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Sample records for wave cdw order

  1. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in CDW and SDW ordered cuprate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Condensed Matter Physics Group, PG Dept. of Applied Physics and Ballistics, FM University, Balasore 756 019 (India); Panda, S.K. [KD Science College, Pochilima, Hinjilicut 761 101, Ganjam, Orissa (India)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Reported the study of the interplay of the CDW and SDW interactions in the high-Tc cuprates. {yields} The longitudinal velocity of sound is studied in the under-doped region. {yields} The velocity of sound exhibits suppression in both the CDW and SDW phases. {yields} Strong electron-phonon interaction is observed in normal phases. - Abstract: We address here the self-consistent calculation of the spin density wave and the charge density wave gap parameters for high-T{sub c} cuprates on the basis of the Hubbard model. In order to describe the experimental observations for the velocity of sound, we consider the phonon coupling to the conduction band in the harmonic approximation and then the expression for the temperature dependent velocity of sound is calculated from the real part of the phonon Green's function. The effects of the electron-phonon coupling, the frequency of the sound wave, the hole doping concentration, the CDW coupling and the SDW coupling parameters on the sound velocity are investigated in the pure CDW phase as well as in the co-existence phase of the CDW and SDW states. The results are discussed to explain the experimental observations.

  2. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in CDW and SDW ordered cuprate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G.C.; Panda, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Reported the study of the interplay of the CDW and SDW interactions in the high-Tc cuprates. → The longitudinal velocity of sound is studied in the under-doped region. → The velocity of sound exhibits suppression in both the CDW and SDW phases. → Strong electron-phonon interaction is observed in normal phases. - Abstract: We address here the self-consistent calculation of the spin density wave and the charge density wave gap parameters for high-T c cuprates on the basis of the Hubbard model. In order to describe the experimental observations for the velocity of sound, we consider the phonon coupling to the conduction band in the harmonic approximation and then the expression for the temperature dependent velocity of sound is calculated from the real part of the phonon Green's function. The effects of the electron-phonon coupling, the frequency of the sound wave, the hole doping concentration, the CDW coupling and the SDW coupling parameters on the sound velocity are investigated in the pure CDW phase as well as in the co-existence phase of the CDW and SDW states. The results are discussed to explain the experimental observations.

  3. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in CDW and SDW ordered cuprate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Condensed Matter Physics Group, PG Dept. of Applied Physics and Ballistics, FM University, Balasore 756 019 (India); Panda, S K [KD Science College, Pochilima, Hinjilicut 761 101, Ganjam, Orissa (India)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Reported the study of the interplay of the CDW and SDW interactions in the high-Tc cuprates. {yields} The longitudinal velocity of sound is studied in the under-doped region. {yields} The velocity of sound exhibits suppression in both the CDW and SDW phases. {yields} Strong electron-phonon interaction is observed in normal phases. - Abstract: We address here the self-consistent calculation of the spin density wave and the charge density wave gap parameters for high-T{sub c} cuprates on the basis of the Hubbard model. In order to describe the experimental observations for the velocity of sound, we consider the phonon coupling to the conduction band in the harmonic approximation and then the expression for the temperature dependent velocity of sound is calculated from the real part of the phonon Green's function. The effects of the electron-phonon coupling, the frequency of the sound wave, the hole doping concentration, the CDW coupling and the SDW coupling parameters on the sound velocity are investigated in the pure CDW phase as well as in the co-existence phase of the CDW and SDW states. The results are discussed to explain the experimental observations.

  4. CDW (continuum distorted wave) type approximation for electron capture at large angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojon, O.A.; Maidagan, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A calculation is made for the probability of electron capture in shell K at great angles using a second order symmetrical model used related to the continuum distorted wave (CDW) approximation. The influence of Coulomb distortion of nuclei is studied and compared with OBK and CIS type calculations. Numerical results are compared with experimental results of the collision of H + on C at intermediate energies. (Author). 19 refs., 2 figs

  5. CDW fluctuations and the pseudogap in the single-particle conductivity of quasi-1D Peierls CDW systems: II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupčić, I; Rukelj, Z; Barišić, S

    2014-05-14

    The current-dipole Kubo formula for the dynamical conductivity of interacting multiband electronic systems derived in Kupčić et al (2013 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 25 145602) is illustrated on the Peierls model for quasi-one-dimensional systems with the charge-density-wave (CDW) instability. Using the microscopic representation of the Peierls model, it is shown in which way the scattering of conduction electrons by CDW fluctuations affects the dynamical conductivity at temperatures above and well below the CDW transition temperature. The generalized Drude formula for the intraband conductivity is derived in the ordered CDW state well below the transition temperature. The natural extension of this formula to the case where the intraband memory function is dependent on frequency and wave vectors is also presented. It is shown that the main adventage of such a memory-function conductivity model is that it can be easily extended to study the dynamical conductivity and the electronic Raman scattering in more complicated multiband electronic systems in a way consistent with the law of conservation of energy. The incoherent interband conductivity in the CDW pseudogap state is briefly discussed as well.

  6. Direct observation of competition between superconductivity and charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O6.67

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity often emerges in the proximity of, or in competition with, symmetry-breaking ground states such as antiferromagnetism or charge density waves (CDW). A number of materials in the cuprate family, which includes the high transition-temperature (high-Tc) superconductors, show spin...... and charge density wave order. Thus a fundamental question is to what extent do these ordered states exist for compositions close to optimal for superconductivity. Here we use high-energy X-ray diffraction to show that a CDW develops at zero field in the normal state of superconducting YBa2Cu3O6.67 (Tc= 67 K......). This sample has a hole doping of 0.12 per copper and a well-ordered oxygen chain superstructure. Below Tc, the application of a magnetic field suppresses superconductivity and enhances the CDW. Hence, the CDW and superconductivity in this typical high-Tc material are competing orders with similar energy...

  7. Interplay of CDW, SDW and superconductivity in high-T{sub c} cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, S K [K.D. Science College, Pochilima, Hinjilicut 761 101, Ganjam, Orissa (India); Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Condensed Matter Physics Group, Dept. of Applied Physics and Ballistics, F.M. University, Balasore 756 019, Orissa (India)

    2009-07-01

    We present a model calculation of the interplay of the charge density wave (CDW), spin density wave (SDW) and superconductivity in high temperature superconductors. In low doping situation the long range antiferromagnetic order is destroyed to give rise to SDW state accompanied by a CDW state in the system due to doping. For suitable doping the superconductivity appears in the system. The CDW state may describe the pseudogap phenomenon which co-exists with the superconducting phase and extends to normal phase in high-T{sub c} systems. These three competiting interactions co-exist together. These three gap parameters are calculated from the model Hamiltonian and solved self-consistently. By varying their coupling constants their interplay are investigated. Finally density of states is calculated for the conduction band which displays the experimental conductance data of Ekino et al. [T. Ekino, Y. Sezaki, H. Fujji, Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 6916].

  8. Interplay of CDW, SDW and superconductivity in high-Tc cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, S.K.; Rout, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a model calculation of the interplay of the charge density wave (CDW), spin density wave (SDW) and superconductivity in high temperature superconductors. In low doping situation the long range antiferromagnetic order is destroyed to give rise to SDW state accompanied by a CDW state in the system due to doping. For suitable doping the superconductivity appears in the system. The CDW state may describe the pseudogap phenomenon which co-exists with the superconducting phase and extends to normal phase in high-T c systems. These three competiting interactions co-exist together. These three gap parameters are calculated from the model Hamiltonian and solved self-consistently. By varying their coupling constants their interplay are investigated. Finally density of states is calculated for the conduction band which displays the experimental conductance data of Ekino et al. [T. Ekino, Y. Sezaki, H. Fujji, Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 6916].

  9. Persistent Charge-Density-Wave Order in Single-Layer TaSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyejin; Chen, Yi; Kim, Heejung; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Tang, Shujie; Jiang, Juan; Liou, Franklin; Kahn, Salman; Jia, Caihong; Omrani, Arash A; Shim, Ji Hoon; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Kim, Kyoo; Min, Byung Il; Hwang, Choongyu; Crommie, Michael F; Mo, Sung-Kwan

    2018-02-14

    We present the electronic characterization of single-layer 1H-TaSe 2 grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a combined angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. We demonstrate that 3 × 3 charge-density-wave (CDW) order persists despite distinct changes in the low energy electronic structure highlighted by the reduction in the number of bands crossing the Fermi energy and the corresponding modification of Fermi surface topology. Enhanced spin-orbit coupling and lattice distortion in the single-layer play a crucial role in the formation of CDW order. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the nature of CDW order in the two-dimensional limit.

  10. Effect of CDW and magnetic interactions on the eg electrons of the manganite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G.C.; Panda, S.; Behera, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    We address a model study which includes the co-existence of the charge density wave (CDW) and ferromagnetic interactions in order to explain the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in manganites. The Hamiltonian consists of the ferromagnetic Hund's rule exchange interaction between e g and t 2g spins, Heisenberg core spin interactions and the CDW interaction present in the e g band electrons. The core electron magnetization, induced e g electron magnetization and the CDW gap are calculated using Zubarev's Green's function technique and determined self-consistently. The effect of core electron magnetization and the CDW interaction on the induced magnetization as well as on the occupation number in the different spin states of the e g band electrons are investigated by varying the model parameters of the system like the CDW coupling, the exchange coupling, the Heisenberg coupling and the external field. It is observed that the induced magnetization exhibits re-entrant behaviour and exists within a narrow temperature range just below the Curie temperature. This unusual behaviour of the e g band electrons will throw some new insights on the physical properties of the manganite systems.

  11. Narrowband noise study of sliding charge density waves in NbSe3 nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Seita; Jamei, Mehdi; Zettl, Alex

    2017-02-01

    Transport properties (dc electrical resistivity, threshold electric field, and narrow-band noise) are reported for nanoribbon specimens of NbSe3 with thicknesses as low as 18 nm. As the sample thickness decreases, the resistive anomalies characteristic of the charge density wave (CDW) state are suppressed and the threshold fields for nonlinear CDW conduction apparently diverge. Narrow-band noise measurements allow determination of the concentration of carriers condensed in the CDW state n c , reflective of the CDW order parameter Δ. Although the CDW transition temperatures are relatively independent of sample thickness, in the lower CDW state Δ decreases dramatically with decreasing sample thickness.

  12. Effect of CDW and magnetic interactions on the e{sub g} electrons of the manganite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Condensed Matter Physics Group, P. G. Department of Applied Physics and Ballistics, F. M. University, Balasore 756 019 (India); Panda, S. [Trident Academy of Technology, F2/A, Chandaka Industrial Estate, Bhubaneswar 751 024 (India); Behera, S.N. [Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Bhubaneswar 751 013 (India)

    2009-11-15

    We address a model study which includes the co-existence of the charge density wave (CDW) and ferromagnetic interactions in order to explain the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in manganites. The Hamiltonian consists of the ferromagnetic Hund's rule exchange interaction between e{sub g} and t{sub 2g} spins, Heisenberg core spin interactions and the CDW interaction present in the e{sub g} band electrons. The core electron magnetization, induced e{sub g} electron magnetization and the CDW gap are calculated using Zubarev's Green's function technique and determined self-consistently. The effect of core electron magnetization and the CDW interaction on the induced magnetization as well as on the occupation number in the different spin states of the e{sub g} band electrons are investigated by varying the model parameters of the system like the CDW coupling, the exchange coupling, the Heisenberg coupling and the external field. It is observed that the induced magnetization exhibits re-entrant behaviour and exists within a narrow temperature range just below the Curie temperature. This unusual behaviour of the e{sub g} band electrons will throw some new insights on the physical properties of the manganite systems.

  13. NMR investigation of charge fluctuations in the charge-density-wave (CDW) system Rb_0.3MoO_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. B.; Vonlanthen, P.; Clark, W. G.; Kriza, G.; Moulton, W. G.; Kuhns, P.; Reyes, A. P.

    2001-03-01

    We report measurements of the spin-lattice relaxation rate (T_1-1), the spin-spin relaxation rate (T_2-1), and NMR spectra of ^85Rb and ^87Rb in Rb_0.3MoO3 for the temperature (T) range 5-300 K at 9 T and 23 T. The ratio of T_1-1 for ^85Rb and ^87Rb shows that for all T, the dominant coupling for T_1-1 is quadrupolar; i.e., it is driven by charge fluctuations. Prior work assumed that in the metallic phase above 182 K, the relaxation was via magnetic coupling to conduction electrons. Another surprising result is the absence of a strong variation of T_1-1 across the CDW-broadened spectrum. Such a variation is expected for relaxation by thermal CDW phason fluctuations. Our high field measurements also show very little frequency dependence for T_1-1. The observed T-variation of T_1-1 displays five different regimes, which will be presented and discussed. The UCLA part of the work was supported by NSF Grants DMR-9705369 and DMR-0072524.

  14. Monte Carlo studies of diamagnetism and charge density wave order in the cuprate pseudogap regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward Sierens, Lauren; Achkar, Andrew; Hawthorn, David; Melko, Roger; Sachdev, Subir

    2015-03-01

    The pseudogap regime of the hole-doped cuprate superconductors is often characterized experimentally in terms of a substantial diamagnetic response and, from another point of view, in terms of strong charge density wave (CDW) order. We introduce a dimensionless ratio, R, that incorporates both diamagnetic susceptibility and the correlation length of CDW order, and therefore reconciles these two fundamental characteristics of the pseudogap. We perform Monte Carlo simulations on a classical model that considers angular fluctuations of a six-dimensional order parameter, and compare our Monte Carlo results for R with existing data from torque magnetometry and x-ray scattering experiments on YBa2Cu3O6+x. We achieve qualitative agreement, and also propose future experiments to further investigate the behaviour of this dimensionless ratio.

  15. Competing p-wave orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P; Pantelidou, Christiana

    2014-01-01

    We construct electrically charged, asymptotically AdS 5 black hole solutions that are dual to d = 4 CFTs in a superfluid phase with either p-wave or (p + ip)-wave order. The two types of black holes have non-vanishing charged two-form in the bulk and appear at the same critical temperature in the unbroken phase. Both the p-wave and the (p + ip)-wave phase can be thermodynamically preferred, depending on the mass and charge of the two-form, and there can also be first order transitions between them. The p-wave black holes have a helical structure and some of them exhibit the phenomenon of pitch inversion as the temperature is decreased. Both the p-wave and the (p + ip)-wave black holes have zero entropy density ground states at zero temperature and we identify some new ground states which exhibit scaling symmetry, including a novel scenario for the emergence of conformal symmetry in the IR. (paper)

  16. Interplay of multiple charge-density-waves and superconductivity in DyTe{sub 3} at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zocco, Diego A. [Institute for Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Kapuvari, Andreas; Sauer, Aaron; Weber, Frank [Institute for Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Paraskevas, Parisiadis; Garbarino, Gaston [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Fisher, Ian [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States); Hamlin, James; Maple, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DyTe{sub 3} is a quasi-two-dimensional system in which two successive incommensurate charge-density-wave (CDW) states appear upon cooling at ambient pressure (T{sub CDW,1} = 306 K, T{sub CDW,2} = 49 K). The suppression with pressure of the CDW order is followed by the emergence of superconductivity above 1 GPa and below 1.5 K, as shown by our measurements of electrical resistivity and ac-susceptibility. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments under pressure indicate that the lower CDW state merges with the upper one at an intermediate pressure, suggesting that the double-CDW state could be accessed directly below a single T{sub CDW}(P) line. The phase diagram obtained from XRD is compared with the results of our recent electrical resistivity experiments.

  17. CDW instability near the superconducting transition in YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertel, P.; Appel, J.; Swihart, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    e-e scattering between charge carriers in the CuO 2 planes and a 1D electron system causes a temperature-dependent pair-breaking effect on the formation of a commensurate charge-density wave in the 1D system. In order to distinguish between the BCS and CDW states, the nuclear-spin relaxation rates due to magnetic and quadrupole coupling, R C /R N and Q C /Q N , and the infrared conductivity σ 1 (ω) due to singe-particle excitations are found in the presence of the T-dependent pair-breaking process

  18. X-ray diffraction observations of a charge-density-wave order in superconducting ortho-II YBa2Cu3O6.54 single crystals in zero magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, E.; Chang, J.; Hücker, M.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray diffraction measurements show that the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O6.54, with ortho-II oxygen order, has charge-density-wave order in the absence of an applied magnetic field. The dominant wave vector of the charge density wave is qCDW=(0,0.328(2),0.5), with the in-plane component...

  19. Abnormal Waves Modelled as Second-order Conditional Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results for the expected second order short-crested wave conditional of a given wave crest at a specific point in time and space. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean shallow water wave theory. Numerical results showing the importance of the spectral densit...

  20. Incommensurate Phonon Anomaly and the Nature of Charge Density Waves in Cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, H.; Ishikawa, D.; Heid, R.; Le Tacon, M.; Fabbris, G.; Meyers, D.; Gu, G. D.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Dean, M. P. M.

    2018-01-01

    While charge density wave (CDW) instabilities are ubiquitous to superconducting cuprates, the different ordering wave vectors in various cuprate families have hampered a unified description of the CDW formation mechanism. Here, we investigate the temperature dependence of the low-energy phonons in the canonical CDW-ordered cuprate La1.875 Ba0.125 CuO4 . We discover that the phonon softening wave vector associated with CDW correlations becomes temperature dependent in the high-temperature precursor phase and changes from a wave vector of 0.238 reciprocal lattice units (r.l.u.) below the ordering transition temperature to 0.3 r.l.u. at 300 K. This high-temperature behavior shows that "214"-type cuprates can host CDW correlations at a similar wave vector to previously reported CDW correlations in non-214-type cuprates such as YBa2 Cu3 O6 +δ . This indicates that cuprate CDWs may arise from the same underlying instability despite their apparently different low-temperature ordering wave vectors.

  1. Microscopic theoretical study of Raman spectra in charge and spin ordered cuprate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, B.K.; Panda, S.K.; Rout, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The model calculation treats CDW interaction as pseudogap for cuprates. • The interplay of Raman active CDW-SDW mixed modes are investigated. • Independent CDW and SDW gap values can be determined from experimental data. -- Abstract: Raman scattering is one of the most powerful methods to investigate the electron as well as the phonon excitations in the systems. In this communication, we present a theoretical study of Raman scattering in the normal state of the high-T C systems in the under-doped region displaying the interplay of the spin-density-wave (SDW) and charge-density-wave (CDW) interactions. The SDW order arises from the repulsive Coulomb interaction of electrons, while the CDW order arises due to strong electron–phonon interaction giving rise to Fermi surface instability. We calculate phonon response function in order to examine the possibility of observing the SDW excitation mode in presence of the CDW interaction present in the same conduction band. The Raman scattering intensity is calculated from the imaginary part of the phonon Green’s function assigning an arbitrary spectral width. The spectral density function displays two mixed modes of excitation peaks at energies 2(Δ c ± Δ s ). The evolution of excitation peaks are investigated by varying CDW coupling, SDW coupling and the phonon momentum transfer energy

  2. Microscopic theoretical study of Raman spectra in charge and spin ordered cuprate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, B. K. [Dept. of Physics, Govt. Autonomous College, Angul, Orissa (India); Panda, S. K. [KD Science College, Pochilima, Hinjilicut, 761 101 Ganjam, Orissa (India); Rout, G.C., E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in [Condensed Matter Physics Group, PG Dept. of Applied Physics and Ballistics, FM University, Balasore 756 019 (India)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The model calculation treats CDW interaction as pseudogap for cuprates. • The interplay of Raman active CDW-SDW mixed modes are investigated. • Independent CDW and SDW gap values can be determined from experimental data. -- Abstract: Raman scattering is one of the most powerful methods to investigate the electron as well as the phonon excitations in the systems. In this communication, we present a theoretical study of Raman scattering in the normal state of the high-T{sub C} systems in the under-doped region displaying the interplay of the spin-density-wave (SDW) and charge-density-wave (CDW) interactions. The SDW order arises from the repulsive Coulomb interaction of electrons, while the CDW order arises due to strong electron–phonon interaction giving rise to Fermi surface instability. We calculate phonon response function in order to examine the possibility of observing the SDW excitation mode in presence of the CDW interaction present in the same conduction band. The Raman scattering intensity is calculated from the imaginary part of the phonon Green’s function assigning an arbitrary spectral width. The spectral density function displays two mixed modes of excitation peaks at energies 2(Δ{sub c} ± Δ{sub s}). The evolution of excitation peaks are investigated by varying CDW coupling, SDW coupling and the phonon momentum transfer energy.

  3. Electronic structure of SnF{sub 3}: An example of valence skipper which forms charge density wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, I., E-mail: i.hase@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Yanagisawa, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Kawashima, K. [IMRA Material R& D Co., LTD., Kariya, Aichi 448-0032 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We calculated the electronic structure of SnF{sub 3} and BaBiO{sub 3} from first principles. • As for SnF{sub 3}, charge-density-wave (CDW) is found, which agrees with the experiment. • As for BaBiO{sub 3}, CDW is not found, contrary to the experiment. • We conclude that the CDW is hard in SnF{sub 3} and is soft in BaBiO{sub 3}. - Abstract: In the present study we calculated the electronic structure of the valence skipping compound SnF{sub 3} and BaBiO{sub 3} from first-principles. We confirmed that the charge-density-wave (CDW) is formed in SnF{sub 3}, and the Sn atoms in two crystallographic different sites take the valence Sn{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+}. Structure optimization study reveals that this CDW is stable, though the atomic position is slightly different from the experimental data. This behavior is in contrast with the case of BaBiO{sub 3}, where the structure optimization leads to the uniform state, which means that two Bi sites are equivalent. The CDW state is hard in SnF{sub 3}, which means that the CDW gap is large enough and it is difficult to melt this CDW order.

  4. Doping dependence of an excitonic-driven CDW phase in 1T-TiSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Pereira, Vitor

    The origin of the robust charge density wave (CDW) phase in this system has been a perennial source of new ideas, concepts, and controversy. A foremost and recurring question has been whether the CDW instability is primarily driven by electron-electron or electron-phonon interactions. Whereas it is clear that both ultimately play an important role in its overall electronic, lattice, and transport properties, the very low carrier density and particular CDW wavevector of this system has led to the suggestion that electron-electron interactions can be the dominant factor driving the CDW instability through a transition to an excitonic insulator state. By gathering the latest quantitative information about the bandstructure parameters from ARPES and performing a self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculation as a function of doping and temperature, we demonstrate that electron-electron interactions alone can explain very well the variation of Tc with electron doping seen in recent experiments up to densities where the superconducting dome emerges. In addition, the renormalized bandstructure predicted by our model provides a consistent interpretation for the development of partial gaps and the changes in the nature of charge carriers that are known, experimentally, to take place near Tc. This work was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation under Grant NRF-CRP6-2010-05.

  5. Comparison of third-order plasma wave echoes with ballistic second-order plasma wave echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppert, H.D.; Schuelter, H.; Wiesemann, K.

    1982-01-01

    The apparent dispersion of third-order plasma wave echoes observed in a high frequency plasma is compared with that of simultaneously observed ballistic second-order echoes. Amplitude and wavelength of third-order echoes are found to be always smaller than those of second-order echoes, however, the dispersion curves of both types of echoes are very similar. These observations are in qualitative agreement with calculations of special ballistic third-order echoes. The ballistic nature of the observed third-order echoes may, therefore, be concluded from these measurements. (author)

  6. CDW-EIS model for single-electron capture in ion-atom collisions involving multielectronic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abufager, P N; MartInez, A E; Rivarola, R D; Fainstein, P D

    2004-01-01

    A generalization of the continuum distorted wave eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation, for the description of single-electron capture in ion-atom collisions involving multielectronic targets is presented. This approximation is developed within the framework of the independent electron model taking particular care of the representation of the bound and continuum target states. Total cross sections for single-electron capture from the K-shell of He, Ne and Ar noble gases by impact of bare ions are calculated. Present results are compared to previous CDW-EIS ones and to experimental data

  7. Spatial distribution of superconducting and charge-density-wave order parameters in cuprates and its influence on the quasiparticle tunnel current (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Voitenko, Alexander I.

    2016-10-01

    The state of the art concerning tunnel measurements of energy gaps in cuprate oxides has been analyzed. A detailed review of the relevant literature is made, and original results calculated for the quasiparticle tunnel current J(V) between a metallic tip and a disordered d-wave superconductor partially gapped by charge density waves (CDWs) are reported, because it is this model of high-temperature superconductors that becomes popular owing to recent experiments in which CDWs were observed directly. The current was calculated suggesting the scatter of both the superconducting and CDW order parameters due to the samples' intrinsic inhomogeneity. It was shown that peculiarities in the current-voltage characteristics inherent to the case of homogeneous superconducting material are severely smeared, and the CDW-related features transform into experimentally observed peak-dip-hump structures. Theoretical results were used to fit data measured for YBa2Cu3O7-δ and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The fitting demonstrated a good qualitative agreement between the experiment and model calculations. The analysis of the energy gaps in high-Tc superconductors is important both per se and as a tool to uncover the nature of superconductivity in cuprates not elucidated so far despite of much theoretical effort and experimental progress.

  8. Spatial distribution of superconducting and charge-density-wave order parameters in cuprates and its influence on the quasiparticle tunnel current (Review Article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabovich, Alexander M.; Voitenko, Alexander I.

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art concerning tunnel measurements of energy gaps in cuprate oxides has been analyzed. A detailed review of the relevant literature is made, and original results calculated for the quasiparticle tunnel current J(V) between a metallic tip and a disordered d-wave superconductor partially gapped by charge density waves (CDWs) are reported, because it is this model of high-temperature superconductors that becomes popular owing to recent experiments in which CDWs were observed directly. The current was calculated suggesting the scatter of both the superconducting and CDW order parameters due to the samples intrinsic inhomogeneity. It was shown that peculiarities in the current-voltage characteristics inherent to the case of homogeneous super-conducting material are severely smeared, and the CDW-related features transform into experimentally observed peak-dip-hump structures. Theoretical results were used to fit data measured for YBa_2Cu_3O_7_-_d_e_l_t_a and Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8_+_d_e_l_t_a. The fitting demonstrated a good qualitative agreement between the experiment and model calculations. The analysis of the energy gaps in high-Tc superconductors is important both per se and as a tool to uncover the nature of superconductivity in cuprates not elucidated so far despite of much theoretical effort and experimental progress.

  9. Measurement of chirality of charge-density-waves in TiSe2 by using STM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishioka, J.; Liu, Y.H.; Shimatake, K.; Kurosawa, T.; Ichimura, K.; Toda, Y.; Oda, M.; Tanda, S.

    2010-01-01

    We report the chirality of charge density waves (CDW) in 1T-TiSe 2 by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements. We found that the CDW intensity becomes Ia 1 :Ia 2 :Ia 3 =1:0.7±0.1:0.5±0.1, where Ia i (i=1, 2, 3) is the amplitude of the tunneling current contributed by the CDWs. We found two states, in which the three intensity peaks of the CDW decrease clockwise and anticlockwise when we index each nesting vector in order of intensity in the Fourier transformation of the STM images. We found that this difference arises from CDW stacking along the c-axis at intervals of 2c 0 /3. This chirality is attributed to the helical stacking such as cholesteric liquid crystals.

  10. Interplay of charge density wave and spin density wave in high-T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, B. [Government Science College, Malkangiri 764 048 (India)], E-mail: brunda@iopb.res.in; Raj, B.K. [B.J.B. College, Bhubaneswar 751 014 (India); Rout, G.C. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, P.G. Department of Applied Physics and Ballistics, F.M. University, Balasore 756 019 (India)], E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in

    2008-12-01

    We present a mean-field theory theoretical model study for the coexistence of the two strongly interacting charge density wave (CDW) and spin density wave (SDW) for high-T{sub c} cuprates in the underdoped region before the onset of the superconductivity in the system. The analytic expressions for the temperature dependence of the CDW and SDW order parameters are derived and solved self-consistently. Their interplay is studied by varying their respective coupling constants. It is observed that in the interplay region both the gap parameters exhibit very strong dependence of their gap values for the coupling constants. Further, the electronic density of states (DOS) for the conduction electrons, which represents the scanning tunneling data, show two gap parameters in the interplay region from these experimental data. Our model can help to determine separately the CDW and SDW parameters.

  11. Interplay of charge density wave and spin density wave in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, B.; Raj, B.K.; Rout, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a mean-field theory theoretical model study for the coexistence of the two strongly interacting charge density wave (CDW) and spin density wave (SDW) for high-T c cuprates in the underdoped region before the onset of the superconductivity in the system. The analytic expressions for the temperature dependence of the CDW and SDW order parameters are derived and solved self-consistently. Their interplay is studied by varying their respective coupling constants. It is observed that in the interplay region both the gap parameters exhibit very strong dependence of their gap values for the coupling constants. Further, the electronic density of states (DOS) for the conduction electrons, which represents the scanning tunneling data, show two gap parameters in the interplay region from these experimental data. Our model can help to determine separately the CDW and SDW parameters

  12. Recycled lightweight concrete made from footwear industry waste and CDW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Roberto Lopes; Leite, Mônica Batista; Santiago, Ediela Quinteiro Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    In this paper two types of recycled aggregate, originated from construction and demolition waste (CDW) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) waste, were used in the production of concrete. The EVA waste results from cutting off the EVA expanded sheets used to produce insoles and innersoles of shoes in the footwear industry. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of the use of these recycled aggregates as replacements of the natural coarse aggregate, upon density, compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and flexural behavior of recycled concrete. The experimental program was developed with three w/c ratios: 0.49, 0.63 and 0.82. Fifteen mixtures were produced with different aggregate substitution rates (0%, 50% EVA, 50% CDW, 25% CDW-25% EVA and 50% CDW-50% EVA), by volume. The results showed that it is possible to use the EVA waste and CDW to produce lightweight concrete having semi-structural properties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quasiparticle Scattering off Defects and Possible Bound States in Charge-Ordered YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, R; Hirata, M; Wu, T; Vinograd, I; Mayaffre, H; Krämer, S; Horvatić, M; Berthier, C; Reyes, A P; Kuhns, P L; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Bonn, D A; Julien, M-H

    2017-01-06

    We report the NMR observation of a skewed distribution of ^{17}O Knight shifts when a magnetic field quenches superconductivity and induces long-range charge-density-wave (CDW) order in YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}. This distribution is explained by an inhomogeneous pattern of the local density of states N(E_{F}) arising from quasiparticle scattering off, yet unidentified, defects in the CDW state. We argue that the effect is most likely related to the formation of quasiparticle bound states, as is known to occur, under specific circumstances, in some metals and superconductors (but not in the CDW state, in general, except for very few cases in 1D materials). These observations should provide insight into the microscopic nature of the CDW, especially regarding the reconstructed band structure and the sensitivity to disorder.

  14. Local Density of States in a d-wave Superconductor with Stripe-Like Modulations and a Strong Impurity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hong-Yi; Ting, C. S.

    2003-01-01

    Using an effective Hamiltonian with d-wave superconductivity (dSC) and competing antiferromagnetic (AF) interactions, we show that weak and one-dimensionally modulated dSC, spin density wave (SDW) and charge density wave (CDW) could coexist in the ground state configuration. With proper parameters, the SDW order exhibits a period of 8a, while for dSC and CDW orders the period is 4a. The local density of states (LDOS), which probing the behavior of quasiparticle excitations, is found to have t...

  15. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation and Hartree–Fock theories for one-dimensional solids: An application to Peierls and charge-density-wave transitions in conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiao; Ryu, Shinsei; Hirata, So

    2014-01-01

    Finite-temperature extensions of ab initio Gaussian-basis-set spin-restricted Hartree–Fock (HF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories are implemented for infinitely extended, periodic, one-dimensional solids and applied to the Peierls and charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene. The HF theory predicts insulating CDW ground states for both systems in their equidistant structures at low temperatures. In the same structures, they turn metallic at high temperatures. Starting from the “dimerized” low-temperature equilibrium structures, the systems need even higher temperatures to undergo a Peierls transition, which is accompanied by geometric as well as electronic distortions from dimerized to non-dimerized forms. The conventional finite-temperature MP2 theory shows a sign of divergence in any phase at any nonzero temperature and is useless. The renormalized finite-temperature MP2 (MP2R) theory is divergent only near metallic electronic structures, but is well behaved elsewhere. MP2R also predicts CDW and Peierls transitions occurring at two different temperatures. The effect of electron correlation is primarily to lower the Peierls transition temperature

  16. Three-dimensional freak waves and higher-order wave-wave resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badulin, S. I.; Ivonin, D. V.; Dulov, V. A.

    2012-04-01

    Quite often the freak wave phenomenon is associated with the mechanism of modulational (Benjamin-Feir) instability resulted from resonances of four waves with close directions and scales. This weakly nonlinear model reflects some important features of the phenomenon and is discussing in a great number of studies as initial stage of evolution of essentially nonlinear water waves. Higher-order wave-wave resonances attract incomparably less attention. More complicated mathematics and physics explain this disregard partially only. The true reason is a lack of adequate experimental background for the study of essentially three-dimensional water wave dynamics. We start our study with the classic example of New Year Wave. Two extreme events: the famous wave 26.5 meters and one of smaller 18.5 meters height (formally, not freak) of the same record, are shown to have pronounced features of essentially three-dimensional five-wave resonant interactions. The quasi-spectra approach is used for the data analysis in order to resolve adequately frequencies near the spectral peak fp ≈ 0.057Hz and, thus, to analyze possible modulations of the dominant wave component. In terms of the quasi-spectra the above two anomalous waves show co-existence of the peak harmonic and one at frequency f5w = 3/2fp that corresponds to maximum of five-wave instability of weakly nonlinear waves. No pronounced marks of usually discussed Benjamin-Feir instability are found in the record that is easy to explain: the spectral peak frequency fp corresponds to the non-dimensional depth parameter kD ≈ 0.92 (k - wavenumber, D ≈ 70 meters - depth at the Statoil platform Draupner site) that is well below the shallow water limit of the instability kD = 1.36. A unique data collection of wave records of the Marine Hydrophysical Institute in the Katsiveli platform (Black Sea) has been analyzed in view of the above findings of possible impact of the five-wave instability on freak wave occurrence. The data cover

  17. The tight binding model study of the role of anisotropic AFM spin ordering in the charge ordered CMR manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, J. K.; Panda, Saswati; Rout, G. C.

    2017-05-01

    We propose here a tight binding model study of the interplay between charge and spin orderings in the CMR manganites taking anisotropic effect due to electron hoppings and spin exchanges. The Hamiltonian consists of the kinetic energies of eg and t2g electrons of manganese ion. It further includes double exchange and Heisenberg interactions. The charge density wave interaction (CDW) describes an extra mechanism for the insulating character of the system. The CDW gap and spin parameters are calculated using Zubarev's Green's function technique and computed self-consistently. The results are reported in this communication.

  18. Distinct charge orders in the planes and chains of ortho-III-ordered YBa2Cu3O(6+δ) superconductors identified by resonant elastic x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, A J; Sutarto, R; Mao, X; He, F; Frano, A; Blanco-Canosa, S; Le Tacon, M; Ghiringhelli, G; Braicovich, L; Minola, M; Sala, M Moretti; Mazzoli, C; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D A; Hardy, W N; Keimer, B; Sawatzky, G A; Hawthorn, D G

    2012-10-19

    Recently, charge density wave (CDW) order in the CuO(2) planes of underdoped YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6+δ) was detected using resonant soft x-ray scattering. An important question remains: is the chain layer responsible for this charge ordering? Here, we explore the energy and polarization dependence of the resonant scattering intensity in a detwinned sample of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6.75) with ortho-III oxygen ordering in the chain layer. We show that the ortho-III CDW order in the chains is distinct from the CDW order in the planes. The ortho-III structure gives rise to a commensurate superlattice reflection at Q=[0.33 0 L] whose energy and polarization dependence agrees with expectations for oxygen ordering and a spatial modulation of the Cu valence in the chains. Incommensurate peaks at [0.30 0 L] and [0 0.30 L] from the CDW order in the planes are shown to be distinct in Q as well as their temperature, energy, and polarization dependence, and are thus unrelated to the structure of the chain layer. Moreover, the energy dependence of the CDW order in the planes is shown to result from a spatial modulation of energies of the Cu 2p to 3d(x(2)-y(2)) transition, similar to stripe-ordered 214 cuprates.

  19. Effect of Te doping on superconductivity and charge-density wave in dichalcogenides 2H-NbSe2-χTeχ(χ=0,0.1,0.2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong-Tao; Li Lin-Jun; Ye De-shu; Cheng Xin-Hong; Xu Zhu-An

    2007-01-01

    Single crystals of Te-doped dichalcogenides 2H-NbSe2-χTeχ(χ=0,0.10,0.20)were grown by vapour transport method.The effect of Te doping on the superconducting and charge-density wave(CDW)transitions has been investigated.The sharp decrease of residual resistance ratio,RRR=R(300K)/R(8K),with increasing Te content was observed,indicating that the disorder in the conducting plane is induced by Te doping.Meanwhile the superconducting transition temperature,Tc,decreases monotonically with Te content.However,the CDW transition temperature,TCDW,shown by a small jump in the temperature dependence of the resistivity near 30 K,increases slightly.The results show that the suppression of superconductivity might be caused by the enhancement of CDW ordering.The disorder has little influence on the CDW ordering.

  20. Charge density waves as the origin of dip-hump structures in the differential tunneling conductance of cuprates: The case of d-wave superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabovich, Alexander M., E-mail: gabovich@iop.kiev.ua; Voitenko, Alexander I., E-mail: voitenko@iop.kiev.ua

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • d-Wave superconductivity and charge-density waves compete for the Fermi surface. • Charge-density waves induce pseudogaps and peak-dip-hump structures in cuprates. • Tunnel spectra are non-symmetric due to the dielectric order-parameter phase fixation. • Scatter of the dielectric order parameter smears the tunnel spectra peculiarities. - Abstract: Quasiparticle differential current–voltage characteristics (CVCs) G(V) of non-symmetric tunnel junctions between d-wave superconductors with charge-density waves (CDWs) and normal metals were calculated. The dependences G(V) were shown to have a V-like form at small voltages V and low temperatures, and to be asymmetric at larger V owing to the presence of CDW peak in either of the V-branches. The spatial scatter of the dielectric (CDW) order parameter smears the CDW peak into a hump and induces a peak-dip-hump structure (PDHS) typical of CVCs observed for such junctions. At temperatures larger than the superconducting critical one, the PDHS evolves into a pseudogap depression. The results agree well with the scanning tunneling microscopy data for Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ}. The results differ substantially from those obtained earlier for CDW s-wave superconductors.

  1. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in charge ordered manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G C; Panda, S

    2009-01-01

    A microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in a manganite system is reported here. The manganite system is described by a model Hamiltonian consisting of charge density wave (CDW) interaction in the e g band, an exchange interaction between spins of the itinerant e g band electrons and the core t 2g electrons, and the Heisenberg interaction of the core level spins. The magnetization and the CDW order parameters are considered within mean-field approximations. The phonon Green's function was calculated by Zubarev's technique and hence the longitudinal velocity of sound was finally calculated for the manganite system. The results show that the elastic spring involved in the velocity of sound exhibits strong stiffening in the CDW phase with a decrease in temperature as observed in experiments.

  2. Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in charge ordered manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, G C [Condensed Matter Physics Group, PG Department of Applied Physics and Ballistics, FM University, Balasore 756 019 (India); Panda, S, E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Trident Academy of Technology, F2/A, Chandaka Industrial Estate, Bhubaneswar 751 024 (India)

    2009-10-14

    A microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in a manganite system is reported here. The manganite system is described by a model Hamiltonian consisting of charge density wave (CDW) interaction in the e{sub g} band, an exchange interaction between spins of the itinerant e{sub g} band electrons and the core t{sub 2g} electrons, and the Heisenberg interaction of the core level spins. The magnetization and the CDW order parameters are considered within mean-field approximations. The phonon Green's function was calculated by Zubarev's technique and hence the longitudinal velocity of sound was finally calculated for the manganite system. The results show that the elastic spring involved in the velocity of sound exhibits strong stiffening in the CDW phase with a decrease in temperature as observed in experiments.

  3. Analiticity in fourth-order wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper it is presented, through a familiar example (δ-function potential in one dimension), the analytic properties of Jost functions associated with fourth-order equations. It is shown how to construct the Jost functions and the two discontinuity matrices associated with the line of singularities. The latter divide the complex k-plane in eight regions of analiticity. One of these matrices is related to the asymptotic behaviour of the scattering state. The other is not. Both are necessary to solve the inverse problem. Besides the usual poles related to bound states there are also other poles associated with total reflexion

  4. Analiticity in fourth order wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Through a familiar example (δ-function potential in one dimension) the analytic properties of Jost functions associated with fourth order equations are presented. It is shown how to construct the Jost functions and the two discontinuities matrices associated to the line of singularities. The latter divide the complex k-plane in eight regions of analiticity. One of these matrices is related to the asymptotic behaviour of scattering state. The other is not. Both being necessary to solve the inverse problem. Besides the usual poles related to bound states there are also other poles associated with total reflexion. (Author) [pt

  5. The second-order decomposition model of nonlinear irregular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhi Wen; Bingham, Harry B.; Li, Jin Xuan

    2013-01-01

    into the first- and the second-order super-harmonic as well as the second-order sub-harmonic components by transferring them into an identical Fourier frequency-space and using a Newton-Raphson iteration method. In order to evaluate the present model, a variety of monochromatic waves and the second...

  6. Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jr, John T. Giblin [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Rd, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Vlcek, Brian, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: larryp@caltech.edu, E-mail: siemens@gravity.phys.uwm.edu, E-mail: bvlcek@uwm.edu [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation.

  7. Reduced-order prediction of rogue waves in two-dimensional deep-water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsis, Themistoklis; Farazmand, Mohammad

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of large wave prediction in two-dimensional water waves. Such waves form due to the synergistic effect of dispersive mixing of smaller wave groups and the action of localized nonlinear wave interactions that leads to focusing. Instead of a direct simulation approach, we rely on the decomposition of the wave field into a discrete set of localized wave groups with optimal length scales and amplitudes. Due to the short-term character of the prediction, these wave groups do not interact and therefore their dynamics can be characterized individually. Using direct numerical simulations of the governing envelope equations we precompute the expected maximum elevation for each of those wave groups. The combination of the wave field decomposition algorithm, which provides information about the statistics of the system, and the precomputed map for the expected wave group elevation, which encodes dynamical information, allows (i) for understanding of how the probability of occurrence of rogue waves changes as the spectrum parameters vary, (ii) the computation of a critical length scale characterizing wave groups with high probability of evolving to rogue waves, and (iii) the formulation of a robust and parsimonious reduced-order prediction scheme for large waves. T.S. has been supported through the ONR Grants N00014-14-1-0520 and N00014-15-1-2381 and the AFOSR Grant FA9550-16-1-0231. M.F. has been supported through the second Grant.

  8. Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth; Figueroa, Daniel G.; García-Bellido, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as Ω GW (f) ∝ f 3 with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer time, until a given mode which is initially superhorizon (kη * 1, we find that the gravitational wave energy density is frequency independent, i.e. scale invariant. Moreover, its amplitude for a GUT scale scenario turns out to be within the range and sensitivity of BBO and marginally detectable by LIGO and LISA. This new gravitational wave background can compete with the one generated during inflation, and distinguishing both may require extra information

  9. The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.54 revealed by X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forgan, E.M.; Blackburn, E.; Holmes, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Charge density wave (CDW) order appears throughout the underdoped high-temperature cuprate superconductors, but the underlying symmetry breaking and the origin of the CDW remain unclear. We use X-ray diffraction to determine the microscopic structure of the CDWs in an archetypical cuprate YBa2Cu3O6...... oxygen atoms have the largest displacements, perpendicular to the CuO2 planes. Our results allow many electronic properties of the underdoped cuprates to be understood. For instance, the CDWs will lead to local variations in the electronic structure, giving an explicit explanation of density-wave states...

  10. Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth; Garcia-Bellido, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as $\\Omega_{\\rm GW}(f) \\propto f^3$ with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer tim...

  11. Pair-density waves, charge-density waves, and vortices in high-Tc cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhehao; Zhang, Ya-Hui; Senthil, T.; Lee, Patrick A.

    2018-05-01

    A recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiment reports the observation of a charge-density wave (CDW) with a period of approximately 8a in the halo region surrounding the vortex core, in striking contrast to the approximately 4a period CDWs that are commonly observed in the cuprates. Inspired by this work, we study a model where a bidirectional pair-density wave (PDW) with period 8 is at play. This further divides into two classes: (1) where the PDW is a competing state of the d -wave superconductor and can exist only near the vortex core where the d -wave order is suppressed and (2) where the PDW is the primary order, the so-called "mother state" that persists with strong phase fluctuations to high temperature and high magnetic field and lies behind the pseudogap phenomenology. We study the charge-density wave structures near the vortex core in these models. We emphasize the importance of the phase winding of the d -wave order parameter. The PDW can be pinned by the vortex core due to this winding and become static. Furthermore, the period-8 CDW inherits the properties of this winding, which gives rise to a special feature of the Fourier transform peak, namely, it is split in certain directions. There is also a line of zeros in the inverse Fourier transform of filtered data. We propose that these are key experimental signatures that can distinguish between the PDW-driven scenario from the more mundane option that the period-8 CDW is primary. We discuss the pro's and con's of the options considered above. Finally, we attempt to place the STM experiment in the broader context of pseudogap physics of underdoped cuprates and relate this observation to the unusual properties of x-ray scattering data on CDW carried out to very high magnetic field.

  12. Third-order theory for multi-directional irregular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2012-01-01

    A new third-order solution for multi-directional irregular water waves in finite water depth is presented. The solution includes explicit expressions for the surface elevation, the amplitude dispersion and the vertical variation of the velocity potential. Expressions for the velocity potential at...

  13. Single-crystal study of the charge density wave metal LuNiC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, S.; Michor, H.; Sologub, O.; Hinterleitner, B.; Höfenstock, F.; Waas, M.; Bauer, E.; Stöger, B.; Babizhetskyy, V.; Levytskyy, V.; Kotur, B.

    2018-05-01

    We report on single-crystal growth, single-crystal x-ray diffraction, physical properties, and density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure as well as Fermi surface calculations for two ternary carbides, LuCoC2 and LuNiC2. Electrical resistivity measurements reveal for LuNiC2 a charge density wave (CDW) transition at TCDW≃450 K and, for T >TCDW , a significant anisotropy of the electrical resistivity, which is lowest along the orthorhombic a axis. The analysis of x-ray superstructure reflections suggest a commensurate CDW state with a Peierls-type distortion of the Ni atom periodicity along the orthorhombic a axis. DFT calculations based on the CDW modulated monoclinic structure model of LuNiC2 as compared to results of the orthorhombic parent type reveal the formation of a partial CDW gap at the Fermi level which reduces the electronic density of states from N (EF)=1.03 states/eV f.u. without CDW to N (EF)=0.46 states/eV f.u. in the CDW state. The corresponding bare DFT Sommerfeld value of the latter, γDFTCDW=0.90 mJ/mol K2, reaches reasonable agreement with the experimental value γ =0.83 (5 ) mJ/mol K2 of LuNiC2. LuCoC2 displays a simple metallic behavior with neither CDW ordering nor superconductivity above 0.4 K. Its experimental Sommerfeld coefficient, γ =5.9 (1) mJ/mol K2, is in realistic correspondence with the calculated, bare Sommerfeld coefficient, γDFT=3.82 mJ/mol K2, of orthorhombic LuCoC2.

  14. Ultrafast dynamics in CeTe{sub 3} near the pressure-induced charge-density-wave transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauch, Jonas; Obergfell, Manuel [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Schaefer, Hanjo [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Physics, Ilmenau University of Technology (Germany); Demsar, Jure [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Institute of Physics, Ilmenau University of Technology (Germany); Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz (Germany); Giraldo, Paula; Fisher, Ian R. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University (United States); Pashkin, Alexej [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is an efficient tool for studying ultrafast dynamics in strongly correlated electronic systems, in particular, compounds with a charge-density-wave (CDW) order. Application of external pressure often leads to a suppression of a CDW state due to an impairment of the Fermi surface nesting. We combine time-resolved optical spectroscopy and diamond anvil cell technology to study electron and lattice dynamics in tri-telluride compound CeTe{sub 3}. Around pressures of 4 GPa we observe a gradual vanishing of the relaxation process related to the recombination of the photoexcited quasiparticles. The coherent oscillations of the phonon modes coupled to the CDW order parameter demonstrate even more dramatic suppression with increasing pressure. These observations clearly indicate a transition into the metallic state of CeTe{sub 3} induced by the external pressure.

  15. Run-up on a structure due to second-order waves and current in a numerical wave tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Bjarne; Skourup, Jesper; Cheung, Kwok Fai

    1998-01-01

    order in current speed. The boundary-value problem is separated into a known incident wave field and an unknown scattered wave field, the latter being absorbed at the radiation boundaries using active wave absorption. The present paper focuses on the wave run-up on a structure in waves and current...

  16. Issues concerning gravity waves from first-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosowsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    The stochastic background of gravitational radiation is a unique and potentially valuable source of information about the early universe. Photons thermally decoupled when the universe was around 100,000 years old; electromagnetic radiation cannot directly provide information about the epoch earlier than this. In contrast, gravitons presumably decoupled around the Planck time, when the universe was only 10 -44 seconds old. Since gravity wave propagate virtually unimpeded, any energetic event in the evolution of the universe will leave an imprint on the gravity wave background. Turner and Wilczek first suggested that first-order phase transitions, and particularly transitions which occur via the nucleation, expansion, and percolation of vacuum bubbles, will be a particularly efficient source of gravitational radiation. Detailed calculations with scalar-field vacuum bubbles confirm this conjecture and show that strongly first-order phase transitions are probably the strongest stochastic gravity-wave source yet conjectured. In this work the author first reviews the vacuum bubble calculations, stressing their physical assumptions. The author then discusses realistic scenarios for first-order phase transitions and describes how the calculations must be modified and extended to produce reliable results. 11 refs

  17. Higher-order rogue wave solutions of the three-wave resonant interaction equation via the generalized Darboux transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Yong; Cao, Jianli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize generalized Darboux transformation to study higher-order rogue wave solutions of the three-wave resonant interaction equation, which describes the propagation and mixing of waves with different frequencies in weakly nonlinear dispersive media. A general Nth-order rogue wave solution with two characteristic velocities structural parameters and 3N independent parameters under a determined plane-wave background and a specific parameter condition is derived. As an application, we show that four fundamental rogue waves with fundamental, two kinds of line and quadrilateral patterns, or six fundamental rogue waves with fundamental, triangular, two kinds of quadrilateral and circular patterns can emerge in the second-order rogue waves. Moreover, several important wave characteristics including the maximum values, the corresponding coordinate positions of the humps, and the stability problem for some special higher-order rogue wave solutions such as the fundamental and quadrilateral cases are discussed. (paper)

  18. High-Order Wave Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2013-01-22

    We present a finite volume method that is applicable to hyperbolic PDEs including spatially varying and semilinear nonconservative systems. The spatial discretization, like that of the well-known Clawpack software, is based on solving Riemann problems and calculating fluctuations (not fluxes). The implementation employs weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction in space and strong stability preserving Runge--Kutta integration in time. The method can be extended to arbitrarily high order of accuracy and allows a well-balanced implementation for capturing solutions of balance laws near steady state. This well-balancing is achieved through the $f$-wave Riemann solver and a novel wave-slope WENO reconstruction procedure. The wide applicability and advantageous properties of the method are demonstrated through numerical examples, including problems in nonconservative form, problems with spatially varying fluxes, and problems involving near-equilibrium solutions of balance laws.

  19. Terahertz spectra revealing the collective excitation mode in charge-density-wave single crystal LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiumei; Jin, Zuanming; Lin, Xian; Ma, Guohong [Department of Physics, Shanghai University (China); Cheng, Zhenxiang [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Balakrishnan, Geetha [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    A low-energy collective excitation mode in charge-ordered multiferroic LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is reported via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Upon cooling from 300 to 40 K, the central resonance frequency showed a pronounced hardening from 0.85 to 1.15 THz. In analogy to the well-known low-energy optical properties of LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, this emerging resonance was attributed to the charge-density-wave (CDW) collective excitations. By using the Drude-Lorentz model fitting, the CDW collective mode becomes increasingly damped with the increasing temperature. Furthermore, the kinks of the CDW collective mode at the magnetic transition temperature are analyzed, which indicate the coupling of spin order with electric polarization. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Antiferromagnetism, charge density wave, and d-wave superconductivity in the extended t-J-U model: role of intersite Coulomb interaction and a critical overview of renormalized mean field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, M; Zegrodnik, M; Spałek, J

    2017-09-13

    In the first part of the paper, we study the stability of antiferromagnetic (AF), charge density wave (CDW), and superconducting (SC) states within the t-J-U-V model of strongly correlated electrons by using the statistically consistent Gutzwiller approximation (SGA). We concentrate on the role of the intersite Coulomb interaction term V in stabilizing the CDW phase. In particular, we show that the charge ordering appears only above a critical value of V in a limited hole-doping range δ. The effect of the V term on SC and AF phases is that a strong interaction suppresses SC, whereas the AF order is not significantly influenced by its presence. In the second part, separate calculations for the case of a pure SC phase have been carried out within an extended approach (the diagrammatic expansion for the Gutzwiller wave function, DE-GWF) in order to analyze the influence of the intersite Coulomb repulsion on the SC phase with the higher-order corrections included beyond the SGA method. The upper concentration for the SC disappearance decreases with increasing V, bringing the results closer to experiment. In appendices A and B we discuss the ambiguity connected with the choice of the Gutzwiller renormalization factors within the renormalized mean filed theory when either AF or CDW orders are considered. At the end, we overview briefly the possible extensions of the current models to put descriptions of the SC, AF, and CDW states on equal footing.

  1. Optical properties of two-dimensional charge density wave materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Charles; Karbassi, Sara; Friedemann, Sven; da Como, Enrico

    Titanium diselenide (TiSe2) is a member of the layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials. It exhibits unusual chiral charge ordering below 190 K after undergoing an initial phase transition to a commensurate (2 x 2 x 2) charge density wave (CDW) at 200 K which is enhanced further in the monolayer. Recently, the first evidence of chirality in a CDW system was discovered in this material by scanning tunneling microscopy and time-resolved reflectivity experiments, where separate left and right handed charge-ordered domains were found to exist within a single sample. We have prepared single crystals of 1T-TiSe2 using iodine vapour transport, and confirmed their quality by x-ray analysis and charge transport measurements. Using a combination of polarised optical spectroscopy techniques in the mid to far infrared (4 to 700 meV photon energy), we have measured an anisotropy relating to the CDW gap. We discuss the results on the basis of chiral domains with different handedness and the nature of the CDW transition.

  2. Phonon Dispersion and the Competition between Pairing and Charge Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N. C.; Blommel, T.; Chiu, W.-T.; Batrouni, G.; Scalettar, R. T.

    2018-05-01

    The Holstein model describes the interaction between fermions and a collection of local (dispersionless) phonon modes. In the dilute limit, the phonon degrees of freedom dress the fermions, giving rise to polaron and bipolaron formation. At higher densities, the phonons mediate collective superconducting (SC) and charge-density wave (CDW) phases. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations have considered both these limits but have not yet focused on the physics of more general phonon spectra. Here we report QMC studies of the role of phonon dispersion on SC and CDW order in such models. We quantify the effect of finite phonon bandwidth and curvature on the critical temperature Tcdw for CDW order and also uncover several novel features of diagonal long-range order in the phase diagram, including a competition between charge patterns at momenta q =(π ,π ) and q =(0 ,π ) which lends insight into the relationship between Fermi surface nesting and the wave vector at which charge order occurs. We also demonstrate SC order at half filling in situations where a nonzero bandwidth sufficiently suppresses Tcdw.

  3. Interacting wave fronts and rarefaction waves in a second order model of nonlinear thermoviscous fluids : Interacting fronts and rarefaction waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2011-01-01

    A wave equation including nonlinear terms up to the second order for a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid is proposed. In the lossless case this equation results from an expansion to third order of the Lagrangian for the fundamental non-dissipative fluid dynamical equations. Thus it preserves the Hami...... is proposed. The dynamics of the rarefaction wave is approximated by a collective coordinate approach in the energy balance equation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.......A wave equation including nonlinear terms up to the second order for a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid is proposed. In the lossless case this equation results from an expansion to third order of the Lagrangian for the fundamental non-dissipative fluid dynamical equations. Thus it preserves...... the Hamiltonian structure, in contrast to the Kuznetsov equation, a model often used in nonlinear acoustics. An exact traveling wave front solution is derived from a generalized traveling wave assumption for the velocity potential. Numerical studies of the evolution of a number of arbitrary initial conditions...

  4. Higher-Order Hamiltonian Model for Unidirectional Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, J. L.; Carvajal, X.; Panthee, M.; Scialom, M.

    2018-04-01

    Formally second-order correct, mathematical descriptions of long-crested water waves propagating mainly in one direction are derived. These equations are analogous to the first-order approximations of KdV- or BBM-type. The advantage of these more complex equations is that their solutions corresponding to physically relevant initial perturbations of the rest state may be accurate on a much longer timescale. The initial value problem for the class of equations that emerges from our derivation is then considered. A local well-posedness theory is straightforwardly established by a contraction mapping argument. A subclass of these equations possess a special Hamiltonian structure that implies the local theory can be continued indefinitely.

  5. CDW-EIS theoretical calculations of projectile deflection for single ionization in highly charged ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    We present continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) theoretical calculations for the projectile deflection in single ionization of helium by heavy-ion impact as a function of ionized electron energies. These calculations account for the helium passive electron shielding in the internuclear interaction improving standard CDW-EIS theory. The results are compared with recent experimental results by impact of 100 MeV/amu C 6+ and 3.6 MeV/amu Au 53+ . For highly charged projectiles there is a poor quantitative agreement between theory and experiment. However, this refined calculation does share some qualitative features with the data. In particular the variation of the effective charge of the residual He + ion from Z eff =1 to Z eff =2 when going from small to large projectile scattering angles is able to represent a shoulder observed in the double differential cross sections. Important qualitative differences are observed at the level of triple differential cross sections

  6. Synthesis and expression of CDw75 antigen in human colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Nogueira, Clotilde; Villar-Portela, Susana; Cuevas, Elisa; Gil-Martín, Emilio; Fernández-Briera, Almudena

    2009-01-01

    Increased ST6Gal I activity has been associated with the α(2,6)sialylation enhancement of membrane glycoconjugates observed in metastatic colorectal carcinomas (CRC). Siaα(2,6)Galβ(1,4)GlcNAc sequence, known as CDw75, is a sialylated carbohydrate determinant generated by the ST6Gal I. This epitope has been reported to be associated with the progression of gastric and colorectal tumours, hence there are only a few conclusive studies to date. By radioisotopic techniques we evaluated the ST6Gal I activity in healthy, transitional and tumour tissues from 43 patients with CRC. By immunohistochemistry we assessed the CDw75 expression in 25 colorectal adenomas, 43 tumours, 13 transitional and 28 healthy tissues of CRC patients. ST6Gal I activity was likewise found to be statistically higher in tumour tissue respect to healthy tissue from CRC patients. CDw75 expression was positive in 20% of colorectal adenomas. Furthermore, 70% of tumour specimens and 8.3% of transitional specimens were positive for CDw75 expression, whereas none of the healthy ones showed the presence of the epitope. The major contribution of this study is the inclusion of data from transitional tissue and the analysis of CDw75 antigen expression in CRC and in colorectal adenomas, little known so far. ST6Gal I activity and CDw75 antigen expression were increased in CRC. Although their comparison did not reach the statistical significance, a great extent of patients showed both, an enhanced tumour ST6Gal I activity and an increased CDw75 expression in the tumour tissue. So, these two variables may play a role in malignant transformation. The expression of CDw75 in colorectal adenomas suggests that this antigen may be a tumour marker in CRC

  7. Sliding charge density wave in the monophosphate tungsten bronze (PO2)4(WO3)2m with alternate stacking of m=4 and m=6 WO3 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foury-Leylekian, P.; Sandre, E.; Ravy, S.; Pouget, J.-P.; Elkaim, E.; Roussel, P.; Groult, D.; Labbe, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    The monophosphate tungsten bronzes (PO 2 ) 4 (WO 3 ) 2m form family of two-dimensional metals which exhibit charge density wave (CDW) instabilities. These materials are generally built by the regular stacking of (a,b) layers in which chains made of segments of m WO 6 octahedra directed along the a and a±b directions are delimited. Their electronic structure thus originates from quasi-one-dimensional (1D) bands located on these chains. As a consequence their Fermi surface (FS) exhibits large flat portions whose nesting gives rise to successive CDW instabilities. Here we present a structural study of the CDW instability of the (PO 2 ) 4 (WO 3 ) 10 member formed by the alternate stacking of layers built with segments of m=4 and m=6 WO 6 octahedra. Its ab initio electronic structure calculation shows that the FS of this member exhibits large flat portions which can be extremely well nested. Its best nesting wave vector accounts for the modulation wave vector stabilized by the CDW transition which occurs at 156 K. Because of the regular stacking of layers of different m values the FS is slightly split. The unusual thermal dependence of the x-ray satellite intensity provides evidence that the two types of layers become modulated at different temperature. This also leads to a slight thermal sliding of the CDW-nesting modulation wave vector, which can be accounted for within the framework of a Landau-Ginzburg theory. In addition, the observation of a global hysteresis in the thermal cycling of the satellite intensity, as well as the degradation of the interlayer order upon cooling, suggest the formation of a disordered lattice of dilute solitons. Such solitons allow to accommodate the charge transferred between the two types of layer. Finally the relevance of local charge transfers, at intergrowth defects, for example, to create pinned discommensurations that break the CDW coherence is emphasized in this whole family of bronzes

  8. Mode locking in overdamped charge-density-wave systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstroem, P.; Levinsen, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the rich mode-locking structure observed in overdamped charge-density-wave (CDW) systems can be understood in terms of a simple model of driven damped 'particles' without inertia in a non-sinusoidal periodic potential. The analysis shows that the nonchaotic system of a driven overdamped CDW without inertia in general has a 'close-to-chaotic' behavior in an appropriate frequency range. Our results also provide a natural basis for studies of spatially extended CDW systems. (orig.)

  9. Transversely driven charge density waves in NbSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, N.; Dohmen, M.A.H.; Zant, H.S.J. van der

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the charge density wave (CDW) transport in the presence of a single-particle current flowing transversely to the sliding direction of the CDW. The depinning threshold field was found to decrease exponentially with the transverse current, allowing the CDWs to slide even at very low bias fields. The CDW transport is ohmic in this novel, nonequilibrium regime. The results from thin NbSe 3 crystals are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  10. First principles analysis of the CDW instability of single-layer 1T-TiSe2 and its evolution with charge carrier density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guster, Bogdan; Canadell, Enric; Pruneda, Miguel; Ordejón, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    We present a density functional theory study of the electronic structure of single-layer TiSe2, and focus on the charge density wave (CDW) instability present on this 2D material. We explain the 2× 2 periodicity of the CDW from the phonon band structure of the undistorted crystal, which is unstable under one of the phonon modes at the M point. This can be understood in terms of a partial band gap opening at the Fermi level, which we describe on the basis of the symmetry of the involved crystal orbitals, leading to an energy gain upon the displacement of the atoms following the phonon mode in a 2  ×  1 structure. Furthermore, the combination of the corresponding phonons for the three inequivalent M points of the Brillouin zone leads to the 2  ×  2 distortion characteristic of the CDW state. This leads to a further opening of a full gap, which reduces the energy of the 2  ×  2 structure compared to the 2  ×  1 one of a single M point phonon, and makes the CDW structure the most stable one. We also analyze the effect of charge injection into the layer on the structural instability. We predict that the 2  ×  2 structure only survives for a certain range of doping levels, both for electrons and for holes, as doping reduces the energy gain due to the gap opening. We predict the transition from the commensurate 2  ×  2 distortion to an incommensurate one with increasing wavelength upon increasing the doping level, followed by the appearance of the undistorted 1  ×  1 structure for larger carrier concentrations.

  11. Amplitude modulation of charge-density-wave domains in 1T-TaS2 at 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.V.; McNairy, W.W.; Slough, C.G.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the charge-density-wave (CDW) amplitude modulation in 1T-TaS 2 at room temperature have been made using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating in the constant current mode. The amplitude profiles are in good agreement with the profile predicated by the CDW domain model of Nakanishi and Shiba. Interference effects between the atomic and CDW lattices have been analyzed and do not modify these profiles significantly. They represent the true CDW amplitude variation connected with the CDW domain structure

  12. Spin-wave damping in ferromagnets in the ordered regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, T.L.; Stinchcombe, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical results based on a high-density approach are compared with experimental measurements for the damping of long-wavelength spin waves in the nearly isotropic ferromagnet for temperatures up to the critical regime. The theory, which has no adjustable parameters, is shown to account well for the overall magnitude of the spin-wave widths measured in recent neutron scattering experiments on EuO, and it is also in satisfactory agreement with the measured wave vector and temperature dependence of these widths. An estimate is also given for the contribution of dipolar coupling to the spin-wave widths

  13. Phase coexistence and pinning of charge density waves by interfaces in chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, A.; Patel, S. K. K.; Uhlíř, V.; Kukreja, R.; Ulvestad, A.; Dufresne, E. M.; Sandy, A. R.; Fullerton, E. E.; Shpyrko, O. G.

    2016-11-01

    We study the temperature dependence of the charge density wave (CDW) in a chromium thin film using x-ray diffraction. We exploit the interference between the CDW satellite peaks and Laue oscillations to determine the amplitude, the phase, and the period of the CDW. We find discrete half-integer periods of CDW in the film and switching of the number of periods by one upon cooling/heating with a thermal hysteresis of 20 K. The transition between different CDW periods occurs over a temperature range of 30 K, slightly larger than the width of the thermal hysteresis. A comparison with simulations shows that the phase transition occurs as a variation of the volume fraction of two distinct phases with well-defined periodicities. The phase of the CDW is constant for all temperatures, and we attribute it to strong pinning of the CDW by the mismatch-induced strain at the film-substrate interface.

  14. High-Order Wave Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Parsani, Matteo; LeVeque, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    of accuracy and allows a well-balanced implementation for capturing solutions of balance laws near steady state. This well-balancing is achieved through the $f$-wave Riemann solver and a novel wave-slope WENO reconstruction procedure. The wide applicability

  15. A third-order KdV solution for internal solitary waves and its application in the numerical wave tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicheng Meng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A third-order KdV solution to the internal solitary wave is derived by a new method based on the weakly nonlinear assumptions in a rigid-lid two-layer system. The solution corrects an error by Mirie and Su (1984. A two-dimensional numerical wave tank has been established with the help of the open source CFD library OpenFOAM and the third-party software waves2Foam. Various analytical solutions, including the first-order to third-order KdV solutions, the eKdV solution and the MCC solution, have been used to initialise the flow fields in the CFD simulations of internal solitary waves. Two groups including 11 numerical cases have been carried out. In the same group, the initial wave amplitudes are the same but the implemented analytical solutions are different. The simulated wave profiles at different moments have been presented. The relative errors in terms of the wave amplitude between the last time step and the initial input have been analysed quantitatively. It is found that the third-order KdV solution results in the most stable internal solitary wave in the numerical wave tank for both small-amplitude and finite-amplitude cases. The finding is significant for the further simulations involving internal solitary waves.

  16. A stochastic collocation method for the second order wave equation with a discontinuous random speed

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a stochastic collocation method for solving the second order wave equation with a random wave speed and subjected to deterministic boundary and initial conditions. The speed is piecewise smooth in the physical

  17. Charge Density Waves and the Hidden Nesting of Purple Bronze KMo6O17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Pereira, Vitor

    The layered purple bronze KMo6O17, with its robust triple CDW phase up to high temperatures, became the emblematic example of the ''hidden nesting'' concept. Recent experiments suggest that, on the surface layers, its CDW phase can be stabilized at much higher temperatures, and with a tenfold increase in the electronic gap in comparison with the bulk. Despite such interesting fermiology and properties, the K and Na purple bronzes remain largely unexplored systems, most particularly so at the theoretical level. We introduce the first multi-orbital effective tight-binding model to describe the effect of electron-electron interactions in this system. Upon fixing all the effective hopping parameters in the normal state against an ab-initio band structure, and with only the overall scale of the interactions as sole adjustable parameter, we find that a self-consistent Hartree-Fock solution reproduces extremely well the experimental behavior of the charge density wave (CDW) order parameter in the full range 0 < T < Tc , as well as the precise reciprocal space locations of the partial gap opening and Fermi arc development. The interaction strengths extracted from fitting to the experimental CDW gap are consistent with those derived from an independent Stoner-type analysis This work was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation under Grant NRF-CRP6-2010-05.

  18. Fifth-order amplitude equation for traveling waves in isothermal double diffusive convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, S.; Becerril, R.

    2009-01-01

    Third-order amplitude equations for isothermal double diffusive convection are known to hold the tricritical condition all along the oscillatory branch, predicting that stable traveling waves exist Only at the onset of the instability. In order to properly describe stable traveling waves, we perform a fifth-order calculation and present explicitly the corresponding amplitude equation.

  19. Reduced order ARMA spectral estimation of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Witz, J.A.; Lyons, G.J.

    . After selecting the initial model order based on the Akaike Information Criterion method, a novel model order reduction technique is applied to obtain the final reduced order ARMA model. First estimates of the higher order autoregressive coefficients... of the reduced order ARMA model is obtained. The moving average part is determined based on partial fraction and recursive methods. The above system identification models and model order reduction technique are shown here to be successfully applied...

  20. Compound waves in a higher order nonlinear model of thermoviscous fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne Rasmussen, Anders; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri B.

    2016-01-01

    A generalized traveling wave ansatz is used to investigate compound shock waves in a higher order nonlinear model of a thermoviscous fluid. The fluid velocity potential is written as a traveling wave plus a linear function of space and time. The latter offers the possibility of predicting...

  1. High-order finite difference solution for 3D nonlinear wave-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2010-01-01

    This contribution presents our recent progress on developing an efficient fully-nonlinear potential flow model for simulating 3D wave-wave and wave-structure interaction over arbitrary depths (i.e. in coastal and offshore environment). The model is based on a high-order finite difference scheme O...

  2. On the use of higher order wave forms in the search for gravitational waves emitted by compact binary coalescences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechan, David J. A.

    2010-11-01

    This thesis concerns the use, in gravitational wave data analysis, of higher order wave form models of the gravitational radiation emitted by compact binary coalescences. We begin with an introductory chapter that includes an overview of the theory of general relativity, gravitational radiation and ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. We then discuss, in Chapter 2, the gravitational waves emitted by compact binary coalescences, with an explanation of higher order waveforms and how they differ from leading order waveforms we also introduce the post-Newtonian formalism. In Chapter 3 the method and results of a gravitational wave search for low mass compact binary coalescences using a subset of LIGO's 5th science run data are presented and in the subsequent chapter we examine how one could use higher order waveforms in such analyses. We follow the development of a new search algorithm that incorporates higher order waveforms with promising results for detection efficiency and parameter estimation. In Chapter 5, a new method of windowing time-domain waveforms that offers benefit to gravitational wave searches is presented. The final chapter covers the development of a game designed as an outreach project to raise public awareness and understanding of the search for gravitational waves.

  3. Spin waves and the order-disorder transition in chromium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.

    1969-01-01

    The inelastic magnetic scattering of neutrons has been studied in Cr and Cr0.95-Mn0.05 both below and above the Neel temperature. The temperature dependence of the spin-wave velocity in the alloy has been measured below TN. The scattering above TN may also be interpreted in terms of spin-wavelike...

  4. Third-order non-Coulomb correction to the S-wave quarkonium wave functions at the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Kiyo, Y.; Schuller, K.

    2008-01-01

    We compute the third-order correction to the S-wave quarkonium wave functions |ψ n (0)| 2 at the origin from non-Coulomb potentials in the effective non-relativistic Lagrangian. Together with previous results on the Coulomb correction and the ultrasoft correction computed in a companion paper, this completes the third-order calculation up to a few unknown matching coefficients. Numerical estimates of the new correction for bottomonium and toponium are given

  5. Pressure effects on the CDW transitions and magnetoresistances in NbSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuzuka, S.; Okajima, Y.; Tanda, S.; Yamaya, K.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) of NbSe 3 has been measured between 2 K and 150 K under high pressure including critical pressures (P c2 and P c1 ) where the lower and upper CDW phase are totally suppressed by pressure, respectively. At ambient pressure, a large MR (LMR) is observed just below T c2 , but no MR is detected above T c2 . Under high pressure, in addition to the LMR, we observe newly a MR above T c2 . Here we call it the pressure-induced MR (PIMR). The LMR always appears as long as the lower CDW phase exists, but it rapidly disappears above P c2 . Similarly, the PIMR disappears above P c1 . Furthermore, no anomalies associated with the field-induced CDW are observed within our experimental limits. From these findings, we claim that the LMR and PIMR are due to normal carriers in small pockets created by a pressure-dependent imperfect nesting of the Fermi surface in the CDW transitions. (orig.)

  6. Multiobjective Location Model Design Based on Government Subsidy in the Recycling of CDW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the generation of a large amount of construction and demolition waste (CDW, many scholars have recently paid more attention to the recycling of CDW. In this paper, we design a classification recycling method based on the degree of CDW availability in the recycling of CDW. Considering the important role of the government in reverse logistics, a model of reverse logistics network based on the trade-off between cost and recycling rate is put forward, which is subject to government subsidy. The model includes the location of classification processing center and ensures the best route of transportation. Then, the improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied to solve the model to get Pareto frontier by transforming it into a multiobjective integer-programming problem. As a case study, the results of the statistical modeling used in this study indicate the feasibility of the model. Finally, according to the sensitivity analysis of government’s subsidy, we evaluate the effectiveness of this program and its applicability.

  7. Critical Doping for the Onset of Fermi-Surface Reconstruction by Charge-Density-Wave Order in the Cuprate Superconductor La_{2-x}Sr_{x}CuO_{4}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Badoux

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Seebeck coefficient S of the cuprate superconductor La_{2-x}Sr_{x}CuO_{4} (LSCO was measured in magnetic fields large enough to access the normal state at low temperatures, for a range of Sr concentrations from x=0.07 to x=0.15. For x=0.11, 0.12, 0.125, and 0.13, S/T decreases upon cooling to become negative at low temperatures. The same behavior is observed in the Hall coefficient R_{H}(T. In analogy with other hole-doped cuprates at similar hole concentrations p, the negative S and R_{H} show that the Fermi surface of LSCO undergoes a reconstruction caused by the onset of charge-density-wave modulations. Such modulations have indeed been detected in LSCO by x-ray diffraction in precisely the same doping range. Our data show that in LSCO this Fermi-surface reconstruction is confined to 0.085wave order ends at a critical doping p_{CDW}=0.15±0.005, well below the pseudogap critical doping p^{⋆}≃0.19.

  8. Computation of nonlinear water waves with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.; Bingham, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Computational highlights from a recently developed high-order Boussinesq model are shown. The model is capable of treating fully nonlinear waves (up to the breaking point) out to dimensionless depths of (wavenumber times depth) kh \\approx 25. Cases considered include the study of short......-crested waves in shallow/deep water, resulting in hexagonal/rectangular surface patterns; crescent waves, resulting from unstable perturbations of plane progressive waves; and highly-nonlinear wave-structure interactions. The emphasis is on physically demanding problems, and in eachcase qualitative and (when...

  9. Charge-density-wave partial gap opening in quasi-2D KMo6O17 purple bronze studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valbuena, M.A.; Avila, J.; Pantin, V.; Drouard, S.; Guyot, H.; Asensio, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Low dimensional (LD) metallic oxides have been a subject of continuous interest in the last two decades, mainly due to the electronic instabilities that they present at low temperatures. In particular, charge density waves (CDW) instabilities associated with a strong electron-phonon interaction have been found in Molybdenum metallic oxides such as KMo 6 O 17 purple bronze. We report an angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) study from room temperature (RT) to T ∼40 K well below the Peierls transition temperature for this material, with CDW transition temperature T CDW ∼120 K. We have focused on photoemission spectra along ΓM high symmetry direction as well as photoemission measurements were taken as a function of temperature at one representative k F point in the Brillouin zone in order to look for the characteristic gap opening after the phase transition. We found out a pseudogap opening and a decrease in the density of states near the Fermi energy, E F , consistent with the partial removal of the nested portions of the Fermi surface (FS) at temperature below the CDW transition. In order to elucidate possible Fermi liquid (FL) or non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behaviour we have compared the ARPES data with that one reported on quasi-1D K 0.3 MoO 3 blue bronze

  10. Charge-density-wave partial gap opening in quasi-2D KMo{sub 6}O{sub 17} purple bronze studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valbuena, M.A. [LURE, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Bat. 209D, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Avila, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM - CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - B.P. 48, 91192 GIF-SUR-YVETTE Cedex (France); Pantin, V. [LURE, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Bat. 209D, B.P. 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Drouard, S. [LEPES-CENES, B.P. 166x, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Guyot, H. [LEPES-CENES, B.P. 166x, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Asensio, M.C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM - CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain) and Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - B.P. 48, 91192 GIF-SUR-YVETTE Cedex (France)]. E-mail: asensio@synchrotron-soleil.fr

    2006-05-30

    Low dimensional (LD) metallic oxides have been a subject of continuous interest in the last two decades, mainly due to the electronic instabilities that they present at low temperatures. In particular, charge density waves (CDW) instabilities associated with a strong electron-phonon interaction have been found in Molybdenum metallic oxides such as KMo{sub 6}O{sub 17} purple bronze. We report an angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) study from room temperature (RT) to T {approx}40 K well below the Peierls transition temperature for this material, with CDW transition temperature T {sub CDW} {approx}120 K. We have focused on photoemission spectra along {gamma}M high symmetry direction as well as photoemission measurements were taken as a function of temperature at one representative k {sub F} point in the Brillouin zone in order to look for the characteristic gap opening after the phase transition. We found out a pseudogap opening and a decrease in the density of states near the Fermi energy, E {sub F}, consistent with the partial removal of the nested portions of the Fermi surface (FS) at temperature below the CDW transition. In order to elucidate possible Fermi liquid (FL) or non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behaviour we have compared the ARPES data with that one reported on quasi-1D K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} blue bronze.

  11. 41 CFR 301-10.451 - May I be reimbursed for the cost of collision damage waiver (CDW) or theft insurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the cost of collision damage waiver (CDW) or theft insurance? 301-10.451 Section 301-10.451 Public... I be reimbursed for the cost of collision damage waiver (CDW) or theft insurance? (a) General rule—no. You will not be reimbursed for CDW or theft insurance for travel within CONUS for the following...

  12. Theory of second order tide forces and gravitational wave experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammelo, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Theory of tide forces square by vector radius is presented. The mechanism of 10 18 time gravitational wave pressure increase in case of radiation from pulsars and 10 15 time one in case of standard burst of radiation from astrophysical catastrophe is proposed. This leads to secular shifts of longitudinally free receivers by 10 -16 cm during 10 5 s in the first case and by 10 -19 cm during 10 s in the second one. A possibility of increase effect modulation is available. It is indicated that it is possible to construct a device which produces more energy at the expense of square tide forces than at the expense of linear ones. 21 refs

  13. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: Wave-breaking onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bonnefoy, Félicien

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates a wave-breaking onset criteria to be implemented in the non-linear potential flow solver HOS-NWT. The model is a computationally efficient, open source code, which solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the High-Order Spectral (HOS) method. The goal of this study is to determine the best method to identify the onset of random single and multiple breaking waves over a large domain at the exact time they occur. To identify breaking waves, a breaking onset criteria based on the ratio of local energy flux velocity to the local crest velocity, introduced by Barthelemy et al. (2017) is selected. The breaking parameter is uniquely applied in the numerical model in that calculations of the breaking onset criteria ratio are not made only at the location of the wave crest, but at every point in the domain and at every time step. This allows the model to calculate the onset of a breaking wave the moment it happens, and without knowing anything about the wave a priori. The application of the breaking criteria at every point in the domain and at every time step requires the phase velocity to be calculated instantaneously everywhere in the domain and at every time step. This is achieved by calculating the instantaneous phase velocity using the Hilbert transform and dispersion relation. A comparison between more traditional crest-tracking techniques shows the calculation of phase velocity using Hilbert transform at the location of the breaking wave crest provides a good approximation of crest velocity. The ability of the selected wave breaking criteria to predict single and multiple breaking events in two dimensions is validated by a series of large-scale experiments. Breaking waves are generated by energy focusing and modulational instability methods, with a wide range of primary frequencies. Steep irregular waves which lead to breaking waves, and irregular waves with an energy focusing wave superimposed are also generated. This set of

  14. Competing charge, spin, and superconducting orders in underdoped YBa2Cu3Oy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hücker, M.; Christensen, Niels Bech; Holmes, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    order decreases with underdoping to TCDW~90 K in YBa2Cu3O6.44. Together with a weakened order parameter this suggests a competition between CDW and SDW orders. In addition, the CDW order in YBa2Cu3O6.44 shows the same type of competition with superconductivity as a function of temperature and magnetic...

  15. Low-order models of wave interactions in the transition to baroclinic chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-G. Früh

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchy of low-order models, based on the quasi-geostrophic two-layer model, is used to investigate complex multi-mode flows. The different models were used to study distinct types of nonlinear interactions, namely wave- wave interactions through resonant triads, and zonal flow-wave interactions. The coupling strength of individual triads is estimated using a phase locking probability density function. The flow of primary interest is a strongly modulated amplitude vacillation, whose modulation is coupled to intermittent bursts of weaker wave modes. This flow was found to emerge in a discontinuous bifurcation directly from a steady wave solution. Two mechanism were found to result in this flow, one involving resonant triads, and the other involving zonal flow-wave interactions together with a strong β-effect. The results will be compared with recent laboratory experiments of multi-mode baroclinic waves in a rotating annulus of fluid subjected to a horizontal temperature gradient.

  16. Invasion-wave-induced first-order phase transition in systems of active particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    An instability near the transition to collective motion of self-propelled particles is studied numerically by Enskog-like kinetic theory. While hydrodynamics breaks down, the kinetic approach leads to steep solitonlike waves. These supersonic waves show hysteresis and lead to an abrupt jump of the global order parameter if the noise level is changed. Thus they provide a mean-field mechanism to change the second-order character of the phase transition to first order. The shape of the wave is shown to follow a scaling law and to quantitatively agree with agent-based simulations.

  17. Wave-mixing with high-order harmonics in extreme ultraviolet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Lap Van; Dinh, Khuong Ba; Le, Hoang Vu; Gaffney, Naylyn; Hannaford, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We report studies of the wave-mixing process in the extreme ultraviolet region with two near-infrared driving and controlling pulses with incommensurate frequencies (at 1400 nm and 800 nm). A non-collinear scheme for the two beams is used in order to spatially separate and to characterise the properties of the high-order wave-mixing field. We show that the extreme ultraviolet frequency mixing can be treated by perturbative, very high-order nonlinear optics; the modification of the wave-packet of the free electron needs to be considered in this process

  18. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking mechanism into a nonlinear potential flow solver. The success of the mechanism will be studied by implementing it into the numerical model HOS-NWT, which is a computationally efficient, open source code that solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the high-order spectral (HOS) method. Once the breaking mechanism is validated, it can be implemented into other nonlinear potential flow models. To solve for wave-breaking, first a wave-breaking onset parameter is identified, and then a method for computing wave-breaking associated energy loss is determined. Wave-breaking onset is calculated using a breaking criteria introduced by Barthelemy et al. (J Fluid Mech https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.06002.pdf, submitted) and validated with the experiments of Saket et al. (J Fluid Mech 811:642-658, 2017). Wave-breaking energy dissipation is calculated by adding a viscous diffusion term computed using an eddy viscosity parameter introduced by Tian et al. (Phys Fluids 20(6): 066,604, 2008, Phys Fluids 24(3), 2012), which is estimated based on the pre-breaking wave geometry. A set of two-dimensional experiments is conducted to validate the implemented wave breaking mechanism at a large scale. Breaking waves are generated by using traditional methods of evolution of focused waves and modulational instability, as well as irregular breaking waves with a range of primary frequencies, providing a wide range of breaking conditions to validate the solver. Furthermore, adjustments are made to the method of application and coefficient of the viscous diffusion term with negligible difference, supporting the robustness of the eddy viscosity parameter. The model is able to accurately predict surface elevation and corresponding frequency/amplitude spectrum, as well as energy dissipation when compared with the experimental measurements. This suggests the model is capable of calculating wave-breaking onset and energy dissipation

  19. Orbital selectivity causing anisotropy and particle-hole asymmetry in the charge density wave gap of 2 H -TaS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Wijayaratne, K.; Butler, A.; Yang, J.; Malliakas, C. D.; Chung, D. Y.; Louca, D.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; van Wezel, J.; Chatterjee, U.

    2017-09-01

    We report an in-depth angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study on 2 H -TaS2 , a canonical incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) system. This study demonstrates that just as in related incommensurate CDW systems, 2 H -TaSe2 and 2 H -NbSe2 , the energy gap (ΔCDW) of 2 H -TaS2 is localized along the K -centered Fermi surface barrels and is particle-hole asymmetric. The persistence of ΔCDW even at temperatures higher than the CDW transition temperature TCDW in 2 H -TaS2 , reflects the similar pseudogap behavior observed previously in 2 H -TaSe2 and 2 H -NbSe2 . However, in sharp contrast to 2 H -NbSe2 , where ΔCDW is nonzero only in the vicinity of a few "hot spots" on the inner K -centered Fermi surface barrels, ΔCDW in 2 H -TaS2 is nonzero along the entirety of both K -centered Fermi surface barrels. Based on a tight-binding model, we attribute this dichotomy in the momentum dependence and the Fermi surface specificity of ΔCDW between otherwise similar CDW compounds to the different orbital orientations of their electronic states that participate in the CDW pairing. Our results suggest that the orbital selectivity plays a critical role in the description of incommensurate CDW materials.

  20. High-order upwind schemes for the wave equation on overlapping grids: Maxwell's equations in second-order form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Jordan B.; Banks, Jeffrey W.; Henshaw, William D.

    2018-01-01

    High-order accurate upwind approximations for the wave equation in second-order form on overlapping grids are developed. Although upwind schemes are well established for first-order hyperbolic systems, it was only recently shown by Banks and Henshaw [1] how upwinding could be incorporated into the second-order form of the wave equation. This new upwind approach is extended here to solve the time-domain Maxwell's equations in second-order form; schemes of arbitrary order of accuracy are formulated for general curvilinear grids. Taylor time-stepping is used to develop single-step space-time schemes, and the upwind dissipation is incorporated by embedding the exact solution of a local Riemann problem into the discretization. Second-order and fourth-order accurate schemes are implemented for problems in two and three space dimensions, and overlapping grids are used to treat complex geometry and problems with multiple materials. Stability analysis of the upwind-scheme on overlapping grids is performed using normal mode theory. The stability analysis and computations confirm that the upwind scheme remains stable on overlapping grids, including the difficult case of thin boundary grids when the traditional non-dissipative scheme becomes unstable. The accuracy properties of the scheme are carefully evaluated on a series of classical scattering problems for both perfect conductors and dielectric materials in two and three space dimensions. The upwind scheme is shown to be robust and provide high-order accuracy.

  1. Origin of the charge density wave in 1T-TiSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2012-06-27

    All-electron ab initio calculations are used to study the microscopic origin of the charge density wave (CDW) in 1T-TiSe2. A purely electronic picture is ruled out as a possible scenario, indicating that the CDW transition in the present system is merely a structural phase transition. The CDW instability is the result of a symmetry lowering by electron correlations occurring with electron localization. Suppression of the CDW in pressurized and in Cu-intercalated 1T-TiSe2 is explained by a delocalization of the electrons, which weakens the correlations and counteracts the symmetry lowering.

  2. Origin of the charge density wave in 1T-TiSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    All-electron ab initio calculations are used to study the microscopic origin of the charge density wave (CDW) in 1T-TiSe2. A purely electronic picture is ruled out as a possible scenario, indicating that the CDW transition in the present system is merely a structural phase transition. The CDW instability is the result of a symmetry lowering by electron correlations occurring with electron localization. Suppression of the CDW in pressurized and in Cu-intercalated 1T-TiSe2 is explained by a delocalization of the electrons, which weakens the correlations and counteracts the symmetry lowering.

  3. Generation of higher-order squeezing of quantum electromagnetic fields by degenerate four-wave mixing and other processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xizeng; Shan Ying; Mandel, L.

    1988-11-01

    It is found that the field of the combined mode of the probe wave and the phase-conjugate wave in the process of degenerate four-wave mixing exhibits higher-order squeezing to all even order. The degree of squeezing increases with the order N, and the higher-order squeeze parameter q N may approach -1. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs

  4. ARPES study of the evolution of band structure and charge density wave properties in RTe3 ( R=Y , La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Dy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Zahid; Brouet, Veronique; Yang, Wanli; Zhou, Xingjiang; Hussain, Zahid; Moore, R.G.; He, R.; Lu, D. H.; Shen, Z.X.; Laverock, J.; Dugdale, S.B.; Ru, N.; Fisher, R.

    2008-01-16

    We present a detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of the RTe3 family, which sets this system as an ideal"textbook" example for the formation of a nesting driven charge density wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDWinstabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi surface (up to 0.4 eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k space. An additional advantage of RTe3 is that theband structure can be very accurately described by a simple two dimensional tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure by comparing our ARPES measurements with the linear muffin-tinorbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R, and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDWinteraction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n (EF), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.

  5. Waves, conservation laws and symmetries of a third-order nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    order is under consideration. Important properties concerning advanced character such like conservation laws and the equation of continuity are given. Characteristic wave properties such like dispersion relations and both the group and phase ...

  6. Loads on a 3D body due to second order waves and a current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Jesper; Cheung, K. F.; Bingham, Harry B.

    2000-01-01

    are expanded about the still-water level by Taylor series so that the solution is evaluated on a time-invariant geometry. A formulation correct to second order in the wave steepness and to first order in the current speed is used. Numerical results are obtained for the first-order and the second...

  7. Acoustic waves and the detectability of first-order phase transitions by eLISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, David J.

    2017-05-01

    In various extensions of the Standard Model it is possible that the electroweak phase transition was first order. This would have been a violent process, involving the formation of bubbles and associated shock waves. Not only would the collision of these bubbles and shock waves be a detectable source of gravitational waves, but persistent acoustic waves could enhance the signal and improve prospects of detection by eLISA. I summarise the results of a recent campaign to model such a phase transition based on large-scale hydrodynamical simulations, and its implications for the eLISA mission.

  8. Gravitational waves from a first-order electroweak phase transition: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, David J

    2018-03-06

    We review the production of gravitational waves by an electroweak first-order phase transition. The resulting signal is a good candidate for detection at next-generation gravitational wave detectors, such as LISA. Detection of such a source of gravitational waves could yield information about physics beyond the Standard Model that is complementary to that accessible to current and near-future collider experiments. We summarize efforts to simulate and model the phase transition and the resulting production of gravitational waves.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  9. Wave vector modification of the infinite order sudden approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.G.; Bowman, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method is proposed to modify the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) in order to extend its region of quantitative validity. The method involves modifying the phase of the IOS scattering matrix to include a part calculated at the outgoing relative kinetic energy as well as a part calculated at the incoming kinetic energy. An immediate advantage of this modification is that the resulting S matrix is symmetric. We also present a closely related method in which the relative kinetic energies used in the calculation of the phase are determined from quasiclassical trajectory calculations. A set of trajectories is run with the initial state being the incoming state, and another set is run with the initial state being the outgoing state, and the average final relative kinetic energy of each set is obtained. One part of the S-operator phase is then calculated at each of these kinetic energies. We apply these methods to vibrationally inelastic collinear collisions of an atom and a harmonic oscillator, and calculate transition probabilities P/sub n/1→nf for three model systems. For systems which are sudden, or nearly so, the agreement with exact quantum close-coupling calculations is substantially improved over standard IOS ones when Δn=such thatub f/-n/sub i/ is large, and the corresponding transition probability is small, i.e., less than 0.1. However, the modifications we propose will not improve the accuracy of the IOS transition probabilities for any collisional system unless the standard form of IOS already gives at least qualitative agreement with exact quantal calculations. We also suggest comparisons between some classical quantities and sudden predictions which should help in determining the validity of the sudden approximation. This is useful when exact quantal data is not available for comparison

  10. Wave vector modification of the infinite order sudden approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Judith Grobe; Bowman, Joel M.

    1980-10-01

    A simple method is proposed to modify the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) in order to extend its region of quantitative validity. The method involves modifying the phase of the IOS scattering matrix to include a part calculated at the outgoing relative kinetic energy as well as a part calculated at the incoming kinetic energy. An immediate advantage of this modification is that the resulting S matrix is symmetric. We also present a closely related method in which the relative kinetic energies used in the calculation of the phase are determined from quasiclassical trajectory calculations. A set of trajectories is run with the initial state being the incoming state, and another set is run with the initial state being the outgoing state, and the average final relative kinetic energy of each set is obtained. One part of the S-operator phase is then calculated at each of these kinetic energies. We apply these methods to vibrationally inelastic collinear collisions of an atom and a harmonic oscillator, and calculate transition probabilities Pn1→nf for three model systems. For systems which are sudden, or nearly so, the agreement with exact quantum close-coupling calculations is substantially improved over standard IOS ones when Δn=‖nf-ni‖ is large, and the corresponding transition probability is small, i.e., less than 0.1. However, the modifications we propose will not improve the accuracy of the IOS transition probabilities for any collisional system unless the standard form of IOS already gives at least qualitative agreement with exact quantal calculations. We also suggest comparisons between some classical quantities and sudden predictions which should help in determining the validity of the sudden approximation. This is useful when exact quantal data is not available for comparison.

  11. Zero-order filter for diffractive focusing of de Broglie matter waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, S. D.; Ravn, A. K.; Samelin, B.

    2017-01-01

    The manipulation of neutral atoms and molecules via their de Broglie wave properties, also referred to asde Broglie matter wave optics, is relevant for several fields ranging from fundamental quantum mechanics testsand quantum metrology to measurements of interaction potentials and new imaging...... Broglie matter wave diffractive focusing elements. The zero-order filter makes it possible to measure even at low beam intensities. We present measurements of zero-order filtered, focused, neutral helium beams generated at source stagnation pressures between 11 and 81 bars. We show that for certain...

  12. An efficient flexible-order model for 3D nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bingham, Harry B.; Lindberg, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The flexible-order, finite difference based fully nonlinear potential flow model described in [H.B. Bingham, H. Zhang, On the accuracy of finite difference solutions for nonlinear water waves, J. Eng. Math. 58 (2007) 211-228] is extended to three dimensions (3D). In order to obtain an optimal......, robustness and energy conservation are presented together with demonstrations of grid independent iteration count and optimal scaling of the solution effort. Calculations are made for 3D nonlinear wave problems for steep nonlinear waves and a shoaling problem which show good agreement with experimental...

  13. Higher-order geodesic deviation for charged particles and resonance induced by gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari-Fard, M.; Hasani, S. N.

    We generalize the higher-order geodesic deviation for the structure-less test particles to the higher-order geodesic deviation equations of the charged particles [R. Kerner, J. W. van Holten and R. Colistete Jr., Class. Quantum Grav. 18 (2001) 4725]. By solving these equations for charged particles moving in a constant magnetic field in the spacetime of a gravitational wave, we show for both cases when the gravitational wave is parallel and perpendicular to the constant magnetic field, a magnetic resonance appears at wg = Ω. This feature might be useful to detect the gravitational wave with high frequencies.

  14. First order and second order fermi acceleration of energetic charged particles by shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Steady state solutions of the cosmic ray transport equation describing first order Fermi acceleration of energetic charged particles at a plane shock (without losses) and second order Fermi acceleration in the downstream region of the shock are derived. The solutions for the isotropic part of the phase space distribution function are expressible as eigenfunction expansions, being superpositions of series of power law momentum spectra, with the power law indices being the roots of an eigenvalue equation. The above exact analytic solutions are for the case where the spatial diffusion coefficient kappa is independent of momentum. The solutions in general depend on the shock compression ratio, the modulation parameters V 1 L/kappa 1 , V 2 L/kappa 2 (V is the plasma velocity, kappa is the energetic particle diffusion coefficient, and L a characteristic length over which second order Fermi acceleration is effective) in the upstream and downstream regions of the shock, respectively, and also on a further dimensionless parameter, zeta, characterizing second order Fermi acceleration. In the limit as zeta→0 (no second order Fermi acceleration) the power law momentum spectrum characteristic of first order Fermi acceleration (depending only on the shock compression ratio) obtained previously is recovered. Perturbation solutions for the case where second order Fermi effects are small, and for realistic diffusion coefficients (kappainfinityp/sup a/, a>0, p = particle momentum), applicable at high momenta, are also obtained

  15. Assessment of First- and Second-Order Wave-Excitation Load Models for Cylindrical Substructures: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra, Brandon; Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason

    2017-03-09

    The hydrodynamic loads on an offshore wind turbine's support structure present unique engineering challenges for offshore wind. Two typical approaches used for modeling these hydrodynamic loads are potential flow (PF) and strip theory (ST), the latter via Morison's equation. This study examines the first- and second-order wave-excitation surge forces on a fixed cylinder in regular waves computed by the PF and ST approaches to (1) verify their numerical implementations in HydroDyn and (2) understand when the ST approach breaks down. The numerical implementation of PF and ST in HydroDyn, a hydrodynamic time-domain solver implemented as a module in the FAST wind turbine engineering tool, was verified by showing the consistency in the first- and second-order force output between the two methods across a range of wave frequencies. ST is known to be invalid at high frequencies, and this study investigates where the ST solution diverges from the PF solution. Regular waves across a range of frequencies were run in HydroDyn for a monopile substructure. As expected, the solutions for the first-order (linear) wave-excitation loads resulting from these regular waves are similar for PF and ST when the diameter of the cylinder is small compared to the length of the waves (generally when the diameter-to-wavelength ratio is less than 0.2). The same finding applies to the solutions for second-order wave-excitation loads, but for much smaller diameter-to-wavelength ratios (based on wavelengths of first-order waves).

  16. Order in large and chaos in small components of nuclear wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1992-06-01

    An investigation of the order and chaos of the nuclear excited states has shown that there is order in the large and chaos in the small quasiparticle or phonon components of the nuclear wave functions. The order-to-chaos transition is treated as a transition from the large to the small components of the nuclear wave function. The analysis has shown that relatively large many-quasiparticle components of the wave function at an excitation energy (4-8)MeV may exist. The large many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of the neutron resonances are responsible for enhanced E1-, M1- and E2-transition probabilities from neutron resonance to levels lying (1-2)MeV below them. (author)

  17. A model study of tunneling conductance spectra of ferromagnetically ordered manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Saswati; Kar, J. K.; Rout, G. C.

    2018-02-01

    We report here the interplay of ferromagnetism (FM) and charge density wave (CDW) in manganese oxide systems through the study of tunneling conductance spectra. The model Hamiltonian consists of strong Heisenberg coupling in core t2g band electrons within mean-field approximation giving rise to ferromagnetism. Ferromagnetism is induced in the itinerant eg electrons due to Kubo-Ohata type double exchange (DE) interaction among the t2g and eg electrons. The charge ordering (CO) present in the eg band giving rise to CDW interaction is considered as the extra-mechanism to explain the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) property of manganites. The magnetic and CDW order parameters are calculated using Zubarev's Green's function technique and solved self-consistently and numerically. The eg electron density of states (DOS) calculated from the imaginary part of the Green's function explains the experimentally observed tunneling conductance spectra. The DOS graph exhibits a parabolic gap near the Fermi energy as observed in tunneling conductance spectra experiments.

  18. Second-order coupling of numerical and physical wave tanks for 2D irregular waves. Part I: Formulation, implementation and numerical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    In this series of two papers, we report on the irregular wave extension of the second-order coupling theory of numerical and physical wave model described in [Z. Yang, S. Liu, H.B. Bingham and J. Li. Second-order theory for coupling numerical and physical wave tanks: Derivation, evaluation...

  19. An order batching algorithm for wave picking in a parallel-aisle warehouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gademann, A.J.R.M.; Berg, van den J.P.; Hoff, van der H.H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of batching orders in a parallel-aisle warehouse, with the objective to minimize the maximum lead time of any of the batches. This is a typical objective for a wave picking operation. Many heuristics have been suggested to solve order batching problems. We

  20. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

    2017-10-01

    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  1. Propagation of sech2-type solitary waves in higher-order KdV-type systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilison, O.; Salupere, A.

    2005-01-01

    Wave propagation in microstructured media is essentially influenced by nonlinear and dispersive effects. The simplest model governing these effects results in the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. In the present paper a KdV-type evolution equation, including the third- and fifth-order dispersive and the fourth-order nonlinear terms, is used for modelling the wave propagation in microstructured solids like martensitic-austenitic alloys. The model equation is solved numerically under localised initial conditions. Possible solution types are defined and discussed. The existence of a threshold is established. Below the threshold, the relatively small solitary waves decay in time. However, if the amplitude exceeds a certain threshold, i.e., the critical value, then such a solitary wave can propagate with nearly a constant speed and amplitude and consequently conserve the energy

  2. Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field Wave Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura

    2016-07-12

    A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) wave function is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) wave functions, GAS wave functions are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS wave functions (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.

  3. Soliton and periodic solutions for higher order wave equations of KdV type (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuri, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is twofold. First, a new ansaetze is introduced for the construction of exact solutions for higher order wave equations of KdV type (I). We show the existence of a class of discontinuous soliton solutions with infinite spikes. Second, the projective Riccati technique is implemented as an alternate approach for obtaining new exact solutions, solitary solutions, and periodic wave solutions

  4. N-representability of the Jastrow wave function pair density of the lowest-order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Katsuhiko; Higuchi, Masahiko

    2017-08-08

    Conditions for the N-representability of the pair density (PD) are needed for the development of the PD functional theory. We derive sufficient conditions for the N-representability of the PD that is calculated from the Jastrow wave function within the lowest order. These conditions are used as the constraints on the correlation function of the Jastrow wave function. A concrete procedure to search the suitable correlation function is also presented.

  5. Mechanical behavior of recycled lightweight concrete using EVA waste and CDW under moderate temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Q. R. Santiago

    Full Text Available Many benefits can be achieved by using recycled waste as raw material for construction. Some of them are the reduction of the total cost of the construction, the reduction of the consumption of energy and the decrease in the use of natural materials. The construction sector can also incorporate the waste of the other industries, like the waste of the shoes industry, the Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA. EVA aggregate is obtained by cutting off the waste of EVA expanded sheets used to produce insoles and innersoles of the shoes. In this work two types of recycled aggregate were used - construction and demolition waste (CDW and EVA. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the use of these recycled aggregates, as replacement of the natural coarse aggregate, on mechanical behavior of recycled concrete. The experimental program was developed with two w/c ratio: 0.49 and 0.82. Four mixtures with produced with different aggregates substitution rates (0, 50%EVA, 50%CDW and 25%EVA-25%CDW, by volume. Compressive tests were carried out to evaluable the influence of recycled aggregate on strength, elastic modulus and Poisson coefficient. In addition, it was evaluated the effect of the moderate temperatures (50, 70 and 100º C on stress-strain behavior of concretes studied. The results demonstrated that is possible to use the EVA waste and RCD to produces lightweight concrete. The influence of temperature was more significant only on elastic modulus of the recycled concrete with 50%EVA.

  6. Exact Solutions of a High-Order Nonlinear Wave Equation of Korteweg-de Vries Type under Newly Solvable Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Rui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the integral bifurcation method together with factoring technique, we study a water wave model, a high-order nonlinear wave equation of KdV type under some newly solvable conditions. Based on our previous research works, some exact traveling wave solutions such as broken-soliton solutions, periodic wave solutions of blow-up type, smooth solitary wave solutions, and nonsmooth peakon solutions within more extensive parameter ranges are obtained. In particular, a series of smooth solitary wave solutions and nonsmooth peakon solutions are obtained. In order to show the properties of these exact solutions visually, we plot the graphs of some representative traveling wave solutions.

  7. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation through coupled elastic-acoustic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.

  8. Transition, coexistence, and interaction of vector localized waves arising from higher-order effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chong; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zhao, Li-Chen; Yang, Wen-Li

    2015-01-01

    We study vector localized waves on continuous wave background with higher-order effects in a two-mode optical fiber. The striking properties of transition, coexistence, and interaction of these localized waves arising from higher-order effects are revealed in combination with corresponding modulation instability (MI) characteristics. It shows that these vector localized wave properties have no analogues in the case without higher-order effects. Specifically, compared to the scalar case, an intriguing transition between bright–dark rogue waves and w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons, which occurs as a result of the attenuation of MI growth rate to vanishing in the zero-frequency perturbation region, is exhibited with the relative background frequency. In particular, our results show that the w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons can coexist with breathers, coinciding with the MI analysis where the coexistence condition is a mixture of a modulation stability and MI region. It is interesting that their interaction is inelastic and describes a fusion process. In addition, we demonstrate an annihilation phenomenon for the interaction of two w-shaped solitons which is identified essentially as an inelastic collision in this system. -- Highlights: •Vector rogue wave properties induced by higher-order effects are studied. •A transition between vector rogue waves and solitons is obtained. •The link between the transition and modulation instability (MI) is demonstrated. •The coexistence of vector solitons and breathers coincides with the MI features. •An annihilation phenomenon for the vector two w-shaped solitons is presented.

  9. Transition, coexistence, and interaction of vector localized waves arising from higher-order effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chong [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yang, Zhan-Ying, E-mail: zyyang@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhao, Li-Chen, E-mail: zhaolichen3@163.com [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yang, Wen-Li [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2015-11-15

    We study vector localized waves on continuous wave background with higher-order effects in a two-mode optical fiber. The striking properties of transition, coexistence, and interaction of these localized waves arising from higher-order effects are revealed in combination with corresponding modulation instability (MI) characteristics. It shows that these vector localized wave properties have no analogues in the case without higher-order effects. Specifically, compared to the scalar case, an intriguing transition between bright–dark rogue waves and w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons, which occurs as a result of the attenuation of MI growth rate to vanishing in the zero-frequency perturbation region, is exhibited with the relative background frequency. In particular, our results show that the w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons can coexist with breathers, coinciding with the MI analysis where the coexistence condition is a mixture of a modulation stability and MI region. It is interesting that their interaction is inelastic and describes a fusion process. In addition, we demonstrate an annihilation phenomenon for the interaction of two w-shaped solitons which is identified essentially as an inelastic collision in this system. -- Highlights: •Vector rogue wave properties induced by higher-order effects are studied. •A transition between vector rogue waves and solitons is obtained. •The link between the transition and modulation instability (MI) is demonstrated. •The coexistence of vector solitons and breathers coincides with the MI features. •An annihilation phenomenon for the vector two w-shaped solitons is presented.

  10. Spatially-resolved studies of charge-density-wave phase slip and dynamics in NbSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemay, S.G.; Adelman, T.L.; Zaitsev-Zotov, S.V.; Thorne, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    We review our spatially and temporally resolved studies of charge-density-wave (CDW) phase slip and dynamics in NbSe 3 . Measurements of the steady-state CDW current, phase slip and strain profiles and their transient evolutions in response to a change in current direction provide a detailed picture of the interplay between elastic deformations and plasticity in this material. (orig.)

  11. On the exact solutions of high order wave equations of KdV type (I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Hasan; Pandir, Yusuf; Baskonus, Haci Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, by means of a proper transformation and symbolic computation, we study high order wave equations of KdV type (I). We obtained classification of exact solutions that contain soliton, rational, trigonometric and elliptic function solutions by using the extended trial equation method. As a result, the motivation of this paper is to utilize the extended trial equation method to explore new solutions of high order wave equation of KdV type (I). This method is confirmed by applying it to this kind of selected nonlinear equations.

  12. Study of a high-order-mode gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C. C.; Tsai, C. Y.; Kao, S. H.; Chu, K. R.; Barnett, L. R.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Physics and performance issues of a TE 01 -mode gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier are studied in theory. For a high order mode, absolute instabilities on neighboring modes at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonic frequencies impose severe constraints to the device capability. Methods for their stabilization are outlined, on the basis of which the performance characteristics are examined in a multidimensional parameter space under the marginal stability criterion. The results demonstrate the viability of a high-order-mode traveling-wave amplifier and provide a roadmap for design tradeoffs among power, bandwidth, and efficiency. General trends are observed and illustrated with specific examples.

  13. Second-order interference of two independent and tunable single-mode continuous-wave lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianbin; Chen Hui; Zheng Huaibin; Xu Zhuo; Wei Dong; Zhou Yu; Gao Hong; Li Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    The second-order temporal interference of two independent single-mode continuous-wave lasers is discussed by employing two-photon interference in Feynman’s path integral theory. It is concluded that whether the second-order temporal interference pattern can or cannot be retrieved via two-photon coincidence counting rate is dependent on the resolution time of the detection system and the frequency difference between these two lasers. Two identical and tunable single-mode continuous-wave diode lasers are employed to verify the predictions. These studies are helpful to understand the physics of two-photon interference with photons of different spectra. (paper)

  14. Higher-Order Squeezing of Quantum Field and the Generalized Uncertainty Relations in Non-Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Zeng; Su, Bao-Xia

    1996-01-01

    It is found that the field of the combined mode of the probe wave and the phase-conjugate wave in the process of non-degenerate four-wave mixing exhibits higher-order squeezing to all even orders. And the generalized uncertainty relations in this process are also presented.

  15. A third-order asymptotic solution of nonlinear standing water waves in Lagrangian coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang-Yih, Chen; Hung-Chu, Hsu

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions up to third-order which describe irrotational finite amplitude standing waves are derived in Lagrangian coordinates. The analytical Lagrangian solution that is uniformly valid for large times satisfies the irrotational condition and the pressure p = 0 at the free surface, which is in contrast with the Eulerian solution existing under a residual pressure at the free surface due to Taylor's series expansion. In the third-order Lagrangian approximation, the explicit parametric equation and the Lagrangian wave frequency of water particles could be obtained. In particular, the Lagrangian mean level of a particle motion that is a function of vertical label is found as a part of the solution which is different from that in an Eulerian description. The dynamic properties of nonlinear standing waves in water of a finite depth, including particle trajectory, surface profile and wave pressure are investigated. It is also shown that the Lagrangian solution is superior to an Eulerian solution of the same order for describing the wave shape and the kinematics above the mean water level. (general)

  16. Emergence of charge density waves and a pseudogap in single-layer TiTe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P; Pai, Woei Wu; Chan, Y-H; Takayama, A; Xu, C-Z; Karn, A; Hasegawa, S; Chou, M Y; Mo, S-K; Fedorov, A-V; Chiang, T-C

    2017-09-11

    Two-dimensional materials constitute a promising platform for developing nanoscale devices and systems. Their physical properties can be very different from those of the corresponding three-dimensional materials because of extreme quantum confinement and dimensional reduction. Here we report a study of TiTe 2 from the single-layer to the bulk limit. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, we observed the emergence of a (2 × 2) charge density wave order in single-layer TiTe 2 with a transition temperature of 92 ± 3 K. Also observed was a pseudogap of about 28 meV at the Fermi level at 4.2 K. Surprisingly, no charge density wave transitions were observed in two-layer and multi-layer TiTe 2 , despite the quasi-two-dimensional nature of the material in the bulk. The unique charge density wave phenomenon in the single layer raises intriguing questions that challenge the prevailing thinking about the mechanisms of charge density wave formation.Due to reduced dimensionality, the properties of 2D materials are often different from their 3D counterparts. Here, the authors identify the emergence of a unique charge density wave (CDW) order in monolayer TiTe 2 that challenges the current understanding of CDW formation.

  17. Variations in wave direction estimated using first and second order Fourier coefficients

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.

    to the peak frequency are used in practice. In the present study, comparison is made on wave directions estimated based on first and second order Fourier coefficients using data collected at four locations in the west and east coasts of India. Study shows...

  18. Perturbative theory of higher-order collision-enhanced wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebino, R.; Rahn, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on collision-enhanced resonances which represent an interesting class of nonlinear- optical processes. They occur because collisional dephasing can rephase quantum-mechanical amplitudes that ordinarily cancel out exactly, thereby allowing otherwise unobservable wave-mixing resonances to be seen. This is an especially interesting phenomenon because these resonances are coherent effects that are induced by an incoherent process (collisional dephasing). First predicted in the late 1970s and eventually observed in 1981, these novel effects have now been seen in a wide variety of four-wave-mixing experiments, ranging from self-focusing to coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. Recently, the authors have extended these observations to higher order, where the authors have shown both experimentally and theoretically the higher-order, collision-enhanced effects exist in nonlinear optics, appearing as subharmonics of two-photon resonances. Indeed, the authors have found that collision-enhanced processes are ideal systems for studying higher-order, nonlinear-optical effects because very high orders can be made to contribute with little or no saturation braodening. Experiments on sodium in a flame using six- and eight-wave-mixing geometries have revealed still higher-order effects (at least as high- order as χ (13) )

  19. Reheating signature in the gravitational wave spectrum from self-ordering scalar fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hiramatsu, Takashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Jun' ichi, E-mail: skuro@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: hiramatz@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the imprint of reheating on the gravitational wave spectrum produced by self-ordering of multi-component scalar fields after a global phase transition. The equation of state of the Universe during reheating, which usually has different behaviour from that of a radiation-dominated Universe, affects the evolution of gravitational waves through the Hubble expansion term in the equations of motion. This gives rise to a different power-law behavior of frequency in the gravitational wave spectrum. The reheating history is therefore imprinted in the shape of the spectrum. We perform 512{sup 3} lattice simulations to investigate how the ordering scalar field reacts to the change of the Hubble expansion and how the reheating effect arises in the spectrum. We also compare the result with inflation-produced gravitational waves, which has a similar spectral shape, and discuss whether it is possible to distinguish the origin between inflation and global phase transition by detecting the shape with future direct detection gravitational wave experiments such as DECIGO.

  20. Stability of the high-order finite elements for acoustic or elastic wave propagation with high-order time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    De Basabe, Jonás D.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the stability of some high-order finite element methods, namely the spectral element method and the interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method (IP-DGM), for acoustic or elastic wave propagation that have become increasingly popular in the recent past. We consider the Lax-Wendroff method (LWM) for time stepping and show that it allows for a larger time step than the classical leap-frog finite difference method, with higher-order accuracy. In particular the fourth-order LWM allows for a time step 73 per cent larger than that of the leap-frog method; the computational cost is approximately double per time step, but the larger time step partially compensates for this additional cost. Necessary, but not sufficient, stability conditions are given for the mentioned methods for orders up to 10 in space and time. The stability conditions for IP-DGM are approximately 20 and 60 per cent more restrictive than those for SEM in the acoustic and elastic cases, respectively. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

  1. A comparison of high-order polynomial and wave-based methods for Helmholtz problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Alice; Gabard, Gwénaël; Bériot, Hadrien

    2016-09-01

    The application of computational modelling to wave propagation problems is hindered by the dispersion error introduced by the discretisation. Two common strategies to address this issue are to use high-order polynomial shape functions (e.g. hp-FEM), or to use physics-based, or Trefftz, methods where the shape functions are local solutions of the problem (typically plane waves). Both strategies have been actively developed over the past decades and both have demonstrated their benefits compared to conventional finite-element methods, but they have yet to be compared. In this paper a high-order polynomial method (p-FEM with Lobatto polynomials) and the wave-based discontinuous Galerkin method are compared for two-dimensional Helmholtz problems. A number of different benchmark problems are used to perform a detailed and systematic assessment of the relative merits of these two methods in terms of interpolation properties, performance and conditioning. It is generally assumed that a wave-based method naturally provides better accuracy compared to polynomial methods since the plane waves or Bessel functions used in these methods are exact solutions of the Helmholtz equation. Results indicate that this expectation does not necessarily translate into a clear benefit, and that the differences in performance, accuracy and conditioning are more nuanced than generally assumed. The high-order polynomial method can in fact deliver comparable, and in some cases superior, performance compared to the wave-based DGM. In addition to benchmarking the intrinsic computational performance of these methods, a number of practical issues associated with realistic applications are also discussed.

  2. Run-up on a body in waves and current. Fully nonlinear and finite-order calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchmann, Bjarne; Ferrant, P.; Skourup, J.

    2001-01-01

    Run-up on a large fixed body in waves and current have been calculated using both a fully nonlinear time-domain boundary element model and a finite-order time-domain boundary element model, the latter being correct to second order in the wave steepness and to first-order in the current strength...

  3. High-order Boussinesq-type modelling of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we start with a review of the development of Boussinesq theory for water waves covering the period from 1872 to date. Previous reviews have been given by Dingemans,1 Kirby,2,3 and Madsen & Schäffer.4 Next, we present our most recent high-order Boussinesq-type formulation valid for f...... from an undular sea bed; (8) Run-up of non-breaking solitary waves on a beach; and (9) Tsunami generation from submerged landslides....

  4. Exact solitary wave solution for higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation using He's variational iteration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Monika; Bhatti, Harbax S.; Singh, Vikramjeet

    2017-11-01

    In optical communication, the behavior of the ultrashort pulses of optical solitons can be described through nonlinear Schrodinger equation. This partial differential equation is widely used to contemplate a number of physically important phenomena, including optical shock waves, laser and plasma physics, quantum mechanics, elastic media, etc. The exact analytical solution of (1+n)-dimensional higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation by He's variational iteration method has been presented. Our proposed solutions are very helpful in studying the solitary wave phenomena and ensure rapid convergent series and avoid round off errors. Different examples with graphical representations have been given to justify the capability of the method.

  5. Second-Order Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory for Molecular Dirac-Hartree-Fock Wave Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Moller-Plesset perturbation theory is developed to second order for a selection of Kramers restricted Dirac-Hartree-Fock closed and open-shell reference wave functions. The open-shell wave functions considered are limited to those with no more than two electrons in open shells, but include the case of a two-configuration SCF reference. Denominator shifts are included in the style of Davidson's OPT2 method. An implementation which uses unordered integrals with labels is presented, and results are given for a few test cases.

  6. Evolution of coherent collective modes through consecutive charge-density-wave transitions in the (PO2)4(WO3)12 monophosphate tungsten bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojchevska, L.; Borovšak, M.; Foury-Leylekian, P.; Pouget, J.-P.; Mertelj, T.; Mihailovic, D.

    2017-07-01

    All-optical femtosecond relaxation dynamics in a single crystal of monophosphate tungsten bronze (PO2)4(WO3)2m with alternate stacking m =6 of WO3 layers was studied through the three consequent charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions. Several transient coherent collective modes associated with the different CDW transitions were observed and analyzed in the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory. Remarkably, the interference of the modes leads to an apparent rectification effect in the transient reflectivity response. A saturation of the coherent-mode amplitudes with increasing pump fluence well below the CDWs destruction threshold fluence indicates a decoupling of the electronic and lattice parts of the order parameter on the femtosecond timescale.

  7. The order parameter of glass transition: Spontaneously delocalized nanoscale solitary wave with transverse ripplon-like soft wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Lin Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In macromolecular self-avoiding random walk, movement of each chain-particle accompanies an instantaneous spin system with de Gennes n = 0 that provides extra energy, extra vacancy volume and relaxation time needed for chain-particles co-movement. Using these additional and instantaneous spin systems not only directly yields the same Brownian motion mode in glass transition (GT and reptation-tube model, but also proves that the entangled chain length corresponding to the Reynolds number in hydrodynamics and the inherent diffusion - delocalization mode of entangled chains, from frozen glass state to melt liquid state, is a chain-size solitary wave with transverse ripplon-like soft wave. Thus, the order parameter of GT is found. The various currently available GT theories, such as Static Replica, Random First-Order Transition, Potential Energy Landscape, Mode-Coupling and Nanoscale Heterogeneity, can be unified using the additional and instantaneous spin system. GT served as an inspiration and continues to serve as the paradigm in the universal random delocalization transitions from disorder to more disorder until turbulence.

  8. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  9. Bridging Three Orders of Magnitude: Multiple Scattered Waves Sense Fractal Microscopic Structures via Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Simon A.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5 μ m in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Freak Waves Based on the Four-Order Nonlinear Schr(o)dinger Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-qiu; ZHANG Ning-chuan; PEI Yu-guo

    2007-01-01

    A numerical wave model based on the modified four-order nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation in deep water is developed to simulate freak waves. A standard split-step, pseudo-spectral method is used to solve NLS equation. The validation of the model is firstly verified, and then the simulation of freak waves is performed by changing sideband conditions. Results show that freak waves entirely consistent with the definition in the evolution of wave trains are obtained. The possible occurrence mechanism of freak waves is discussed and the relevant characteristics are also analyzed.

  11. Prediction of the shape of inline wave force and free surface elevation using First Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2017-01-01

    theory, that is, the most likely time history of inline force around a force peak of given value. The results of FORM and NewForce are linearly identical and show only minor deviations at second order. The FORM results are then compared to wave averaged measurements of the same criteria for crest height......In design of substructures for offshore wind turbines, the extreme wave loads which are of interest in Ultimate Limit States are often estimated by choosing extreme events from linear random sea states and replacing them by either stream function wave theory or the NewWave theory of a certain...... design wave height. As these wave theories super from limitations such as symmetry around the crest, other methods to estimate the wave loads are needed. In the present paper, the First Order Reliability Method, FORM, is used systematically to estimate the most likely extreme wave shapes. Two parameters...

  12. An arbitrary-order staggered time integrator for the linear acoustic wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejoon; Park, Hyunseo; Park, Yoonseo; Shin, Changsoo

    2018-02-01

    We suggest a staggered time integrator whose order of accuracy can arbitrarily be extended to solve the linear acoustic wave equation. A strategy to select the appropriate order of accuracy is also proposed based on the error analysis that quantitatively predicts the truncation error of the numerical solution. This strategy not only reduces the computational cost several times, but also allows us to flexibly set the modelling parameters such as the time step length, grid interval and P-wave speed. It is demonstrated that the proposed method can almost eliminate temporal dispersive errors during long term simulations regardless of the heterogeneity of the media and time step lengths. The method can also be successfully applied to the source problem with an absorbing boundary condition, which is frequently encountered in the practical usage for the imaging algorithms or the inverse problems.

  13. Gravitational waves from the sound of a first order phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan J; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David J

    2014-01-31

    We report on the first three-dimensional numerical simulations of first-order phase transitions in the early Universe to include the cosmic fluid as well as the scalar field order parameter. We calculate the gravitational wave (GW) spectrum resulting from the nucleation, expansion, and collision of bubbles of the low-temperature phase, for phase transition strengths and bubble wall velocities covering many cases of interest. We find that the compression waves in the fluid continue to be a source of GWs long after the bubbles have merged, a new effect not taken properly into account in previous modeling of the GW source. For a wide range of models, the main source of the GWs produced by a phase transition is, therefore, the sound the bubbles make.

  14. Combined solitary-wave solution for coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jinping; Tian Huiping; Li Zhonghao; Zhou Guosheng

    2004-01-01

    Coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations model several interesting physical phenomena. We used a trigonometric function transform method based on a homogeneous balance to solve the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations. We obtained four pairs of exact solitary-wave solutions including a dark and a bright-soliton pair, a bright- and a dark-soliton pair, a bright- and a bright-soliton pair, and the last pair, a combined bright-dark-soliton pair

  15. Ordering phenomena in transition-metal-oxide heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frano Pereira, Alex Manuel

    2014-01-27

    will address the observation of charge density wave (CDW) order in single crystals of superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+δ} (YBCO). With accumulating evidence of a Fermi surface reconstruction suggesting an underlying ordered ground state in underdoped YBCO, diffraction evidence of a CDW was found in YBCO{sub 6.6} single crystals during this PhD project. A thorough study of the energy, temperature, external magnetic field, and doping dependence was done to characterize the details of this ordered state. Together with results obtained on samples doped with non-magnetic Zn impurities, which locally slow the magnetic fluctuations, a competition between the CDW, the spin density wave, and superconducting phase is proposed. Finally, the study extended to investigate the emergence of CDW in SLs comprising fully oxygenated YBCO, a doping level where CDW order eludes single crystals, and half-metallic La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} (LCMO). Our main finding is that the order originates at the YBCO interface due a charge transfer of electrons from LCMO. The temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the peak suggest a static, saturated phase in stark contrast to the single crystals' fluctuating order. Thus, this result demonstrates how oxide interfaces can act to nucleate metastable electronic phase transitions.

  16. Ordering phenomena in transition-metal-oxide heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frano Pereira, Alex Manuel

    2014-01-01

    wave (CDW) order in single crystals of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+δ (YBCO). With accumulating evidence of a Fermi surface reconstruction suggesting an underlying ordered ground state in underdoped YBCO, diffraction evidence of a CDW was found in YBCO 6.6 single crystals during this PhD project. A thorough study of the energy, temperature, external magnetic field, and doping dependence was done to characterize the details of this ordered state. Together with results obtained on samples doped with non-magnetic Zn impurities, which locally slow the magnetic fluctuations, a competition between the CDW, the spin density wave, and superconducting phase is proposed. Finally, the study extended to investigate the emergence of CDW in SLs comprising fully oxygenated YBCO, a doping level where CDW order eludes single crystals, and half-metallic La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 (LCMO). Our main finding is that the order originates at the YBCO interface due a charge transfer of electrons from LCMO. The temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the peak suggest a static, saturated phase in stark contrast to the single crystals' fluctuating order. Thus, this result demonstrates how oxide interfaces can act to nucleate metastable electronic phase transitions.

  17. Numerical survey of pressure wave propagation around and inside an underground cavity with high order FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Schöberl, Joachim; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    The research on purely numerical methods for modeling seismic waves has been more and more intensified over last decades. This development is mainly driven by the fact that on the one hand for subsurface models of interest in exploration and global seismology exact analytic solutions do not exist, but, on the other hand, retrieving full seismic waveforms is important to get insides into spectral characteristics and for the interpretation of seismic phases and amplitudes. Furthermore, the computational potential has dramatically increased in the recent past such that it became worthwhile to perform computations for large-scale problems as those arising in the field of computational seismology. Algorithms based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) are becoming increasingly popular for the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in geophysical models as they provide more geometrical flexibility in terms of complexity as well as heterogeneity of the materials. In particular, we want to demonstrate the benefit of high-order FEMs as they also provide a better control on the accuracy. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Further we are interested in the generation of synthetic seismograms including direct, refracted and converted waves in correlation to the presence of an underground cavity and the detailed simulation of the comprehensive wave field inside and around such a cavity that would have been created by a nuclear explosion. The motivation of this application comes from the need to find evidence of a nuclear test as they are forbidden by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). With this approach it is possible for us to investigate the wave field over a large bandwidth of wave numbers. This again will help to provide a better understanding on the characteristic signatures of an underground cavity, improve the protocols for

  18. Higher-order anisotropies in the blast-wave model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimerman, Jakub [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Comenius University, FMPI, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tomasik, Boris [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Csanad, Mate; Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-08-15

    We formulate a generalisation of the blast-wave model which is suitable for the description of higher-order azimuthal anisotropies of the hadron production. The model includes anisotropy in the density profile as well as an anisotropy in the transverse expansion velocity field. We then study how these two kinds of anisotropies influence the single-particle distributions and the correlation radii of two-particle correlation functions. Particularly we focus on the third-order anisotropy and consideration is given averaging over different orientations of the event plane. (orig.)

  19. Planar plane-wave matrix theory at the four loop order: integrability without BMN scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbacher, Thomas; Klose, Thomas; Plefka, Jan

    2005-01-01

    We study SU(N) plane-wave matrix theory up to fourth perturbative order in its large N planar limit. The effective hamiltonian in the closed su(2) subsector of the model is explicitly computed through a specially tailored computer program to perform large scale distributed symbolic algebra and generation of planar graphs. The number of graphs here was in the deep billions. The outcome of our computation establishes the four-loop integrability of the planar plane-wave matrix model. To elucidate the integrable structure we apply the recent technology of the perturbative asymptotic Bethe ansatz to our model. The resulting S-matrix turns out to be structurally similar but nevertheless distinct to the so far considered long-range spin-chain S-matrices of Inozemtsev, Beisert-Dippel-Staudacher and Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher in the AdS/CFT context. In particular our result displays a breakdown of BMN scaling at the four-loop order. That is, while there exists an appropriate identification of the matrix theory mass parameter with the coupling constant of the N=4 superconformal Yang-Mills theory which yields an eighth order lattice derivative for well separated impurities (naively implying BMN scaling) the detailed impurity contact interactions ruin this scaling property at the four-loop order. Moreover we study the issue of 'wrapping' interactions, which show up for the first time at this loop-order through a Konishi descendant length four operator. (author)

  20. Unsplit complex frequency shifted perfectly matched layer for second-order wave equation using auxiliary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing

    2015-12-01

    The complex frequency shifted perfectly matched layer (CFS-PML) can improve the absorbing performance of PML for nearly grazing incident waves. However, traditional PML and CFS-PML are based on first-order wave equations; thus, they are not suitable for second-order wave equation. In this paper, an implementation of CFS-PML for second-order wave equation is presented using auxiliary differential equations. This method is free of both convolution calculations and third-order temporal derivatives. As an unsplit CFS-PML, it can reduce the nearly grazing incidence. Numerical experiments show that it has better absorption than typical PML implementations based on second-order wave equation.

  1. Analytical results on the periodically driven damped pendulum. Application to sliding charge-density waves and Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azbel, M.Y.; Bak, P.

    1984-01-01

    The differential equation epsilonphi-dieresis+phi-dot-(1/2)α sin(2phi) = I+summation/sub n/ = -infinity/sup infinity/A/sub n/delta(t-t/sub n/) describing the periodically driven damped pendulum is analyzed in the strong damping limit epsilon<<1, using first-order perturbation theory. The equation may represent the motion of a sliding charge-density wave (CDW) in ac plus dc electric fields, and the resistively shunted Josephson junction driven by dc and microwave currents. When the torque I exceeds a critical value the pendulum rotates with a frequency ω. For infinite damping, or zero mass (epsilon = 0), the equation can be transformed to the Schroedinger equation of the Kronig-Penney model. When A/sub n/ is random the pendulum exhibits chaotic motion. In the regular case A/sub n/ = A the frequency ω is a smooth function of the parameters, so there are no phase-locked subharmonic plateaus in the ω(I) curve, or the I-V characteristics for the CDW or Josephson-junction systems. For small nonzero epsilon the return map expressing the phase phi(t/sub n/+1) as a function of the phase phi(t/sub n/) is a one-dimensional circle map. Applying known analytical results for the circle map one finds narrow subharmonic plateaus at all rational frequencies, in agreement with experiments on CDW systems

  2. An efficient flexible-order model for 3D nonlinear water waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engsig-Karup, A.P.; Bingham, H.B.; Lindberg, O.

    2009-01-01

    The flexible-order, finite difference based fully nonlinear potential flow model described in [H.B. Bingham, H. Zhang, On the accuracy of finite difference solutions for nonlinear water waves, J. Eng. Math. 58 (2007) 211-228] is extended to three dimensions (3D). In order to obtain an optimal scaling of the solution effort multigrid is employed to precondition a GMRES iterative solution of the discretized Laplace problem. A robust multigrid method based on Gauss-Seidel smoothing is found to require special treatment of the boundary conditions along solid boundaries, and in particular on the sea bottom. A new discretization scheme using one layer of grid points outside the fluid domain is presented and shown to provide convergent solutions over the full physical and discrete parameter space of interest. Linear analysis of the fundamental properties of the scheme with respect to accuracy, robustness and energy conservation are presented together with demonstrations of grid independent iteration count and optimal scaling of the solution effort. Calculations are made for 3D nonlinear wave problems for steep nonlinear waves and a shoaling problem which show good agreement with experimental measurements and other calculations from the literature

  3. An efficient flexible-order model for 3D nonlinear water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engsig-Karup, A. P.; Bingham, H. B.; Lindberg, O.

    2009-04-01

    The flexible-order, finite difference based fully nonlinear potential flow model described in [H.B. Bingham, H. Zhang, On the accuracy of finite difference solutions for nonlinear water waves, J. Eng. Math. 58 (2007) 211-228] is extended to three dimensions (3D). In order to obtain an optimal scaling of the solution effort multigrid is employed to precondition a GMRES iterative solution of the discretized Laplace problem. A robust multigrid method based on Gauss-Seidel smoothing is found to require special treatment of the boundary conditions along solid boundaries, and in particular on the sea bottom. A new discretization scheme using one layer of grid points outside the fluid domain is presented and shown to provide convergent solutions over the full physical and discrete parameter space of interest. Linear analysis of the fundamental properties of the scheme with respect to accuracy, robustness and energy conservation are presented together with demonstrations of grid independent iteration count and optimal scaling of the solution effort. Calculations are made for 3D nonlinear wave problems for steep nonlinear waves and a shoaling problem which show good agreement with experimental measurements and other calculations from the literature.

  4. Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for OCD metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; Liu, Shiyuan; Chen, Xiuguo; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2011-12-01

    In most cases of optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology, when applying rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) to optical modeling, a high order of Fourier harmonics is usually set up to guarantee the convergence of the final results. However, the total number of floating point operations grows dramatically as the truncation order increases. Therefore, it is critical to choose an appropriate order to obtain high computational efficiency without losing much accuracy in the meantime. In this paper, the convergence order associated with the structural and optical parameters has been estimated through simulation. The results indicate that the convergence order is linear with the period of the sample when fixing the other parameters, both for planar diffraction and conical diffraction. The illuminated wavelength also affects the convergence of a final result. With further investigations concentrated on the ratio of illuminated wavelength to period, it is discovered that the convergence order decreases with the growth of the ratio, and when the ratio is fixed, convergence order jumps slightly, especially in a specific range of wavelength. This characteristic could be applied to estimate the optimum convergence order of given samples to obtain high computational efficiency.

  5. A numerical study of the second-order wave excitation of ship springing by a higher-order boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yan-Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the efforts by the authors towards numerical prediction of springing of ships. A time-domain Higher Order Boundary Element Method (HOBEM based on cubic shape function is first presented to solve a complete second-order problem in terms of wave steepness and ship motions in a consistent manner. In order to avoid high order derivatives on the body surfaces, e.g. mj-terms, a new formulation of the Boundary Value Problem in a body-fixed coordinate system has been proposed instead of traditional formulation in inertial coordinate system. The local steady flow effects on the unsteady waves are taken into account. Double-body flow is used as the basis flow which is an appropriate approximation for ships with moderate forward speed. This numerical model was used to estimate the complete second order wave excitation of springing of a displacement ship at constant forward speeds.

  6. Toward a scalable flexible-order model for 3D nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.

    For marine and coastal applications, current work are directed toward the development of a scalable numerical 3D model for fully nonlinear potential water waves over arbitrary depths. The model is high-order accurate, robust and efficient for large-scale problems, and support will be included...... for flexibility in the description of structures by the use of curvilinear boundary-fitted meshes. The mathematical equations for potential waves in the physical domain is transformed through $\\sigma$-mapping(s) to a time-invariant boundary-fitted domain which then becomes a basis for an efficient solution...... strategy on a time-invariant mesh. The 3D numerical model is based on a finite difference method as in the original works \\cite{LiFleming1997,BinghamZhang2007}. Full details and other aspects of an improved 3D solution can be found in \\cite{EBL08}. The new and improved approach for three...

  7. SIMPLE MODELS OF THREE COUPLED PT -SYMMETRIC WAVE GUIDES ALLOWING FOR THIRD-ORDER EXCEPTIONAL POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schnabel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We study theoretical models of three coupled wave guides with a PT-symmetric distribution of gain and loss. A realistic matrix model is developed in terms of a three-mode expansion. By comparing with a previously postulated matrix model it is shown how parameter ranges with good prospects of finding a third-order exceptional point (EP3 in an experimentally feasible arrangement of semiconductors can be determined. In addition it is demonstrated that continuous distributions of exceptional points, which render the discovery of the EP3 difficult, are not only a feature of extended wave guides but appear also in an idealised model of infinitely thin guides shaped by delta functions.

  8. Charge-density-wave partial gap opening in quasi-2D KMo 6O 17 purple bronze studied by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, M. A.; Avila, J.; Pantin, V.; Drouard, S.; Guyot, H.; Asensio, M. C.

    2006-05-01

    Low dimensional (LD) metallic oxides have been a subject of continuous interest in the last two decades, mainly due to the electronic instabilities that they present at low temperatures. In particular, charge density waves (CDW) instabilities associated with a strong electron-phonon interaction have been found in Molybdenum metallic oxides such as KMo 6O 17 purple bronze. We report an angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) study from room temperature (RT) to T ˜40 K well below the Peierls transition temperature for this material, with CDW transition temperature TCDW ˜120 K. We have focused on photoemission spectra along ΓM high symmetry direction as well as photoemission measurements were taken as a function of temperature at one representative kF point in the Brillouin zone in order to look for the characteristic gap opening after the phase transition. We found out a pseudogap opening and a decrease in the density of states near the Fermi energy, EF, consistent with the partial removal of the nested portions of the Fermi surface (FS) at temperature below the CDW transition. In order to elucidate possible Fermi liquid (FL) or non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behaviour we have compared the ARPES data with that one reported on quasi-1D K 0.3MoO 3 blue bronze.

  9. Higher-order rogue wave-like solutions for a nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with external potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Tian, Bo; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Under investigation in this paper is the higher-order rogue wave-like solutions for a nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger equation with external potentials which can be applied in the nonlinear optics, hydrodynamics, plasma physics and Bose-Einstein condensation. Based on the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy reduction, we construct the Nth order rogue wave-like solutions in terms of the Gramian under the integrable constraint. With the help of the analytic and graphic analysis, we exhibit the first-, second- and third-order rogue wave-like solutions through the different dispersion, nonlinearity and linear potential coefficients. We find that only if the dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients are proportional to each other, heights of the background of those rogue waves maintain unchanged with time increasing. Due to the existence of complex parameters, such nonautonomous rogue waves in the higher-order cases have more complex features than those in the lower.

  10. Effect of Second-Order and Fully Nonlinear Wave Kinematics on a Tension-Leg-Platform Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pegalajar-Jurado, Antonio [Technical University of Denmark; Borg, Michael [Technical University of Denmark; Bredmose, Henrik [Technical University of Denmark

    2017-08-02

    In this study, we assess the impact of different wave kinematics models on the dynamic response of a tension-leg-platform wind turbine. Aero-hydro-elastic simulations of the floating wind turbine are carried out employing linear, second-order, and fully nonlinear kinematics using the Morison equation for the hydrodynamic forcing. The wave kinematics are computed from either theoretical or measured signals of free-surface elevation. The numerical results from each model are compared to results from wave basin tests on a scaled prototype. The comparison shows that sub and superharmonic responses can be introduced by second-order and fully nonlinear wave kinematics. The response at the wave frequency range is better reproduced when kinematics are generated from the measured surface elevation. In the future, the numerical response may be further improved by replacing the global, constant damping coefficients in the model by a more detailed, customizable definition of the user-defined numerical damping.

  11. Effect of Second-Order and Fully Nonlinear Wave Kinematics on a Tension-Leg-Platform Wind Turbine in Extreme Wave Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pegalajar-Jurado, Antonio [Technical University of Denmark; Borg, Michael [Technical University of Denmark; Bredmose, Henrik [Technical University of Denmark

    2017-06-03

    In this study, we assess the impact of different wave kinematics models on the dynamic response of a tension-leg-platform wind turbine. Aero-hydro-elastic simulations of the floating wind turbine are carried out employing linear, second-order, and fully nonlinear kinematics using the Morison equation for the hydrodynamic forcing. The wave kinematics are computed from either theoretical or measured signals of free-surface elevation. The numerical results from each model are compared to results from wave basin tests on a scaled prototype. The comparison shows that sub and superharmonic responses can be introduced by second-order and fully nonlinear wave kinematics. The response at the wave frequency range is better reproduced when kinematics are generated from the measured surface elevation. In the future, the numerical response may be further improved by replacing the global, constant damping coefficients in the model by a more detailed, customizable definition of the user-defined numerical damping.

  12. Normal-mode-based analysis of electron plasma waves with second-order Hermitian formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J. J.; White, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    The classic problem of the dynamic evolution and Landau damping of linear Langmuir electron waves in a collisionless plasma with Maxwellian background is cast as a second-order, self-adjoint problem with a continuum spectrum of real and positive squared frequencies. The corresponding complete basis of singular normal modes is obtained, along with their orthogonality relation. This yields easily the general expression of the time-reversal-invariant solution for any initial-value problem. Examples are given for specific initial conditions that illustrate different behaviors of the Landau-damped macroscopic moments of the perturbations.

  13. An efficient flexible-order model for coastal and ocean water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bingham, Harry B.; Lindberg, Ole

    Current work are directed toward the development of an improved numerical 3D model for fully nonlinear potential water waves over arbitrary depths. The model is high-order accurate, robust and efficient for large-scale problems, and support will be included for flexibility in the description...... as in the original works \\cite{LiFleming1997,BinghamZhang2007}. The new and improved approach employs a GMRES solver with multigrid preconditioning to achieve optimal scaling of the overall solution effort, i.e., directly with $n$ the total number of grid points. A robust method is achieved through a special...

  14. A stochastic collocation method for the second order wave equation with a discontinuous random speed

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad

    2012-08-31

    In this paper we propose and analyze a stochastic collocation method for solving the second order wave equation with a random wave speed and subjected to deterministic boundary and initial conditions. The speed is piecewise smooth in the physical space and depends on a finite number of random variables. The numerical scheme consists of a finite difference or finite element method in the physical space and a collocation in the zeros of suitable tensor product orthogonal polynomials (Gauss points) in the probability space. This approach leads to the solution of uncoupled deterministic problems as in the Monte Carlo method. We consider both full and sparse tensor product spaces of orthogonal polynomials. We provide a rigorous convergence analysis and demonstrate different types of convergence of the probability error with respect to the number of collocation points for full and sparse tensor product spaces and under some regularity assumptions on the data. In particular, we show that, unlike in elliptic and parabolic problems, the solution to hyperbolic problems is not in general analytic with respect to the random variables. Therefore, the rate of convergence may only be algebraic. An exponential/fast rate of convergence is still possible for some quantities of interest and for the wave solution with particular types of data. We present numerical examples, which confirm the analysis and show that the collocation method is a valid alternative to the more traditional Monte Carlo method for this class of problems. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Low-order-mode harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in W band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Y. S.; Chen, C. H.; Yang, S. J.; Lai, C. H.; Lin, T. Y.; Lo, Y. C.; Hong, J. W.; Hung, C. L.; Chang, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWAs) allow for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. To avoid absolute instabilities, this work proposes a W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA operating at low-order modes. By amplifying a fundamental harmonic TE 11 drive wave, the second harmonic component of the beam current initiates a TE 21 wave to be amplified. Absolute instabilities in the gyro-TWA are suppressed by shortening the interaction circuit and increasing wall losses. Simulation results reveal that compared with Ka-band gyro-TWTs, the lower wall losses effectively suppress absolute instabilities in the W-band gyro-TWA. However, a global reflective oscillation occurs as the wall losses decrease. Increasing the length or resistivity of the lossy section can reduce the feedback of the oscillation to stabilize the amplifier. The W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA is predicted to yield a peak output power of 111 kW at 98 GHz with an efficiency of 25%, a saturated gain of 26 dB, and a bandwidth of 1.6 GHz for a 60 kV, 7.5 A electron beam with an axial velocity spread of 8%.

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy of atoms and charge density waves in 1T-TaS2, 1T-TaSe2 and 1T-VSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slough, G.; Giambattista, B.; Johnson, A.; McNairy, W.W.; Coleman, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    The layer structure dichalcogenide materials TaS 2 and TaSe 2 grow in several different phases depending on the coordination between the Ta and chalcogenide atoms and the number of three layer sandwiches per unit cell. The 1T phase has octahedral coordination between the Ta and chalcogenide atoms and has one three layer sandwich per unit cell. The high temperature Fermi surfaces (FSs) of the 1T phase Ta based materials exhibit a favorable nesting condition and undergo a charge-density-wave (CDW) transition at temperatures well above room temperature. At low temperatures the CDWs form a √13 /ovr string/a /times/ √13 a commensurate superlattice. STM scans on the 1T phases confirm the presence of an extremely strong CDW modulation inducing z-deflections in the constant current mode of anomalously large values. 1T-VSe 2 is also a member of the VB layer structure dichalcogenide group and band structure calculations show the high temperatures FS to be similar to that of 1T-TaSe 2 . However, sufficient differences exist such that the CDW formation is quite different. The CDW superlattice is observed to form only below room temperature and locks into a 4/ovr string/a /times/ 4/ovr string/a superlattice below /approximately/80K rather than the √13 /ovr string/a /times/ √13 /ovr string/a one observed in 1T-TaSe 2 . Based on electron and neutron diffraction results on stoichiometric 1T-VSe 2 two phase transitions are detected, a second order transition at 110K and a first order transition at /approximately/80K. 20 figs

  17. Magnetism and rotation effect on surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Dahab, S. M. [Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Abd-Alla, A. M. [SVU, Qena (Egypt); Khan, Aftab [Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic media of higher order under the influence of magnetic field. The general surface wave speeds derived to study the effects of rotation and magnetic field on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed and dispersion relation for the waves has been deduced. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. For order zero our results are well agreement to fibre-reinforced materials. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters, the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. It is observed that in a rotating medium the surface waves are dispersive. Also magnetic effects play a significant roll. It is observed that Love wave remain unaffected in a rotating medium but remain under the influence of magnetic field. Rayleigh waves are affected by rotation and magnetic field whereas Stoneley waves are independent of Maxwell stresses. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium or in the presence of magnetic field of high intensity. Numerical results for particular materials are given and illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the effect of rotation and magnetic field are very pronounced.

  18. Magnetism and rotation effect on surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Dahab, S. M.; Abd-Alla, A. M.; Khan, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic media of higher order under the influence of magnetic field. The general surface wave speeds derived to study the effects of rotation and magnetic field on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed and dispersion relation for the waves has been deduced. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. For order zero our results are well agreement to fibre-reinforced materials. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters, the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. It is observed that in a rotating medium the surface waves are dispersive. Also magnetic effects play a significant roll. It is observed that Love wave remain unaffected in a rotating medium but remain under the influence of magnetic field. Rayleigh waves are affected by rotation and magnetic field whereas Stoneley waves are independent of Maxwell stresses. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium or in the presence of magnetic field of high intensity. Numerical results for particular materials are given and illustrated graphically. The results indicate that the effect of rotation and magnetic field are very pronounced.

  19. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.

  20. The gravitational waves from the first-order phase transition with a dimension-six operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Shao-Jiang [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.55 Zhong Guan Cun East Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: cairg@itp.ac.cn, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: schwang@itp.ac.cn [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-08-01

    We investigate in details the gravitational wave (GW) from the first-order phase transition (PT) in the extended standard model of particle physics with a dimension-six operator, which is capable of exhibiting the recently discovered slow first-order PT in addition to the usually studied fast first-order PT. To simplify the discussion, it is sufficient to work with an example of a toy model with the sextic term, and we propose an unified description for both slow and fast first-order PTs. We next study the full one-loop effective potential of the model with fixed/running renormalization-group (RG) scales. Compared to the prediction of GW energy density spectrum from the fixed RG scale, we find that the presence of running RG scale could amplify the peak amplitude by amount of one order of magnitude while shift the peak frequency to the lower frequency regime, and the promising regime of detection within the sensitivity ranges of various space-based GW detectors shrinks down to a lower cut-off value of the sextic term rather than the previous expectation.

  1. Second-order wave diffraction by a circular cylinder using scaled boundary finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H; Tao, L

    2010-01-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) has achieved remarkable success in structural mechanics and fluid mechanics, combing the advantage of both FEM and BEM. Most of the previous works focus on linear problems, in which superposition principle is applicable. However, many physical problems in the real world are nonlinear and are described by nonlinear equations, challenging the application of the existing SBFEM model. A popular idea to solve a nonlinear problem is decomposing the nonlinear equation to a number of linear equations, and then solves them individually. In this paper, second-order wave diffraction by a circular cylinder is solved by SBFEM. By splitting the forcing term into two parts, the physical problem is described as two second-order boundary-value problems with different asymptotic behaviour at infinity. Expressing the velocity potentials as a series of depth-eigenfunctions, both of the 3D boundary-value problems are decomposed to a number of 2D boundary-value sub-problems, which are solved semi-analytically by SBFEM. Only the cylinder boundary is discretised with 1D curved finite-elements on the circumference of the cylinder, while the radial differential equation is solved completely analytically. The method can be extended to solve more complex wave-structure interaction problems resulting in direct engineering applications.

  2. Evidence for intertwined superfluid and density wave order in two dimensional 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, John

    2015-03-01

    We report the identification of a new state of quantum matter with intertwined superfluid and density wave order in a system of two dimensional bosons subject to a triangular lattice potential. Using a torsional oscillator we have measured the response of the second atomic layer of 4He adsorbed on the surface of graphite over a wide temperature range down to 2 mK. Superfluidity is observed over a narrow range of film densities, emerging suddenly and collapsing towards a quantum critical point, near to layer completion where a Mott insulating phase is predicted to form. The unusual temperature dependence of the superfluid density in the T --> 0 limit and the absence of a clear superfluid onset temperature are explained, self-consistently, by an ansatz for the excitation spectrum, reflecting density wave order, and a quasi-condensate wavefunction breaking both gauge and translational symmetry. In collaboration with Jan Nyeki, Anastasia Phillis, Andrew Ho, Derek Lee, Piers Coleman, Jeevak Parpia, Brian Cowan. Supported by EPSRC (U.K) EP/H048375/1.

  3. Metal-charge density wave coexistence in TTF[Ni(dmit){sub 2}]{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaddour, W. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502-CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91405 (France); Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Campus Universitaire, Université de Tunis El-Manar, Tunis 2092 (Tunisia); Auban-Senzier, P.; Raffy, H.; Monteverde, M.; Pouget, J.-P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502-CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91405 (France); Pasquier, C.R., E-mail: pasquier@lps.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502-CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91405 (France); Alemany, P. [Departament de Química Física and Institut de Química Teòrica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Canadell, E. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Valade, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, Route de Narbonne F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2015-03-01

    We have established a new pressure–temperature phase diagram of TTF[Ni(dmit){sub 2}]{sub 2} based on longitudinal and transverse resistivity measurements under pressure up to 30 kbar. We were able to identify three different charge density wave (CDW) states which all coexist with a metallic state in a wide temperature range and superconductivity at the lowest temperatures. At low pressure, two successive CDW transitions have been clearly identified. These two transitions merge into a single one at 12 kbar. A maximum of this unique CDW transition temperature is observed at 19 kbar.

  4. Electronic structure of charge-density-wave state in quasi-2D KMo6O17 purple bronze characterized by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, M. A.; Avila, J.; Drouard, S.; Guyot, H.; Asensio, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    We report on an angle-resolved-photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of layered quasi-two dimensional (2D) Molybdenum purple bronze KMo6O17 in order to study and characterizes the transition to a charge-density-wave (CDW) state. We have performed photoemission temperature dependent measurements cooling down from room temperature (RT) to 32 K, well below the Peierls transition for this material, with CDW transition temperature Tc =110 K. The spectra have been taken at a selected kF point of the Fermi surface (FS) that satisfies the nesting condition of the FS, looking for the characteristic pseudo-gap opening in this kind of materials. The pseudogap has been estimated and it result to be in agreement with our previous works. The shift to lower binding energy of crossing Fermi level ARPES feature have been also confirmed and studied as a function of temperature, showing a rough like BCS behaviour. Finally we have also focused on ARPES measurements along ΓM¯ high symmetry direction for both room and low temperature states finding some insight for ‘shadow’ or back folded bands indicating the new periodicity of real lattice after the CDW lattice distortion.

  5. Second-order theory for coupling 2D numerical and physical wave tanks: Derivation, evaluation and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    , 171–186] is extended to include the second-order dispersive correction. The new formulation is presented in a unified form that includes both progressive and evanescent modes and covers wavemaker configurations of the piston- and flap-type. The second order paddle stroke correction allows for improved...... nonlinear wave generation in the physical wave tank based on target numerical solutions. The performance and efficiency of the new model is first evaluated theoretically based on second order Stokes waves. Due to the complexity of the problem, the proposed method has been truncated at 2D and the treatment...... that the new second-order coupling theory provides an improvement in the quality of nonlinear wave generation when compared to existing techniques....

  6. Exact traveling wave solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-like equations by applying Exp-function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We have computed new exact traveling wave solutions, including complex solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-Like equations, occurring in physical sciences and engineering, by applying Exp-function method. The method is blended with fractional complex transformation and modified Riemann-Liouville fractional order operator. Our obtained solutions are verified by substituting back into their corresponding equations. To the best of our knowledge, no other technique has been reported to cope with the said fractional order nonlinear problems combined with variety of exact solutions. Graphically, fractional order solution curves are shown to be strongly related to each other and most importantly, tend to fixate on their integer order solution curve. Our solutions comprise high frequencies and very small amplitude of the wave responses. Keywords: Exp-function method, New exact traveling wave solutions, Modified Riemann-Liouville derivative, Fractional complex transformation, Fractional order Boussinesq-like equations, Symbolic computation

  7. CDW-EIS calculations for multiple ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe by the impact of H{sup +} and He{sup +}, including post-collisional electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, C C; Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y FIsica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montenegro, E C, E-mail: mclaudia@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-08-28

    We present theoretical single to quintuple ionization cross sections for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe bombarded by H{sup +} and He{sup +}. Post-collisional contributions due to Auger-like processes are taken into account using recent photoionization data. The present continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) and first Born approximation results are compared with the experimental data available in the energy range of 50-10 000 keV amu{sup -1} for H{sup +} on Ne and Ar, and 50-1000 keV amu{sup -1} for the other cases. In general, the combination of the CDW-EIS with the post-collisional branching ratios describes well the multiple ionization data above 300 keV amu{sup -1}, showing a clear tendency to coalesce with the first Born approximation at high energies. The surprising result of this work is the good performance of the first Born approximation which describes rather well the experimental data of double and triple ionization, even in the intermediate energy range (50-300 keV amu{sup -1}), where direct ionization is the dominant contribution.

  8. Ceramic and mixed construction and demolition wastes (CDW): a technically viable and environmentally friendly source of coarse aggregates for the concrete manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Desirée

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, it is widely recognized that construction and demolition wastes (CDW) pose a significant environmental problem. However, in spite of the interest that the topic of their reutilization in the construction industry has aroused among worldwide researchers, the actual practice regarding the use of recycled aggregates from CDW is limited to low level applications (mostly as unbound materials). This fact is especially true for recycled aggregates containing ceramic materials, which are co...

  9. Investigation of the density wave oscillation in ocean motions with reduced order models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, B.H.; Li, R.

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •The parameter about the degree of instability is defined. •The results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results. •The effect of ocean motions on DWO is analyzed quantitatively. •The results are of good universality and generality. -- Abstract: The two phase flow instability is an important phenomenon in nuclear power and thermal systems. In the research and design of small modular reactor, the effect of ocean motions on the two phase flow instability should be evaluated. In this work, the density wave oscillation in a uniformly heated channel in ocean motions is investigated with reduced order model by transforming the partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. This kind of frequency domain method is complementary to the time domain analysis with system codes, not as alternatives. The parameter about the degree of instability is defined for the quantitative analysis of two phase flow instability. The results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results. The effect of ocean motions on density wave oscillation in a uniformly heated channel is analyzed quantitatively. The parametric study is also carried out.

  10. Asymmetric d-wave superconducting topological insulator in proximity with a magnetic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezerlou, M.; Goudarzi, H.; Asgarifar, S.

    2018-02-01

    In the framework of the Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism, we investigate the transport properties in the surface of a 3-dimensional topological insulator-based hybrid structure, where the ferromagnetic and superconducting orders are simultaneously induced to the surface states via the proximity effect. The superconductor gap is taken to be spin-singlet d-wave symmetry. The asymmetric role of this gap respect to the electron-hole exchange, in one hand, affects the topological insulator superconducting binding excitations and, on the other hand, gives rise to forming distinct Majorana bound states at the ferromagnet/superconductor interface. We propose a topological insulator N/F/FS junction and proceed to clarify the role of d-wave asymmetry pairing in the resulting subgap and overgap tunneling conductance. The perpendicular component of magnetizations in F and FS regions can be at the parallel and antiparallel configurations leading to capture the experimentally important magnetoresistance (MR) of junction. It is found that the zero-bias conductance is strongly sensitive to the magnitude of magnetization in FS region mzfs and orbital rotated angle α of superconductor gap. The negative MR only occurs in zero orbital rotated angle. This result can pave the way to distinguish the unconventional superconducting state in the relating topological insulator hybrid structures.

  11. Gravitational effective action at second order in curvature and gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Xavier; Capozziello, Salvatore; Pryer, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We consider the full effective theory for quantum gravity at second order in curvature including non-local terms. We show that the theory contains two new degrees of freedom beyond the massless graviton: namely a massive spin-2 ghost and a massive scalar field. Furthermore, we show that it is impossible to fine-tune the parameters of the effective action to eliminate completely the classical spin-2 ghost because of the non-local terms in the effective action. Being a classical field, it is not clear anyway that this ghost is problematic. It simply implies a repulsive contribution to Newton's potential. We then consider how to extract the parameters of the effective action and show that it is possible to measure, at least in principle, the parameters of the local terms independently of each other using a combination of observations of gravitational waves and measurements performed by pendulum type experiments searching for deviations of Newton's potential.

  12. Gravitational effective action at second order in curvature and gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Pryer, Daniel; Capozziello, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    We consider the full effective theory for quantum gravity at second order in curvature including non-local terms. We show that the theory contains two new degrees of freedom beyond the massless graviton: namely a massive spin-2 ghost and a massive scalar field. Furthermore, we show that it is impossible to fine-tune the parameters of the effective action to eliminate completely the classical spin-2 ghost because of the non-local terms in the effective action. Being a classical field, it is not clear anyway that this ghost is problematic. It simply implies a repulsive contribution to Newton's potential. We then consider how to extract the parameters of the effective action and show that it is possible to measure, at least in principle, the parameters of the local terms independently of each other using a combination of observations of gravitational waves and measurements performed by pendulum type experiments searching for deviations of Newton's potential. (orig.)

  13. Gravitational effective action at second order in curvature and gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Xavier; Capozziello, Salvatore; Pryer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We consider the full effective theory for quantum gravity at second order in curvature including non-local terms. We show that the theory contains two new degrees of freedom beyond the massless graviton: namely a massive spin-2 ghost and a massive scalar field. Furthermore, we show that it is impossible to fine-tune the parameters of the effective action to eliminate completely the classical spin-2 ghost because of the non-local terms in the effective action. Being a classical field, it is not clear anyway that this ghost is problematic. It simply implies a repulsive contribution to Newton's potential. We then consider how to extract the parameters of the effective action and show that it is possible to measure, at least in principle, the parameters of the local terms independently of each other using a combination of observations of gravitational waves and measurements performed by pendulum type experiments searching for deviations of Newton's potential.

  14. A simple finite-difference scheme for handling topography with the first-order wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, W. A.; Huiskes, M. J.

    2017-07-01

    One approach to incorporate topography in seismic finite-difference codes is a local modification of the difference operators near the free surface. An earlier paper described an approach for modelling irregular boundaries in a constant-density acoustic finite-difference code, based on the second-order formulation of the wave equation that only involves the pressure. Here, a similar method is considered for the first-order formulation in terms of pressure and particle velocity, using a staggered finite-difference discretization both in space and in time. In one space dimension, the boundary conditions consist in imposing antisymmetry for the pressure and symmetry for particle velocity components. For the pressure, this means that the solution values as well as all even derivatives up to a certain order are zero on the boundary. For the particle velocity, all odd derivatives are zero. In 2D, the 1-D assumption is used along each coordinate direction, with antisymmetry for the pressure along the coordinate and symmetry for the particle velocity component parallel to that coordinate direction. Since the symmetry or antisymmetry should hold along the direction normal to the boundary rather than along the coordinate directions, this generates an additional numerical error on top of the time stepping errors and the errors due to the interior spatial discretization. Numerical experiments in 2D and 3D nevertheless produce acceptable results.

  15. A high-order multiscale finite-element method for time-domain acoustic-wave modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Chung, Eric T.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate and efficient wave equation modeling is vital for many applications in such as acoustics, electromagnetics, and seismology. However, solving the wave equation in large-scale and highly heterogeneous models is usually computationally expensive because the computational cost is directly proportional to the number of grids in the model. We develop a novel high-order multiscale finite-element method to reduce the computational cost of time-domain acoustic-wave equation numerical modeling by solving the wave equation on a coarse mesh based on the multiscale finite-element theory. In contrast to existing multiscale finite-element methods that use only first-order multiscale basis functions, our new method constructs high-order multiscale basis functions from local elliptic problems which are closely related to the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre quadrature points in a coarse element. Essentially, these basis functions are not only determined by the order of Legendre polynomials, but also by local medium properties, and therefore can effectively convey the fine-scale information to the coarse-scale solution with high-order accuracy. Numerical tests show that our method can significantly reduce the computation time while maintain high accuracy for wave equation modeling in highly heterogeneous media by solving the corresponding discrete system only on the coarse mesh with the new high-order multiscale basis functions.

  16. Computing many-body wave functions with guaranteed precision: the first-order Møller-Plesset wave function for the ground state of helium atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Florian A; Harrison, Robert J; Valeev, Edward F

    2012-09-14

    We present an approach to compute accurate correlation energies for atoms and molecules using an adaptive discontinuous spectral-element multiresolution representation for the two-electron wave function. Because of the exponential storage complexity of the spectral-element representation with the number of dimensions, a brute-force computation of two-electron (six-dimensional) wave functions with high precision was not practical. To overcome the key storage bottlenecks we utilized (1) a low-rank tensor approximation (specifically, the singular value decomposition) to compress the wave function, and (2) explicitly correlated R12-type terms in the wave function to regularize the Coulomb electron-electron singularities of the Hamiltonian. All operations necessary to solve the Schrödinger equation were expressed so that the reconstruction of the full-rank form of the wave function is never necessary. Numerical performance of the method was highlighted by computing the first-order Møller-Plesset wave function of a helium atom. The computed second-order Møller-Plesset energy is precise to ~2 microhartrees, which is at the precision limit of the existing general atomic-orbital-based approaches. Our approach does not assume special geometric symmetries, hence application to molecules is straightforward.

  17. Scanning-tunneling microscope imaging of single-electron solitons in a material with incommensurate charge-density waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazovskii, Serguei; Brun, Christophe; Wang, Zhao-Zhong; Monceau, Pierre

    2012-03-02

    We report on scanning-tunneling microscopy experiments in a charge-density wave (CDW) system allowing visually capturing and studying in detail the individual solitons corresponding to the self-trapping of just one electron. This "Amplitude Soliton" is marked by vanishing of the CDW amplitude and by the π shift of its phase. It might be the realization of the spinon--the long-sought particle (along with the holon) in the study of science of strongly correlated electronic systems. As a distinct feature we also observe one-dimensional Friedel oscillations superimposed on the CDW which develop independently of solitons.

  18. The effect of pressure on the charge-density wave and superconductivity in ZrTe sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaya, K; Yasuzuka, S; Okajima, Y; Tanda, S

    2002-01-01

    The charge-density-wave (CDW) transition temperature, T sub C sub D sub W , of ZrTe sub 3 is found to increase for pressures up to 0.6 GPa, while the superconducting transition temperature, T sub c , decreases with increasing pressure. According to a band calculation, it is found that the pressure-induced enhancement of the CDW and suppression of the superconductivity are not simply explained by the effect of nesting of the Fermi surface, suggesting the possibility of a new relation for the competition between the CDW and superconductivity.

  19. Frequency-domain reduced order models for gravitational waves from aligned-spin compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pürrer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Black-hole binary coalescences are one of the most promising sources for the first detection of gravitational waves. Fast and accurate theoretical models of the gravitational radiation emitted from these coalescences are highly important for the detection and extraction of physical parameters. Spinning effective-one-body models for binaries with aligned-spins have been shown to be highly faithful, but are slow to generate and thus have not yet been used for parameter estimation (PE) studies. I provide a frequency-domain singular value decomposition-based surrogate reduced order model that is thousands of times faster for typical system masses and has a faithfulness mismatch of better than ∼0.1% with the original SEOBNRv1 model for advanced LIGO detectors. This model enables PE studies up to signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 20 and even up to 50 for total masses below 50 M ⊙ . This paper discusses various choices for approximations and interpolation over the parameter space that can be made for reduced order models of spinning compact binaries, provides a detailed discussion of errors arising in the construction and assesses the fidelity of such models. (paper)

  20. Charge density wave properties of the quasi two-dimensional purple molybdenum bronze KMo 6O 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaska, H.; Dumas, J.; Guyot, H.; Mallet, P.; Marcus, J.; Schlenker, C.; Veuillen, J. Y.; Vignolles, D.

    2005-06-01

    The purple molybdenum bronze KMo 6O 17 is a quasi-two-dimensional compound which shows a Peierls transition towards a commensurate metallic CDW state. Electron spectroscopy (ARUPS), Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) as well as high magnetic field studies are reported. ARUPS studies corroborate the model of the hidden nesting and provide a value of the CDW vector in good agreement with other measurements. STM studies visualize the triple- q CDW in real space. This is consistent with other measurements of the CDW vector. STS studies provide a value of several 10 meV for the average CDW gap. High magnetic field measurements performed in pulsed fields up to 55 T establish that first order transitions to smaller gap states take place at low temperature. These transitions are ascribed to Pauli type coupling. A phase diagram summarizing all observed anomalies and transitions is presented.

  1. Gravitational waves from first order phase transitions as a probe of an early matter domination era and its inverse problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela, E-mail: Gabriela.Barenboim@uv.es; Park, Wan-Il, E-mail: Wanil.Park@uv.es

    2016-08-10

    We investigate the gravitational wave background from a first order phase transition in a matter-dominated universe, and show that it has a unique feature from which important information about the properties of the phase transition and thermal history of the universe can be easily extracted. Also, we discuss the inverse problem of such a gravitational wave background in view of the degeneracy among macroscopic parameters governing the signal.

  2. Gravitational waves from the first order electroweak phase transition in the Z3 symmetric singlet scalar model*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsui Toshinori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among various scenarios of baryon asymmetry of the Universe, electroweak baryogenesis is directly connected with physics of the Higgs sector. We discuss spectra of gravitational waves which are originated by the strongly first order phase transition at the electroweak symmetry breaking, which is required for a successful scenario of electroweak baryogenesis. In the Z3 symmetric singlet scalar model, the significant gravitational waves are caused by the multi-step phase transition. We show that the model can be tested by measuring the characteristic spectra of the gravitational waves at future interferometers such as LISA and DECIGO.

  3. Structural changes of small amplitude kinetic Alfvén solitary waves due to second-order corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheong R.

    2015-01-01

    The structural changes of kinetic Alfvén solitary waves (KASWs) due to higher-order terms are investigated. While the first-order differential equation for KASWs provides the dispersion relation for kinetic Alfvén waves, the second-order differential equation describes the structural changes of the solitary waves due to higher-order nonlinearity. The reductive perturbation method is used to obtain the second-order and third-order partial differential equations; then, Kodama and Taniuti's technique [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 45, 298 (1978)] is applied in order to remove the secularities in the third-order differential equations and derive a linear second-order inhomogeneous differential equation. The solution to this new second-order equation indicates that, as the amplitude increases, the hump-type Korteweg-de Vries solution is concentrated more around the center position of the soliton and that dip-type structures form near the two edges of the soliton. This result has a close relationship with the interpretation of the complex KASW structures observed in space with satellites

  4. Phase transitions to dipolar clusters and charge density waves in high T{sub c} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarela, M., E-mail: Mikko.Saarela@oulu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 (Finland); Kusmartsev, F.V. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    We show that doping of hole charge carriers leads to formation of electric dipolar clusters in cuprates. They are created by many-body interactions between the dopant ion outside and holes inside the CuO planes. Because of the two-fold degeneracy holes in the CuO plane cluster into four-particles resonance valence bond plaquettes bound with dopant ions. Such dipoles may order into charge-density waves (CDW) or stripes or form a disordered state depending on doping and temperature. The lowest energy of the ordered system corresponds to a local anti-ferroelectric ordering. The mobility of individual disordered dipoles is very low at low temperatures and they prefer first to bind into dipole-dipole pairs. Electromagnetic radiation interacts strongly with electric dipoles and when the sample is subjected to it the mobility changes significantly. This leads to a fractal growth of dipolar clusters. The existence of electric dipoles and CDW induce two phase transitions with increasing temperature, melting of the ordered state and disappearance of the dipolar state. Ferroelectricity at low doping is a natural consequence of such dipole moments. We develop a theory based on two-level systems and dipole-dipole interaction to explain the behavior of the polarization as a function of temperature and electric field.

  5. Phase transitions to dipolar clusters and charge density waves in high T_c superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarela, M.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2017-01-01

    We show that doping of hole charge carriers leads to formation of electric dipolar clusters in cuprates. They are created by many-body interactions between the dopant ion outside and holes inside the CuO planes. Because of the two-fold degeneracy holes in the CuO plane cluster into four-particles resonance valence bond plaquettes bound with dopant ions. Such dipoles may order into charge-density waves (CDW) or stripes or form a disordered state depending on doping and temperature. The lowest energy of the ordered system corresponds to a local anti-ferroelectric ordering. The mobility of individual disordered dipoles is very low at low temperatures and they prefer first to bind into dipole-dipole pairs. Electromagnetic radiation interacts strongly with electric dipoles and when the sample is subjected to it the mobility changes significantly. This leads to a fractal growth of dipolar clusters. The existence of electric dipoles and CDW induce two phase transitions with increasing temperature, melting of the ordered state and disappearance of the dipolar state. Ferroelectricity at low doping is a natural consequence of such dipole moments. We develop a theory based on two-level systems and dipole-dipole interaction to explain the behavior of the polarization as a function of temperature and electric field.

  6. On the second-order homogenization of wave motion in periodic media and the sound of a chessboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wautier, Antoine; Guzina, Bojan B.

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the mathematical structure and ramifications of the second-order homogenization of low-frequency wave motion in periodic solids. To this end, multiple-scales asymptotic approach is applied to the scalar wave equation (describing anti-plane shear motion) in one and two spatial dimensions. In contrast to previous studies where the second-order homogenization has lead to the introduction of a single fourth-order derivative in the governing equation, present investigation demonstrates that such (asymptotic) approach results in a family of field equations uniting spatial, temporal, and mixed fourth-order derivatives - that jointly control incipient wave dispersion. Given the consequent freedom in selecting the affiliated lengthscale parameters, the notion of an optimal asymptotic model is next considered in a one-dimensional setting via its ability to capture the salient features of wave propagation within the first Brillouin zone, including the onset and magnitude of the phononic band gap. In the context of two-dimensional wave propagation, on the other hand, the asymptotic analysis is first established in a general setting, exposing the constant shear modulus as sufficient condition under which the second-order approximation of a bi-periodic elastic solid is both isotropic and limited to even-order derivatives. On adopting a chessboard-like periodic structure (with contrasts in both modulus and mass density) as a testbed for in-depth analytical treatment, it is next shown that the second-order approximation of germane wave motion is governed by a family fourth-order differential equations that: (i) entail exclusively even-order derivatives and homogenization coefficients that depend explicitly on the contrast in mass density; (ii) describe anisotropic wave dispersion characterized by the "sin4 θ +cos4 θ" term, and (iii) include the asymptotic model for a square lattice of circular inclusions as degenerate case. For

  7. Stability of the high-order finite elements for acoustic or elastic wave propagation with high-order time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    De Basabe, Joná s D.; Sen, Mrinal K.

    2010-01-01

    popular in the recent past. We consider the Lax-Wendroff method (LWM) for time stepping and show that it allows for a larger time step than the classical leap-frog finite difference method, with higher-order accuracy. In particular the fourth-order LWM

  8. Solitons and rogue waves for a higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch system in an erbium-doped fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chuan-Qi; Gao, Yi-Tian; Yu, Xin; Xue, Long; Aviation Univ. of Air Force, Liaoning

    2015-01-01

    Under investigation in this article is a higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger-Maxwell-Bloch (HNLS-MB) system for the optical pulse propagation in an erbium-doped fiber. Lax pair, Darboux transformation (DT), and generalised DT for the HNLS-MB system are constructed. Soliton solutions and rogue wave solutions are derived based on the DT and generalised DT, respectively. Properties of the solitons and rogue waves are graphically presented. The third-order dispersion parameter, fourth-order dispersion parameter, and frequency detuning all influence the characteristic lines and velocities of the solitons. The frequency detuning also affects the amplitudes of solitons. The separating function has no effect on the properties of the first-order rogue waves, except for the locations where the first-order rogue waves appear. The third-order dispersion parameter affects the propagation directions and shapes of the rogue waves. The frequency detuning influences the rogue-wave types of the module for the measure of polarization of resonant medium and the extant population inversion. The fourth-order dispersion parameter impacts the rogue-wave interaction range and also has an effect on the rogue-wave type of the extant population inversion. The value of separating function affects the spatial-temporal separation of constituting elementary rogue waves for the second-order and third-order rogue waves. The second-order and third-order rogue waves can exhibit the triangular and pentagon patterns under different choices of separating functions.

  9. Mittag-Leffler functions as solutions of relaxation-oscillation and diffusion-wave fractional order equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandev, D. Trivche

    2010-01-01

    The fractional calculus basis, Mittag-Leffler functions, various relaxation-oscillation and diffusion-wave fractional order equation and systems of fractional order equations are considered in this thesis. To solve these fractional order equations analytical methods, such as the Laplace transform method and method of separation of variables are employed. Some applications of the fractional calculus are considered, particularly physical system with anomalous diffusive behavior. (Author)

  10. Revealing Extremely Low Energy Amplitude Modes in the Charge-Density-Wave Compound LaAgSb_{2}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R Y; Zhang, S J; Zhang, M Y; Dong, T; Wang, N L

    2017-03-10

    Using infrared spectroscopy and ultrafast pump probe measurement, we have studied the two charge-density-wave (CDW) instabilities in the layered compound LaAgSb_{2}. The development of CDW energy gaps was clearly observed by optical spectroscopy, which removed most of the free carrier spectral weight. More interestingly, our time-resolved measurements revealed two coherent oscillations that softened by approaching the two phase transition temperatures, respectively. We addressed that these two oscillations come from the amplitude modes of CDW collective excitations, the surprisingly low energies (0.12 THz and 0.34 THz for the higher and lower temperature ones, respectively) of which are associated with the extremely small nesting wave vectors. Additionally, the amplitude and relaxation time of photoinduced reflectivity of LaAgSb_{2} single crystals stayed unchanged across the CDW phase transitions, which is quite rare and deserves further investigation.

  11. Gravitational effective action at second order in curvature and gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, Xavier; Pryer, Daniel [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    We consider the full effective theory for quantum gravity at second order in curvature including non-local terms. We show that the theory contains two new degrees of freedom beyond the massless graviton: namely a massive spin-2 ghost and a massive scalar field. Furthermore, we show that it is impossible to fine-tune the parameters of the effective action to eliminate completely the classical spin-2 ghost because of the non-local terms in the effective action. Being a classical field, it is not clear anyway that this ghost is problematic. It simply implies a repulsive contribution to Newton's potential. We then consider how to extract the parameters of the effective action and show that it is possible to measure, at least in principle, the parameters of the local terms independently of each other using a combination of observations of gravitational waves and measurements performed by pendulum type experiments searching for deviations of Newton's potential. (orig.)

  12. Exact traveling wave solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-like equations by applying Exp-function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah; Ellahi, Rahmat; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef; Khan, Umar

    2018-03-01

    We have computed new exact traveling wave solutions, including complex solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-Like equations, occurring in physical sciences and engineering, by applying Exp-function method. The method is blended with fractional complex transformation and modified Riemann-Liouville fractional order operator. Our obtained solutions are verified by substituting back into their corresponding equations. To the best of our knowledge, no other technique has been reported to cope with the said fractional order nonlinear problems combined with variety of exact solutions. Graphically, fractional order solution curves are shown to be strongly related to each other and most importantly, tend to fixate on their integer order solution curve. Our solutions comprise high frequencies and very small amplitude of the wave responses.

  13. Local Atomic Structure and Discommensurations in the Charge Density Wave of CeTe{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H J; Tomic, A T; Tessmer, S H; Billinge, S J.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Malliakas, C D; Kanatzidis, M G [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2006-06-09

    The local structure of CeTe{sub 3} in the incommensurate charge density wave (IC-CDW) state has been obtained using atomic pair distribution function analysis of x-ray diffraction data. Local atomic distortions in the Te nets due to the CDW are larger than observed crystallographically, resulting in distinct short and long Te-Te bonds. Observation of different distortion amplitudes in the local and average structures is explained by the discommensurated nature of the CDW, since the pair distribution function is sensitive to the local displacements within the commensurate regions, whereas the crystallographic result averages over many discommensurated domains. The result is supported by STM data. This is the first quantitative local structural study within the commensurate domains in an IC-CDW system.

  14. Local Atomic Structure and Discommensurations in the Charge Density Wave of CeTe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Tomic, A.T.; Tessmer, S.H.; Billinge, S.J.L.; Malliakas, C.D.; Kanatzidis, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    The local structure of CeTe 3 in the incommensurate charge density wave (IC-CDW) state has been obtained using atomic pair distribution function analysis of x-ray diffraction data. Local atomic distortions in the Te nets due to the CDW are larger than observed crystallographically, resulting in distinct short and long Te-Te bonds. Observation of different distortion amplitudes in the local and average structures is explained by the discommensurated nature of the CDW, since the pair distribution function is sensitive to the local displacements within the commensurate regions, whereas the crystallographic result averages over many discommensurated domains. The result is supported by STM data. This is the first quantitative local structural study within the commensurate domains in an IC-CDW system

  15. Sound Shell Model for Acoustic Gravitational Wave Production at a First-Order Phase Transition in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark

    2018-02-01

    A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first-order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. The predicted power spectrum has two length scales, the average bubble separation and the sound shell width when the bubbles collide. The peak of the power spectrum is at wave numbers set by the sound shell width. For a higher wave number k , the power spectrum decreases to k-3. At wave numbers below the inverse bubble separation, the power spectrum goes to k5. For bubble wall speeds near the speed of sound where these two length scales are distinguished, there is an intermediate k1 power law. The detailed dependence of the power spectrum on the wall speed and the other parameters of the phase transition raises the possibility of their constraint or measurement at a future space-based gravitational wave observatory such as LISA.

  16. Sound Shell Model for Acoustic Gravitational Wave Production at a First-Order Phase Transition in the Early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark

    2018-02-16

    A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first-order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. The predicted power spectrum has two length scales, the average bubble separation and the sound shell width when the bubbles collide. The peak of the power spectrum is at wave numbers set by the sound shell width. For a higher wave number k, the power spectrum decreases to k^{-3}. At wave numbers below the inverse bubble separation, the power spectrum goes to k^{5}. For bubble wall speeds near the speed of sound where these two length scales are distinguished, there is an intermediate k^{1} power law. The detailed dependence of the power spectrum on the wall speed and the other parameters of the phase transition raises the possibility of their constraint or measurement at a future space-based gravitational wave observatory such as LISA.

  17. First-order reflection/transmission coefficients for unconverted plane P waves in weakly anisotropic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farra, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 3 (2010), s. 1443-1454 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : body waves * seismic anisotropy * wave propagation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.411, year: 2010

  18. First-order P-wave ray synthetic seismograms in inhomogeneous, weakly anisotropic, layered media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pšenčík, Ivan; Farra, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 198, č. 1 (2014), s. 298-307 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/0117 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : body waves * seismic anisotropy * wave propagation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2013

  19. A numerical study of lowest-order short-crested water wave instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the first numerical simulations of the long-term evolution of doubly-periodic short-crested wave instabilities, which are the simplest cases involving the three-dimensional instability of genuinely three-dimensional progressive water waves. The simulated evolutions reveal quali...

  20. Simulation of nonlinear wave run-up with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the numerical simulation of nonlinear wave run-up within a highly accurate Boussinesq-type model. Moving wet–dry boundary algorithms based on so-called extrapolating boundary techniques are utilized, and a new variant of this approach is proposed in two horizontal dimensions....... As validation, computed results involving the nonlinear run-up of periodic as well as transient waves on a sloping beach are considered in a single horizontal dimension, demonstrating excellent agreement with analytical solutions for both the free surface and horizontal velocity. In two horizontal dimensions...... cases involving long wave resonance in a parabolic basin, solitary wave evolution in a triangular channel, and solitary wave run-up on a circular conical island are considered. In each case the computed results compare well against available analytical solutions or experimental measurements. The ability...

  1. Effect of higher order nonlinearity, directionality and finite water depth on wave statistics: Comparison of field data and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leandro; Monbaliu, Jaak; Onorato, Miguel; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    This research is focused on the study of nonlinear evolution of irregular wave fields in water of arbitrary depth by comparing field measurements and numerical simulations.It is now well accepted that modulational instability, known as one of the main mechanisms for the formation of rogue waves, induces strong departures from Gaussian statistics. However, whereas non-Gaussian properties are remarkable when wave fields follow one direction of propagation over an infinite water depth, wave statistics only weakly deviate from Gaussianity when waves spread over a range of different directions. Over finite water depth, furthermore, wave instability attenuates overall and eventually vanishes for relative water depths as low as kh=1.36 (where k is the wavenumber of the dominant waves and h the water depth). Recent experimental results, nonetheless, seem to indicate that oblique perturbations are capable of triggering and sustaining modulational instability even if khthe aim of this research is to understand whether the combined effect of directionality and finite water depth has a significant effect on wave statistics and particularly on the occurrence of extremes. For this purpose, numerical experiments have been performed solving the Euler equation of motion with the Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM) and compared with data of short crested wave fields for different sea states observed at the Lake George (Australia). A comparative analysis of the statistical properties (i.e. density function of the surface elevation and its statistical moments skewness and kurtosis) between simulations and in-situ data provides a confrontation between the numerical developments and real observations in field conditions.

  2. Propagation of arbitrary initial wave packets in a quantum parametric oscillator: Instability zones for higher order moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Subhadip; Chattopadhyay, Rohitashwa; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the dynamics of a particle in a parametric oscillator with a view to exploring any quantum feature of the initial wave packet that shows divergent (in time) behaviour for parameter values where the classical motion dynamics of the mean position is bounded. We use Ehrenfest's theorem to explore the dynamics of nth order moment which reduces exactly to a linear non autonomous differential equation of order n + 1. It is found that while the width and skewness of the packet is unbounded exactly in the zones where the classical motion is unbounded, the kurtosis of an initially non-gaussian wave packet can become infinitely large in certain additional zones. This implies that the shape of the wave packet can change drastically with time in these zones.

  3. 3D elastic wave modeling using modified high‐order time stepping schemes with improved stability conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.; Seif, Roustam

    2009-01-01

    We present two Lax‐Wendroff type high‐order time stepping schemes and apply them to solving the 3D elastic wave equation. The proposed schemes have the same format as the Taylor series expansion based schemes, only with modified temporal extrapolation coefficients. We demonstrate by both theoretical analysis and numerical examples that the modified schemes significantly improve the stability conditions.

  4. A high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary for scalar waves in semi-infinite layered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prempramote, S; Song, Ch; Birk, C

    2010-01-01

    Wave propagation in semi-infinite layered systems is of interest in earthquake engineering, acoustics, electromagnetism, etc. The numerical modelling of this problem is particularly challenging as evanescent waves exist below the cut-off frequency. Most of the high-order transmitting boundaries are unable to model the evanescent waves. As a result, spurious reflection occurs at late time. In this paper, a high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary is developed for scalar waves propagating in semi-infinite layered systems. It is derived from the equation of dynamic stiffness matrix obtained in the scaled boundary finite-element method in the frequency domain. A continued-fraction solution of the dynamic stiffness matrix is determined recursively by satisfying the scaled boundary finite-element equation at both high- and low-frequency limits. In the time domain, the continued-fraction solution permits the force-displacement relationship to be formulated as a system of first-order ordinary differential equations. Standard time-step schemes in structural dynamics can be directly applied to evaluate the response history. Examples of a semi-infinite homogeneous layer and a semi-infinite two-layered system are investigated herein. The displacement results obtained from the open boundary converge rapidly as the order of continued fractions increases. Accurate results are obtained at early time and late time.

  5. Gravitational wave generation from bubble collisions in first-order phase transitions: An analytic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, Chiara; Durrer, Ruth; Servant, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational wave production from bubble collisions was calculated in the early 1990s using numerical simulations. In this paper, we present an alternative analytic estimate, relying on a different treatment of stochasticity. In our approach, we provide a model for the bubble velocity power spectrum, suitable for both detonations and deflagrations. From this, we derive the anisotropic stress and analytically solve the gravitational wave equation. We provide analytical formulas for the peak frequency and the shape of the spectrum which we compare with numerical estimates. In contrast to the previous analysis, we do not work in the envelope approximation. This paper focuses on a particular source of gravitational waves from phase transitions. In a companion article, we will add together the different sources of gravitational wave signals from phase transitions: bubble collisions, turbulence and magnetic fields and discuss the prospects for probing the electroweak phase transition at LISA

  6. Rogue wave train generation in a metamaterial induced by cubic-quintic nonlinearities and second-order dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essama, Bedel Giscard Onana; Atangana, Jacques; Frederick, Biya Motto; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Eddeqaqi, Noureddine Cherkaoui; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of the electromagnetic wave that propagates in a metamaterial for negative index regime. Second-order dispersion and cubic-quintic nonlinearities are taken into account. The behavior obtained for negative index regime is compared to that observed for absorption regime. The collective coordinates technique is used to characterize the light pulse intensity profile at some frequency ranges. Five frequency ranges have been pointed out. The perfect combination of second-order dispersion and cubic nonlinearity leads to a robust soliton at each frequency range for negative index regime. The soliton peak power progressively decreases for absorption regime. Further, this peak power also decreases with frequency. We show that absorption regime can induce rogue wave trains generation at a specific frequency range. However, this rogue wave trains generation is maintained when the quintic nonlinearity comes into play for negative index regime and amplified for absorption regime at a specific frequency range. It clearly appears that rogue wave behavior strongly depends on the frequency and the regime considered. Furthermore, the stability conditions of the electromagnetic wave have also been discussed at frequency ranges considered for both negative index and absorption regimes.

  7. Higher-Order Moment Characterisation of Rogue Wave Statistics in Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Bang, Ole; Wetzel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The noise characteristics of supercontinuum generation are characterized using higherorder statistical moments. Measures of skew and kurtosis, and the coefficient of variation allow quantitative identification of spectral regions dominated by rogue wave like behaviour.......The noise characteristics of supercontinuum generation are characterized using higherorder statistical moments. Measures of skew and kurtosis, and the coefficient of variation allow quantitative identification of spectral regions dominated by rogue wave like behaviour....

  8. Effect of second-order and fully nonlinear wave kinematics on a tension-leg-platform wind turbine in extreme wave conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pegalajar Jurado, Antonio Manuel; Borg, Michael; Robertson, Amy

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we assess the impact of different wave kinematics models on the dynamic response of a tension-leg-platform wind turbine. Aero-hydro-elastic simulations of the floating wind turbine are carried out employing linear, second-order, and fully nonlinear kinematics using the Morison equa...... damping coefficients in the model by a more detailed, customizable definition of the user-defined numerical damping....

  9. Initial measurements of two- and three-dimensional ordering, waves, and plasma filamentation in the Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Edward, E-mail: etjr@auburn.edu; Konopka, Uwe [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Merlino, Robert L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rosenberg, Marlene [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment at Auburn University has been operational for over one year. In that time, a number of experiments have been performed at magnetic fields up to B = 2.5 T to explore the interaction between magnetized plasmas and charged, micron-sized dust particles. This paper reports on the initial results from studies of: (a) the formation of imposed, ordered structures, (b) the properties of dust wave waves in a rotating frame, and (c) the generation of plasma filaments.

  10. Contribution of Higher-Order Dispersion to Nonlinear Electron-Acoustic Solitary Waves in a Relativistic Electron Beam Plasma System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    The nonlinear properties of solitary wave structures are reported in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma comprising of cold relativistic electron fluid, Maxwellian hot electrons, relativistic electron beam, and stationary ions. The Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation has been derived using a reductive perturbation theory. As the wave amplitude increases, the width and velocity of the soliton deviate from the prediction of the KdV equation i.e. the breakdown of the KdV approximation. On the other hand, to overcome this weakness we extend our analysis to obtain the KdV equation with fifth-order dispersion term. The solution of the resulting equation has been obtained

  11. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashino, Katsuya, E-mail: hashino@jodo.sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kakizaki, Mitsuru, E-mail: kakizaki@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kanemura, Shinya, E-mail: kanemu@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Ko, Pyungwon, E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Matsui, Toshinori, E-mail: matsui@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-10

    We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.

  12. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Hashino

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.

  13. Modulation transfer function of a fish-eye lens based on the sixth-order wave aberration theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Han; Lu, Lijun; Cao, Yiqing

    2018-01-10

    A calculation program of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a fish-eye lens is developed with the autocorrelation method, in which the sixth-order wave aberration theory of ultra-wide-angle optical systems is used to simulate the wave aberration distribution at the exit pupil of the optical systems. The autocorrelation integral is processed with the Gauss-Legendre integral, and the magnification chromatic aberration is discussed to calculate polychromatic MTF. The MTF calculation results of a given example are then compared with those previously obtained based on the fourth-order wave aberration theory of plane-symmetrical optical systems and with those from the Zemax program. The study shows that MTF based on the sixth-order wave aberration theory has satisfactory calculation accuracy even for a fish-eye lens with a large acceptance aperture. And the impacts of different types of aberrations on the MTF of a fish-eye lens are analyzed. Finally, we apply the self-adaptive and normalized real-coded genetic algorithm and the MTF developed in the paper to optimize the Nikon F/2.8 fish-eye lens; consequently, the optimized system shows better MTF performances than those of the original design.

  14. Nonequilibrium response of an electron-mediated charge density wave ordered material to a large dc electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, O. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.; Freericks, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh formalism, we employ nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to exactly solve for the nonlinear response of an electron-mediated charge-density-wave-ordered material. We examine both the dc current and the order parameter of the conduction electrons as the ordered system is driven by the electric field. Although the formalism we develop applies to all models, for concreteness, we examine the charge-density-wave phase of the Falicov-Kimball model, which displays a number of anomalous behaviors including the appearance of subgap density of states as the temperature increases. These subgap states should have a significant impact on transport properties, particularly the nonlinear response of the system to a large dc electric field.

  15. High‐order rotated staggered finite difference modeling of 3D elastic wave propagation in general anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the dispersion properties and stability conditions of the high‐order convolutional finite difference operators and compare them with the conventional finite difference schemes. We observe that the convolutional finite difference method has better dispersion properties and becomes more efficient than the conventional finite difference method with the increasing order of accuracy. This makes the high‐order convolutional operator a good choice for anisotropic elastic wave simulations on rotated staggered grids since its enhanced dispersion properties can help to suppress the numerical dispersion error that is inherent in the rotated staggered grid structure and its efficiency can help us tackle 3D problems cost‐effectively.

  16. Short-time fourth-order squeezing effects in spontaneous and stimulated four- and six-wave mixing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Dilip Kumar; Gupta, P S

    2003-01-01

    The concept of fourth-order squeezing of the electromagnetic field is investigated in the fundamental mode in spontaneous and stimulated four- and six-wave mixing processes under the short-time approximation based on a fully quantum mechanical approach. The coupled Heisenberg equations of motion involving real and imaginary parts of the quadrature operators are established. The possibility of obtaining fourth-order squeezing is studied. The dependence of fourth-order squeezing on the number of photons is also investigated. It is shown that fourth-order squeezing, which is a higher-order squeezing, allows a much larger fractional noise reduction than lower-order squeezing. It is shown that squeezing is greater in a stimulated process than the corresponding squeezing in spontaneous interaction. The conditions for obtaining maximum and minimum squeezing are obtained. We have also established the non-classical nature of squeezed radiation using the Glauber-Sudarshan representation

  17. Solitary wave solutions of the fourth order Boussinesq equation through the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M Ali; Hj Mohd Ali, Norhashidah

    2014-01-01

    The exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method is an ascending method for obtaining exact and solitary wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. In this article, we implement the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method to build solitary wave solutions to the fourth order Boussinesq equation. The procedure is simple, direct and useful with the help of computer algebra. By using this method, we obtain solitary wave solutions in terms of the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and elementary functions. The results show that the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method is straightforward and effective mathematical tool for the treatment of nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics and engineering. 35C07; 35C08; 35P99.

  18. Raman scattering evidence for a cascade-like evolution of the charge-density-wave collective amplitude mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiter, Hans-Martin; Tassini, Leonardo; Muschler, Bernhard; Hackl, Rudi [Walther Meissner Institute, Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lavagnini, Michela; Degiorgi, Leonardo [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH - Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Chu, Jiun-Haw; Ru, Nancy; Fisher, Ian R. [GLAM, Stanford University, CA 94304 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    We report results of Raman scattering experiments as a function of temperature on the charge-density-wave (CDW) systems DyTe{sub 3} and on LaTe{sub 3} at 6 GPa applied pressure. We clearly identify the unidirectional collective CDW amplitude excitation and follow their temperature dependence in the range from 6 K to 311 K. Surprisingly, we discover that the amplitude mode develops as a succession of two mean-field, BCS-like transitions at two different temperatures. Tri-tellurides with heavier rare-earth atoms (i.e. Tm, Er, Ho, Dy) undergo another phase transition to a bidirectional CDW at low temperatures. In DyTe{sub 3} we find spectroscopic evidence for the amplitude mode excitation associated with the bidirectional CDW occuring below 50 K.

  19. Higgs-mode radiance and charge-density-wave order in 2 H -NbSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, Romain; Cea, Tommaso; Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain; Cario, Laurent; Benfatto, Lara; Méasson, Marie-Aude

    2018-03-01

    Despite being usually considered two competing phenomena, charge-density wave and superconductivity coexist in few systems, the most emblematic one being the transition-metal dichalcogenide 2 H -NbSe2 . This unusual condition is responsible for specific Raman signatures across the two phase transitions in this compound. While the appearance of a soft phonon mode is a well-established fingerprint of the charge-density-wave order, the nature of the sharp subgap mode emerging below the superconducting temperature is still under debate. In this work we use external pressure as a knob to unveil the delicate interplay between the two orders, and consequently the nature of the superconducting mode. Thanks to an advanced extreme-conditions Raman technique, we are able to follow the pressure evolution and the simultaneous collapse of the two intertwined charge-density-wave and superconducting modes. The comparison with microscopic calculations in a model system supports the Higgs-type nature of the superconducting mode and suggests that charge-density wave and superconductivity in 2 H -NbSe2 involve mutual electronic degrees of freedom. These findings fill the knowledge gap on the electronic mechanisms at play in transition-metal dichalcogenides, a crucial step to fully exploit their properties in few-layer systems optimized for device applications.

  20. Coexistence of density wave and superfluid order in a dipolar Fermi gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhigang; Block, Jens Kusk; Bruun, Georg M.

    2015-01-01

    diagram. In this region, the repulsive part of the interaction drives the stripe formation and the attractive part induces the pairing, resulting in a supersolid with $p$-wave Cooper pairs aligned along the stripes. From a momentum space perspective, the stability of the supersolid phase is due...

  1. Waves, conservation laws and symmetries of a third-order nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    We observe that a linear part of the wave vector is overlaid. .... Eq.(1) admits the three-dimensional Lie algebra L of its classical ...... He did his diploma thesis titled 'Systematic in the physics of elementary particles focusing the quarkonium ...

  2. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials with Charge Density Waves: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongur Hossain

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two-dimensional (2D charge density wave (CDW materials have attracted extensive interest due to potential applications as high performance functional nanomaterials. As other 2D materials, 2D CDW materials are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into layers of single unit cell thickness. Although bulk CDW materials have been studied for decades, recent developments in nanoscale characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities allowing applications such as oscillators, electrodes in supercapacitors, energy storage and conversion, sensors and spinelectronic devices. In this review, we first outline the synthesis techniques of 2D CDW materials including mechanical exfoliation, liquid exfoliation, chemical vapor transport (CVT, chemical vapor deposition (CVD, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE and electrochemical exfoliation. Then, the characterization procedure of the 2D CDW materials such as temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy, temperature-dependent resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are reviewed. Finally, applications of 2D CDW materials are reviewed.

  3. A new time–space domain high-order finite-difference method for the acoustic wave equation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K.

    2009-01-01

    A new unified methodology was proposed in Finkelstein and Kastner (2007) [39] to derive spatial finite-difference (FD) coefficients in the joint time-space domain to reduce numerical dispersion. The key idea of this method is that the dispersion relation is completely satisfied at several designated frequencies. We develop this new time-space domain FD method further for 1D, 2D and 3D acoustic wave modeling using a plane wave theory and the Taylor series expansion. New spatial FD coefficients are frequency independent though they lead to a frequency dependent numerical solution. We prove that the modeling accuracy is 2nd-order when the conventional (2 M)th-order space domain FD and the 2nd-order time domain FD stencils are directly used to solve the acoustic wave equation. However, under the same discretization, the new 1D method can reach (2 M)th-order accuracy and is always stable. The 2D method can reach (2 M)th-order accuracy along eight directions and has better stability. Similarly, the 3D method can reach (2 M)th-order accuracy along 48 directions and also has better stability than the conventional FD method. The advantages of the new method are also demonstrated by the results of dispersion analysis and numerical modeling of acoustic wave equation for homogeneous and inhomogeneous acoustic models. In addition, we study the influence of the FD stencil length on numerical modeling for 1D inhomogeneous media, and derive an optimal FD stencil length required to balance the accuracy and efficiency of modeling. A new time-space domain high-order staggered-grid FD method for the 1D acoustic wave equation with variable densities is also developed, which has similar advantages demonstrated by dispersion analysis, stability analysis and modeling experiments. The methodology presented in this paper can be easily extended to solve similar partial difference equations arising in other fields of science and engineering. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  4. A new time–space domain high-order finite-difference method for the acoustic wave equation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2009-12-01

    A new unified methodology was proposed in Finkelstein and Kastner (2007) [39] to derive spatial finite-difference (FD) coefficients in the joint time-space domain to reduce numerical dispersion. The key idea of this method is that the dispersion relation is completely satisfied at several designated frequencies. We develop this new time-space domain FD method further for 1D, 2D and 3D acoustic wave modeling using a plane wave theory and the Taylor series expansion. New spatial FD coefficients are frequency independent though they lead to a frequency dependent numerical solution. We prove that the modeling accuracy is 2nd-order when the conventional (2 M)th-order space domain FD and the 2nd-order time domain FD stencils are directly used to solve the acoustic wave equation. However, under the same discretization, the new 1D method can reach (2 M)th-order accuracy and is always stable. The 2D method can reach (2 M)th-order accuracy along eight directions and has better stability. Similarly, the 3D method can reach (2 M)th-order accuracy along 48 directions and also has better stability than the conventional FD method. The advantages of the new method are also demonstrated by the results of dispersion analysis and numerical modeling of acoustic wave equation for homogeneous and inhomogeneous acoustic models. In addition, we study the influence of the FD stencil length on numerical modeling for 1D inhomogeneous media, and derive an optimal FD stencil length required to balance the accuracy and efficiency of modeling. A new time-space domain high-order staggered-grid FD method for the 1D acoustic wave equation with variable densities is also developed, which has similar advantages demonstrated by dispersion analysis, stability analysis and modeling experiments. The methodology presented in this paper can be easily extended to solve similar partial difference equations arising in other fields of science and engineering. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  5. A high-order finite-difference linear seakeeping solver tool for calculation of added resistance in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini Afshar, Mostafa; Bingham, Harry B.; Read, Robert

    During recent years a computational strategy has been developed at the Technical University of Denmark for numerical simulation of water wave problems based on the high-order nite-dierence method, [2],[4]. These methods exhibit a linear scaling of the computational eort as the number of grid points...... increases. This understanding is being applied to develop a tool for predicting the added resistance (drift force) of ships in ocean waves. We expect that the optimal scaling properties of this solver will allow us to make a convincing demonstration of convergence of the added resistance calculations based...... on both near-eld and far-eld methods. The solver has been written inside a C++ library known as Overture [3], which can be used to solve partial dierential equations on overlapping grids based on the high-order nite-dierence method. The resulting code is able to solve, in the time domain, the linearised...

  6. On the Painleve integrability, periodic wave solutions and soliton solutions of generalized coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guiqiong; Li Zhibin

    2005-01-01

    It is proven that generalized coupled higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equations possess the Painleve property for two particular choices of parameters, using the Weiss-Tabor-Carnevale method and Kruskal's simplification. Abundant families of periodic wave solutions are obtained by using the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method with the assistance of symbolic manipulation system, Maple. It is also shown that these solutions exactly degenerate to bright soliton, dark soliton and mixed dark and bright soliton solutions with physical interests

  7. Numerical simulation of lowest-order short-crested wave instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.; Bingham, Harry

    2006-01-01

    instabilities. These correctly lead to well-known (nearly symmetric) recurrence cycles below a previously established breaking threshold steepness, and to an asymmetric evolution (characterized by a permanent transfer of energy to the lower side-band) above this threshold, with dissipation from a smoothing...... that the unstable evolution of these initially three-dimensional waves leads to an asymmetric evolution, even for weakly nonlinear cases presumably well below breaking. This is characterized by an energy transfer to the lower side-band, which is also accompanied by a similar transfer to more distant upper side......-bands. At larger steepness, the evolution leads to a permanent downshift of both the mean and peak frequencies, driven in part by dissipation, effectively breaking the quasi-recurrence cycle. A single case involving a class Ib short-crested wave instability at relatively large steepness is also considered, which...

  8. Instantaneous axial force of a high-order Bessel vortex beam of acoustic waves incident upon a rigid movable sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G; Fellah, Z E A

    2011-08-01

    The present investigation examines the instantaneous force resulting from the interaction of an acoustical high-order Bessel vortex beam (HOBVB) with a rigid sphere. The rigid sphere case is important in fluid dynamics applications because it perfectly simulates the interaction of instantaneous sound waves in a reduced gravity environment with a levitated spherical liquid soft drop in air. Here, a closed-form solution for the instantaneous force involving the total pressure field as well as the Bessel beam parameters is obtained for the case of progressive, stationary and quasi-stationary waves. Instantaneous force examples for progressive waves are computed for both a fixed and a movable rigid sphere. The results show how the instantaneous force per unit cross-sectional surface and unit pressure varies versus the dimensionless frequency ka (k is the wave number in the fluid medium and a is the sphere's radius), the half-cone angle β and the order m of the HOBVB. It is demonstrated here that the instantaneous force is determined only for (m,n) = (0,1) (where n is the partial-wave number), and vanishes for m>0 because of symmetry. In addition, the instantaneous force and normalized amplitude velocity results are computed and compared with those of a rigid immovable (fixed) sphere. It is shown that they differ significantly for ka values below 5. The proposed analysis may be of interest in the analysis of instantaneous forces on spherical particles for particle manipulation, filtering, trapping and drug delivery. The presented solutions may also serve as a method for comparison to other solutions obtained by strictly numerical or asymptotic approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High Order Numerical Simulation of Waves Using Regular Grids and Non-conforming Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-06

    for a homogeneous problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 6 BEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 7...Lqu = 0, and Tr u = ξΓ. Finally, we have proved that ξΓ satisfies the BEP if and only if ξΓ = Tr u for which Lq u = 0 [51, 53, 39]. We call equation...2.9) the boundary equation with projection ( BEP ). 2.1.1 Wave Split The solutions to the homogeneous equation Lqu = 0 can be interpreted as incoming

  10. Second-order spherical optoelectronic detector for 3D multi-particles wave emission and propagation in space time domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Francesco; Cimmino, Rosario F.

    2017-09-01

    This paper concerns a feasibility study on a 2nd order spherical, or three-dimensional, angular momentum and linear momentum detector for photonic radiation applications. It has been developed in order to obtain a paraxial approximation of physical events observed under Coulomb gauge condition, which is essential to compute both the longitudinal and transverse rotational components of the observed 3-D vortex field, generally neglected by conventional detection systems under current usage. Since light and laser beams are neither full transversal or rotational phenomena, to measure directly and in the same time both the energy, mainly not-rotational, related to the relevant part of the linear momentum and the potential solenoidal energy (vortex), related to the angular momentum, 2nd order spherical, or 3-D, detector techniques are required. In addition, direct 2nd order measure techniques enable development of TEM + DEM [17] studies, therefore allowing for monochromatic complex wave detection with a paraxial accuracy in the relativistic time-space domain. Light and optic or Electromagnetic 2nd order 3-D AnM energy may usefully be used in tre-dimensional optical TEM, noTEM, DEM vortex or laser communications The paper illustrates an innovative quadratic order 3-D spherical model detector applied to directly measure a light source power spectrum and compares the performances of this innovative technique with those obtained with a traditional 1st order system. Results from a number of test experiments conducted in cooperation with INAF Observatories of ArcetriFlorence and Medicina-Bologna (Italy), and focused on telescopic observations of the inter-stellar electromagnetic radiations, are also summarized. The innovative quadratic-order spherical detector turns out to be optimal for optical and/or radio telescopes application, optical and optoelectronic sensors development and gravitational wave 2nd order detectors implementation. Although the proposed method is very

  11. Charge Density Wave in the New Polymorphs of RE 2 Ru 3 Ge 5 ( RE = Pr, Sm, Dy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugaris, Daniel E.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Han, Fei; Calta, Nicholas P.; Sturza, Mihai; Krogstad, Matthew J.; Osborn, Raymond; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Trimarchi, Giancarlo; Bud’ko, Sergey L.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2017-02-16

    A new polymorph of the RE2Ru3Ge5 (RE = Pr, Sm, Dy) compounds has been grown as single crystals via an indium flux. These compounds crystallize in tetragonal space group P4/mnc with the Sc2Fe3Si5-type structure, having lattice parameters a = 11.020(2) Å and c = 5.853(1) Å for RE = Pr, a = 10.982(2) Å and c = 5.777(1) Å for RE = Sm, and a = 10.927(2) Å and c = 5.697(1) Å for RE = Dy. These materials exhibit a structural transition at low temperature, which is attributed to an apparent charge density wave (CDW). Both the high-temperature average crystal structure and the low-temperature incommensurately modulated crystal structure (for Sm2Ru3Ge5 as a representative) have been solved. The charge density wave order is manifested by periodic distortions of the onedimensional zigzag Ge chains. From X-ray diffraction, charge transport (electrical resistivity, Hall effect, magnetoresistance), magnetic measurements, and heat capacity, the ordering temperatures (TCDW) observed in the Pr and Sm analogues are ~200 and ~175 K, respectively. The charge transport measurement results indicate an electronic state transition happening simultaneously with the CDW transition. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and electronic band structure results are also reported.

  12. Charge density wave fluctuations in La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and their competition with superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Thomas; Lester, Christopher; Hayden, Stephen [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol (United Kingdom); Bombardi, Alessandro; Senn, Mark [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The recent observations of charge and stripe correlations in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} and La{sub 2-x}Ba{sub x}CuO{sub 4} has reinvigorated interest in their role in influencing the superconductivity of the cuprates. However, structural complications of these systems makes it difficult to isolate the effect the lattice has in inducing the charge order. Here, we report hard X-ray diffraction measurements on three compositions (x=0.11,0.12,0.13) of the high-temperature superconductor La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, a canonical example of HTS with T{sub c} ∼ 35 K and a simple crystal structure. All samples show charge-density-wave (CDW) order with onset temperatures in the range 51-80 K and ordering wavevectors close to (0.23,0,0.5). We present a phase diagram of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} including the pseudogap phase, CDW and magnetic order.

  13. Modified spin-wave theory with ordering vector optimization: frustrated bosons on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauke, Philipp [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Meditarranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Roscilde, Tommaso [Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 Allee d' Italie, F-69007 Lyon (France); Murg, Valentin; Ignacio Cirac, J; Schmied, Roman, E-mail: Philipp.Hauke@icfo.e [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    We investigate a system of frustrated hardcore bosons, modeled by an XY antiferromagnet on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice, using Takahashi's modified spin-wave (MSW) theory. In particular, we implement ordering vector optimization on the ordered reference state of MSW theory, which leads to significant improvement of the theory and accounts for quantum corrections to the classically ordered state. The MSW results at zero temperature compare favorably to exact diagonalization (ED) and projected entangled-pair state (PEPS) calculations. The resulting zero-temperature phase diagram includes a one-dimensional (1D) quasi-ordered phase, a 2D Neel ordered phase and a 2D spiraling ordered phase. Strong indications coming from the ED and PEPS calculations, as well as from the breakdown of MSW theory, suggest that the various ordered or quasi-ordered phases are separated by spin-liquid phases with short-range correlations, in analogy to what has been predicted for the Heisenberg model on the same lattice. Within MSW theory, we also explore the finite-temperature phase diagram. In agreement with the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory, we find that zero-temperature long-range-ordered phases turn into quasi-ordered phases (up to a BKT transition temperature), while zero-temperature quasi-ordered phases become short-range correlated at finite temperature. These results show that, despite its simplicity, MSW theory is very well suited to describing ordered and quasi-ordered phases of frustrated XY spins (or, equivalently, of frustrated lattice bosons) both at zero and finite temperatures. While MSW theory, just as other theoretical methods, cannot describe spin-liquid phases, its breakdown provides a fast and reliable method for singling out Hamiltonians that may feature these intriguing quantum phases. We thus suggest a tool for guiding our search for interesting systems whose properties are necessarily studied with a physical quantum simulator

  14. Traveling wave solutions for two nonlinear evolution equations with nonlinear terms of any order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qing-Hua; Zhang Yao-Ming; Meng Fan-Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, based on the known first integral method and the Riccati sub-ordinary differential equation (ODE) method, we try to seek the exact solutions of the general Gardner equation and the general Benjamin—Bona—Mahoney equation. As a result, some traveling wave solutions for the two nonlinear equations are established successfully. Also we make a comparison between the two methods. It turns out that the Riccati sub-ODE method is more effective than the first integral method in handling the proposed problems, and more general solutions are constructed by the Riccati sub-ODE method. (general)

  15. The wave-particle duality as an interplay between order and chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diner, S.

    1984-01-01

    De Broglie's fundamental idea was to extend to particles the laws of the quantum theory of light. Such a Unitary Theory is a general formulation of the energy and momentum concepts, independently of the physical system (light or matter). This requirement of unity seems a guarantee for success, opening the way to the concept of wave properties of matter, asserting its effectiveness in the general concept of quantization. This lead in return to the development of quantum electrodynamics (and quantum field theory) along formal rules identical to those of quantum mechanics. (Auth.)

  16. High-order Finite Difference Solution of Euler Equations for Nonlinear Water Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben Robert Bilgrav; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    is discretized using arbitrary-order finite difference schemes on a staggered grid with one optional stretching in each coordinate direction. The momentum equations and kinematic free surface condition are integrated in time using the classic fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. Mass conservation is satisfied...

  17. Superconducting and charge density wave transition in single crystalline LaPt2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ritu; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Rajeev, K. P.; Hossain, Z.

    2017-06-01

    We present results of our comprehensive studies on single crystalline LaPt2Si2. Pronounced anomaly in electrical resistivity and heat capacity confirms the bulk nature of superconductivity (SC) and charge density wave (CDW) transition in the single crystals. While the charge density wave transition temperature is lower, the superconducting transition temperature is higher in single crystal compared to the polycrystalline sample. This result confirms the competing nature of CDW and SC. Another important finding is the anomalous temperature dependence of upper critical field H C2(T). We also report the anisotropy in the transport and magnetic measurements of the single crystal.

  18. Symmetry Reductions, Integrability and Solitary Wave Solutions to High-Order Modified Boussinesq Equations with Damping Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhen-Ya; Xie, Fu-Ding; Zhang, Hong-Qing

    2001-07-01

    Both the direct method due to Clarkson and Kruskal and the improved direct method due to Lou are extended to reduce the high-order modified Boussinesq equation with the damping term (HMBEDT) arising in the general Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model. As a result, several types of similarity reductions are obtained. It is easy to show that the nonlinear wave equation is not integrable under the sense of Ablowitz's conjecture from the reduction results obtained. In addition, kink-shaped solitary wave solutions, which are of important physical significance, are found for HMBEDT based on the obtained reduction equation. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 19572022, the National Key Basic Research Development Project Program of China under Grant No. G1998030600 and Doctoral Foundation of China under Grant No. 98014119

  19. THz-wave generation via difference frequency mixing in strained silicon based waveguide utilizing its second order susceptibility χ((2)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kyosuke; Tanabe, Tadao; Oyama, Yutaka

    2014-07-14

    Terahertz (THz) wave generation via difference frequency mixing (DFM) process in strain silicon membrane waveguides by introducing the straining layer is theoretically investigated. The Si(3)N(4) straining layer induces anisotropic compressive strain in the silicon core and results in the appearance of the bulk second order nonlinear susceptibility χ((2)) by breaking the crystal symmetry. We have proposed waveguide structures for THz wave generation under the DFM process by .using the modal birefringence in the waveguide core. Our simulations show that an output power of up to 0.95 mW can be achieved at 9.09 THz. The strained silicon optical device may open a widow in the field of the silicon-based active THz photonic device applications.

  20. Theoretical study of the Raman active CDW gap mode in manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, G C; Panda, Saswati; Behera, S N

    2010-01-01

    We report here the microscopic theory of the Raman spectra of the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganite systems. The system is described by a model Hamiltonian consisting of the double exchange interaction in addition to the charge ordering interaction in the e g band and spin-spin interaction among the t 2g core electrons. Further the phonon coupling to the conduction electron density is incorporated in the model for phonons in the harmonic approximation. The spectral density function for the Raman spectra is calculated from the imaginary part of the phonon Green's function. The calculated spectra display the Raman active bare phonon peak along with the charge ordering peak. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the charge ordering peak agrees with the 480 cm -1 JT mode observed in the experiments. The evolution of this mode is investigated in the report.

  1. Band dependence of charge density wave in quasi-one-dimensional Ta2NiSe7 probed by orbital magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiaming; Zhang, Yiran; Wen, Libin; Yang, Yusen; Liu, Jinyu; Wu, Yueshen; Lian, Hailong; Xing, Hui; Wang, Shun; Mao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Ta2NiSe7 is a quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) transition-metal chalcogenide with Ta and Ni chain structures. An incommensurate charge-density wave (CDW) in this quasi-1D structure was well studied previously using tunnelling spectrum, X-ray, and electron diffraction, whereas its transport property and the relation to the underlying electronic states remain to be explored. Here, we report our results of the magnetoresistance (MR) on Ta2NiSe7. A breakdown of Kohler's rule is found upon entering the CDW state. Concomitantly, a clear change in curvature in the field dependence of MR is observed. We show that the curvature change is well described by the two-band orbital MR, with the hole density being strongly suppressed in the CDW state, indicating that the p orbitals from Se atoms dominate the change in transport through CDW transition.

  2. Tonotopically Ordered Traveling Waves in the Hearing Organs of Bushcrickets in-vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayashankar, Arun Palghat; Kössl, Manfred; Nowotny, Manuela

    2011-11-01

    Experimental investigation of auditory mechanics in the mammalian cochlea has been difficult to address in-vivo due to its secure housing inside the temporal bone. Here we studied the easily accessible hearing organ of bushcrickets, located in their forelegs, known as the crista acustica. A characteristic feature of the organ is that it is lined with an array of auditory receptors in a tonotopic fashion with lower frequencies processed at the proximal part and higher frequencies at the distal part of the foreleg. Each receptor cell is associated with so called cap cells. The cap cells, graded in size, are directly involved in the mechanics of transduction along with the part of the acoustic trachea that supports the cap cells. Functional similarities between the crista acustica and the vertebrate cochlea such as frequency selectivity and distortion product otoacoustic emissions have been well documented. In this study we used laser Doppler vibrometry to study the mechanics of the organ and observed sound induced traveling waves (TW) along it's length. Frequency representation was tonotopic with TW propagating from the high frequency to the low frequency region of the organ similar to the situation in the cochlea. Traveling wave velocity increased monotonically from 4 to 12 m/s for a frequency range of 6 to 60 kHz, reflecting a smaller topographic spread (organ length: 1 mm) compared to the guinea pig cochlea (organ length: 18 mm). The wavelength of the traveling wave decreased monotonically from 0.67 mm to 0.27 mm for the same frequency range. Vibration velocity of the organ reached noise threshold levels (10 μm/s) at 30 dB SPL for a frequency of 21 kHz. A small non-linear compression (73 dB increase in velocity for an 80 dB increase in SPL) was also observed at the 21 kHz. Our results indicate that bushcrickets can be a good model system for exploration of auditory mechanics in-vivo.

  3. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth; Virta, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions

  4. Space- and time-resolved X-ray diffraction from pinned and sliding charge-density-waves in NbSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requardt, H.; Nad, F.Ya.; Monceau, P.; Lorenzo, J.E.; Smilgies, D.; Gruebel, G.

    1999-01-01

    We have determined the spatial distribution of the local charge-density-wave (CDW) strain in the sliding state of NbSe 3 . The strain is measured by monitoring the spatially-varying shift q(x) of the CDW satellite wave vector between current contacts. Experiments were carried out at T=90 K in the upper CDW state using high spatial resolution (30-50 μm) X-ray diffraction. Applying direct currents about twice the threshold value, we observe a steep exponential decrease of the shift within a few hundred microns from the contact followed by a linear variation of q in the central section of the sample. This latter regime is attributed to transverse pinning of the CDW dislocation loops (DL), while the exponential regime is controlled by the finite DL nucleation rate. Additional to these data in the stationary state of the sliding CDW, we investigated the relaxation of the CDW strain q(t) upon switching off the current (T=75 K). Using time-resolved high-spatial resolution X-ray diffraction, we observe at 800 μm from the electrode a decay law of the stretched exponential type: q(t)=q 0 exp(-(t/τ) u ), with τ=283 ms and μ=0.37. (orig.)

  5. Low-Frequency Raman Modes of 2H-TaSe2 in the Charge Density Wave Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sugata; Simpson, J.; Einstein, T. L.; Hight Walker, A. R.; Theoretical Collaboration

    With changes in temperatures, tantalum diselenide (2H-TaSe2) , a layered, transition metal chalcogenides (TMD) exhibits unique super-lattice structures. The metallic ground state changes to an incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state at 122?K followed by a commensurate CDW state at 90?K, and eventually a superconducting state 0.14 K. These phase transitions are driven by strong electron-phonon coupling and favored by the particular form of the Fermi surface of these systems. Here we theoretically studied the structural origin of low-frequency Raman modes of bulk 2H-TaSe2\\ in the CDW phases. Our calculations reveal that changes observed in the Raman modes are associated with the thermal expansion in the basal plane of 2H-TaSe2. The Grüneisen parameters of these two Raman modes increase in the CDW phases. Changes in the lattice parameter ``a'' are large compared to ``c'' which induces strain along the a-axis. We compared our results with experimental data which show low-frequency Raman phonon modes are very sensitive to temperature and are not observed in the metallic room-temperature state. In addition, we found that cation displacement is more than anion in CDW phase. Our results may shed more light on exact nature of the CDW instability and optical properties in this system.

  6. Application of fractional derivative with exponential law to bi-fractional-order wave equation with frictional memory kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuahutenango-Barro, B.; Taneco-Hernández, M. A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Analytical solutions of the wave equation with bi-fractional-order and frictional memory kernel of Mittag-Leffler type are obtained via Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in the Liouville-Caputo sense. Through the method of separation of variables and Laplace transform method we derive closed-form solutions and establish fundamental solutions. Special cases with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions and nonhomogeneous initial conditions, as well as for the external force are considered. Numerical simulations of the special solutions were done and novel behaviors are obtained.

  7. Polarized-neutron-scattering study of the spin-wave excitations in the 3-k ordered phase of uranium antimonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, N; Caciuffo, R; Lander, G H; Hiess, A; Regnault, L-P

    2010-03-24

    The anisotropy of magnetic fluctuations propagating along the [1 1 0] direction in the ordered phase of uranium antimonide has been studied using polarized inelastic neutron scattering. The observed polarization behavior of the spin waves is a natural consequence of the longitudinal 3-k magnetic structure; together with recent results on the 3-k-transverse uranium dioxide, these findings establish this technique as an important tool to study complex magnetic arrangements. Selected details of the magnon excitation spectra of USb have also been reinvestigated, indicating the need to revise the currently accepted theoretical picture for this material.

  8. Variational Optimization of the Second-Order Density Matrix Corresponding to a Seniority-Zero Configuration Interaction Wave Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmans, Ward; Van Raemdonck, Mario; Verstichel, Brecht; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Alcoba, Diego R; Bultinck, Patrick; Van Neck, Dimitri

    2015-09-08

    We perform a direct variational determination of the second-order (two-particle) density matrix corresponding to a many-electron system, under a restricted set of the two-index N-representability P-, Q-, and G-conditions. In addition, we impose a set of necessary constraints that the two-particle density matrix must be derivable from a doubly occupied many-electron wave function, i.e., a singlet wave function for which the Slater determinant decomposition only contains determinants in which spatial orbitals are doubly occupied. We rederive the two-index N-representability conditions first found by Weinhold and Wilson and apply them to various benchmark systems (linear hydrogen chains, He, N2, and CN(-)). This work is motivated by the fact that a doubly occupied many-electron wave function captures in many cases the bulk of the static correlation. Compared to the general case, the structure of doubly occupied two-particle density matrices causes the associate semidefinite program to have a very favorable scaling as L(3), where L is the number of spatial orbitals. Since the doubly occupied Hilbert space depends on the choice of the orbitals, variational calculation steps of the two-particle density matrix are interspersed with orbital-optimization steps (based on Jacobi rotations in the space of the spatial orbitals). We also point to the importance of symmetry breaking of the orbitals when performing calculations in a doubly occupied framework.

  9. Massive, massless and ghost modes of gravitational waves from higher-order gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanos, Charalampos; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    We linearize the field equations for higher order theories that contain scalar invariants other than the Ricci scalar. We find that besides a massless spin-2 field (the standard graviton), the theory contains also spin-0 and spin-2 massive modes with the latter being, in general, ghost modes. Then...

  10. Higher order equivalent edge currents for fringe wave radar scattering by perfectly conducting polygonal plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    1992-01-01

    An approach for including higher order edge diffraction in the equivalent edge current (EEC) method is proposed. This approach, which applies to monostatic as well as bistatic radar configurations with perfectly conducting polygonal plates, involves three distinct sets of EECs. All of these sets...

  11. Effective equations for matter-wave gap solitons in higher-order transversal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, A Muñoz; Delgado, V

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate that an important class of nonlinear stationary solutions of the three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) exhibiting nontrivial transversal configurations can be found and characterized in terms of an effective one-dimensional (1D) model. Using a variational approach we derive effective equations of lower dimensionality for BECs in (m,n(r)) transversal states (states featuring a central vortex of charge m as well as n(r) concentric zero-density rings at every z plane) which provides us with a good approximate solution of the original 3D problem. Since the specifics of the transversal dynamics can be absorbed in the renormalization of a couple of parameters, the functional form of the equations obtained is universal. The model proposed finds its principal application in the study of the existence and classification of 3D gap solitons supported by 1D optical lattices, where in addition to providing a good estimate for the 3D wave functions it is able to make very good predictions for the μ(N) curves characterizing the different fundamental families. We have corroborated the validity of our model by comparing its predictions with those from the exact numerical solution of the full 3D GPE.

  12. Conservation laws and rogue waves for a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients in the inhomogeneous fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhong; Tian, Bo; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Lei; Sun, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Subpicosecond or femtosecond optical pulse propagation in the inhomogeneous fiber can be described by a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients, which is investigated in the paper. Via the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur system and symbolic computation, the Lax pair and infinitely-many conservation laws are deduced. Based on the Lax pair and a modified Darboux transformation technique, the first- and second-order rogue wave solutions are constructed. Effects of the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion on the properties of the first- and second-order rouge waves are graphically presented and analyzed: The groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion both affect the ranges and shapes of the first- and second-order rogue waves: The third-order dispersion can produce a skew angle of the first-order rogue wave and the skew angle rotates counterclockwise with the increase of the groupvelocity dispersion, when the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion are chosen as the constants; When the groupvelocity dispersion and third-order dispersion are taken as the functions of the propagation distance, the linear, X-shaped and parabolic trajectories of the rogue waves are obtained.

  13. Gain analysis of higher-order-mode amplification in a dielectric-implanted multi-beam traveling wave structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, Anthony; Shin, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    A multi-beam traveling wave amplifier designed with an overmoded staggered double grating array was examined by small signal analysis combined with simulation. Eigenmode and S-parameter analyses show that the 2cm long slow wave structure (SWS) has 1-5dB insertion loss over the passband (TM31 mode) with ~28% cold bandwidth. Analytic gain calculation indicates that in the SWS, TM31-mode is amplified with 15–20 dB/beam at 64–84GHz with three elliptical beams of 10kV and 150mA/beam, which was compared with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC analysis on the analysis of instability with zero-input driving excitations demonstrated that background noises and non-operating lower order modes are noticeably suppressed by implanting equidistant dielectric absorbers; the overmoded structure only allowed the desired 3rd order mode to propagate in the structure. The designed circuit structure can be widely applied to multi-beam devices for high power RF generation.

  14. Gain analysis of higher-order-mode amplification in a dielectric-implanted multi-beam traveling wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Anthony; Shin, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    A multi-beam traveling wave amplifier designed with an overmoded staggered double grating array was examined by small signal analysis combined with simulation. Eigenmode and S-parameter analyses show that the 2 cm long slow wave structure (SWS) has 1–5 dB insertion loss over the passband (TM 31 mode) with ∼28% cold bandwidth. Analytic gain calculation indicates that in the SWS, TM 31 -mode is amplified with 15–20 dB/beam at 64–84 GHz with three elliptical beams of 10 kV and 150 mA/beam, which was compared with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC analysis on the analysis of instability with zero-input driving excitations demonstrated that background noises and non-operating lower order modes are noticeably suppressed by implanting equidistant dielectric absorbers; the overmoded structure only allowed the desired 3rd order mode to propagate in the structure. The designed circuit structure can be widely applied to multi-beam devices for high power RF generation

  15. Distorted wave calculations for double electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.E.; Rivarola, R.D.; Gayet, R.; Hanssen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The resonant double electron capture by alpha particles in helium targets is studied, at intermediate and high collision energies, using the Continuum Distorted Wave - Eikonal Initial State (CDW-EIS) model. Differential and total cross sections for capture into the He (1 s 2 ) final state are calculated in the framework of an Independent Electron Approximation (IEA). Theoretical results are compared with the experimental data available at present for capture into any final state of helium. (author)

  16. Second-Order Statistics for Wave Propagation through Complex Optical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1989-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for various statistical functions that arise in optical propagation through arbitrary optical systems that can be characterized by a complex ABCD matrix in the presence of distributed random inhomogeneities along the optical path. Specifically, within the second......-order Rytov approximation, explicit general expressions are presented for the mutual coherence function, the log-amplitude and phase correlation functions, and the mean-square irradiance that are obtained in propagation through an arbitrary paraxial ABCD optical system containing Gaussian-shaped limiting...

  17. Multi-soliton and rogue-wave solutions of the higher-order Hirota system for an erbium-doped nonlinear fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Da-Wei [Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics; Shijiazhuang Tiedao University (China). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics; Gao, Yi-Tian; Sun, Yu-Hao; Feng, Yu-Jie; Xue, Long [Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics

    2014-10-15

    The nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation appears in fluid mechanics, plasma physics, etc., while the Hirota equation, a higher-order NLS equation, has been introduced. In this paper, a higher-order Hirota system is investigated, which describes the wave propagation in an erbium-doped nonlinear fiber with higher-order dispersion. By virtue of the Darboux transformation and generalized Darboux transformation, multi-soliton solutions and higher-order rogue-wave solutions are derived, beyond the published first-order consideration. Wave propagation and interaction are analyzed: (i) Bell-shape solitons, bright- and dark-rogue waves are found; (ii) the two-soliton interaction is elastic, i.e., the amplitude and velocity of each soliton remain unchanged after the interaction; (iii) the coefficient in the system affects the direction of the soliton propagation, patterns of the soliton interaction, distance, and direction of the first-order rogue-wave propagation, as well as the range and direction of the second-order rogue-wave interaction.

  18. Effects of Second-Order Sum- and Difference-Frequency Wave Forces on the Motion Response of a Tension-Leg Platform Considering the Set-down Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Tang, Yougang; Li, Yan; Cai, Runbo

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a study on the motion response of a tension-leg platform (TLP) under first- and second-order wave forces, including the mean-drift force, difference and sum-frequency forces. The second-order wave force is calculated using the full-field quadratic transfer function (QTF). The coupled effect of the horizontal motions, such as surge, sway and yaw motions, and the set-down motion are taken into consideration by the nonlinear restoring matrix. The time-domain analysis with 50-yr random sea state is performed. A comparison of the results of different case studies is made to assess the influence of second-order wave force on the motions of the platform. The analysis shows that the second-order wave force has a major impact on motions of the TLP. The second-order difference-frequency wave force has an obvious influence on the low-frequency motions of surge and sway, and also will induce a large set-down motion which is an important part of heave motion. Besides, the second-order sum-frequency force will induce a set of high-frequency motions of roll and pitch. However, little influence of second-order wave force is found on the yaw motion.

  19. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  20. Adjoint-based sensitivity analysis of low-order thermoacoustic networks using a wave-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, José G.; Magri, Luca; Juniper, Matthew P.

    2017-07-01

    Strict pollutant emission regulations are pushing gas turbine manufacturers to develop devices that operate in lean conditions, with the downside that combustion instabilities are more likely to occur. Methods to predict and control unstable modes inside combustion chambers have been developed in the last decades but, in some cases, they are computationally expensive. Sensitivity analysis aided by adjoint methods provides valuable sensitivity information at a low computational cost. This paper introduces adjoint methods and their application in wave-based low order network models, which are used as industrial tools, to predict and control thermoacoustic oscillations. Two thermoacoustic models of interest are analyzed. First, in the zero Mach number limit, a nonlinear eigenvalue problem is derived, and continuous and discrete adjoint methods are used to obtain the sensitivities of the system to small modifications. Sensitivities to base-state modification and feedback devices are presented. Second, a more general case with non-zero Mach number, a moving flame front and choked outlet, is presented. The influence of the entropy waves on the computed sensitivities is shown.

  1. Demonstration of a High-Order Mode Input Coupler for a 220-GHz Confocal Gyrotron Traveling Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaotong; Fu, Wenjie; Yan, Yang

    2018-02-01

    A design of high-order mode input coupler for 220-GHz confocal gyrotron travelling wave tube is proposed, simulated, and demonstrated by experimental tests. This input coupler is designed to excite confocal TE 06 mode from rectangle waveguide TE 10 mode over a broadband frequency range. Simulation results predict that the optimized conversion loss is about 2.72 dB with a mode purity excess of 99%. Considering of the gyrotron interaction theory, an effective bandwidth of 5 GHz is obtained, in which the beam-wave coupling efficiency is higher than half of maximum. The field pattern under low power demonstrates that TE 06 mode is successfully excited in confocal waveguide at 220 GHz. Cold test results from the vector network analyzer perform good agreements with simulation results. Both simulation and experimental results illustrate that the reflection at input port S11 is sensitive to the perpendicular separation of two mirrors. It provides an engineering possibility for estimating the assembly precision.

  2. Quantum corral effects on competing orders and electronic states in chiral d + id or f-wave superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xian-Jun

    2018-03-07

    Self-consistent calculations are performed to characterize the quantum corral effects on the electronic states of chiral d + id or f-wave superconductors in this paper. A variety of spatial structures of competing orders are revealed in the presence of ferromagnetic nano-corrals, and superconducting islands are found to be absent in the case of small corrals while being seen for large corrals. Compared with the local suppression of superconductivity by a magnetic impurity inside the corral, surprisingly, an additional remarkable feature, i.e., obvious oscillations or enhancement of superconductivity around a non-magnetic impurity, is observed inside the magnetic corral. This is important in view of applications, especially in view of the demand for devices to locally produce strong superconductivity. Meanwhile, the charge density displays obvious modulations due to quantum confinement but in contrast, the spin density pattern exhibits its robustness against the corral effect. Furthermore, we explore the local density of states so as to be directly checked by experiments. We demonstrate that a magnetic corral can suppress the formation of quasi-particle bound states induced by an impurity inside the corral in the chiral d + id state while the f-wave case shows different behaviors. These results also propose a new route to make a distinction between the two competing pairing states in triangular-lattice superconductors.

  3. Numerical modelling of ultrasonic waves in a bubbly Newtonian liquid using a high-order acoustic cavitation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, G S Bruno; Tzanakis, I; Djambazov, G; Pericleous, K; Eskin, D G

    2017-07-01

    To address difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal with ultrasound, a fundamental study of acoustic cavitation in liquid aluminium, expressed in an experimentally validated numerical model, is presented in this paper. To improve the understanding of the cavitation process, a non-linear acoustic model is validated against reference water pressure measurements from acoustic waves produced by an immersed horn. A high-order method is used to discretize the wave equation in both space and time. These discretized equations are coupled to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation using two different time scales to couple the bubble and flow scales, resulting in a stable, fast, and reasonably accurate method for the prediction of acoustic pressures in cavitating liquids. This method is then applied to the context of treatment of liquid aluminium, where it predicts that the most intense cavitation activity is localised below the vibrating horn and estimates the acoustic decay below the sonotrode with reasonable qualitative agreement with experimental data. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Charge density wave behavior and order-disorder in the antiferromagnetic metallic series Eu (Ga1 -xAlx)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinoha, Macy; Cooley, Joya A.; Minasian, Stefan G.; McQueen, Tyrel M.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.; Huang, C.-L.; Morosan, E.

    2018-05-01

    The solid solution Eu (Ga1-xAlx) 4 was grown in single crystal form to reveal a rich variety of crystallographic, magnetic, and electronic properties that differ from the isostructural end compounds EuGa4 and EuAl4, despite the similar covalent radii and electronic configurations of Ga and Al. Here we report the onset of magnetic spin reorientation and metamagnetic transitions for x =0 -1 evidenced by magnetization and temperature-dependent specific heat measurements. TN changes nonmonotonously with x , and it reaches a maximum around 20 K for x =0.50 , where the a lattice parameter also shows an extreme (minimum) value. Anomalies in the temperature-dependent resistivity consistent with charge density wave behavior exist only for x =0.50 and 1. Density functional theory calculations show increased polarization between the Ga-Al covalent bonds in the x =0.50 structure compared to the end compounds, such that crystallographic order and chemical pressure are proposed as the causes of the charge density wave behavior.

  5. Controllable excitation of higher-order rogue waves in nonautonomous systems with both varying linear and harmonic external potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Heping; Yang, Rongcao; Tian, Jinping; Zhang, Wenmei

    2018-05-01

    The nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with both varying linear and harmonic external potentials is investigated and the semirational rogue wave (RW) solution is presented by similarity transformation. Based on the solution, the interactions between Peregrine soliton and breathers, and the controllability of the semirational RWs in periodic distribution and exponential decreasing nonautonomous systems with both linear and harmonic potentials are studied. It is found that the harmonic potential only influences the constraint condition of the semirational solution, the linear potential is related to the trajectory of the semirational RWs, while dispersion and nonlinearity determine the excitation position of the higher-order RWs. The higher-order RWs can be partly, completely and biperiodically excited in periodic distribution system and the diverse excited patterns can be generated for different parameter relations in exponential decreasing system. The results reveal that the excitation of the higher-order RWs can be controlled in the nonautonomous system by choosing dispersion, nonlinearity and external potentials.

  6. Superconductor (Nb)-charge density wave (NbSe sub 3) point-contact spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sinchenko, A A

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of differential current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of point contacts between Nb and the charge density wave (CDW) conductor NbSe sub 3 formed along the conducting chain direction are reported. Below the superconducting transition of Nb, we have clearly observed Andreev reflection of the gapless electrons of NbSe sub 3. Analysis of the spectra obtained indicates that when the energy of injected particles exceeds the superconducting energy gap, the superconductivity near the S-CDW interface is suppressed because of non-equilibrium effects.

  7. Phase slip process and charge density wave dynamics in a one dimensional conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballah, N.; Zouadi, M.; Arbaoui, A.; Qjani, M.; Dumas, J.

    In this paper, we study the phase slip effect on the charge density wave (CDW) dynamics in a one-dimensional conductor in the weak pinning limit. A considerable enhancement of JCDW is observed in the presence of phase slips. In addition, a spatial dependence of the CDW current density JCDW is also studied showing that a decrease of JCDW with distance from the current contact occurs. The results are discussed in terms the relationship between additional phase slips and the mobility of phase dislocations nucleated at electrical contacts.

  8. Scanning tunneling microscopy in TTF-TCNQ: Phase and amplitude modulated charge density waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.Z.; Gorard, J.C.; Pasquier, C.

    2003-01-01

    Charge density waves (CDWs) have been studied at the surface of a cleaved tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) single crystal using a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, between 300 and 33 K with molecular resolution. All CDW...

  9. Resonant soft x-ray scattering and charge density waves in correlated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusydi, Andrivo

    2006-01-01

    Summary This work describes results obtained on the study of charge density waves (CDW) in strongly correlated systems with a new experimental method: resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS). The basic motivation is the 1986 discovery by Bednorz and Müler of a new type of superconductor, based on Cu

  10. Rotational effect on Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher and fraction orders with voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Alla, A. M.; Abo-Dahab, S. M. [Taif University, Taif (Egypt); Khan, Aftab [COMSATS, Chakshahzad (Pakistan)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we investigated the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic anisotropic media of a higher order and fraction orders of nth order including time rate of strain with voids. The general surface wave speed is derived to study the effect of rotation and voids on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. In order zero our results are well agreeing with classical results. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters and voids the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material medium. It is observed that Love wave remains unaffected with respect to rotation and voids. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically.

  11. Rotational effect on Rayleigh, Love and Stoneley waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic general viscoelastic media of higher and fraction orders with voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-Alla, A. M.; Abo-Dahab, S. M.; Khan, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the propagation of surface waves in a rotating fibre-reinforced viscoelastic anisotropic media of a higher order and fraction orders of nth order including time rate of strain with voids. The general surface wave speed is derived to study the effect of rotation and voids on surface waves. Particular cases for Stoneley, Love and Rayleigh waves are also discussed. The results obtained in this investigation are more general in the sense that some earlier published results are obtained from our result as special cases. In order zero our results are well agreeing with classical results. Also by neglecting the reinforced elastic parameters and voids the results reduce to well known isotropic medium. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of rotation and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material medium. It is observed that Love wave remains unaffected with respect to rotation and voids. It is also observed that, surface waves cannot propagate in a fast rotating medium. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically.

  12. Irradiation of layered metallic dichalcogenides: disorder in the charge density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutka, Hannu.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis is an experimental study on electron-irradiated metallic layer compounds (VSe 2 , NbSe 2 , TaS 2 , TaSe 2 ). The metal atoms displaced by irradiation remain in the form of stable defects up to 300 K; their concentration (10 - 5 ... 10 - 2 )is known from measurements of displacement threshold energy and magnetic susceptibility. The effect of these defects on the charge densite wave (CDW) phases and on the electronic and superconducting properties forms the major part of this study. In 1T-TaS 2 , a microstructure of CDW domains pinned to defects is observed by electron microscopy. The effects of this kind of disorder are also manifest in the thermodynamic properties of the CDW and in the electronic transport, as well as in the superconducting properties [fr

  13. Topological defect and quasi-particle dynamics in charge density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masahiko; Ebisawa, Hiromichi

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of topological defects (dislocations) in charge density waves (CDW's) is largely affected by the quasi-particle dynamics in the cores of the dislocations. The dislocations mediate the conversion of the electron number between condensate and quasi-particle sub-systems. This is especially important in the sliding conduction of CDW. In this work we propose a simple model, which is obtained by extending the Ginzburg-Landau theory partially taking into account the quasi-particle dynamics in the sense of two-fluid model. We perform the numerical simulation of sliding conduction of CDW based on our model. Using this model we may clarify the detailed process of dislocation nucleation and annihilation near the contacts.

  14. Ultra-Low Voltage Sixth-Order Low Pass Filter for Sensing the T-Wave Signal in ECGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Bertsias

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-low voltage sixth-order low pass filter topology, suitable for sensing the T-wave signal in an electrocardiogram (ECG, is presented in this paper. This is realized using a cascade connection of second-order building blocks constructed from a sinh-domain two-integrator loop. The performance of the filter has been evaluated using the Cadence Analog Design Environment and the design kit provided by the Austria Mikro Systeme (AMS 0.35-µm CMOS process. The power consumption of filters was 7.21 nW, while a total harmonic distortion (THD level of 4% was observed for an input signal of 220 pA. The RMS value of the input referred noise was 0.43 pA, and the simulated value of the dynamic range (DR was 51.1 dB. A comparison with already published counterparts shows that the proposed topology offers the benefits of 0.5-V supply voltage operation and significantly improved power efficiency.

  15. High-order finite-element seismic wave propagation modeling with MPI on a large GPU cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatitsch, Dimitri; Erlebacher, Gordon; Goeddeke, Dominik; Michea, David

    2010-01-01

    We implement a high-order finite-element application, which performs the numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation resulting for instance from earthquakes at the scale of a continent or from active seismic acquisition experiments in the oil industry, on a large cluster of NVIDIA Tesla graphics cards using the CUDA programming environment and non-blocking message passing based on MPI. Contrary to many finite-element implementations, ours is implemented successfully in single precision, maximizing the performance of current generation GPUs. We discuss the implementation and optimization of the code and compare it to an existing very optimized implementation in C language and MPI on a classical cluster of CPU nodes. We use mesh coloring to efficiently handle summation operations over degrees of freedom on an unstructured mesh, and non-blocking MPI messages in order to overlap the communications across the network and the data transfer to and from the device via PCIe with calculations on the GPU. We perform a number of numerical tests to validate the single-precision CUDA and MPI implementation and assess its accuracy. We then analyze performance measurements and depending on how the problem is mapped to the reference CPU cluster, we obtain a speedup of 20x or 12x.

  16. High-order space-time finite element schemes for acoustic and viscodynamic wave equations with temporal decoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H T; Birch, Malcolm J; Brewin, Mark P; Greenwald, Stephen E; Hu, Shuhua; Kenz, Zackary R; Kruse, Carola; Maischak, Matthias; Shaw, Simon; Whiteman, John R

    2014-04-13

    We revisit a method originally introduced by Werder et al. (in Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 190:6685-6708, 2001) for temporally discontinuous Galerkin FEMs applied to a parabolic partial differential equation. In that approach, block systems arise because of the coupling of the spatial systems through inner products of the temporal basis functions. If the spatial finite element space is of dimension D and polynomials of degree r are used in time, the block system has dimension ( r + 1) D and is usually regarded as being too large when r > 1. Werder et al. found that the space-time coupling matrices are diagonalizable over [Formula: see text] for r ⩽ 100, and this means that the time-coupled computations within a time step can actually be decoupled. By using either continuous Galerkin or spectral element methods in space, we apply this DG-in-time methodology, for the first time, to second-order wave equations including elastodynamics with and without Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell-Zener viscoelasticity. An example set of numerical results is given to demonstrate the favourable effect on error and computational work of the moderately high-order (up to degree 7) temporal and spatio-temporal approximations, and we also touch on an application of this method to an ambitious problem related to the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Bond-order wave phase of the extended Hubbard model: Electronic solitons, paramagnetism, and coupling to Peierls and Holstein phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoranjan; Soos, Zoltán G.

    2010-10-01

    The bond-order wave (BOW) phase of the extended Hubbard model (EHM) in one dimension (1D) is characterized at intermediate correlation U=4t by exact treatment of N -site systems. Linear coupling to lattice (Peierls) phonons and molecular (Holstein) vibrations are treated in the adiabatic approximation. The molar magnetic susceptibility χM(T) is obtained directly up to N=10 . The goal is to find the consequences of a doubly degenerate ground state (gs) and finite magnetic gap Em in a regular array. Degenerate gs with broken inversion symmetry are constructed for finite N for a range of V near the charge-density-wave boundary at V≈2.18t where Em≈0.5t is large. The electronic amplitude B(V) of the BOW in the regular array is shown to mimic a tight-binding band with small effective dimerization δeff . Electronic spin and charge solitons are elementary excitations of the BOW phase and also resemble topological solitons with small δeff . Strong infrared intensity of coupled molecular vibrations in dimerized 1D systems is shown to extend to the regular BOW phase while its temperature dependence is related to spin solitons. The Peierls instability to dimerization has novel aspects for degenerate gs and substantial Em that suppresses thermal excitations. Finite Em implies exponentially small χM(T) at low temperature followed by an almost linear increase with T . The EHM with U=4t is representative of intermediate correlations in quasi-1D systems such as conjugated polymers or organic ion-radical and charge-transfer salts. The vibronic and thermal properties of correlated models with BOW phases are needed to identify possible physical realizations.

  18. Quasiparticle conductance-voltage characteristics for break junctions involving d-wave superconductors: charge-density-wave effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekino, T; Gabovich, A M; Suan Li, Mai; Szymczak, H; Voitenko, A I

    2017-12-20

    Quasiparticle tunnel conductance-voltage characteristics (CVCs), [Formula: see text], were calculated for break junctions (BJs) made up of layered d-wave superconductors partially gapped by charge-density waves (CDWs). The current is assumed to flow in the ab-plane of electrodes. The influence of CDWs is analyzed by comparing the resulting CVCs with CVCs calculated for BJs made up of pure d-wave superconductors with relevant parameters. The main CDW-effects were found to be the appearance of new CVC peculiarities and the loss of CVC symmetry with respect to the V-sign. Tunnel directionality was shown to be one of the key factors in the formation of [Formula: see text] dependences. In particular, the orientation of electrodes with respect to the current channel becomes very important. As a result, [Formula: see text] can acquire a large variety of forms similar to those for tunnel junctions between superconductors with s-wave, d-wave, and mixed symmetry of their order parameters. The diversity of peculiarities is especially striking at finite temperatures. In the case of BJs made up of pure d-wave superconductors, the resulting CVC can include a two-peak gap-driven structure. The results were compared with the experimental BJ data for a number of high-T c oxides. It was shown that the large variety of the observed current-voltage characteristics can be interpreted in the framework of our approach. Thus, quasiparticle tunnel currents in the ab-plane can be used as an additional mean to detect CDWs competing with superconductivity in cuprates or other layered superconductors.

  19. High-order boundary integral equation solution of high frequency wave scattering from obstacles in an unbounded linearly stratified medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Alex H.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Mahoney, J. Matthew

    2015-09-01

    We apply boundary integral equations for the first time to the two-dimensional scattering of time-harmonic waves from a smooth obstacle embedded in a continuously-graded unbounded medium. In the case we solve, the square of the wavenumber (refractive index) varies linearly in one coordinate, i.e. (Δ + E +x2) u (x1 ,x2) = 0 where E is a constant; this models quantum particles of fixed energy in a uniform gravitational field, and has broader applications to stratified media in acoustics, optics and seismology. We evaluate the fundamental solution efficiently with exponential accuracy via numerical saddle-point integration, using the truncated trapezoid rule with typically 102 nodes, with an effort that is independent of the frequency parameter E. By combining with a high-order Nyström quadrature, we are able to solve the scattering from obstacles 50 wavelengths across to 11 digits of accuracy in under a minute on a desktop or laptop.

  20. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging With Cascaded Dual-Polarity Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Guo, Yuexin; Lee, Wei-Ning

    2018-04-01

    Ultrafast ultrasound imaging using plane or diverging waves, instead of focused beams, has advanced greatly the development of novel ultrasound imaging methods for evaluating tissue functions beyond anatomical information. However, the sonographic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ultrafast imaging remains limited due to the lack of transmission focusing, and thus insufficient acoustic energy delivery. We hereby propose a new ultrafast ultrasound imaging methodology with cascaded dual-polarity waves (CDWs), which consists of a pulse train with positive and negative polarities. A new coding scheme and a corresponding linear decoding process were thereby designed to obtain the recovered signals with increased amplitude, thus increasing the SNR without sacrificing the frame rate. The newly designed CDW ultrafast ultrasound imaging technique achieved higher quality B-mode images than coherent plane-wave compounding (CPWC) and multiplane wave (MW) imaging in a calibration phantom, ex vivo pork belly, and in vivo human back muscle. CDW imaging shows a significant improvement in the SNR (10.71 dB versus CPWC and 7.62 dB versus MW), penetration depth (36.94% versus CPWC and 35.14% versus MW), and contrast ratio in deep regions (5.97 dB versus CPWC and 5.05 dB versus MW) without compromising other image quality metrics, such as spatial resolution and frame rate. The enhanced image qualities and ultrafast frame rates offered by CDW imaging beget great potential for various novel imaging applications.

  1. Acoustic radiation force on an air bubble and soft fluid spheres in ideal liquids: example of a high-order Bessel beam of quasi-standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2009-04-01

    The partial wave series for the scattering of a high-order Bessel beam (HOBB) of acoustic quasi-standing waves by an air bubble and fluid spheres immersed in water and centered on the axis of the beam is applied to the calculation of the acoustic radiation force. A HOBB refers to a type of beam having an axial amplitude null and an azimuthal phase gradient. Radiation force examples obtained through numerical evaluation of the radiation force function are computed for an air bubble, a hexane, a red blood and mercury fluid spheres in water. The examples were selected to illustrate conditions having progressive, standing and quasi-standing waves with appropriate selection of the waves' amplitude ratio. An especially noteworthy result is the lack of a specific vibrational mode contribution to the radiation force determined by appropriate selection of the HOBB parameters.

  2. Soliton solutions to the fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries equation and their applications to surface and internal water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnutdinova, K. R.; Stepanyants, Y. A.; Tranter, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    We study solitary wave solutions of the fifth-order Korteweg-de Vries equation which contains, besides the traditional quadratic nonlinearity and third-order dispersion, additional terms including cubic nonlinearity and fifth order linear dispersion, as well as two nonlinear dispersive terms. An exact solitary wave solution to this equation is derived, and the dependence of its amplitude, width, and speed on the parameters of the governing equation is studied. It is shown that the derived solution can represent either an embedded or regular soliton depending on the equation parameters. The nonlinear dispersive terms can drastically influence the existence of solitary waves, their nature (regular or embedded), profile, polarity, and stability with respect to small perturbations. We show, in particular, that in some cases embedded solitons can be stable even with respect to interactions with regular solitons. The results obtained are applicable to surface and internal waves in fluids, as well as to waves in other media (plasma, solid waveguides, elastic media with microstructure, etc.).

  3. High-order-harmonic generation from solids: The contributions of the Bloch wave packets moving at the group and phase velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tao-Yuan; Huang, Xiao-Huan; Bian, Xue-Bin

    2018-01-01

    We study numerically the Bloch electron wave-packet dynamics in periodic potentials to simulate laser-solid interactions. We introduce an alternative perspective in the coordinate space combined with the motion of the Bloch electron wave packets moving at group and phase velocities under the laser fields. This model interprets the origins of the two contributions (intra- and interband transitions) in the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) processes by investigating the local and global behaviours of the wave packets. It also elucidates the underlying physical picture of the HHG intensity enhancement by means of carrier-envelope phase, chirp, and inhomogeneous fields. It provides a deep insight into the emission of high-order harmonics from solids. This model is instructive for experimental measurements and provides an alternative avenue to distinguish mechanisms of the HHG from solids in different laser fields.

  4. Electronic band structure and charge density wave transition in quasi-2D KMo6O17 purple bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, M. A.; Avila, J.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Guyot, H.; Laubschat, C.; Molodtsov, S. L.; Asensio, M. C.

    2008-03-01

    High resolution angle-resolved photoemission of quasi-2D KMo6O17 purple bronze has been performed in the range from room temperature to 130 K, slightly above the charge density wave (CDW) transition (Tc = 110 K), and down to 35 K (well below Tc). In this paper we report a detailed study of how electronic band structure is affected by this transition driven by the hidden nesting scenario. The expected spectroscopic fingerprints of the CDW phase transition have been found and discussed according to the hidden one dimension and the development of a quasi-commensurate CDW. The excellent agreement between theory and our experimental results makes of potassium purple bronze a reference system for studying this type of instabilities.

  5. Electronic band structure and charge density wave transition in quasi-2D KMo6O17 purple bronze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valbuena, M A; Avila, J; Asensio, M C; Vyalikh, D V; Laubschat, C; Molodtsov, S L; Guyot, H

    2008-01-01

    High resolution angle-resolved photoemission of quasi-2D KMo 6 O 17 purple bronze has been performed in the range from room temperature to 130 K, slightly above the charge density wave (CDW) transition (T c = 110 K), and down to 35 K (well below T c ). In this paper we report a detailed study of how electronic band structure is affected by this transition driven by the hidden nesting scenario. The expected spectroscopic fingerprints of the CDW phase transition have been found and discussed according to the hidden one dimension and the development of a quasi-commensurate CDW. The excellent agreement between theory and our experimental results makes of potassium purple bronze a reference system for studying this type of instabilities

  6. Design and measurement of a TE{sub 13} input converter for high order mode gyrotron travelling wave amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Guo, E-mail: liuguo@uestc.edu.cn; Shu, Guoxiang; Yan, Ran; Wang, Li; Agurgo Balfour, E.; Fu, Hao; Luo, Yong [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Shafei, E-mail: rockingsandstorm@163.com [North Electronic Device Research Institution, Box 947, Beijing 100141 (China)

    2016-03-15

    A technique to launch a circular TE{sub 13} mode to interact with the helical electron beam of a gyrotron travelling wave amplifier is proposed and verified by simulation and cold test in this paper. The high order (HOM) TE{sub 13} mode is excited by a broadband Y-type power divider with the aid of a cylindrical waveguide system. Using grooves and convex strips loaded at the lateral planes of the output cylindrical waveguide, the electric fields of the potential competing TE{sub 32} and TE{sub 71} modes are suppressed to allow the transmission of the dominant TE{sub 13} mode. The converter performance for different structural dimensions of grooves and convex strips is studied in detail and excellent results have been achieved. Simulation predicts that the average transmission is ∼−1.8 dB with a 3 dB bandwidth of 7.2 GHz (91.5–98.7 GHz) and port reflection is less than −15 dB. The conversion efficiency to the TE{sub 32} and TE{sub 71} modes are, respectively, under −15 dB and −24 dB in the operating frequency band. Such an HOM converter operating at W-band has been fabricated and cold tested with the radiation boundary. Measurement from the vector network analyzer cold test and microwave simulations show a good reflection performance for the converter.

  7. Spherical aberration and other higher-order aberrations in the human eye : from summary wave-front analysis data to optical variables relevant to visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Wave-front analysis data from the human eye are commonly presented using the aberration coefficient c(4)(0) (primary spherical aberration) together with an overall measure of all higher-order aberrations. If groups of subjects are compared, however, the relevance of an observed difference cannot

  8. Unconventional Density Wave and Superfluidity in Cold Atom Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Tsai, Chairperson Professor Kirill Shtengel Professor Vivek Aji 3 Copyright by Chen-Yen Lai 2014 4 The Dissertation of Chen-Yen Lai is approved...thank my dissertation committee members, Professor Vivek Aji and Pro- fessor Kirill Shtengel, for their help, kindness, insightful comments and...near balance to a stripe-CDW ( red ) as the imbalance increases. The insert shows the strong imbalance region, where single species p-wave majority

  9. Finite-temperature coupled-cluster, many-body perturbation, and restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock study on one-dimensional solids: Luttinger liquids, Peierls transitions, and spin- and charge-density waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So

    2015-09-14

    One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard-Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids.

  10. Calculating qP-wave traveltimes in 2-D TTI media by high-order fast sweeping methods with a numerical quartic equation solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jie

    2017-09-01

    A fast sweeping method (FSM) determines the first arrival traveltimes of seismic waves by sweeping the velocity model in different directions meanwhile applying a local solver. It is an efficient way to numerically solve Hamilton-Jacobi equations for traveltime calculations. In this study, we develop an improved FSM to calculate the first arrival traveltimes of quasi-P (qP) waves in 2-D tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. A local solver utilizes the coupled slowness surface of qP and quasi-SV (qSV) waves to form a quartic equation, and solve it numerically to obtain possible traveltimes of qP-wave. The proposed quartic solver utilizes Fermat's principle to limit the range of the possible solution, then uses the bisection procedure to efficiently determine the real roots. With causality enforced during sweepings, our FSM converges fast in a few iterations, and the exact number depending on the complexity of the velocity model. To improve the accuracy, we employ high-order finite difference schemes and derive the second-order formulae. There is no weak anisotropy assumption, and no approximation is made to the complex slowness surface of qP-wave. In comparison to the traveltimes calculated by a horizontal slowness shooting method, the validity and accuracy of our FSM is demonstrated.

  11. Nuclear forces with Δ excitations up to next-to-next-to-leading order. Part I: Peripheral nucleon-nucleon waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, H.; Epelbaum, E.; Meissner, U.G.

    2007-01-01

    We study the two-nucleon force at next-to-next-to-leading order in a chiral effective field theory with explicit Δ degrees of freedom. Fixing the appearing low-energy constants from a next-to-leading-order calculation of pion-nucleon threshold parameters, we find an improved convergence of most peripheral nucleon-nucleon phases compared to the theory with pions and nucleons only. In the delta-full theory, the next-to-leading-order corrections are dominant in most partial waves considered. (orig.)

  12. On second order effects in a galvanic cell : Part I. Polarization by a sine wave modulated high frequency current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, F. van der; Sluyters-Rehbach, M.; Sluyters, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented concerning the application of a high-frequency alternating current, amplitude modulated by a low-frequency sine wave, to a galvanic cell. Based on the correlation with the faradaic rectification technique, expressions are given for the low-frequency demodulation

  13. A Raman study of the charge-density-wave state in A(0.3)MoO(3) (A = K, Rb)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagar, D. M.; Fausti, D.; Yue, S.; Kuntscher, C. A.; van Smaalen, S.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

    2008-01-01

    We report a comparative Raman spectroscopic study of the quasi-one-dimensional charge-density-wave (CDW) systems A(0.3)MoO(3) (A = K, Rb). Temperature- and polarization-dependent experiments reveal charge-coupled vibrational Raman features. The strongly temperature-dependent collective amplitudon

  14. Electronic band structure and charge density wave transition in quasi-2D KMo{sub 6}O{sub 17} purple bronze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valbuena, M A [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Avila, J; Asensio, M C [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Vyalikh, D V; Laubschat, C; Molodtsov, S L [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Guyot, H [LEPES, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: mvbuena@icmm.csic.es

    2008-03-15

    High resolution angle-resolved photoemission of quasi-2D KMo{sub 6}O{sub 17} purple bronze has been performed in the range from room temperature to 130 K, slightly above the charge density wave (CDW) transition (T{sub c} = 110 K), and down to 35 K (well below T{sub c}). In this paper we report a detailed study of how electronic band structure is affected by this transition driven by the hidden nesting scenario. The expected spectroscopic fingerprints of the CDW phase transition have been found and discussed according to the hidden one dimension and the development of a quasi-commensurate CDW. The excellent agreement between theory and our experimental results makes of potassium purple bronze a reference system for studying this type of instabilities.

  15. Efficiency enhancement of slow-wave electron-cyclotron maser by a second-order shaping of the magnetic field in the low-gain limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Si-Jia; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Kang [School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Yong-Ming [Information Science and Engineering College, XinJiang University, Urumqi XinJiang 830046 (China); Jing, Jian, E-mail: jingjian@mail.buct.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Based on the anomalous Doppler effect, we put forward a proposal to enhance the conversion efficiency of the slow-wave electron cyclotron masers (ECM) under the resonance condition. Compared with previous studies, we add a second-order shaping term in the guild magnetic field. Theoretical analyses and numerical calculations show that it can enhance the conversion efficiency in the low-gain limit. The case of the initial velocity spread of electrons satisfying the Gaussian distribution is also analysed numerically.

  16. High-Energy Four-Wave Mixing, with Large-Mode-Area Higher-Order Modes in Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Steinvurzel, P. E.; Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, four-wave mixing, in the 1-μm spectral regime, in an LMA silica fiber. Pumping a 618-μm2 LP07 mode (λo = 1038.4 nm) with a 1064.6-nm Nd:YAG laser results in the generation of modulation instability, and multiple Stokes/anti-Stokes lines, opening up the prospect...

  17. A high-order perturbation of surfaces method for scattering of linear waves by periodic multiply layered gratings in two and three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youngjoon; Nicholls, David P.

    2017-09-01

    The capability to rapidly and robustly simulate the scattering of linear waves by periodic, multiply layered media in two and three dimensions is crucial in many engineering applications. In this regard, we present a High-Order Perturbation of Surfaces method for linear wave scattering in a multiply layered periodic medium to find an accurate numerical solution of the governing Helmholtz equations. For this we truncate the bi-infinite computational domain to a finite one with artificial boundaries, above and below the structure, and enforce transparent boundary conditions there via Dirichlet-Neumann Operators. This is followed by a Transformed Field Expansion resulting in a Fourier collocation, Legendre-Galerkin, Taylor series method for solving the problem in a transformed set of coordinates. Assorted numerical simulations display the spectral convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  18. A Signal Decomposition Method for Ultrasonic Guided Wave Generated from Debonding Combining Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville Distribution and Vold–Kalman Filter Order Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibre composites have a promising application future of the vehicle, due to its excellent physical properties. Debonding is a major defect of the material. Analyses of wave packets are critical for identification of the defect on ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and testing. In order to isolate different components of ultrasonic guided waves (GWs, a signal decomposition algorithm combining Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution and Vold–Kalman filter order tracking is presented. In the algorithm, the time-frequency distribution of GW is first obtained by using Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution. The frequencies of different modes are computed based on summation of the time-frequency coefficients in the frequency direction. On the basis of these frequencies, isolation of different modes is done by Vold–Kalman filter order tracking. The results of the simulation signal and the experimental signal reveal that the presented algorithm succeeds in decomposing the multicomponent signal into monocomponents. Even though components overlap in corresponding Fourier spectrum, they can be isolated by using the presented algorithm. So the frequency resolution of the presented method is promising. Based on this, we can do research about defect identification, calculation of the defect size, and locating the position of the defect.

  19. Travelling Wave Solutions of Coupled Burger’s Equations of Time-Space Fractional Order by Novel (Gʹ/G-Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida Hussain

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Novel (Gʹ/G-expansion method is used to find new generalized exact travelling wave solutions of fractional order coupled Burger’s equations in terms of trigonometric functions, rational functions and hyperbolic functions with arbitrary parameters. For the conversion of the partial differential equation to the ordinary differential equation, complex transformation method is used. Novel (Gʹ/G-expansion method is very effective and provides a powerful mathematical tool to solve nonlinear equations. Moreover, for the representation of these exact solutions we have plotted graphs for different values of parameters which were in travelling waveform.

  20. Development of burnout over time and the causal order of the three dimensions of burnout among male and female GPs. A three-wave panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twellaar Mascha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A good understanding of the aetiology and development of burnout facilitates its early recognition, prevention and treatment. Since the prevalence and onset of this health problem is thought to differ between men and women, sex must be taken into account. This study aims to assess the prevalence and development of burnout among General Practitioners (GPs. In this population the prevalence of burnout is high. Methods We performed a three-wave longitudinal study (2002, 2004, 2006 in a random sample of Dutch GPs. Data were collected by means of self-report questionnaires including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Our final sample consisted of 212 GPs of which 128 were male. Data were analyzed by means of SPSS and LISREL. Results Results indicate that about 20% of the GPs is clinically burned out (but still working. For both sexes, burnout decreased after the first wave, but increased again after the second wave. The prevalence of depersonalization is higher among men. With regard to the process of burnout we found that for men burnout is triggered by depersonalization and by emotional exhaustion for women. Conclusions As regards the developmental process of burnout, we found evidence for the fact that the aetiological process of burnout, that is the causal order of the three burnout dimensions, differs between men and women. These sex differences should be taken into account in vocational training and policy development, especially since general practice is feminizing rapidly.

  1. Temporal Ordering Effects of Adolescent Depression, Relational Aggression, and Victimization over Six Waves: Fully Latent Reciprocal Effects Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Parker, Philip D.; Parada, Roberto H.; Guo, Jiesi; Dicke, Theresa; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah

    2016-01-01

    The temporal ordering of depression, aggression, and victimization has important implications for theory, policy, and practice. For a representative sample of high school students (Grades 7-10; N = 3,793) who completed the same psychometrically strong, multiitem scales 6 times over a 2-year period, there were reciprocal effects between…

  2. Influence of second-order random wave kinematics on the design loads of offshore wind turbine support structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    . The second-order nonlinear water kinematics is developed based on a Gram Charlier series expansion using the first four stochasticmoments of thewave process. Thewave surface velocities and accelerations are expressed using a Taylor series expansion about themean sea level, which satisfies to the second...

  3. The Role of Higher-Order Modes on the Electromagnetic Whistler-Cyclotron Wave Fluctuations of Thermal and Non-Thermal Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Moya, Pablo S.; Navarro, Roberto; Araneda, Jamie A.

    2014-01-01

    Two fundamental challenging problems of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are the understanding of the relaxation of a collisionless plasmas with nearly isotropic velocity distribution functions and the resultant state of nearly equipartition energy density with electromagnetic plasma turbulence. Here, we present the results of a study which shows the role that higher-order-modes play in limiting the electromagnetic whistler-like fluctuations in a thermal and non-thermal plasma. Our main results show that for a thermal plasma the magnetic fluctuations are confined by regions that are bounded by the least-damped higher order modes. We further show that the zone where the whistler-cyclotron normal modes merges the electromagnetic fluctuations shifts to longer wavelengths as the beta(sub e) increases. This merging zone has been interpreted as the beginning of the region where the whistler-cyclotron waves losses their identity and become heavily damped while merging with the fluctuations. Our results further indicate that in the case of nonthermal plasmas, the higher-order modes do not confine the fluctuations due to the effective higher-temperature effects and the excess of suprathermal plasma particles. The analysis presented here considers the second-order theory of fluctuations and the dispersion relation of weakly transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature isotropic bi-Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron-proton plasma. Our results indicate that the spontaneously emitted electromagnetic fluctuations are in fact enhanced over these quasi modes suggesting that such modes play an important role in the emission and absorption of electromagnetic fluctuations in thermal or quasi-thermal plasmas.

  4. Multi-bunch energy distribution due to higher order modes in a travelling-wave constant gradient structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Higo, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Takeda, S.; Oide, K.; Takata, K.

    1993-01-01

    In order to accept the beam from an injector linac to a damping ring of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a multi-bunch energy distribution must be within ±0.3% of the beam energy. Most of the multi-bunch energy distribution linear by depends on a bunch number and this linear term can be corrected by the energy conpesention cavities. So non-linear term was calculated. It was found that the non-linear term is within ±0.3%. (author)

  5. Recovering four-component solutions by the inverse transformation of the infinite-order two-component wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barysz, Maria; Mentel, Lukasz; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    The two-component Hamiltonian of the infinite-order two-component (IOTC) theory is obtained by a unitary block-diagonalizing transformation of the Dirac-Hamiltonian. Once the IOTC spin orbitals are calculated, they can be back transformed into four-component solutions. The transformed four component solutions are then used to evaluate different moments of the electron density distribution. This formally exact method may, however, suffer from certain approximations involved in its numerical implementation. As shown by the present study, with sufficiently large basis set of Gaussian functions, the Dirac values of these moments are fully recovered in spite of using the approximate identity resolution into eigenvectors of the p 2 operator.

  6. Soft mode and energy gap in spin wave spectrum for a second order orientation phase transition. AFMR in YFe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbashov, A.M.; Berezin, A.G.; Gufan, Yu.M.; Kolyadko, G.S.; Marchukov, P.Yu.; Rudashevskij, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    A pronounced energy gap of a nonmagnetoelastic origin is observed experimentally in the spectrum of the low-frequency (quasiferromagnetic) antiferromagnetic resonance branch during a second order spin-flip phase transition in an external magnetic field directed along the a axis of the rhombic weak ferromagnetic YFeO 3 . From the theory developed which takes into account the susceptibility along the antiferromagnetism axis and dissipation processes, it follows that beside the usual AFMR oscillatory branches there should also be a relaxation mode which is ''soft'' fo the given transition. The magnitude of the energy gaps, the values of the kinetic coefficients, Dzyaloshinsky field strengths and ratio of the longitudinal susceptibility to the transverse susceptibility are determined by analyzing the experimental data obtained in fields up to 130 kOe in the frequency range from 60 to 400 GHz at room temperature

  7. Analytical energy gradients for explicitly correlated wave functions. I. Explicitly correlated second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győrffy, Werner; Knizia, Gerald; Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2017-12-01

    We present the theory and algorithms for computing analytical energy gradients for explicitly correlated second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2-F12). The main difficulty in F12 gradient theory arises from the large number of two-electron integrals for which effective two-body density matrices and integral derivatives need to be calculated. For efficiency, the density fitting approximation is used for evaluating all two-electron integrals and their derivatives. The accuracies of various previously proposed MP2-F12 approximations [3C, 3C(HY1), 3*C(HY1), and 3*A] are demonstrated by computing equilibrium geometries for a set of molecules containing first- and second-row elements, using double-ζ to quintuple-ζ basis sets. Generally, the convergence of the bond lengths and angles with respect to the basis set size is strongly improved by the F12 treatment, and augmented triple-ζ basis sets are sufficient to closely approach the basis set limit. The results obtained with the different approximations differ only very slightly. This paper is the first step towards analytical gradients for coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative treatment of triple excitations, which will be presented in the second part of this series.

  8. Residuos de la construcci??n y demolici??n (RCD) cer??micos y mixtos: una fuente de ??ridos gruesos t??cnicamente viable y medioambientalmente respetuosa para la producci??n de hormig??n = Ceramic and mixed construction and demolition wastes (CDW): A technically viable and environmentally friendly source of coarse aggregates for the concrete manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr??guez Robles, Desir??e

    2017-01-01

    553 p. Nowadays, it is widely recognized that construction and demolition wastes (CDW) pose a significant environmental problem. However, in spite of the interest that the topic of their reutilization in the construction industry has aroused among worldwide researchers, the actual practice regarding the use of recycled aggregates from CDW is limited to low level applications (mostly as unbound materials). This fact is especially true for recycled aggregates containing ceramic materials, wh...

  9. First-order chiral to non-chiral transition in the angular dependence of the upper critical induction of the Scharnberg–Klemm p-wave pair state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Gu, Q; Lörscher, C; Klemm, R A

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the temperature T and angular (θ, ϕ) dependencies of the upper critical induction B c2 (θ, ϕ, T) for parallel-spin superconductors with an axially symmetric p-wave pairing interaction pinned to the lattice and a dominant ellipsoidal Fermi surface (FS). For all FS anisotropies, the chiral Scharnberg–Klemm (SK) state B c2 (θ, ϕ, T) exceeds that of the chiral Anderson–Brinkman–Morel (ABM) state and exhibits a kink at θ = θ * (T, ϕ), indicative of a first-order transition from its chiral, nodal-direction behavior to its non-chiral, antinodal-direction behavior. Applicabilities to Sr 2 RuO 4 , UCoGe and the candidate topological superconductor Cu x Bi 2 Se 3 are discussed. (fast track communication)

  10. Primordial non-Gaussianities of gravitational waves in the most general single-field inflation model with second-order field equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2011-11-18

    We completely clarify the feature of primordial non-Gaussianities of tensor perturbations in the most general single-field inflation model with second-order field equations. It is shown that the most general cubic action for the tensor perturbation h(ij) is composed only of two contributions, one with two spacial derivatives and the other with one time derivative on each h(ij). The former is essentially identical to the cubic term that appears in Einstein gravity and predicts a squeezed shape, while the latter newly appears in the presence of the kinetic coupling to the Einstein tensor and predicts an equilateral shape. Thus, only two shapes appear in the graviton bispectrum of the most general single-field inflation model, which could open a new clue to the identification of inflationary gravitational waves in observations of cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as direct detection experiments.

  11. Anharmonic phonons and second-order phase-transitions by the stochastic self-consistent harmonic approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Francesco

    Anharmonic effects can generally be treated within perturbation theory. Such an approach breaks down when the harmonic solution is dynamically unstable or when the anharmonic corrections of the phonon energies are larger than the harmonic frequencies themselves. This situation occurs near lattice-related second-order phase-transitions such as charge-density-wave (CDW) or ferroelectric instabilities or in H-containing materials, where the large zero-point motion of the protons results in a violation of the harmonic approximation. Interestingly, even in these cases, phonons can be observed, measured, and used to model transport properties. In order to treat such cases, we developed a stochastic implementation of the self-consistent harmonic approximation valid to treat anharmonicity in the nonperturbative regime and to obtain, from first-principles, the structural, thermodynamic and vibrational properties of strongly anharmonic systems. I will present applications to the ferroelectric transitions in SnTe, to the CWD transitions in NbS2 and NbSe2 (in bulk and monolayer) and to the hydrogen-bond symmetrization transition in the superconducting hydrogen sulfide system, that exhibits the highest Tc reported for any superconductor so far. In all cases we are able to predict the transition temperature (pressure) and the evolution of phonons with temperature (pressure). This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant agreement No. 696656 GrapheneCore1.

  12. Charge density wave instabilities and incommensurate structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axe, J.D.

    1977-10-01

    Incommensurate structural phase transformations involve the appearance of modulated atomic displacements with spatial periodicity unrelated to the fundamental periodicity of the basic lattice. In the case of some quasi one- or two-dimensional metals such transformations are the result of Fermi-surface instabilities that also produce electronic charge density waves (CDW's) and soft phonon modes due to metallic electron screening singularities. Incommensurate soft mode instabilities have been found in insulators as well. Recent neutron scattering studies of both the statics and dynamics of incommensurate structural instabilities will be reviewed

  13. Second-order Monte Carlo wave-function approach to the relaxation effects on ringing revivals in a molecular system interacting with a strongly squeezed coherent field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masayoshi; Kishi, Ryohei; Nitta, Tomoshige; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the relaxation effects on the quantum dynamics in a two-state molecular system interacting with a single-mode strongly amplitude-squeezed coherent field using the second-order Monte Carlo wave-function method. The molecular population inversion (collapse-revival behavior of Rabi oscillations) is known to show the echoes after each revival, which are referred to as ringing revivals, in the case of strongly squeezed coherent fields with oscillatory photon-number distributions due to the phase-space interference effect. Two types of relaxation effects, i.e., cavity relaxation (the dissipation of an internal single mode to outer mode) and molecular coherent (phase) relaxation caused by nuclear vibrations on ringing revivals are investigated from the viewpoint of the quantum-phase dynamics using the quasiprobability (Q function) distribution of a single-mode field and the off-diagonal molecular density matrix ρ elec1,2 (t). It turns out that the molecular phase relaxation attenuates both the entire revival-collapse behavior and the increase in ρ elec1,2 (t) during the quiescent region, whereas a very slight cavity relaxation particularly suppresses the echoes in ringing revivals more significantly than the first revival but hardly changes a primary variation in envelope of ρ elec1,2 (t) in the nonrelaxation case

  14. A new multi-domain method based on an analytical control surface for linear and second-order mean drift wave loads on floating bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Chen, Xiaobo

    2017-10-01

    A novel multi-domain method based on an analytical control surface is proposed by combining the use of free-surface Green function and Rankine source function. A cylindrical control surface is introduced to subdivide the fluid domain into external and internal domains. Unlike the traditional domain decomposition strategy or multi-block method, the control surface here is not panelized, on which the velocity potential and normal velocity components are analytically expressed as a series of base functions composed of Laguerre function in vertical coordinate and Fourier series in the circumference. Free-surface Green function is applied in the external domain, and the boundary integral equation is constructed on the control surface in the sense of Galerkin collocation via integrating test functions orthogonal to base functions over the control surface. The external solution gives rise to the so-called Dirichlet-to-Neumann [DN2] and Neumann-to-Dirichlet [ND2] relations on the control surface. Irregular frequencies, which are only dependent on the radius of the control surface, are present in the external solution, and they are removed by extending the boundary integral equation to the interior free surface (circular disc) on which the null normal derivative of potential is imposed, and the dipole distribution is expressed as Fourier-Bessel expansion on the disc. In the internal domain, where the Rankine source function is adopted, new boundary integral equations are formulated. The point collocation is imposed over the body surface and free surface, while the collocation of the Galerkin type is applied on the control surface. The present method is valid in the computation of both linear and second-order mean drift wave loads. Furthermore, the second-order mean drift force based on the middle-field formulation can be calculated analytically by using the coefficients of the Fourier-Laguerre expansion.

  15. Angular studies of the magnetoresistance in the density wave state of the quasi-two-dimensional purple bronze KMo6O17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, H.; Dumas, J.; Kartsovnik, M. V.; Marcus, J.; Schlenker, C.; Sheikin, I.; Vignolles, D.

    2007-07-01

    The purple molybdenum bronze KMo6O17 is a quasi-two-dimensional compound which shows a Peierls transition towards a commensurate metallic charge density wave (CDW) state. High magnetic field measurements have revealed several transitions at low temperature and have provided an unusual phase diagram “temperature-magnetic field”. Angular studies of the interlayer magnetoresistance are now reported. The results suggest that the orbital coupling of the magnetic field to the CDW is the most likely mechanism for the field induced transitions. The angular dependence of the magnetoresistance is discussed on the basis of a warped quasi-cylindrical Fermi surface and provides information on the geometry of the Fermi surface in the low temperature density wave state.

  16. Atomic origin of the scanning tunneling microscopy images of charge-density-waves on 1T-TaSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltz, D. [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: stoltz@physics.leidenuniv.nl; Bielmann, M.; Schlapbach, L. [Swiss Federal Lab for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bovet, M. [Institut de Physique, Universite de Neuchatel, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Berger, H. [Institut de Physique Appliquee, EPF, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goethelid, M. [Materialfysik, MAP, KTH-Electrum, SE-16440 Kista (Sweden); Stoltz, S.E. [MAX-Lab, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Starnberg, H.I. [Department of Physics, Goeteborg University and Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    We show atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of charge density waves (CDWs) at room temperature together with angle-resolved photoelectron band-mapping of 1T-TaSe{sub 2}. By comparing the results of these two techniques, we demonstrate the atomic structure of the CDW-features observed by the STM and atomic origin of the reconstructed band-structure in this material.

  17. Splitting of the Ti-3d bands of TiSe{sub 2} in the charge-density wave phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, A., E-mail: aa.ghafari@gmail.com [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14 km 163.5, I-34149, Trieste (Italy); Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109, Berlin (Germany); Petaccia, L. [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14 km 163.5, I-34149, Trieste (Italy); Janowitz, C. [Institute of Physics, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Newtonst. 15, D-12489, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). • Charge density wave (CDW). • TiSe{sub 2}- Splitting of the conduction bands. Horizontal and vertical polarizations. Temperature dependence. - Abstract: Very high resolution angular resolved photoemission (ARPES) spectra on TiSe{sub 2} in two distinct polarization geometries (vertical and horizontal) at temperatures between 300 K and 22 K enabled the observation of details of bands near the Fermi level not reported so far. Calculations of the electronic band structure based on density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP hybrid functional and MBJ potential (with and without spin-orbit coupling) were performed to obtain the orbital symmetry and dispersion. Two degenerate conduction bands (CB’s) were observed at the Γ-point, a weak CB- emission at the A-point, and two non degenerate CB’s (i.e. splitting of CB) at the M/L-point of the Brillouin Zone (BZ). The splitting was detected at L for both polarizations, while at M remarkably only for horizontal polarization. These results cannot be fully accounted for by current theories for the charge density wave (CDW) and point to a reduced symmetry of the electronic states, possibly due to the chiral CDW.

  18. Structure of the charge density wave in cuprate superconductors: Lessons from NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, W. A.; Ufkes, S.; Kampf, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Using a mix of numerical and analytic methods, we show that recent NMR 17O measurements provide detailed information about the structure of the charge-density wave (CDW) phase in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6 +x . We perform Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) calculations of both the local density of states and the orbitally resolved charge density, which are closely related to the magnetic and electric quadrupole contributions to the NMR spectrum, using a microscopic model that was shown previously to agree closely with x-ray experiments. The BdG results reproduce qualitative features of the experimental spectrum extremely well. These results are interpreted in terms of a generic "hot-spot" model that allows one to trace the origins of the NMR line shapes. We find that four quantities—the orbital character of the Fermi surface at the hot spots, the Fermi surface curvature at the hot spots, the CDW correlation length, and the magnitude of the subdominant CDW component—are key in determining the line shapes.

  19. Impurity-induced modulations in PdxNbSe3 coupled to charge-density-wave formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Q.; Gong, Y.; Drake, D. L.; Qian, J.; Coleman, R. V.

    1996-01-01

    Very dilute amounts of Pd in PdxNbSe3 introduce long-range electronic modulations of wavelength 7b0, 4b0, 3b0, and 2b0 at room temperature as the Pd concentration increases in the range x=0.002 to x=0.02 while the low-temperature charge-density waves (CDW's) initially remain unchanged. For x>=0.02 the low-temperature CDW's are quenched while the NbSe3 structure remains intact, and the high-temperature modulations disappear, indicating a clear correlation between the two effects. The magnetoquantum oscillations due to magnetic breakdown first detect the band-structure shift followed by the sudden quenching of the nested Fermi surface sheets. The atomic force microscope scans show substantial charge transfer between chains caused by the Pd doping.

  20. Impurity-induced modulations in PdxNbSe3 coupled to charge-density-wave formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Q.; Gong, Y.; Drake, D.L.; Qian, J.; Coleman, R.V.

    1996-01-01

    Very dilute amounts of Pd in Pd x NbSe 3 introduce long-range electronic modulations of wavelength 7b 0 , 4b 0 , 3b 0 , and 2b 0 at room temperature as the Pd concentration increases in the range x=0.002 to x=0.02 while the low-temperature charge-density waves (CDW close-quote s) initially remain unchanged. For x≥0.02 the low-temperature CDW close-quote s are quenched while the NbSe 3 structure remains intact, and the high-temperature modulations disappear, indicating a clear correlation between the two effects. The magnetoquantum oscillations due to magnetic breakdown first detect the band-structure shift followed by the sudden quenching of the nested Fermi surface sheets. The atomic force microscope scans show substantial charge transfer between chains caused by the Pd doping. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Forces and stress in second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for condensed phase systems within the resolution-of-identity Gaussian and plane waves approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-01-01

    The forces acting on the atoms as well as the stress tensor are crucial ingredients for calculating the structural and dynamical properties of systems in the condensed phase. Here, these derivatives of the total energy are evaluated for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation energy (MP2) in the framework of the resolution of identity Gaussian and plane waves method, in a way that is fully consistent with how the total energy is computed. This consistency is non-trivial, given the different ways employed to compute Coulomb, exchange, and canonical four center integrals, and allows, for example, for energy conserving dynamics in various ensembles. Based on this formalism, a massively parallel algorithm has been developed for finite and extended system. The designed parallel algorithm displays, with respect to the system size, cubic, quartic, and quintic requirements, respectively, for the memory, communication, and computation. All these requirements are reduced with an increasing number of processes, and the measured performance shows excellent parallel scalability and efficiency up to thousands of nodes. Additionally, the computationally more demanding quintic scaling steps can be accelerated by employing graphics processing units (GPU’s) showing, for large systems, a gain of almost a factor two compared to the standard central processing unit-only case. In this way, the evaluation of the derivatives of the RI-MP2 energy can be performed within a few minutes for systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions. With good time to solution, the implementation thus opens the possibility to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in various ensembles (microcanonical ensemble and isobaric-isothermal ensemble) at the MP2 level of theory. Geometry optimization, full cell relaxation, and energy conserving MD simulations have been performed for a variety of molecular crystals including NH 3 , CO 2 , formic acid, and benzene

  2. Forces and stress in second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for condensed phase systems within the resolution-of-identity Gaussian and plane waves approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-09-01

    The forces acting on the atoms as well as the stress tensor are crucial ingredients for calculating the structural and dynamical properties of systems in the condensed phase. Here, these derivatives of the total energy are evaluated for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation energy (MP2) in the framework of the resolution of identity Gaussian and plane waves method, in a way that is fully consistent with how the total energy is computed. This consistency is non-trivial, given the different ways employed to compute Coulomb, exchange, and canonical four center integrals, and allows, for example, for energy conserving dynamics in various ensembles. Based on this formalism, a massively parallel algorithm has been developed for finite and extended system. The designed parallel algorithm displays, with respect to the system size, cubic, quartic, and quintic requirements, respectively, for the memory, communication, and computation. All these requirements are reduced with an increasing number of processes, and the measured performance shows excellent parallel scalability and efficiency up to thousands of nodes. Additionally, the computationally more demanding quintic scaling steps can be accelerated by employing graphics processing units (GPU's) showing, for large systems, a gain of almost a factor two compared to the standard central processing unit-only case. In this way, the evaluation of the derivatives of the RI-MP2 energy can be performed within a few minutes for systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions. With good time to solution, the implementation thus opens the possibility to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in various ensembles (microcanonical ensemble and isobaric-isothermal ensemble) at the MP2 level of theory. Geometry optimization, full cell relaxation, and energy conserving MD simulations have been performed for a variety of molecular crystals including NH3, CO2, formic acid, and benzene.

  3. Far infrared conductivity of charge density wave materials and the oxygen isotope effect in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creager, W.N.

    1991-09-01

    The far infrared reflectance and conductivity of (Ta 1-x Nb x Se 4 ) 2 I and TaS 3 have been measured to determine the origin of a huge infrared resonance that dominates the charge density wave (CDW) dynamics along with the pinned acoustic phason mode in the related materials (TaSe 4 ) 2 I and K 0. 3 MoO 3 . The measurements cover frequencies from 3 to 700cm -1 and the temperature range from 15K to 300K. In the niobium-doped alloys (Ta 1-x Nb x Se 4 ) 2 I, the size and frequency of the giant infrared mode remain nearly constant as the impurity concentration x is increased. For TaS 3 , the pinned acoustic phason near 0.5cm -1 dominates var-epsilon(ω) and an additional small mode lies near 9cm -1 . The latter mode is much smaller than the infrared mode in other CDW materials. These results rule out several models of a ''generic infrared mode'' in CDW excitations. They are compared in detail to the predictions of a recent theory attributing the infrared mode to a bound collective mode localized at impurity sites within the crystal. The transmittance of K 0.3 MoO 3 has been measured at 1.2K with a strong dc electric field applied across the crystal. Under these conditions, the charge density wave depins abruptly and carries large currents with near-zero differential resistance. For some samples, the low-frequency transmittance is enhanced slightly when the CDW depins. The magnitude of the oxygen isotope effect in the high-T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 has been determined by substitution of 18 O for 16 O. A series of cross-exchanges was performed on high-quality polycrystalline specimens to eliminate uncertainties due to sample heat treatments and sample inhomogeneities

  4. Nonuniversal critical behaviour in a model for charge density wave dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritala, R.K.; Hertz, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    We have studied short range fluctuations around the infinite-range model of charge density wave (CDW) dynamics. We find that the inhomogeneity of the local field, which is neglected in the infinite-range approximation has a dramatic effect on the transition. In the Bethe approximation the critical behaviour is nonuniversal. In particular, the current exponent is ζ = 3/2 log(z-1)/[log(z)]+log(1+f/J)], where z is the number of neighbors, f the pinning strength, and J the elastic coupling. (orig.)

  5. High magnetic field studies of the charge density wave state of the quasi-two-dimensional conductor KMO 6O 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Jean; Guyot, Hervé; Balaska, Hafid; Marcus, Jacques; Vignolles, David; Sheikin, Ilya; Audouard, Alain; Brossard, Luc; Schlenker, Claire

    2004-04-01

    Magnetic torque and magnetoresistance measurements have been performed in high magnetic field on the quasi-two-dimensional charge density wave (CDW) oxide bronze KMo 6O 17 . Several anomalies have been found below 28 T either on the torque or on the magnetoresistance data. They can be attributed predominantly to orbital effects. Magnetoresistance data obtained up to 55 T show that a transition takes place above 30 T. This transition may be due to the Pauli coupling. The new field-induced density wave state exhibits Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations.

  6. High magnetic field studies of the charge density wave state of the quasi-two-dimensional conductor KMO{sub 6}O{sub 17}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, Jean; Guyot, Herve; Balaska, Hafid; Marcus, Jacques; Vignolles, David; Sheikin, Ilya; Audouard, Alain; Brossard, Luc; Schlenker, Claire

    2004-04-30

    Magnetic torque and magnetoresistance measurements have been performed in high magnetic field on the quasi-two-dimensional charge density wave (CDW) oxide bronze KMo{sub 6}O{sub 17} . Several anomalies have been found below 28 T either on the torque or on the magnetoresistance data. They can be attributed predominantly to orbital effects. Magnetoresistance data obtained up to 55 T show that a transition takes place above 30 T. This transition may be due to the Pauli coupling. The new field-induced density wave state exhibits Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations.

  7. High magnetic field studies of the charge density wave state of the quasi-two-dimensional conductor KMO6O17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, Jean; Guyot, Herve; Balaska, Hafid; Marcus, Jacques; Vignolles, David; Sheikin, Ilya; Audouard, Alain; Brossard, Luc; Schlenker, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic torque and magnetoresistance measurements have been performed in high magnetic field on the quasi-two-dimensional charge density wave (CDW) oxide bronze KMo 6 O 17 . Several anomalies have been found below 28 T either on the torque or on the magnetoresistance data. They can be attributed predominantly to orbital effects. Magnetoresistance data obtained up to 55 T show that a transition takes place above 30 T. This transition may be due to the Pauli coupling. The new field-induced density wave state exhibits Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations

  8. Wave functions and low-order density matrices for a class of two-electron 'artificial atoms' embracing Hookean and Moshinsky models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas, A.; Howard, I.A.; March, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    A class of model two-electron 'artificial atoms' is proposed which embraces both Hookean and Moshinsky models. Particle densities and spinless first-order density matrices are obtained for this class of models. These quantities and the interacting system kinetic energy can be calculated using the ground-state solution of an explicit single-particle radial Schroedinger equation

  9. Higher order nonlinear equations for the dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma with two temperature-ions and nonextensive electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emamuddin, M.; Yasmin, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma whose constituents are negatively charged dust, Maxwellian ions with two distinct temperatures, and electrons following q-nonextensive distribution, is investigated by deriving a number of nonlinear equations, namely, the Korteweg-de-Vries (K-dV), the modified Korteweg-de-Vries (mK-dV), and the Gardner equations. The basic characteristics of the hump (positive potential) and dip (negative potential) shaped dust-acoustic (DA) Gardner solitons are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit. The effects of two temperature ions and electron nonextensivity on the basic features of DA K-dV, mK-dV, and Gardner solitons are also examined. It has been observed that the DA Gardner solitons exhibit negative (positive) solitons for q c (q>q c ) (where q c is the critical value of the nonextensive parameter q). The implications of our results in understanding the localized nonlinear electrostatic perturbations existing in stellar polytropes, quark-gluon plasma, protoneutron stars, etc. (where ions with different temperatures and nonextensive electrons exist) are also briefly addressed.

  10. X-ray scattering studies of non-equilibrium ordering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagler, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report on the progress of the project entitled ''X-ray Scattering Studies of Non-Equilibrium Ordering Processes.'' The past year has seen continued progress in the study of kinetic effects in metallic binary alloys and polymers. In addition, work has begun on a low dimensional CDW system: blue bronze. A sample chamber has been constructed to perform small angle neutron scattering measurements on a model quantum system with phase separation: solid He3/He4. Work is continuing on magnetic systems. Planned future experiments include an investigation of crystallization in Rubidium

  11. Retrospective Analysis of the Post-Operative Changes in Higher-Order Aberrations: A Comparison of the WaveLight EX500 to the VISX S4 Laser in Refractive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Donovan S; Apsey, Douglas; Steigleman, Walter; Townley, James; Caldwell, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    In an attempt to maximize treatment outcomes, refractive surgery techniques are being directed toward customized ablations to correct not only lower-order aberrations but also higher-order aberrations specific to the individual eye. Measurement of the entirety of ocular aberrations is the most definitive means to establish the true effect of refractive surgery on image quality and visual performance. Whether or not there is a statistically significant difference in induced higher-order corneal aberrations between the VISX Star S4 (Abbott Medical Optics, Santa Ana, California) and the WaveLight EX500 (Alcon, Fort Worth, Texas) lasers was examined. A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the difference in root-mean-square (RMS) value of the higher-order corneal aberrations postoperatively between two currently available laser platforms, the VISX Star S4 and the WaveLight EX500 lasers. The RMS is a compilation of higher-order corneal aberrations. Data from 240 total eyes of active duty military or Department of Defense beneficiaries who completed photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) or laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) refractive surgery at the Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center Joint Warfighter Refractive Surgery Center were examined. Using SPSS statistics software (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York), the mean changes in RMS values between the two lasers and refractive surgery procedures were determined. A Student t test was performed to compare the RMS of the higher-order aberrations of the subjects' corneas from the lasers being studied. A regression analysis was performed to adjust for preoperative spherical equivalent. The study and a waiver of informed consent have been approved by the Clinical Research Division of the 59th Medical Wing Institutional Review Board (Protocol Number: 20150093H). The mean change in RMS value for PRK using the VISX laser was 0.00122, with a standard deviation of 0.02583. The mean change in RMS value for PRK using the

  12. Radio wave scattering observations of the solar corona: First-order measurements of expansion velocity and turbulence spectrum using Viking and Mariner 10 spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, G.L.; Vesecky, J.F.; Plume, M.A.; Howard, H.T.; Barnes, A.

    1981-01-01

    Solar conjunction of Mars on 1976 November 25 occurred very near the beginning of solar cycle 21, about 4 months after the first Viking spacecraft arrived at the planet. Radio wave scattering data were collected at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths, using the radio link between the Viking orbiters and the Earth. These data allow measurements of solar wind properties over a range of heliocentric radial distance from approx.6 to 44 R/sub sun/ with solar latitudes ranging from -17 0 to +7 0 . Observations with Mariner 10 during a period of moderate solar activity in 1974 cover from 6 to 24 R/sub sun/ and from approx.20 0 to near 90 0 . We have found that the temporal frequency variance spectrum of amplitude fluctuations is useful for characterizing the bulk motion of the plasma. This spectrum has an approximately constant low frequency plateau and a power-law high frequency asymptote; the plateau-asymptote intersection frequency provides a measure of the solar wind velocity V. We also obtain the spectral index p of electron density turbulence, Phi/sub N/approx.kappa/sup -p/, where kappa is spatial wavenumber. These results apply to a cylindrical region oriented with its axis along the radio ray path and its center at the point of closest approach to the Sun. The measurements of V and p cover some 78/sup d/ for Viking and 49 2 for Mariner 10 and show the combined effects of changing heliocentric distance rho, solar latitude theta, and solar longitude Psi, as well as solar activity. The Viking results can be regarded as a function primary of rho and Psi since the observations are concentrated in the equatorial regions when solar activity was near minimum. For Mariner 10, rho, theta, and Psi variations were important. The Viking results show an abrupt change in V(rho) and the turbulence spectral index at approx.15 R/sub sun/

  13. Influence of the spatially inhomogeneous gap distribution on the quasiparticle current in c-axis junctions involving d-wave superconductors with charge density waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekino, T; Gabovich, A M; Suan Li, Mai; Szymczak, H; Voitenko, A I

    2016-11-09

    The quasiparticle tunnel current J(V) between the superconducting ab-planes along the c-axis and the corresponding conductance [Formula: see text] were calculated for symmetric junctions composed of disordered d-wave layered superconductors partially gapped by charge density waves (CDWs). Here, V is the voltage. Both the checkerboard and unidirectional CDWs were considered. It was shown that the spatial spread of the CDW-pairing strength substantially smears the peculiarities of G(V) appropriate to uniform superconductors. The resulting curves G(V) become very similar to those observed for a number of cuprates in intrinsic junctions, e.g. mesas. In particular, the influence of CDWs may explain the peak-dip-hump structures frequently found for high-T c oxides.

  14. dc Resistivity of Quantum Critical, Charge Density Wave States from Gauge-Gravity Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoretti, Andrea; Areán, Daniel; Goutéraux, Blaise; Musso, Daniele

    2018-04-01

    In contrast to metals with weak disorder, the resistivity of weakly pinned charge density waves (CDWs) is not controlled by irrelevant processes relaxing momentum. Instead, the leading contribution is governed by incoherent, diffusive processes which do not drag momentum and can be evaluated in the clean limit. We compute analytically the dc resistivity for a family of holographic charge density wave quantum critical phases and discuss its temperature scaling. Depending on the critical exponents, the ground state can be conducting or insulating. We connect our results to dc electrical transport in underdoped cuprate high Tc superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the possible relevance of unstable, semilocally critical CDW states to the strange metallic region.

  15. dc Resistivity of Quantum Critical, Charge Density Wave States from Gauge-Gravity Duality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoretti, Andrea; Areán, Daniel; Goutéraux, Blaise; Musso, Daniele

    2018-04-27

    In contrast to metals with weak disorder, the resistivity of weakly pinned charge density waves (CDWs) is not controlled by irrelevant processes relaxing momentum. Instead, the leading contribution is governed by incoherent, diffusive processes which do not drag momentum and can be evaluated in the clean limit. We compute analytically the dc resistivity for a family of holographic charge density wave quantum critical phases and discuss its temperature scaling. Depending on the critical exponents, the ground state can be conducting or insulating. We connect our results to dc electrical transport in underdoped cuprate high T_{c} superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the possible relevance of unstable, semilocally critical CDW states to the strange metallic region.

  16. Far infrared conductivity of charge density wave materials and the oxygen isotope effect in high-T sub c superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creager, W.N.

    1991-09-01

    The far infrared reflectance and conductivity of (Ta{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}Se{sub 4}){sub 2}I and TaS{sub 3} have been measured to determine the origin of a huge infrared resonance that dominates the charge density wave (CDW) dynamics along with the pinned acoustic phason mode in the related materials (TaSe{sub 4}){sub 2}I and K{sub 0. 3}MoO{sub 3}. The measurements cover frequencies from 3 to 700cm{sup {minus}1} and the temperature range from 15K to 300K. In the niobium-doped alloys (Ta{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}Se{sub 4}){sub 2}I, the size and frequency of the giant infrared mode remain nearly constant as the impurity concentration x is increased. For TaS{sub 3}, the pinned acoustic phason near 0.5cm{sup {minus}1} dominates {var epsilon}({omega}) and an additional small mode lies near 9cm{sup {minus}1}. The latter mode is much smaller than the infrared mode in other CDW materials. These results rule out several models of a generic infrared mode'' in CDW excitations. They are compared in detail to the predictions of a recent theory attributing the infrared mode to a bound collective mode localized at impurity sites within the crystal. The transmittance of K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3} has been measured at 1.2K with a strong dc electric field applied across the crystal. Under these conditions, the charge density wave depins abruptly and carries large currents with near-zero differential resistance. For some samples, the low-frequency transmittance is enhanced slightly when the CDW depins. The magnitude of the oxygen isotope effect in the high-{Tc} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} has been determined by substitution of {sup 18}O for {sup 16}O. A series of cross-exchanges was performed on high-quality polycrystalline specimens to eliminate uncertainties due to sample heat treatments and sample inhomogeneities.

  17. Numerical investigation of freak waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikov, D.

    2009-04-01

    of wave energy. It is naive to expect that high order moments such as skewness and kurtosis can serve as predictors or even indicators of freak waves. Firstly, the above characteristics cannot be calculated with the use of spectrum usually determined with low accuracy. Such calculations are definitely unstable to a slight perturbation of spectrum. Secondly, even if spectrum is determined with high accuracy (for example calculated with the use of exact model), the high order moments cannot serve as the predictors, since they change synchronically with variations of extreme wave heights. Appearance of freak waves occurs simultaneously with increase of the local kurtosis, hence, kurtosis is simply a passive indicator of the same local geometrical properties of a wave field. This effect disappears completely, if spectrum is calculated over a very wide ensemble of waves. In this case existence of a freak wave is just disguised by other, non freak waves. Thirdly, all high order moments are dependant of spectral presentation - they increase with increasing of spectral resolution and cut-frequency. Statistics of non-dimensional waves as well as emergence of extreme waves is the innate property of a nonlinear wave field. Probability function for steep waves has been constructed. Such type function can be used for development of operational forecast of freak waves based on a standard forecast provided by the 3-d generation wave prediction model (WAVEWATCH or WAM).

  18. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...... shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector...

  19. Operator ordering and causality

    OpenAIRE

    Plimak, L. I.; Stenholm, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that causality violations [M. de Haan, Physica 132A, 375, 397 (1985)], emerging when the conventional definition of the time-normal operator ordering [P.L.Kelley and W.H.Kleiner, Phys.Rev. 136, A316 (1964)] is taken outside the rotating wave approximation, disappear when the amended definition [L.P. and S.S., Annals of Physics, 323, 1989 (2008)] of this ordering is used.

  20. Expansions for Coulomb wave functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we derive a number of expansions for Whittaker functions, regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions. The main result consists of a new expansion for the irregular Coulomb wave functions of orders zero and one in terms of regular Coulomb wave functions. The latter expansions are

  1. Millimeter wave and terahertz wave transmission characteristics in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ping; Qin Long; Chen Weijun; Zhao Qing; Shi Anhua; Huang Jie

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on the shock tube to explore the transmission characteristics of millimeter wave and terahertz wave in high density plasmas, in order to meet the communication requirement of hypersonic vehicles during blackout. The transmission attenuation curves of millimeter wave and terahertz wave in different electron density and collision frequency were obtained. The experiment was also simulated by auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain (ADE-FDTD) methods. The experimental and numerical results show that the transmission attenuation of terahertz wave in the plasma is smaller than that of millimeter wave under the same conditions. The transmission attenuation of terahertz wave in the plasma is enhanced with the increase of electron density. The terahertz wave is a promising alternative to the electromagnetic wave propagation in high density plasmas. (authors)

  2. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57!27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world’s first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. In the period May 2003 to January 2005 an extensive...

  3. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57 x 27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world's first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. During the last months, extensive testing has started...

  4. Benefits of up-wave measurements in linear short-term wave forecasting for wave energy applications

    OpenAIRE

    Paparella, Francesco; Monk, Kieran; Winands, Victor; Lopes, Miguel; Conley, Daniel; Ringwood, John

    2014-01-01

    The real-time control of wave energy converters requires the prediction of the wave elevation at the location of the device in order to maximize the power extracted from the waves. One possibility is to predict the future wave elevation by combining its past history with the spatial information coming from a sensor which measures the free surface elevation upwave of the wave energy converter. As an application example, the paper focuses on the prediction of the wave eleva...

  5. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  6. Spin-Wave Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lan (兰金

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A diode, a device allowing unidirectional signal transmission, is a fundamental element of logic structures, and it lies at the heart of modern information systems. The spin wave or magnon, representing a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, is a promising candidate for an information carrier for the next-generation energy-saving technologies. Here, we propose a scalable and reprogrammable pure spin-wave logic hardware architecture using domain walls and surface anisotropy stripes as waveguides on a single magnetic wafer. We demonstrate theoretically the design principle of the simplest logic component, a spin-wave diode, utilizing the chiral bound states in a magnetic domain wall with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and confirm its performance through micromagnetic simulations. Our findings open a new vista for realizing different types of pure spin-wave logic components and finally achieving an energy-efficient and hardware-reprogrammable spin-wave computer.

  7. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  8. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  9. A prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVue™ STAR S4 IR™ in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK: analysis of visual outcomes and higher order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Brent S Betts2, Daniel S Churgin3, Maylon Hsu1, Marcus Neuffer1, Shameema Sikder4, Dane Church5, Mark D Mifflin11John A Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USAPurpose: To compare outcomes in visual acuity, refractive error, higher-order aberrations (HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK using wavefront (WF guided VISX CustomVue and WF optimized WaveLight Allegretto platforms.Methods: In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow eye study, LASIK was performed on 44 eyes (22 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Postoperative outcome measures at 3 months included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, refractive error, root-mean-square (RMS value of total and grouped HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmers testing.Results: Mean values for UDVA (logMAR were -0.067 ± 0.087 and -0.073 ± 0.092 in the WF optimized and WF guided groups, respectively (P = 0.909. UDVA of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes undergoing LASIK with both lasers while UDVA of 20/15 or better was achieved in 64% of eyes using the Allegretto platform, and 59% of eyes using VISX CustomVue (P = 1.000. In the WF optimized group, total HOA increased 4% (P = 0.012, coma increased 11% (P = 0.065, and spherical aberration increased 19% (P = 0.214, while trefoil decreased 5% (P = 0.490. In the WF guided group, total HOA RMS decreased 9% (P = 0.126, coma decreased 18% (P = 0.144, spherical aberration decreased 27% (P = 0.713 and trefoil

  10. Low-temperature specific heat of the quasi-two-dimensional charge-density wave compound KMo6O17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Xiong, Rui; Yin, Di; Li, Changzhen; Tang, Zheng; Wang, Ququan; Shi, Jing; Wang, Yue; Wen, Haihu

    2006-05-01

    Low temperature specific heat (Cp) of quasi-two-dimensional charge-density wave (CDW) compound KMo6O17 has been studied by a relaxation method from 2to48K under zero and 12T magnetic fields. The results show that no specific heat anomaly is found at 16K under both zero and 12T magnetic fields, although an anomaly is clearly observed in the resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements. From the data between 2 and 4K , the density of states at Fermi level is estimated as 0.2eV-1permolecule and the Debye temperature is extracted to be 418K . A bump appearing in Cp/T3 is found between 4 and 48K centered around 12.5-15K , indicating that the phason excitations contribute to the total specific heat similarly as in quasi-one-dimensional CDW conductors. Using a modified Debye model, a pinning frequency of 0.73THz for KMo6O17 is estimated from the phason contribution.

  11. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  12. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  13. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  14. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies, co...

  15. Gravitational waves from inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzetti, M.C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.

    2016-01-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index ηT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.

  16. Dimensional Crossover in a Charge Density Wave Material Probed by Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, C. W.; Berthod, C.; Puppin, M.; Berger, H.; Wolf, M.; Hoesch, M.; Monney, C.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data reveal evidence of a crossover from one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) behavior in the prototypical charge density wave (CDW) material NbSe3 . In the low-temperature 3D regime, gaps in the electronic structure are observed due to two incommensurate CDWs, in agreement with x-ray diffraction and electronic-structure calculations. At higher temperatures we observe a spectral weight depletion that approaches the power-law behavior expected in one dimension. From the warping of the quasi-1D Fermi surface at low temperatures, we extract the energy scale of the dimensional crossover. This is corroborated by a detailed analysis of the density of states, which reveals a change in dimensional behavior dependent on binding energy. Our results offer an important insight into the dimensionality of excitations in quasi-1D materials.

  17. Waves in Strong Centrifugal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    Dynamics of waves generated by scopes in gas centrifuges (GC) for isotope separation is considered. The centrifugal acceleration in the GC reaches values of the order of 106g. The centrifugal and Coriolis forces modify essentially the conventional sound waves. Three families of the waves with different polarization and dispersion exist in these conditions. Dynamics of the flow in the model GC Iguasu is investigated numerically. Comparison of the results of the numerical modeling of the wave dynamics with the analytical predictions is performed. New phenomena of the resonances in the GC is found. The resonances occur for the waves polarized along the rotational axis having the smallest dumping due to the viscosity.

  18. Antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity in (doped) Mott insulators: A wave function approach

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Z. Y.; Zhou, Y.; Muthukumar, V. N.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a class of wave functions that provide a unified description of antiferromagnetism and d-wave superconductivity in (doped) Mott insulators. The wave function has a Jastrow form and prohibits double occupancies. In the absence of holes, the wave function describes antiferromagnetism accurately. Off diagonal long range order develops at finite doping and the superconducting order parameter has d-wave symmetry. We also show how nodal quasiparticles and neutral spin excitations can be ...

  19. Calcium waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  20. Wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)

  1. Millimeter wave scattering off a whistler wave in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, B.K.; Singh, S.V.; Tripathi, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Obliquely propagating whistler waves through a plasma cause density perturbations. A high frequency electromagnetic wave sent into such a perturbed region suffers scattering. The process can be used as a diagnostics for whistler. We have developed a theory of electromagnetic wave scattering in a tokamak where density profile is taken a parabolic. Numerical calculations have been carried out to evaluate the ratio of the power of the scattered electromagnetic wave to that of the incident electromagnetic wave. The scattered power decreases with the frequency of the incident electromagnetic wave. For typical parameters, the ratio of the power of the scattered to the incident electromagnetic wave comes out to be of the order of 10 -4 at a scattering angle of 3 which can be detected. (author). 2 refs, 1 fig

  2. Millimeter-wave receiver design for plasma diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Hansen, S. K.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2016-01-01

    Scattered millimeter waves entering from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are generally elliptically polarized. In order to convert the millimeter waves to linearly polarized waves (required for the detector), birefringent window assemblies (sapphire) ha...

  3. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  4. Resolution enhancement of slam using transverse wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Dae Sik; Moon, Gun; Kim, Young H.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Since the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM Image In the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode.

  5. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  6. Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.

  7. Model for Shock Wave Chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.; Faria, Luiz; Rosales, Rodolfo R.

    2013-01-01

    : steady traveling wave solutions, instability of such solutions, and the onset of chaos. Our model is the first (to our knowledge) to describe chaos in shock waves by a scalar first-order partial differential equation. The chaos arises in the equation

  8. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  9. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  10. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  11. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    When an ocean wave breaks against a steep-fronted breakwater, sea wall or a similar marine structure, its impact on the structure can be very violent. This paper describes the theoretical studies that, together with field and laboratory investigations, have been carried out in order to gain a bet...

  12. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  13. Full wave simulations of fast wave mode conversion and lower hybrid wave propagation in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, J.C.; Bonoli, P.T.; Brambilla, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast wave (FW) studies of mode conversion (MC) processes at the ion-ion hybrid layer in toroidal plasmas must capture the disparate scales of the FW and mode converted ion Bernstein and ion cyclotron waves. Correct modeling of the MC layer requires resolving wavelengths on the order of k...

  14. Aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Quasicrystals are non-periodic solids that were discovered in 1982 by Dan Shechtman, Nobel Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2011. The mathematics that underlies this discovery or that proceeded from it, known as the theory of Aperiodic Order, is the subject of this comprehensive multi-volume series. This second volume begins to develop the theory in more depth. A collection of leading experts, among them Robert V. Moody, cover various aspects of crystallography, generalising appropriately from the classical case to the setting of aperiodically ordered structures. A strong focus is placed upon almost periodicity, a central concept of crystallography that captures the coherent repetition of local motifs or patterns, and its close links to Fourier analysis. The book opens with a foreword by Jeffrey C. Lagarias on the wider mathematical perspective and closes with an epilogue on the emergence of quasicrystals, written by Peter Kramer, one of the founders of the field.

  15. Waveguide Controls on Regional Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lay, Thorne

    2000-01-01

    One of the first-order challenges associated with non-proliferation monitoring is to understand short-period seismic wave energy partitioning for different sources in diverse geological environments...

  16. Alfven Waves in Gyrokinetic Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Qin, H.

    2003-01-01

    A brief comparison of the properties of Alfven waves that are based on the gyrokinetic description with those derived from the MHD equations is presented. The critical differences between these two approaches are the treatment of the ion polarization effects. As such, the compressional Alfven waves in a gyrokinetic plasma can be eliminated through frequency ordering, whereas geometric simplifications are needed to decouple the shear Alfven waves from the compressional Alfven waves within the context of MHD. Theoretical and numerical procedures of using gyrokinetic particle simulation for studying microturbulence and kinetic-MHD physics including finite Larmor radius effects are also presented

  17. Nonlinear modulation of ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Naoaki

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the nonlinear characteristics of ionization waves (moving-striations) in the positive column of glow discharge, a nonlinear modulation of ionization waves in the region of the Pupp critical current is analysed by means of the reductive perturbation method. The modulation of ionization waves is described by a nonlinear Schroedinger type equation. The coefficients of the equation are evaluated using the data of the low pressure Argon-discharge, and the simple solutions (plane wave and envelope soliton type solutions) are presented. Under a certain condition an envelope soliton is propagated through the positive column. (author)

  18. Quasitravelling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beklaryan, Leva A

    2011-01-01

    A finite difference analogue of the wave equation with potential perturbation is investigated, which simulates the behaviour of an infinite rod under the action of an external longitudinal force field. For a homogeneous rod, describing solutions of travelling wave type is equivalent to describing the full space of classical solutions to an induced one-parameter family of functional differential equations of point type, with the characteristic of the travelling wave as parameter. For an inhomogeneous rod, the space of solutions of travelling wave type is trivial, and their 'proper' extension is defined as solutions of 'quasitravelling' wave type. By contrast to the case of a homogeneous rod, describing the solutions of quasitravelling wave type is equivalent to describing the quotient of the full space of impulsive solutions to an induced one-parameter family of point-type functional differential equations by an equivalence relation connected with the definition of solutions of quasitravelling wave type. Stability of stationary solutions is analyzed. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  19. Superconductivity in Pd-Intercalated Ternary Rare-Earth Polychalcogenide NdSeTe_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pei-Pei; Xue Mian-Qi; Long Yu-Jia; Zhao Ling-Xiao; Cai Yao; Yang Huai-Xin; Li Jian-Qi; Ren Zhi-An; Chen Gen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    We synthesize a set of Pd-doped polycrystalline samples Pd_xNdSeTe_2 and measure their physical properties. Compared with pure NdSeTe_2, the charge density wave (CDW) order is continuously suppressed with the Pd-intercalation. Bulk superconductivity first appears at x = 0.06 with T_c nearly 2.5K, coexisting with a CDW transition at 176K. Further Pd-doping enhances T_c, until it reaches the maximum value 2.84K at x=0.1, meanwhile the CDW transition vanishes. The upper critical field for the optimal doping sample Pd_0_._1NdSeTe_2 is determined from the R-H measurement, which is estimated to be 0.6 T. These results provide another kind of ideal compound for studying the interplay between CDW and superconductivity systematically. (paper)

  20. Dominant wave frequency and amplitude estimation for adaptive control of wave energy converters

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen , Hoai-Nam; Tona , Paolino; Sabiron , Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Adaptive control is of great interest for wave energy converters (WEC) due to the inherent time-varying nature of sea conditions. Robust and accurate estimation algorithms are required to improve the knowledge of the current sea state on a wave-to-wave basis in order to ensure power harvesting as close as possible to optimal behavior. In this paper, we present a simple but innovative approach for estimating the wave force dominant frequency and wave force dominant ampl...

  1. Short-Term Wave Forecasting for Real-Time Control of Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    Real-time control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach optimal efficiency of wave energy extraction. We present an approach where the wave elevation is treated as a time series and it is predicted only from its past history. A comparison of a range of forecasting methodologies on real wave observations from two different locations shows how the relatively simple linear autoregressive model, which implicitly models the cyclical beh...

  2. Waves on radial film flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholemari, Murali R.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2005-08-01

    We study the stability of surface waves on the radial film flow created by a vertical cylindrical water jet striking a horizontal plate. In such flows, surface waves have been found to be unstable and can cause transition to turbulence. This surface-wave-induced transition is different from the well-known Tollmien-Schlichting wave-induced transition. The present study aims at understanding the instability and the transition process. We do a temporal stability analysis by assuming the flow to be locally two-dimensional but including spatial variations to first order in the basic flow. The waves are found to be dispersive, mostly unstable, and faster than the mean flow. Spatial variation is the major destabilizing factor. Experiments are done to test the results of the linear stability analysis and to document the wave breakup and transition. Comparison between theory and experiments is fairly good and indicates the adequacy of the model.

  3. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  4. Propagation of nonlinear ion acoustic wave with generation of long-wavelength waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Yukiharu; Kamimura, Tetsuo

    1978-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of the wave packet of an ion acoustic wave with wavenumber k 0 asymptotically equals k sub(De) (the electron Debye wavenumber) is investigated by computer simulations. From the wave packet of the ion acoustic wave, waves with long wavelengths are observed to be produced within a few periods for the amplitude oscillation of the original wave packet. These waves are generated in the region where the original wave packet exists. Their characteristic wavelength is of the order of the length of the wave packet, and their propagation velocity is almost equal to the ion acoustic speed. The long-wavelength waves thus produced strongly affect the nonlinear evolution of the original wave packet. (auth.)

  5. Parametric form of QCD travelling waves

    OpenAIRE

    Peschanski, R.

    2005-01-01

    We derive parametric travelling-wave solutions of non-linear QCD equations. They describe the evolution towards saturation in the geometric scaling region. The method, based on an expansion in the inverse of the wave velocity, leads to a solvable hierarchy of differential equations. A universal parametric form of travelling waves emerges from the first two orders of the expansion.

  6. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  7. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  8. How to turn gravity waves into Alfven waves and other such tricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newington, Marie E; Cally, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations of travelling gravity waves at the base of the chromosphere suggest an interplay between gravity wave propagation and magnetic field. Our aims are: to explain the observation that gravity wave flux is suppressed in magnetic regions; to understand why we see travelling waves instead of standing waves; and to see if gravity waves can undergo mode conversion and couple to Alfven waves in regions where the plasma beta is of order unity. We model gravity waves in a VAL C atmosphere, subject to a uniform magnetic field of various orientations, considering both adiabatic and radiatively damped propagation. Results indicate that in the presence of a magnetic field, the gravity wave can propagate as a travelling wave, with the magnetic field orientation playing a crucial role in determining the wave character. For the majority of magnetic field orientations, the gravity wave is reflected at low heights as a slow magneto-acoustic wave, explaining the observation of reduced flux in magnetic regions. In a highly inclined magnetic field, the gravity wave undergoes mode conversion to either field guided acoustic waves or Alfven waves. The primary effect of incorporating radiative damping is a reduction in acoustic and magnetic fluxes measured at the top of the integration region. By demonstrating the mode conversion of gravity waves to Alfven waves, this work identifies a possible pathway for energy transport from the solar surface to the upper atmosphere.

  9. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during this ext......Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...... this extended period. The prototype is highly instrumented. The overtopping characteristic and the power produced are presented here. This has enabled comparison between the prototype and earlier results from both laboratory model and computer simulation. This gives the optimal operating point and the expected...... power of the device. The project development team has gained much soft experience from working in the harsh offshore environment. In particular the effect of marine growth in the draft tubes of the turbines has been investigated. The control of the device has been a focus for development as is operates...

  10. Topological and conventional order of spinless fermions in 2D lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourtis, Stefanos

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the quintessential properties characterizing quantum Hall effects and topological phases in Part I of the present text, Part II has ventured into the less explored realm of correlated topological states in lattices. Haldane-like models were doped to fractional fillings of the gapped lower band and short-range interactions were used to induce lattice reincarnations of fractional quantum Hall states, called fractional Chern insulators (FCI). In Chapter 5, it was shown that band dispersion, which is usually taken to be zero to mimic Landau levels, can affect the competition between CDW and FCI states and actually favor the latter against the former. Furthermore, a first rudimentary look at the effect of magnetic disorder on a fractionally quantized topological invariant indicated that, even though the impact of disorder is intricate, the quantization of the invariant remains intact. The results presented in Chapter 6 demonstrate that FCI states do not necessarily need to come purely from a single Chern band, since strong interactions that mix bands seem to enhance their stability. The possibility for obtaining exotic correlated topological states was exemplified by the topological pinball liquid - a composite quantum state comprising of a CDW and a FCI - in Chapter 7. The conclusions of the preceding Chapters can be now set forth as answers to the questions posed in the beginning of Part II: - Are weak or strong interactions more favorable to correlated topological states? - Are insulators or semiconductors more suitable hosts? - Are dispersive or flat bands more susceptible to topological order? - Are correlated topological phases beyond the fractional quantum Hall paradigm possible in single-species many-particle systems?

  11. Topological and conventional order of spinless fermions in 2D lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourtis, Stefanos

    2014-10-15

    After an introduction to the quintessential properties characterizing quantum Hall effects and topological phases in Part I of the present text, Part II has ventured into the less explored realm of correlated topological states in lattices. Haldane-like models were doped to fractional fillings of the gapped lower band and short-range interactions were used to induce lattice reincarnations of fractional quantum Hall states, called fractional Chern insulators (FCI). In Chapter 5, it was shown that band dispersion, which is usually taken to be zero to mimic Landau levels, can affect the competition between CDW and FCI states and actually favor the latter against the former. Furthermore, a first rudimentary look at the effect of magnetic disorder on a fractionally quantized topological invariant indicated that, even though the impact of disorder is intricate, the quantization of the invariant remains intact. The results presented in Chapter 6 demonstrate that FCI states do not necessarily need to come purely from a single Chern band, since strong interactions that mix bands seem to enhance their stability. The possibility for obtaining exotic correlated topological states was exemplified by the topological pinball liquid - a composite quantum state comprising of a CDW and a FCI - in Chapter 7. The conclusions of the preceding Chapters can be now set forth as answers to the questions posed in the beginning of Part II: - Are weak or strong interactions more favorable to correlated topological states? - Are insulators or semiconductors more suitable hosts? - Are dispersive or flat bands more susceptible to topological order? - Are correlated topological phases beyond the fractional quantum Hall paradigm possible in single-species many-particle systems?.

  12. Interference effects in the nonlinear charge density wave dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelcic, D.; Batistic, I.; Bjelis, A.

    1987-12-01

    The main features of the nonlinear charge density wave transport in the external dc-ac field are shown to be the natural consequences of resonant phase slip diffusion. This process is treated numerically within the time dependent Landau-Ginzburg model, developed by Gor'kov. The resonances in the ac field are manifested as Shapiro steps in I-V characteristics, present at all rational ratios of internal frequency of current oscillations and external ac frequency. The origin of Shapiro steps, as well as their forms and heights, are cosidered in detail. In particular, it is shown that close to resonances the phase slip voltage acquires a highly nonsinusoidal modulation which leads to the appearance of low frequency and satellite peaks in the Fourier spectrum. Taking into account the interference of adjacent phase slips and the segment or domain structure of physical samples, we interpret the finite width of steps, side wings, synchronization, incomplete and complete mode locking and some other effects observed in numerous experiments on NbSe 3 and other CDW materials. (author). 36 refs, 12 figs

  13. THE EFFECTS OF WAVE ESCAPE ON FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVE TURBULENCE IN SOLAR FLARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. Richard

    2012-01-01

    One of the leading models for electron acceleration in solar flares is stochastic acceleration by weakly turbulent fast magnetosonic waves ( f ast waves ) . In this model, large-scale flows triggered by magnetic reconnection excite large-wavelength fast waves, and fast-wave energy then cascades from large wavelengths to small wavelengths. Electron acceleration by large-wavelength fast waves is weak, and so the model relies on the small-wavelength waves produced by the turbulent cascade. In order for the model to work, the energy cascade time for large-wavelength fast waves must be shorter than the time required for the waves to propagate out of the solar-flare acceleration region. To investigate the effects of wave escape, we solve the wave kinetic equation for fast waves in weak turbulence theory, supplemented with a homogeneous wave-loss term. We find that the amplitude of large-wavelength fast waves must exceed a minimum threshold in order for a significant fraction of the wave energy to cascade to small wavelengths before the waves leave the acceleration region. We evaluate this threshold as a function of the dominant wavelength of the fast waves that are initially excited by reconnection outflows.

  14. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered.......The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  15. Micrononcasual Euclidean wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enatsu, H.; Takenaka, A.; Okazaki, M.

    1978-01-01

    A theory which describes the internal attributes of hadrons in terms of space-time wave functions is presented. In order to develop the theory on the basis of a rather realistic model, covariant wave equations are first derived for the deuteron, in which the co-ordinates of the centre of mass of two nucleons can be defined unambiguously. Then the micro-noncasual behaviour of virtual mesons mediating between the two nucleons is expressed by means of wave functions depending only on the relative Euclidean co-ordinates with respect to the centre of mass of the two nucleons; the wave functions are assumed to obey the 0 4 and SU 2 x SU 2 groups. The properties of the wave functions under space inversion, time reversal and particle-antiparticle conjugation are investigated. It is found that the internal attributes of the mesons, such as spin, isospin, strangeness, intrinsic parity, charge parity and G-parity are explained consistently. The theory is applicable also to the case of baryons

  16. Retrospective Analysis of the Post-Operative Changes in Higher Order Aberrations: A Comparison of the WaveLight (registered trademark) EX500 to the Allegretto and Visx (registered trademark) S4 Laser in Refractive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-16

    oPV’lik:l1119 expressed on th s document are solely those of the author(s) and do not represe endorc...e ent by or of Un ted States AIr Force, the...X500 x ~ime Lase Sy te Alco ,Fo Wo , T ) d e VISX Star IR xcimer Laser ystem (Abbott Me ic 1Op ics, SAn, CA) • RMS - Pentacam nclusion Cri eria • mili...for PRK between VISX and WiN X La r. p-val Is 0.43 •• I Figu re 2: Cha nge in RMS data for PRK between the V ISX and WaveLig t EXSOOLasers. p-value is

  17. Waves in the seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J

    , steep nonsymmetric cnoidal waves, solitons and random waves. They have different properties too. Any wave form has a wave period (T), wave height (H) and speed (C) which depends on T. Still another type of waves are breaking waves near a coast...

  18. Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1982-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed

  19. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    På foranledning af Löwenmark F.R.I, er der udført numeriske beregninger af Wave Dragons (herefter WD) armes effektivitet for forskellige geometriske udformninger. 5 geometriske modeller, hvor WD's arme er forkortet/forlænget er undersøgt for 3 forskellige drejninger af armene. I alt er 15...

  20. Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Alexandra [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Haller, Merrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). School of Civil & Construction Engineering; Walker, David [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lynett, Pat [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-08-29

    forecasting in real-time, as the GPU-based wave model backbone was very computationally efficient. The data assimilation algorithm was developed on a polar grid domain in order to match the sampling characteristics of the observation system (wave imaging marine radar). For verification purposes, a substantial set of synthetic wave data (i.e. forward runs of the wave model) were generated to be used as ground truth for comparison to the reconstructions and forecasts produced by Wavecast. For these synthetic cases, Wavecast demonstrated very good accuracy, for example, typical forecast correlation coefficients were between 0.84-0.95 when compared to the input data. Dependencies on shadowing, observational noise, and forecast horizon were also identified. During the second year of the project, a short field deployment was conducted in order to assess forecast accuracy under field conditions. For this, a radar was installed on a fishing vessel and observations were collected at the South Energy Test Site (SETS) off the coast of Newport, OR. At the SETS site, simultaneous in situ wave observations were also available owing to an ongoing field project funded separately. Unfortunately, the position and heading information that was available for the fishing vessel were not of sufficient accuracy in order to validate the forecast in a phase-resolving sense. Instead, a spectral comparison was made between the Wavecast forecast and the data from the in situ wave buoy. Although the wave and wind conditions during the field test were complex, the comparison showed a promising reconstruction of the wave spectral shape, where both peaks in the bimodal spectrum were represented. However, the total reconstructed spectral energy (across all directions and frequencies) was limited to 44% of the observed spectrum. Overall, wave-by-wave forecasting using a data assimilation approach based on wave imaging radar observations and a physics-based wave model shows promise for short-term phase

  1. Tropical Cyclogenesis in a Tropical Wave Critical Layer: Easterly Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside.

  2. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing......-linear (second order) high frequency springing analyses with unidirectional wave excitation are much more scattered. Some of the reasons are different level of wave excitation accounted in the different Executive Summary ivtheories, inclusion of additional hydrodynamic phenomena e.g. slamming in the time...... because, to the author's knowledge, this is the first time that the wave data were collected simultaneously with stress records on the deck of the ship. This is highly appreciated because one can use the precise input and not only the most probable sea state statistics. The actual picture of the sea waves...

  3. Stochastic Procedures for Extreme Wave Load Predictions- Wave Bending Moment in Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    A discussion of useful stochastic procedures for stochastic wave load problems is given, covering the range from slightly linear to strongly non-linear (bifurcation) problems. The methods are: Hermite transformation, Critical wave episodes and the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). The proced......). The procedures will be illustrated by results for the extreme vertical wave bending moment in ships....

  4. Many-polaron theory for superconductivity and charge-density waves in a strongly coupled electron-phonon system with quasi-two-dimensionality: An interpolation between the adiabatic limit and the inverse-adiabatic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, K.

    1987-01-01

    The phase diagram of a two-dimensional N-site N-electron system (N>>1) with site-diagonal electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling is studied in the context of polaron theory, so as to clarify the competition between the superconducting (SC) state and the charge-density wave (CDW) state. The Fermi surface of noninteracting electrons is assumed to be a complete circle with no nesting-type instability in the case of weak e-ph coupling, so as to focus on such a strong coupling that even the standard ''strong-coupling theory'' for superconductivity breaks down. Phonon clouds moving with electrons as well as a frozen phonon are taken into account by a variational method, combined with a mean-field theory. It covers the whole region of three basic parameters characterizing the system: the intersite transfer energy of electron T, the e-ph coupling energy S, and the phonon energy ω. The resultant phase diagram is given in a triangular coordinate space spanned by T, S, and ω. In the adiabatic region ω >(T,S) near the ω vertex of the triangle, on the other hand, each electron becomes a small polaron, and the SC state is always more stable than the CDW state, because the retardation effect is absent

  5. Approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear waves in wave flumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2007-01-01

    An approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear regular waves in flumes is presented. This theory is based on an ad hoe unified wave-generation method that combines linear fully dispersive wavemaker theory and wave generation for non-linear shallow water waves. This is done...... by applying a dispersion correction to the paddle position obtained for non-linear long waves. The method is validated by a number of wave flume experiments while comparing with results of linear wavemaker theory, second-order wavemaker theory and Cnoidal wavemaker theory within its range of application....

  6. Impact of Wave Dragon on Wave Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Tedd, James; Kramer, Morten

    This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator.......This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator....

  7. Wave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, T.J.T. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK)); White, P.R.S. (Lanchester Polytechnic, Coventry (UK)); Baker, A.C.J. (Binnie and Partners, London (UK))

    1988-10-01

    An informal discussion on various wave energy converters is reported. These included a prototype oscillating water column (OWC) device being built on the Isle of Islay in Scotland; the SEA Clam; a tapering channel device (Tapchan) raising incoming waves into a lagoon on a Norwegian island and an OWC device on the same island. The Norwegian devices are delivering electricity at about 5.5p/KWh and 4p/KWh respectively with possibilities for reduction to 2.5-3p/KWh and 3p/KWh under favourable circumstances. The discussion ranged over comparisons with progress in wind power, engineering aspects, differences between inshore and offshore devices, tidal range and energy storage. (UK).

  8. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  9. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  10. Algorithm of resonance orders for the objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, YongGang; Zhang, JianXue

    2018-03-01

    In mechanical engineering, the object resonance phenomena often occur when the external incident wave frequency is close to object of the natural frequency. Object resonance phenomena get the maximum value when the external incident frequency is equal to object the natural frequency. Experiments found that resonance intension of the object is changed, different objects resonance phenomena present different characteristics of ladders. Based on object orders resonance characteristics, the calculation method of object orders resonance is put forward in the paper, and the application for the light and sound waves on the seven order resonance characteristics by people feel, the result error is less than 1%.Visible in this paper, the method has high accuracy and usability. The calculation method reveals that some object resonance occur present order characteristic only four types, namely the first-orders resonance characteristics, third-orders characteristics, five orders characteristic, and seven orders characteristic.

  11. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  12. Order against chaos in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    Order and chaos and order-to-chaos transition are treated in terms of nuclear wave functions. A quasiparticle-phonon interaction is responsible for the fragmentation of one- and many-quasiparticle and phonon states and for the mixing of closely spaced states. Complete damping of one-quasiparticle states cannot be considered as a transition to chaos due to large many-quasiparticle or quasiparticle-phonon terms in their wave functions. An experimental investigation of the strength distribution of many-quasiparticle and quasiparticle-phonon states should uncover a new region of a regularity in nuclei at intermediate excitation energy. A chaotic behaviour of nuclear states can be shifted to higher excitation energies. ((orig.))

  13. CMS-Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program CMS -Wave CMS -Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind-wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward...marching, finite-difference method to solve the wave action conservation equation. Capabilities of CMS -Wave include wave shoaling, refraction... CMS -Wave can be used in either on a half- or full-plane mode, with primary waves propagating from the seaward boundary toward shore. It can

  14. Simulation of Irregular Waves and Wave Induced Loads on Wind Power Plants in Shallow Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumars, Jenny [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Water Environment Transport

    2004-05-01

    The essay gives a short introduction to waves and discusses the problem with non-linear waves in shallow water and how they effect an offshore wind energy converter. The focus is on the realisation of non-linear waves in the time domain from short-term statistics in the form of a variance density spectrum of the wave elevation. For this purpose the wave transformation from deep water to the near to shore site of a wind energy farm at Bockstigen has been calculated with the use of SWAN (Simulating Waves Near Shore). The result is a wave spectrum, which can be used as input to the realisation. The realisation of waves is done by perturbation theory to the first and second-order. The properties calculated are the wave elevation, water particle velocity and acceleration. The wave heights from the second order perturbation equations are higher than those from the first order perturbation equations. This is also the case for the water particle kinematics. The increase of variance is significant between the first order and the second order realisation. The calculated wave elevation exhibits non-linear features as the peaks become sharper and the troughs flatter. The resulting forces are calculated using Morison's equation. For second order force and base moment there is an increase in the maximum values. The force and base moment are largest approximately at the zero up and down crossing of the wave elevation. This indicates an inertia dominated wave load. So far the flexibility and the response of the structure have not been taken into account. They are, however, of vital importance. For verification of the wave model the results will later on be compared with measurements at Bockstigen off the coast of Gotland in the Baltic Sea.

  15. Analytic formulae for the Hartree-Fock order parameter at arbitrary p/q filling factors for the 2DEG in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo Monte Oca, A. de.

    1994-07-01

    Analytic expressions for order parameters are given for the previously introduced general class of Hartree Fock states at arbitrary filling factors ν=p/q for odd q values. The order parameters are expressed as sums of magnetic translations eigenvalues over the filled single electron states. Simple summation formulae for the band spectra in terms of the same eigenvalues are also presented. The energy per particle at ν=1/3 is calculated for various states differing in the way of filling of the 1/3 of the orbitals. The calculated energies are not competing with the usual CDW results. However the high degree of electron overlapping allows for the next corrections to modify this situation. The discussion suggests these Hartree-Fock Slater determinants as interesting alternatives for the Tao-Thouless parent states which may correct their anomalous symmetry and correlation functions properties. (author). 28 refs

  16. Super rogue wave in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, Pallabi; Sharma, Sumita Kumari; Bailung, Heremba

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of super rogue wave having amplitude ∼5 times the background wave has been observed in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions in a double plasma device. In normal electron-ion plasma the ion acoustic solitons are described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. At a critical concentration of negative ions, the ion acoustic modified KdV solitons are found to propagate. Multicomponent plasma also supports the propagation of a special kind of soliton namely 'Peregrine soliton' at critical concentration of negative ions. Peregrine soliton is a doubly localized solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) having amplitude 3 times the background carrier wave. In a double plasma device, ion-acoustic Peregrine soliton is excited by applying slowly varying amplitude modulated continuous sinusoidal signal to the source anode and described by the rational solution of NLSE. The ion acoustic wave is modulationally unstable in multicomponent plasma with critical concentration of negative ions and an initial modulated wave perturbation is found to undergo self-modulation to form localized structures by balancing the nonlinearity with the dispersion. In presence of higher order nonlinearity, propagation of a high amplitude (∼5 times of background carrier wave) ion acoustic Peregrine soliton has been observed experimentally. The existence of such types of higher order wave has been reported in other dispersive media. These are considered to be the prototype of super rogue wave in deep water. In this work, experimental results on the evolution of super rogue wave in a double plasma device are presented and compared with the numerical solution of NLSE. (author)

  17. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xianlong [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zeng, Zhi, E-mail: zzeng@theory.issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene) has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs) based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW) caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW) caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1) comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2) comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3) SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.

  18. Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1 comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2 comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3 SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.

  19. Line Rogue Waves in the Mel'nikov Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongkang

    2017-07-01

    General line rogue waves in the Mel'nikov equation are derived via the Hirota bilinear method, which are given in terms of determinants whose matrix elements have plain algebraic expressions. It is shown that fundamental rogue waves are line rogue waves, which arise from the constant background with a line profile and then disappear into the constant background again. By means of the regulation of free parameters, two subclass of nonfundamental rogue waves are generated, which are called as multirogue waves and higher-order rogue waves. The multirogue waves consist of several fundamental line rogue waves, which arise from the constant background and then decay back to the constant background. The higher-order rogue waves start from a localised lump and retreat back to it. The dynamical behaviours of these line rogue waves are demonstrated by the density and the three-dimensional figures.

  20. Order Aggressiveness and Order Book Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders' order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we model traders' aggressiveness in market trading, limit order trading as well as in order cancellations on both sides of the market using a six-dimensional autoregressive intensity model. The information revealed by the open order book plays an important role in explaining the degree of order agg...

  1. Three-dimensional instability of standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing surface waves under the influence of gravity. The analysis employs the transition matrix (TM) approach and uses a new high-order spectral element (HOSE) method for computation of the nonlinear wave dynamics. HOSE is an extension of the original high-order spectral method (HOS) wherein nonlinear wave wave and wave body interactions are retained up to high order in wave steepness. Instead of global basis functions in HOS, however, HOSE employs spectral elements to allow for complex free-surface geometries and surface-piercing bodies. Exponential convergence of HOS with respect to the total number of spectral modes (for a fixed number of elements) and interaction order is retained in HOSE. In this study, we use TM-HOSE to obtain the stability of general three-dimensional perturbations (on a two-dimensional surface) on two classes of standing waves: plane standing waves in a rectangular tank; and radial/azimuthal standing waves in a circular basin. For plane standing waves, we confirm the known result of two-dimensional side-bandlike instability. In addition, we find a novel three-dimensional instability for base flow of any amplitude. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique (standing) wave oriented at an arbitrary angle whose frequency is close to the (nonlinear) frequency of the original standing wave. This finding is confirmed by direct long-time simulations using HOSE which show that the nonlinear evolution leads to classical Fermi Pasta Ulam recurrence. For the circular basin, we find that, beyond a threshold wave steepness, a standing wave (of nonlinear frequency Omega) is unstable to three-dimensional perturbations. The unstable perturbation contains two dominant (standing-wave) components, the sum of whose frequencies is close to 2Omega. From the cases we consider, the critical wave steepness is found to generally decrease/increase with increasing radial

  2. Statistical wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Statistical considerations are applied to quantum mechanical amplitudes. The physical motivation is the progress in the spectroscopy of highly excited states. The corresponding wave functions are strongly mixed. In terms of a basis set of eigenfunctions of a zeroth-order Hamiltonian with good quantum numbers, such wave functions have contributions from many basis states. The vector x is considered whose components are the expansion coefficients in that basis. Any amplitude can be written as a dagger x x. It is argued that the components of x and hence other amplitudes can be regarded as random variables. The maximum entropy formalism is applied to determine the corresponding distribution function. Two amplitudes a dagger x x and b dagger x x are independently distributed if b dagger x a = 0. It is suggested that the theory of quantal measurements implies that, in general, one can one determine the distribution of amplitudes and not the amplitudes themselves

  3. Solitary wave and periodic wave solutions for the thermally forced gravity waves in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziliang

    2008-01-01

    By introducing a new transformation, a new direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of general nonlinear evolution equations is presented and implemented in a computer algebraic system, which extends Fan's direct algebraic method to the case when r > 4. The solutions of a first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with a higher degree nonlinear term and Fan's direct algebraic method of obtaining exact solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations are applied to the combined KdV-mKdV-GKdV equation, which is derived from a simple incompressible non-hydrostatic Boussinesq equation with the influence of thermal forcing and is applied to investigate internal gravity waves in the atmosphere. As a result, by taking advantage of the new first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation with a fifth-degree nonlinear term and an eighth-degree nonlinear term, periodic wave solutions associated with the Jacobin elliptic function and the bell and kink profile solitary wave solutions are obtained under the effect of thermal forcing. Most importantly, the mechanism of propagation and generation of the periodic waves and the solitary waves is analysed in detail according to the values of the heating parameter, which show that the effect of heating in atmosphere helps to excite westerly or easterly propagating periodic internal gravity waves and internal solitary waves in atmosphere, which are affected by the local excitation structures in atmosphere. In addition, as an illustrative sample, the properties of the solitary wave solution and Jacobin periodic solution are shown by some figures under the consideration of heating interaction

  4. Some aspects of gravitational waves in an isotropic background universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.N.

    1981-06-01

    Gravitational waves are an inescapable consequence of the relativistic theory of gravitation. They are meaningfully comparable with electromagnetic waves. However, they are not conformally invariant. So, to investigate this property for gravitational waves, modified field equations are obtained of which the underlying Lagrangian is based on gravitation only. It gives, if helicity is preserved, amplitude modification, and the wave is represented by Bessel function of zero order. Some aspects of this theory are discussed with reference to gravitational waves only. (author)

  5. Turbulence beneath finite amplitude water waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beya, J.F. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Oceanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valparaiso (Chile); The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Peirson, W.L. [The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Banner, M.L. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Babanin and Haus (J Phys Oceanogr 39:2675-2679, 2009) recently presented evidence of near-surface turbulence generated below steep non-breaking deep-water waves. They proposed a threshold wave parameter a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 3,000 for the spontaneous occurrence of turbulence beneath surface waves. This is in contrast to conventional understanding that irrotational wave theories provide a good approximation of non-wind-forced wave behaviour as validated by classical experiments. Many laboratory wave experiments were carried out in the early 1960s (e.g. Wiegel 1964). In those experiments, no evidence of turbulence was reported, and steep waves behaved as predicted by the high-order irrotational wave theories within the accuracy of the theories and experimental techniques at the time. This contribution describes flow visualisation experiments for steep non-breaking waves using conventional dye techniques in the wave boundary layer extending above the wave trough level. The measurements showed no evidence of turbulent mixing up to a value of a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 7,000 at which breaking commenced in these experiments. These present findings are in accord with the conventional understandings of wave behaviour. (orig.)

  6. Resolution Enhancement of Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope Using Transverse Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, D. S.; Park, J. S.; Kim, Y. H.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Science the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM image in the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode

  7. Full wave simulations of lower hybrid wave propagation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J. C.; Bonoli, P. T.; Phillips, C. K.; Valeo, E.; Harvey, R. W.

    2009-01-01

    Lower hybrid (LH) waves have the attractive property of damping strongly via electron Landau resonance on relatively fast tail electrons at (2.5-3)xv te , where v te ≡ (2T e /m e ) 1/2 is the electron thermal speed. Consequently these waves are well-suited to driving current in the plasma periphery where the electron temperature is lower, making LH current drive (LHCD) a promising technique for off-axis (r/a≥0.60) current profile control in reactor grade plasmas. Established techniques for computing wave propagation and absorption use WKB expansions with non-Maxwellian self-consistent distributions.In typical plasma conditions with electron densities of several 10 19 m -3 and toroidal magnetic fields strengths of 4 Telsa, the perpendicular wavelength is of the order of 1 mm and the parallel wavelength is of the order of 1 cm. Even in a relatively small device such as Alcator C-Mod with a minor radius of 22 cm, the number of wavelengths that must be resolved requires large amounts of computational resources for the full wave treatment. These requirements are met with a massively parallel version of the TORIC full wave code that has been adapted specifically for the simulation of LH waves [J. C. Wright, et al., Commun. Comput. Phys., 4, 545 (2008), J. C. Wright, et al., Phys. Plasmas 16 July (2009)]. This model accurately represents the effects of focusing and diffraction that occur in LH propagation. It is also coupled with a Fokker-Planck solver, CQL3D, to provide self-consistent distribution functions for the plasma dielectric as well as a synthetic hard X-ray (HXR) diagnostic for direct comparisons with experimental measurements of LH waves.The wave solutions from the TORIC-LH zero FLR model will be compared to the results from ray tracing from the GENRAY/CQL3D code via the synthetic HXR diagnostic and power deposition.

  8. Anisotropic non-Fermi liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Shouvik; Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-11-01

    We study non-Fermi-liquid states that arise at the quantum critical points associated with the spin density wave (SDW) and charge density wave (CDW) transitions in metals with twofold rotational symmetry. We use the dimensional regularization scheme, where a one-dimensional Fermi surface is embedded in (3 -ɛ ) -dimensional momentum space. In three dimensions, quasilocal marginal Fermi liquids arise both at the SDW and CDW critical points: the speed of the collective mode along the ordering wave vector is logarithmically renormalized to zero compared to that of Fermi velocity. Below three dimensions, however, the SDW and CDW critical points exhibit drastically different behaviors. At the SDW critical point, a stable anisotropic non-Fermi-liquid state is realized for small ɛ , where not only time but also different spatial coordinates develop distinct anomalous dimensions. The non-Fermi liquid exhibits an emergent algebraic nesting as the patches of Fermi surface are deformed into a universal power-law shape near the hot spots. Due to the anisotropic scaling, the energy of incoherent spin fluctuations disperse with different power laws in different momentum directions. At the CDW critical point, on the other hand, the perturbative expansion breaks down immediately below three dimensions as the interaction renormalizes the speed of charge fluctuations to zero within a finite renormalization group scale through a two-loop effect. The difference originates from the fact that the vertex correction antiscreens the coupling at the SDW critical point whereas it screens at the CDW critical point.

  9. The gravitational-wave memory effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear memory effect is a slowly growing, non-oscillatory contribution to the gravitational-wave amplitude. It originates from gravitational waves that are sourced by the previously emitted waves. In an ideal gravitational-wave interferometer a gravitational wave with memory causes a permanent displacement of the test masses that persists after the wave has passed. Surprisingly, the nonlinear memory affects the signal amplitude starting at leading (Newtonian-quadrupole) order. Despite this fact, the nonlinear memory is not easily extracted from current numerical relativity simulations. After reviewing the linear and nonlinear memory I summarize some recent work, including (1) computations of the memory contribution to the inspiral waveform amplitude (thus completing the waveform to third post-Newtonian order); (2) the first calculations of the nonlinear memory that include all phases of binary black hole coalescence (inspiral, merger, ringdown); and (3) realistic estimates of the detectability of the memory with LISA.

  10. Short-Term Wave Forecasting with AR models in Real-Time Optimal Control of Wave Energy Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, Francesco; Ringwood, John

    2010-01-01

    Time domain control of wave energy converters requires knowledge of future incident wave elevation in order to approach conditions for optimal energy extraction. Autoregressive models revealed to be a promising approach to the prediction of future values of the wave elevation only from its past history. Results on real wave observations from different ocean locations show that AR models allow to achieve very good predictions for more than one wave period in the future if ...

  11. Harmonic surface wave propagation in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivarova, A.; Stoychev, T.

    1980-01-01

    Second order harmonic surface waves generated by one fundamental high-frequency surface wave are investigated experimentally in gas discharge plasma. Two types of harmonic waves of equal frequency, associated with the linear dispersion relation and the synchronism conditions relatively propagate. The experimental conditions and the different space damping rates of the waves ensure the existence of different spatial regions (consecutively arranged along the plasma column) of a dominant propagation of each one of these two waves. Experimental data are obtained both for the wavenumbers and the space damping rates by relatively precise methods for wave investigations such as the methods of time-space diagrams and of phase shift measurements. The results are explained by the theoretical model for nonlinear mixing of dispersive waves. (author)

  12. β1-Integrin Expression in the Rheumatoid Synovial-Pannus Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Hirata, Soichiro; Isobe, Takashi; Nishibayashi, Yasurou; Kubo, Hitoshi; Nannbae, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Natsuko; Andoh, Yoshihiro

    1994-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of synovial pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis, using an immunohistochemical staining technique with monoclonal antibodies against adhesion molecules, anti-CDw49a (VLA-1), CDw49b (VLA-2), CDw49c (VLA-3), CDw49d (VLA-4) and CDw49e (VLA-5), the pattern of distribution of these molecules at the rheumatoid synovial cartilage junction has been investigated. Twelve samples of rheumatoid articular cartilage covered with pannus were examined. Treatment with...

  13. Traveling waves and conservation laws for highly nonlinear wave equations modeling Hertz chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedborski, Michelle; Anco, Stephen C.

    2017-09-01

    A highly nonlinear, fourth-order wave equation that models the continuum theory of long wavelength pulses in weakly compressed, homogeneous, discrete chains with a general power-law contact interaction is studied. For this wave equation, all solitary wave solutions and all nonlinear periodic wave solutions, along with all conservation laws, are derived. The solutions are explicitly parameterized in terms of the asymptotic value of the wave amplitude in the case of solitary waves and the peak of the wave amplitude in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. All cases in which the solution expressions can be stated in an explicit analytic form using elementary functions are worked out. In these cases, explicit expressions for the total energy and total momentum for all solutions are obtained as well. The derivation of the solutions uses the conservation laws combined with an energy analysis argument to reduce the wave equation directly to a separable first-order differential equation that determines the wave amplitude in terms of the traveling wave variable. This method can be applied more generally to other highly nonlinear wave equations.

  14. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  15. Models of wave memory

    CERN Document Server

    Kashchenko, Serguey

    2015-01-01

    This monograph examines in detail models of neural systems described by delay-differential equations. Each element of the medium (neuron) is an oscillator that generates, in standalone mode, short impulses also known as spikes. The book discusses models of synaptic interaction between neurons, which lead to complex oscillatory modes in the system. In addition, it presents a solution to the problem of choosing the parameters of interaction in order to obtain attractors with predetermined structure. These attractors are represented as images encoded in the form of autowaves (wave memory). The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but it will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. Holographic magnetisation density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica & Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two U(1) gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the U(1)’s. Below a critical temperature the system’s magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.

  17. Gravitational Waves - New Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biesiada, M.

    1999-01-01

    Laser interferometric experiments planned for 2002 will open up a new window onto the Universe. The first part of the paper gives a brief intuitive introduction to gravity waves, detection techniques and enumeration of main astrophysical sources and frequency bands to which they contribute. Then two more specific issues are discussed concerning cosmological perspectives of gravity waves detection. First one is the problem of gravitational lensing of the signal from inspiralling NS-NS binaries. The magnitude of the so called magnification bias is estimated and found non-negligible for some quite realistic lens models, but strongly model-dependent. The second problem is connected with estimates of galactic and extragalactic parts of the stochastic background. The main conclusion from these two examples is that in so far as the cosmological payoff of gravitational wave detection would be high, we should substantially deepen our understanding of basic astrophysical properties of galaxies and their clusters (in terms of mass distribution) in order to draw clear cosmological conclusions. (author)

  18. Waves and Tsunami Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frashure, K. M.; Chen, R. F.; Stephen, R. A.; Bolmer, T.; Lavin, M.; Strohschneider, D.; Maichle, R.; Micozzi, N.; Cramer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Demonstrating wave processes quantitatively in the classroom using standard classroom tools (such as Slinkys and wave tanks) can be difficult. For example, waves often travel too fast for students to actually measure amplitude or wavelength. Also, when teaching propagating waves, reflections from the ends set up standing waves, which can confuse…

  19. Physics of interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Caltech-MIT joint LIGO project is operating three long-baseline interferometers (one of 2 km and two of 4 km) in order to unambiguously measure the infinitesimal displacements of isolated test masses which convey the signature of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. An interferometric gravitational wave ...

  20. Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Dunkerton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i a region of

  1. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market...... employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...... in explaining the determinants of order aggressiveness. Overall, our empirical results broadly confirm theoretical predictions on limit order book trading. However, we also find evidence for behavior that can be attributed to particular liquidity and volatility effects...

  2. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    wavelength, they are called shallow water waves. In the ... Deep and intermediate water waves are dispersive as the velocity of these depends on wavelength. This is not the ..... generation processes, the finite amplitude wave theories are very ...

  3. In Pursuit of Internal Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Orders of magnitude larger than surface waves, and so powerful that their generation impacts the lunar orbit, internal waves, propagating disturbances of a density-stratified fluid, are ubiquitous throughout the ocean and atmosphere. Following the discovery of the phenomenon of ``dead water'' by early Arctic explorers and the classic laboratory visualizations of the curious St. Andrew's Cross internal wave pattern, there has been a resurgence of interest in internal waves, inspired by their pivotal roles in local environmental and global climate processes, and their profound impact on ocean and aerospace engineering. We detail our widespread pursuit of internal waves through theoretical modeling, laboratory experiments and field studies, from the Pacific Ocean one thousand miles north and south of Hawaii, to the South China Sea, and on to the Arctic Ocean. We also describe our recent expedition to surf the most striking internal wave phenomenon of them all: the Morning Glory cloud in remote Northwest Australia. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through a CAREER Grant OCE-064559 and through Grants OCE-1129757 and OCE-1357434, and by the Office of Naval Research through Grants N00014-09-1-0282, N00014-08-1-0390 and N00014-05-1-0575.

  4. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    and transmission characteristics are approximated to functions of wave height, period and obliquity. Their order of magnitude are 20% and 80%, respectively. It is imagined that an array of DEXA is deployed in front of Marina di Ravenna beach (IT), a highly touristic site of the Adriatic Coast. Based on the CERC......Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...

  5. CDW applications such as recycled aggregates in construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaejos, P; Ainchil, J.

    2010-01-01

    Under the name of construction and demolition waste includes a wide range of materials, among which are ceramic products, waste concrete, asphalt material and to a lesser extent other components that are considered unwanted contaminants such as wood, glass, plastics, etc., commonly known as rubble.

  6. Atom Wave Interferometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchard, David

    1999-01-01

    Matter wave interferometers, in which de Broglie waves are coherently split and then recombined to produce interference fringes, have opened exciting new possibilities for precision and fundamental...

  7. Trend analysis of the wave storminess: the wave direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Prat, M.; Sierra, J. P.; Mösso, C.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2009-09-01

    directionality. It is based on 44 year hindcast model data (1958-2001) of the HIPOCAS project, enabling to work with a longer time series compared to the existing measured ones. 41 nodes of this database are used, containing 3 hourly simulated data of significant wave height and wave direction, among other parameters. For storm definition, the Peak Over Threshold (POT) method is used with some additional duration requirements in order to analyse statistically independent events (Mendoza & Jiménez, 2006). Including both wave height and storm duration, the wave storminess is characterised by the energy content (Mendoza & Jiménez, 2004), being in turn log-transformed because of its positive scale. Separately, the wave directionality itself is analysed in terms of different sectors and approaching their probability of occurrence by counting events and using Bayesian inference (Agresti, 2002). Therefore, the original data is transformed into compositional data and, before performing the trend analysis, the isometric logratio (ilr) transformation (Egozcue et al., 2003) is done. In general, the trend analysis methodology consists in two steps: 1) trend detection and 2) trend quantification. For 1) the Mann Kendall test is used in order to identify the nodes with significant trend. For these selected nodes, the trend quantification is done, comparing two methods: 1) a simple linear regression analysis complemented with the bootstrap technique and 2) a Bayesian analysis, assuming normally distributed data with linearly increasing mean. Preliminary results show no significant trend for both annual mean and maximum energy content except for some nodes located to the Northern Catalan coast. Regarding the wave direction (but not only considering stormy conditions) there is a tendency of North direction to decrease whereas South and Southeast direction seems to increase.

  8. Nonlinear Electrostatic Wave Equations for Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K.B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, Hans

    1984-01-01

    The lowest order kinetic effects are included in the equations for nonlinear electrostatic electron waves in a magnetized plasma. The modifications of the authors' previous analysis based on a fluid model are discussed.......The lowest order kinetic effects are included in the equations for nonlinear electrostatic electron waves in a magnetized plasma. The modifications of the authors' previous analysis based on a fluid model are discussed....

  9. Shock waves in gas and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, K.

    1996-01-01

    A shock wave is a discontinuous surface that connects supersonic flow with subsonic flow. After a shock wave, flow velocity is reduced, and pressure and temperature increase; entropy especially increases across a shock wave. Therefore, flow is in nonequilibrium, and irreversible processes occur inside the shock layer. The thickness of a shock wave in neutral gas is of the order of the mean free path of the fluid particle. A shock wave also appears in magnetized plasma. Provided that when the plasma flow is parallel to the magnetic field, a shock wave appears if the governing equation for velocity potential is in hyperbolic type in relation with the Mach number and the Alfven number. When the flow is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the Maxwell stress, in addition to the pressure, plays a role in the shock wave in plasma. When the plasma temperature is so high, as the plasma becomes collision-free, another type of shock wave appears. In a collision-free shock wave, gyromotions of electrons around the magnetic field lines cause the shock formation instead of collisions in a collision-dominant plasma or neutral gas. Regardless of a collision-dominant or collision-free shock wave, the fluid that passes through the shock wave is heated in addition to being compressed. In inertial confinement fusion, the fuel must be compressed. Really, implosion motion performs fuel compression. A shock wave, appearing in the process of implosion, compresses the fuel. The shock wave, however, heats the fuel more intensively, and it makes it difficult to compress the fuel further because high temperatures invite high pressure. Adiabatic compression of the fuel is the desired result during the implosion, without the formation of a shock wave. (Author)

  10. Quasi-regular impurity distribution driven by charge-density wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldea, I.; Badescu, M.

    1991-09-01

    The displacive motion of the impurity distribution immersed into the one-dimensional system has recently been studied in detail as one kind of quasi-regularity driven by CDW. As a further investigation of this problem we develop here a microscopical model for a different kind of quasi-regular impurity distribution driven by CDW, consisting of the modulation in the probability of occupied sites. The dependence on impurity concentration and temperature of relevant CDW quantities is obtained. Data reported in the quasi-1D materials NbSe 3 and Ta 2 NiSe 7 (particularly, thermal hysteresis effects at CDW transition) are interpreted in the framework of the present model. Possible similarities to other physical systems are also suggested. (author). 38 refs, 7 figs

  11. Radio wave propagation and parabolic equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Apaydin, Gokhan

    2018-01-01

    A thorough understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation is fundamental to the development of sophisticated communication and detection technologies. The powerful numerical methods described in this book represent a major step forward in our ability to accurately model electromagnetic wave propagation in order to establish and maintain reliable communication links, to detect targets in radar systems, and to maintain robust mobile phone and broadcasting networks. The first new book on guided wave propagation modeling and simulation to appear in nearly two decades, Radio Wave Propagation and Parabolic Equation Modeling addresses the fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation generally, with a specific focus on radio wave propagation through various media. The authors explore an array of new applications, and detail various v rtual electromagnetic tools for solving several frequent electromagnetic propagation problems. All of the methods described are presented within the context of real-world scenari...

  12. MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.

  13. High frequency ion sound waves associated with Langmuir waves in type III radio burst source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short wavelength ion sound waves (2-4kHz are detected in association with the Langmuir waves (~15-30kHz in the source regions of several local type III radio bursts. They are most probably not due to any resonant wave-wave interactions such as the electrostatic decay instability because their wavelengths are much shorter than those of Langmuir waves. The Langmuir waves occur as coherent field structures with peak intensities exceeding the Langmuir collapse thresholds. Their scale sizes are of the order of the wavelength of an ion sound wave. These Langmuir wave field characteristics indicate that the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are most probably generated during the thermalization of the burnt-out cavitons left behind by the Langmuir collapse. Moreover, the peak intensities of the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are comparable to the expected intensities of those ion sound waves radiated by the burnt-out cavitons. However, the speeds of the electron beams derived from the frequency drift of type III radio bursts are too slow to satisfy the needed adiabatic ion approximation. Therefore, some non-linear process such as the induced scattering on thermal ions most probably pumps the beam excited Langmuir waves towards the lower wavenumbers, where the adiabatic ion approximation is justified.

  14. Primordial gravitational waves and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Lawrence M; Dodelson, Scott; Meyer, Stephan

    2010-05-21

    The observation of primordial gravitational waves could provide a new and unique window on the earliest moments in the history of the universe and on possible new physics at energies many orders of magnitude beyond those accessible at particle accelerators. Such waves might be detectable soon, in current or planned satellite experiments that will probe for characteristic imprints in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, or later with direct space-based interferometers. A positive detection could provide definitive evidence for inflation in the early universe and would constrain new physics from the grand unification scale to the Planck scale.

  15. Ocean wave spectral estimation by reduced order arma algorithms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Witz, J.A.; Mandal, S.; Lyons, G.J.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name 11_Int_Conf_Offshore_Mech_Arctic_Eng_Proc_1992_1_17.pdf.txt stream_source_info 11_Int_Conf_Offshore_Mech_Arctic_Eng_Proc_1992_1_17.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859...

  16. Directional wave measurements off Navinal, Gulf of Kachchh, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; KrishnaKumar, V.; Suryanarayana, A.; Antony, M.K.; Swamy, G.N.

    .54 m respectively. Though large wave heights of the order of 3 to 4m exist elsewhere along the west coast of India during these seasons, Navinal seems to be a less wave active zone because of its geographical location. Maximum wave energy is centred...

  17. WAVE-E: The WAter Vapour European-Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-LLuva, David; Deiml, Michael; Pavesi, Sara

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes in the Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) have been increasingly recognized to severely impact surface climate and high-impact weather phenomena. Weakened stratospheric circumpolar jets have been linked to worldwide extreme temperature and high-precipitation events, while anomalously strong stratospheric jets can lead to an increase in surface winds and tropical cyclone intensity. Moreover, stratospheric water vapor has been identified as an important forcing for global decadal surface climate change. In the past years, operational weather forecast and climate models have adapted a high vertical resolution in the UTLS region in order to capture the dynamical processes occurring in this highly stratified region. However, there is an evident lack of available measurements in the UTLS region to consistently support these models and further improve process understanding. Consequently, both the IPCC fifth assessment report and the ESA-GEWEX report 'Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science Priorities' have identified an urgent need for long-term observations and improved process understanding in the UTLS region. To close this gap, the authors propose the 'WAter Vapour European - Explorer' (WAVE-E) space mission, whose primary goal is to monitor water vapor in the UTLS at 1 km vertical, 25 km horizontal and sub-daily temporal resolution. WAVE-E consists of three quasi-identical small ( 500 kg) satellites (WAVE-E 1-3) in a constellation of Sun-Synchronous Low Earth Orbits, each carrying a limb sounding and cross-track scanning mid-infrared passive spectrometer (824 cm-1 to 829 cm-1). The core of the instruments builds a monolithic, field-widened type of Michelson interferometer without any moving parts, rendering it rigid and fault tolerant. Synergistic use of WAVE-E and MetOp-NG operational satellites is identified, such that a data fusion algorithm could provide water vapour profiles from the

  18. Numerical Investigation of Three-dimensional Instability of Standing Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2002-11-01

    We study the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing waves under the influence of gravity using the transition matrix method. For accurate calculation of the transition matrices, we apply an efficient high-order spectral element method for nonlinear wave dynamics in complex domain. We consider two types of standing waves: (a) plane standing waves; and (b) standing waves in a circular tank. For the former, in addition to the confirmation of the side-band-like instability, we find a new three-dimensional instability for arbitrary base standing waves. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique standing wave, with an arbitrary angle relative to the base flow, whose frequency is approximately equal to that of the base standing wave. Based on direct simulations, we confirm such a three-dimensional instability and show the occurrence of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence phenomenon during nonlinear evolution. For the latter, we find that beyond a threshold wave steepness, the standing wave with frequency Ω becomes unstable to a small three-dimensional disturbance, which contains two dominant standing-wave components with frequencies ω1 and ω_2, provided that 2Ω ω1 + ω_2. The threshold wave steepness is found to decrease/increase as the radial/azimuthal wavenumber of the base standing wave increases. We show that the instability of standing waves in rectangular and circular tanks is caused by third-order quartet resonances between base flow and disturbance.

  19. INTERFERENCE FRINGES OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES AROUND SUNSPOTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dean-Yi; Zhao Hui; Yang, Ming-Hsu; Liang, Zhi-Chao, E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-20

    Solar acoustic waves are scattered by a sunspot due to the interaction between the acoustic waves and the sunspot. The sunspot, excited by the incident wave, generates the scattered wave. The scattered wave is added to the incident wave to form the total wave around the sunspot. The interference fringes between the scattered wave and the incident wave are visible in the intensity of the total wave because the coherent time of the incident wave is of the order of a wave period. The strength of the interference fringes anti-correlates with the width of temporal spectra of the incident wave. The separation between neighboring fringes increases with the incident wavelength and the sunspot size. The strength of the fringes increases with the radial order n of the incident wave from n = 0 to n = 2, and then decreases from n = 2 to n = 5. The interference fringes play a role analogous to holograms in optics. This study suggests the feasibility of using the interference fringes to reconstruct the scattered wavefields of the sunspot, although the quality of the reconstructed wavefields is sensitive to the noise and errors in the interference fringes.

  20. E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time

  1. Financial Rogue Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya

    2010-01-01

    We analytically give the financial rogue waves in the nonlinear option pricing model due to Ivancevic, which is nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes model. These rogue wave solutions may he used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for rogue wave phenomenon in financial markets and related fields.

  2. Hierarchical wave functions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dingping.

    1997-11-01

    We study the hierarchical wave functions on a sphere and on a torus. We simplify some wave functions on a sphere or a torus using the analytic properties of wave functions. The open question, the construction of the wave function for quasi electron excitation on a torus, is also solved in this paper. (author)

  3. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  4. Single electron capture differential cross section in H+ + He collisions at intermediate and high collision energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abufager, P N; Fainstein, P D; MartInez, A E; Rivarola, R D

    2005-01-01

    The generalized continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS II) approximation is employed to study differential cross sections (DCS) for single electron capture in H + + He collisions at intermediate and high energies. Present results are compared with theoretical calculations obtained using the previous CDW-EIS formulation in order to show the importance of the description of the bound and continuum target states in the entrance and exit channels, respectively. Both DCS are also shown together with other theoretical results and with experimental data

  5. Thermoelectric power of TTF[Ni(dmit){sub 2}]{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaddour, Wafa, E-mail: wafa.kaddour@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR8502-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 510, Orsay F-91405 (France); Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Campus Universitaire, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Auban-Senzier, Pascale, E-mail: senzier@lps.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR8502-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 510, Orsay F-91405 (France); Pasquier, Claude, E-mail: pasquier@lps.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR8502-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 510, Orsay F-91405 (France); Valade, Lydie, E-mail: valade@lcc-toulouse.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2012-06-01

    The 1D organic salt TTF[Ni(dmit){sub 2}]{sub 2} becomes superconductor with T{sub c}=1.6 K under an applied hydrostatic pressure of 7 kbar. Structural determinations in this system lead us to suspect that superconductivity (SC) coexists with a charge density wave (CDW) instability at low pressure. In order to better understand how SC emerge from a CDW and to revisit the pressure-temperature phase diagram of the TTF[Ni(dmit){sub 2}]{sub 2} we performed transport and thermoelectric power measurements under pressure.

  6. Extreme Wave Analysis by Integrating Model and Wave Buoy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Dentale

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the extreme values of significant wave height (HS, generally described by the HS return period TR function HS(TR and by its confidence intervals, is a necessity in many branches of coastal science and engineering. The availability of indirect wave data generated by global and regional wind and wave model chains have brought radical changes to the estimation procedures of such probability distribution—weather and wave modeling systems are routinely run all over the world, and HS time series for each grid point are produced and published after assimilation (analysis of the ground truth. However, while the sources of such indirect data are numerous, and generally of good quality, many aspects of their procedures are hidden to the users, who cannot evaluate the reliability and the limits of the HS(TR deriving from such data. In order to provide a simple engineering tool to evaluate the probability of extreme sea-states as well as the quality of such estimates, we propose here a procedure based on integrating HS time series generated by model chains with those recorded by wave buoys in the same area.

  7. Wave-particle dualism in matter wave interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron interferometry is a unique tool for investigations in the field of particle-wave dualism because massive elementary particles behave like waves within the interferometer. The invention of perfect crystal neutron interferometers providing widely separated coherent beams stimulated a great variety of experiments with matter waves in the field of basic quantum mechanics. The phase of the spatial and spinor wave function become a measurable quantity and can be influenced individually. High degrees of coherence and high order interferences have been observed by this technique. The 4π-symmetry of a spinor wave function and the mutual modulation of nuclear and magnetic phase shifts have been measured in the past. Recent experiments dealt with polarized neutron beams, which are handled to realize the spin-superposition of two oppositionally polarized subbeams resulting in final polarization perpendicular to both initial beam polarizations. The different action on the coherent beams of static and dynamic flippers have been visualized. Monolithic multicrystal arrangements in Laue position can also be used to achieve an extremely high energy (10 -9 eV) or angular resolution (0.001 sec of arc). This feature is based on the Pendelloesung interference within the perfect crystal. A transverse coherence length up to 6.5 mm is deduced from single slit diffraction experiments. (Auth.)

  8. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  9. Ocean waves monitor system by inland microseisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. C.; Bouchette, F.; Chang, E. T. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Microseisms are continuous ground oscillations which have been wildly introduced for decades. It is well known that the microseismicity in the frequency band from 0.05 to about 1 Hz partly results from ocean waves, which has been first explained by Longuet-Higgins [1950]. The generation mechanism for such a microseismicity is based on nonlinear wave-wave interactions which drive pressure pulses within the seafloor. The resulting ground pressure fluctuations yield ground oscillations at a double frequency (DF) with respect to that of current ocean waves. In order to understand the characteristics of DF microseisms associated with different wave sources, we aim to analyze and interpret the spectra of DF microseisms by using the simple spectrum method [Rabinovich, 1997] at various inland seismometer along the Taiwan coast. This is the first monitoring system of ocean waves observed by inland seismometers in Taiwan. The method is applied to identify wave sources by estimating the spectral ratios of wave induced microseisms associated with local winds and typhoons to background spectra. Microseism amplitudes above 0.2 Hz show a good correlation with wind-driven waves near the coast. Comparison of microseism band between 0.1 and 0.2 Hz with buoys in the deep sea shows a strong correlation of seismic amplitude with storm generated waves, implying that such energy portion originates in remote regions. Results indicate that microseisms observed at inland sites can be a potential tool for the tracking of typhoon displacements and the monitoring of extreme ocean waves in real time. Real- time Microseism-Ocean Waves Monitoring Website (http://mwave.droppages.com/) Reference Rabinovich, A. B. (1997) "Spectral analysis of tsunami waves: Separation of source and topography effects," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 102, p. 12,663-12,676. Longuet-Higgins, M.S. (1950) "A theory of origin of microseisms," Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A. 243, pp. 1-35.

  10. Up-Wave and Autoregressive Methods for Short-Term Wave Forecasting for an Oscillating Water Column

    OpenAIRE

    Paparella, Francesco; Monk, Kieran; Winands, Victor; Lopes, M.F.P.; Conley, Daniel; Ringwood, John

    2015-01-01

    The real-time control of wave energy converters (WECs) requires the prediction of the wave elevation at the location of the device in order to maximize the power extracted from the waves. One possibility is to predict the future wave elevation by combining its past history with the spatial information coming from a sensor which measures the free surface elevation up-wave of the WEC. As an application example, this paper focuses on the prediction of the wave elevation inside the chamber of the...

  11. Wave disc engine apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco

    2018-01-02

    A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.

  12. Photon wave function

    OpenAIRE

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2005-01-01

    Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, t...

  13. Acoustic wave focusing in an ellipsoidal reflector for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottati, Itzhak; Eidelman, Shmuel

    1993-07-01

    Simulations of acoustic wave focusing in an ellipsoidal reflector for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) are presented. The simulations are done on a structured/unstructured grid with a modified Tait equation of state for water. The Euler equations are solved by applying a second-order Godunov method. The computed results compare very well with the experimental results.

  14. Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-11-19

    The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion.

  15. Intrinsic cylindrical and spherical waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlow, I K

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic waveforms associated with cylindrical and spherical Bessel functions are obtained by eliminating the factors responsible for the inverse radius and inverse square radius laws of wave power per unit area of wavefront. The resulting expressions are Riccati-Bessel functions for both cases and these can be written in terms of amplitude and phase functions of order v and wave variable z. When z is real, it is shown that a spatial phase angle of the intrinsic wave can be defined and this, together with its amplitude function, is systematically investigated for a range of fixed orders and varying z. The derivatives of Riccati-Bessel functions are also examined. All the component functions exhibit different behaviour in the near field depending on the order being less than, equal to or greater than 1/2. Plots of the phase angle can be used to display the locations of the zeros of the general Riccati-Bessel functions and lead to new relations concerning the ordering of the real zeros of Bessel functions and the occurrence of multiple zeros when the argument of the Bessel function is fixed

  16. Further Development of SNL‐Swan, a Validated Wave Energy Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Aaron; Ruehl, Kelley; Chartrand, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Commercialization of wave energy will lead to the necessary deployment of Wave Energy Converters (WECs) in arrays, or wave farms. In order for projects in the United States to be approved, regulatory agencies must perform an Environmental Assessment proving little to no environmental impact. However, little is known about the environmental impacts of such wave farms. As a result, the environmental impacts of wave farms are largely determined by numerical wave models capable of modeling large ...

  17. Ionosphere Waves Service - A demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespon, François

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the FP7 POPDAT project the Ionosphere Waves Service was developed by ionosphere experts to answer several questions: How make the old ionosphere missions more valuable? How provide scientific community with a new insight on wave processes that take place in the ionosphere? The answer is a unique data mining service accessing a collection of topical catalogues that characterize a huge number of Atmospheric Gravity Waves, Travelling Ionosphere Disturbances and Whistlers events. The Ionosphere Waves Service regroups databases of specific events extracted by experts from a ten of ionosphere missions which end users can access by applying specific searches and by using statistical analysis modules for their domain of interest. The scientific applications covered by the IWS are relative to earthquake precursors, ionosphere climatology, geomagnetic storms, troposphere-ionosphere energy transfer, and trans-ionosphere link perturbations. In this presentation we propose to detail the service design, the hardware and software architecture, and the service functions. The service interface and capabilities will be the focus of a demonstration in order to help potential end-users for their first access to the Ionosphere Waves Service portal. This work is made with the support of FP7 grant # 263240.

  18. Time ordering in multi-electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J H; Godunov, A L; Shakov, Kh Kh; Shipakov, V A; Merabet, H; Bruch, R; Hanni, J

    2003-01-01

    Time ordering of interactions in dynamic quantum multi-electron systems provides a constraint that interconnects the time evolution of different electrons. In energy space, time ordering appears as the principal value contribution from the Green function, which corresponds to the asymptotic condition that specifies whether the system has outgoing (or possibly incoming) scattered waves. We report evidence of effects of time correlation found by comparing calculations to recent spectropolarimetric data

  19. Time ordering in multi-electron dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, J H [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States); Godunov, A L [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States); Shakov, Kh Kh [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States); Shipakov, V A [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Merabet, H [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Bruch, R [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Hanni, J [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2003-01-28

    Time ordering of interactions in dynamic quantum multi-electron systems provides a constraint that interconnects the time evolution of different electrons. In energy space, time ordering appears as the principal value contribution from the Green function, which corresponds to the asymptotic condition that specifies whether the system has outgoing (or possibly incoming) scattered waves. We report evidence of effects of time correlation found by comparing calculations to recent spectropolarimetric data.

  20. Generation of Langmuir wave supercontinuum by phase-preserving equilibration of plasmons with irreversible wave-particle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiichirou, Kawamori

    2018-04-01

    We report the observation of supercontinuum of Langmuir plasma waves, that exhibits broad power spectrum having significant spatio-temporal coherence grown from a monochromatic seed-wave, in one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The Langmuir wave supercontinuum (LWSC) is formed when the seed wave excites side-band fields efficiently by the modulational instabilities. Its identification is achieved by the use of the tricoherence analysis, which detects four wave mixings (FWMs) of plasmons (plasma wave quanta), and evaluation of the first order coherence, which is a measure of temporal coherence, of the wave electric fields. The irreversible evolution to the coherent LWSC from the seed wave is realized by the wave-particle interactions causing stochastic electron motions in the phase space and the coherence of LWSC is maintained by the phase-preserving FWMs of plasmons. The LWSC corresponds to a quasi Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal mode.