guide magnetic field.

  17. Stochastic linearization of turbulent dynamics of dispersive waves in equilibrium and non-equilibrium state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shixiao W; Lu, Haihao; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing dispersive wave turbulence in the long time dynamics is central to understanding of many natural phenomena, e.g., in atmosphere ocean dynamics, nonlinear optics, and plasma physics. Using the β -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam nonlinear system as a prototypical example, we show that in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium steady state the turbulent state even in the strongly nonlinear regime possesses an effective linear stochastic structure in renormalized normal variables. In this framework, we can well characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics, which are dominated by long-wavelength renormalized waves. We further demonstrate that the energy flux is nearly saturated by the long-wavelength renormalized waves in non-equilibrium steady state. The scenario of such effective linear stochastic dynamics can be extended to study turbulent states in other nonlinear wave systems. (paper)

  18. Lattice Waves, Spin Waves, and Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1962-03-01

    Use of neutron inelastic scattering to study the forces between atoms in solids is treated. One-phonon processes and lattice vibrations are discussed, and experiments that verified the existence of the quantum of lattice vibrations, the phonon, are reviewed. Dispersion curves, phonon frequencies and absorption, and models for dispersion calculations are discussed. Experiments on the crystal dynamics of metals are examined. Dispersion curves are presented and analyzed; theory of lattice dynamics is considered; effects of Fermi surfaces on dispersion curves; electron-phonon interactions, electronic structure influence on lattice vibrations, and phonon lifetimes are explored. The dispersion relation of spin waves in crystals and experiments in which dispersion curves for spin waves in Co-Fe alloy and magnons in magnetite were obtained and the reality of the magnon was demonstrated are discussed. (D.C.W)

  19. A theoretical study of interaction effects on the remanence curves of particulate dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, M.; Chantrell, R. W.; Wohlfarth, E. P.

    1990-05-01

    The remanence curves of strongly interacting fine-particle systems are investigated theoretically. It is shown that the Henkel plot of the dc demagnetisation remanence vs. the isothermal remanence is a useful representation of interactions. The form of the plot is found to be a reflection of the magnetic and physical microstructure of the material, which is consistent with experimental data. The relationship between the Henkel plot and the noise of a particulate recording medium, another property dependent on the microstructure, is also considered. The Interaction Field Factor (IFF), a single parameter characterising the non-linearity of the Henkel plot, is also investigated. The results are consistent with a previous experimental study. Finally, the effect of interactions on the Switching Field Distribution are investigated.

  20. Joint Inversion of Surface Waves Dispersion and Receiver Function at Cuba Seismic Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, O'Leary; Moreno, Bladimir; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2010-06-01

    Joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion and receiver functions have been used to estimate the crust and upper mantle structure at eight seismic stations in Cuba. Receiver functions have been computed from teleseismic recordings of earthquakes at epicentral (angular) distances between 30 o and 90 o and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion have been taken from a surface-wave tomography study of the Caribbean area. The thickest crust (around 27 km) is found at Cascorro (CCC), Soroa (SOR), Moa (MOA) and Maisi (MAS) stations while the thinnest crust (around 18 km) is found at stations Rio Carpintero (RCC) and Guantanamo Bay (GTBY), in the southeastern of Cuba; this result is in agreement with the southward gradual thinning of the crust revealed by previous studies. The inversion shows a crystalline crust with S-wave velocity between 2.9 km/s and 3.9 km/s and at the crust-mantle transition zone the shear wave velocity varies from 3.9 km/s and 4.3 km/s. The lithospheric thickness varies from 74 km, in the youngest lithosphere, to 200 km in the middle of the Cuban island. Evidences of a subducted slab possibly belonging to the Caribbean plate are present below the stations Las Mercedes (LMG), RCC and GTBY and a thicker slab is present below the SOR station. (author)

  1. Local-in-space blow-up criteria for a class of nonlinear dispersive wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novruzov, Emil

    2017-11-01

    This paper is concerned with blow-up phenomena for the nonlinear dispersive wave equation on the real line, ut -uxxt +[ f (u) ] x -[ f (u) ] xxx +[ g (u) + f″/(u) 2 ux2 ] x = 0 that includes the Camassa-Holm equation as well as the hyperelastic-rod wave equation (f (u) = ku2 / 2 and g (u) = (3 - k) u2 / 2) as special cases. We establish some a local-in-space blow-up criterion (i.e., a criterion involving only the properties of the data u0 in a neighborhood of a single point) simplifying and precising earlier blow-up criteria for this equation.

  2. A Simple FDTD Algorithm for Simulating EM-Wave Propagation in General Dispersive Anisotropic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali; Alsunaidi, Mohammad A.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for simulating propagation of EM waves in anisotropic material is presented. The algorithm is based on the auxiliary differential equation and the general polarization formulation. In anisotropic materials, electric fields are coupled and elements in the permittivity tensor are, in general, multiterm dispersive. The presented algorithm resolves the field coupling using a formulation based on electric polarizations. It also offers a simple procedure for the treatment of multiterm dispersion in the FDTD scheme. The algorithm is tested by simulating wave propagation in 1-D magnetized plasma showing excellent agreement with analytical solutions. Extension of the algorithm to multidimensional structures is straightforward. The presented algorithm is efficient and simple compared to other algorithms found in the literature. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. A Simple FDTD Algorithm for Simulating EM-Wave Propagation in General Dispersive Anisotropic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, an finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for simulating propagation of EM waves in anisotropic material is presented. The algorithm is based on the auxiliary differential equation and the general polarization formulation. In anisotropic materials, electric fields are coupled and elements in the permittivity tensor are, in general, multiterm dispersive. The presented algorithm resolves the field coupling using a formulation based on electric polarizations. It also offers a simple procedure for the treatment of multiterm dispersion in the FDTD scheme. The algorithm is tested by simulating wave propagation in 1-D magnetized plasma showing excellent agreement with analytical solutions. Extension of the algorithm to multidimensional structures is straightforward. The presented algorithm is efficient and simple compared to other algorithms found in the literature. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Spin-Wave Dispersion and Sublattice Magnetization in NiCl_2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Birgeneau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1975-01-01

    temperature dependence on the sublattice magnetization, gap energy and specific heat. The authors report an inelastic neutron scattering study of the spin waves both at low temperatures and, for selected q-vectors, for temperatures up to TN=52.3K. The sublattice magnetization has been measured from 1.5K to TN......-dependent dispersion relations (together with the sublattice magnetization) and the gap energy up to approximately 0.4 TN are properly predicted....

  5. Effects of Single Dose Energy Drink on QT and P-Wave Dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Arınç, Hüseyin; Sarli, Bahadir; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Yolcu, Mustafa; Ozyildirim, Serhan; Kayardi, Mahmut; Cosgun, Mehmet; Erguzel, Nuri; Gunduz, Huseyin; Uyan, Cihangir

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac electrophysiological effects of energy drink (Red Bull) on QT and P duration and dispersion on surface electrocardiogram.Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers older than 17 years of age were included the study. Subjects with a cardiac rhythm except sinus rhythm, history of atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, family history of premature sudden cardiac death, palpitations, T-wave abnormalities, QTc interval greater than 440 milliseconds, or tho...

  6. Suppression of transverse instabilities of dark solitons and their dispersive shock waves

    KAUST Repository

    Armaroli, Andrea

    2009-11-03

    We investigate the impact of nonlocality, owing to diffusive behavior, on transverse instabilities of a dark stripe propagating in a defocusing cubic medium. The nonlocal response turns out to have a strongly stabilizing effect both in the case of a single soliton input and in the regime where dispersive shock waves develop (multisoliton regime). Such conclusions are supported by the linear stability analysis and numerical simulation of the propagation. © 2009 The American Physical Society.

  7. Prediction of separation of gases and gaseous isotopes in a curved shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunstall, J.N.; Harris, W.L.; Childs, K.W.

    1976-01-01

    An examination of the species separation induced by a curved shock wave in a supersonic flow of a binary gas mixture has been undertaken. The objectives of this investigation are to determine the importance of physical mechanisms operative in such flows per the species separation and to develop a self-consistent model for predicting species separation in such flows. The formulation of the model examined in this paper is based on the continuum Navier-Stokes equations. The effects of a specified flow field downstream of the shock have been neglected. The parameters which characterize the separation induced by the shock have been identified. Results show a mathematically self-consistent and physically plausible dependence on the parameters which characterize the phenomenon. A comparison with existing theoretical models and experimental data shows good agreement

  8. Visible continuum pulses based on enhanced dispersive wave generation for endogenous fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Quan; Chen, Zhongyun; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming; Fu, Ling

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrate endogenous fluorescence imaging using visible continuum pulses based on 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. Broadband (500-700 nm) and high-power (150 mW) continuum pulses are generated through enhanced dispersive wave generation by pumping femtosecond pulses at the anomalous dispersion region near zero-dispersion wavelength of high-nonlinear photonic crystal fibers. We also minimize the continuum pulse width by determining the proper fiber length. The visible-wavelength two-photon microscopy produces NADH and tryptophan images of mice tissues simultaneously. Our 500-700 nm continuum pulses support extending nonlinear microscopy to visible wavelength range that is inaccessible to 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillators and other applications requiring visible laser pulses.

  9. Double cascade turbulence and Richardson dispersion in a horizontal fluid flow induced by Faraday waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kameke, A; Huhn, F; Fernández-García, G; Muñuzuri, A P; Pérez-Muñuzuri, V

    2011-08-12

    We report the experimental observation of Richardson dispersion and a double cascade in a thin horizontal fluid flow induced by Faraday waves. The energy spectra and the mean spectral energy flux obtained from particle image velocimetry data suggest an inverse energy cascade with Kolmogorov type scaling E(k) ∝ k(γ), γ ≈ -5/3 and an E(k) ∝ k(γ), γ ≈ -3 enstrophy cascade. Particle transport is studied analyzing absolute and relative dispersion as well as the finite size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) via the direct tracking of real particles and numerical advection of virtual particles. Richardson dispersion with ∝ t(3) is observed and is also reflected in the slopes of the FSLE (Λ ∝ ΔR(-2/3)) for virtual and real particles.

  10. A robust approach for analysing dispersion of elastic waves in an orthotropic cylindrical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplunov, J.; Nobili, A.

    2017-08-01

    Dispersion of elastic waves in a thin orthotropic cylindrical shell is considered, within the framework of classical 2D Kirchhoff-Love theory. In contrast to direct multi-parametric analysis of the lowest propagating modes, an alternative robust approach is proposed that simply requires evaluation of the evanescent modes (quasi-static edge effect), which, at leading order, do not depend on vibration frequency. A shortened dispersion relation for the propagating modes is then derived by polynomial division and its accuracy is numerically tested against the full Kirchhoff-Love dispersion relation. It is shown that the same shortened relation may be also obtained from a refined dynamic version of the semi-membrane theory for cylindrical shells. The presented results may be relevant for modelling various types of nanotubes which, according to the latest experimental findings, possess strong material anisotropy.

  11. Effect of magnetic field on the wave dispersion relation in three-dimensional dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuefeng; Wang Zhengxiong

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional plasma crystals under microgravity condition are investigated by taking into account an external magnetic field. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the body centered cubic (bcc) and the face centered cubic (fcc) plasma crystals are obtained explicitly when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the wave motion. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the bcc and fcc plasma crystals are calculated numerically when the magnetic field is in an arbitrary direction. The numerical results show that one longitudinal mode and two transverse modes are coupled due to the Lorentz force in the magnetic field. Moreover, three wave modes, i.e., the high frequency phonon mode, the low frequency phonon mode, and the optical mode, are obtained. The optical mode and at least one phonon mode are hybrid modes. When the magnetic field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the primitive wave motion, all the three wave modes are hybrid modes and do not have any intersection points. It is also found that with increasing the magnetic field strength, the frequency of the optical mode increases and has a cutoff at the cyclotron frequency of the dust particles in the limit of long wavelength, and the mode mixings for both the optical mode and the high frequency phonon mode increase. The acoustic velocity of the low frequency phonon mode is zero. In addition, the acoustic velocity of the high frequency phonon mode depends on the angle of the magnetic field and the wave motion but does not depend on the magnetic field strength.

  12. The use of multiwavelets for uncertainty estimation in seismic surface wave dispersion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppeliers, Christian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report describes a new single-station analysis method to estimate the dispersion and uncer- tainty of seismic surface waves using the multiwavelet transform. Typically, when estimating the dispersion of a surface wave using only a single seismic station, the seismogram is decomposed into a series of narrow-band realizations using a bank of narrow-band filters. By then enveloping and normalizing the filtered seismograms and identifying the maximum power as a function of frequency, the group velocity can be estimated if the source-receiver distance is known. However, using the filter bank method, there is no robust way to estimate uncertainty. In this report, I in- troduce a new method of estimating the group velocity that includes an estimate of uncertainty. The method is similar to the conventional filter bank method, but uses a class of functions, called Slepian wavelets, to compute a series of wavelet transforms of the data. Each wavelet transform is mathematically similar to a filter bank, however, the time-frequency tradeoff is optimized. By taking multiple wavelet transforms, I form a population of dispersion estimates from which stan- dard statistical methods can be used to estimate uncertainty. I demonstrate the utility of this new method by applying it to synthetic data as well as ambient-noise surface-wave cross-correlelograms recorded by the University of Nevada Seismic Network.

  13. Crustal thickness variations in the Zagros continental collision zone (Iran) from joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, M.; Nasrabadi, A.

    2013-10-01

    Variations in crustal thickness in the Zagros determined by joint inversion of P wave receiver functions (RFs) and Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity dispersion. The time domain iterative deconvolution procedure was employed to compute RFs from teleseismic recordings at seven broadband stations of INSN network. Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves were estimated employing two-station method. Fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocities for each station is taken from a regional scale surface wave tomographic imaging. The main variations in crustal thickness that we observe are between stations located in the Zagros fold and thrust belt with those located in the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ) and Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (UDMA). Our results indicate that the average crustal thickness beneath the Zagros Mountain Range varies from ˜46 km in Western and Central Zagros beneath SHGR and GHIR up to ˜50 km beneath BNDS located in easternmost of the Zagros. Toward NE, we observe an increase in Moho depth where it reaches ˜58 km beneath SNGE located in the SSZ. Average crustal thickness also varies beneath the UDMA from ˜50 km in western parts below ASAO to ˜58 in central parts below NASN. The observed variation along the SSZ and UDMA may be associated to ongoing slab steepening or break off in the NW Zagros, comparing under thrusting of the Arabian plate beneath Central Zagros. The results show that in Central Iran, the crustal thickness decrease again to ˜47 km below KRBR. There is not a significant crustal thickness difference along the Zagros fold and thrust belt. We found the same crystalline crust of ˜34 km thick beneath the different parts of the Zagros fold and thrust belt. The similarity of crustal structure suggests that the crust of the Zagros fold and thrust belt was uniform before subsidence and deposition of the sediments. Our results confirm that the shortening of the western and eastern parts of the Zagros basement is small and

  14. Equivalent distributed capacitance model of oxide traps on frequency dispersion of C-V curve for MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Han-Han; Xu, Jing-Ping; Liu, Lu; Lai, Pui-To; Tang, Wing-Man

    2016-11-01

    An equivalent distributed capacitance model is established by considering only the gate oxide-trap capacitance to explain the frequency dispersion in the C-V curve of MOS capacitors measured for a frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The proposed model is based on the Fermi-Dirac statistics and the charging/discharging effects of the oxide traps induced by a small ac signal. The validity of the proposed model is confirmed by the good agreement between the simulated results and experimental data. Simulations indicate that the capacitance dispersion of an MOS capacitor under accumulation and near flatband is mainly caused by traps adjacent to the oxide/semiconductor interface, with negligible effects from the traps far from the interface, and the relevant distance from the interface at which the traps can still contribute to the gate capacitance is also discussed. In addition, by excluding the negligible effect of oxide-trap conductance, the model avoids the use of imaginary numbers and complex calculations, and thus is simple and intuitive. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61176100 and 61274112), the University Development Fund of the University of Hong Kong, China (Grant No. 00600009), and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China (Grant No. 1-ZVB1).

  15. Equivalent distributed capacitance model of oxide traps on frequency dispersion of C – V curve for MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Han-Han; Xu Jing-Ping; Liu Lu; Lai Pui-To; Tang Wing-Man

    2016-01-01

    An equivalent distributed capacitance model is established by considering only the gate oxide-trap capacitance to explain the frequency dispersion in the C – V curve of MOS capacitors measured for a frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The proposed model is based on the Fermi–Dirac statistics and the charging/discharging effects of the oxide traps induced by a small ac signal. The validity of the proposed model is confirmed by the good agreement between the simulated results and experimental data. Simulations indicate that the capacitance dispersion of an MOS capacitor under accumulation and near flatband is mainly caused by traps adjacent to the oxide/semiconductor interface, with negligible effects from the traps far from the interface, and the relevant distance from the interface at which the traps can still contribute to the gate capacitance is also discussed. In addition, by excluding the negligible effect of oxide-trap conductance, the model avoids the use of imaginary numbers and complex calculations, and thus is simple and intuitive. (paper)

  16. Higher P-Wave Dispersion in Migraine Patients with Higher Number of Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Koçer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Aim. An imbalance of the sympathetic system may explain many of the clinical manifestations of the migraine. We aimed to evaluate P-waves as a reveal of sympathetic system function in migraine patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods. Thirty-five episodic type of migraine patients (complained of migraine during 5 years or more, BMI < 30 kg/m2 and 30 controls were included in our study. We measured P-wave durations (minimum, maximum, and dispersion from 12-lead ECG recording during pain-free periods. ECGs were transferred to a personal computer via a scanner and then used for magnification of x400 by Adobe Photoshop software. Results. P-wave durations were found to be similar between migraine patients and controls. Although P WD (P-wave dispersion was similar, the mean value was higher in migraine subjects. P WD was positively correlated with P max (P<0.01. Attacks number per month and male gender were the factors related to the P WD (P<0.01. Conclusions. Many previous studies suggested that increased sympathetic activity may cause an increase in P WD. We found that P WD of migraine patients was higher than controls, and P WD was related to attacks number per month and male gender. Further studies are needed to explain the chronic effects of migraine.

  17. Experimental study of the propgation and dispersion of internal atmospheric gravity waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID's) appear as large-scale transverse waves in the F-region (150 to 1000 km altitude), with frequencies on the order of 0.005 to 0.005 cycles per minute, which propagate horizontally over hundreds or even thousands of kilometers. These disturbances have been observed by various radiowave techniques over the past thirty-five years and are now generally accepted as being the manifestation, in the ionized medium, of internal atmospheric gravity waves. A model describing the propagation of gravity waves in an isothermal atmosphere is presented here. The dispersion relation is derived from fundamental principles, and the relation between phase velocity and group velocity is examined. The effects of the Coriolis force and horizontally stratified winds on wave propagation are also analyzed. Conservation of energy in the gravity wave requires increasing amplitude with increasing altitude, inasmuch as the atmospheric density decreases with height. However, this is counteracted by dissipation of wave energy by ion drag, thermal conductivity, and viscous damping. The production of TID's (in the ionized medium) by gravity waves (in the neutral medium) is discussed in quantitative terms, and the vertical predictive function is derived. Dartmouth College has operated a three-station ionosonde network in northern New Hampshire and Vermont on an intermittent basis since 1968. Seven large TID's, found in the 1969 data, are reexamined here in an exhaustive and successful comparison with the gravity wave model. Iso-true-height contours of electron density are used to determine several pertinent TID wave parameters as a function of height

  18. Noninvasive evaluation of reverse atrial remodeling after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation by P wave dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yuhi; Yodogawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Kenta; Tsuboi, Ippei; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Uetake, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Yu-Ki; Hayashi, Meiso; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Shimizu, Wataru

    2017-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) itself creates structural and electrophysiological changes such as atrial enlargement, shortening of refractory period and decrease in conduction velocity, called "atrial remodeling", promoting its persistence. Although the remodeling process is considered to be reversible, it has not been elucidated in detail. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of P wave dispersion in the assessment of reverse atrial remodeling following catheter ablation of AF. Consecutive 126 patients (88 males, age 63.0 ± 10.4 years) who underwent catheter ablation for paroxysmal AF were investigated. P wave dispersion was calculated from the 12 lead ECG before, 1 day, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after the procedure. Left atrial diameter (LAD), left atrial volume index (LAVI), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), transmitral flow velocity waveform (E/A), and tissue Doppler (E/e') on echocardiography, plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations, serum creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were also measured. Of all patients, 103 subjects remained free of AF for 1 year follow-up. In these patients, P wave dispersion was not changed 1 day and 1 month after the procedure. However, it was significantly decreased at 3 and 6 months (50.1 ± 14.8 to 45.4 ± 14.4 ms, p < 0.05, 45.2 ± 9.9 ms, p < 0.05, respectively). Plasma BNP concentrations, LAD and LAVI were decreased (81.1 ± 103.8 to 44.8 ± 38.3 pg/mL, p < 0.05, 38.2 ± 5.7 to 35.9 ± 5.6 mm, p < 0.05, 33.3 ± 14.2 to 29.3 ± 12.3 mL/m 2 , p < 0.05) at 6 months after the procedure. There were no significant changes in LVEF, E/A, E/e', serum creatinine, and eGFR during the follow up period. P wave dispersion was decreased at 3 and 6 months after catheter ablation in patients without recurrence of AF. P wave dispersion is useful for assessment of reverse remodeling after catheter ablation of AF.

  19. Non-sky-averaged sensitivity curves for space-based gravitational-wave observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallisneri, Michele; Galley, Chad R

    2012-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is used in gravitational-wave observations as the basic figure of merit for detection confidence and, together with the Fisher matrix, for the amount of physical information that can be extracted from a detected signal. SNRs are usually computed from a sensitivity curve, which describes the gravitational-wave amplitude needed by a monochromatic source of given frequency to achieve a threshold SNR. Although the term 'sensitivity' is used loosely to refer to the detector's noise spectral density, the two quantities are not the same: the sensitivity includes also the frequency- and orientation-dependent response of the detector to gravitational waves and takes into account the duration of observation. For interferometric space-based detectors similar to LISA, which are sensitive to long-lived signals and have constantly changing position and orientation, exact SNRs need to be computed on a source-by-source basis. For convenience, most authors prefer to work with sky-averaged sensitivities, accepting inaccurate SNRs for individual sources and giving up control over the statistical distribution of SNRs for source populations. In this paper, we describe a straightforward end-to-end recipe to compute the non-sky-averaged sensitivity of interferometric space-based detectors of any geometry. This recipe includes the effects of spacecraft motion and of seasonal variations in the partially subtracted confusion foreground from Galactic binaries, and it can be used to generate a sampling distribution of sensitivities for a given source population. In effect, we derive error bars for the sky-averaged sensitivity curve, which provide a stringent statistical interpretation for previously unqualified statements about sky-averaged SNRs. As a worked-out example, we consider isotropic and Galactic-disk populations of monochromatic sources, as observed with the 'classic LISA' configuration. We confirm that the (standard) inverse-rms average sensitivity

  20. Smooth and non-smooth traveling wave solutions of a class of nonlinear dispersive equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoshan; Wu Aidi; He Wenzhang

    2009-01-01

    There is the widespread existence of wave phenomena in physics, mechanics. This clearly necessitates a study of traveling waves in depth and of the modeling and analysis involved. In this paper, we study a nonlinear dispersive K(n,-n,2n) equation, which can be regarded as a generalized K(n,n) equation. Applying the bifurcation theory and the method of phase portraits analysis, we obtain the dynamical behavior and special exact solutions of the K(n,-n,2n) equation. As a result, the conditions under which peakon and compacton solutions appear are also given and the analytic expressions of peakon solutions, compacton and periodic cusp wave solutions are obtained.

  1. Effect of Pressure Gradients on the Initiation of PBX-9502 via Irregular (Mach) Reflection of Low Pressure Curved Shock Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, Lawrence Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Phillip Isaac [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moro, Erik Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    In the instance of multiple fragment impact on cased explosive, isolated curved shocks are generated in the explosive. These curved shocks propagate and may interact and form irregular or Mach reflections along the interaction loci, thereby producing a single shock that may be sufficient to initiate PBX-9501. However, the incident shocks are divergent and their intensity generally decreases as they expand, and the regions behind the Mach stem interaction loci are generally unsupported and allow release waves to rapidly affect the flow. The effects of release waves and divergent shocks may be considered theoretically through a “Shock Change Equation”.

  2. Mid-infrared frequency comb via coherent dispersive wave generation in silicon nitride nanophotonic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hairun; Herkommer, Clemens; Billat, Adrien; Grassani, Davide; Zhang, Chuankun; Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Weng, Wenle; Brès, Camille-Sophie; Kippenberg, Tobias J.

    2018-06-01

    Mid-infrared optical frequency combs are of significant interest for molecular spectroscopy due to the large absorption of molecular vibrational modes on the one hand, and the ability to implement superior comb-based spectroscopic modalities with increased speed, sensitivity and precision on the other hand. Here, we demonstrate a simple, yet effective, method for the direct generation of mid-infrared optical frequency combs in the region from 2.5 to 4.0 μm (that is, 2,500-4,000 cm-1), covering a large fraction of the functional group region, from a conventional and compact erbium-fibre-based femtosecond laser in the telecommunication band (that is, 1.55 μm). The wavelength conversion is based on dispersive wave generation within the supercontinuum process in an unprecedented large-cross-section silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide with the dispersion lithographically engineered. The long-wavelength dispersive wave can perform as a mid-infrared frequency comb, whose coherence is demonstrated via optical heterodyne measurements. Such an approach can be considered as an alternative option to mid-infrared frequency comb generation. Moreover, it has the potential to realize compact dual-comb spectrometers. The generated combs also have a fine teeth-spacing, making them suitable for gas-phase analysis.

  3. A discontinuous Galerkin approach for conservative modeling of fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive wave transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Mohammad Kazem; Kesserwani, Georges; Hassanzadeh, Yousef

    2018-05-01

    This work extends a robust second-order Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG2) method to solve the fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive flows, within a scope to simultaneously address accuracy, conservativeness, cost-efficiency and practical needs. The mathematical model governing such flows is based on a variant form of the Green-Naghdi (GN) equations decomposed as a hyperbolic shallow water system with an elliptic source term. Practical features of relevance (i.e. conservative modeling over irregular terrain with wetting and drying and local slope limiting) have been restored from an RKDG2 solver to the Nonlinear Shallow Water (NSW) equations, alongside new considerations to integrate elliptic source terms (i.e. via a fourth-order local discretization of the topography) and to enable local capturing of breaking waves (i.e. via adding a detector for switching off the dispersive terms). Numerical results are presented, demonstrating the overall capability of the proposed approach in achieving realistic prediction of nearshore wave processes involving both nonlinearity and dispersion effects within a single model.

  4. Modeling blast waves, gas and particles dispersion in urban and hilly ground areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hank, S.; Saurel, R.; Le Metayer, O.; Lapebie, E.

    2014-01-01

    The numerical simulation of shock and blast waves as well as particles dispersion in highly heterogeneous media such as cities, urban places, industrial plants and part of countries is addressed. Examples of phenomena under study are chemical gas products dispersion from damaged vessels, gas dispersion in urban places under explosion conditions, shock wave propagation in urban environment. A three-dimensional simulation multiphase flow code (HI2LO) is developed in this aim. To simplify the consideration of complex geometries, a heterogeneous discrete formulation is developed. When dealing with large scale domains, such as countries, the topography is considered with the help of elevation data. Meteorological conditions are also considered, in particular regarding complex temperature and wind profiles. Heat and mass transfers on sub-scale objects, such as buildings, trees and other obstacles are considered as well. Particles motion is addressed through a new turbulence model involving a single parameter to describe accurately plumes. Validations against experiments in basic situations are presented as well as examples of industrial and environmental computations. (authors)

  5. Bridging Three Orders of Magnitude: Multiple Scattered Waves Sense Fractal Microscopic Structures via Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Simon A.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5 μ m in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature.

  6. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin Peng [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Tianjin Binhai New Area Finance Bureau, Tianjin 300450 (China); Wang, Cheng Guo, E-mail: sduwangchg@gmail.com [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Wang, Wen [Norinco Group China North Material Science and Engineering Technology Group Corporation, Jinan 250031 (China); Yu, Mei Jie; Gao, Rui; Chen, Yang; Xiang Wang, Yan [Research Center of Carbon Fiber, Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in amorphous carbon were fabricated conveniently and economically by carbonizing polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers mixed with micro-sized iron particles under different temperatures. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The electromagnetic (EM) properties were measured by a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz based on which analog computations of EM wave absorption properties were carried out. The influences of temperature on phase composition and EM wave absorption properties were also investigated, indicating that the composites had good electromagnetic absorption properties with both electrical loss and magnetic loss. Effective reflection loss (RL<−10 dB) was observed in a large frequency range of 7.5–18 GHz with the absorber thickness of 2.0–3.0 mm for the paraffin samples with composite powders heated up to 750 °C and the minimum absorption peak around −40 dB appeared at approximately 10 GHz with matching thickness of 2.0 mm for the paraffin sample with composite powders heated up to 800 °C. - Highlights: • High-performance electromagnetic wave absorption materials were fabricated conveniently and economically. • The materials are composites with micro-sized magnetic particles dispersed in porous amorphous carbon. • The influences of temperature on phase composition and electromagnetic wave absorption properties were investigated. • The composites heated up to 750 °C and 800 °C had good electromagnetic wave absorption property.

  7. Confinement of surface waves at the air-water interface to control aerosol size and dispersity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarzadeh, Elijah; Wilson, Rab; King, Xi; Reboud, Julien; Tassieri, Manlio; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2017-11-01

    The precise control over the size and dispersity of droplets, produced within aerosols, is of great interest across many manufacturing, food, cosmetic, and medical industries. Amongst these applications, the delivery of new classes of high value drugs to the lungs has recently attracted significant attention from pharmaceutical companies. This is commonly achieved through the mechanical excitation of surface waves at the air liquid interface of a parent liquid volume. Previous studies have established a correlation between the wavelength on the surface of liquid and the final aerosol size. In this work, we show that the droplet size distribution of aerosols can be controlled by constraining the liquid inside micron-sized cavities and coupling surface acoustic waves into different volumes of liquid inside micro-grids. In particular, we show that by reducing the characteristic physical confinement size (i.e., either the initial liquid volume or the cavities' diameters), higher harmonics of capillary waves are revealed with a consequent reduction of both aerosol mean size and dispersity. In doing so, we provide a new method for the generation and fine control of aerosols' sizes distribution.

  8. Dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in axisymmetric magnetospheric plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Grishanov

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in two-dimensional (2-D magnetospheric plasmas with anisotropic temperature. Two magnetic field configurations are considered with dipole and circular magnetic field lines. The main contribution of the trapped particles to the transverse dielectric permittivity is estimated by solving the linearized Vlasov equation for their perturbed distribution functions, accounting for the cyclotron and bounce resonances, neglecting the drift effects, and assuming the weak connection of the left-hand and right-hand polarized waves. Both the bi-Maxwellian and bi-Lorentzian distribution functions are considered to model the ring current ions and electrons in the dipole magnetosphere. A numerical code has been developed to analyze the dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in an electron-proton magnetospheric plasma with circular magnetic field lines, assuming that the steady-state distribution function of the energetic protons is bi-Maxwellian. As in the uniform magnetic field case, the growth rate of the proton-cyclotron instability (PCI in the 2-D magnetospheric plasmas is defined by the contribution of the energetic ions/protons to the imaginary part of the transverse permittivity elements. We demonstrate that the PCI growth rate in the 2-D axisymmetric plasmasphere can be significantly smaller than that for the straight magnetic field case with the same macroscopic bulk parameters.

  9. Effect of initial stresses on dispersion relation of transverse waves in a piezoelectric layered cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-alla, Abo-el-nour N.; Al-sheikh, Fatimah; Al-Hossain, Abdullah Y.

    2009-01-01

    Effect of initial stresses on dispersion relation for transverse surface waves circulating around a piezoelectric cylinder covered with perfectly conducting layers is investigated. Two overlay materials are considered: Gold and Aluminum. The piezoelectric substrate is considered to have the symmetry of a hexagonal crystal, and the layer is perfectly conducting. The dispersion equation has been given in the form of determinant involving Bessel functions. The roots of the dispersion equation give the values of the characteristic circular frequency parameters of the first three modes for various geometries. These roots are numerically calculated by 'Bisection method iterations technique' and presented graphically for various thickness of the overlayer and for different values of the initial stress. The effects of the initial stress on the natural frequencies are illustrated on the figures. It is found that both the thickness of the overlayer and the initial stress have a substantial effect on the dispersion behavior. The results obtained in this paper may not only help us get insight into the electro-mechanical coupling behavior of the piezoelectric composites cylinders, but can also offer theoretical basis and meaningful suggestions for the design of piezoelectric probes and electro-acoustic devices in the nondestructive evaluation technology. Finally, the results are compared graphically when the overlay is Gold or Aluminum with some special cases which do not have initial stresses and electric field.

  10. Spin-wave dispersion relations in disordered Fe-V alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Y.; Schibuya, N.; Kunitomi, N.; Wakabayashi, N.; Cooke, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    The spin-wave dispersion relations of the ferromagnetic disordered alloys Fe/sub 1-x/V/sub x/(x = 0.076, 0.135, 0.160, and 0.187) were studied by means of the inelastic scattering of neutrons. The observed dispersion relations are adequately represented by the power law, E = Dq 2 (1-βq 2 ), in a wide energy range up to 80 meV. The concentration dependence of the exchange stiffness constant D shows good agreement with previous results obtained by means of the small-angle scattering of neutrons and by the analysis of the temperature dependence of the bulk magnetization. The observed results can be explained by the Heisenberg model and, to some extent, by the itinerant-electron model

  11. Interventricular dispersion in repolarization causes bifid T waves in dogs with dofetilide-induced long QT syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijborg, Veronique M F; Chauveau, Samuel; Janse, Michiel J; Anyukhovsky, Evgeny P; Danilo, Peter R; Rosen, Michael R; Opthof, Tobias; Coronel, Ruben

    BACKGROUND: Long QT2 (LQT2) syndrome is characterized by bifid (or notched) T waves, whose mechanism is not understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test whether increased interventricular dispersion of repolarization induces bifid T waves. METHODS: We simultaneously recorded surface

  12. Interventricular dispersion in repolarization causes bifid T waves in dogs with dofetilide-induced long QT syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijborg, Veronique M. F.; Chauveau, Samuel; Janse, Michiel J.; Anyukhovsky, Evgeny P.; Danilo, Peter R.; Rosen, Michael R.; Opthof, Tobias; Coronel, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Long QT2 (LQT2) syndrome is characterized by bifid (or notched) T waves, whose mechanism is not understood. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased interventricular dispersion of repolarization induces bifid T waves. We simultaneously recorded surface ECG and unipolar electrograms at

  13. Size Distribution and Dispersion of Droplets Generated by Impingement of Breaking Waves on Oil Slicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Miller, J.; Wang, J.; Koley, S. S.; Katz, J.

    2017-10-01

    This laboratory experimental study investigates the temporal evolution of the size distribution of subsurface oil droplets generated as breaking waves entrain oil slicks. The measurements are performed for varying wave energy, as well as large variations in oil viscosity and oil-water interfacial tension, the latter achieved by premixing the oil with dispersant. In situ measurements using digital inline holography at two magnifications are applied for measuring the droplet sizes and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for determining the temporal evolution of turbulence after wave breaking. All early (2-10 s) size distributions have two distinct size ranges with different slopes. For low dispersant to oil ratios (DOR), the transition between them could be predicted based on a turbulent Weber (We) number in the 2-4 range, suggesting that turbulence plays an important role. For smaller droplets, all the number size distributions have power of about -2.1, and for larger droplets, the power decreases well below -3. The measured steepening of the size distribution over time is predicted by a simple model involving buoyant rise and turbulence dispersion. Conversely, for DOR 1:100 and 1:25 oils, the diameter of slope transition decreases from ˜1 mm to 46 and 14 µm, respectively, much faster than the We-based prediction, and the size distribution steepens with increasing DOR. Furthermore, the concentration of micron-sized droplets of DOR 1:25 oil increases for the first 10 min after entrainment. These phenomena are presumably caused by the observed formation and breakup oil microthreads associated with tip streaming.

  14. Evaluating Chemical Dispersant Efficacy In An Experimental Wave Tank: 1, Dispersant Effectiveness As A Function Of Energy Dissipation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous laboratory test systems have been developed for the comparison of efficacy between various chemical oil dispersant formulations. However, for the assessment of chemical dispersant effectiveness under realistic sea state, test protocols are required to produce hydrodynam...

  15. Cascaded interactions between Raman induced solitons and dispersive waves in photonic crystal fibers at the advanced stage of supercontinuum generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driben, Rodislav; Mitschke, Fedor; Zhavoronkov, Nickolai

    2010-12-06

    The complex mechanism of multiple interactions between solitary and dispersive waves at the advanced stage of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber is studied in experiment and numerical simulations. Injection of high power negatively chirped pulses near zero dispersion frequency results in an effective soliton fission process with multiple interactions between red shifted Raman solitons and dispersive waves. These interactions may result in relative acceleration of solitons with further collisions between them of quasi-elastic or quasi-plastic kinds. In the spectral domain these processes result in enhancement of certain wavelength regions within the spectrum or development of a new significant band at the long wavelength side of the spectrum.

  16. Bright broadband coherent fiber sources emitting strongly blue-shifted resonant dispersive wave pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Zhang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We predict and realize the targeted wavelength conversion from the 1550-nm band of a fs Er:fiber laser to an isolated band inside 370-850 nm, corresponding to a blue-shift of 700-1180 nm. The conversion utilizes resonant dispersive wave generation in widely available optical fibers with good...... efficiency (~7%). The converted band has a large pulse energy (~1 nJ), high spectral brightness (~1 mW/nm), and broad Gaussian-like spectrum compressible to clean transform-limited ~17 fs pulses. The corresponding coherent fiber sources open up portable applications of optical parametric oscillators and dual......-output synchronized ultrafast lasers....

  17. Dispersion and damping of two-dimensional dust acoustic waves: theory and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, Nitin; Miskovic, Z L; Hou, L-J

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional generalized hydrodynamics (GH) model is developed to study the full spectrum of both longitudinal and transverse dust acoustic waves (DAW) in strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasmas, with memory-function-formalism being implemented to enforce high-frequency sum rules. Results are compared with earlier theories (such as quasi-localized charge approximation and its extended version) and with a self-consistent Brownian dynamics simulation. It is found that the GH approach provides a good account, not only of dispersion relations, but also of damping rates of the DAW modes in a wide range of coupling strengths, an issue hitherto not fully addressed for dusty plasmas.

  18. Influence of wavelength-dependent-loss on dispersive wave in nonlinear optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Rodrigo Acuna

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we study numerically the influence of wavelength-dependent loss on the generation of dispersive waves (DWs) in nonlinear fiber. This kind of loss can be obtained, for instance, by the acousto-optic effect in fiber optics. We show that this loss lowers DW frequency in an opposite way that the Raman effect does. Also, we see that the Raman effect does not change the DW frequency too much when wavelength-dependent loss is included. Finally, we show that the DW frequency is not practically affected by fiber length.

  19. Distance measurement and wave dispersion in a Liouville-string approach to quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, G; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1997-01-01

    Within a Liouville approach to non-critical string theory, we discuss space-time foam effects on the propagation of low-energy particles. We find an induced frequency-dependent dispersion in the propagation of a wave packet, and observe that this would affect the outcome of measurements involving low-energy particles as probes. In particular, the maximum possible order of magnitude of the space-time foam effects would give rise to an error in the measurement of distance comparable to that independently obtained in some recent heuristic quantum-gravity analyses. We also briefly compare these error estimates with the precision of astrophysical measurements.

  20. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  1. The Use of Flexible Ultrasound Transducers for the Detection of Laser-Induced Guided Waves on Curved Surfaces at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Chieh Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a flexible ultrasonic transducer (FUT was applied in a laser ultrasonic technique (LUT for non-destructive characterization of metallic pipes at high temperatures of up to 176 °C. Compared with normal ultrasound transducers, a FUT is a piezoelectric film made of a PZT/PZT sol-gel composite which has advantages due to its high sensitivity, curved surface adaptability and high temperature durability. By operating a pulsed laser in B-scan mode along with the integration of FUT and LUT, a multi-mode dispersion spectrum of a stainless steel pipe at high temperature can be measured. In addition, dynamic wave propagation behaviors are experimentally visualized with two dimensional scanning. The images directly interpret the reflections from the interior defects and also can locate their positions. This hybrid technique shows great potential for non-destructive evaluation of structures with complex geometry, especially in high temperature environments.

  2. Efficient uncertainty quantification of a fully nonlinear and dispersive water wave model with random inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in next-generation industrial applications is to improve numerical analysis by quantifying uncertainties in predictions. In this work we present a formulation of a fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow water wave model with random inputs for the probabilistic description...... at different points in the parameter space, allowing for the reuse of existing simulation software. The choice of the applied methods is driven by the number of uncertain input parameters and by the fact that finding the solution of the considered model is computationally intensive. We revisit experimental...... benchmarks often used for validation of deterministic water wave models. Based on numerical experiments and assumed uncertainties in boundary data, our analysis reveals that some of the known discrepancies from deterministic simulation in comparison with experimental measurements could be partially explained...

  3. Two markers in predicting the cardiovascular events in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: increased P-wave and QT dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, S; Cim, N; Yildizhan, R; Akyol, A; Ozturk, F; Babat, N

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent disease with many potential long-term cardiovascular risks. P-wave dispersion (Pdis) and QT dispersion (QTdis) have been shown to be noninvasive electrocardiographic predictors for development of cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we aimed to search Pdis and QTdis parameters in patients with PCOS. The study included 82 patients with PCOS and 74 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Baseline 12-lead electrocardiographic and transthoracic echocardiographic measurements were evaluated. P-wave maximum duration (Pmax), P-wave minimum duration (Pmin), Pdis, QT interval, heart rate-corrected QT dispersion and QTdis were calculated by two cardiologists. Patients wirh PCOS had significantly higher QT dispersion (49.5 ± 14.1 vs. 37.9 ± 12.6 ms, p PCOS patients.

  4. Dispersive solitary wave solutions of Kadomtsev-Petviashvili and modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili dynamical equations in unmagnetized dust plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seadawy, A. R.; El-Rashidy, K.

    2018-03-01

    The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) and modified KP equations are two of the most universal models in nonlinear wave theory, which arises as a reduction of system with quadratic nonlinearity which admit weakly dispersive waves. The generalized extended tanh method and the F-expansion method are used to derive exact solitary waves solutions of KP and modified KP equations. The region of solutions are displayed graphically.

  5. Investigation of dispersion-relation-preserving scheme and spectral analysis methods for acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanel, Florence O.; Baysal, Oktay

    1995-01-01

    Important characteristics of the aeroacoustic wave propagation are mostly encoded in their dispersion relations. Hence, a computational aeroacoustic (CAA) algorithm, which reasonably preserves these relations, was investigated. It was derived using an optimization procedure to ensure, that the numerical derivatives preserved the wave number and angular frequency of the differential terms in the linearized, 2-D Euler equations. Then, simulations were performed to validate the scheme and a compatible set of discretized boundary conditions. The computational results were found to agree favorably with the exact solutions. The boundary conditions were transparent to the outgoing waves, except when the disturbance source was close to a boundary. The time-domain data generated by such CAA solutions were often intractable until their spectra was analyzed. Therefore, the relative merits of three different methods were included in the study. For simple, periodic waves, the periodogram method produced better estimates of the steep-sloped spectra than the Blackman-Tukey method. Also, for this problem, the Hanning window was more effective when used with the weighted-overlapped-segment-averaging and Blackman-Tukey methods gave better results than the periodogram method. Finally, it was demonstrated that the representation of time domain-data was significantly dependent on the particular spectral analysis method employed.

  6. Pierce-type dispersion relation for an intense relativistic electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.

    1994-01-01

    A Pierce-type dispersion relation is derived for the interaction of an intense relativistic electron beam with a cylindrical slow-wave structure of arbitrary corrugation depth. It is shown that near a resonance, the Pierce parameter can be expressed in terms of the vacuum dispersion function and the beam current. The dispersion relation is valid in both the low-current (Compton) regime and the high-current (Raman) regime. The dispersion characteristics of the interaction, such as the linear instability growth rate and bandwidth, are analyzed for both regimes

  7. Infrared rotational light curves on Jupiter induced by wave activities and cloud patterns andimplications on brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huazhi; Zhang, Xi; Fletcher, Leigh; Orton, Glenn S.; Sinclair, James Andrew; Fernandes,, Joshua; Momary, Thomas W.; Warren, Ari; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Fujiyoshi, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit infrared rotational light curves with amplitude varying from a fewpercent to twenty percent (Artigau et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 1534; Radigan et al. 2012, ApJ, 750,105). Recently, it was claimed that weather patterns, especially planetary-scale waves in thebelts and cloud spots, are responsible for the light curves and their evolutions on brown dwarfs(Apai et al. 2017, Science, 357, 683). Here we present a clear relationship between the direct IRemission maps and light curves of Jupiter at multiple wavelengths, which might be similar withthat on cold brown dwarfs. Based on infrared disk maps from Subaru/COMICS and VLT/VISIR,we constructed full maps of Jupiter and rotational light curves at different wavelengths in thethermal infrared. We discovered a strong relationship between the light curves and weatherpatterns on Jupiter. The light curves also exhibit strong multi-bands phase shifts and temporalvariations, similar to that detected on brown dwarfs. Together with the spectra fromTEXES/IRTF, our observations further provide detailed information of the spatial variations oftemperature, ammonia clouds and aerosols in the troposphere of Jupiter (Fletcher et al. 2016,Icarus, 2016 128) and their influences on the shapes of the light curves. We conclude that waveactivities in Jupiter’s belts (Fletcher et al. 2017, GRL, 44, 7140), cloud holes, and long-livedvortices such as the Great Red Spot and ovals control the shapes of IR light curves and multi-wavelength phase shifts on Jupiter. Our finding supports the hypothesis that observed lightcurves on brown dwarfs are induced by planetary-scale waves and cloud spots.

  8. Electromagnetic Waves Dispersion and Interaction of an Annular Beam-Ion Channel System in Plasma Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear theory for the electromagnetic properties and interactions of an annular beam-ion channel system in plasma waveguide is presented. The dispersion relations for two families of propagating modes, including the electrostatic and transverse magnetic modes, are derived. The dependencies of the dispersion behavior and interaction for different wave modes on the thickness of the annular beam and betatron oscillation frequency are studied in detail by numerical calculations. The results show that the inner and outer radii of the beam have different influences on propagation properties of the electrostatic and electromagnetic modes with different betatron oscillation parameters. In the weak ion channel situation, the two types of electrostatic waves, that is, space charge and betatron modes, have no interaction with the transverse magnetic modes. However, in the strong ion channel situation, the transverse magnetic modes will have two branches and a low frequency mode emerged as the new branch. In this case, compared with the solid beam case, the betatron modes not only can interact with the high frequency branch at small wavenumber but also can interact with the low frequency branch at large wavenumber.

  9. Preserving the Helmholtz dispersion relation: One-way acoustic wave propagation using matrix square roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Laurence

    2016-11-01

    Parabolized acoustic propagation in transversely inhomogeneous media is described by the operator update equation U (x , y , z + Δz) =eik0 (- 1 +√{ 1 + Z }) U (x , y , z) for evolution of the envelope of a wavetrain solution to the original Helmholtz equation. Here the operator, Z =∇T2 + (n2 - 1) , involves the transverse Laplacian and the refractive index distribution. Standard expansion techniques (on the assumption Z << 1)) produce pdes that approximate, to greater or lesser extent, the full dispersion relation of the original Helmholtz equation, except that none of them describe evanescent/damped waves without special modifications to the expansion coefficients. Alternatively, a discretization of both the envelope and the operator converts the operator update equation into a matrix multiply, and existing theorems on matrix functions demonstrate that the complete (discrete) Helmholtz dispersion relation, including evanescent/damped waves, is preserved by this discretization. Propagation-constant/damping-rates contour comparisons for the operator equation and various approximations demonstrate this point, and how poorly the lowest-order, textbook, parabolized equation describes propagation in lined ducts.

  10. Early modern human dispersal from Africa: genomic evidence for multiple waves of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Francesca; Ghirotto, Silvia; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Vilaça, Sibelle Torres; De Santi, Lisa; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Anthropological and genetic data agree in indicating the African continent as the main place of origin for anatomically modern humans. However, it is unclear whether early modern humans left Africa through a single, major process, dispersing simultaneously over Asia and Europe, or in two main waves, first through the Arab Peninsula into southern Asia and Oceania, and later through a northern route crossing the Levant. Here, we show that accurate genomic estimates of the divergence times between European and African populations are more recent than those between Australo-Melanesia and Africa and incompatible with the effects of a single dispersal. This difference cannot possibly be accounted for by the effects of either hybridization with archaic human forms in Australo-Melanesia or back migration from Europe into Africa. Furthermore, in several populations of Asia we found evidence for relatively recent genetic admixture events, which could have obscured the signatures of the earliest processes. We conclude that the hypothesis of a single major human dispersal from Africa appears hardly compatible with the observed historical and geographical patterns of genome diversity and that Australo-Melanesian populations seem still to retain a genomic signature of a more ancient divergence from Africa.

  11. Stress-dependent permeability and wave dispersion in tight cracked rocks: Experimental validation of simple effective medium models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarout, Joel; Cazes, Emilie; Delle Piane, Claudio; Arena, Alessio; Esteban, Lionel

    2017-08-01

    We experimentally assess the impact of microstructure, pore fluid, and frequency on wave velocity, wave dispersion, and permeability in thermally cracked Carrara marble under effective pressure up to 50 MPa. The cracked rock is isotropic, and we observe that (1) P and S wave velocities at 500 kHz and the low-strain (S waves and 9% for P waves at 1 MPa, and (4) wave dispersion virtually vanishes above 30 MPa. Assuming no interactions between the cracks, effective medium theory is used to model the rock's elastic response and its permeability. P and S wave velocity data are jointly inverted to recover the crack density and effective aspect ratio. The permeability data are inverted to recover the cracks' effective radius. These parameters lead to a good agreement between predicted and measured wave velocities, dispersion and permeability up to 50 MPa, and up to a crack density of 0.5. The evolution of the crack parameters suggests that three deformation regimes exist: (1) contact between cracks' surface asperities up to 10 MPa, (2) progressive crack closure between 10 and 30 MPa, and (3) crack closure effectively complete above 30 MPa. The derived crack parameters differ significantly from those obtained by analysis of 2-D electron microscope images of thin sections or 3-D X-ray microtomographic images of millimeter-size specimens.

  12. Assessment of atrial electromechanical interval and P wave dispersion in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayır, Pınar Türker; Güray, Ümit; Duyuler, Serkan; Demirkan, Burcu; Kayaalp, Oya; Kanat, Selçuk; Güray, Yeşim

    2016-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, including ischemic stroke. Prolonged atrial electromechanical interval (EMI) is related to increased atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. The aim of the study is to evaluate atrial EMI and electrocardiographic P-wave indices related to increased AF risk in patients with PCOS. Forty PCOS patients diagnosed on the basis of the Rotterdam criteria and 20 age-matched controls were prospectively included. patients with atrioventricular or intraventricular conduction abnormalities, dysrhythmia or taking antiarrhythmic drugs, atherosclerotic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, valvular lesions, pericardial disease, a history of pulmonary emboli or pulmonary hypertension, and abnormal thyroid function were excluded. Intra and interatrial EMI were measured by tissue Doppler imaging and P-wave dispersion (Pd) was calculated on 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). The Isovolumetric relaxation time was the interval between the aortic valve closure artifact at the end of the LV outflow envelope and the mitral valve opening artifact at the beginning of the mitral E wave. Patients with PCOS had significantly higher interatrial [38 (24-65) ms vs. 16 (9-19) ms pPCOS group compared with control group [45 (27-60) ms vs. 30 (26-38) ms, pPCOS. PCOS is associated with prolonged inter- and intra-atrial conduction times, which are related to increased AF risk.

  13. Determining the near-surface current profile from measurements of the wave dispersion relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Benjamin; Maxwell, Peter; Aesøy, Eirik; Ellingsen, Simen

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced Doppler shifts of waves can yield information about the background mean flow, providing an attractive method of inferring the current profile in the upper layer of the ocean. We present measurements of waves propagating on shear currents in a laboratory water channel, as well as theoretical investigations of inversion techniques for determining the vertical current structure. Spatial and temporal measurements of the free surface profile obtained using a synthetic Schlieren method are analyzed to determine the wave dispersion relation and Doppler shifts as a function of wavelength. The vertical current profile can then be inferred from the Doppler shifts using an inversion algorithm. Most existing algorithms rely on a priori assumptions of the shape of the current profile, and developing a method that uses less stringent assumptions is a focus of this study, allowing for measurement of more general current profiles. The accuracy of current inversion algorithms are evaluated by comparison to measurements of the mean flow profile from particle image velocimetry (PIV), and a discussion of the sensitivity to errors in the Doppler shifts is presented.

  14. P-wave dispersion and its relationship to aortic stiffness in patients with acute myocardial infarction after cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzan Deniz Acar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to investigate the P-wave dispersion from standard electrocardiograms (ECGs in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI after cardiac rehabilitation (CR and determine its relation to arterial stiffness. METHODS: This is a prospective study included 33 patients with AMI and successfully re-vascularized by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI underwent CR. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was measured by biplane Simpson’s method. Left atrium (LA volume was calculated. The maximum and minimum durations of P-waves (Pmax and Pmin, respectively were detected, and the difference between Pmax and Pmin was defined as P-wave dispersion (Pd = Pmax–Pmin. Aortic elasticity parameters were measured. RESULTS: LVEF was better after CR. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased after CR, these differences were statistically significant. With exercise training, LA volume decreased significantly. Pmax and Pd values were significantly shorter after the CR program. The maximum and minimum P-waves and P-wave dispersion after CR were 97 ± 6 ms, 53 ± 5 ms, and 44 ± 5 ms, respectively. Aortic strain and distensibility increased and aortic stiffness index was decreased significantly. Aortic stiffness index was 0.4 ± 0.2 versus 0.3 ± 0.2, P = 0.001. Aortic stiffness and left atrial volume showed a moderate positive correlation with P-wave dispersion (r = 0.52, P = 0.005; r = 0.64, P = 0.000, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study showed decreased arterial stiffness indexes in AMI patient’s participated CR, with a significant relationship between the electromechanical properties of the LA that may raise a question of the preventive effect of CR from atrial fibrillation and stroke in patients with acute myocardial infarction.   Keywords: Cardiac Rehabilitation, P-Wave Dispersion, Aortic Stiffness, Acute Myocardial Infarction 

  15. Dispersion relations of elastic waves in one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal with initial stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun

    2016-03-01

    The dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal formed by periodically repeating of a pre-stressed piezoelectric slab and a pre-stressed piezomagnetic slab are studied in this paper. The influences of initial stress on the dispersive relation are considered based on the incremental stress theory. First, the incremental stress theory of elastic solid is extended to the magneto-electro-elasto solid. The governing equations, constitutive equations, and boundary conditions of the incremental stresses in a magneto-electro-elasto solid are derived with consideration of the existence of initial stresses. Then, the transfer matrices of a pre-stressed piezoelectric slab and a pre-stressed piezomagnetic slab are formulated, respectively. The total transfer matrix of a single cell in the phononic crystal is obtained by the multiplication of two transfer matrixes related with two adjacent slabs. Furthermore, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the dispersive equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersive equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. The oblique propagation and the normal propagation situations are both considered. In the case of normal propagation of elastic waves, the analytical expressions of the dispersion equation are derived and compared with other literatures. The influences of initial stresses, including the normal initial stresses and shear initial stresses, on the dispersive relations are both discussed based on the numerical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inversion of residual stress profiles from ultrasonic Rayleigh wave dispersion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, P.; Spies, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate theoretically and with synthetic data the performance of several inversion methods to infer a residual stress state from ultrasonic surface wave dispersion data. We show that this particular problem may reveal in relevant materials undesired behaviors for some methods that could be reliably applied to infer other properties. We focus on two methods, one based on a Taylor-expansion, and another one based on a piecewise linear expansion regularized by a singular value decomposition. We explain the instabilities of the Taylor-based method by highlighting singularities in the series of coefficients. At the same time, we show that the other method can successfully provide performances which only weakly depend on the material.

  17. Influence of Complete Coriolis Force on the Dispersion Relation of Ocean Internal-wave in a Background Currents Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.

  18. Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data

  19. Stop and Go - Waves of Tarsier Dispersal Mirror the Genesis of Sulawesi Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driller, Christine; Merker, Stefan; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Sinaga, Walberto; Anggraeni, Novita; Zischler, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The Indonesian island of Sulawesi harbors a highly endemic and diverse fauna sparking fascination since long before Wallace's contemplation of biogeographical patterns in the region. Allopatric diversification driven by geological or climatic processes has been identified as the main mechanism shaping present faunal distribution on the island. There is both consensus and conflict among range patterns of terrestrial species pointing to the different effects of vicariant events on once co-distributed taxa. Tarsiers, small nocturnal primates with possible evidence of an Eocene fossil record on the Asian mainland, are at present exclusively found in insular Southeast Asia. Sulawesi is hotspot of tarsier diversity, whereby island colonization and subsequent radiation of this old endemic primate lineage remained largely enigmatic. To resolve the phylogeographic history of Sulawesi tarsiers we analyzed an island-wide sample for a set of five approved autosomal phylogenetic markers (ABCA1, ADORA3, AXIN1, RAG1, and TTR) and the paternally inherited SRY gene. We constructed ML and Bayesian phylogenetic trees and estimated divergence times between tarsier populations. We found that their arrival at the Proto-Sulawesi archipelago coincided with initial Miocene tectonic uplift and hypothesize that tarsiers dispersed over the region in distinct waves. Intra-island diversification was spurred by land emergence and a rapid succession of glacial cycles during the Plio-Pleistocene. Some tarsier range boundaries concur with spatial limits in other taxa backing the notion of centers of faunal endemism on Sulawesi. This congruence, however, has partially been superimposed by taxon-specific dispersal patterns.

  20. P-wave and QT dispersion in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izci, Filiz; Hocagil, Hilal; Izci, Servet; Izci, Vedat; Koc, Merve Iris; Acar, Rezzan Deniz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate QT dispersion (QTd), which is the noninvasive marker of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, and P-wave dispersion, which is the noninvasive marker of atrial arrhythmia, in patients with conversion disorder (CD). A total of 60 patients with no known organic disease who were admitted to outpatient emergency clinic and were diagnosed with CD after psychiatric consultation were included in this study along with 60 healthy control subjects. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Scale were administered to patients and 12-lead electrocardiogram measurements were obtained. Pd and QTd were calculated by a single blinded cardiologist. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, education level, socioeconomic status, weight, height, and body mass index between CD patients and controls. Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (25.2±10.8 and 3.8±3.2, respectively, Pconversion patients and control group (46±5.7 vs 44±5.5, respectively, P=0.156). Regarding QTc and QTd, there was a statistically significant increase in all intervals in conversion patients (416±10 vs 398±12, Pdisorders was also observed in CD patients. QTc and QTd were significantly increased compared to the control group in patients with CD. These results suggest a possibility of increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia resulting from QTd in CD patients. Larger samples are needed to evaluate the clinical course and prognosis in terms of arrhythmia risk in CD patients.

  1. Extended Jacobi Elliptic Function Rational Expansion Method and Its Application to (2+1)-Dimensional Stochastic Dispersive Long Wave System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lina; Zhang Hongqing

    2007-01-01

    In this work, by means of a generalized method and symbolic computation, we extend the Jacobi elliptic function rational expansion method to uniformly construct a series of stochastic wave solutions for stochastic evolution equations. To illustrate the effectiveness of our method, we take the (2+1)-dimensional stochastic dispersive long wave system as an example. We not only have obtained some known solutions, but also have constructed some new rational formal stochastic Jacobi elliptic function solutions.

  2. P Wave Duration And Dispersion In Patients With Hyperthyroidism And The Short-term Effects Of Antithyroid Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Unal Guntekin; Yilmaz Gunes; Hakki Simsek; Mustafa Tuncer; Sevket Arslan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Prolonged P wave duration and P wave dispersion (PWD) have been associated with an increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF). Hyperthytodism is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Forty-two patients with newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy people were enrolled in the study. Transthoracic echocardiography, 12 lead surface ECG and thyroid hormone levels were studied at the time of enrollment and after achievement of euthyroid state with propylth...

  3. Analytical study of dispersion relations for shear horizontal wave propagation in plates with periodic stubs

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-08-01

    The coupled mode theory with coupling of diffraction modes and waveguide modes is usually used on the calculations of transmission and reflection coefficients for electromagnetic waves traveling through periodic sub-wavelength structures. In this paper, I extend this method to derive analytical solutions of high-order dispersion relations for shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in elastic plates with periodic stubs. In the long wavelength regime, the explicit expression is obtained by this theory and derived specially by employing an effective medium. This indicates that the periodical stubs are equivalent to an effective homogenous layer in the long wavelength. Notably, in the short wavelength regime, high-order diffraction modes in the plate and high-order waveguide modes in the stubs are considered with modes coupling to compute the band structures. Numerical results of the coupled mode theory fit pretty well with the results of the finite element method (FEM). In addition, the band structures\\' evolution with the height of the stubs and the thickness of the plate shows clearly that the method can predict well the Bragg band gaps, locally resonant band gaps and high-order symmetric and anti-symmetric thickness-twist modes for the periodically structured plates. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Loss tangent and complex modulus estimated by acoustic radiation force creep and shear wave dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Carolina; Urban, Matthew W; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F

    2012-03-07

    Elasticity imaging methods have been used to study tissue mechanical properties and have demonstrated that tissue elasticity changes with disease state. In current shear wave elasticity imaging methods typically only shear wave speed is measured and rheological models, e.g. Kelvin-Voigt, Maxwell and Standard Linear Solid, are used to solve for tissue mechanical properties such as the shear viscoelastic complex modulus. This paper presents a method to quantify viscoelastic material properties in a model-independent way by estimating the complex shear elastic modulus over a wide frequency range using time-dependent creep response induced by acoustic radiation force. This radiation force induced creep method uses a conversion formula that is the analytic solution of a constitutive equation. The proposed method in combination with shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry is used to measure the complex modulus so that knowledge of the applied radiation force magnitude is not necessary. The conversion formula is shown to be sensitive to sampling frequency and the first reliable measure in time according to numerical simulations using the Kelvin-Voigt model creep strain and compliance. Representative model-free shear complex moduli from homogeneous tissue mimicking phantoms and one excised swine kidney were obtained. This work proposes a novel model-free ultrasound-based elasticity method that does not require a rheological model with associated fitting requirements.

  5. Spin-wave dispersion of nanostructured magnonic crystals with periodic defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The spin-wave dispersions in nanostructured magnonic crystals with periodic defects have been mapped by Brillouin light scattering. The otherwise perfect crystals are one-dimensional arrays of alternating 460nm-wide Ni80Fe20 stripes and 40nm-wide air gaps, where one in ten Ni80Fe20 stripes is a defect of width other than 460 nm. Experimentally, the defects are manifested as additional Brillouin peaks, lying within the first and second bandgaps of the perfect crystal, whose frequencies decrease with increasing defect stripe width. Finite-element calculations, based on a supercell comprising one defect and nine perfect Py stripes, show that the defect modes are localized about the defects, with the localization exhibiting an approximate U-shaped dependence on defect size. Calculations also reveal extra magnon branches and the opening of mini-bandgaps, within the allowed bands of the perfect crystal, arising from Bragg reflections at the boundaries of the shorter supercell Brillouin zone. Simulated magnetization profiles of the band-edge modes of the major and mini-bandgaps reveal their different symmetries and localization properties. The findings could find application in microwave magnonic devices like single-frequency passband spin-wave filters.

  6. P-wave and QT dispersion in patients with conversion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izci F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Filiz Izci,1 Hilal Hocagil,2 Servet Izci,3 Vedat Izci,4 Merve Iris Koc,5 Rezzan Deniz Acar3 1Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul Bilim University, Sisli Florence Nightingale Hospital; 2Department of Emergency, Faculty of Medicine Hospital Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey; 3Department of Cardiology, Kosuyolu High Specialization Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Emergency, Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Erenköy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate QT dispersion (QTd, which is the noninvasive marker of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, and P-wave dispersion, which is the noninvasive marker of atrial arrhythmia, in patients with conversion disorder (CD.Patients and methods: A total of 60 patients with no known organic disease who were admitted to outpatient emergency clinic and were diagnosed with CD after psychiatric consultation were included in this study along with 60 healthy control subjects. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Scale were administered to patients and 12-lead electrocardiogram measurements were obtained. Pd and QTd were calculated by a single blinded cardiologist.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, education level, socioeconomic status, weight, height, and body mass index between CD patients and controls. Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (25.2±10.8 and 3.8±3.2, respectively, P<0.001 and Beck Depression Scale scores (11.24±6.15 and 6.58±5.69, respectively, P<0.01 were significantly higher in CD patients. P-wave dispersion measurements did not show any significant differences between conversion patients and control group (46±5.7 vs 44±5.5, respectively, P=0.156. Regarding QTc and QTd, there was a statistically significant increase in all intervals in conversion patients (416

  7. Computing dispersion curves of elastic/viscoelastic transversely-isotropic bone plates coupled with soft tissue and marrow using semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Tran, Tho N H T; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Naili, Salah; Le, Lawrence H

    2017-08-01

    We present a semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) scheme for accurately computing the velocity dispersion and attenuation in a trilayered system consisting of a transversely-isotropic (TI) cortical bone plate sandwiched between the soft tissue and marrow layers. The soft tissue and marrow are mimicked by two fluid layers of finite thickness. A Kelvin-Voigt model accounts for the absorption of all three biological domains. The simulated dispersion curves are validated by the results from the commercial software DISPERSE and published literature. Finally, the algorithm is applied to a viscoelastic trilayered TI bone model to interpret the guided modes of an ex-vivo experimental data set from a bone phantom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Finite-difference modeling and dispersion analysis of high-frequency love waves for near-surface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    Love-wave propagation has been a topic of interest to crustal, earthquake, and engineering seismologists for many years because it is independent of Poisson's ratio and more sensitive to shear (S)-wave velocity changes and layer thickness changes than are Rayleigh waves. It is well known that Love-wave generation requires the existence of a low S-wave velocity layer in a multilayered earth model. In order to study numerically the propagation of Love waves in a layered earth model and dispersion characteristics for near-surface applications, we simulate high-frequency (>5 Hz) Love waves by the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method. The air-earth boundary (the shear stress above the free surface) is treated using the stress-imaging technique. We use a two-layer model to demonstrate the accuracy of the staggered-grid modeling scheme. We also simulate four-layer models including a low-velocity layer (LVL) or a high-velocity layer (HVL) to analyze dispersive energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that: (1) the staggered-grid FD code and stress-imaging technique are suitable for treating the free-surface boundary conditions for Love-wave modeling, (2) Love-wave inversion should be treated with extra care when a LVL exists because of a lack of LVL information in dispersions aggravating uncertainties in the inversion procedure, and (3) energy of high modes in a low-frequency range is very weak, so that it is difficult to estimate the cutoff frequency accurately, and "mode-crossing" occurs between the second higher and third higher modes when a HVL exists. ?? 2010 Birkh??user / Springer Basel AG.

  9. Dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic waves in dipolar (m=±1) modes travelling along a magnetized plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Ghanashev, I.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1992-01-01

    The modelling of isotropic plasma columns sustained by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar mode (angular dependence exp imφ, m=±1) shows that the m=±1 modes have identical dispersion characteristics. In the presence of an external static magnetic field, however, the modes behave rather differently. This observation arose in studying the axial structures of magnetized plasma columns surrounded by vacuum and produced by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar modes. We examine the propagation of electromagnetic waves along a homogeneous cold plasma column of radius R and electron number density n immersed in an axial constant magnetic field. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  10. Limitations in distance and frequency due to chromatic dispersion in fibre-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov

    1996-01-01

    Chromatic dispersion significantly limits the distance and/or frequency in fibre-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links based on direct detection due to a decrease of the carrier to noise ratio. The limitations in links based on coherent remote heterodyne detection, however, are far less...

  11. Spectrally pure heralded single photons by spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber: reducing impact of dispersion fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    We model the spectral quantum-mechanical purity of heralded single photons from a photon-pair source based on nondegenerate spontaneous four-wave mixing taking the impact of distributed dispersion fluctuations into account. The considered photon-pair-generation scheme utilizes pump-pulse walk...

  12. Dispersion and absorption of longitudinal electro-kinetic wave in ion-implanted GaN semiconductor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Dilip [Government P G Madhav Science College, Ujjain (M P) (India); Sharma, Giriraj, E-mail: grsharma@gmail.com [SRJ Government Girls’ College, Neemuch (M P) (India); Saxena, Ajay [Government College, Garoth, Dist. Mandsaur (M P) (India); Jadhav, Akhilesh [Government J Yoganandam Chhattisgarh College, Raipur (C G) (India)

    2015-07-31

    An analytical study on propagation characteristics of longitudinal electro-kinetic (LEK) waves is presented. Based on multi-fluid model of plasma, we have derived a dispersion relation for LEK waves in colloid laden GaN semiconductor plasmas. It is assumed that ions are implanted to form colloids in the GaN sample. The colloids are continuously bombarded by the plasma particles and stick on them, but they acquire a net negative charge due to relatively higher mobility of electrons. It is found from the dispersion relation that the presence of charged colloids not only modifies the existing modes but also supports new novel modes of LEKWs. It is hoped that the study would enhance understanding on dispersion and absorption of LEKWs and help in singling out the appropriate configurations in which GaN crystal would be better suited for fabrication of microwave devices.

  13. Lithospheric architecture of NE China from joint Inversions of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion through Bayesian optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Nita; Kim, Seongryong; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Sippl, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated inference on the lithospheric structure of NE China using three passive seismic networks comprised of 92 stations. The NE China plain consists of complex lithospheric domains characterised by the co-existence of complex geodynamic processes such as crustal thinning, active intraplate cenozoic volcanism and low velocity anomalies. To estimate lithospheric structures with greater detail, we chose to perform the joint inversion of independent data sets such as receiver functions and surface wave dispersion curves (group and phase velocity). We perform a joint inversion based on principles of Bayesian transdimensional optimisation techniques (Kim etal., 2016). Unlike in the previous studies of NE China, the complexity of the model is determined from the data in the first stage of the inversion, and the data uncertainty is computed based on Bayesian statistics in the second stage of the inversion. The computed crustal properties are retrieved from an ensemble of probable models. We obtain major structural inferences with well constrained absolute velocity estimates, which are vital for inferring properties of the lithosphere and bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratio. The Vp/Vs estimate obtained from joint inversions confirms the high Vp/Vs ratio ( 1.98) obtained using the H-Kappa method beneath some stations. Moreover, we could confirm the existence of a lower crustal velocity beneath several stations (eg: station SHS) within the NE China plain. Based on these findings we attempt to identify a plausible origin for structural complexity. We compile a high-resolution 3D image of the lithospheric architecture of the NE China plain.

  14. Evaluation of P-Wave Dispersion, Diastolic Function, and Atrial Electromechanical Conduction in Pediatric Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irdem, Ahmet; Aydın Sahin, Derya; Kervancioglu, Mehmet; Baspinar, Osman; Sucu, Murat; Keskin, Mehmet; Kilinc, Metin

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate ventricular diastolic dysfunction, inter- and intraatrial conduction delay, and P-wave dispersion in pediatric patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. The study comprised a total of 30 pediatric patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (mean age 7.8 ± 3.2 years) and 30 healthy children (mean age 8.4 ± 3.6 years) as the control group. A SH diagnosis was made in the event of increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased serum free triiodothyronine (T3 ) and free thyroxine (T4 ) concentrations. Conventional Doppler imaging (TDI) showed low mitral early diastolic E-wave velocity and E/A ratio (P wave velocity (P = 0.001) in hypothyroidism patients. Moreover, patients with hypothyroidism had significantly lower left ventricular (LV) septal Em velocity and Em /Am ratios compared with the control group (P wave dispersion was significantly different in the pediatric patients with hypothyroidism (P wave dispersion, and ventricle diastolic dysfunction in pediatric patients with hypothyroidism. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Comparative Study of Dispersion Characteristics Determination of a Trapezoidally Corrugated Slow Wave Structure Using Different Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, Md. Ghulam; Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Amin, Md. Ruhul

    2016-01-01

    The linear dispersion relation of a trapezoidally corrugated slow wave structure (TCSWS) is analyzed and presented. The size parameters of the TCSWS are chosen in such a way that they operate in the x-band frequency range. The dispersion relation is solved by utilizing the Rayleigh–Fourier method by expressing the radial function in terms of the Fourier series. A highly accurate synthetic technique is also applied to determine the complete dispersion characteristics from experimentally measured resonances (cold test). Periodic structures resonate at specific frequencies when the terminals are shorted appropriately. The dispersion characteristics obtained from numerical calculation, synthetic technique and cold test are compared, and an excellent agreement is achieved. (paper)

  16. Signal-Pressure Curves of Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing in Gas-Filled Capillary by fs Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baozhen; Huang Zuqia

    2005-01-01

    The theoretical framework for the cascaded four waves mixing (CFWM) in gas-filled capillary by fs pulses is constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the signal-pressure curves (SPC) of the CFWM in gas-filled capillary by fs pulses are calculated. With a comparison between the theoretical and experimental SPC we have discussed the influence of the walk-off and phase modulation on the SPC. At the same time, we have discussed the possible origin of the first three peaks of the SPC.

  17. Wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid supported on linear viscoelastic two-parameter foundation including thermal and small-scale effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Nima; Moosavi, Hassan; Aghaei, Hosein; Afrand, Masoud; Wongwises, Somchai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a nonlocal Timoshenko beam model is employed for studying the wave dispersion of a fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube on Viscoelastic Pasternak foundation under high and low temperature change. In addition, the phase and group velocity for the nanotube are discussed, respectively. The influences of Winkler and Pasternak modulus, homogenous temperature change, steady flow velocity and damping factor of viscoelastic foundation on wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes are investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of the wave for carbon nanotubes conveying fluid is the normal dispersion. Moreover, implying viscoelastic foundation leads to increasing the wave frequencies.

  18. Pulse wave analysis in a 180-degree curved artery model: Implications under physiological and non-physiological inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse pressures, and left ventricular hypertrophy contribute to cardiovascular risks. Increase of arterial stiffness due to aging and hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular, chronic kidney and end-stage-renal-diseases. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) based on arterial pressure wave characteristics, is well established in clinical practice for evaluation of arterial distensibility and hypertension. The objective of our exploratory study in a rigid 180-degree curved artery model was to evaluate arterial pressure waveforms. Bend upstream conditions were measured using a two-component, two-dimensional, particle image velocimeter (2C-2D PIV). An ultrasonic transit-time flow meter and a catheter with a MEMS-based solid state pressure sensor, capable of measuring up to 20 harmonics of the observed pressure waveform, monitored flow conditions downstream of the bend. Our novel continuous wavelet transform algorithm (PIVlet 1.2), in addition to detecting coherent secondary flow structures is used to evaluate arterial pulse wave characteristics subjected to physiological and non-physiological inflows. Results of this study will elucidate the utility of wavelet transforms in arterial function evaluation and pulse wave speed. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  19. Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Überall, Herbert; Claude Ahyi, A.; Raju, P. K.

    2001-01-01

    Our earlier studies regarding acoustic scattering resonances and the dispersive phase velocities of the surface waves that generate them, have demonstrated the effectiveness of obtaining phase velocity dispersion curves from the known acoustic resonance frequencies, and their accuracy. This possi...

  20. Feasibility of using the dispersive characteristic of surface wave to assess the depth of surface deterioration of reinforced concrete nuclear containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chia-Chi; Huang, Chi-Luen; Chiang, Chih-Hong; Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Ke, Ying Tsu [Chaoyang Univ. of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Construction Engineering

    2015-07-01

    Surface waves generated by an impact are used to assess depth of deterioration for thick concrete plate. The proposed method uses one receiver positioned away from the impacting source. The spectrogram of the group velocity obtained from the signal recorded from the receiver is calculated by Short-Time Fourier Transform and the reassigned technique. The impact duration and the source-receiver distance for concrete plate with different thickness of weak top layer are explored by finite-element modeling. The image in spectrogram fit better with the theoretical dispersion curve of Lamb-wave or SH-wave modes for composite plate when the source-receiver distance is longer. The definition of the image in the reassigned spectrogram is affected more by the impact-duration for solid case than for the cases with weak top layer. The preliminary results show the material property as well as the depth of the weak top layer can be evaluated by the proposed method.

  1. Shear wave velocity model beneath CBJI station West Java, Indonesia from joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanungkalit, R. H.; Anggono, T.; Syuhada; Amran, A.; Supriyanto

    2018-03-01

    Earthquake signal observations around the world allow seismologists to obtain the information of internal structure of the Earth especially the Earth’s crust. In this study, we used joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure beneath CBJI station in West Java, Indonesia. Receiver function were calculated from earthquakes with magnitude more than 5 and at distance 30°-90°. Surface wave group velocities were calculated using frequency time analysis from earthquakes at distance of 30°- 40°. We inverted shear wave velocity model beneath the station by conducting joint inversion from receiver functions and surface wave dispersions. We suggest that the crustal thickness beneath CBJI station, West Java, Indonesia is about 35 km.

  2. One-baryon spectrum and analytical properties of one-baryon dispersion curves in 3 + 1 dimensional strongly coupled lattice QCD with three flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria da Veiga, Paulo A.; O’Carroll, Michael; Valencia Alvites, José C.

    2016-01-01

    Considering a 3 + 1 dimensional lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) model defined with the improved Wilson action, three flavors, and 4 × 4 Dirac spin matrices, in the strong coupling regime, we reanalyze the question of the existence of the eightfold way baryons and complete our previous work where the existence of isospin octet baryons was rigorously solved. Here, we show the existence of isospin decuplet baryons which are associated with isolated dispersion curves in the subspace of the underlying quantum mechanical Hilbert space with vectors constructed with an odd number of fermion and antifermion basic quark and antiquark fields. Moreover, smoothness properties for these curves are obtained. The present work deals with a case for which the traditional method to solve the implicit equation for the dispersion curves, based on the use of the analytic implicit function theorem, cannot be applied. We do not have only one but two solutions for each one-baryon decuplet sector with fixed spin third component. Instead, we apply the Weierstrass preparation theorem, which also provides a general method for the general degenerate case. This work is completed by analyzing a spectral representation for the two-baryon correlations and providing the leading behaviors of the field strength normalization and the mass of the spectral contributions with more than one-particle. These are needed results for a rigorous analysis of the two-baryon and meson-baryon particle spectra.

  3. One-baryon spectrum and analytical properties of one-baryon dispersion curves in 3 + 1 dimensional strongly coupled lattice QCD with three flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria da Veiga, Paulo A., E-mail: veiga@icmc.usp.br; O’Carroll, Michael, E-mail: michaelocarroll@gmail.com; Valencia Alvites, José C., E-mail: cien.mat@hotmail.com [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada e Estatística, ICMC, USP-São Carlos, C.P. 668, São Carlos, SP 13560-970 (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Considering a 3 + 1 dimensional lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) model defined with the improved Wilson action, three flavors, and 4 × 4 Dirac spin matrices, in the strong coupling regime, we reanalyze the question of the existence of the eightfold way baryons and complete our previous work where the existence of isospin octet baryons was rigorously solved. Here, we show the existence of isospin decuplet baryons which are associated with isolated dispersion curves in the subspace of the underlying quantum mechanical Hilbert space with vectors constructed with an odd number of fermion and antifermion basic quark and antiquark fields. Moreover, smoothness properties for these curves are obtained. The present work deals with a case for which the traditional method to solve the implicit equation for the dispersion curves, based on the use of the analytic implicit function theorem, cannot be applied. We do not have only one but two solutions for each one-baryon decuplet sector with fixed spin third component. Instead, we apply the Weierstrass preparation theorem, which also provides a general method for the general degenerate case. This work is completed by analyzing a spectral representation for the two-baryon correlations and providing the leading behaviors of the field strength normalization and the mass of the spectral contributions with more than one-particle. These are needed results for a rigorous analysis of the two-baryon and meson-baryon particle spectra.

  4. Experimental analysis on stress wave in inhomogeneous multi-layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yun Ho; Ham, Hyo Sick

    1998-01-01

    The guided wave propagation in inhomogeneous multi-layered structures is experimentally explored based on theoretical dispersion curves. It turns out that proper selection of incident angle and frequency is critical for guided wave generation in multi-layered structures. Theoretical dispersion curves greatly depend on adhesive zone thickness, layer thickness and material properties. It was possible to determine the adhesive zone thickness of an inhomogeneous multi-layered structure by monitoring experimentally the change of dispersion curves.

  5. Dispersion, dissipation and refraction of shock waves in acoustically treated turbofan inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Dilip; Li, Ding; A. Topol, David

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a numerical investigation of the effects of the inlet duct liner on the acoustics of a high-bypass ratio turbofan rotor operating at supersonic tip relative flow conditions. The near field of the blade row is then composed of periodic shocks that evolve spatially both because of the varying mean flow and because of the presence of acoustic treatment. The evolution of this shock system is studied using a Computational Fluid Dynamics-based method incorporating a wall impedance boundary condition. The configuration examined is representative of a fan operating near the takeoff condition. The behavior of the acoustic power and the associated waveforms reveal that significant dispersion occurs to the extent that there are no shocks in the perturbation field leaving the entrance plane of the duct. The effect of wave refraction due to the high degree of shear in the mean flow near the entrance plane of the inlet is examined, and numerical experiments are conducted to show that the incorporation of liners in this region can be highly beneficial. The implications of these results for the design of aircraft engine acoustic liners are discussed.

  6. Generation of multiple VUV dispersive waves using a tapered gas-filled hollow-core anti-resonant fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Md Selim; Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Hollow-core anti-resonant (HC-AR) fibers are perhaps the best platform for ultrafast nonlinear optics based on light-gas interactions because they offer broadband guidance and low-loss guidance. The main advantage of using gases inside HC fibers is that both the dispersion and nonlinearity can...... be tuned by simply changing the pressure of the gas [1]. The emission of efficient dispersive wave (DW) in the deep-UV has been already observed in a uniform Ar-filled hollow-core fiber with tunability from 200 to 320 nm by changing the gas pressure and pulse energy [2]. In the quest of optimizing...

  7. Nonlinear density waves in a marginally stable gravitating disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchagin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of short nonlinear density waves in a disk at the stability limit is studied for arbitrary values of the radial wave number k/sub r/. For waves with wave numbers that do not lie at the minimum of the dispersion curve, the behavior of the amplitude is described by a nonlinear parabolic equation; however, stationary soliton solutions cannot exist in such a system since there is no dispersion spreading of a packet. For wave numbers lying at the minimum of the dispersion curve, soliton structures with determined amplitude are possible. In stable gravitating disks and in a disk at the stability limit, two physically different types of soliton can exist

  8. Dispersion Curves for Phonons in Diamond; Courbes de Dispersion des Phonons dans le Diamant; Krivye dispersii dlya fononov v almaze; Curvas de Dispersion de los Fonones en el Diamante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J. L.; Wenzel, R. G.; Yarnell, J. L. [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1965-04-15

    A three-axis neutron diffraction spectrometer at the Los Alamos Omega West Reactor has been used to measure the dispersion curves for phonons propagating in the [100] and [111] directions in diamond. All measurements were made at room temperature. The sample was a type Ha brown industrial diamond weighing 242.8 carats (48.56 g). A neutron diffraction study showed it to consist of a large single crystal with a mosaic spread of - 1 Degree-Sign full width at half maximum, plus two small regions misoriented by 3 and 5 Degree-Sign . The spectrometer was programmed for ''constant-Q'' operation. In all cases, the energy of the incident neutrons was fixed and the scattered neutrons lost energy. Sufficient intensity at an incident energy high enough to excite the optical modes of diamond was obtained by the use of the (1122) reflection of a beryllium monochromator. Uncertainties in the measured frequencies are estimated to be of the order of 2-3%. The most striking result of these measurements is the verification of the predictions, based on infrared absorption and specific heat data, that diamond is not homologous to silicon and germanium. The lack of homology is manifested principally in the behaviour of the transverse branches. The transverse acoustic branches are relatively much higher in diamond than in silicon and germanium. The transverse optical branches are relatively lower, so that in diamond the highest branch is the longitudinal optical rather than the transverse optical. Frequencies at the zone boundaries are in reasonable agreement with those predicted from infrared absorption data, although the identification of the polarizations is different. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont utilise un spectrometre triaxial pour la diffraction des neutrons produits par le reacteur Omega West de Los Alamos en vue de determiner plusieurs courbes de dispersion des phonons se deplacant dans des directions de symetrie a l'interieur du, diamant. Toutes les mesures ont ete

  9. P wave duration and dispersion in patients with hyperthyroidism and the short-term effects of antithyroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntekin, Unal; Gunes, Yilmaz; Simsek, Hakki; Tuncer, Mustafa; Arslan, Sevket

    2009-09-01

    Prolonged P wave duration and P wave dispersion (PWD) have been associated with an increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF). Hyperthytodism is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation (AF). Forty-two patients with newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy people were enrolled in the study. Transthoracic echocardiography, 12 lead surface ECG and thyroid hormone levels were studied at the time of enrollment and after achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment. Maximum P wave duration (Pmax) (97.4+/-14.6 vs. 84.2+/-9.5 msec, phyperthyroid patients compared to control group. Pmax and PWD were significantly correlated with the presence of hyperthyroidism. Pmax (97.4+/-14.6 to 84.3+/-8.6 msec, phyperthyroidism. Diastolic dyfunction was seen in 5 patients at hyperthroid state but only in one patient at euthyroid state. Hyperthyroidism is associated with prolonged P wave duration and dispersion. Achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment results in shortening of P wave variables. Diastolic function may have a partial effect for the increased Pmax and PWD. Shortening of Pmax and PWD may be a marker for the prevention of AF with the anti-thyroid treatment.

  10. Rogue wave train generation in a metamaterial induced by cubic-quintic nonlinearities and second-order dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essama, Bedel Giscard Onana; Atangana, Jacques; Frederick, Biya Motto; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Eddeqaqi, Noureddine Cherkaoui; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of the electromagnetic wave that propagates in a metamaterial for negative index regime. Second-order dispersion and cubic-quintic nonlinearities are taken into account. The behavior obtained for negative index regime is compared to that observed for absorption regime. The collective coordinates technique is used to characterize the light pulse intensity profile at some frequency ranges. Five frequency ranges have been pointed out. The perfect combination of second-order dispersion and cubic nonlinearity leads to a robust soliton at each frequency range for negative index regime. The soliton peak power progressively decreases for absorption regime. Further, this peak power also decreases with frequency. We show that absorption regime can induce rogue wave trains generation at a specific frequency range. However, this rogue wave trains generation is maintained when the quintic nonlinearity comes into play for negative index regime and amplified for absorption regime at a specific frequency range. It clearly appears that rogue wave behavior strongly depends on the frequency and the regime considered. Furthermore, the stability conditions of the electromagnetic wave have also been discussed at frequency ranges considered for both negative index and absorption regimes.

  11. Contribution of Higher-Order Dispersion to Nonlinear Electron-Acoustic Solitary Waves in a Relativistic Electron Beam Plasma System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    The nonlinear properties of solitary wave structures are reported in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma comprising of cold relativistic electron fluid, Maxwellian hot electrons, relativistic electron beam, and stationary ions. The Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation has been derived using a reductive perturbation theory. As the wave amplitude increases, the width and velocity of the soliton deviate from the prediction of the KdV equation i.e. the breakdown of the KdV approximation. On the other hand, to overcome this weakness we extend our analysis to obtain the KdV equation with fifth-order dispersion term. The solution of the resulting equation has been obtained

  12. Position dependent spin wave spectrum in nanostrip magnonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Huaiwu; Ma, Guokun; Liao, Yulong; Zhong, Zhiyong; Zheng, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The dispersion curves of propagating spin wave along different positions in nanostrip magnonic waveguides were studied by micromagnetic simulation. The results show that the modes of spin wave in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide are dependent on the position and the weak even modes of spin wave are excited even by symmetric excitation fields in a nanostrip magnonic waveguide. The reasons of the position dependent dispersion curve are explained by associating with geometrical confinement in the nanostrip magnonic waveguide

  13. Widely tunable dispersive wave generation and soliton self-frequency shift in a tellurite microstructured optical fiber pumped near the zero dispersion wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Tuan, Tong-Hoang; Liu, Lai; Gao, Wei-Qing; Kawamura, Harutaka; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2015-01-01

    Widely tunable dispersive waves (DW) and Raman solitons are generated in a tellurite microstructured optical fiber (TMOF) by pumping in the anomalous dispersion regime, close to the zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW). The DW can be generated from 1518.3 nm to 1315.5 nm, and the soliton can be shifted from the pump wavelength of 1570 nm to 1828.7 nm, by tuning the average pump power from 3 dBm to 17.5 dBm. After the average pump power is increased to 18.8 dBm, two DW peaks (centered at 1323 nm and 1260 nm) and three soliton peaks (centered at 1762 nm, 1825 nm, and 1896 nm) can be observed simultaneously. When the average pump power is greater than 23.4 dBm, a flat and broadband supercontinuum (SC) can be formed by the combined nonlinear effects of soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS), DW generation, and cross phase modulation (XPM). (paper)

  14. The set valued unified model of dispersion and attenuation for wave propagation in dielectric (and anelastic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Caputo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the dispersion and attenuation properties of dielectric and anelastic media, in the frequency domain, are expressed by similar formulae, as shown experimentally by Cole and Cole (1941 and Bagley and Torvik (1983, 1986 respectively, we note that the same properties may be represented in the time domain by means of an equation of the same form; this is obtained by introducing derivatives of fractional order into the system functions of the media. The Laplace Transforms (LT of such system functions contain fractional powers of the imaginary frequency and are, therefore, multivalued functions defined in the Riemann Sheets (RS of the function. We determine the response of the medium (dielectric o anelastic to a generic signal summing the time domain representation due to the branches of the solutions in the RSs of the LT. It is found that, if the initial conditions are equal in all the RSs, the solution is a sum of two exponentials with complex exponents, if the initial conditions are different in some of the RSs, then a transient for each of those RSs is added to the exponentials. In all cases a monochromatic wave is split into a set of waves with the same frequency and slightly different wavelengths which interfere and disperse. As a consequence a monochromatic electromagnetic wave with frequency around 1 MHz in water has a relevant dispersion and beats generating a tunnel effect. In the atmosphere of the Earth the dispersion of a monochromatic wave with frequency around 1 GHz, like those used in tracking artificial satellites, has a negligible effect on the accuracy of the determination of the position of the satellites and the positioning of the bench marks on the Earth. We also find the split eigenfunctions of the free modes of infinite plates and shells made of dielectric and anelastic media.

  15. Ambient Noise Tomography at Regional and Local Scales in Southern California using Rayleigh Wave Phase Dispersion and Ellipticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E.; Lin, F. C.; Qiu, H.; Wang, Y.; Allam, A. A.; Clayton, R. W.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Rayleigh waves extracted from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise have proven useful in imaging the shallow subsurface velocity structure. In contrast to phase velocities, which are sensitive to slightly deeper structure, Rayleigh wave ellipticity (H/V ratios) constrains the uppermost crust. We conduct Rayleigh wave ellipticity and phase dispersion measurements in Southern California between 6 and 18 second periods, computed from multi-component ambient noise cross-correlations using 315 stations across the region in 2015. Because of the complimentary sensitivity of phase velocity and H/V, this method enables simple and accurate resolution of near-surface geological features from the surface to 20km depth. We compare the observed H/V ratios and phase velocities to predictions generated from the current regional models (SCEC UCVM), finding strong correspondence where the near-surface structure is well-resolved by the models. This includes high H/V ratios in the LA Basin, Santa Barbara Basin and Salton Trough; and low ratios in the San Gabriel, San Jacinto and southern Sierra Nevada mountains. Disagreements in regions such as the Western Transverse Ranges, Salton Trough, San Jacinto and Elsinore fault zones motivate further work to improve the community models. A new updated 3D isotropic model of the area is derived via a joint inversion of Rayleigh phase dispersions and H/V ratios. Additionally, we examine azimuthal dependence of the H/V ratio to ascertain anisotropy patterns for each station. Clear 180º periodicity is observed for many stations suggesting strong shallow anisotropy across the region including up to 20% along the San Andreas fault, 15% along the San Jacinto Fault and 25% in the LA Basin. To better resolve basin structures, we apply similar techniques to three dense linear geophone arrays in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino basins. The three arrays are composed by 50-125 three-component 5Hz geophones deployed for one month each with 15-25km

  16. A harmonic analysis approach to joint inversion of P-receiver functions and wave dispersion data in high dense seismic profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Aguilera, A.; Mancilla, F. D. L.; Julià, J.; Morales, J.

    2017-12-01

    Joint inversion techniques of P-receiver functions and wave dispersion data implicitly assume an isotropic radial stratified earth. The conventional approach invert stacked radial component receiver functions from different back-azimuths to obtain a laterally homogeneous single-velocity model. However, in the presence of strong lateral heterogeneities as anisotropic layers and/or dipping interfaces, receiver functions are considerably perturbed and both the radial and transverse components exhibit back azimuthal dependences. Harmonic analysis methods exploit these azimuthal periodicities to separate the effects due to the isotropic flat-layered structure from those effects caused by lateral heterogeneities. We implement a harmonic analysis method based on radial and transverse receiver functions components and carry out a synthetic study to illuminate the capabilities of the method in isolating the isotropic flat-layered part of receiver functions and constrain the geometry and strength of lateral heterogeneities. The independent of the baz P receiver function are jointly inverted with phase and group dispersion curves using a linearized inversion procedure. We apply this approach to high dense seismic profiles ( 2 km inter-station distance, see figure) located in the central Betics (western Mediterranean region), a region which has experienced complex geodynamic processes and exhibit strong variations in Moho topography. The technique presented here is robust and can be applied systematically to construct a 3-D model of the crust and uppermost mantle across large networks.

  17. The modified extended Fan's sub-equation method and its application to (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yomba, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    By using a modified extended Fan's sub-equation method, we have obtained new and more general solutions including a series of non-travelling wave and coefficient function solutions namely: soliton-like solutions, triangular-like solutions, single and combined non-degenerative Jacobi elliptic wave function-like solutions for the (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation. The most important achievement of this method lies on the fact that, we have succeeded in one move to give all the solutions which can be previously obtained by application of at least four methods (method using Riccati equation, or first kind elliptic equation, or auxiliary ordinary equation, or generalized Riccati equation as mapping equation)

  18. An extended Jacobi elliptic function rational expansion method and its application to (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi; Chen Yong; Zhang Hongqing

    2005-01-01

    With the aid of computerized symbolic computation, a new elliptic function rational expansion method is presented by means of a new general ansatz, in which periodic solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations that can be expressed as a finite Laurent series of some of 12 Jacobi elliptic functions, is more powerful than exiting Jacobi elliptic function methods and is very powerful to uniformly construct more new exact periodic solutions in terms of rational formal Jacobi elliptic function solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. As an application of the method, we choose a (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation to illustrate the method. As a result, we can successfully obtain the solutions found by most existing Jacobi elliptic function methods and find other new and more general solutions at the same time. Of course, more shock wave solutions or solitary wave solutions can be gotten at their limit condition

  19. Dispersive shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear nano-oscillators in ferromagnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Mark A.

    This thesis examines nonlinear wave phenomena, in two physical systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and thin film ferromagnets where the magnetization dynamics are excited by the spin momentum transfer (SMT) effect. In the first system, shock waves generated by steep gradients in the BEC wavefunction are shown to be of the disperse type. Asymptotic and averaging methods are used to determine shock speeds and structure in one spatial dimension. These results are compared with multidimensional numerical simulations and experiment showing good, qualitative agreement. In the second system, a model of magnetization dynamics due to SMT is presented. Using this model, nonlinear oscillating modes---nano-oscillators---are found numerically and analytically using perturbative methods. These results compare well with experiment. A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is a quantum fluid that gives rise to interesting shock wave nonlinear dynamics. Experiments depict a BEC that exhibits behavior similar to that of a shock wave in a compressible gas, e.g. traveling fronts with steep gradients. However, the governing Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation that describes the mean field of a BEC admits no dissipation hence classical dissipative shock solutions do not explain the phenomena. Instead, wave dynamics with small dispersion is considered and it is shown that this provides a mechanism for the generation of a dispersive shock wave (DSW). Computations with the GP equation are compared to experiment with excellent agreement. A comparison between a canonical 1D dissipative and dispersive shock problem shows significant differences in shock structure and shock front speed. Numerical results associated with laboratory experiments show that three and two-dimensional approximations are in excellent agreement and one dimensional approximations are in qualitative agreement. The interaction of two DSWs is investigated analytically and numerically. Using one dimensional DSW theory it is argued

  20. Wavefronts, light rays and caustic of a circular wave reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano-Melchor, Magdalena; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Montiel-Piña, Enrique; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Santiago, José Guadalupe; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Rosado, Alfonso; Suárez-Xique, Román

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to obtain expressions for both the wavefront train and the caustic associated with the light rays reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve after being emitted by a point light source located at an arbitrary position in the two-dimensional free space. To this end, we obtain an expression for the k-function associated with the general integral of Stavroudis to the eikonal equation that describes the evolution of the reflected light rays. The caustic is computed by using the definitions of the critical and caustic sets of the two-dimensional map that describes the evolution of an arbitrary wavefront associated with the general integral. The general results are applied to circular and parabolic mirrors. The main motivation to carry out this research is to establish, in future work, the caustic touching theorem in a two-dimensional optical medium and to study the diffraction problem by using the k-function concept. Both problems are important in the computation of the image of an arbitrary object under reflection and refraction

  1. A new method of testing pile using dynamic P-S-curve made by amplitude of wave train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi-Li; Xu, Jun; Duan, Yong-Kong; Xu, Zhao-Yong; Yang, Run-Hai; Zhao, Jin-Ming

    2004-11-01

    A new method of detecting the vertical bearing capacity for single-pile with high strain is discussed in this paper. A heavy hammer or a small type of rocket is used to strike the pile top and the detectors are used to record vibration graphs. An expression of higher degree of strain (deformation force) is introduced. It is testified theoretically that the displacement, velocity and acceleration cannot be obtained by simple integral acceleration and differential velocity when long displacement and high strain exist, namely when the pile phase generates a whole slip relative to the soil body. That is to say that there are non-linear relations between them. It is educed accordingly that the force P and displacement S are calculated from the amplitude of wave train and (dynamic) P-S curve is drew so as to determine the yield points. Further, a method of determining the vertical bearing capacity for single-pile is discussed. A static load test is utilized to check the result of dynamic test and determine the correlative constants of dynamic-static P( Q)- S curve.

  2. Interferometric windows characterization up to 450 K for shock wave experiments: Hugoniot curves and refractive index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godefroit J.-L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional shock wave experiments need interferometric windows in order to determine the equation of state of a large variety of metals. Lithium fluoride (LiF and sapphire are extensively used for that purpose because their optical transparencies enable the optical diagnostics at interfaces under a given range of shock pressure. In order to simulate and analyse the experiments it is necessary to gather a correct knowledge of the optical and mechanical properties of these windows. Therefore, our window supplies are systematically characterized and an experimental campaign under shock loading is conducted. Our preliminary work on LiF windows at 532 nm is in good agreement with literature data at room temperature and the new characterization at 450 K enables a better interpretation of our preheated target experiments. It confirms the predominant effect of density on optical properties under pressure and temperature. The present work demonstrates that the initial density determination is a key point and that the uncertainties need to be improved. For that purpose, complementary experiments are conducted on LiF windows with simplified target designs and enriched diagnostics, coupling VISAR (532 nm and PdV (1550 nm diagnostics. Furthermore, a similar campaign is conducted on sapphire windows with symmetric impact configuration.

  3. Separation of traveling and standing waves in a finite dispersive string with partial or continuous viscoelastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiangle; Blanchard, Antoine; Tan, Chin An; Lu, Huancai; Bergman, Lawrence A.; McFarland, D. Michael; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2017-12-01

    The free and forced vibrations of a linear string with a local spring-damper on a partial elastic foundation, as well as a linear string on a viscoelastic foundation conceptualized as a continuous distribution of springs and dampers, are studied in this paper. Exact, analytical results are obtained for the free and forced response to a harmonic excitation applied at one end of the string. Relations between mode complexity and energy confinement with the dispersion in the string system are examined for the steady-state forced vibration, and numerical methods are applied to simulate the transient evolution of energy propagation. Eigenvalue loci veering and normal mode localization are observed for weakly coupled subsystems, when the foundation stiffness is sufficiently large, for both the spatially symmetric and asymmetric systems. The forced vibration results show that nonproportional damping-induced mode complexity, for which there are co-existing regions of purely traveling waves and standing waves, is attainable for the dispersive string system. However, this wave transition phenomenon depends strongly on the location of the attached discrete spring-damper relative to the foundation and whether the excitation frequency Ω is above or below the cutoff frequency ωc. When Ωcontrol strategies.

  4. Ultrasound shock wave generator with one-bit time reversal in a dispersive medium, application to lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Gabriel; Roux, Philippe; Derode, Arnaud; Negreira, Carlos; Fink, Mathias

    2002-02-01

    The building of high-power ultrasonic sources from piezoelectric ceramics is limited by the maximum voltage that the ceramics can endure. We have conceived a device that uses a small number of piezoelectric transducers fastened to a cylindrical metallic waveguide. A one-bit time- reversal operation transforms the long-lasting low-level dispersed wave forms into a sharp pulse, thus taking advantage of dispersion to generate high-power ultrasound. The pressure amplitude that is generated at the focus is found to be 15 times greater than that achieved with comparable standard techniques. Applications to lithotripsy are discussed and the destructive efficiency of the system is demonstrated on pieces of chalk.

  5. A self-similar solution of a curved shock wave and its time-dependent force variation for a starting flat plate airfoil in supersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijun CHEN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of aeroelasticity and maneuvering of command surface and gust wing interaction involves a starting flow period which can be seen as the flow of an airfoil attaining suddenly an angle of attack. In the linear or nonlinear case, compressive Mach or shock waves are generated on the windward side and expansive Mach or rarefaction waves are generated on the leeward side. On each side, these waves are composed of an oblique steady state wave, a vertically-moving one-dimensional unsteady wave, and a secondary wave resulting from the interaction between the steady and unsteady ones. An analytical solution in the secondary wave has been obtained by Heaslet and Lomax in the linear case, and this linear solution has been borrowed to give an approximate solution by Bai and Wu for the nonlinear case. The structure of the secondary shock wave and the appearance of various force stages are two issues not yet considered in previous studies and has been studied in the present paper. A self-similar solution is obtained for the secondary shock wave, and the reason to have an initial force plateau as observed numerically is identified. Moreover, six theoretical characteristic time scales for pressure load variation are determined which explain the slope changes of the time-dependent force curve. Keywords: Force, Self-similar solution, Shock-shock interaction, Shock waves, Unsteady flow

  6. Study of dispersive and nonlinear effects of coastal wave dynamics with a fully nonlinear potential flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Michel; Yates, Marissa L.; Raoult, Cécile

    2017-04-01

    Efficient and accurate numerical models simulating wave propagation are required for a variety of engineering projects including the evaluation of coastal risks, the design of protective coastal structures, and the estimation of the potential for marine renewable energy devices. Nonlinear and dispersive effects are particularly significant in the coastal zone where waves interact with the bottom, the shoreline, and coastal structures. The main challenge in developing a numerical models is finding a compromise between computational efficiency and the required accuracy of the simulated wave field. Here, a potential approach is selected and the (fully nonlinear) water wave problem is formulated using the Euler-Zakharov equations (Zakharov, 1968) describing the temporal evolution of the free surface elevation and velocity potential. The proposed model (Yates and Benoit, 2015) uses a spectral approach in the vertical (i.e. the vertical variation of the potential is approximated by a linear combination of the first NT+1 Chebyshev polynomials, following the work of Tian and Sato (2008)). The Zakharov equations are integrated in time using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. At each sub-timestep, the Laplace Boundary Value Problem (BVP) is solved to estimate the free surface vertical velocity using the spectral approach, with typical values of NT between 5 to 8 for practical applications. The 1DH version of the code is validated with comparisons to the experimental data set of Becq-Girard et al. (1999), which studied the propagation of irregular waves over a beach profile with a submerged bar. The nonlinear and dispersive capacities of the model are verified with the correct representation of wave-wave interactions, in particular the transfer of energy between different harmonic components during wave propagation (analysis of the transformation of the variance spectrum along the channel). Evolution of wave skewness, asymmetry and kurtosis along the

  7. Effect of humid-thermal environment on wave dispersion characteristics of single-layered graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Dabbagh, Ali

    2018-04-01

    In the present article, the hygro-thermal wave propagation properties of single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) are investigated for the first time employing a nonlocal strain gradient theory. A refined higher-order two-variable plate theory is utilized to derive the kinematic relations of graphene sheets. Here, nonlocal strain gradient theory is used to achieve a more precise analysis of small-scale plates. In the framework of the Hamilton's principle, the final governing equations are developed. Moreover, these obtained equations are deemed to be solved analytically and the wave frequency values are achieved. Some parametric studies are organized to investigate the influence of different variants such as nonlocal parameter, length scale parameter, wave number, temperature gradient and moisture concentration on the wave frequency of graphene sheets.

  8. Incorporating Floating Surface Objects into a Fully Dispersive Surface Wave Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Bateman c , Joseph Calantoni c , James T. Kirby b a NRL Code 7320, 1009 Balch Blvd, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529 USA b Center for Applied Coastal...wave prop- agation. J. Waterway Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 119, 618–638 . rzech, M., Shi, F., Calantoni, J., Bateman , S., Veeramony, J., 2014. Small-scale...F., Bateman , S., Calantoni, J., 2016. Modeling small- scale physics of waves and ice in the MIZ. AGU 2016 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Session 9483

  9. One-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD method for simulating electromagnetic wave propagation in general dispersive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Hua; Yin, Wen-Yan; Chen, Zhi Zhang David

    2013-09-09

    The one-step leapfrog alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (ADI-FDTD) method is reformulated for simulating general electrically dispersive media. It models material dispersive properties with equivalent polarization currents. These currents are then solved with the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) and then incorporated into the one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD method. The final equations are presented in the form similar to that of the conventional FDTD method but with second-order perturbation. The adapted method is then applied to characterize (a) electromagnetic wave propagation in a rectangular waveguide loaded with a magnetized plasma slab, (b) transmission coefficient of a plane wave normally incident on a monolayer graphene sheet biased by a magnetostatic field, and (c) surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagation along a monolayer graphene sheet biased by an electrostatic field. The numerical results verify the stability, accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed one-step leapfrog ADI-FDTD algorithm in comparison with analytical results and the results obtained with the other methods.

  10. The influences of soil and nearby structures on dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyong; Jiang, J.; Parr, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Water loss in distribution systems is a global problem for the water industry and governments. According to the international water supply association (IWSA), as a result of leaks from distribution pipes, 20% to 30% of water is lost while in transit from treatment plants to consumers. Although governments have tried to push the water industry to reduce the water leaks, a lot of experts have pointed out that a wide use of plastic pipes instead of metal pipes in recent years has caused difficulties in the detection of leaks using current acoustic technology. Leaks from plastic pipes are much quieter than traditional metal pipes and comparing to metal pipes the plastic pipes have very different coupling characteristics with soil, water and surrounding structures, such as other pipes, road surface and building foundations. The dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes are investigated in this paper using finite element and boundary element based models. Both empty and water- filled pipes were considered. Influences from nearby pipes and building foundations were carefully studied. The results showed that soil condition and nearby structures have significant influences on the dispersion characteristics of wave propagating along buried plastic pipes.

  11. Quasiparticles of widely tuneable inertial mass: The dispersion relation of atomic Josephson vortices and related solitary waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie S. Shamailov, Joachim Brand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting Josephson vortices have direct analogues in ultracold-atom physics as solitary-wave excitations of two-component superfluid Bose gases with linear coupling. Here we numerically extend the zero-velocity Josephson vortex solutions of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations to non-zero velocities, thus obtaining the full dispersion relation. The inertial mass of the Josephson vortex obtained from the dispersion relation depends on the strength of linear coupling and has a simple pole divergence at a critical value where it changes sign while assuming large absolute values. Additional low-velocity quasiparticles with negative inertial mass emerge at finite momentum that are reminiscent of a dark soliton in one component with counter-flow in the other. In the limit of small linear coupling we compare the Josephson vortex solutions to sine-Gordon solitons and show that the correspondence between them is asymptotic, but significant differences appear at finite values of the coupling constant. Finally, for unequal and non-zero self- and cross-component nonlinearities, we find a new solitary-wave excitation branch. In its presence, both dark solitons and Josephson vortices are dynamically stable while the new excitations are unstable.

  12. Plant species dispersed by Galapagos tortoises surf the wave of habitat suitability under anthropogenic climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Soto, Diego; Blake, Stephen; Soultan, Alaaeldin; Guézou, Anne; Cabrera, Fredy; Lötters, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.). Tortoises transport large quantities of seeds over long distances into environments in which they have little or no chance of germination and survival under current climate conditions. However, climate change is projected to modify environmental conditions on Galapagos with unknown consequences for the distribution of native and introduced biodiversity. We quantified seed dispersal of guava and passion fruit in tortoise dung piles and the distribution of adult plants along two elevation gradients on Santa Cruz to assess current levels of 'wasted' seed dispersal. We computed species distribution models for both taxa under current and predicted future climate conditions. Assuming that tortoise migratory behaviour continues, current levels of "wasted" seed dispersal in lowlands were projected to decline dramatically in the future for guava but not for passion fruit. Tortoises will facilitate rapid range expansion for guava into lowland areas within the Galapagos National Park where this species is currently absent. Coupled with putative reduction in arid habitat for native species caused by climate change, tortoise driven guava invasion will pose a serious threat to local plant communities.

  13. Plant species dispersed by Galapagos tortoises surf the wave of habitat suitability under anthropogenic climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ellis-Soto

    Full Text Available Native biodiversity on the Galapagos Archipelago is severely threatened by invasive alien species. On Santa Cruz Island, the abundance of introduced plant species is low in the arid lowlands of the Galapagos National Park, but increases with elevation into unprotected humid highlands. Two common alien plant species, guava (Psidium guajava and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis occur at higher elevations yet their seeds are dispersed into the lowlands by migrating Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.. Tortoises transport large quantities of seeds over long distances into environments in which they have little or no chance of germination and survival under current climate conditions. However, climate change is projected to modify environmental conditions on Galapagos with unknown consequences for the distribution of native and introduced biodiversity. We quantified seed dispersal of guava and passion fruit in tortoise dung piles and the distribution of adult plants along two elevation gradients on Santa Cruz to assess current levels of 'wasted' seed dispersal. We computed species distribution models for both taxa under current and predicted future climate conditions. Assuming that tortoise migratory behaviour continues, current levels of "wasted" seed dispersal in lowlands were projected to decline dramatically in the future for guava but not for passion fruit. Tortoises will facilitate rapid range expansion for guava into lowland areas within the Galapagos National Park where this species is currently absent. Coupled with putative reduction in arid habitat for native species caused by climate change, tortoise driven guava invasion will pose a serious threat to local plant communities.

  14. P Wave Duration And Dispersion In Patients With Hyperthyroidism And The Short-term Effects Of Antithyroid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Guntekin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged P wave duration and P wave dispersion (PWD have been associated with an increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF. Hyperthytodism is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Methods: Forty-two patients with newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy people were enrolled in the study. Transthoracic echocardiography, 12 lead surface ECG and thyroid hormone levels were studied at the time of enrollment and after achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment. Results: Maximum P wave duration (Pmax (97.4±14.6 vs. 84.2±9.5 msec, p<0.001, PWD (42.9±10.7 vs. 31.0±6.2 msec, p<0.001, deceleration (DT (190.7±22.6 vs. 177.0±10.2 msec, p=0.013 and isovolumetric relaxation times (IVRT (90.9±11.2 vs. 79.6±10.5 msec, p<0.001 were significantly higher in hyperthyroid patients compared to control group. Pmax and PWD were significantly correlated with the presence of hyperthyroidism. Pmax (97.4±14.6 to 84.3±8.6 msec, p<0,001 Pmin (54.1±8.6 to 48.1±8.5 msec, p=0.002, PWD (42.9±10.7 to 35.9±8.1 msec, p=0.002 and DT (190.7±22.6 to 185.5±18.3, p=0.036 were significantly decreased after achievement of euthyroid state in patients with hyperthyroidism. Diastolic dyfunction was seen in 5 patients at hyperthroid state but only in one patient at euthyroid state. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism is associated with prolonged P wave duration and dispersion. Achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment results in shortening of P wave variables. Diastolic function may have a partial effect for the increased Pmax and PWD. Shortening of Pmax and PWD may be a marker for the prevention of AF with the anti-thyroid treatment.

  15. Influence of sweeping detonation-wave loading on damage evolution during spallation loading of tantalum in both a planar and curved geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, George Thompson III [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hull, Lawrence Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Faulkner, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Briggs, Matthew E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meyer, Ross Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andrews, Heather Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hare, Steven John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jakulewicz, Micah Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shinas, Michael A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Widespread research over the past five decades has provided a wealth of experimental data and insight concerning the shock hardening, damage evolution, and the spallation response of materials subjected to square-topped shock-wave loading profiles. However, fewer quantitative studies have been conducted on the effect of direct, in-contact, high explosive (HE)-driven Taylor wave (unsupported shocks) loading on the shock hardening, damage evolution, or spallation response of materials. Systematic studies quantifying the effect of sweeping-detonation wave loading are yet sparser. In this study, the damage evolution and spallation response of Ta is shown to be critically dependent on the peak shock stress, the geometry of the sample (flat or curved plate geometry), and the shock obliquity during sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading. Sweepingwave loading in the flat-plate geometry is observed to: a) yield a lower spall strength than previously documented for 1-D supported-shock-wave loading, b) exhibit increased shock hardening as a function of increasing obliquity, and c) lead to an increased incidence of deformation twin formation with increasing shock obliquity. Sweeping-wave loading of a 10 cm radius curved Ta plate is observed to: a) lead to an increase in the shear stress as a function of increasing obliquity, b) display a more developed level of damage evolution, extensive voids and coalescence, and lower spall strength with obliquity in the curved plate than seen in the flat-plate sweeping-detonation wave loading for an equivalent HE loading, and c) no increased propensity for deformation twin formation with increasing obliquity as seen in the flat-plate geometry. The overall observations comparing and contrasting the flat versus curved sweeping-wave spall experiments with 1D loaded spallation behavior suggests a coupled influence of obliquity and geometry on dynamic shock-induced damage evolution and spall strength. Coupled experimental and modeling research

  16. Theory of magnetic properties and spin-wave dispersion for ferroamgnetic (Ga, Mn)As

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    König, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 18 (2001), s. 184423-1 - 184423-7 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC P5.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * spin waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2001

  17. Comparison of P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs, dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicpoń Józef

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P-wave dispersion (Pd is a new ECG index used in human cardiology and veterinary medicine. It is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different ECG leads. So far no studies were performed assessing the importance of P-wave dispersion in dogs. Methods The current study was aimed at determining proper value of Pd in healthy dogs (group I, dogs with chronic valvular disease (group II and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction (group III. The tests were carried out in 53 healthy dogs, 23 dogs with chronic valvular disease and 12 dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction of various breeds, sexes and body weight from 1,5 to 80 kg, aged between 0,5 and 17 years, submitted to the ECG examination. ECG was acquired in dogs in a standing position with BTL SD-8 electrocardiographic device and analyzed once the recording was enlarged. P-wave duration was calculated in 9 ECG leads (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1, V2, V4 from 5 cardiac cycles. Results The proper P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs was determined at up to 24 ms. P-wave dispersion was statistically significant increased (p Conclusions The P-wave dispersion is a constant index in healthy dogs, that is why it can be used for evaluating P wave change in dogs with chronic valvular disease and in dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction.

  18. Histological evaluation of the cleaning effectiveness of two reciprocating single-file systems in severely curved root canals: Reciproc versus WaveOne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maira de Souza; Junior, Emílio Carlos Sponchiado; Bitencourt Garrido, Angela Delfina; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; Franco Marques, André Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning effectiveness achieved with two reciprocating single-file systems in severely curved root canals: Reciproc and WaveOne. Twenty-five mesial roots of mandibular molars were randomly separated into two groups, according to the instrumentation system used. The negative control group consisted of five specimens that were not instrumented. The mesial canals (buccal and lingual) in Reciproc Group were instrumented with file R25 and the WaveOne group with the Primary file. The samples were submitted to histological processing and analyzed under a digital microscope. The WaveOne group presented a larger amount of debris than the Reciproc Group, however, without statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). A larger amount of debris in the control group was observed, with statistically significant difference to Reciproc and WaveOne groups (P file instrumentation systems presented similar effectiveness for root canal cleaning.

  19. Study of the dissolution velocity of dispersed solid particles. Development of a calculation method for analyzing the kinetic curves. Extension to the study of composed kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    The dissolution of a solid in an aqueous phase is studied, the solid consisting of dispersed particles. A continuous colorimetric analysis method is developed to study the dissolution process and a two-parameter optimization method is established to investigate the kinetic curves obtained. This method is based on the differential equation dx/dt=K(1-x)sup(n). (n being the decrease in the dissolution velocity when the dissolved part increases and K a velocity parameter). The dissolution of SO 4 Cu and MnO 4 K in water and UO 3 in SO 4 H 2 is discussed. It is shown that the dissolution velocity of UO 3 is proportional to the concentration of the H + ions in the solution as far as this one is not higher than 0.25N. The study of the temperature dependence of the UO 3 dissolution reaction shows that a transition phase takes place from 25 to 65 0 C between a phase in which the dissolution is controlled by the diffusion of the H + ions and the chemical reaction at the interface and a phase in which the kinetics is only controlled by the diffusion [fr

  20. Spin waves in antiferromagnetic FeF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, M T; Rainford, B.D.; Guggenheim, H J

    1970-01-01

    Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin Hamilton......Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin...

  1. On Wave-Ice Interaction in the Arctic Marginal Ice Zone: Dispersion, Attenuation, and Ice Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    described in Thorndike et al. [1975]. Waves have not played a role in CICE because their influence is limited to the MIZ which was traditionally a... Thorndike et al, [1979] d(p) is area conserving, so that the integral over all ranges of ice property, p, is unity. � ()...most effected by lateral melt < O(30 m). Observations of FSD [Rothrock and Thorndike , 1984; Toyota et al., 2006], done through analysis of aerial

  2. Nonlocal strain gradient based wave dispersion behavior of smart rotating magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Dabbagh, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Main object of the present research is an exact investigation of wave propagation responses of smart rotating magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) graded nanoscale plates. In addition, effective material properties of functionally graded (FG) nanoplate are presumed to be calculated using the power-law formulations. Also, it has been tried to cover both softening and stiffness-hardening behaviors of nanostructures by the means of employing nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT). Due to increasing the accuracy of the presented model in predicting shear deformation effects, a refined higher-order plate theory is introduced. In order to cover the most enormous circumstances, maximum amount of load generated by plate’s rotation is considered. Furthermore, utilizing a developed form of Hamilton’s principle, containing magneto-electric effects, the nonlocal governing equations of MEE-FG rotating nanoplates are derived. An analytical solution is obtained to solve the governing equations and validity of the solution method is proven by comparing results from present method with those of former attempts. At last, outcomes are plotted in the framework of some figures to show the influences of various parameters such as wave number, nonlocality, length scale parameter, magnetic potential, electric voltage, gradient index and angular velocity on wave frequency, phase velocity and escape frequency of the examined nanoplate.

  3. Generation of 2.5 μm and 4.6 μm Dispersive Waves in Kagome Photonic Crystal Fiber with Plasma Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Qi Zhao; Meng Li; Dong Wei; Xin Ding; Gui-Zhong Zhang; Jian-Quan Yao

    2017-01-01

    We report our numerical simulation on dispersive waves (DWs) generated in the Kr-filled Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,by deploying the unidirectional pulse propagation equation.Relatively strong dispersive waves are simultaneously generated at 2.5μm and 4.6μm.It is deciphered that the interplay between plasma currents due to Kr ionization and nonlinear effects plays a key role in DW generation.Remarkably,this kind of DW generation is corroborated by the plasma-corrected phase-matching condition.

  4. Research for developing precise tsunami evaluation methods. Probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis/numerical simulation method with dispersion and wave breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The present report introduces main results of investigations on precise tsunami evaluation methods, which were carried out from the viewpoint of safety evaluation for nuclear power facilities and deliberated by the Tsunami Evaluation Subcommittee. A framework for the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) based on logic tree is proposed and calculation on the Pacific side of northeastern Japan is performed as a case study. Tsunami motions with dispersion and wave breaking were investigated both experimentally and numerically. The numerical simulation method is verified for its practicability by applying to a historical tsunami. Tsunami force is also investigated and formulae of tsunami pressure acting on breakwaters and on building due to inundating tsunami are proposed. (author)

  5. The investigation for (2+1)-dimensional Eckhaus-type extension of the dispersive long wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya

    2004-01-01

    The (2+1)-dimensional Eckhaus-type extension of the dispersive long wave (EEDLW) equation is investigated, which was obtained in the appropriate approximation from the basic equations of hydrodynamics. Though it has no Painleve property, we gain an auto-Baecklund transformation (aBT) by truncating the Laurent series expansion at O(w 0 ). In particular, the special one of the aBT establishes a relationship between the EEDLW equation and a set of three linear partial differential equations involving the well-known heat equation. Finally many types of new exact solutions of the EEDLW equation are found from the obtained aBT and some proper ansaetze, which may be useful to explain some physical phenomena

  6. Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3 μm for efficient wavelength conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia; Bi, Wanjun [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Wei; Xue, Tianfeng; Hu, Lili; Liao, Meisong, E-mail: liaomeisong@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Gao, Weiqing [School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-03-14

    This research investigates the mechanism of the optical dispersive wave (DW) and proposes a scheme that can realize an efficient wavelength conversion. In an elaborately designed photonic crystal fiber, a readily available ytterbium laser operating at ∼1 μm can be transferred to the valuable 1.3 μm wavelength range. A low-order soliton is produced to concentrate the energy of the DW into the target wavelength range and improve the degree of coherence. The input chirp is demonstrated to be a factor that enhances the wavelength conversion efficiency. With a positive initial chirp, 76.6% of the pump energy in the fiber can be transferred into a spectral range between 1.24 and 1.4 μm. With the use of a grating compressor, it is possible to compress the generated coherent DW of several picoseconds into less than 90 fs.

  7. Research of time-domain equivalent circuit method in solving dispersion of coupled-cavity traveling-wave tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjun; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Xu Zhou; Li Ming; Yang Xingfan; Chen Yanan; Liu Jie; Jin Xiao; Lin Yuzheng

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a time-domain equivalent circuit method is applied to solve dispersion of coupled-cavity travelling-wave tube (CCTWT). First, the time-domain circuit equations of CCTWT coupled-cavity chain are deduced from the equivalent circuit model. Then, the equations are solved numerically by fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a program CTTDCP is developed using MATLAB. Last, a L-band CCTWT is calculated using CTTDCP and the cavity pass-band of this tube is computed to be 1.08-1.48 GHz, which is consistent with the experimental results and the simulation results of electromagnetic code and demonstrates the validity of the time-domain equivalent circuit method. In addition, a new design method which uses the equivalent circuit method and electromagnetic simulation together to optimize the cold cavity characteristics of CCTWT is proposed. (authors)

  8. S-wave velocities of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the Lesser Antilles from the joint inversion of surface wave dispersion and receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, O'Leary; Clouard, Valerie; Tait, Stephen; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2018-06-01

    We present an overview of S-wave velocities (Vs) within the crust and upper mantle of the Lesser Antilles as determined with 19 seismic broadband stations. Receiver functions (RF) have been computed from teleseismic recordings of earthquakes, and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion relations have been taken from earlier surface wave tomographic studies in the Caribbean area. Local smoothness optimization (LSO) procedure has been applied, combined with an H-K stacking method, the spatial distribution of hypocenters of local earthquakes and of the energy they released, in order to identify an optimum 1D model of Vs below each station. Several features of the Caribbean plate and its interaction with the Atlantic subducting slab are visible in the resulting models: (a) relatively thick oceanic crust below these stations ranges from 21 km to 33 km, being slight thinner in the middle of the island arc; (b) crustal low velocity zones are present below stations SABA, SEUS, SKI, SMRT, CBE, DSD, GCMP and TDBA; (c) lithospheric thickness range from 40 km to 105 km but lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary was not straightforward to correlate between stations; (d) the aseismic mantle wedge between the Caribbean seismic lithosphere and the subducted slab varies in thickness as well as Vs values which are, in general, lower below the West of Martinique than below the West of Guadeloupe; (e) the depth of the subducted slab beneath the volcanic arc, appears to be greater to the North, and relatively shallower below some stations (e.g. DLPL, SAM, BIM and FDF) than was estimated in previous studies based on the depth-distribution of seismicity; f) the WBZ is >10-15 km deeper than the top of the slab below the Central Lesser Antilles (Martinique and Dominica) where the presence of partial melt in the mantle wedge seems also to be more evident.

  9. Seismic waves travel-time curve, basing on the results of signal detection from chemical explosions detonated at Semipalatinsk Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlova, N.N.; Aristova, I.L.; Germanova, T.I.

    2001-01-01

    A large amount of digital seismic data from the permanent and temporary seismic stations was acquired in the result of detonation of large chemical explosions at Semipalatinsk Test Site. All the records were collected, systematized and processed, and databases were created. Travel-time curves for regional Pn, Pg, Sn and Lg waves were created and compared with the ones used in routine earthquake processing practice. (author)

  10. Dispersed Sensing Networks in Nano-Engineered Polymer Composites: From Static Strain Measurement to Ultrasonic Wave Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehai Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-sensing capability of composite materials has been the core of intensive research over the years and particularly boosted up by the recent quantum leap in nanotechnology. The capacity of most existing self-sensing approaches is restricted to static strains or low-frequency structural vibration. In this study, a new breed of functionalized epoxy-based composites is developed and fabricated, with a graphene nanoparticle-enriched, dispersed sensing network, whereby to self-perceive broadband elastic disturbance from static strains, through low-frequency vibration to guided waves in an ultrasonic regime. Owing to the dispersed and networked sensing capability, signals can be captured at any desired part of the composites. Experimental validation has demonstrated that the functionalized composites can self-sense strains, outperforming conventional metal foil strain sensors with a significantly enhanced gauge factor and a much broader response bandwidth. Precise and fast self-response of the composites to broadband ultrasonic signals (up to 440 kHz has revealed that the composite structure itself can serve as ultrasound sensors, comparable to piezoceramic sensors in performance, whereas avoiding the use of bulky cables and wires as used in a piezoceramic sensor network. This study has spotlighted promising potentials of the developed approach to functionalize conventional composites with a self-sensing capability of high-sensitivity yet minimized intrusion to original structures.

  11. Theory of Nonlinear Dispersive Waves and Selection of the Ground State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, A.; Weinstein, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    A theory of time-dependent nonlinear dispersive equations of the Schroedinger or Gross-Pitaevskii and Hartree type is developed. The short, intermediate and large time behavior is found, by deriving nonlinear master equations (NLME), governing the evolution of the mode powers, and by a novel multitime scale analysis of these equations. The scattering theory is developed and coherent resonance phenomena and associated lifetimes are derived. Applications include Bose-Einstein condensate large time dynamics and nonlinear optical systems. The theory reveals a nonlinear transition phenomenon, 'selection of the ground state', and NLME predicts the decay of excited state, with half its energy transferred to the ground state and half to radiation modes. Our results predict the recent experimental observations of Mandelik et al. in nonlinear optical waveguides

  12. Measurement of shear wave speed dispersion in the placenta by transient elastography: A preliminary ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Emmanuel G; Callé, Samuel; Perrotin, Franck; Remenieras, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Placental elasticity may be modified in women with placental insufficiency. Shear wave elastography (SWE) can measure this, using acoustic radiation force, but the safety of its use in pregnant women has not yet been demonstrated. Transient elastography (TE) is a safer alternative, but has not yet been applied to the placenta. Moreover, the dispersion of shear wave speed (SWS) as a function of frequency has received relatively little study for placental tissue, although it might improve the accuracy of biomechanical assessment. To explore the feasibility and reproducibility of TE for placental analysis, to compare the values of SWS and Young's modulus (YM) from TE and SWE, and to analyze SWS dispersion as a function of frequency ex vivo in normal placentas. Ten normal placentas were analyzed ex vivo by an Aixplorer ultrasound system as shear waves were generated by a vibrating plate and by using an Aixplorer system. The frequency analysis provided the value of the exponent n from a fractional rheological model applied to the TE method. We calculated intra- and interobserver agreement for SWS and YM with 95% prediction intervals, created Bland-Altman plots with 95% limits of agreement, and estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean SWS was 1.80 m/s +/- 0.28 (standard deviation) with the TE method at 50 Hz and 1.82 m/s +/-0.13 with SWE (P = 0.912). No differences were observed between the central and peripheral regions of placentas with either TE or SWE. With TE, the intraobserver ICC for SWS was 0.68 (0.50-0.82), and the interobserver ICC for SWS 0.65 (0.37-0.85). The mean parameter n obtained from the fractional rheological model was 1.21 +/- 0.12, with variable values of n for any given SWS. TE is feasible and reproducible on placentas ex vivo. The frequency analysis of SWS provides additional information about placental elasticity and appears to be able to distinguish differences between placental structures.

  13. Dispersion characteristics of anisotropic unmagnetized ultra-relativistic transverse plasma wave with arbitrary electron degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, M.; Farooq, H.; Abbas, G.; Noureen, S.; Iqbal, Z.; Rasheed, A.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal momentum space anisotropy is ubiquitous in many astrophysical and laboratory plasma environments. Using Vlasov-Maxwell's model equations, a generalized polarization tensor for a collisionless ultra-relativistic unmagnetized electron plasma is derived. In particular, the tensor is obtained by considering anisotropy in the momentum space. The integral of moments of Fermi-Dirac distribution function in terms of Polylog functions is used for describing the border line plasma systems (T/e TF e ≈1 ) comprising arbitrary electron degeneracy, where Te and TF e, are thermal and Fermi temperatures, respectively. Furthermore, the effects of variation in thermal momentum space anisotropy on the electron equilibrium number density and the spectrum of electromagnetic waves are analyzed.

  14. Dispersive traveling wave solutions of the Equal-Width and Modified Equal-Width equations via mathematical methods and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dianchen; Seadawy, Aly R.; Ali, Asghar

    2018-06-01

    The Equal-Width and Modified Equal-Width equations are used as a model in partial differential equations for the simulation of one-dimensional wave transmission in nonlinear media with dispersion processes. In this article we have employed extend simple equation method and the exp(-varphi(ξ)) expansion method to construct the exact traveling wave solutions of equal width and modified equal width equations. The obtained results are novel and have numerous applications in current areas of research in mathematical physics. It is exposed that our method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving different kind nonlinear wave problems.

  15. A software to measure phase-velocity dispersion from ambient-noise correlations and its application to the SNSN data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur

    2017-04-01

    Graphical software for phase-velocity dispersion measurements of surface waves in noise-correlation traces, called GSpecDisp, is presented. It is an interactive environment for the measurements and presentation of the results. It measures phase-velocity dispersion curves in the frequency domain based on matching of the real part of the cross-correlation spectrum with the appropriate Bessel function. The inputs are time-domain cross-correlations in SAC format. It can measure two types of phase-velocity dispersion curves; 1- average phase-velocity of a region, and 2- single-pair phase velocity. The average phase-velocity dispersion curve of a region can be used as a reference curve to automatically select the dispersion curves from each single-pair cross-correlation in that region. It also allows the users to manually refine the selections. Therefore, no prior knowledge is needed for an unknown region. GSpecDisp can measure the phase velocity of Rayleigh and Love waves from all possible components of the noise correlation tensor, including diagonal and off-diagonal components of the tensor. First, we explain how GSpecDisp is applied to measure phase-velocity dispersion curves. Then, we demonstrate measurement results on synthetic and real data from the Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN). We compare the results with two other methods of phase-velocity dispersion measurements. Finally, we compare phase-velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves obtained from different components of the correlation tensor.

  16. Time-resolved shock compression of porous rutile: Wave dispersion in porous solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.U.; Graham, R.A.; Holman, G.T.

    1993-08-01

    Rutile (TiO{sub 2}) samples at 60% of solid density have been shock-loaded from 0.21 to 6.1 GPa with sample thickness of 4 mm and studied with the PVDF piezoelectric polymer stress-rate gauge. The technique uses a copper capsule to contain the sample which has PVDF gauge packages in direct contact with front and rear surfaces. A precise measure is made of the compressive stress wave velocity through the sample, as well as the input and propagated shock stress. Initial density is known from sample preparation, and the amount of shock-compression is calculated from the measurement of shock velocity and input stress. Shock states and re-shock states are measured. Observed data are consistent with previously published high pressure data. It is observed that rutile has a ``crush strength`` near 6 GPa. Propagated stress-pulse rise times vary from 234 to 916 nsec. Propagated stress-pulse rise times of shock-compressed HMX, 2Al + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 3Ni + Al, and 5Ti + 3Si are presented.

  17. Manipulating the Shape of Electronic Non-Dispersive Wave-Packets in the Hydrogen Atom: Numerical Tests in Realistic Experimental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, D.; Sacha, K.; Zakrzewski, J.

    2002-01-01

    We show that combination of a linearly polarized resonant microwave field and a parallel static electric field may be used to create a non-dispersive electronic wave packet in Rydberg atoms. The static electric field allows for manipulation of the shape of the elliptical trajectory the wave packet is propagating on. Exact quantum numerical calculations for realistic experimental parameters show that the wave packet evolving on a linear orbit can be very easily prepared in a laboratory either by a direct optical excitation or by preparing an atom in an extremal Stark state and then slowly switching on the micro wave field. The latter scheme seems to be very resistant to experimental imperfections. Once the wave packet on the linear orbit is excited, the static field may be used to manipulate the shape of the orbit. (author)

  18. The determination of Fe, Mn and Ca in sintered iron and blast-furnace slag by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and wave dispersion-comparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworak, B.; Gajek, Sz.

    1980-01-01

    The results of sintered iron and of blast-furnace slag examination obtained by X-ray fluorescent analyses of energy and of wave dispersion are compared. They show that the methods are comparable for such elements as Ca and Fe, whereas for Mn (in sinter) the X-ray fluorescent analysis of wave dispersion is less precise. (author)

  19. Observation of linear spin wave dispersion in the reentrant spin glass Fe sub 0 sub . sub 7 Al sub 0 sub . sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, S M; Raymond, S; Lee, S H; Motoya, K

    2002-01-01

    Fe sub 0 sub . sub 7 Al sub 0 sub . sub 3 is a reentrant spin glass, which undergoes a transition from a paramagnet to a disordered ferromagnet at T sub c propor to 500 K; at a lower temperature the spins progressively freeze and it exhibits a spin-glass-like behavior. In the ferromagnetic phase spin waves with a q sup 2 dispersion are observed at small q, which broaden rapidly and become diffusive beyond a critical wave vector q sub 0. On cooling the spin waves also disappear and a strong elastic central peak develops. For measurements around the (1,1,1) Bragg peak, a new sharp excitation is observed which has a linear dispersion behavior. It disappears above T sub c , but persists throughout the spin-glass phase. It is not present in the stoichiometric Fe sub 3 Al material. (orig.)

  20. Shaping ability of reciprocating motion of WaveOne and HyFlex in moderate to severe curved canals: A comparative study with cone beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpsy, Gurram Samuel; Sajjan, Girija S.; Mudunuri, Padmaja; Chittem, Jyothi; Prasanthi, Nalam N. V. D.; Balaga, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: M-Wire and reciprocating motion of WaveOne and controlled memory (CM) wire) of HyFlex were the recent innovations using thermal treatment. Therefore, a study was planned to evaluate the shaping ability of reciprocating motion of WaveOne and HyFlex using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methodology: Forty-five freshly extracted mandibular teeth were selected and stored in saline until use. All teeth were scanned pre- and post-operatively using CBCT (Kodak 9000). All teeth were accessed and divided into three groups. (1) Group 1 (control n = 15): Instrumented with ProTaper. (2) Group 2 (n = 15): Instrumented with primary file (8%/25) WaveOne. (3) Group 3 (n = 15): Instrumented with (4%/25) HyFlex CM. Sections at 1, 3, and 5 mm were obtained from the pre- and post-operative scans. Measurement was done using CS3D software and Adobe Photoshop software. Apical transportation and degree of straightening were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: HyFlex showed lesser apical transportation when compared to other groups at 1 and 3 mm. WaveOne showed lesser degree of straightening when compared to other groups. Conclusion: This present study concluded that all systems could be employed in routine endodontics whereas HyFlex and WaveOne could be employed in severely curved canals. PMID:27994323

  1. The right circular polarized waves in the three-dimensional anisotropic dispersive photonic crystals consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material as the Faraday effects considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Tang, Yi-Jun; Zhen, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the properties of the right circular polarized (RCP) waves in the three-dimensional (3D) dispersive photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, which the homogeneous anisotropic dielectric spheres (the uniaxial material) immersed in the magnetized plasma background, as the Faraday effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is parallel to the external magnetic field at any time). The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for the RCP waves in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and a flatbands region can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, anisotropic dielectric filling factor, plasma frequency, and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the properties of first two anisotropic PBGs for the RCP waves are investigated in detail, respectively. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in fcc lattices at U and W points, and the complete PBGs for the RCP waves can be achieved compared to the conventional 3D dispersive PCs composed of the magnetized plasma and isotropic material. It is also shown that the first two anisotropic PBGs can be tuned by those parameters as mentioned above. Those PBGs can be enlarged by introducing the uniaxial material into such 3D PCs as the Faraday effects are considered

  2. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Texas-Gulf of Mexico margin from joint inversion of Ps and Sp receiver functions and surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, M.; Pulliam, J.; Sen, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The seismic structure beneath Texas Gulf Coast Plain (GCP) is determined via velocity analysis of stacked common conversion point (CCP) Ps and Sp receiver functions and surface wave dispersion. The GCP is a portion of a ocean-continental transition zone, or 'passive margin', where seismic imaging of lithospheric Earth structure via passive seismic techniques has been rare. Seismic data from a temporary array of 22 broadband stations, spaced 16-20 km apart, on a ~380-km-long profile from Matagorda Island, a barrier island in the Gulf of Mexico, to Johnson City, Texas were employed to construct a coherent image of the crust and uppermost mantle. CCP stacking was applied to data from teleseismic earthquakes to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios of converted phases, such as Ps phases. An inaccurate velocity model, used for time-to-depth conversion in CCP stacking, may produce higher errors, especially in a region of substantial lateral velocity variations. An accurate velocity model is therefore essential to constructing high quality depth-domain images. To find accurate velocity P- and S-wave models, we applied a joint modeling approach that searches for best-fitting models via simulated annealing. This joint inversion approach, which we call 'multi objective optimization in seismology' (MOOS), simultaneously models Ps receiver functions, Sp receiver functions and group velocity surface wave dispersion curves after assigning relative weights for each objective function. Weights are computed from the standard deviations of the data. Statistical tools such as the posterior parameter correlation matrix and posterior probability density (PPD) function are used to evaluate the constraints that each data type places on model parameters. They allow us to identify portions of the model that are well or poorly constrained.

  3. A laboratory study of particulate and gaseous emissions from crude oil and crude oil-dispersant contaminated seawater due to breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Li, Cheng; Rule, Ana M.; Katz, Joseph; Koehler, Kirsten

    2018-04-01

    Crude oil spill incidents occur frequently causing a verity of occupational, ecological and environmental problems. Dispersants are applied to enhance the dispersion rate of crude oil slicks into the water column. In this study, the aerosol size distribution from 10 nm to 20 μm, total particle-bound aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are measured in a 6 x 0.3 x 0.6 m tank as plunging breaking waves entrain oil slicks. The experiments are performed for seawater with slicks of crude oil, crude oil-dispersant mixture and dispersant only. The measurements investigate the effects of wave energy and slick properties on the temporal evolution of the emissions. The total number concentrations of particles originating from the oil-dispersant mixture are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of crude oil across the entire nano-scale range, reaching 100x for 20 nm particles. Conversely, the differences in concentration are small in the micron range. The average concentrations of pPAH are variable but similar (150-270 ng/m3). The VOC concentrations for crude oil-dispersant mixtures are 2-3 times lower than those of crude oil, presumably due to the surfactant effect on mass diffusion. The drastic increase in ultrafine particle concentrations may raise concerns about effects of inhalation by cleanup workers and downstream communities though VOC emissions reduce. Findings through this study provide insight into how the spray of dispersant may change the ratio of airborne particulate matter and VOC emissions from seawater due to natural processes.

  4. Spin-waves in antiferromagnetic single crystal LiFePO$_4$

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiying; Garlea, Vasile O.; Zarestky, Jerel L.; Vaknin, David

    2005-01-01

    Spin-wave dispersions in the antiferromagnetic state of single crystal LiFePO$_4$ were determined by inelastic neutron scattering measurements. The dispersion curves measured from the (010) reflection along both {\\it a}$^\\ast$ and {\\it b}$^\\ast$ reciprocal-space directions reflect the anisotropic coupling of the layered Fe$^{2+}$ (S = 2) spin-system. The spin-wave dispersion curves were theoretically modeled using linear spin-wave theory by including in the spin-Hamiltonian in-plane nearest- ...

  5. Detecting Lamb waves with broad-band acousto-ultrasonic signals in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1992-01-01

    Lamb waves can be produced and detected in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and metal matrix composites (MMC) plates using the acousto-ultrasonic configuration employing broadband transducers. Experimental dispersion curves of lowest symmetric and antisymmetric modes behave in a manner analogous to the graphite/polymer theoretical curves. In this study a basis has been established for analyzing Lamb wave velocities for characterizing composite plates. Lamb wave dispersion curves and group velocities were correlated with variations in axial stiffness and shear stiffness in MMC and CMC. For CMC, interfacial shear strength was also correlated with the first antisymmetric Lamb mode.

  6. A series of new soliton-like solutions and double-like periodic solutions of a (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Chen; Qi Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the algebraic method proposed by Fan (Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 20 (2004) 609) and the improved extended tanh method by Yomba (Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 20 (2004) 1135) to uniformly construct a series of soliton-like solutions and double-like periodic solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDE). Some new soliton-like solutions and double-like periodic solutions of a (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation are obtained

  7. Boundary layer circulation in disk-halo galaxies. III. The dispersion relation for local disturbances and large-scale spiral waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxman, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper concerns the geometry and physical properties of waves which arise from a shear-flow (i.e. inflection point) instability of the galactic boundary layer circulation. This circulation was shown to exist in the meridional plane of a model galaxy containing a gaseous disk embedded in a rotating gaseous halo. Previously derived equations describe the local effects of Boussinesq perturbations, in the form of spiral waves with aribitrary pitch angle, on the model disk-halo system. The equations are solved asymptotically for large values of the local Reynolds number. In passing to the limit of inviscid waves, it is possible to derive a locally valid dispersion relation. A perturbation technique is developed whereby the inviscid wave eigenvalues can be corrected for the effects of small but finite viscosity. In this way the roles of the buoyancy force, Coriolis acceleration, viscous stresses, and their interactions can be studied. It is found that, locally, the most unstable inviscid waves are leading and open with large azimuthal wavenumbers. However, these waves display little or no coherence over the face of the disk and so would not emerge as modes in a global analysis.The geometry of the dominant inviscid waves is found to be leading, tightly wound spirals. Viscous corrections shift the dominant wave form to trailing, tightly wound spirals with small azimuthal wavenumbers. These waves grow on a time scale of about 10 7 years. It is suggested that these waves can initiate spiral structure in galaxies during disk formation and that a subsequent transition to a self-gravitating acoustical mode with the same spiral geometry may occur. This transition becomes possible once the contrast in gas densities between the disk and surrounding halo becomes sufficiently large

  8. Lateral variations in upper-mantle seismic anisotropy in the Pacific from inversion of a surface-wave dispersion dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, C. L.; Ekstrom, G.; Nettles, M.; Gaherty, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional model of the anisotropic velocity structure of the Pacific lithosphere and asthenosphere. The presence of seismic anisotropy in the oceanic upper mantle provides information about the geometry of flow in the mantle, the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and the possible presence of partial melt in the asthenosphere. Our dataset consists of fundamental-mode dispersion for Rayleigh and Love waves measured between 25-250 s with paths crossing the Pacific Ocean. We invert the phase anomaly measurements directly for three-dimensional anisotropic velocity structure. Our models are radially anisotropic and include the full set of elastic parameters that describe azimuthal variations in velocity (e.g. Gc, Gs). We investigate the age dependence of seismic velocity and radial anisotropy and find that there are significant deviations from the velocities predicted by a simple oceanic plate cooling model. We observe strong radial anisotropy with vsh > vsv in the asthenosphere of the central Pacific. We investigate the radial anisotropy in the shallow lithosphere, where previous models have reported conflicting results. There is a contrast in both upper-mantle isotropic velocities and radial anisotropy between the Pacific and Nazca plates, across the East Pacific Rise. We also investigate lateral variations in azimuthal anisotropy throughout the Pacific upper mantle and find that there are large areas over which the anisotropy fast axis does not align with absolute plate motion, suggesting the presence of small-scale convection or pressure-driven flow beneath the base of the oceanic plate.

  9. Effects of Temperature and Axial Strain on Four-Wave Mixing Parametric Frequencies in Microstructured Optical Fibers Pumped in the Normal Dispersion Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Abreu-Afonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of temperature and axial strain on the parametric wavelengths produced by four-wave mixing in microstructured optical fibers is presented. Degenerate four-wave mixing was generated in the fibers by pumping at normal dispersion, near the zero-dispersion wavelength, causing the appearance of two widely-spaced four-wave mixing spectral bands. Temperature changes, and/or axial strain applied to the fiber, affects the dispersion characteristics of the fiber, which can result in the shift of the parametric wavelengths. We show that the increase of temperature causes the signal and idler wavelengths to shift linearly towards shorter and longer wavelengths, respectively. For the specific fiber of the experiment, the band shift at rates ­–0.04 nm/ºC and 0.3 nm/ºC, respectively. Strain causes the parametric bands to shift in the opposite way. The signal band shifted 2.8 nm/me and the idler -5.4 nm/me. Experimental observations are backed by numerical simulations.

  10. Electromagnetic waves in optical fibres in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, V S; Burdanova, M G

    2016-01-01

    A new method is reported of recording the secondary radiation of luminescent substances based on the use of capillary fibres of great length. Theoretical analysis of the dispersion curves of electromagnetic radiation in capillary fibres doped with erbium ions Er 3+ has been established. The Lorentz model is used for describing the dispersion properties of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous medium doped with rare-earth ions. The dispersion dependencies of polariton and axion–polariton waves in erbium nitrate hydrate are determined on the basis of the model of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the resonance electronic states of erbium ions in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. (paper)

  11. Microlocal analysis of quantum fields on curved space-times: Analytic wave front sets and Reeh-Schlieder theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmaier, Alexander; Verch, Rainer; Wollenberg, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    We show in this article that the Reeh-Schlieder property holds for states of quantum fields on real analytic curved space-times if they satisfy an analytic microlocal spectrum condition. This result holds in the setting of general quantum field theory, i.e., without assuming the quantum field to obey a specific equation of motion. Moreover, quasifree states of the Klein-Gordon field are further investigated in the present work and the (analytic) microlocal spectrum condition is shown to be equivalent to simpler conditions. We also prove that any quasifree ground or KMS state of the Klein-Gordon field on a stationary real analytic space-time fulfills the analytic microlocal spectrum condition

  12. Simultaneous generation of tunable giant dispersive waves in the visible and mid-infrared regions based on photonic crystal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Si-Gang; Chen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Ming-Hua; Xie, Shi-Zhong; Han, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Cherenkov radiation (CR) in both the visible and mid-infrared regions is simultaneously generated experimentally based on a photonic crystal fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths. The generation of CR in the visible region originates from solitons located in the anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD) regime which are perturbed by positive third order dispersion. Conversely, the generation of CR in the mid-infrared region requires that the solitons in the anomalous GVD regime are perturbed by negative third order dispersion. The peak wavelength of the CR in the visible region can be tuned from 498 to 425 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 400 mW, while the peak wavelength of the CR in the mid-infrared region can be tuned from 1986 to 2279 nm by increasing the average input pump power from 70 to 320 mW. (paper)

  13. Wavelength conversion, time demultiplexing and multicasting based on cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Zhan-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of cross-phase modulation (XPM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers (HNL-PCFs) to implement the functionalities of wavelength conversion, simultaneous time demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting in optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) systems. The experiments on wavelength conversion at 80 Gbit s −1 and OTDM demultiplexing from 80 to 10 Gbit s −1 with wavelength multicasting of two channels are successfully demonstrated to validate the proposed scheme, which are carried out by using two segments of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with lengths of 100 and 50 m, respectively. Moreover, the bit error rate (BER) performance is also measured. The results show that our designed system can achieve a power penalty of less than 4.6 dB for two multicasting channels with a 24 nm wavelength span at the BER of 10 −9 when compared with the 10 Gbit/s back-to-back measurement. The proposed system is transparent to bit rate since only an ultrafast third-order nonlinear effect is used. The resulting configuration is compact, robust and reliable, benefiting from the use of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with short lengths. This also makes the proposed system more flexible in the operational wavelengths than those based on dispersion-shifted fibers and traditional highly nonlinear fibers. (paper)

  14. Geometrical and wave-optical effects on the performance of a bent-crystal dispersive X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, J.P.; Amboage, M.; Hayama, S.; Diaz-Moreno, S.

    2010-01-01

    The X-ray focusing properties of a bent single crystal diffracting in Bragg geometry are discussed. First, it is assumed that a polychromatic point source is focused to a point image. The elliptical arc that the crystal must trace and the aberrations caused by bending the crystal cylindrically are derived from the ray paths. For a source of finite size, the magnification is found to vary over the crystal's length, so that rays of different wavelength produce images of different size. More realistic treatments of penetration and diffraction are performed with spherical monochromatic incident waves, using Takagi-Taupin calculations to create the diffracted wave and the Fresnel integral to trace the diffracted wave's evolution. Such 'wave-optical' calculations on a symmetric Si (1 1 1) crystal with 7 keV X-rays predict beam sizes different from those found in ray traces. Optimal sample and detector placement therefore requires wave effects to be considered.

  15. New exact solutions to MKDV-Burgers equation and (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation via extended Riccati equation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Cuicui; Wang Dan; Song Lina; Zhang Hongqing

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, with the aid of symbolic computation and a general ansaetz, we presented a new extended rational expansion method to construct new rational formal exact solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of this method, we apply it to the MKDV-Burgers equation and the (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation, then several new kinds of exact solutions are successfully obtained by using the new ansaetz. The method can also be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations.

  16. Radiative corrections to the Coulomb law and model of dense quantum plasmas: Dispersion of longitudinal waves in magnetized quantum plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2018-04-01

    Two kinds of quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections to electromagnetic interactions and their influence on the properties of highly dense quantum plasmas are considered. Linear radiative correction to the Coulomb interaction is considered. Its contribution in the spectrum of the Langmuir waves is presented. The second kind of radiative corrections are related to the nonlinearity of the Maxwell equations for the strong electromagnetic field. Their contribution in the spectrum of transverse waves of magnetized plasmas is briefly discussed. At the consideration of the Langmuir wave spectrum, we included the effect of different distributions of the spin-up and spin-down electrons revealing in the Fermi pressure shift.

  17. Longitudinal evaluation of P-wave dispersion and P-wave maximum in children after transcatheter device closure of secundum atrial septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignani, Robert Teodoro; Tolentino, Kim Martin; Rajgor, Dimple Dayaram; Quek, Swee Chye

    2015-06-01

    Transcatheter device closure of the secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) in children prevents atrial arrhythmias in older age. However, the benefits of favourable atrial electrocardiographic markers in these children remain elusive. We aimed to review the electrocardiographic markers of atrial activity in a longitudinal fashion. We retrospectively reviewed longitudinal data of all children who underwent transcatheter device closure at the National University Hospital between 2004 and 2013. The inclusion criteria included the presence of a secundum-type ASD with left to right shunt and evidence of increased right ventricular volume load (Q p/Q s ratio >1.5 and/or right ventricular dilatation). A total of 25 patients with a mean follow-up of 44.7 ± 33.47 (7.3-117.4) months were included. P maximum and P dispersion decreased at 2 months, P amplitude at 1 week and remained so until last follow-up. A positive trend was seen with a correlation coefficient of +0.12 for P maximum, +0.08 for P dispersion and 0.34 for P amplitude. There was a higher baseline P amplitude and P dispersion in patients who were older than 10 years and a non-significant trend to support an increase in both P maximum (71.0 ± 8.8 vs. 73.2 ± 12.7), P dispersion (17.0 ± 6.5 vs. 22.0 ± 11.3) and P amplitude (0.88 ± 0.25 vs. 1.02 ± 0.23) in patients with an ASD more than 15 mm compared with an ASD <15 mm. There is reduction in both P maximum and P dispersion as early as 2 months, which persisted on follow-up. Earlier closure may result in more favourable electrocardiographic results.

  18. Joint analysis of Rayleigh-wave dispersion and HVSR of lunar seismic data from the Apollo 14 and 16 sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 254, JUL 1 (2015), s. 338-349 ISSN 0019-1035 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : moon * Regoliths * geophysics * surface- wave Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.383, year: 2015

  19. Effect of dissipative processes on the dispersion and instability of drift waves in a fine-stratified semiconductor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgakov, A. A.; Shramkova, O. V.

    2006-01-01

    The damping of waves of the charge carrier density in a periodic semiconductor structure in an external electric field is investigated under the assumption that the period of the structure is much smaller than the electromagnetic radiation wavelength. The threshold conditions for the instability of carrier density waves propagating obliquely to the direction of the electric current are obtained. The existence of a resistive instability that can develop at drift velocities both higher and lower than the plasmon phase velocity is predicted

  20. Effect of dissipative processes on the dispersion and instability of drift waves in a fine-stratified semiconductor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgakov, A.A.; Shramkova, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    In terms of the assumption that the structure period is essentially shorter than the electromagnetic radiation wavelength one considers attenuation of waves of carrier concentration in a periodic semiconducting structure within an external electric field resulting in drift of different sign carriers. One determined conditions of occurrence of instability of carrier concentration waves propagating orthogonally to current direction. One predicts a resistive instability occurrence of which does not require increase of drift velocity in contrast to phase velocity of a plasmon [ru

  1. Imaging of Upper-Mantle Upwelling Beneath the Salton Trough, Southern California, by Joint Inversion of Ambient Noise Dispersion Curves and Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, S. L.; Barak, S.

    2016-12-01

    We present a new 2D shear-wave velocity model of the crust and upper-mantle across the Salton Trough, southern California, obtained by jointly inverting our new dataset of receiver functions and our previously published Rayleigh-wave group-velocity model (Barak et al., G-cubed, 2015), obtained from ambient-noise tomography. Our results show an upper-mantle low-velocity zone (LVZ) with Vs ≤4.2 km/s extending from the Elsinore Fault to the Sand Hills Fault, that together bracket the full width of major San Andreas dextral motion since its inception 6 Ma b.p., and underlying the full width of low topography of the Imperial Valley and Salton Trough. The lateral extent of the LVZ is coincident with the lateral extent of an upper-mantle anisotropic region interpreted as a zone of SAF-parallel melt pockets (Barak & Klemperer, Geology, 2016). The shallowest part of the LVZ is 40 km depth, coincident with S-receiver function images. The western part of the LVZ, between the Elsinore and San Jacinto faults (the region of greatest modern dextral slip), appears to continue to significantly greater depth; but a puzzling feature of our preliminary models is that the eastern part of the LVZ, from the San Jacinto Fault to the Sand Hills Fault, appears to be underlain by more-normalvelocity upper mantle (Vs ≥ 4.5 km/s) below 75 km depth. We compare our model to the current SCEC community models CVM-H and CVM-S, and to P-wave velocity models obtained by the active-source Salton Sea Imaging Project (SSIP). The hypothesized lower-crustal low-velocity zone beneath the Salton Trough in our previous model (Barak et al., G-cubed, 2015), there interpreted as a region of partial melt, is not supported by our new modeling. Melt may be largely absent from the lower crust of the Salton trough; but appears required in the upper mantle at depths as shallow as 40 km.

  2. FINOSEIS: A new approach to offshore-building foundation soil analysis using high resolution reflection seismic and Scholte-wave dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Dennis; Wölz, Susanne; Müller, Christof; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2009-05-01

    As part of the FINOSEIS project we present the development of new seismic acquisition and inversion concepts for offshore-building foundation soil analysis. FINOSEIS is a subproject of the FINO3 project, which is aimed at the construction of an offshore research platform based in 28 m water depth, hosting eight research projects dealing with offshore wind energy topics. Our investigations focus on the determination of seismic parameters and structural information of the building plot of FINO3. We infer the shear-wave velocity structure by exploiting the dispersive properties of Scholte-waves and use high resolution 2.5D reflection seismic acquisition to determine seismic stratigraphy in three dimensions. Our work is motivated regarding possible hazards to offshore foundations such as wind parks and the FINO3 platform itself, e.g. permanent mechanical load by wind- and wave-forces possibly leading to an impairment of the soil. We conducted a pre-investigation of the site of the future platform in order to help finding a suitable foundation soil by improving common site investigation methods. In May 2006 we did a survey covering an area of 2 km square employing high resolution 2.5D reflection seismic. Along three 2 km airgun profiles Scholte-waves were recorded with Ocean-Bottom-Seismometers. Spectral analysis of these led to pseudo-2D shear-wave velocity models along the profiles. The reflection seismic area is characterized by glacial stratigraphy and diffractions documented within the penetration range of 30 m. With respect to the topography of the identified horizons as well as to the distribution of diffracting objects, a suitable foundation area for the platform was suggested. The results of the Scholte-wave experiment provide valuable information for further inversion models as well as for the dimensioning of further measurements. We also implemented an inversion strategy using the particle swarm optimization method. The inverted layers of shear-wave velocity

  3. Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.

  4. Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-07-14

    We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.

  5. Dispersion analysis and measurement of circular cylindrical wedge-like acoustic waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tai-Ho

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the propagation of flexural waves along the outer edge of a circular cylindrical wedge, the phase velocities, and the corresponding mode displacements. Thus far, only approximate solutions have been derived because the corresponding boundary-value problems are complex. In this study, dispersion curves were determined using the bi-dimensional finite element method and derived through the separation of variables and the Hamilton principle. Modal displacement calculations clarified that the maximal deformations appeared at the outer edge of the wedge tip. Numerical examples indicated how distinct thin-film materials deposited on the outer surface of the circular cylindrical wedge influenced the dispersion curves. Additionally, dispersion curves were measured using a laser-induced guided wave, a knife-edge measurement scheme, and a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform method. Both the numerical and experimental results correlated closely, thus validating the numerical solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure beneath the Tengchong volcanic area inferred from receiver function and surface-wave dispersion: constraints on magma chamber distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wu, Tengfei; Hua, Yujin; Zhang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The Tengchong volcanic area is located in the southeastern margin of the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. It is one of the youngest intraplate volcano groups in mainland China. Imaging the S-wave velocity structure of the crustal and uppermost mantle beneath the Tengchong volcanic area is an important means of improving our understanding of its volcanic activity and seismicity. In this study, we analyze teleseismic data from nine broadband seismic stations in the Tengchong Earthquake Monitoring Network. We then image the crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion. The results reveal widely distributed low-velocity zones. We find four possible magma chambers in the upper-to-middle crust and one in the uppermost mantle. The chamber in the uppermost mantle locates in the depth range from 55 to 70 km. The four magma chambers in the crust occur at different depths, ranging from the depth of 7 to 25 km in general. They may be the heat sources for the high geothermal activity at the surface. Based on the fine crustal and uppermost mantle S-wave velocity structure, we propose a model for the distribution of the magma chambers.

  7. A lithospheric velocity model for the flat slab region of Argentina from joint inversion of Rayleigh-wave dispersion and teleseismic receiver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, J. B.; Alvarado, P. M.; Beck, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Receiver Function (RF) analyses using teleseismic P waveforms is a technique to isolate P to S conversions from seismic discontinuities in the lithosphere. Using earthquakes with a good azimuthal distribution, RFs recorded at a three-component seismic station can be inverted to obtain detailed lithospheric velocity structures. The technique, however presents a velocity-depth trade-off, which results in a non-unique model because RFs do not depend on the absolute seismic velocities but rather on relative velocity contrasts. Unlike RF, surface wave dispersion is sensitive to the average shear-wave velocity which makes it well suited for studying long period variations of the lithospheric seismic velocities. We performed a joint inversion of RF and Rayleigh-wave phase velocity dispersion to investigate the structure beneath the SIEMBRA network, a 43-broadband-seismic-station array deployed in the Pampean flat slab region of Argentina. Our results indicate: 1) The presence of several mid-crustal discontinuities probably related with terrane accretion; 2) A high seismic velocity in the lower crust suggesting partial eclogitization; 3) A thicker crust (> 50 km) beneath the western Sierras Pampeanas with an abrupt change in the relative timing of the Moho signal indicating a thinner crust to the east; 4) The presence of the subducting oceanic crust lying at ~100 km depth. We then built a 1D regional velocity model for the flat slab region of Argentina and used it for regional moment tensor inversions for local earthquakes. This technique is notably dependent on small-scale variations of Earth structure when modeling higher frequency seismic waveforms. Eighteen regional focal mechanisms have been determined. Our solutions are in good agreement with GCMT source estimations although our solutions for deep earthquakes systematically resulted in shallower focal depths suggesting that the slab seismicity could be concentrated at the top of the subducting Nazca plate. Solutions

  8. Wave equation in curved spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Dept. de Mecanique; Christodoulou, D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.); Francaviglia, M [Istituto di Fisica Matematica, Turin (Italy)

    1979-01-01

    We study the case where g tends at timelike infinity to a stationary metric, we prove some existence theorems in spaces of solutions with finite energy for all times, and also with finite s-order energy.

  9. Study on Rayleigh Wave Inversion for Estimating Shear-wave Velocity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Sanny

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh wave or ground roll is a noise in seismic body waves. However, how to use this noise for soil characterization is very interesting since Rayleigh wave phase velocity is a function of compression-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity, density and layer thickness. In layered-medium Rayleigh wave velocity also depends on wavelength or frequency, and this phenomenon is called dispersion. Inversion procedure to get shear-wave velocity profile needs a priori information about the solution of the problem to limit the unknown parameters. The Lagrange multiplier method was used to solve the constrained optimization problems or well known as a smoothing parameter in inversion problems. The advantage of our inversion procedure is that it can guarantee the convergence of solution even though the field data is incomplete, insufficient, and inconsistent. The addition of smoothing parameter can reduce the time to converge. Beside numerical stability, the statistical stability is also involved in inversion procedure. In field experiment we extracted ground roll data from seismic refraction record. The dispersion curves had been constructed by applying f-k analysis and f-k dip filtering. The dispersion curves show the dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in layered media to frequency. The synthetic models also demonstrate the stability and the speed of inversion procedure.

  10. SIMULATION OF FORWARD AND BACKWARD WAVES EVOLUTION OF FEW-CYCLE PULSES PROPAGATING IN AN OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE WITH DISPERSION AND CUBIC NONLINEARITY OF ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRONIC-VIBRATION NATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Konev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical method for calculation of forward and backward waves of intense few-cycle laser pulses propagating in an optical waveguide with dispersion and cubic nonlinearity of electronic and electronic-vibration nature is described. Simulations made with the implemented algorithm show that accounting for Raman nonlinearity does not lead to qualitative changes in behavior of the backward wave. Speaking about quantitative changes, the increase of efficiency of energy transfer from the forward wave to the backward wave is observed. Presented method can be also used to simulate interaction of counterpropagating pulses.

  11. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  12. Detecting Lamb waves with broadband acousto-ultrasonic signals in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1992-01-01

    Lamb waves can be produced and detected in ceramic matrix composites (CMC) and metal matrix composites (MMC) plates using the acousto-ultrasonic configuration employing broadband transducers. Experimental dispersion curves of lowest symmetric and lowest antisymmetric modes behave in a manner analogous to the graphite/polymer theoretical curves. In this study a basis has been established for analyzing Lamb wave velocities for characterizing composite plates. Lamb wave disperison curves and group velocities were correlated with variations in axial stiffness and shear stiffness in MMC and CMC. For CMCs, interfacial shear strength was also correlated with the first antisymmetric Lamb mode.

  13. Motions in a Bose condensate: X. New results on stability of axisymmetric solitary waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    OpenAIRE

    Berloff, Natalia G.; Roberts, Paul H.

    2004-01-01

    The stability of the axisymmetric solitary waves of the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation is investigated. The Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method for banded matrices with shift-invert was used to solve the linearised spectral stability problem. The rarefaction solitary waves on the upper branch of the Jones-Roberts dispersion curve are shown to be unstable to axisymmetric infinitesimal perturbations, whereas the solitary waves on the lower branch and all two-dimensional solitary waves are linea...

  14. Spin wave energy dispersion in KCuF/sub 3/: a nearly one-dimensional spin-1/2 antiferromagnet. [4. 7/sup 0/K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, M T; Ikeda, H; Milne, J M

    1979-09-28

    Using inelastic neutron scattering techniques, the spin wave energy dispersion in the (010) plane of the distorted perovskite KCuF/sub 3/, which exhibits many magnetic properties of the spin-1/2 one-dimensional antiferromagnet, has been investigated at 4.7 K (T/sub N/ = 39 K). The measurements confirm the very strong exchange interaction between the spins in the (001) direction, and show that in this direction the expression for the excitation energies of the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic chain given by J des Cloizeaux and J J Pearson is obeyed. The exchange interaction between these chains is found to be only 1.6% of that within the chains.

  15. Determination of lead associated with airborne particulate matter by flame atomic absorption and wave-length dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The lead content of airborne particulate matter was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) following digestion with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and also by wave-length dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The extraction procedure was checked by analyzing a standard reference material of airborne particulate matter (NIST, SRM -1648). It was concluded that lead can quantitatively (98%) be extracted from airborne particulate matter by the leaching process. A five-stage sequential extraction was performed to assess the potential mobility of lead associated with airborne particulate matter. Comparison of the airborne particulate lead measured by WDXRF to that measured by FAAS showed good agreement. The WDXRF method requires no time-consuming sample preparation or use of environmentally unfriendly solvents. The technique is suggested for direct determination of lead in airborne particulate matter in air pollution studies. (author)

  16. Coastal circulation and potential coral-larval dispersal in Maunalua Bay, O'ahu, Hawaii—Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, and salinity, June-September 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presto, M. Katherine; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Logan, Joshua B.; Reiss, Thomas E.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a summary of fieldwork conducted in Maunalua Bay, O'ahu, Hawaii to address coral-larval dispersal and recruitment from June through September, 2010. The objectives of this study were to understand the temporal and spatial variations in currents, waves, tides, temperature, and salinity in Maunalua Bay during the summer coral-spawning season of Montipora capitata. Short-term vessel surveys and satellite-tracked drifters were deployed to measure currents during the June 2010 spawning event and to supplement the longer-term measurements of currents and water-column properties by fixed, bottom-mounted instruments deployed in Maunalua Bay. These data show that currents at the surface and just below the surface where coral larvae are found are often oriented in opposite directions due primarily to tidal and trade-winds forcing as the primary mechanisms of circulation in the bay. These data extend our understanding of coral-larvae dispersal patterns due to tidal and wind-driven currents and may be applicable to larvae of other Hawaiian corals.

  17. Decomposing Large Inverse Problems with an Augmented Lagrangian Approach: Application to Joint Inversion of Body-Wave Travel Times and Surface-Wave Dispersion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, D. T.; Rodi, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Constructing 3D Earth models through the joint inversion of large geophysical data sets presents numerous theoretical and practical challenges, especially when diverse types of data and model parameters are involved. Among the challenges are the computational complexity associated with large data and model vectors and the need to unify differing model parameterizations, forward modeling methods and regularization schemes within a common inversion framework. The challenges can be addressed in part by decomposing the inverse problem into smaller, simpler inverse problems that can be solved separately, providing one knows how to merge the separate inversion results into an optimal solution of the full problem. We have formulated an approach to the decomposition of large inverse problems based on the augmented Lagrangian technique from optimization theory. As commonly done, we define a solution to the full inverse problem as the Earth model minimizing an objective function motivated, for example, by a Bayesian inference formulation. Our decomposition approach recasts the minimization problem equivalently as the minimization of component objective functions, corresponding to specified data subsets, subject to the constraints that the minimizing models be equal. A standard optimization algorithm solves the resulting constrained minimization problems by alternating between the separate solution of the component problems and the updating of Lagrange multipliers that serve to steer the individual solution models toward a common model solving the full problem. We are applying our inversion method to the reconstruction of the·crust and upper-mantle seismic velocity structure across Eurasia.· Data for the inversion comprise a large set of P and S body-wave travel times·and fundamental and first-higher mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities.

  18. Laplace-Fourier-domain dispersion analysis of an average derivative optimal scheme for scalar-wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Bo

    2014-06-01

    By using low-frequency components of the damped wavefield, Laplace-Fourier-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) can recover a long-wavelength velocity model from the original undamped seismic data lacking low-frequency information. Laplace-Fourier-domain modelling is an important foundation of Laplace-Fourier-domain FWI. Based on the numerical phase velocity and the numerical attenuation propagation velocity, a method for performing Laplace-Fourier-domain numerical dispersion analysis is developed in this paper. This method is applied to an average-derivative optimal scheme. The results show that within the relative error of 1 per cent, the Laplace-Fourier-domain average-derivative optimal scheme requires seven gridpoints per smallest wavelength and smallest pseudo-wavelength for both equal and unequal directional sampling intervals. In contrast, the classical five-point scheme requires 23 gridpoints per smallest wavelength and smallest pseudo-wavelength to achieve the same accuracy. Numerical experiments demonstrate the theoretical analysis.

  19. Transient Analysis of Dispersive Power-Ground Plate Pairs With Arbitrarily Shaped Antipads by the DGTD Method With Wave Port Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2016-09-09

    A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method analyzing signal/power integrity on multilayered power-ground parallel plate pairs is proposed. The excitation is realized by introducing wave ports on the antipads where electric/magnetic current sources are represented in terms of the eigenmodes of the antipads. Since closed-forms solutions do not exist for the eigenmodes of the arbitrarily shaped antipads, they have to be calculated using numerical schemes. Spatial orthogonality of the eigenmodes permits determination of each mode\\'s temporal expansion coefficient by integrating the product of the electric field and the mode over the wave port. The temporal mode coefficients are then Fourier transformed to accurately calculate the S-parameters corresponding to different modes. Additionally, to generalize the DGTD to manipulate dispersive media, the auxiliary differential equation method is employed. This is done by introducing a time-dependent polarization volume current as an auxiliary unknown and the constitutive relation between this current and the electric field as an auxiliary equation. Consequently, computationally expensive temporal convolution is avoided. Various numerical examples, which demonstrate the applicability, robustness, and accuracy of the proposed method, are presented.

  20. Phase and group refractive index curves for electromagnet waves moving in an ionised medium (1962); Courbes des indices de phase et de groupe d'ondes electromagnetiques se propageant dans un milieu ionise (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The family of curves presented in this table give the phase and group refractive indexes of plane electromagnetic waves propagating along and across a static magnetic field in a plasma. (author) [French] Les courbes presentees sous formes de reseaux donnent les indices de phase et de groupe d'ondes electromagnetiques planes se propageant longitudinalement ou transversalement dans un plasma en presence d'un champ magnetique statique. (auteur)

  1. Dispersion properties of three-layered orthotropic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the harmonic wave propagation in thick, cylindrical, three-layered shells of infinite length. Both the outer layers and the core are composites made of short strand fiberglass and polyester resin. The randomly oriented fibers were approximately in parallel planes to constitute a transversely isotropic fibre composite. The planes of isotropy in the outer layers are orthogonal to the plane of isotropy at the core. A closed form solution of the exact linear equations of elasticity in sought in terms of a Frobenius series. The influence of the core thickness on the dynamics of the wave motion is estimated from numerically computed dispersion curves. Asymmetric wave motion is given prime consideration and the different types of waves which can occur are identified over a wide range of wave numbers

  2. Holographic analysis of dispersive pupils in space--time optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatroni, J.; Vienot, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Extension of space--time optics to objects whose transparency is a function of the temporal frequency v = c/lambda is examined. Considering the effects of such stationary pupils on white light waves, they are called temporal pupils. It is shown that simultaneous encoding both in the space and time frequency domains is required to record pupil parameters. The space-time impulse response and transfer functions are calculated for a dispersive nonabsorbent material. An experimental method providing holographic recording of the dispersion curve of any transparent material is presented

  3. Holographic analysis of dispersive pupils in space--time optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatroni, J.; Vienot, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    Extension of space--time optics to objects whose transparency is a function of the temporal frequency v = c/lambda is examined. Considering the effects of such stationary pupils on white light waves, they are called temporal pupils. It is shown that simultaneous encoding both in the space and time frequency domains is required to record pupil parameters. The space-time impulse response and transfer functions are calculated for a dispersive nonabsorbent material. An experimental method providing holographic recording of the dispersion curve of any transparent material is presented.

  4. Maturation of the auditory system in clinically normal puppies as reflected by the brain stem auditory-evoked potential wave V latency-intensity curve and rarefaction-condensation differential potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, L C; Coppens, A G; Meuris, S I; Deltenre, P F

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate auditory maturation in puppies. Ten clinically normal Beagle puppies. Puppies were examined repeatedly from days 11 to 36 after birth (8 measurements). Click-evoked brain stem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEP) were obtained in response to rarefaction and condensation click stimuli from 90 dB normal hearing level to wave V threshold, using steps of 10 dB. Responses were added, providing an equivalent to alternate polarity clicks, and subtracted, providing the rarefaction-condensation differential potential (RCDP). Steps of 5 dB were used to determine thresholds of RCDP and wave V. Slope of the low-intensity segment of the wave V latency-intensity curve was calculated. The intensity range at which RCDP could not be recorded (ie, pre-RCDP range) was calculated by subtracting the threshold of wave V from threshold of RCDP RESULTS: Slope of the wave V latency-intensity curve low-intensity segment evolved with age, changing from (mean +/- SD) -90.8 +/- 41.6 to -27.8 +/- 4.1 micros/dB. Similar results were obtained from days 23 through 36. The pre-RCDP range diminished as puppies became older, decreasing from 40.0 +/- 7.5 to 20.5 +/- 6.4 dB. Changes in slope of the latency-intensity curve with age suggest enlargement of the audible range of frequencies toward high frequencies up to the third week after birth. Decrease in the pre-RCDP range may indicate an increase of the audible range of frequencies toward low frequencies. Age-related reference values will assist clinicians in detecting hearing loss in puppies.

  5. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    wavelength, they are called shallow water waves. In the ... Deep and intermediate water waves are dispersive as the velocity of these depends on wavelength. This is not the ..... generation processes, the finite amplitude wave theories are very ...

  6. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves through polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplification enabling transmission over 4000-km dispersion-managed TWRS fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the first Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin waves, consisting of eight 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier, enabling more than doubled reach in dispersion-managed transmission. © ...

  7. Phonon dispersion curves of BCC Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuki, J.; Stassis, C.; Zarestky, J.

    1985-01-01

    Ba, as well as Sr and Ca, is a divalent alkaline earth metal. At room temperature and ambient pressure, the structure of Ba is bcc, whereas that of Sr and Ca is fcc. Under pressure, the bcc phase of Ba transforms to an hcp structure at 55 kbar. Also, at 37 kbar Ba becomes a superconductor with T/sub c/ = 0.06 K. These properties are highly dependent on the position of the d bands relative to the Fermi level. Experimental investigation of the elastic and lattice dynamical properties of these metals has been hindered by difficulties in growing single crystals. However, recently the authors were able to grow several single crystals of bcc Ba of sufficient volume for inelastic neutron scattering experiments. Some of the results are summarized here

  8. Estimates of the topographic uplift of the Southern African Plateau from the African Superswell through petrologically-consistent thermo-chemical modelling of the geoid, SHF, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves and MT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan G.; Afonso, Juan Carlos; Fullea, Javier

    2015-04-01

    The deep mantle African Superswell is thought to cause up to 500 m of the uplift of the Southern African Plateau. We investigate this phenomenon through stochastic thermo-chemical inversion modelling of the geoid, surface heat flow, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves and MT data, in a manner that is fully petrologically-consistent. We invert for a three layer crustal velocity, density and thermal structure, but assume the resistivity layering (based on prior inversion of the MT data alone). Inversions are performed using an improved Delayed Rejection and Adaptive Metropolis (DRAM) type Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. We demonstrate that a single layer lithosphere can fit most of the data, but not the MT responses. We further demonstrate that modelling the seismic data alone, without the constraint of requiring reasonable oxide chemistry or of fitting the geoid, permits wildly acceptable elevations and with very poorly defined lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). We parameterise the lithosphere into three layers, and bound the permitted oxide chemistry of each layer consistent with known chemical layering. We find acceptable models, from 5 million tested in each case, that fit all responses and yield a posteriori elevation distributions centred on 900-950 m, suggesting dynamic support from the lower mantle of some 400 m.

  9. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  10. Energy-dispersed ions in the plasma sheet boundary layer and associated phenomena: Ion heating, electron acceleration, Alfvén waves, broadband waves, perpendicular electric field spikes, and auroral emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Keiling

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent Cluster studies reported properties of multiple energy-dispersed ion structures in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL that showed substructure with several well separated ion beamlets, covering energies from 3 keV up to 100 keV (Keiling et al., 2004a, b. Here we report observations from two PSBL crossings, which show a number of identified one-to-one correlations between this beamlet substructure and several plasma-field characteristics: (a bimodal ion conics (<1 keV, (b field-aligned electron flow (<1 keV, (c perpendicular electric field spikes (~20 mV/m, (d broadband electrostatic ELF wave packets (<12.5 Hz, and (e enhanced broadband electromagnetic waves (<4 kHz. The one-to-one correlations strongly suggest that these phenomena were energetically driven by the ion beamlets, also noting that the energy flux of the ion beamlets was 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than, for example, the energy flux of the ion outflow. In addition, several more loosely associated correspondences were observed within the extended region containing the beamlets: (f electrostatic waves (BEN (up to 4 kHz, (g traveling and standing ULF Alfvén waves, (h field-aligned currents (FAC, and (i auroral emissions on conjugate magnetic field lines. Possible generation scenarios for these phenomena are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that the free energy of magnetotail ion beamlets drove a variety of phenomena and that the spatial fine structure of the beamlets dictated the locations of where some of these phenomena occurred. This emphasizes the notion that PSBL ion beams are important for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. However, it is also shown that the dissipation of electromagnetic energy flux (at altitudes below Cluster of the simultaneously occurring Alfvén waves and FAC was larger (FAC being the largest than the dissipation of beam kinetic energy flux, and thus these two energy carriers contributed more to the energy transport on PSBL field lines

  11. Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-02-08

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  12. Skeletonized wave-equation Qs tomography using surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-08-17

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is then found that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs tomography (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to Q full waveform inversion (Q-FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsur-face Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  13. Wave-equation Qs Inversion of Skeletonized Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We present a skeletonized inversion method that inverts surface-wave data for the Qs quality factor. Similar to the inversion of dispersion curves for the S-wave velocity model, the complicated surface-wave arrivals are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the amplitude spectra of the windowed Rayleigh-wave arrivals. The optimal Qs model is the one that minimizes the difference in the peak frequencies of the predicted and observed Rayleigh wave arrivals using a gradient-based wave-equation optimization method. Solutions to the viscoelastic wave-equation are used to compute the predicted Rayleigh-wave arrivals and the misfit gradient at every iteration. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation Qs inversion (WQs), does not require the assumption of a layered model and tends to have fast and robust convergence compared to full waveform inversion (FWI). Numerical examples with synthetic and field data demonstrate that the WQs method can accurately invert for a smoothed approximation to the subsurface Qs distribution as long as the Vs model is known with sufficient accuracy.

  14. The Prediction of Wave Competitions in Inhomogeneous Brusselator Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiao-Hua; Dong Yun-Xia; Huang Xiao-Qing; Li Ning

    2015-01-01

    The competition of waves has remained a hot topic in physics over the past few decades, especially the area of pattern control. Because of improved understanding of various dynamic behaviors, many practical applications have sprung up recently. The prediction of wave competitions is also very important and quite useful in these fields. This paper considers the behaviors of wave competitions in simple, inhomogeneous media which is modeled by Brusselator equations. We present a simple rule to judge the results of wave competitions utilizing the dispersion relation curves and the waves coming from different wave sources. Moreover, this rule can also be used to predict the results of wave propagation. It provides methods of obtaining the desired waves with given frequencies in inhomogeneous media. All our results are concluded and verified by computer simulations. (paper)

  15. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  16. Wave-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for simultaneous acquisition of several characteristic lines based on strongly and accurately shaped Ge crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Nakajima, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Kozo; Nishikata, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Si and Ge are widely used as analyzing crystals for x-rays. Drastic and accurate shaping of Si or Ge gives significant advance in the x-ray field, although covalently bonded Si or Ge crystals have long been believed to be not deformable to various shapes. Recently, we developed a deformation technique for obtaining strongly and accurately shaped Si or Ge wafers of high crystal quality, and the use of the deformed wafer made it possible to produce fine-focused x-rays. In the present study, we prepared a cylindrical Ge wafer with a radius of curvature of 50 mm, and acquired fluorescent x-rays simultaneously from four elements by combining the cylindrical Ge wafer with a position-sensitive detector. The energy resolution of the x-ray fluorescence spectrum was as good as that obtained using a flat single crystal, and its gain was over 100. The demonstration of the simultaneous acquisition of high-resolution x-ray fluorescence spectra indicated various possibilities of x-ray spectrometry, such as one-shot x-ray spectroscopy and highly efficient wave-dispersive x-ray spectrometers

  17. Energetic mid-IR femtosecond pulse generation by self-defocusing soliton-induced dispersive waves in a bulk quadratic nonlinear crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Generating energetic femtosecond mid-IR pulses is crucial for ultrafast spectroscopy, and currently relies on parametric processes that, while efficient, are also complex. Here we experimentally show a simple alternative that uses a single pump wavelength without any pump synchronization and with...... by using large-aperture crystals. The technique can readily be implemented with other crystals and laser wavelengths, and can therefore potentially replace current ultrafast frequency-conversion processes to the mid-IR....... and without critical phase-matching requirements. Pumping a bulk quadratic nonlinear crystal (unpoled LiNbO3 cut for noncritical phase-mismatched interaction) with sub-mJ near-IR 50-fs pulses, tunable and broadband (∼ 1,000 cm−1) mid-IR pulses around 3.0 μm are generated with excellent spatio-temporal pulse...... quality, having up to 10.5 μJ energy (6.3% conversion). The mid-IR pulses are dispersive waves phase-matched to near-IR self-defocusing solitons created by the induced self-defocusing cascaded nonlinearity. This process is filament-free and the input pulse energy can therefore be scaled arbitrarily...

  18. On the lamb wave propagation in anisotropic laminated composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Keun; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Moon Saeng

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.

  19. Surface wave velocity tracking by bisection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    Calculation of surface wave velocity is a classic problem dating back to the well-known Haskell's transfer matrix method, which contributes to solutions of elastic wave propagation, global subsurface structure evaluation by simulating observed earthquake group velocities, and on-site evaluation of subsurface structure by simulating phase velocity dispersion curves and/or H/V spectra obtained by micro-tremor observation. Recently inversion analysis on micro-tremor observation requires efficient method of generating many model candidates and also stable, accurate, and fast computation of dispersion curves and Raleigh wave trajectory. The original Haskell's transfer matrix method has been improved in terms of its divergence tendency mainly by the generalized transmission and reflection matrix method with formulation available for surface wave velocity; however, root finding algorithm has not been fully discussed except for the one by setting threshold to the absolute value of complex characteristic functions. Since surface wave number (reciprocal to the surface wave velocity multiplied by frequency) is a root of complex valued characteristic function, it is intractable to use general root finding algorithm. We will examine characteristic function in phase plane to construct two dimensional bisection algorithm with consideration on a layer to be evaluated and algorithm for tracking roots down along frequency axis. (author)

  20. Dipping-interface mapping using mode-separated Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is a non-invasive geophysical technique that uses the dispersive characteristic of Rayleigh waves to estimate a vertical shear (S)-wave velocity profile. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section is constructed by aligning 1D S-wave velocity profiles at the midpoint of each receiver spread that are contoured using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. Based on the assumption that a dipping-layer model can be regarded as stepped flat layers, high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT) has been proposed to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate modes of Rayleigh waves from a multichannel record. With the mode-separation technique, therefore, a dispersion curve that possesses satisfactory accuracy can be calculated using a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. In this study, using synthetic models containing a dipping layer with a slope of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 30 degrees and a real-world example, we assess the ability of using high-resolution LRT to image and separate fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves from raw surface-wave data and accuracy of dispersion curves generated by a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that a dipping interface with a slope smaller than 15 degrees can be successfully mapped by separated fundamental waves using high-resolution LRT. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

  1. Investigation on relationship between epicentral distance and growth curve of initial P-wave propagating in local heterogeneous media for earthquake early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kyosuke; Tsuno, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    In the earthquake early warning (EEW) system, the epicenter location and magnitude of earthquakes are estimated using the amplitude growth rate of initial P-waves. It has been empirically pointed out that the growth rate becomes smaller as epicentral distance becomes far regardless of the magnitude of earthquakes. So, the epicentral distance can be estimated from the growth rate using this empirical relationship. However, the growth rates calculated from different earthquakes at the same epicentral distance mark considerably different values from each other. Sometimes the growth rates of earthquakes having the same epicentral distance vary by 104 times. Qualitatively, it has been considered that the gap in the growth rates is due to differences in the local heterogeneities that the P-waves propagate through. In this study, we demonstrate theoretically how local heterogeneities in the subsurface disturb the relationship between the growth rate and the epicentral distance. Firstly, we calculate seismic scattered waves in a heterogeneous medium. First-ordered PP, PS, SP, and SS scatterings are considered. The correlation distance of the heterogeneities and fractional fluctuation of elastic parameters control the heterogeneous conditions for the calculation. From the synthesized waves, the growth rate of the initial P-wave is obtained. As a result, we find that a parameter (in this study, correlation distance) controlling heterogeneities plays a key role in the magnitude of the fluctuation of the growth rate. Then, we calculate the regional correlation distances in Japan that can account for the fluctuation of the growth rate of real earthquakes from 1997 to 2011 observed by K-NET and KiK-net. As a result, the spatial distribution of the correlation distance shows locality. So, it is revealed that the growth rates fluctuate according to the locality. When this local fluctuation is taken into account, the accuracy of the estimation of epicentral distances from initial P-waves

  2. Characterization of imperfect bonding qualities of layered substrate using generalized leaky lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Suk; Kim, Hak Joon; Song, Sung Jin

    2006-01-01

    Generalized Lamb waves that exist on layered substrates have been adopted as a tool for the bonding quality evaluation. A dispersion simulation by introducing an effective interface layer shows that all the dispersion curves for imperfect interfaces are in a form of concave curves and vary with the stiffness constants that can quantitatively represent the bonding quality. The characteristics of dispersion curves of TiN coating specimens with different wear conditions was experimentally determined by use of an ultrasonic backward radiation measurement technique. Results showed that the lowest velocity mode (Rayleigh-like) of the generalized Lamb waves are sensitively affected by the bonding quality and could be applied in the quantitative evaluation of imperfect bonding quality.

  3. Evaluation of deformation and fracture of three single-file NiTi rotary instruments: ProTaper F2, WaveOne Primary and OneShape in simulated curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina A. Shenouda

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the incidence of deformation and fracture in three single-file NiTi instruments: ProTaper F2, WaveOne Primary and OneShape. Methods. Fifteen instruments were equally divided into three groups: ProTaper F2 in reciprocation, WaveOne Primary in reciprocation and OneShape in continuous rotation. Each instrument was used to prepare standardized simulated curved canals in resin blocks until fracture had occurred. Following each canal preparation, the instruments were examined for deformation both by naked eye inspection and stereomicroscopic examination. The average number of canals prepared until the first incidence of cracks and the average lifespan of the instruments were calculated. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and two-sample t-test. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between ProTaper and WaveOne instruments in both the incidence of cracks and the average lifespan (P > 0.05. OneShape instruments had a significantly delayed incidence of cracks and a longer lifespan than both ProTaper and WaveOne instruments (P < 0.05; however, OneShape instruments showed a noticeable early plastic deformation. Conclusion: PT F2 instrument was comparable to WO Primary instrument in terms of fracture resistance, while OS instrument had more fracture resistance than both PT F2 and WO Primary instruments.

  4. Spin-waves in Antiferromagnetic Single-crystal LiFePO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiying; Garlea, Vasile O.; Zarestky, Jarel; Vaknin, D.

    2006-01-01

    Spin-wave dispersions in the antiferromagnetic state of single-crystal LiFePO 4 were determined by inelastic neutron scattering measurements. The dispersion curves measured from the (0,1,0) reflection along both a* and b* reciprocal-space directions reflect the anisotropic coupling of the layered Fe 2+ (S=2) spin system. The spin-wave dispersion curves were theoretically modeled using linear spin-wave theory by including in the spin Hamiltonian in-plane nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions (J 1 and J 2 ), inter-plane nearest-neighbor interactions (J(perpendicular)) and a single-ion anisotropy (D). A weak (0,1,0) magnetic peak was observed in elastic neutron scattering studies of the same crystal indicating that the ground state of the staggered iron moments is not along the (0,1,0) direction, as previously reported from polycrystalline samples studies, but slightly rotated away from this axis.

  5. Alfven wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, Christopher; Hanna, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Results from a laboratory study of the dispersion relation of Alfven waves propagating through a partially ionized plasma are presented. The plasma is generated using a helicon source, creating a high density, current-free discharge, where the source can be adjusted to one of several modes with varying neutral fraction. Depending on the neutral fraction, the measured dispersion curve of shear Alfven waves can change significantly. Measurement results are compared with theoretical predictions of the effect of neutral particles on Alfven wave propagation. In fitting the theory, the neutral fraction is independently estimated using two simple particle transport models, one collisionless, the other collisional. The two models predict comparable neutral fractions, and agree well with the neutral fraction required for the Alfven dispersion theory

  6. Wave propagation in plasma-filled wave-guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince, Philippe

    1966-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of wave propagation along a plasma column without external magnetic field. The author first present and comment various theoretical results, and dispersion curves plotted for the main modes (particularly, the bipolar mode). He tries to define fundamental magnitudes which characterise a plasma-filled wave-guide. He reports the comparison of some experimental results with the previous theoretical results. Based on the study of the bipolar mode, the author develops a method of measurement of plasma column density. In the last part, the author reports the study of the resonance of a plasma-containing cavity. Several resonances are highlighted and new dispersion curves are plotted by using a varying length cavity. He also addresses the coupling of plasma modes with guide modes, and thus indicates the shape of Brillouin diagrams for a plasma-filled wave-guide. Moreover, some phenomena highlighted during plasma column density measurements by using the cavity method could then be explained [fr

  7. Feasibility of waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves for shallow shear-wave velocity using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Tsoflias, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional surface wave inversion for shallow shear (S)-wave velocity relies on the generation of dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves. This constrains the method to only laterally homogeneous (or very smooth laterally heterogeneous) earth models. Waveform inversion directly fits waveforms on seismograms, hence, does not have such a limitation. Waveforms of Rayleigh waves are highly related to S-wave velocities. By inverting the waveforms of Rayleigh waves on a near-surface seismogram, shallow S-wave velocities can be estimated for earth models with strong lateral heterogeneity. We employ genetic algorithm (GA) to perform waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves for S-wave velocities. The forward problem is solved by finite-difference modeling in the time domain. The model space is updated by generating offspring models using GA. Final solutions can be found through an iterative waveform-fitting scheme. Inversions based on synthetic records show that the S-wave velocities can be recovered successfully with errors no more than 10% for several typical near-surface earth models. For layered earth models, the proposed method can generate one-dimensional S-wave velocity profiles without the knowledge of initial models. For earth models containing lateral heterogeneity in which case conventional dispersion-curve-based inversion methods are challenging, it is feasible to produce high-resolution S-wave velocity sections by GA waveform inversion with appropriate priori information. The synthetic tests indicate that the GA waveform inversion of Rayleigh waves has the great potential for shallow S-wave velocity imaging with the existence of strong lateral heterogeneity. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Acoustic plane waves normally incident on a clamped panel in a rectangular duct. [to explain noise reduction curves for reducing interior noise in aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unz, H.; Roskam, J.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of acoustic plane wave normally incident on a clamped panel in a rectangular duct is developed. The coupling theory between the elastic vibrations of the panel (plate) and the acoustic wave propagation in infinite space and in the rectangular duct is considered. The partial differential equation which governs the vibration of the panel (plate) is modified by adding to its stiffness (spring) forces and damping forces, and the fundamental resonance frequency and the attenuation factor are discussed. The noise reduction expression based on the theory is found to agree well with the corresponding experimental data of a sample aluminum panel in the mass controlled region, the damping controlled region, and the stiffness controlled region. All the frequency positions of the upward and downward resonance spikes in the sample experimental data are identified theoretically as resulting from four cross interacting major resonance phenomena: the cavity resonance, the acoustic resonance, the plate resonance, and the wooden back panel resonance.

  9. Comparison of third-order plasma wave echoes with ballistic second-order plasma wave echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppert, H.D.; Schuelter, H.; Wiesemann, K.

    1982-01-01

    The apparent dispersion of third-order plasma wave echoes observed in a high frequency plasma is compared with that of simultaneously observed ballistic second-order echoes. Amplitude and wavelength of third-order echoes are found to be always smaller than those of second-order echoes, however, the dispersion curves of both types of echoes are very similar. These observations are in qualitative agreement with calculations of special ballistic third-order echoes. The ballistic nature of the observed third-order echoes may, therefore, be concluded from these measurements. (author)

  10. Some considerations of wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, P. L. F. M.

    The meaning of group velocity and its relation to conserved quantities are demonstrated. The origin of wave dispersion in terms of nonlocal and relaxation phenomena are clarified. The character of a wave described by an equation with a general type of nonlinearity and general dispersion terms is explained. The steepening of a wave flank and the occurrence of stationary waves are discussed.

  11. Dispersion characteristics of two-dimensional unmagnetized dielectric plasma photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Mei, Qi; Zi-Qiang, Yang; Feng, Lan; Xi, Gao; Da-Zhi, Li

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies dispersion characteristics of the transverse magnetic (TM) mode for two-dimensional unmagnetized dielectric plasma photonic crystal by a modified plane wave method. First, the cutoff behaviour is made clear by using the Maxwell–Garnett effective medium theory, and the influences of dielectric filling factor and dielectric constant on effective plasma frequency are analysed. Moreover, the occurence of large gaps in dielectric plasma photonic crystal is demonstrated by comparing the skin depth with the lattice constant, and the influence of plasma frequency on the first three gaps is also studied. Finally, by using the particle-in-cell simulation method, a transmission curve in the Γ – X direction is obtained in dielectric plasma photonic crystal, which is in accordance with the dispersion curves calculated by the modified plane wave method, and the large gap between the transmission points of 27 GHz and 47 GHz is explained by comparing the electric field patterns in particle-in-cell simulation

  12. Opportunities for shear energy scaling in bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond J E

    2014-10-01

    An important energy loss contribution in bulk acoustic wave resonators is formed by so-called shear waves, which are transversal waves that propagate vertically through the devices with a horizontal motion. In this work, we report for the first time scaling of the shear-confined spots, i.e., spots containing a high concentration of shear wave displacement, controlled by the frame region width at the edge of the resonator. We also demonstrate a novel methodology to arrive at an optimum frame region width for spurious mode suppression and shear wave confinement. This methodology makes use of dispersion curves obtained from finite-element method (FEM) eigenfrequency simulations for arriving at an optimum frame region width. The frame region optimization is demonstrated for solidly mounted resonators employing several shear wave optimized reflector stacks. Finally, the FEM simulation results are compared with measurements for resonators with Ta2O5/ SiO2 stacks showing suppression of the spurious modes.

  13. Waves spontaneously generated by heterogeneity in oscillatory media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaohua; Huang, Xiaodong; Hu, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Wave propagation is an important characteristic for pattern formation and pattern dynamics. To date, various waves in homogeneous media have been investigated extensively and have been understood to a great extent. However, the wave behaviors in heterogeneous media have been studied and understood much less. In this work, we investigate waves that are spontaneously generated in one-dimensional heterogeneous oscillatory media governed by complex Ginzburg-Landau equations; the heterogeneity is modeled by multiple interacting homogeneous media with different system control parameters. Rich behaviors can be observed by varying the control parameters of the systems, whereas the behavior is incomparably simple in the homogeneous cases. These diverse behaviors can be fully understood and physically explained well based on three aspects: dispersion relation curves, driving-response relations, and wave competition rules in homogeneous systems. Possible applications of heterogeneity-generated waves are anticipated.

  14. Wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)

  15. Viscoelastic love-type surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    The general theoretical solution for Love-Type surface waves in viscoelastic media provides theoreticalexpressions for the physical characteristics of the waves in elastic as well as anelastic media with arbitraryamounts of intrinsic damping. The general solution yields dispersion and absorption-coefficient curves for the waves as a function of frequency and theamount of intrinsic damping for any chosen viscoelastic model.Numerical results valid for a variety of viscoelastic models provide quantitative estimates of the physicalcharacteristics of the waves pertinent to models of Earth materials ranging from small amounts of damping in the Earth’s crust to moderate and large amounts of damping in soft soils and water-saturated sediments. Numerical results, presented herein, are valid for a wide range of solids and applications.

  16. The Inward Dispersion of the Neutron Scattering Experiments in HTSC Cuprates

    OpenAIRE

    Dayan, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    The theory of the high temperature superconducting cuprates, which is based on the condensation of holes into strings in checker-board geometry, was successful to explain the elastically scattered Neutrons by spin waves. Here it is extended to analyze the inward dispersion curve of its inelastic counterpart, up to the resonance energy- . This extension is done by applying the perturbation theory of the linear response to the condensed strings. The approximated susceptibility is derived by mea...

  17. Relativistic plasma dispersion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The known properties of plasma dispersion functions (PDF's) for waves in weakly relativistic, magnetized, thermal plasmas are reviewed and a large number of new results are presented. The PDF's required for the description of waves with small wave number perpendicular to the magnetic field (Dnestrovskii and Shkarofsky functions) are considered in detail; these functions also arise in certain quantum electrodynamical calculations involving strongly magnetized plasmas. Series, asymptotic series, recursion relations, integral forms, derivatives, differential equations, and approximations for these functions are discussed as are their analytic properties and connections with standard transcendental functions. In addition a more general class of PDF's relevant to waves of arbitrary perpendicular wave number is introduced and a range of properties of these functions are derived

  18. Response to “Comment on ‘Generalized dispersion relation for electron Bernstein waves in a non-Maxwellian magnetized anisotropic plasma’” [Phys. Plasmas 22, 024701 (2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeba, F.; Ahmad, Zahoor; Murtaza, G.

    2015-01-01

    Sharifi and Parvazian have presented comments on our paper by questioning the validity of the results. The plots of different curves of kappa and (r, q) distributions produced by them are incorrect. They pretended as if we have made claim that our results are valid for large arguments of product of Bessel Function, whereas Neumann's series expansion is valid only for small arguments. In our paper, no claim is made that the results are valid for all values of b. Our results are valid only for b ≪ 1. The results plotted by the commenters are incorrect and in this response we are presenting correct plots of dispersion curves

  19. Response to “Comment on ‘Generalized dispersion relation for electron Bernstein waves in a non-Maxwellian magnetized anisotropic plasma’” [Phys. Plasmas 22, 024701 (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeba, F.; Ahmad, Zahoor [National Tokamak Fusion Program, PAEC, P.O. Box 3329, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-02-15

    Sharifi and Parvazian have presented comments on our paper by questioning the validity of the results. The plots of different curves of kappa and (r, q) distributions produced by them are incorrect. They pretended as if we have made claim that our results are valid for large arguments of product of Bessel Function, whereas Neumann's series expansion is valid only for small arguments. In our paper, no claim is made that the results are valid for all values of b. Our results are valid only for b ≪ 1. The results plotted by the commenters are incorrect and in this response we are presenting correct plots of dispersion curves.

  20. Surface wave propagation in an ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic plasma jet in flowing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, Himanshu; Kumar, Nagendra; Zhelyazkov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of the Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (Hall-MHD) sausage and kink waves is studied in the presence of steady flow. The influence of the flow both inside and outside the plasma slab is taken into account. The plasma in the environment is considered to be cold and moves with the different flow velocity outside the slab. In the limit of parallel propagation, dispersion relation is derived to discuss the propagation of both the modes. Numerical results for the propagation characteristics are obtained for different Alfvenic Mach number ratios inside and outside the slab. It is found that the dispersion curves for both surface modes, namely, the sausage and kink ones in cold plasma show complexities in their behavior in terms of multivalued portions of the curves. These multivalued portions correspond to the different normalized phase velocities for the same value of Alfvenic Mach number. In contrast to the conventional MHD surface waves which are assumed to be pure surface waves or pseudosurface waves, surface waves are obtained which are bulk waves for very small dimensionless wave numbers, then turn to leaky waves and finally transform to pure surface waves for values of dimensionless wave number greater than one

  1. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetov, B.S.; Ageev, V.V. [Geoelectromagnetic Research Institute, Institute of Physics of the Earth, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-08-01

    The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization) of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM) sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous half space, two, three and multilayered section were analyzed in frequency and tim domains. The calculations for different values of charge ability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers). In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong change in transient curves. In same case in quasi wave and quasistatic phenomena made Em sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of Em sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of 'high-resolution' electroprospectring in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is non unique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably to complement them by sounding of other type.

  2. Fully Noncontact Wave Propagation Imaging in an Immersed Metallic Plate with a Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ryul Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a noncontact sensing technique with ultrasonic wave propagation imaging algorithm, for damage visualization of liquid-immersed structures. An aluminum plate specimen (400 mm × 400 mm × 3 mm with a 12 mm slit was immersed in water and in glycerin. A 532 nm Q-switched continuous wave laser is used at an energy level of 1.2 mJ to scan an area of 100 mm × 100 mm. A laser Doppler vibrometer is used as a noncontact ultrasonic sensor, which measures guided wave displacement at a fixed point. The tests are performed with two different cases of specimen: without water and filled with water and with glycerin. Lamb wave dispersion curves for the respective cases are calculated, to investigate the velocity-frequency relationship of each wave mode. Experimental propagation velocities of Lamb waves for different cases are compared with the theoretical dispersion curves. This study shows that the dispersion and attenuation of the Lamb wave is affected by the surrounding liquid, and the comparative experimental results are presented to verify it. In addition, it is demonstrated that the developed fully noncontact ultrasonic propagation imaging system is capable of damage sizing in submerged structures.

  3. Transient Analysis of Dispersive Power-Ground Plate Pairs With Arbitrarily Shaped Antipads by the DGTD Method With Wave Port Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Li Jun; Bagci, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method analyzing signal/power integrity on multilayered power-ground parallel plate pairs is proposed. The excitation is realized by introducing wave ports on the antipads where electric/magnetic current

  4. Diffractons: Solitary Waves Created by Diffraction in Periodic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Quezada de Luna, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A new class of solitary waves arises in the solution of nonlinear wave equations with constant impedance and no dispersive terms. These solitary waves depend on a balance between nonlinearity and a dispersion-like effect due to spatial variation

  5. Refractive index modulation in LiNbO3: MgO slab through Lamb wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Suraj; Sharma, Gaurav; Yadav, Gulab Chand; Singh, Vivek

    2018-05-01

    Present theoretical analysis deals with inducing refractive index contrast in Y-Z LiNbO3:MgO plate via GHz Lamb wave perturbation for photonic applications. Dispersion curves for Lamb wave in plate are plotted by employing displacement potential technique. Selecting wave parameters from dispersion curve, fundamental symmetric Lamb mode (S0) is excited in slab for 6GHz frequency. Produced displacement field by propagating S0 mode and thus developed strain is estimated to calculate refractive index modulation by applying photo-elastic relations. Modulated refractive index is of sinusoidal nature with period of modulation dependence on Lamb's wavelength. This plate having periodically modulated refractive index can be used as photonic crystal for different applications with acoustically tunable photonic band gap.

  6. Influence of the Spatial Dimensions of Ultrasonic Transducers on the Frequency Spectrum of Guided Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaitis, Vykintas; Mažeika, Liudas

    2017-08-08

    Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW)-based condition monitoring has shown great promise in detecting, localizing, and characterizing damage in complex systems. However, the application of guided waves for damage detection is challenging due to the existence of multiple modes and dispersion. This results in distorted wave packets with limited resolution and the interference of multiple reflected modes. To develop reliable inspection systems, either the transducers have to be optimized to generate a desired single mode of guided waves with known dispersive properties, or the frequency responses of all modes present in the structure must be known to predict wave interaction. Currently, there is a lack of methods to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes, especially in cases when multiple modes are being excited simultaneously. Such methods are of vital importance for further understanding wave propagation within the structures as well as wave-damage interaction. In this study, a novel method to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes was proposed based on Fourier analysis of the particle velocity distribution on the excitation area. The method proposed in this study estimates an excitability function based on the spatial dimensions of the transducer, type of vibration, and dispersive properties of the medium. As a result, the response amplitude as a function of frequency for each guided wave mode present in the structure can be separately obtained. The method was validated with numerical simulations on the aluminum and glass fiber composite samples. The key findings showed that it can be applied to estimate the response spectrum of a guided wave mode on any type of material (either isotropic structures, or multi layered anisotropic composites) and under any type of excitation if the phase velocity dispersion curve and the particle velocity distribution of the wave source was known initially. Thus, the proposed method may be a beneficial tool to explain

  7. Transverse Field Dispersion in the Generalized Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation: Four Wave Mixing in a Higher Order Mode Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Cheng, Ji; Xu, Chris

    2013-01-01

    An improved version of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived, which takes into account the correct dispersion of the transverse field distribution. The new improved version of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is verified to give the same results as the standard...

  8. Role of mitochondria in modulation of spontaneous Ca2+ waves in freshly dispersed interstitial cells of Cajal from the rabbit urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Gerard P; Bradley, Eamonn; Thornbury, Keith D; McHale, Noel G; Hollywood, Mark A

    2008-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) isolated from the rabbit urethra exhibit pacemaker activity that results from spontaneous Ca(2+) waves. The purpose of this study was to investigate if this activity was influenced by Ca(2+) uptake into mitochondria. Spontaneous Ca(2+) waves were recorded using a Nipkow spinning disk confocal microscope and spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) were recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential with the electron transport chain inhibitors rotenone (10 microm) and antimycin A (5 microm) abolished Ca(2+) waves and increased basal Ca(2+) levels. Similar results were achieved when mitochondria membrane potential was collapsed using the protonophores FCCP (0.2 microm) and CCCP (1 microm). Spontaneous Ca(2+) waves were not inhibited by the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin (1 microm), suggesting that these effects were not attributable to an effect on ATP levels. STICs recorded under voltage clamp at -60 mV were also inhibited by CCCP and antimycin A. Dialysis of cells with the mitochondrial uniporter inhibitor RU360 (10 microm) also inhibited STICS. Stimulation of Ca(2+) uptake into mitochondria using the plant flavonoid kaempferol (10 microm) induced a series of propagating Ca(2+) waves. The kaempferol-induced activity was inhibited by application of caffeine (10 mm) or removal of extracellular Ca(2+), but was not significantly affected by the IP(3) receptor blocker 2-APB (100 microm). These data suggest that spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in urethral ICC are regulated by buffering of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) by mitochondria.

  9. Hydrodynamic disperser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, A.I.; Chernov, V.S.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1980-01-15

    A hydrodynamic disperser is suggested which contains a housing, slit nozzles installed on a circular base arranged opposite from each other, resonators secured opposite the nozzle and outlet sleeve. In order to improve the effectiveness of dispersion by throttling the flow, each resonator is made in the form of a crimped plate with crimpings that decrease in height in a direction towards the nozzle.

  10. Incremento en la dispersión de la onda P al disminuir el tiempo de eyección auricular en hipertensos y prehipertensos Increment in P wave dispersion by decreasing atrial ejection time in hypertensive and prehypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elibet Chávez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: hace algunos años se viene estudiando la relación entre disfunción diastólica y dispersión de la onda P del electrocardiograma, y en este sentido, la ecocardiografía emerge como herramienta para mejorar la estratificación de riesgo en hipertensos leves. Objetivo: determinar la dependencia de la dispersión de la onda P del electrocardiograma de variables ecocardiográficas en una población pediátrica. Métodos: se estudiaron 400 niños, de un total de 450, pertenecientes a tres escuelas primarias, y se excluyeron aquellos cuyos padres no desearon que participaran en el estudio y a quienes tuvieran patologías congénitas conocidas. Se realizó electrocardiograma de superficie de doce derivaciones y se practicaron cuatro tomas de presión arterial. Se midieron los valores de P máxima y P mínima, y se calculó la dispersión de la onda P del electrocardiograma; además se hizo, ecocardiografía para mediciones estructurales y Doppler pulsado del flujo mitral. Resultados: los valores de media para la duración de la onda A del flujo mitral no muestran diferencias significativas; sin embargo, existe un coeficiente de correlación (r y p significativos entre la dispersión de la onda P y la duración de la onda A del flujo mitral para normotensos (r= - 0,117 p=0,05, prehipertensos (r= - 0,309 p=0,001 e hipertensos (r= - 0,586 p=0,001. Existen diferencias significativas entre las medias de dispersión de la onda P entre los grupos de diagnóstico. Conclusiones: se evidencia dependencia de la dispersión de la onda P, del electrocardiograma y de la duración de la onda A del flujo de entrada mitral, hechos que se relacionan con riesgo de fibrilación auricular en el adulto, por lo que quizás este resultado dé un acercamiento a predicciones de riesgo más tempranas en edades pediátricas.Introduction: the relationship between diastolic dysfunction and P wave dispersion in the electrocardiogram is being studied since some

  11. Long-lived coherences: Improved dispersion in the frequency domain using continuous-wave and reduced-power windowed sustaining irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadet, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kateb, F.; Balzan, R.; Vasos, P. R.

    2014-08-01

    Long-lived coherences (LLC's) are detectable magnetisation modes with favourable relaxation times that translate as sharp resonances upon Fourier transform. The frequency domain of LLC's was previously limited to the range of J-couplings within pairs of homonuclear spins. LLC evolution at high magnetic fields needs to be sustained by radio-frequency irradiation. We show that LLC-based spectral dispersion can be extended beyond the J-couplings domain using adapted carrier offsets and introduce a new reduced-power sustaining method to preserve LLC's within the required range of offsets. Spectral resolution is enhanced as the natively narrow lines of LLC's are further dispersed, making them potential probes for the study of biomolecules featuring strong resonance overlap and for media where NMR spectroscopy is commonly hindered by line broadening.

  12. Long-lived coherences: Improved dispersion in the frequency domain using continuous-wave and reduced-power windowed sustaining irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadet, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kateb, F.; Balzan, R.; Vasos, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Long-lived coherences (LLC’s) are detectable magnetisation modes with favourable relaxation times that translate as sharp resonances upon Fourier transform. The frequency domain of LLC's was previously limited to the range of J-couplings within pairs of homonuclear spins. LLC evolution at high magnetic fields needs to be sustained by radio-frequency irradiation. We show that LLC-based spectral dispersion can be extended beyond the J-couplings domain using adapted carrier offsets and introduce a new reduced-power sustaining method to preserve LLC's within the required range of offsets. Spectral resolution is enhanced as the natively narrow lines of LLC's are further dispersed, making them potential probes for the study of biomolecules featuring strong resonance overlap and for media where NMR spectroscopy is commonly hindered by line broadening

  13. Long-lived coherences: Improved dispersion in the frequency domain using continuous-wave and reduced-power windowed sustaining irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadet, A.; Fernandes, L.; Kateb, F., E-mail: fatiha.kateb@parisdescartes.fr, E-mail: balzan.riccardo@parisdescartes.fr; Balzan, R., E-mail: fatiha.kateb@parisdescartes.fr, E-mail: balzan.riccardo@parisdescartes.fr; Vasos, P. R. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie Toxicologiques et Pharmacologiques UMR-8601, Université Paris Descartes - CNRS, PRES Paris Sorbonne Cité, 75006 Paris (France)

    2014-08-07

    Long-lived coherences (LLC’s) are detectable magnetisation modes with favourable relaxation times that translate as sharp resonances upon Fourier transform. The frequency domain of LLC's was previously limited to the range of J-couplings within pairs of homonuclear spins. LLC evolution at high magnetic fields needs to be sustained by radio-frequency irradiation. We show that LLC-based spectral dispersion can be extended beyond the J-couplings domain using adapted carrier offsets and introduce a new reduced-power sustaining method to preserve LLC's within the required range of offsets. Spectral resolution is enhanced as the natively narrow lines of LLC's are further dispersed, making them potential probes for the study of biomolecules featuring strong resonance overlap and for media where NMR spectroscopy is commonly hindered by line broadening.

  14. Development of wave length-dispersive soft x-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes - an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Masami; Koike, Masato; Fukushima, Kurio; Kimura, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Two types of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray spectrometers, a high-dispersion type and a conventional one, for transmission electron microscopes were constructed. Those spectrometers were used to study the electronic states of valence electrons (bonding electrons). Both spectrometers extended the acceptable energy regions to higher than 2000 eV. The best energy resolution of 0.08 eV was obtained for an Al L-emission spectrum by using the high-dispersion type spectrometer. By using the spectrometer, C K-emission of carbon allotropes, Cu L-emission of Cu 1-x Zn x alloys and Pt M-emission spectra were presented. The FWHM value of 12 eV was obtained for the Pt Mα-emission peak. The performance of the conventional one was also presented for ZnS and a section specimen of a multilayer device. W-M and Si-K emissions were clearly resolved. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has an advantage for obtaining spectra from a single crystalline specimen with a defined crystal setting. As an example of anisotropic soft X-ray emission, C K-emission spectra of single crystalline graphite with different crystal settings were presented. From the spectra, density of states of π- and σ-bondings were separately derived. These results demonstrated a method to analyse the electronic states of valence electrons of materials in the nanometre scale based on TEM. (author)

  15. Hydrodynamic and kinetic models for spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas: Annihilation interaction, helicity conservation, and wave dispersion in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction

  16. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  17. Structural properties of the Hugoniot curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaisse, F.

    2002-01-01

    This report is devoted to the structural properties analysis of the HUGONIOT curve, independently of the equation of state (E 0 S) display. The general properties so coming out are applied to the shock waves interacting studies. When phase transitions are present we investigate the splitting of shock waves and also the rarefaction waves. To end with, we present the shock instabilities and the non-uniqueness of solutions when specific E 0 S are present. (author)

  18. Acoustic phonon dispersion of CoSi2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, L.; Rumyantsev, A.Yu.; Ivanov, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The acoustical phonon dispersion curves of CoSi 2 are measured at room temperature along the main symmetry directions by means of coherent one-phonon scattering of thermal neutrons. The dispersion curves are compared with those of Ge, Si, and the fluorite structure types as CaF 2 and UO 2 . From the slope of the phonon dispersion curves at the GAMMA-point the elastic constants have been obtained

  19. Solitonic Dispersive Hydrodynamics: Theory and Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Michelle D.; Anderson, Dalton V.; Franco, Nevil A.; El, Gennady A.; Hoefer, Mark A.

    2018-04-01

    Ubiquitous nonlinear waves in dispersive media include localized solitons and extended hydrodynamic states such as dispersive shock waves. Despite their physical prominence and the development of thorough theoretical and experimental investigations of each separately, experiments and a unified theory of solitons and dispersive hydrodynamics are lacking. Here, a general soliton-mean field theory is introduced and used to describe the propagation of solitons in macroscopic hydrodynamic flows. Two universal adiabatic invariants of motion are identified that predict trapping or transmission of solitons by hydrodynamic states. The result of solitons incident upon smooth expansion waves or compressive, rapidly oscillating dispersive shock waves is the same, an effect termed hydrodynamic reciprocity. Experiments on viscous fluid conduits quantitatively confirm the soliton-mean field theory with broader implications for nonlinear optics, superfluids, geophysical fluids, and other dispersive hydrodynamic media.

  20. Alfvén wave filamentation and dispersive phase mixing in a high-density channel: Landau fluid and hybrid simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borgogno, D.; Hellinger, Petr; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2009), s. 275-285 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Alfven wave * phase mixing * filamentation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.152, year: 2009 http://www.nonlin-processes-geophys.net/16/275/2009/npg-16-275-2009.pdf

  1. Application of elastic wave dispersion relations to estimate thermal properties of nanoscale wires and tubes of varying wall thickness and diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifano, Michael F P; Kaul, Pankaj B; Prakash, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports dependency of specific heat and ballistic thermal conductance on cross-sectional geometry (tube versus rod) and size (i.e., diameter and wall thickness), in free-standing isotropic non-metallic crystalline nanostructures. The analysis is performed using dispersion relations found by numerically solving the Pochhammer-Chree frequency equation for a tube. Estimates for the allowable phonon dispersion relations within the crystal lattice are obtained by modifying the elastic acoustic dispersion relations so as to account for the discrete nature of the material's crystal lattice. These phonon dispersion relations are then used to evaluate the specific heat and ballistic thermal conductance in the nanostructures as a function of the nanostructure geometry and size. Two major results are revealed in the analysis: increasing the outer diameter of a nanotube while keeping the ratio of the inner to outer tube radius (γ) fixed increases the total number of available phonon modes capable of thermal population. Secondly, decreasing the wall thickness of a nanotube (i.e., increasing γ) while keeping its outer diameter fixed, results in a drastic decrease in the available phonon mode density and a reduction in the frequency of the longitudinal and flexural acoustic phonon modes in the nanostructure. The dependency of the nanostructure's specific heat on temperature indicates 1D, 2D, and 3D geometric phonon confinement regimes. Transition temperatures for each phonon confinement regime are shown to depend on both the nanostructure's wall thickness and outer radius. Compared to nanowires (γ = 0), the frequency reduction of acoustic phonon modes in thinner walled nanotubes (γ = 0.96) is shown to elevate the ballistic thermal conductance of the thin-walled nanotube between 0.2 and 150 K. At 20 K, the ballistic thermal conductance of the thin-walled nanotube (γ = 0.96) becomes 300% greater than that of a solid nanowire. For temperatures above 150 K, the trend

  2. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  3. Nonlinear Rayleigh wave inversion based on the shuffled frog-leaping algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wu, Dun-Shi; Qin, Xiao-Jun

    2017-12-01

    At present, near-surface shear wave velocities are mainly calculated through Rayleigh wave dispersion-curve inversions in engineering surface investigations, but the required calculations pose a highly nonlinear global optimization problem. In order to alleviate the risk of falling into a local optimal solution, this paper introduces a new global optimization method, the shuffle frog-leaping algorithm (SFLA), into the Rayleigh wave dispersion-curve inversion process. SFLA is a swarm-intelligence-based algorithm that simulates a group of frogs searching for food. It uses a few parameters, achieves rapid convergence, and is capability of effective global searching. In order to test the reliability and calculation performance of SFLA, noise-free and noisy synthetic datasets were inverted. We conducted a comparative analysis with other established algorithms using the noise-free dataset, and then tested the ability of SFLA to cope with data noise. Finally, we inverted a real-world example to examine the applicability of SFLA. Results from both synthetic and field data demonstrated the effectiveness of SFLA in the interpretation of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. We found that SFLA is superior to the established methods in terms of both reliability and computational efficiency, so it offers great potential to improve our ability to solve geophysical inversion problems.

  4. Joint body and surface wave tomography applied to the Toba caldera complex (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Koulakov, Ivan; Shapiro, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    We developed a new algorithm for a joint body and surface wave tomography. The algorithm is a modification of the existing LOTOS code (Koulakov, 2009) developed for local earthquake tomography. The input data for the new method are travel times of P and S waves and dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. The main idea is that the two data types have complementary sensitivities. The body-wave data have good resolution at depth, where we have enough crossing rays between sources and receivers, whereas the surface waves have very good near-surface resolution. The surface wave dispersion curves can be retrieved from the correlations of the ambient seismic noise and in this case the sampled path distribution does not depend on the earthquake sources. The contributions of the two data types to the inversion are controlled by the weighting of the respective equations. One of the clearest cases where such approach may be useful are volcanic systems in subduction zones with their complex magmatic feeding systems that have deep roots in the mantle and intermediate magma chambers in the crust. In these areas, the joint inversion of different types of data helps us to build a comprehensive understanding of the entire system. We apply our algorithm to data collected in the region surrounding the Toba caldera complex (north Sumatra, Indonesia) during two temporary seismic experiments (IRIS, PASSCAL, 1995, GFZ, LAKE TOBA, 2008). We invert 6644 P and 5240 S wave arrivals and ~500 group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves. We present a series of synthetic tests and real data inversions which show that joint inversion approach gives more reliable results than the separate inversion of two data types. Koulakov, I., LOTOS code for local earthquake tomographic inversion. Benchmarks for testing tomographic algorithms, Bull. seism. Soc. Am., 99(1), 194-214, 2009, doi:10.1785/0120080013

  5. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ageev

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous halfspace, two, three and multilayered sections were analyzed in frequency and time domains. The calculations for different values of chargeability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers. In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong changes in transient curves. In some cases quasiwave and quasistatic phenomena made EM sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of EM sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of "high-resolution" electroprospecting in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is nonunique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably necessary to complement them by soundings of other type.

  6. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetov, B.S.; Ageev, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization) of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM) sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous half space, two, three and multilayered section were analyzed in frequency and tim domains. The calculations for different values of charge ability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers). In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong change in transient curves. In same case in quasiwave and quasistatic phenomena made EM sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of EM sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of 'high-resolution' electroprospectring in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is non unique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably to complement them by sounding of other type

  7. Modeling the propagation of electromagnetic waves over the surface of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendik, I. B.; Vendik, O. G.; Kirillov, V. V.; Pleskachev, V. V.; Tural'chuk, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The results of modeling and an experimental study of electromagnetic (EM) waves in microwave range propagating along the surface of the human body have been presented. The parameters of wave propagation, such as the attenuation and phase velocity, have also been investigated. The calculation of the propagation of EM waves by the numerical method FDTD (finite difference time domain), as well as the use of the analytical model of the propagation of the EM wave along flat and curved surfaces has been fulfilled. An experimental study on a human body has been conducted. It has been shown that creeping waves are slow and exhibit a noticeable dispersion, while the surface waves are dispersionless and propagate at the speed of light in free space. A comparison of the results of numerical simulation, analytical calculation, and experimental investigations at a frequency of 2.55 GHz has been carried out.

  8. Parametric decay of lower hybrid wave into drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, Heiji.

    1976-12-01

    A dispersion relation describing the parametric decay of a lower hybrid wave into an electrostatic drift wave and a drift Alfven wave is derived for an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. Particularly the stimulated scattering of a drift Alfven wave in such a plasma was investigated in detail. The resonance backscattering instability is found to yield the minimum threshold. (auth.)

  9. Crustal structure across the NE Tibetan Plateau and Ordos Block from the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Xingchen; Zhang, Ruiqing; Wu, Qingju; Ding, Zhifeng

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the crustal structure at 34 stations using the H-κ stacking method and jointly inverting receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These seismic stations are distributed along a profile extending across the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane, Qinling-Qilian terranes and southwestern Ordos Basin. Our results reveal the variation in crustal thickness across this profile. We found thick crust beneath the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane (47-59 km) that decreases to 45-47 km in the west Qinling and Qilian terranes, and reaches its local minimum beneath the southwestern Ordos Block (43-51 km) at an average crustal thickness of 46.7 ± 2.5 km. A low-velocity zone in the upper crust was found beneath most of the stations in NE Tibet, which may be indicative of partial melt or a weak detachment layer. Our observations of low to moderate Vp/Vs (1.67-1.79) represent a felsic to intermediate crustal composition. The shear velocity models estimated from joint inversions also reveal substantial lateral variations in velocity beneath the profile, which is mainly reflected in the lower crustal velocities. For the Ordos Block, the average shear wave velocities below 20 km are 3.8 km/s, indicating an intermediate-to-felsic lower crust. The thick NE Tibet crust is characterized by slow shear wave velocities (3.3-3.6 km/s) below 20 km and lacks high-velocity material (Vs ≥ 4.0 km/s) in the lower crust, which may be attributed to mafic lower crustal delamination or/and the thickening of the upper and middle crust.

  10. Partial-wave analysis of K/sup +/p elastic scattering. [Cross sections, polarization, dispersion relations, analytic smoothing threshold structure, 0. 78 to 2. 53 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutkosky, R E; Hicks, H R; Sandusky, J; Shih, C C [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA); Kelly, R L [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.; Miller, R C; Yokosawa, A [Argonne National Lab., Ill. (USA)

    1976-01-05

    K/sup +/p cross-section and polarization data have been analyzed in the momentum range 0.78-2.53 GeV/c. Single energy fits were made using an ACE parametrization which had no cutoff in J, was analytic and has Regge-asymptotic behaviour in the cut cos theta plane, and contained explicit contributions from P, rho, A2, ..lambda.., ..sigma.., and low-mass di-pion exchange. Direct channel analyticity constraints were imposed by a partial wave dispersion relation interpolation procedure, fitting expansions in regulated-norm optimal bases to each partial wave which entered as a search parameter in the single energy fits. Output from these two programs was then used for a simultaneous fit by a linearized least squares program which provided input for another iterative fitting cycle. No strong evidence for the existence of exotic resonances was found. The method of analytic smoothing, in comparison with 'shortest path' methods, is found to allow more significant threshold structure to appear in the amplitudes.

  11. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  12. Linear waves and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.

    1975-01-01

    The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)

  13. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  14. Phonon dispersion in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.; Rumiantsev, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Phonon dispersion curves in Vanadium metal are investigated by neutron inelastic scattering using three-axis spectrometers. Due to extremely low coherent scattering amplitude of neutrons in natural isotope mixture of vanadium the phonon frequencies could be determined in the energy range below about 15 meV. Several phonon groups were measured with the polarised neutron scattering set-up. It is demonstrated that the intensity of coherent inelastic scattering observed in the non-spin-flip channel vanishes in the spin-flip channel. The phonon density of states is measured on a single crystal keeping the momentum transfer equal to a vector of reciprocal lattice where the coherent inelastic scattering is suppressed. Phonon dispersion curves in vanadium, as measured by neutron and earlier by X-ray scattering, are described in frames of a charge-fluctuation model involving monopolar and dipolar degrees of freedom. The model parameters are compared for different transition metals with body-centred cubic-structure. (author)

  15. Spin waves in ferromagnetic Tb/sub 0.76/Y/sub 0.24/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, N.; Nicklow, R.M.; Child, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    The conduction electron susceptibility chi (q) is considered to play an important role in the magnetism of rare-earth metals and alloys. In order to obtain information about chi (q), studies of the spin waves in the alloy Tb/sub 0.76/Y/sub 0.24/ have been carried out in a magnetic field. The magnetic structure of this alloy was found to remain spiral down to liquid helium temperature with zero field. The spin-wave dispersion curve in this structure has already been studied along the c*-direction, and the results were analyzed successfully in terms of a susceptibility function corresponding to a one-dimensional system with a slight modification. In order to obtain somewhat independent information about chi (q), the spin-wave dispersion curve for the ferromagnetic phase has been studied. A field of 14 kG was necessary to transform the structure into a ferromagnet at liquid helium temperature. Spin-wave energies which are calculated in terms of the susceptibility function determined from the measurements in the spiral structure agree rather well with the observed energies. A large damping and softening of the spin wave has been observed near the wave vector q=0.16 which characterized the spiral configuration. The origin of the phenomenon may be related to the instability of the ferromagnetic structure

  16. Opportunities and pitfalls in surface-wave interpretation

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Li, Jing; Lu, Kai; Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Hanafy, Sherif

    2017-01-01

    Many explorationists think of surface waves as the most damaging noise in land seismic data. Thus, much effort is spent in designing geophone arrays and filtering methods that attenuate these noisy events. It is now becoming apparent that surface waves can be a valuable ally in characterizing the near-surface geology. This review aims to find out how the interpreter can exploit some of the many opportunities available in surface waves recorded in land seismic data. For example, the dispersion curves associated with surface waves can be inverted to give the S-wave velocity tomogram, the common-offset gathers can reveal the presence of near-surface faults or velocity anomalies, and back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect the location of near-surface faults. However, the main limitation of surface waves is that they are typically sensitive to S-wave velocity variations no deeper than approximately half to one-third the dominant wavelength. For many exploration surveys, this limits the depth of investigation to be no deeper than approximately 0.5-1.0 km.

  17. Opportunities and pitfalls in surface-wave interpretation

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-21

    Many explorationists think of surface waves as the most damaging noise in land seismic data. Thus, much effort is spent in designing geophone arrays and filtering methods that attenuate these noisy events. It is now becoming apparent that surface waves can be a valuable ally in characterizing the near-surface geology. This review aims to find out how the interpreter can exploit some of the many opportunities available in surface waves recorded in land seismic data. For example, the dispersion curves associated with surface waves can be inverted to give the S-wave velocity tomogram, the common-offset gathers can reveal the presence of near-surface faults or velocity anomalies, and back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect the location of near-surface faults. However, the main limitation of surface waves is that they are typically sensitive to S-wave velocity variations no deeper than approximately half to one-third the dominant wavelength. For many exploration surveys, this limits the depth of investigation to be no deeper than approximately 0.5-1.0 km.

  18. Past and current sediment dispersion pattern estimates through numerical modeling of wave climate: an example of the Holocene delta of the Doce River, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio C.S.P. Bittencourt

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical modeling estimation of the sediment dispersion patterns caused by waves inciding through four distinct coastline contours of the delta plain of the Doce River during the Late Holocene. For this, a wave climate model based on the construction of wave refraction diagrams, as a function of current boundary conditions, was defined and was assumed to be valid for the four coastlines. The numerical modeling was carried out on basis of the refraction diagrams, taking into account the angle of approximation and the wave height along the coastline. The results are shown to be comparable with existing data regarding the directions of net longshore drift of sediments estimated from the integration of sediment cores, interpretation of aerial photographs and C14 datings. This fact apparently suggests that, on average, current boundary conditions appear to have remained with the same general characteristics since 5600 cal yr BP to the present. The used approach may prove useful to evaluate the sediment dispersion patterns during the Late Holocene in the Brazilian east-northeast coastal region.O presente trabalho apresenta uma estimativa, por modelagem numérica, dos padrões de dispersão de sedimentos causados por ondas ao longo de quatro distintos traçados da linha decosta durante o Holoceno Tardio na planície deltaica do Rio Doce. Para tanto, foi definido um modelo de clima de ondas baseado na construção de diagramas de refração de ondas, em função das condições de contorno atuais, que foi assumido como válido para as quatro linhas de costa. A modelagem numérica foi realizada a partir dos diagramas de refração, levando-se em conta o ângulo de aproximação e a altura da onda ao longo da linha de costa. Os resultados obtidos mostraram-se compatíveis com os dados existentes relativos aos sentidos da deriva litorânea efetiva de sedimentos estimados a partir da integração de testemunhos de vibra

  19. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  20. Ion acoustic waves in pair-ion plasma: Linear and nonlinear analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, R.; Mushtaq, A.

    2009-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear properties of low frequency ion acoustic wave (IAW) in pair-ion plasma in the presence of electrons are investigated. The dispersion relation and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation for linear/nonlinear IAW are derived from sets of hydrodynamic equations where the ion pairs are inertial while electrons are Boltzmannian. The dispersion curves for various concentrations of electrons are discussed and compared with experimental results. The predicted linear IAW propagates at the same frequencies as those of the experimentally observed IAW if n e0 ∼10 4 cm -3 . It is found that nonlinear profile of the ion acoustic solitary waves is significantly affected by the percentage ratio of electron number density and temperature. It is also determined that rarefactive solitary waves can propagate in this system. It is hoped that the results presented in this study would be helpful in understanding the salient features of the finite amplitude localized ion acoustic solitary pulses in a laboratory fullerene plasma.

  1. Advantages of active love wave techniques in geophysical characterizations of seismographic station - Case studies in California and the central and eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Antony; Yong, Alan K.; Salomone, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Active-source Love waves, recorded by the multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASLW) technique, were recently analyzed in two site characterization projects. Between 2010 and 2012, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded GEOVision to conduct geophysical investigations at 191 seismographic stations in California and the Central Eastern U.S. (CEUS). The original project plan was to utilize active and passive Rayleigh wave-based techniques to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles to a minimum depth of 30 m and the time-averaged VS of the upper 30 meters (VS30). Early in this investigation it became clear that Rayleigh wave techniques, such as multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASRW), were not suited for characterizing all sites. Shear-wave seismic refraction and MASLW techniques were therefore applied. In 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute funded characterization of 33 CEUS station sites. Based on experience from the ARRA investigation, both MASRW and MASLW data were acquired by GEOVision at 24 CEUS sites. At shallow rock sites, sites with steep velocity gradients, and, sites with a thin, low velocity, surficial soil layer overlying stiffer sediments, Love wave techniques generally were found to be easier to interpret, i.e., Love wave data typically yielded unambiguous fundamental mode dispersion curves and thus, reduce uncertainty in the resultant VS model. These types of velocity structure often excite dominant higher modes in Rayleigh wave data, but not in the Love wave data. It is possible to model Rayleigh wave data using multi- or effective-mode techniques; however, extraction of Rayleigh wave dispersion data was found to be difficult in many cases. These results imply that field procedures should include careful scrutiny of Rayleigh wave-based dispersion data in order to also collect Love wave data when warranted.

  2. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  3. GSpecDisp: A matlab GUI package for phase-velocity dispersion measurements from ambient-noise correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Tryggvason, Ari

    2018-01-01

    We present a graphical user interface (GUI) package to facilitate phase-velocity dispersion measurements of surface waves in noise-correlation traces. The package, called GSpecDisp, provides an interactive environment for the measurements and presentation of the results. The selection of a dispersion curve can be done automatically or manually within the package. The data are time-domain cross-correlations in SAC format, but GSpecDisp measures phase velocity in the spectral domain. Two types of phase-velocity dispersion measurements can be carried out with GSpecDisp; (1) average velocity of a region, and (2) single-pair phase velocity. Both measurements are done by matching the real part of the cross-correlation spectrum with the appropriate Bessel function. Advantages of these two types of measurements are that no prior knowledge about surface-wave dispersion in the region is needed, and that phase velocity can be measured up to that period for which the inter-station distance corresponds to one wavelength. GSpecDisp can measure the phase velocity of Rayleigh and Love waves from all possible components of the noise correlation tensor. First, we briefly present the theory behind the methods that are used, and then describe different modules of the package. Finally, we validate the developed algorithms by applying them to synthetic and real data, and by comparison with other methods. The source code of GSpecDisp can be downloaded from: https://github.com/Hamzeh-Sadeghi/GSpecDisp

  4. Vertical Transport of Momentum by the Inertial-Gravity Internal Waves in a Baroclinic Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Slepyshev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When the internal waves break, they are one of the sources of small-scale turbulence. Small-scale turbulence causes the vertical exchange in the ocean. However, internal waves with regard to the Earth rotation in the presence of vertically inhomogeneous two-dimensional current are able to contribute to the vertical transport. Free inertial-gravity internal waves in a baroclinic current in a boundless basin of a constant depth are considered in the Bussinesq approximation. Boundary value problem of linear approximation for the vertical velocity amplitude of internal waves has complex coefficients when current velocity component, which is transversal to the wave propagation direction, depends on the vertical coordinate (taking into account the rotation of the Earth. Eigenfunction and wave frequency are complex, and it is shown that a weak wave damping takes place. Dispersive relation and wave damping decrement are calculated in the linear approximation. At a fixed wave number damping decrement of the second mode is larger (in the absolute value than the one of the first mode. The equation for vertical velocity amplitude for real profiles of the Brunt – Vaisala frequency and current velocity are numerically solved according to implicit Adams scheme of the third order of accuracy. The dispersive curves of the first two modes do not reach inertial frequency in the low-frequency area due to the effect of critical layers in which wave frequency of the Doppler shift is equal to the inertial one. Termination of the second mode dispersive curves takes place at higher frequency than the one of the first mode. In the second order of the wave amplitude the Stokes drift speed is determined. It is shown that the Stokes drift speed, which is transversal to the wave propagation direction, differs from zero if the transversal component of current velocity depends on the vertical coordinate. In this case, the Stokes drift speed in the second mode is lower than

  5. Catchment Dispersion Mechanisms in an Urban Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironas, J. A.; Mejia, A.; Rossel, F.; Rinaldo, A.; Rodriguez, F.

    2014-12-01

    Dispersion mechanisms have been examined in-depth in natural catchments in previous studies. However, these dispersion mechanisms have been studied little in urban catchments, where artificial transport elements and morphological arrangements are expected to modify travel times and mobilize excess rainfall from spatially distributed impervious sites. Thus, these features can modify the variance of the catchment's travel times and hence the total dispersion. This work quantifies the dispersion mechanisms in an urban catchment using the theory of transport by travel times as represented by the Urban Morpho-climatic Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (U-McIUH) model. This model computes travel times based on kinematic wave theory and accounts explicitly for the path heterogeneities and altered connectivity patterns characteristic of an urban drainage network. The analysis is illustrated using the Aubinière urban catchment (France) as a case study. We found that kinematic dispersion is dominant for small rainfall intensities, whereas geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant for larger intensities. The total dispersion scales with the drainage area in a power law fashion. The kinematic dispersion is dominant across spatial scales up to a threshold of approximately 2-3 km2, after which the geomorphologic dispersion becomes more dominant. Overall, overland flow is responsible for most of the dispersion, while conduits tend to counteract the increase of the geomorphologic dispersion with a negative kinematic dispersion. Further studies with other catchments are needed to assess whether the latter is a general feature of urban drainage networks.

  6. Impulsively Generated Wave Trains in Coronal Structures. II. Effects of Transverse Structuring on Sausage Waves in Pressurelesss Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Guo, Ming-Zhe; Yu, Hui; Chen, Shao-Xia

    2018-03-01

    Impulsively generated sausage wave trains in coronal structures are important for interpreting a substantial number of observations of quasi-periodic signals with quasi-periods of order seconds. We have previously shown that the Morlet spectra of these wave trains in coronal tubes depend crucially on the dispersive properties of trapped sausage waves, the existence of cutoff axial wavenumbers, and the monotonicity of the dependence of the axial group speed on the axial wavenumber in particular. This study examines the difference a slab geometry may introduce, for which purpose we conduct a comprehensive eigenmode analysis, both analytically and numerically, on trapped sausage modes in coronal slabs with a considerable number of density profiles. For the profile descriptions examined, coronal slabs can trap sausage waves with longer axial wavelengths, and the group speed approaches the internal Alfvén speed more rapidly at large wavenumbers in the cylindrical case. However, common to both geometries, cutoff wavenumbers exist only when the density profile falls sufficiently rapidly at distances far from coronal structures. Likewise, the monotonicity of the group speed curves depends critically on the profile steepness right at the structure axis. Furthermore, the Morlet spectra of the wave trains are shaped by the group speed curves for coronal slabs and tubes alike. Consequently, we conclude that these spectra have the potential for inferring the subresolution density structuring inside coronal structures, although their detection requires an instrumental cadence of better than ∼1 s.

  7. Technological Progress and the Future of Kuznets Curve's

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Inyong; Kim, Hyunho; Yamamura, Eiji

    2008-01-01

    We use OECD members' data to ascertain that new-born technological inventions increase the degree of inequality but that this declines as the technology disperses into the overall economy (e.g., Galor and Tsiddon, 1997; Weil, 2005). Therefore, we show explicitly that Kuznets curve does not converge to a single inverted U-curve but fluctuates through technological progress as a sine curve.

  8. Analytical Estimates of the Dispersion Curve in Planar Ionization Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L.; Betelu, Santiago; Fontelos, Marco A.

    2009-01-01

    Fingers from ionization fronts for a hydrodynamic plasma model result from a balance between impact ionization and electron diffusion in a non-attaching gas. An analytical estimation of the size of the fingers and its dependence on both the electric field and electron diffusion coefficient can be done when the diffusion is low and the electric field is strong.

  9. Dispersion strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  10. Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-07-14

    Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials.

  11. The essential theory of fast wave current drive with full wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Gong Xueyu; Yang Lei; Yin Chenyan; Yin Lan

    2007-01-01

    The full wave numerical method is developed for analyzing fast wave current drive in the range of ion cyclotron waves in tokamak plasmas, taking into account finite larmor radius effects and parallel dispersion. the physical model, the dispersion relation on the assumption of Finite Larmor Radius (FLR) effects and the form of full wave be used for computer simulation are developed. All of the work will contribute to further study of fast wave current drive. (authors)

  12. Spectral distribution of the efficiency of terahertz difference frequency generation upon collinear propagation of interacting waves in semiconductor crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Sergei N; Polivanov, Yurii N

    2007-01-01

    Dispersion phase matching curves and spectral distributions of the efficiency of difference frequency generation in the terahertz range are calculated for collinear propagation of interacting waves in zinc blende semiconductor crystals (ZnTe, CdTe, GaP, GaAs). The effect of the pump wavelength, the nonlinear crystal length and absorption in the terahertz range on the spectral distribution of the efficiency of difference frequency generation is analysed. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  13. Wave propagation in a piezoelectric solid bar of circular cross-section immersed in fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponnusamy, P.

    2013-01-01

    Wave propagation in a piezoelectric solid bar of circular cross-section immersed in fluid is discussed using three-dimensional theory of piezoelectricity. The equations of motion of the cylinder are formulated using the constitutive equations of a piezoelectric material. The equations of motion of the fluid are formulated using the constitutive equations of an inviscid fluid. Three displacement potential functions are introduced to uncouple the equations of motion, electric conduction. The frequency equation of the coupled system consisting of cylinder and fluid is developed under the assumption of perfect-slip boundary conditions at the fluid–solid interfaces. The frequency equations are obtained for longitudinal and flexural modes of vibration and are studied numerically for PZT-4 material bar immersed in fluid. The computed non-dimensional wave numbers are presented in the form of dispersion curves. The secant method is used to obtain the roots of the frequency equation. -- Highlights: ► Wave propagation in a piezoelectric solid bar of circular cross-section immersed in fluid is analyzed using secant method. ► Solid–fluid interaction for piezoelectric material of PZT-4 is analyzed using the boundary conditions. ► The computed non-dimensional wave numbers are plotted in the form of dispersion curves and studied its characters. ► A comparison is made between the non-dimensional wave numbers obtained by the author with the literature results

  14. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  15. Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2017-10-24

    To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.

  16. Parsimonious Surface Wave Interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    To decrease the recording time of a 2D seismic survey from a few days to one hour or less, we present a parsimonious surface-wave interferometry method. Interferometry allows for the creation of a large number of virtual shot gathers from just two reciprocal shot gathers by crosscoherence of trace pairs, where the virtual surface waves can be inverted for the S-wave velocity model by wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD). Synthetic and field data tests suggest that parsimonious wave-equation dispersion inversion (PWD) gives S-velocity tomograms that are comparable to those obtained from a full survey with a shot at each receiver. The limitation of PWD is that the virtual data lose some information so that the resolution of the S-velocity tomogram can be modestly lower than that of the S-velocity tomogram inverted from a conventional survey.

  17. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Fan Xianhua; Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Zhou Duo; Wang Yong

    2004-01-01

    The experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, are analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite are determined simultaneously by one linear regression technique. Dispersity of crushed granite is also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression technique. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. The experimental results show that the dispersity found by spike source method is close to that found by invariant source method. It indicates that dispersity is only the characteristic of dispersion medium

  18. Determination of dispersity of crushed granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental crushed granite column breakthrough curves, using 99 Tc as spike tracer and 3 H as invariant tracer, were analyzed by different linear regression techniques. Dispersity of crushed granite and the retardation factor of 99 TcO 4 - on the crushed granite were determined simultaneously by one linear regression. Dispersity of crushed granite was also obtained with 3 H as invariant tracer by the other linear regression. The dispersities found by spike source and invariant source methods are compared. Experimental results show that the dispersity found by the spike source method is close to that found by the invariant source method. This indicates that dispersity is only a characteristic of the dispersion medium. (author)

  19. Plasma waves in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The complete dispersion equation governing small amplitude plasma waves propagating in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is solved numerically. The efficiency of the wave energy thermalization in the lower hybrid frequency range is studied

  20. Fermions in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippoldt, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    In this thesis we study a formulation of Dirac fermions in curved spacetime that respects general coordinate invariance as well as invariance under local spin base transformations. We emphasize the advantages of the spin base invariant formalism both from a conceptual as well as from a practical viewpoint. This suggests that local spin base invariance should be added to the list of (effective) properties of (quantum) gravity theories. We find support for this viewpoint by the explicit construction of a global realization of the Clifford algebra on a 2-sphere which is impossible in the spin-base non-invariant vielbein formalism. The natural variables for this formulation are spacetime-dependent Dirac matrices subject to the Clifford-algebra constraint. In particular, a coframe, i.e. vielbein field is not required. We disclose the hidden spin base invariance of the vielbein formalism. Explicit formulas for the spin connection as a function of the Dirac matrices are found. This connection consists of a canonical part that is completely fixed in terms of the Dirac matrices and a free part that can be interpreted as spin torsion. The common Lorentz symmetric gauge for the vielbein is constructed for the Dirac matrices, even for metrics which are not linearly connected. Under certain criteria, it constitutes the simplest possible gauge, demonstrating why this gauge is so useful. Using the spin base formulation for building a field theory of quantized gravity and matter fields, we show that it suffices to quantize the metric and the matter fields. This observation is of particular relevance for field theory approaches to quantum gravity, as it can serve for a purely metric-based quantization scheme for gravity even in the presence of fermions. Hence, in the second part of this thesis we critically examine the gauge, and the field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gaussian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical