Stochastic Procedures for Extreme Wave Load Predictions- Wave Bending Moment in Ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2009-01-01
A discussion of useful stochastic procedures for stochastic wave load problems is given, covering the range from slightly linear to strongly non-linear (bifurcation) problems. The methods are: Hermite transformation, Critical wave episodes and the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). The proced......). The procedures will be illustrated by results for the extreme vertical wave bending moment in ships....
Estimation of Ship Long-term Wave-induced Bending Moment using Closed-Form Expressions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.
2002-01-01
A semi-analytical approach is used to derive frequency response functions and standard deviations for the wave-induced bending moment amidships for mono-hull ships. The results are given as closed-form expressions and the required input information for the procedure is restricted to the main......-empirical closed-form expression for the skewness. The effect of whipping is included by assuming that whipping and wave-induced responses are conditionally independent given Hs. The procedure is simple and can be used to make quick estimates of the design wave bending moment at the conceptual design phase...
On the Effect of Green Water on Deck on the Wave Bending Moment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Xia, Jinzhu
1998-01-01
and a momentum term, using an effective relative motion calibrated with the model tests, model the green water load. The resulting loads are of the same magnitude as the slamming loads. The results show only a marginal influence of the green water load on the maximum wave bending moment, although the time signal...
Extreme value prediction of the wave-induced vertical bending moment in large container ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2015-01-01
increase the extreme hull girder response significantly. Focus in the present paper is on the influence of the hull girder flexibility on the extreme response amidships, namely the wave-induced vertical bending moment (VBM) in hogging, and the prediction of the extreme value of the same. The analysis...... in the present paper is based on time series of full scale measurements from three large container ships of 8600, 9400 and 14000 TEU. When carrying out the extreme value estimation the peak-over-threshold (POT) method combined with an appropriate extreme value distribution is applied. The choice of a proper...... threshold level as well as the statistical correlation between clustered peaks influence the extreme value prediction and are taken into consideration in the present paper....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2012-01-01
Currently, a number of very large container ships are being built and more are on order, and some concerns have been expressed about the importance of the reduced hull girder stiffness to the wave-induced loads. The main concern is related to the fatigue life, but also a possible increase...... in the global hull girder loads as consequence of the increased hull flexibility must be considered. This is especially so as the rules of the classification societies do not explicitly account for the effect of hull flexibility on the global loads. In the present paper an analysis has been carried out...... in the waves. Slamming forces are determined by a standard momentum formulation. The hull flexibility is modelled as a nonprismatic Timoshenko beam. Generally, good agreement with experimental results and more accurate numerical predictions has previously been obtained in a number of studies. The statistical...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deguchi, M; Takimoto, T; Kasuda, T; Tozawa, S [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-04-10
While high-speed ships are on a trend of increased speed, size and diversity, one of the most important items is a discussion on large high-speed ships with a total length of 100 m class on their longitudinal strength in waves. With such a background, a model ship intended of realizing a large high-speed was assumed, and verification of reliability in structural strength and establishment of a design method for this ship were intended. Therefore, oceanographic condition setting, design load setting, FEM analysis, and strength assessment were carried out. This paper reports the results of comparison with and consideration on conventional criteria and linear calculations, mainly the results of simulated calculations on non-linear hull movement/wave load which have been performed in discussing the loads. The result of the non-linear simulation is thought to have well simulated non-linearity characteristic to the ship. Conventional criteria which have been arranged on the record of use for small ships are considered impossible to be applied to large high-speed ships. Under such a situation, the simplified equations by Kaneko et al are judged effective in making an initial plan for this type of ship. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Estimates of plastic loads for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Nak Hyun; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae
2008-01-01
This paper provides a method to estimate plastic loads (defined by twice-elastic-slope) for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment, based on detailed 3-D FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Because closing bending moment is always lower than opening bending moment, the combination of in-plane closing bending and out-of-plane bending moment becomes the most significant case. Due to conservatism of each bending moments, the resultant moment provided by ASME B and PV code is unduly conservative. However, the concept of the resultant moment is still valid. In this paper, FE results show that the accurate solutions of bending moments provide better estimates of plastic loads of pipe bend under combined in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending moment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2009-01-01
A simple but rational procedure for prediction of extreme wave-induced hull girder bending moment is presented. The procedure takes into account main ship hull characteristics such as: length, breadth, draught, block coefficient, bow flare coefficient, forward speed and hull flexibility. The wave......-linear strip theory calculations and supplemented with new closed form results for the hogging bending moment. Focus is on the extreme hull girder hogging bending moment. Due to the few input parameters this procedure can be used to estimate the wave-induced bending moments at the conceptual design phase....... Another application area is for novel single hull ship types not presently covered by the rules of the classification societies. As one application example the container ship M/S Napoli is considered....
Bolted flanged connections subjected to longitudinal bending moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blach, A.E.
1992-01-01
Flanges in piping systems and also pressure vessel flanges on tall columns are often subjected to longitudinal bending moments of considerable magnitude, be it from thermal expansion stresses in piping systems or from wind or seismic loadings on tall vertical pressure vessels. Except for the ASME Code, Section III, Subsections NB, NC, and ND, other pressure vessel and piping codes do not contain design ASME Nuclear Power Plant Code (Section III), an empirical formula is given, expressing a longitudinal bending moment in bolted flanged connections in terms of an equivalent internal pressure to be added to the design pressure of the flange. In this paper, an attempt is made to analyse the stresses on flanges and bolting due to external bending moments and to compare flange thicknesses thus obtained with thicknesses required using the equivalent design pressure specified in Subsections NB, NC, and ND. A design method is proposed, based on analysis and experimental work, which may be suitable for flange bending moment analysis when the rules of the Nuclear Power Plant Code are not mandatory. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.
2003-01-01
(1993) and for green water loads the results from Buchner (1995) and Wang et al .(1998) are applied. The phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and the decay rate are derived mainly from published experimental results, Sikora, (1998). The results are given in closed-form expressions...
Bending Moment Decrease of Reinforced Concrete Beam Supported by Additional CFRP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mykolas Daugevičius
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The calculation method of reinforced concrete beam with additional CFRP composite is proposed in this article. This method estimates tangential angular concrete deformations in tensioned beam layers between steel and bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer. The horizontal slip of CFRP composite reduce beam bending moment capacity. An additional coefficient to reduce CFRP resultant force is necessary for better precision of bending moment capacity. Also, various calculation methods of bending moment capacity are considered. Article in Lithuanian
Bending Moment Calculations for Piles Based on the Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-xin Jie
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using the finite element analysis program ABAQUS, a series of calculations on a cantilever beam, pile, and sheet pile wall were made to investigate the bending moment computational methods. The analyses demonstrated that the shear locking is not significant for the passive pile embedded in soil. Therefore, higher-order elements are not always necessary in the computation. The number of grids across the pile section is important for bending moment calculated with stress and less significant for that calculated with displacement. Although computing bending moment with displacement requires fewer grid numbers across the pile section, it sometimes results in variation of the results. For displacement calculation, a pile row can be suitably represented by an equivalent sheet pile wall, whereas the resulting bending moments may be different. Calculated results of bending moment may differ greatly with different grid partitions and computational methods. Therefore, a comparison of results is necessary when performing the analysis.
Decagonal quasicrystal plate with elliptic holes subjected to out-of-plane bending moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Lian He, E-mail: nmglilianhe@163.com [College of Mathematics Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Hohhot 010021 (China); Liu, Guan Ting [College of Mathematics Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China)
2014-02-01
In the present paper, we consider only the ideal elastic behavior, neglecting the dissipation associated with the atomic rearrangements. Under these conditions, the decagonal quasicrystal plate bending problems have been discussed. The Stroh-like formalism for the bending theory of decagonal quasicrystal plate is developed. The analytical solutions for problems of decagonal quasicrystal plate with elliptic hole subjected to out-of-plane bending moments are obtained directly by using the forms. The resultant bending moments around the hole boundaries are also given explicitly. When the phonon–phason coupling is absent, the results reduce to the corresponding solutions for the isotropic elastic plates.
experimental and analytical comparison of torsion, bending moment
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
In structural analysis and design, the effects of torsion are usually neglected ... bending and torsion, using these codes and experimental work; and validates the ..... [7] Kharagpur, I. Structural Analysis: Civil Engineering. Course Material (Vol.
Limit moments for non circular cross-section (elliptical) pipe bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, J.
1977-01-01
A number of experiment studies have been reported or are underway which investigate limit moments applied to pipe bends. Some theoretical work is also available. However, most of the work has been confined to nominally circular cross-section bends and little account has been taken of the practical problem of manufacturing tolerances. Many methods of manufacture result in bends which are not circular in cross-section but have an oval or elliptical shape. The present paper extends previous analyses on circular bends to cater for initially elliptical cross-sections. The loading is primarily in plane bending but out of plane is also considered and several independent methods are presented. No previous information is known to the authors. Upper and lower bound limit moments are derived first of all from existing linear elastic analyses and secondly upper bound moments are derived via a plastic analogy from existing stationary creep results. It is also shown that the creep information on design factors for bends can be used to obtain a reasonable estimate of the complete moment/strain behaviour of a bend or indeed a system. (Auth.)
Metamaterials, from electromagnetic waves to water waves, bending waves and beyond
Dupont, G.
2015-08-04
We will review our recent work on metamaterials for different types of waves. Transposition of transform optics to water waves and bending waves on plates will be considered with potential applications of cloaking to water waves protection and anti-vibrating systems.
Stresses in a curved pipe subject to an in-plane bending moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofmann, E.; Heeschen, U.
1979-01-01
The design of the KWU-primary component supports is mainly defined by the loads of the postulated pipe breaks. To estimate the maximum loading of a component support it is necessary to know the maximum in-plane bending moment (opening and closing) that can be transmitted by a pipe bend. Another reason for such information is that the displacements and distortions of the components cause higher stresses in elbows than in straight pipes. With a detailed knowledge of the deformation characteristic of a pipe bend an integrity analysis could be done without an expensive plastic system analysis. With this purpose in mind experiments were performed with straight pipes and pipe bends of different dimensions subject to in-plane bending moments. The experimental results give the ratio between the maximum transmittable moment of a pipe bend to that of a straight pipe or, the distortion of the end cross-sections and the flattening of the elbow cross-section. An attempt is made to derive simple expressions for estimating the behaviour at pipe elbows. Parallel to the experiments calculations were done for the straight pipe and elbow with a finite difference code with plastic capabilities. The results of the experiment and calculation are compared with the formulas of the ASME-Code section III subjection NB. (orig.)
Theory of bending waves with applications to disk galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mark, J.W.K.
1982-01-01
A theory of bending waves is surveyed which provides an explanation for the required amplification of the warp in the Milky Way. It also provides for self-generated warps in isolated external galaxies. The shape of observed warps and partly their existence in isolated galaxies are indicative of substantial spheroidal components. The theory also provides a plausible explanation for the bending of the inner disk (<2 kpc) of the Milky Way
Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate
Farhat, Mohamed
2014-04-10
We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.
Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate
Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, P.-Y.; Bagci, Hakan; Enoch, S.; Guenneau, S.; Alù , A.
2014-01-01
We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.
Stress intensity factors of three parallel edge cracks under bending moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ismail, A E
2013-01-01
This paper reports the study of stress intensity factors (SIF) of three edge cracks in a finite plate under bending moments. The goal of this paper was to analyze the three edge crack interactions under such loading. Several studies can be found in literature discussing on mode I SIF. However, most of these studies obtained the SIFs using tensile force. Lack of SIF reported discussing on the SIFs obtained under bending moments. ANSYS finite element program was used to develop the finite element model where singular elements were used to model the cracks. Different crack geometries and parameters were utilized in order to characterize the SIFs. According to the present results, crack geometries played a significant role in determining the SIFs and consequently induced the crack interaction mechanisms
Analysis of Bending Waves in Phononic Crystal Beams with Defects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongqiang Guo
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Existing investigations on imperfect phononic crystal beams mainly concern periodic multi-span beams carrying either one or two channel waves with random or deterministic disorder in span-length. This paper studies the two channel bending waves in phononic crystal beams consisting of many phases of materials with defects introduced as one structural segment having different cross-sectional dimensions or material parameters. The method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM based on the Timoshenko beam theory, which can conduct high-frequency analysis, is extended for the theoretical analysis of dispersion and transmission of bending waves. The supercell technique and the Floquet–Bloch theorem are adopted for modeling the dispersion characteristics, and the whole finite structural model is used to calculate the transmission spectra. Experimental measurements and numerical calculations are provided to validate the displacement transmission obtained by the proposed MRRM, with the effect of damping on transmission spectra being concerned. The high-frequency calculation applicability of the proposed MRRM is also confirmed by comparing the present results with the corresponding ones either using the transfer matrix method (TMM or MRRM based on Euler—Bernoulli beam theory. The influences of defect size, defect form, and unit-cell number on the transmission spectra and the band structures are discussed. The drawn conclusions may be useful for designing or evaluating the defected phononic crystal beams in bending wave control. In addition, our conclusions are especially potential for identifying the defect location through bending wave signals.
Leak-before-break analysis of thermally aged nuclear pipe under different bending moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lv, Xuming; Li, Shilei; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Xitao [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Wang, Zhaoxi [CPI Nuclear Power Institute, Beijing (China); Xue, Fei [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou (China)
2015-10-15
Cast duplex stainless steels are susceptible to thermal aging during long-term service at temperatures ranging from 280°C to 450°C. To analyze the effect of thermal aging on leak-before-break (LBB) behavior, three-dimensional finite element analysis models were built for circumferentially cracked pipes. Based on the elastic–plastic fracture mechanics theory, the detectable leakage crack length calculation and J-integral stability assessment diagram approach were carried out under different bending moments. The LBB curves and LBB assessment diagrams for unaged and thermally aged pipes were constructed. The results show that the detectable leakage crack length for thermally aged pipes increases with increasing bending moments, whereas the critical crack length decreases. The ligament instability line and critical crack length line for thermally aged pipes move downward and to the left, respectively, and unsafe LBB assessment results will be produced if thermal aging is not considered. If the applied bending moment is increased, the degree of safety decreases in the LBB assessment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Valvo, Paolo S.; Sørensen, Bent F.; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack
2015-01-01
A theoretical model of the double cantilever beam tests with bending moments (DCB-UBM) is presented. The specimen is modelled as the assemblage of two laminated beams connected by a cohesive interface. It is assumed that the traction-separation laws – i.e. the relationships between the interfacial...... the cohesive law parameters from experiments. Experimental tests have been conducted on glass fibre reinforced specimens under pure mode I and II loading conditions. The predictions of the theoretical model turn out to be in very good agreement with the experimental results....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J. W.; Park, C. Y.; Kim, B. Y.
2000-01-01
This study proposed the local allowable wall thickness (LAWT) evaluation method for local wall thinned pipe subjected by internal pressure and bending moment. Also, LAWT was evaluated for simplified thinned pipe and the effect of axial extent of thinned area on LAWT was investigated. The results showed that LAWT predicted by present method was thinner, about 50%, than that evaluated by construction code and ASME Code Case N-597, while it was thicker, about 2 times, than that calculated by evaluation model based on pipe experiments. LAWT decreased with increasing axial extent of thinned area and was saturated above axial extent of pipe radius, which was a contrast to the results of ASME Code Case N-597 evaluation. The results of stress analysis with applied loading type indicated that the effect of axial extent of thinned area on LAWT was dependent on loading type considering in the evaluation. That is, the dependence of axial extent on LAWT is determined by magnitude of bending moment, and the contrary trend with axial extent in ASME Code Case is because ASME Code Case N-597 considers only internal pressure in the evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Jian; Zhou Changyu; Xue Jilin; Dai Qiao; He Xiaohua
2011-01-01
The safety assessment of pipes with local wall thinning defects is highly important in engineering. Most attention has been paid on the safety assessment of pipe with single local wall thinning defect, while the studies about multiple local wall thinning defects are not nearly enough. However, the interaction of multiple local wall thinning defects in some conditions is great, and may have a great impact on the safety assessment. In the present standard API 579/ASME FFS, the safety assessment of pipes with multiple local wall thinning defects is given, while as well as the influence of load condition, the influences of arrangement and relative depth of defects are ignored, which may influence the safety assessment considerably. In this paper, the influence of the interaction between multiple local wall thinning defects on the remaining strength of pipes at different arrangements and depths of defects under different load conditions (pressure, tension-bending moment and compression-bending moment) are studied. A quantified index is defined to describe the interaction between defects quantitatively. For different arrangements and relative depths of defects, based on a limit value 0.05 of the quantified index of the interaction between defects, a relatively systematic safety assessment of pipes with multiple local wall thinning defects under different load conditions has been proposed.
Low cycle fatigue of pressurized pipes with circumferential flaws under cyclic bending moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoppler, W.; Sturm, D.
1993-01-01
Pipes of 706 mm inner diameter, 47 mm wall thickness and about 5,000 mm in length were provided with circumferential surface cracks and loaded by internal pressure of 15 MPa whilst being simultaneously subjected to an alternating external bending moment. Usually a load ratio R of -1 (M min /M max ), in one case R = 0.1, was applied. The pipes were fabricated of two types of ferritic steel: one, grade 20 MnMoNi 5 5, with a high upper shelf impact energy of about 200 J and one, MnMoNiV-special melt, with a low upper shelf impact energy of about 60 J. Deformation and crack growth in the wall thickness and circumferential direction were determined and compared with calculated values. 9 refs., 13 figs
Text Fixture for Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) Specimens Subjected to Uneven Bending Moments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svenninggaard, Jon; Andreasen, Jens; Bak, Brian
Bending Moments as a function of the phase angle ranging from mode I to mode II loading including mixed modes in-between. The test fixture utilizes an existing tensile testing machine and can subject specimens to loads up to 350 Nm. The test fixture is compact in size and designed using standard aluminium...... profiles for the main structure. The load is transferred from the test machine to the specimen through a 2 mm Dyneema rope. The rope is routed over a set of rollers that are positioned according to the specified mode mixity and phase angle. The kinematics of the test fixture has been analysed extensively...... strength in layered materials the cohesive law and fracture strength must be known. Ideally the entire cohesive law is known in order to aid in the design of components and structures. In this work we present a novel test fixture which can be used to test DCB specimens that are subjected to pure Uneven...
Xia, Z. M.; Wang, C. G.; Tan, H. F.
2018-04-01
A pseudo-beam model with modified internal bending moment is presented to predict elastic properties of graphene, including the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. In order to overcome a drawback in existing molecular structural mechanics models, which only account for pure bending (constant bending moment), the presented model accounts for linear bending moments deduced from the balance equations. Based on this pseudo-beam model, an analytical prediction is accomplished to predict the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of graphene based on the equation of the strain energies by using Castigliano second theorem. Then, the elastic properties of graphene are calculated compared with results available in literature, which verifies the feasibility of the pseudo-beam model. Finally, the pseudo-beam model is utilized to study the twisting wrinkling characteristics of annular graphene. Due to modifications of the internal bending moment, the wrinkling behaviors of graphene sheet are predicted accurately. The obtained results show that the pseudo-beam model has a good ability to predict the elastic properties of graphene accurately, especially the out-of-plane deformation behavior.
Estimation of collapse moment for the wall-thinned pipe bends using fuzzy model identification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Jin Weon; Hwang, In Joon
2006-01-01
In this work, the collapse moment due to wall-thinned defects is estimated through fuzzy model identification. A subtractive clustering method is used as the basis of a fast and robust algorithm for identifying the fuzzy model. The fuzzy model is optimized by a genetic algorithm combined with a least squares method. The developed fuzzy model has been applied to the numerical data obtained from the finite element analysis. Principal component analysis is used to preprocess the input signals into the fuzzy model to reduce the sensitivity to the input change and the fuzzy model are trained by using the data set prepared for training (training data) and verified by using another data set different (independent) from the training data. Also, three fuzzy models are trained, respectively, for three data sets divided into the three classes of extrados, intrados, and crown defects, which is because they have different characteristics. The relative root mean square (RMS) errors of the estimated collapse moment are 0.5397% for the training data and 0.8673% for the test data. It is known from this result that the fuzzy models are sufficiently accurate to be used in the integrity evaluation of wall-thinned pipe bends and elbows
Collapse moment estimation by support vector machines for wall-thinned pipe bends and elbows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Jin Weon; Hwang, In Joon
2007-01-01
The collapse moment due to wall-thinned defects is estimated through support vector machines with parameters optimized by a genetic algorithm. The support vector regression models are developed and applied to numerical data obtained from the finite element analysis for wall-thinned defects in piping systems. The support vector regression models are optimized by using both the data sets (training data and optimization data) prepared for training and optimization, and its performance verification is performed by using another data set (test data) different from the training data and the optimization data. In this work, three support vector regression models are developed, respectively, for three data sets divided into the three classes of extrados, intrados, and crown defects, which is because they have different characteristics. The relative root mean square (RMS) errors of the estimated collapse moment are 0.2333% for the training data, 0.5229% for the optimization data and 0.5011% for the test data. It is known from this result that the support vector regression models are sufficiently accurate to be used in the integrity evaluation of wall-thinned pipe bends and elbows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, Hany F.
2014-01-01
No experimental data exist within open literature, to the best knowledge of the author, for determining shakedown boundaries of 90° back-to-back pipe bends. Ninety degree back-to-back pipe bends are extensively utilized within piping networks of nuclear submarines and modern turbofan aero-engines where space limitation is considered a paramount concern. In the current research, the 90° back-to-back pipe bend setup analyzed is subjected to a spectrum of steady internal pressures and cyclic in-plane bending moments. A previously developed direct non-cyclic simplified technique for determining elastic shakedown limit loads is utilized to generate the elastic shakedown boundary of the analyzed structure. The simplified technique outcomes showed excellent correlation with the results of full elastic–plastic cyclic loading finite element simulations. - Highlights: • No shakedown experimental data exist for 90° back-to-back pipe bends. • A non-cyclic technique is utilized to generate the elastic shakedown boundary. • The non-cyclic technique succeeded in generating the structure's Bree diagram. • The non-cyclic technique correlated well with full cyclic loading FE simulations
Algorithm Indicating Moment of P-Wave Arrival Based on Second-Moment Characteristic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jakub Sokolowski
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The moment of P-wave arrival can provide us with many information about the nature of a seismic event. Without adequate knowledge regarding the onset moment, many properties of the events related to location, polarization of P-wave, and so forth are impossible to receive. In order to save time required to indicate P-wave arrival moment manually, one can benefit from automatic picking algorithms. In this paper two algorithms based on a method finding a regime switch point are applied to seismic event data in order to find P-wave arrival time. The algorithms are based on signals transformed via a basic transform rather than on raw recordings. They involve partitioning the transformed signal into two separate series and fitting logarithm function to the first subset (which corresponds to pure noise and therefore it is considered stationary, exponent or power function to the second subset (which corresponds to nonstationary seismic event, and finding the point at which these functions best fit the statistic in terms of sum of squared errors. Effectiveness of the algorithms is tested on seismic data acquired from O/ZG “Rudna” underground copper ore mine with moments of P-wave arrival initially picked by broadly known STA/LTA algorithm and then corrected by seismic station specialists. The results of proposed algorithms are compared to those obtained using STA/LTA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esmaeilzadeh Khadem, S.; Rezaee, M.
2001-01-01
In this paper the large amplitude and non-linear vibration of a string is considered. The initial tension, lateral vibration amplitude, diameter and the modulus of elasticity of the string have main effects on its natural frequencies. Increasing the lateral vibration amplitude makes the assumption of constant initial tension invalid. In this case, therefore, it is impossible to use the classical equation of string with small amplitude transverse motion assumption. On the other hand, by increasing the string diameter, the bending moment effect will increase dramatically, and acts as an impressive restoring moment. Considering the effects of the bending moments, the nonlinear equation governing the large amplitude transverse vibration of a string is derived. The time dependent portion of the governing equation has the from of Duff ing equation is solved using the perturbation theory. The results of the analysis are shown in appropriate graphs, and the natural frequencies of the string due to the non-linear factors are compared with the natural frequencies of the linear vibration os a string without bending moment effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, A.; Prabhakaran, K.M.; Ghosh, A.K.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Behavior of cracked elbows with part-through crack at intrados under bending moment is studied. → Some part of crack always opens and some part gets closed irrespective of mode of applied moment. → Fraction of the crack that opens basically decides the weakening effect of the cracked elbow. → Results will be useful for fracture studies and limit load estimation especially for LBB. - Abstract: This paper presents the behavior of part-through circumferential crack at intrados in elbows under in-plane bending moment. This is based on detailed non-linear (both material and geometric) finite element analysis performed on various sizes of elbows (generally used in piping industry), having different crack sizes. It is observed that some part of the crack always opens and some part gets closed irrespective of the mode of applied bending moment (opening/closing). The fraction of the crack that opens basically decides the weakening effect of the cracked elbow. It is observed that there is a threshold value of crack length and crack depth, before which no crack opening is observed under opening mode. Also as elbow becomes thinner, the threshold value of above two parameters increases. Quite interestingly, the part of crack which closes in opening mode opens under closing mode. The above mentioned study on the behavior of crack will be useful for fracture studies and limit load estimation especially when leak before break concept is to be employed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.
2004-01-01
A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...... glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre bridging, eventually reaching asteady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuji, Masataka; Meshii, Toshiyuki
2011-01-01
Highlights: → A limit moment equation applicable to planar/non-planar flaw of 0 ≤ θ ≤ π found in wall thinned straight pipes was proposed. → An idea to rationally classify planar/non-planar flaw in wall thinned pipes was proposed. → The equation based on the experimental observation focused on the fracture mode. - Abstract: In this paper, a limit bending moment equation applicable to all types of planar and non-planar flaws in wall-thinned straight pipes under bending was proposed. A system to rationally classify the planar/non-planar flaws in wall-thinned pipes was suggested based on experimental observations focused on the fracture mode. The results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between axial and circumferential long flaws in wall-thinned pipes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bairrao, R.; Millard, A.; Barbe, B.
1991-01-01
A large set of numerical data was obtained using a program recently developed. From the various results achieved, new analytical expressions for the definition of damage and plasticity criteria are being derived. The importance of taking into account the presence of general bending was highlighted. The extension to 3D bending, of the previous global models for reinforced concrete beams under combined axial force and bending, is under development. (author)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Maglieri, Domenic
1955-01-01
Preliminary investigations have been made in the Langley gust tunnel to determine the effects of a sharp-edge vertical gust on the blade flapwise vibratory bending moments of small model rotors having...
A wave-bending structure at Ka-band using 3D-printed metamaterial
Wu, Junqiang; Liang, Min; Xin, Hao
2018-03-01
Three-dimensional printing technologies enable metamaterials of complex structures with arbitrary inhomogeneity. In this work, a 90° wave-bending structure at the Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz) based on 3D-printed metamaterials is designed, fabricated, and measured. The wave-bending effect is realized through a spatial distribution of varied effective dielectric constants. Based on the effective medium theory, different effective dielectric constants are accomplished by special, 3D-printable unit cells, which allow different ratios of dielectric to air at the unit cell level. In contrast to traditional, metallic-structure-included metamaterial designs, the reported wave-bending structure here is all dielectric and implemented by the polymer-jetting technique, which features rapid, low-cost, and convenient prototyping. Both simulation and experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the wave-bending structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadegh Maleki
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The study aimed at predicting bending moment resistance plywood of screw (coarse and fine threads joints using regression models. Thickness of the member was 19mm and compared with medium density fiberboard (MDF and particleboard with 18mm thicknesses. Two types of screws including coarse and fine thread drywall screw with nominal diameters of 6, 8 and 10mm and 3.5, 4 and 5 cm length respectively and sheet metal screw with diameters of 8 and 10 and length of 4 cm were used. The results of the study have shown that bending moment resistance of screw was increased by increasing of screws diameter and penetrating depth. Screw Length was found to have a larger influence on bending moment resistance than screw diameter. Bending moment resistance with coarse thread drywall screws was higher than those of fine thread drywall screws. The highest bending moment resistance (71.76 N.m was observed in joints made with coarse screw which were 5 mm in diameter and 28 mm in depth of penetration. The lowest bending moment resistance (12.08 N.m was observed in joints having fine screw with 3.5 mm diameter and 9 mm penetrations. Furthermore, bending moment resistance in plywood was higher than those of medium density fiberboard (MDF and particleboard. Finally, it has been found that the ultimate bending moment resistance of plywood joint can be predicted following formula Wc = 0.189×D0.726×P0.577 for coarse thread drywall screws and Wf = 0.086×D0.942×P0.704 for fine ones according to diameter and penetrating depth. The analysis of variance of the experimental and predicted data showed that the developed models provide a fair approximation of actual experimental measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.
1993-01-01
The advent of Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept has replaced the traditional design basis event of Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) in the design of primary heat transport (PHT) piping. The use of LBB concept requires postulation of largest credible cracks at highly stressed locations and demonstration of its stability under the maximum credible loading conditions. Stress analysis of PHT piping in nuclear power plants shows that the highly stressed piping components are normally elbows and branch tees. This necessitates detailed fracture mechanics evaluation of piping connections by computing Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) and/or J-integral. Simple analytical solutions for evaluation of SIF and J-integral for cracks in straight pipes are readily available in literature. However, the same type of solutions for elbows and tees are limited in open literature. In the present work, a database is generated to evaluate SIF for throughwall circumferential and longitudinal cracks under combined internal pressure and bending moment. Different parameters to characterise a cracked elbow are pipe factor (h), pipe bore radius to thickness ratio (r/t) and crack length. Another parameter (σ) is used to consider the relative magnitude of stresses due to internal pressure and remote bending moment. The database has been used to derive closed form expressions to evaluate SIF for elbow with cracks in terms of the aforementioned parameters. (author). 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs
[Multiple coil pulsed magnetic resonance method to measure the SSC bending magnet multipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, W.G.
1990-01-01
The main emphasis has been to continue development of the high frequency (to 300 MHz) instrumentation, to test the system on a prototype bending magnet, construct the high frequency 32-channel electronics and probes, to seek industrial partners for technology transfer and commercial exploitation, and to do computer simulations for optimizing design parameters. Experience gained from tests made on a dipole magnet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was extremely valuable and has resulted in substantial modifications to the original design
Bending and splitting of spoof surface acoustic waves through structured rigid surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sujun Xie
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrated that a 90°-bended imaging of spoof surface acoustic waves with subwavelength resolution of 0.316λ can be realized by a 45° prism-shaped surface phononic crystal (SPC, which is composed of borehole arrays with square lattice in a rigid plate. Furthermore, by combining two identical prism-shaped phononic crystal to form an interface (to form a line-defect, the excited spoof surface acoustic waves can be split into bended and transmitted parts. The power ratio between the bended and transmitted surface waves can be tuned arbitrarily by adjusting the defect size. This acoustic system is believed to have potential applications in various multifunctional acoustic solutions integrated by different acoustical devices.
Directional bending wave propagation in periodically perforated plates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Erik; Manktelow, Kevin; Ruzzene, Massimo
2015-01-01
We report on the investigation of wave propagation in a periodically perforated plate. A unit cell with double-C perforations is selected as a test article suitable to investigate two-dimensional dispersion characteristics, group velocities, and internal resonances. A numerical model, formulated...... using Mindlin plate elements, is developed to predict relevant wave characteristics such as dispersion, and group velocity variation as a function of frequency and direction of propagation. Experimental tests are conducted through a scanning laser vibrometer, which provides full wave field information...... for the design of phononic waveguides with directional and internal resonant characteristics....
Analytic moment method calculations of the drift wave spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thayer, D.R.; Molvig, K.
1985-11-01
A derivation and approximate solution of renormalized mode coupling equations describing the turbulent drift wave spectrum is presented. Arguments are given which indicate that a weak turbulence formulation of the spectrum equations fails for a system with negative dissipation. The inadequacy of the weak turbulence theory is circumvented by utilizing a renormalized formation. An analytic moment method is developed to approximate the solution of the nonlinear spectrum integral equations. The solution method employs trial functions to reduce the integral equations to algebraic equations in basic parameters describing the spectrum. An approximate solution of the spectrum equations is first obtained for a mode dissipation with known solution, and second for an electron dissipation in the NSA
Multiple coil pulsed magnetic resonance method to measure the SSC bending magnet multipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, W.G.
1990-01-01
This document describes the technical progress made during the current contract period (4-1-89 to 3-31-90) of US DOE Contract AC02-87ER40350. The main emphasis of the current contract year has been to continue development of the high frequency (to 300 MHz) instrumentation, to test the system on a prototype bending magnet, to construct the high frequency 32-channel electronics and probes, and to do computer simulations for optimizing design parameters. Experience gained from tests made on a dipole magnet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was extremely valuable and has resulted in substantial modifications to the original designs. These, and other items are discussed in this paper
The effect of actuator bending on Lamb wave displacement fields generated by a piezoelectric patch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, H; Pamphile, T; Derriso, M
2008-01-01
A Lamb wave is a special type of elastic wave that is widely employed in structural health monitoring systems for damage detection. Recently, piezoelectric (piezo) patches have become popular for Lamb wave excitation and sensing because one piezo patch can serve as both the actuator and the sensor. All published work has assumed that the Lamb wave displacement field generated by a piezo patch actuator is axi-symmetric. However, we observed that piezo sensors placed at equal distances from the piezo patch actuator displayed different responses. In order to understand this phenomenon, we used a laser vibrometer to measure the full-field displacements around a circular piezo actuator noncontactly. The displacement fields excited by the piezo patch actuator are found to be directional, and this directionality is also frequency dependent, indicating that the out-of-plane bending dynamics of the piezo actuator may play an important role in the Lamb wave displacement fields. A simulation model that incorporates the bending deformation of the piezo patch into the calculations of the Lamb wave generation is then developed. The agreement between the simulated and measured displacement fields confirmed that the directionality of the Lamb wave displacement fields is governed by the bending deformation of the piezo patch actuator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soerensen, B.F.; Joergensen, K.; Oestergaard, R.C. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, T.K. [LM Glasfiber A/S, Lunderskov (Denmark)
2004-03-01
A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratio between the two applied moments, the full mode mixity range from pure mode I to pure mode II can be generated for the same specimen geometry. The specimen allows stable crack growth. In case of large scale crack bridging, mixed mode cohesive laws can be obtained by a J integral based approach. As a preliminary example, fracture of adhesive joints between two glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre cross over bridging, eventually reaching a steady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement. Cohesive stresses were determined by a J integral approach. The deducted shear stress was found to be relative high ({approx} = 20 MPa) in comparison with the normal stress ({approx} = 1 MPa). (au)
A study on the impulse wave discharged from the exit of a right-angle pipe bend
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, D. H.; Hur, S. C.; Kweon, Y. H.; Kim, H. D.
2001-01-01
The current study addresses experimental and computational work of impulse wave discharged from the exit of two kinds of right-angle pipe bends, which are attached to the open end of a simple shock tube. The weak normal shock wave with its magnitude of Mach number from 1.02 to 1.20 is employed to obtain the impulse wave propagating outside the exit of the pipe bends. A Schlieren optical system visualizes the impulse wave discharged from the exit of the pipe bends at an instant. The experimental data of the magnitude of the impulse wave and its propagating directivity are analyzed to characterize the impulse waves discharged from the exit of the pipe bends and compared with those discharged from a straight pipe. Computational results well predict the experimented dynamic behaviors of the impulse wave. The results obtained show that a right-angle miter bend considerably reduces the magnitude of the impulse wave and its directivity toward to the pipe axis, compared with the straight pipe and right-angle smooth bend. It is believed that the right-angle miter bend pipe can play a role of a passive control against the impulse wave
Pacheco, Anderson; Fontana, Filipe; Viotti, Matias R.; Veiga, Celso L. N.; Lothhammer, Lívia R.; Albertazzi G., Armando, Jr.
2015-08-01
The authors developed an achromatic speckle pattern interferometer able to measure in-plane displacements in polar coordinates. It has been used to measure combined stresses resulting from the superposition of mechanical loading and residual stresses. Relaxation methods have been applied to produce on the surface of the specimen a displacement field that can be used to determine the amount of combined stresses. Two relaxation methods are explored in this work: blind hole-drilling and indentation. The first one results from a blind hole drilled with a high-speed drilling unit in the area of interest. The measured displacement data is fitted in an appropriate model to quantify the stress level using an indirect approach based on a set of finite element coefficients. The second approach uses indentation, where a hard spherical tip is firmly pressed against the surface to be measured with a predetermined indentation load. A plastic flow occurs around the indentation mark producing a radial in-plane displacement field that is related to the amount of combined stresses. Also in this case, displacements are measured by the radial interferometer and used to determine the stresses by least square fitting it to a displacement field determined by calibration. Both approaches are used to quantify the amount of bending stresses and moment in eight sections of a 12 m long 200 mm diameter steel pipe submitted to a known transverse loading. Reference values of bending stresses are also determined by strain gauges. The comparison between the four results is discussed in the paper.
Self-bending elastic waves and obstacle circumventing in wireless power transfer
Tol, S.; Xia, Y.; Ruzzene, M.; Erturk, A.
2017-04-01
We demonstrate self-bending of elastic waves along convex trajectories by means of geometric and phased arrays. Potential applications include ultrasonic imaging and manipulation, wave focusing, and wireless power transfer around obstacles. The basic concept is illustrated through a geometric array, which is designed to implement a phase delay profile among the array elements that leads to self-bending along a specified circular trajectory. Experimental validation is conducted for the lowest asymmetric Lamb wave mode in a thin plate over a range of frequencies to investigate the bandwidth of the approach. Experiments also illustrate the functionality of the array as a transmitter to deliver elastic wave energy to a receiver/harvester located behind a large obstacle for electrical power extraction. It is shown that the trajectory is not distorted by the presence of the obstacle and circumventing is achieved. A linear phased array counterpart of the geometric array is then constructed to illustrate the concept by imposing proper time delays to the array elements, which allows the generation of different trajectories using the same line source. This capability is demonstrated by tailoring the path diameter in the phased array setting, which offers the flexibility and versatility to induce a variety of convex trajectories for self-bending elastic waves.
Troive, L.
2017-09-01
Friction-free 3-point bending has become a common test-method since the VDA 238-100 plate-bending test [1] was introduced. According to this test the criterion for failure is when the force suddenly drops. It was found by the author that the evolution of the cross-section moment is a more preferable measure regarding the real material response instead of the force. Beneficially, the cross-section moment gets more or less a constant maximum steady-state level when the cross-section becomes fully plastified. An expression for the moment M is presented that fulfils the criteria for energy of conservation at bending. Also an expression calculating the unit-free moment, M/Me, i.e. current moment to elastic-moment ratio, is demonstrated specifically proposed for detection of failures. The mathematical expressions are simple making it easy to transpose measured force F and stroke position S to the corresponding cross-section moment M. From that point of view it’s even possible to implement, e.g. into a conventional measurement system software, studying the cross-section moment in real-time during a test. It’s even possible to calculate other parameters such as flow-stress and shape of curvature at every stage. It has been tested on different thicknesses and grades within the range from 1.0 to 10 mm with very good results. In this paper the present model is applied on a 6.1 mm hot-rolled high strength steel from the same batch at three different conditions, i.e. directly quenched, quenched and tempered, and a third variant quench and tempered with levelling. It will be shown that very small differences in material-response can be predicted by this method.
Stief, Thomas; Peikenkamp, Klaus
2015-01-01
Stress occurring at the feet while wearing footwear is often determined using pressure measurement systems. However, other forms of stress, such as bending, torsional and shear loadings, cannot be detected in shoes during day-to-day activities. Nevertheless, the detection of these types of stresses would be helpful for understanding the mechanical aspects of various kinds of hard and soft tissue injuries. Therefore, we describe the development of a new measuring device that allows the reliable determination of bending and torsional load at the foot in shoes. The system consists of a measuring insole and an analogue device with Bluetooth interface. The specific shape of the insole base layer, the positions of the strain gauges, and the interconnections between them have all been selected in such a way so as to isolate bending and torsional moment detections in the medial and lateral metatarsal region. The system was calibrated using a classical two-point test procedure. A single case study was executed to evaluate the new device for practical use. This application consisted of one subject wearing neutral shoes walking on a treadmill. The calibration results (coefficients of determination R(2) > 0.999) show that bending and torsional load can be reliably detected using the measurement system presented. In the single case study, alternating bending and torsional load can be detected during walking, and the shape of the detected bending moments can be confirmed by the measurements of Arndt et al. (J Biomech 35:621-8, 2002). Despite some limitations, the presented device allows for the reliable determination of bending and torsional stresses at the foot in shoes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Jong Keun; Choi, Young Don; An, Jeong Soo
2007-01-01
A second moment turbulence closure using the elliptic-blending equation is introduced to analyze the turbulence and heat transfer in a square sectioned U-bend duct flow. The turbulent heat flux model based on the elliptic concept satisfies the near-wall balance between viscous diffusion, viscous dissipation and temperature-pressure gradient correlation, and also has the characteristics of approaching its respective conventional high Reynolds number model far away from the wall. Also, the traditional GGDH heat flux model is compared with the present elliptic concept-based heat flux model. The turbulent heat flux models are closely linked to the elliptic blending second moment closure which is used for the prediction of Reynolds stresses. The predicted results show their reasonable agreement with experimental data for a square sectioned U-bend duct flow field adopted in the present study
On the fourth moment of Hecke Maass forms and the Random Wave Conjecture
Buttcane, Jack; Khan, Rizwanur
2016-01-01
Conditionally on the Generalized Lindel\\"of Hypothesis, we obtain an asymptotic for the fourth moment of Hecke Maass cusp forms of large Laplacian eigenvalue for the full modular group. This lends support to the Random Wave Conjecture.
Manifestations of wave packet revivals in the moments of observables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudheesh, C.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.
2004-01-01
Using a generic Hamiltonian that models wave packet propagation in a Kerr-like medium, matter wave field dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensation, etc., we show that distinctive signatures of wave packet revivals and fractional revivals are displayed by the time evolution of the expectation values of appropriate observables, enabling selective identification of different fractional revivals
Higher-Order Moment Characterisation of Rogue Wave Statistics in Supercontinuum Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Simon Toft; Bang, Ole; Wetzel, Benjamin
2012-01-01
The noise characteristics of supercontinuum generation are characterized using higherorder statistical moments. Measures of skew and kurtosis, and the coefficient of variation allow quantitative identification of spectral regions dominated by rogue wave like behaviour.......The noise characteristics of supercontinuum generation are characterized using higherorder statistical moments. Measures of skew and kurtosis, and the coefficient of variation allow quantitative identification of spectral regions dominated by rogue wave like behaviour....
Manning, Robert M.
2004-01-01
The extended wide-angle parabolic wave equation applied to electromagnetic wave propagation in random media is considered. A general operator equation is derived which gives the statistical moments of an electric field of a propagating wave. This expression is used to obtain the first and second order moments of the wave field and solutions are found that transcend those which incorporate the full paraxial approximation at the outset. Although these equations can be applied to any propagation scenario that satisfies the conditions of application of the extended parabolic wave equation, the example of propagation through atmospheric turbulence is used. It is shown that in the case of atmospheric wave propagation and under the Markov approximation (i.e., the delta-correlation of the fluctuations in the direction of propagation), the usual parabolic equation in the paraxial approximation is accurate even at millimeter wavelengths. The comprehensive operator solution also allows one to obtain expressions for the longitudinal (generalized) second order moment. This is also considered and the solution for the atmospheric case is obtained and discussed. The methodology developed here can be applied to any qualifying situation involving random propagation through turbid or plasma environments that can be represented by a spectral density of permittivity fluctuations.
Nonspreading Wave Packets for Rydberg Electrons in Rotating Molecules with Electric Dipole Moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Bialynicka-Birula, Z.
1996-01-01
Nonspreading wave packets for Rydberg electrons are predicted in rotating molecules with electric dipole moments. We have named them the Trojan wave packets since their stability is due to the same mechanism that governs the motion of the Trojan asteroids in the Sun-Jupiter system. Unlike all previously predicted Trojan wave packets in atoms, molecular Trojan states do not require external fields for their existence
A standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes.
Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang
2015-03-01
A novel standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes was proposed in this study. The stator (or actuator) of the linear motor was made of a simple single Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramic square plate (15 × 15 × 2 mm(3)) with a circular hole (D = 6.7 mm) in the center. The geometric parameters of the stator were computed with the finite element analysis to produce in-plane bi-mode standing wave vibration. The calculated results predicted that a driving tip attached at midpoint of one edge of the stator can produce two orthogonal, approximate straight-line trajectories, which can be used to move a slider in linear motion via frictional forces in forward or reverse direction. The investigations showed that the proposed linear motor can produce a six times higher power density than that of a previously reported square plate motor.
Parametric Study of Defect Detection in Pipes with Bend Using Guided Ultrasonic Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jack Tan Jin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The propagation behaviour of guided ultrasonic waves in a steel pipe with welded bend is studied by finite element simulation. The effectiveness of the longitudinal L(0,2 and torsional T(0,1 guided waves in detecting circumferential cut near the weld is investigated. In order to identify the presence of the defect, the reflection strength due to the cut is studied. The geometry of the weld is constructed based on common V-bevel butt joints and the anisotropy of the 316L stainless steel weld is included to correctly predict the scattering of ultrasonic waves. The finite element model is built to allow high accuracy. Detection of small circumferential cut (up to 60° circumferential extent can be achieved with longitudinal L(0,2 mode. Detection of moderate to large circumferential cut can be achieved by torsional T(0,1 or longitudinal L(0,2 modes, with T(0,1 mode preferred due to its less mode conversion to higher order modes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kupavtsev Vladimir Vladimirovich
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The method of two-sided evaluations is extended to the problems of stability of an elastic non-uniformly compressed rod, the variation formulations of which may be presented in terms of internal bending moments with uniform integral conditions. The problems are considered, in which one rod end is fixed and the other rod end is either restraint or pivoted, or embedded into a support which may be shifted in a transversal direction.For the substantiation of the lower evaluations determination, a sequence of functionals is constructed, the minimum values of which are the lower evaluations for the minimum critical value of the loading parameter of the rod, and the calculation process is reduced to the determination of the maximum eigenvalues of modular matrices. The matrix elements are expressed in terms of integrals of basic functions depending on the type of fixation of the rod ends. The basic functions, with the accuracy up to a linear polynomial, are the same as the bending moments arising with the bifurcation of the equilibrium of a rod with a constant cross-section compressed by longitudinal forces at the rod ends. The calculation of the upper evaluation is reduced to the determination of the maximum eigenvalue of the matrix, which almost coincides with one of the elements of the modular matrices. It is noted that the obtained upper bound evaluation is not worse thanthe evaluation obtained by the Ritz method with the use of the same basic functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yuebing; Lei, Yuebao; Gao, Zengliang
2014-01-01
Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential internal/external surface and through-wall defects under combined positive/negative axial force, positive/negative global bending moment and internal pressure have been developed in Part I of this paper. In this Part II, elastic-perfectly plastic 3-D finite element (FE) analyses are performed for selected cases, covering a wide range of geometries and load combinations, to validate the developed limit load solutions. The results show that these limit load solutions can predict the FE data very well for the cases with shallow or deep and short cracks and are conservative. For the cases with very long and deep cracks, the predictions are reasonably accurate and more conservative. -- Highlights: • Elastic-perfectly plastic 3D finite element limiting analyses of cylinders. • Thin/thick-walled cylinders with circumferential surface defects. • Combined loading for pressure, end-force and global bending moment. • Totally 1458 cases analysed and tabulated normalised results provided. • Results used to validate the developed limit load solutions in Part I of this paper
Goos-Hänchen effect and bending of spin wave beams in thin magnetic films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruszecki, P.; Krawczyk, M.; Romero-Vivas, J.; Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N.; Lyubchanskii, I. L.
2014-01-01
For magnon spintronic applications, the detailed knowledge of spin wave (SW) beam dispersion, transmission (reflection) of SWs passing through (reflected from) interfaces, or borders or the scattering of SWs by inhomogeneities is crucial. These wave properties are decisive factors on the usefulness of a particular device. Here, we demonstrate, using micromagnetic simulations supported by an analytical model, that the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift exists for SW reflecting from thin film edge and that with the effect becomes observable. We show that this effect will exist for a broad range of frequencies in the dipole-exchange range, with the magnetization degree of pinning at the film edge as the crucial parameter, whatever its nature. Moreover, we have also found that the GH effect can be accompanied or even dominating by a bending of the SW beam due to the inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field. This inhomogeneity, created by demagnetizing field taking place at the film edge, causes gradual change of SWs refractive index. The refraction of the SW beams by the non-uniformity of the magnetic field enables the exploration of graded index magnonics and metamaterial properties for the transmission and processing of information at nanoscale
Goos-Hänchen effect and bending of spin wave beams in thin magnetic films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruszecki, P., E-mail: pawel.gruszecki@amu.edu.pl; Krawczyk, M., E-mail: krawczyk@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, Poznań 61-614 (Poland); Romero-Vivas, J. [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N. [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Ulyanovsk State University, 42 Leo Tolstoy str., 432000 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Lyubchanskii, I. L. [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine)
2014-12-15
For magnon spintronic applications, the detailed knowledge of spin wave (SW) beam dispersion, transmission (reflection) of SWs passing through (reflected from) interfaces, or borders or the scattering of SWs by inhomogeneities is crucial. These wave properties are decisive factors on the usefulness of a particular device. Here, we demonstrate, using micromagnetic simulations supported by an analytical model, that the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift exists for SW reflecting from thin film edge and that with the effect becomes observable. We show that this effect will exist for a broad range of frequencies in the dipole-exchange range, with the magnetization degree of pinning at the film edge as the crucial parameter, whatever its nature. Moreover, we have also found that the GH effect can be accompanied or even dominating by a bending of the SW beam due to the inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field. This inhomogeneity, created by demagnetizing field taking place at the film edge, causes gradual change of SWs refractive index. The refraction of the SW beams by the non-uniformity of the magnetic field enables the exploration of graded index magnonics and metamaterial properties for the transmission and processing of information at nanoscale.
Burleyson, C. D.; Voisin, N.; Taylor, T.; Xie, Y.; Kraucunas, I.
2017-12-01
The DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been developing the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model to simulate energy usage in residential and commercial buildings responding to changes in weather, climate, population, and building technologies. At its core, BEND is a mechanism to aggregate EnergyPlus simulations of a large number of individual buildings with a diversity of characteristics over large spatial scales. We have completed a series of experiments to explore methods to calibrate the BEND model, measure its ability to capture interannual variability in energy demand due to weather using simulations of two distinct weather years, and understand the sensitivity to the number and location of weather stations used to force the model. The use of weather from "representative cities" reduces computational costs, but often fails to capture spatial heterogeneity that may be important for simulations aimed at understanding how building stocks respond to a changing climate (Fig. 1). We quantify the potential reduction in temperature and load biases from using an increasing number of weather stations across the western U.S., ranging from 8 to roughly 150. Using 8 stations results in an average absolute summertime temperature bias of 4.0°C. The mean absolute bias drops to 1.5°C using all available stations. Temperature biases of this magnitude translate to absolute summertime mean simulated load biases as high as 13.8%. Additionally, using only 8 representative weather stations can lead to a 20-40% bias of peak building loads under heat wave or cold snap conditions, a significant error for capacity expansion planners who may rely on these types of simulations. This analysis suggests that using 4 stations per climate zone may be sufficient for most purposes. Our novel approach, which requires no new EnergyPlus simulations, could be useful to other researchers designing or calibrating aggregate building model simulations - particularly those looking at
Wave packet methods for the direct calculation of energy-transfer moments in molecular collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, K.S.; Schatz, G.C.; Balint-Kurti, G.G.
1999-01-01
The authors present a new wave packet based theory for the direct calculation of energy-transfer moments in molecular collision processes. This theory does not contain any explicit reference to final state information associated with the collision dynamics, thereby avoiding the need for determining vibration-rotation bound states (other than the initial state) for the molecules undergoing collision and also avoiding the calculation of state-to-state transition probabilities. The theory applies to energy-transfer moments of any order, and it generates moments for a wide range of translational energies in a single calculation. Two applications of the theory are made that demonstrate its viability; one is to collinear He + H 2 and the other to collinear He + CS 2 (with two active vibrational modes in CS 2 ). The results of these applications agree well with earlier results based on explicit calculation of transition probabilities
Lizurek, Grzegorz; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Wiszniowski, Jan
2017-03-01
Bucharest, with a population of approximately 2 million people, has suffered damage from earthquakes in the Vrancea seismic zone, which is located about 170 km from Bucharest, at a depth of 80-200 km. Consequently, an earthquake early warning system (Bucharest Rapid earthquake Early Warning System or BREWS) was constructed to provide some warning about impending shaking from large earthquakes in the Vrancea zone. In order to provide quick estimates of magnitude, seismic moment was first determined from P-waves and then a moment magnitude was determined from the moment. However, this magnitude may not be consistent with previous estimates of magnitude from the Romanian Seismic Network. This paper introduces the algorithm using P-wave spectral levels and compares them with catalog estimates. The testing procedure used waveforms from about 90 events with catalog magnitudes from 3.5 to 5.4. Corrections to the P-wave determined magnitudes according to dominant intermediate depth events mechanism were tested for November 22, 2014, M5.6 and October 17, M6 events. The corrections worked well, but unveiled overestimation of the average magnitude result of about 0.2 magnitude unit in the case of shallow depth event ( H < 60 km). The P-wave spectral approach allows for the relatively fast estimates of magnitude for use in BREWS. The average correction taking into account the most common focal mechanism for radiation pattern coefficient may lead to overestimation of the magnitude for shallow events of about 0.2 magnitude unit. However, in case of events of intermediate depth of M6 the resulting M w is underestimated at about 0.1-0.2. We conclude that our P-wave spectral approach is sufficiently robust for the needs of BREWS for both shallow and intermediate depth events.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. E. Gorbunov
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A new reference occultation processing system (rOPS will include a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS radio occultation (RO retrieval chain with integrated uncertainty propagation. In this paper, we focus on wave-optics bending angle (BA retrieval in the lower troposphere and introduce (1 an empirically estimated boundary layer bias (BLB model then employed to reduce the systematic uncertainty of excess phases and bending angles in about the lowest 2 km of the troposphere and (2 the estimation of (residual systematic uncertainties and their propagation together with random uncertainties from excess phase to bending angle profiles. Our BLB model describes the estimated bias of the excess phase transferred from the estimated bias of the bending angle, for which the model is built, informed by analyzing refractivity fluctuation statistics shown to induce such biases. The model is derived from regression analysis using a large ensemble of Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC RO observations and concurrent European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analysis fields. It is formulated in terms of predictors and adaptive functions (powers and cross products of predictors, where we use six main predictors derived from observations: impact altitude, latitude, bending angle and its standard deviation, canonical transform (CT amplitude, and its fluctuation index. Based on an ensemble of test days, independent of the days of data used for the regression analysis to establish the BLB model, we find the model very effective for bias reduction and capable of reducing bending angle and corresponding refractivity biases by about a factor of 5. The estimated residual systematic uncertainty, after the BLB profile subtraction, is lower bounded by the uncertainty from the (indirect use of ECMWF analysis fields but is significantly lower than the systematic uncertainty without BLB correction. The
Gorbunov, Michael E.; Kirchengast, Gottfried
2018-01-01
A new reference occultation processing system (rOPS) will include a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) retrieval chain with integrated uncertainty propagation. In this paper, we focus on wave-optics bending angle (BA) retrieval in the lower troposphere and introduce (1) an empirically estimated boundary layer bias (BLB) model then employed to reduce the systematic uncertainty of excess phases and bending angles in about the lowest 2 km of the troposphere and (2) the estimation of (residual) systematic uncertainties and their propagation together with random uncertainties from excess phase to bending angle profiles. Our BLB model describes the estimated bias of the excess phase transferred from the estimated bias of the bending angle, for which the model is built, informed by analyzing refractivity fluctuation statistics shown to induce such biases. The model is derived from regression analysis using a large ensemble of Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) RO observations and concurrent European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis fields. It is formulated in terms of predictors and adaptive functions (powers and cross products of predictors), where we use six main predictors derived from observations: impact altitude, latitude, bending angle and its standard deviation, canonical transform (CT) amplitude, and its fluctuation index. Based on an ensemble of test days, independent of the days of data used for the regression analysis to establish the BLB model, we find the model very effective for bias reduction and capable of reducing bending angle and corresponding refractivity biases by about a factor of 5. The estimated residual systematic uncertainty, after the BLB profile subtraction, is lower bounded by the uncertainty from the (indirect) use of ECMWF analysis fields but is significantly lower than the systematic uncertainty without BLB correction. The systematic and
Extended wave-packet model to calculate energy-loss moments of protons in matter
Archubi, C. D.; Arista, N. R.
2017-12-01
In this work we introduce modifications to the wave-packet method proposed by Kaneko to calculate the energy-loss moments of a projectile traversing a target which is represented in terms of Gaussian functions for the momentum distributions of electrons in the atomic shells. These modifications are introduced using the Levine and Louie technique to take into account the energy gaps corresponding to the different atomic levels of the target. We use the extended wave-packet model to evaluate the stopping power, the energy straggling, the inverse mean free path, and the ionization cross sections for protons in several targets, obtaining good agreements for all these quantities on an extensive energy range that covers low-, intermediate-, and high-energy regions. The extended wave-packet model proposed here provides a method to calculate in a very straightforward way all the significant terms of the inelastic interaction of light ions with any element of the periodic table.
Tseng, Chien-Hsun
2018-06-01
This paper aims to develop a multidimensional wave digital filtering network for predicting static and dynamic behaviors of composite laminate based on the FSDT. The resultant network is, thus, an integrated platform that can perform not only the free vibration but also the bending deflection of moderate thick symmetric laminated plates with low plate side-to-thickness ratios (< = 20). Safeguarded by the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy stability condition with the least restriction in terms of optimization technique, the present method offers numerically high accuracy, stability and efficiency to proceed a wide range of modulus ratios for the FSDT laminated plates. Instead of using a constant shear correction factor (SCF) with a limited numerical accuracy for the bending deflection, an optimum SCF is particularly sought by looking for a minimum ratio of change in the transverse shear energy. This way, it can predict as good results in terms of accuracy for certain cases of bending deflection. Extensive simulation results carried out for the prediction of maximum bending deflection have demonstratively proven that the present method outperforms those based on the higher-order shear deformation and layerwise plate theories. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that shows an optimal selection of SCF can significantly increase the accuracy of FSDT-based laminates especially compared to the higher order theory disclaiming any correction. The highest accuracy of overall solution is compared to the 3D elasticity equilibrium one.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Toshio; Adachi, Naohito; Masuda, Kiyoshi
1998-01-01
In a design of a thick RC slab such as a basemat of a nuclear reactor building, the design method as same as for RC column is usually used. In this method, bending moment and axial force which are obtained by linear Finite Element Method (FEM) for external force are considered. But the assumption for linear FEM in which concrete participates for tensile stress is different from that for reinforcement design in which concrete does not participate for tensile stress. This difference of the assumption results that in-plane tensile strain at the center of the slab depth in the reinforcement design is larger than that in linear FEM. Some effects will appear in stress distribution if this tensile strain is constrained by boundary condition. In this paper, a practical method to evaluate the boundary constrain effects for this in-plane tensile strain is proposed and a simulation analysis of a thick reinforced concrete slab with a large opening for out-of-plane force is also reported. (author)
Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhang, Baile, E-mail: blzhang@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)
2016-01-25
We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk.
Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile
2016-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aistov, A.V.; Gavrilenko, V.G.
1996-01-01
The normal incidence of a small-amplitude electromagnetic wave upon a semi-infinite turbulent collisional plasm with an oblique external magnetic field is considered. Within a small-angle-scattering approximation of the radiative transport theory, a system of differential equations is derived for statistical moments of the angular power spectrum of radiation. The dependences of the spectrum centroid, dispersion, and asymmetry on the depth of penetration are studied numerically. The nonmonotonic behavior of the dispersion is revealed, and an increase in the spectrum width with absorption anisotropy is found within some depth interval. It is shown that, at large depths, the direction of the displacement of the spectrum centroid, does not always coincide with the direction of minimum absorption
Bending wave propagation of carbon nanotubes in a bi-parameter elastic matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, J.-X.; Li, X.-F.; Tang, G.-J.
2012-01-01
This article studies transverse waves propagating in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in a surrounding medium. The CNTs are modeled as a nonlocal elastic beam, whereas the surrounding medium is modeled as a bi-parameter elastic medium. When taking into account the effect of rotary inertia of cross-section, a governing equation is acquired. A comparison of wave speeds using the Rayleigh and Euler-Bernoulli theories of beams with the results of molecular dynamics simulation indicates that the nonlocal Rayleigh beam model is more adequate to describe flexural waves in CNTs than the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli model. The influences of the surrounding medium and rotary inertia on the phase speed for single-walled and double-walled CNTs are analyzed. Obtained results turn out that the surrounding medium plays a dominant role for lower wave numbers, while rotary inertia strongly affects the phase speed for higher wave numbers.
Bending wave propagation of carbon nanotubes in a bi-parameter elastic matrix
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, J.-X. [School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410075 (China); Li, X.-F., E-mail: xfli25@yahoo.com.cn [School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410075 (China); Tang, G.-J. [College of Aerospace and Materials Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)
2012-02-15
This article studies transverse waves propagating in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in a surrounding medium. The CNTs are modeled as a nonlocal elastic beam, whereas the surrounding medium is modeled as a bi-parameter elastic medium. When taking into account the effect of rotary inertia of cross-section, a governing equation is acquired. A comparison of wave speeds using the Rayleigh and Euler-Bernoulli theories of beams with the results of molecular dynamics simulation indicates that the nonlocal Rayleigh beam model is more adequate to describe flexural waves in CNTs than the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli model. The influences of the surrounding medium and rotary inertia on the phase speed for single-walled and double-walled CNTs are analyzed. Obtained results turn out that the surrounding medium plays a dominant role for lower wave numbers, while rotary inertia strongly affects the phase speed for higher wave numbers.
Li, X.; Gao, M.
2017-12-01
The magnitude of an earthquake is one of its basic parameters and is a measure of its scale. It plays a significant role in seismology and earthquake engineering research, particularly in the calculations of the seismic rate and b value in earthquake prediction and seismic hazard analysis. However, several current types of magnitudes used in seismology research, such as local magnitude (ML), surface wave magnitude (MS), and body-wave magnitude (MB), have a common limitation, which is the magnitude saturation phenomenon. Fortunately, the problem of magnitude saturation was solved by a formula for calculating the seismic moment magnitude (MW) based on the seismic moment, which describes the seismic source strength. Now the moment magnitude is very commonly used in seismology research. However, in China, the earthquake scale is primarily based on local and surface-wave magnitudes. In the present work, we studied the empirical relationships between moment magnitude (MW) and local magnitude (ML) as well as surface wave magnitude (MS) in the Chinese Mainland. The China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) ML catalog, China Seismograph Network (CSN) MS catalog, ANSS Comprehensive Earthquake Catalog (ComCat), and Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) are adopted to regress the relationships using the orthogonal regression method. The obtained relationships are as follows: MW=0.64+0.87MS; MW=1.16+0.75ML. Therefore, in China, if the moment magnitude of an earthquake is not reported by any agency in the world, we can use the equations mentioned above for converting ML to MW and MS to MW. These relationships are very important, because they will allow the China earthquake catalogs to be used more effectively for seismic hazard analysis, earthquake prediction, and other seismology research. We also computed the relationships of and (where Mo is the seismic moment) by linear regression using the Global Centroid Moment Tensor. The obtained relationships are as follows: logMo=18
Fisher, A. W.; Sanford, L. P.; Scully, M. E.
2016-12-01
Coherent wave-driven turbulence generated through wave breaking or nonlinear wave-current interactions, e.g. Langmuir turbulence (LT), can significantly enhance the downward transfer of momentum, kinetic energy, and dissolved gases in the oceanic surface layer. There are few observations of these processes in the estuarine or coastal environments, where wind-driven mixing may co-occur with energetic tidal mixing and strong density stratification. This presents a major challenge for evaluating vertical mixing parameterizations used in modeling estuarine and coastal dynamics. We carried out a large, multi-investigator study of wind-driven estuarine dynamics in the middle reaches of Chesapeake Bay, USA, during 2012-2013. The center of the observational array was an instrumented turbulence tower with both atmospheric and marine turbulence sensors as well as rapidly sampled temperature and conductivity sensors. For this paper, we examined the impacts of surface gravity waves on vertical profiles of turbulent mixing and compared our results to second-moment turbulence closure predictions. Wave and turbulence measurements collected from the vertical array of Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) provided direct estimates of the dominant terms in the TKE budget and the surface wave field. Observed dissipation rates, TKE levels, and turbulent length scales are compared to published scaling relations and used in the calculation of second-moment nonequilibrium stability functions. Results indicate that in the surface layer of the estuary, where elevated dissipation is balanced by vertical divergence in TKE flux, existing nonequilibrium stability functions underpredict observed eddy viscosities. The influences of wave breaking and coherent wave-driven turbulence on modeled and observed stability functions will be discussed further in the context of turbulent length scales, TKE and dissipation profiles, and the depth at which the wave-dominated turbulent transport layer
Biswas, Subhadip; Chattopadhyay, Rohitashwa; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.
2018-05-01
We consider the dynamics of a particle in a parametric oscillator with a view to exploring any quantum feature of the initial wave packet that shows divergent (in time) behaviour for parameter values where the classical motion dynamics of the mean position is bounded. We use Ehrenfest's theorem to explore the dynamics of nth order moment which reduces exactly to a linear non autonomous differential equation of order n + 1. It is found that while the width and skewness of the packet is unbounded exactly in the zones where the classical motion is unbounded, the kurtosis of an initially non-gaussian wave packet can become infinitely large in certain additional zones. This implies that the shape of the wave packet can change drastically with time in these zones.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chimera, G.; Aoudia, A.; Panza, G.F.; Sarao, A.
2002-06-01
We make a multiscale investigation of the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure and of the active tectonics along a stripe from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast, with emphasis on the Umbria-Marche area, by means of surface-wave tomography and inversion experiments for structure and seismic moment tensor retrieval. The data include: a large number of new local and regional group velocity measurements sampling the Umbria-Marche Apennines and the Adria margin respectively; new and published phase velocity measurements sampling Italy and surroundings; deep seismic soundings which, crossing the whole Peninsula from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coasts, go through the Umbria-Marche area. The local group velocity maps cover the area reactivated by the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence. These maps suggest an intimate relation between the lateral variations and distribution of the active fault systems and related sedimentary basins. Such relation is confirmed by the non-linear inversion of the local dispersion curves. To image the structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast, we fix the upper crust parameters consistently with our Umbria-Marche models and with pertinent deep seismic sounding data and invert the regional long period dispersion measurements. At a local scale, in the Umbria-Marche area, the retrieved models for the upper crust reveal the importance of the inherited compressional tectonics on the ongoing extensional deformation and related seismic activity. The lateral and in-depth structural changes in the upper crust are likely controlling fault segmentation and seismogenesis. Source inversion studies of the large crustal events of the 1997 earthquake sequence show the dominance of normal faulting mechanisms, whereas selected aftershocks between the fault segments reveal that the prevailing deformation at the step-over is of strike-slip faulting type and may control the lateral fault extent. At the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arima, Takashi, E-mail: tks@stat.nitech.ac.jp [Center for Social Contribution and Collaboration, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Mentrelli, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.mentrelli@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics (CIRAM), University of Bologna (Italy); Ruggeri, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.ruggeri@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics (CIRAM), University of Bologna (Italy)
2014-06-15
Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is characterized by two hierarchies of equations for moments of a suitable distribution function in which the internal degrees of freedom of a molecule is taken into account. On the basis of physical relevance the truncation orders of the two hierarchies are proven to be not independent on each other, and the closure procedures based on the maximum entropy principle (MEP) and on the entropy principle (EP) are proven to be equivalent. The characteristic velocities of the emerging hyperbolic system of differential equations are compared to those obtained for monatomic gases and the lower bound estimate for the maximum equilibrium characteristic velocity established for monatomic gases (characterized by only one hierarchy for moments with truncation order of moments N) by Boillat and Ruggeri (1997) (λ{sub (N)}{sup E,max})/(c{sub 0}) ⩾√(6/5 (N−1/2 )),(c{sub 0}=√(5/3 k/m T)) is proven to hold also for rarefied polyatomic gases independently from the degrees of freedom of a molecule. -- Highlights: •Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is studied. •The relation between two hierarchies of equations for moments is derived. •The equivalence of maximum entropy principle and entropy principle is proven. •The characteristic velocities are compared to those of monatomic gases. •The lower bound of the maximum characteristic velocity is estimated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arima, Takashi; Mentrelli, Andrea; Ruggeri, Tommaso
2014-01-01
Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is characterized by two hierarchies of equations for moments of a suitable distribution function in which the internal degrees of freedom of a molecule is taken into account. On the basis of physical relevance the truncation orders of the two hierarchies are proven to be not independent on each other, and the closure procedures based on the maximum entropy principle (MEP) and on the entropy principle (EP) are proven to be equivalent. The characteristic velocities of the emerging hyperbolic system of differential equations are compared to those obtained for monatomic gases and the lower bound estimate for the maximum equilibrium characteristic velocity established for monatomic gases (characterized by only one hierarchy for moments with truncation order of moments N) by Boillat and Ruggeri (1997) (λ (N) E,max )/(c 0 ) ⩾√(6/5 (N−1/2 )),(c 0 =√(5/3 k/m T)) is proven to hold also for rarefied polyatomic gases independently from the degrees of freedom of a molecule. -- Highlights: •Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is studied. •The relation between two hierarchies of equations for moments is derived. •The equivalence of maximum entropy principle and entropy principle is proven. •The characteristic velocities are compared to those of monatomic gases. •The lower bound of the maximum characteristic velocity is estimated
Baek, Tae Hyun
Photoelasticity is one of the most widely used whole-field optical methods for stress analysis. The technique of birefringent coatings, also called the method of photoelastic coatings, extends the classical procedures of model photoelasticity to the measurement of surface strains in opaque models made of any structural material. Photoelastic phase-shifting method can be used for the determination of the phase values of isochromatics and isoclinics. In this paper, photoelastic phase-shifting technique and conventional Babinet-Soleil compensation method were utilized to analyze a specimen with a triangular hole and a circular hole under bending. Photoelastic phase-shifting technique is whole-field measurement. On the other hand, conventional compensation method is point measurement. Three groups of results were obtained by phase-shifting method with reflective polariscope arrangement, conventional compensation method and FEM simulation, respectively. The results from the first two methods agree with each other relatively well considering experiment error. The advantage of photoelastic phase-shifting method is that it is possible to measure the stress distribution accurately close to the edge of holes.
Wave Loads on Ships Sailing in Restricted Water Depth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2003-01-01
depth for a container vessel. The results show that if the water depth is less than two times the draft of the vessel, the wave-induced bending moment becomes significant larger than in deep water with the same sea state description. The peak in the frequency response function for the wave bending......The wave-induced bending moment in ships is the most important sea load parameter for ships larger than 100m in length. Hence, any rational ship design procedure must include a reasonable accurate determination of this load and a large amount of various hydrodynamic formulations have been published......, ranging from semi-empirical formulas to three-dimensional non-linear procedures. A review of the state-of-the art can be found in ISSC.VI.1 (2000). These procedures must be combined with operational and sea state information to predict the probability distribution of the maximum wave-induced bending...
Vallée, M.; Charléty, J.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Delouis, B.; Vergoz, J.
2011-01-01
Accurate and fast magnitude determination for large, shallow earthquakes is of key importance for post-seismic response and tsumami alert purposes. When no local real-time data are available, which is today the case for most subduction earthquakes, the first information comes from teleseismic body waves. Standard body-wave methods give accurate magnitudes for earthquakes up to Mw= 7-7.5. For larger earthquakes, the analysis is more complex, because of the non-validity of the point-source approximation and of the interaction between direct and surface-reflected phases. The latter effect acts as a strong high-pass filter, which complicates the magnitude determination. We here propose an automated deconvolutive approach, which does not impose any simplifying assumptions about the rupture process, thus being well adapted to large earthquakes. We first determine the source duration based on the length of the high frequency (1-3 Hz) signal content. The deconvolution of synthetic double-couple point source signals—depending on the four earthquake parameters strike, dip, rake and depth—from the windowed real data body-wave signals (including P, PcP, PP, SH and ScS waves) gives the apparent source time function (STF). We search the optimal combination of these four parameters that respects the physical features of any STF: causality, positivity and stability of the seismic moment at all stations. Once this combination is retrieved, the integration of the STFs gives directly the moment magnitude. We apply this new approach, referred as the SCARDEC method, to most of the major subduction earthquakes in the period 1990-2010. Magnitude differences between the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) and the SCARDEC method may reach 0.2, but values are found consistent if we take into account that the Global CMT solutions for large, shallow earthquakes suffer from a known trade-off between dip and seismic moment. We show by modelling long-period surface waves of these events that
Frohn, Peter; Engel, Bernd; Groth, Sebastian
2018-05-01
Kinematic forming processes shape geometries by the process parameters to achieve a more universal process utilizations regarding geometric configurations. The kinematic forming process Incremental Swivel Bending (ISB) bends sheet metal strips or profiles in plane. The sequence for bending an arc increment is composed of the steps clamping, bending, force release and feed. The bending moment is frictionally engaged by two clamping units in a laterally adjustable bending pivot. A minimum clamping force hindering the material from slipping through the clamping units is a crucial criterion to achieve a well-defined incremental arc. Therefore, an analytic description of a singular bent increment is developed in this paper. The bending moment is calculated by the uniaxial stress distribution over the profiles' width depending on the bending pivot's position. By a Coulomb' based friction model, necessary clamping force is described in dependence of friction, offset, dimensions of the clamping tools and strip thickness as well as material parameters. Boundaries for the uniaxial stress calculation are given in dependence of friction, tools' dimensions and strip thickness. The results indicate that changing the bending pivot to an eccentric position significantly affects the process' bending moment and, hence, clamping force, which is given in dependence of yield stress and hardening exponent. FE simulations validate the model with satisfactory accordance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1983-06-01
The new experimental values of hyperon magnetic moments are compared with sum rules predicted from general quark models. Three difficulties are encountered which are not easily explained by simple models. The isovector contributions of nonstrange quarks to hyperon moments are smaller than the corresponding contribution to nucleon moments, indicating either appreciable configuration mixing present in hyperon wave functions and absent in nucleons or an additional isovector contribution beyond that of valence quarks; e.g. from a pion cloud. The large magnitude of the ω - moment may indicate that the strange quark contribution to the ω moments is considerably larger than the value μ(#betta#) predicted by simple models which have otherwise been very successful. The set of controversial values from different experiments of the μ - moment include a value very close to -(1/2)μ(μ + ) which would indicate that strange quarks do not contribute at all to the μ moments. (author)
Measurements in a container ship of wave-induced hull girder stresses in excess of design values
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2014-01-01
This paper describes full-scale measurements of the wave-induced vertical bending moment amidships a 9400 TEU container carrier and focuses on the effect of the hydro-elastic high-frequency vibration on the extreme hogging wave bending moment. One extreme event, where the vertical wave-induced ho...... is quite significant. Finally, the hydro-elastic behaviour of the hull girder is assessed by simple approximations using the measured statistical properties and closed-form expressions and the agreement with the actual measurements is found to be good. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loth, S.
2007-10-26
This thesis reports measurements of single dopant atoms in III-V semiconductors with low temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS). It investigates the anisotropic spatial distribution of acceptor induced tunneling processes at the {l_brace}110{r_brace} cleavage planes. Two different tunneling processes are identified: conventional imaging of the squared acceptor wave function and resonant tunneling at the charged acceptor. A thorough analysis of the tip induced space charge layers identifies characteristic bias windows for each tunnel process. The symmetry of the host crystal's band structure determines the spatial distribution of the tunneling paths for both processes. Symmetry reducing effects at the surface are responsible for a pronounced asymmetry of the acceptor contrasts along the principal [001] axis. Uniaxial strain fields due to surface relaxation and spin orbit interaction of the tip induced electric field are discussed on the basis of band structure calculations. High-resolution STS studies of acceptor atoms in an operating p-i-n diode confirm that an electric field indeed changes the acceptor contrasts. In conclusion, the anisotropic contrasts of acceptors are created by the host crystal's band structure and concomitant symmetry reduction effects at the surface. (orig.)
Experimental Study of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Marchalot, Tanguy
This report presents the results of an experimental study on the power conversion capabilities and structural loads of the WEPTOS wave energy converter. The investigation focuses mainly at identifying the performance of the WEPTOS prototype in a wide range of production wave states...... and at the mooring forces and structural bending moments in extreme wave conditions, in order to estimate the performance and structural loads of larger WEPTOS machines being located at various offshore locations of interest. The following aspects were the main subjects of investigation: Performance of the prototype...... under a constant and linear PTO loading, the opening angle of the device, the effect of alterations to the wave conditions, and mooring forces and structural bending moments in production and extreme wave states. During the study, a highly realistic scale model was supplied by the client, WEPTOS, which...
Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W
1958-01-01
Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondratyuk, L.A.; Krivoruchenko, M.I.; Shchepkin, M.G.
1986-01-01
The magnetic moment of the six-quark bag with the deuteron quantum numbers is calculated in the chiral bag model taking into account the gluonic and the pionic corrections. For the six-quark bag radius R 6q =1.18-1.38 fm (corresponding to the nucleon bag radius R 3q =0.8-1.0 fm) the magnetic moment equals m D 6q =1.17-1.23 nuclear magnetons. This result together with the deuteron magnetic momentum data provides a restraint upon the six-quark bag admixture in the deuteron P B < or approx. 3%. This value is a few times lower than the probability that two nucleons are in the range r < 1.4 fm. Therefore, it may be interpreted as an evidence for a considerable difference between the properties of the effective bag in the deuteron and of the MIT bag
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivoruchenko, M.I.
1985-01-01
In chiral bag model an expression is obtained for the quark wave functions with account of color and pion interaction of quarks. The quadrupole moments of nonstrange hadrons are calculated. Quadrupole moment of nucleon isobar is found to be Q(Δ)=-6.3x10 -28 esub(Δ)(cm)sup(2). Fredictions of the chiral bag model are in strong disagreement with the non-relativistic quark model
In-plane and out-of-plane bending tests on carbon steel pipe bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brouard, D.; Tremblais, A.; Vrillon, B.
1979-01-01
The objectives of these tests were to obtain experimental results on bends behaviour in elastic and plastic regime by in plane and out of plane bending. Results were used to improve the computer model, for large distorsion of bends, to be used in a simplified beam type computer code for piping calculations. Tests were made on type ANSI B 169 DN 5 bends in ASTM A 106 Grade B carbon steel. These tests made it possible to measure, for identical bends, in elastic regime, the flexibility factors and, in plastic regime, the total evolution in opening, in closing and out of plane. Flexibility factors of 180 0 bend without flanges are approximately the same in opening and in closing. The end effect due to flanges is not very significant, but it is important for 90 0 bends. In plastic regime, collapse loads or collapse moments of bends depends also of both the end effects and the angle bend. The end effects and the angle bend are more sensitive in opening than in closing. The interest of these tests is to procure some precise evolution curves of identical bends well characterized in geometry and metal strength, deflected in large distorsions. (orig./HP)
Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik
2008-01-01
A shell structure of glass combines a highly effective structural principle with a material of optimal permeability to light. A facetted shell structure has a piecewise plane geometry, and together the facets form an approximation to a curved surface. A distributed load on a plane-based facetted...... structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions...
Wave Induced Stresses Measured at the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Corona, L.; Kofoed, Jens Peter
2006-01-01
The paper describes the wave induced loading on the overtopping based wave energy converter Wave Dragon. Focus is put on the junction between the main body and the reflector, also called the "shoulder part", where large cross sectional forces and bending moments acts. There are two main objectives...... for this paper, first to verify the FEM results obtained by Niras, Danish society in charge of the finite element modelling and structural design, and then to make a first experimental fatigue analysis of a particular part of the Wave Dragon. This last part shall be considered as an exercise for the further work...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton; Ching-Pang Liu
2002-03-29
Nuclear anapole moments are parity-odd, time-reversal-even E1 moments of the electromagnetic current operator. Although the existence of this moment was recognized theoretically soon after the discovery of parity nonconservation (PNC), its experimental isolation was achieved only recently, when a new level of precision was reached in a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in 133Cs. An important anapole moment bound in 205Tl also exists. In this paper, we present the details of the first calculation of these anapole moments in the framework commonly used in other studies of hadronic PNC, a meson exchange potential that includes long-range pion exchange and enough degrees of freedom to describe the five independent S-P amplitudes induced by short-range interactions. The resulting contributions of pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange to the single-nucleon anapole moment, to parity admixtures in the nuclear ground state, and to PNC exchange currents are evaluated, using configuration-mixed shell-model wave functions. The experimental anapole moment constraints on the PNC meson-nucleon coupling constants are derived and compared with those from other tests of the hadronic weak interaction. While the bounds obtained from the anapole moment results are consistent with the broad ''reasonable ranges'' defined by theory, they are not in good agreement with the constraints from the other experiments. We explore possible explanations for the discrepancy and comment on the potential importance of new experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton; Ching-Pang Liu
2002-01-01
Nuclear anapole moments are parity-odd, time-reversal-even E1 moments of the electromagnetic current operator. Although the existence of this moment was recognized theoretically soon after the discovery of parity nonconservation (PNC), its experimental isolation was achieved only recently, when a new level of precision was reached in a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in 133Cs. An important anapole moment bound in 205Tl also exists. In this paper, we present the details of the first calculation of these anapole moments in the framework commonly used in other studies of hadronic PNC, a meson exchange potential that includes long-range pion exchange and enough degrees of freedom to describe the five independent S-P amplitudes induced by short-range interactions. The resulting contributions of pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange to the single-nucleon anapole moment, to parity admixtures in the nuclear ground state, and to PNC exchange currents are evaluated, using configuration-mixed shell-model wave functions. The experimental anapole moment constraints on the PNC meson-nucleon coupling constants are derived and compared with those from other tests of the hadronic weak interaction. While the bounds obtained from the anapole moment results are consistent with the broad ''reasonable ranges'' defined by theory, they are not in good agreement with the constraints from the other experiments. We explore possible explanations for the discrepancy and comment on the potential importance of new experiments
Comparison of different nail bending apparatus
Vianen, H.P.C.A.; Schot, F.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.
1992-01-01
A research to develope a registrated testmethod to define the allowable bending moment of a nail was started in spring of this year. A request for a registrated testmethod is caused by the final project of ir. H.P.C.A. Vianen ‘s study. The consequence of developing new codes in The Netherlands and
Prediction of Vertical-Plane Wave Loading and Ship Responses in High Seas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Z.; Xia, J.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2000-01-01
The non-linearities in wave- and slamming-induced rigid-body motions and structural responses of ships such as heave, pitch and vertical bending moments are consistently investigated based on a rational time-domain strip method. A hydrodynamic model for predicting sectional green water force is a...
Lundquist, Eugene E; Stowell, Elbridge Z
1942-01-01
An analysis is presented of the results of tests made by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on an investigation of the strength of thin-walled circular and elliptic cylinders in pure bending and in combined torsion and bending. In each of the loading conditions, the bending moments were applied in the plane of the major axis of the ellipse.
Extreme wave impacts on monopiles: Re-analysis of experimental data by a coupled CFD solver
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe
2017-01-01
Two different numerical models, OceanWave3D and a coupled solver, OceanWave3D-OpenFOAM (Waves2Foam), are used to reproduce extreme events in one sea state. The events are chosen as, the measured event that generates the largest peak moment (exceedance probability of 0.05%) and one event with a sl...... agreement with the measurements. The secondary load cycles are observed in the measured force and bending moment time series and the reproduced times series using OpenFOAM....
Wada, N.; Kawakata, H.; Murakami, O.; Doi, I.; Yoshimitsu, N.; Nakatani, M.; Yabe, Y.; Naoi, M. M.; Miyakawa, K.; Miyake, H.; Ide, S.; Igarashi, T.; Morema, G.; Pinder, E.; Ogasawara, H.
2011-12-01
Scaling relationship between corner frequencies, fc, and seismic moments, Mo is an important clue to understand the seismic source characteristics. Aki (1967) showed that Mo is proportional to fc-3 for large earthquakes (cubic law). Iio (1986) claimed breakdown of the cubic law between fc and Mo for smaller earthquakes (Mw law holds even for micro earthquakes (-1 4) by using high quality data observed at a deep borehole (Abercrombie, 1995; Ogasawara et al., 2001; Hiramatsu et al., 2002; Yamada et al., 2007). In order to clarify the scaling relationship for smaller earthquakes (Mw Africa. We used 4 tri-axial accelerometers of three-component that have a flat response up to 25 kHz. They were installed to be 10 to 30 meters apart from each other at 3,300 meters deep. During the period from 2008/10/14 to 2008/10/30 (17 days), 8,927 events were recorded. We estimated fc and Mo for 60 events (-3 Common practice is using direct waves from adjacent events. However, there were only 5 event pairs with the distance between them less than 20 meters and Mw difference over one. In addition, the observation array is very small (radius less than 30 m), which means that effects of directivity and radiation pattern on direct waves are similar at all stations. Hence, we used spectral ratio of coda waves, since these effects are averaged and will be effectively reduced (Mayeda et al., 2007; Somei et al., 2010). Coda analysis was attempted only for relatively large 20 events (we call "coda events" hereafter) that have coda energy large enough for analysis. The results agree with those of the direct S-wave analysis for the same events, though the latter showed more scattering in fc-Mo trend. So, we combine the results from the both analyses to examine the fc-Mo trend down to very small events. Therefore, we adopted fc and (relative) Mo estimated from coda spectral ratios for coda events, while we adopted them from direct spectra for other events despite of their lower reliability. We
KIN SP: A boundary element method based code for single pile kinematic bending in layered soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Stacul
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In high seismicity areas, it is important to consider kinematic effects to properly design pile foundations. Kinematic effects are due to the interaction between pile and soil deformations induced by seismic waves. One of the effect is the arise of significant strains in weak soils that induce bending moments on piles. These moments can be significant in presence of a high stiffness contrast in a soil deposit. The single pile kinematic interaction problem is generally solved with beam on dynamic Winkler foundation approaches (BDWF or using continuous models. In this work, a new boundary element method (BEM based computer code (KIN SP is presented where the kinematic analysis is preceded by a free-field response analysis. The analysis results of this method, in terms of bending moments at the pile-head and at the interface of a two-layered soil, are influenced by many factors including the soil–pile interface discretization. A parametric study is presented with the aim to suggest the minimum number of boundary elements to guarantee the accuracy of a BEM solution, for typical pile–soil relative stiffness values as a function of the pile diameter, the location of the interface of a two-layered soil and of the stiffness contrast. KIN SP results have been compared with simplified solutions in literature and with those obtained using a quasi-three-dimensional (3D finite element code.
2002-01-01
A Japanese team has found a way to bend and shape silicon substrates by growing a thin layer of diamond on top. The technique has been proposed as an alternative to mechanical bending, which is currently used to make reflective lenses for X-ray systems and particle physics systems (2 paragraphs).
Occipital bending in schizophrenia.
Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B
2017-01-01
To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.
Springing Response Due to Directional Wave Field Excitation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2004-01-01
This paper analyses the wave-induced high-frequency bending moment response of ships, denoted springing. The aim is to predict measured severe springing responses in a large bulk carrier. It is shown that the most important springing contribution is due to the resultant second order excitation...... in multidirectional sea. The incident pressure field from the second order bidirectional wave field is derived, including the non-linear cross-coupling terms between the two wave systems (e.g. wind driven waves and swell). The resulting effect of the super-harmonic cross-coupling interaction terms on the springing...... response is discussed. An example with opposing waves is given, representing probably the 'worst' case for energy exchange between the wave systems. Theoretical predictions of standard deviation of wave- and springing-induced stress amidships are compared with full-scale measurements for a bulk carrier....
On the baryon magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, P.L.
1976-01-01
In the context of quark confinement ideas, the baryon magnetic moments are calculated by assuming a SU(3) breaking due to the inequalities of the quark masses (m sub(p) different m sub(n) different m lambda ). The modified SU(6) result for the ratio of the magnetic moments of the neutron and proton is obtained. The p-quark is found heavier than the n-quark by circa 15 MeV. and alternative way of evaluating the baryon magnetic moments by means of simple physical considerations based on the properties of the SU(6) baryon S-waves functions is given
Experimental verification of a weak zone model for timber in bending
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Källsner, B.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Salmela, K.
1997-01-01
In order to verify a stochastic model for the variation of bending strength within and between structural timber members, tests with long members subjected to constant bending moment have been performed. The span with constant moment contained between five and nine weak zones, i.e. zones...... with a cluster of knots. In a previous investigation test specimens, each containing one weak zone, have been tested in bending separately. Based on these tests a hierarchical model with two levels was formulated. The test results show that the bending strength of the long timber members on the average is 5...
Bending-active reciprocal structures based on equilateral polyhedral geometries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popovic Larsen, Olga; BRANCART, Stijn; DE TEMMERMAN, Niels
2017-01-01
As mutually supported beam structures, reciprocal frames limit the number of components that are joined at each connection to two. However, this system of intermediate connections introduces undesirable bending moments in the beam elements. By utilising elastic deformation to create curved...... of parts of reciprocal bending-active components based on a selection of polyhedral dome types. To simplify the assembly of the structures and avoid the manual bending of the components on site, we introduce the concept of a double-layered, pre-bent component. Finally, this paper presents the development...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muller, Norbert; Piechna, Janusz; Sun, Guangwei; Parraga, Pablo-Francisco
2018-01-02
A wave disc engine apparatus is provided. A further aspect employs a constricted nozzle in a wave rotor channel. A further aspect provides a sharp bend between an inlet and an outlet in a fluid pathway of a wave rotor, with the bend being spaced away from a peripheral edge of the wave rotor. A radial wave rotor for generating electricity in an automotive vehicle is disclosed in yet another aspect.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silveirinha, Mario G.; Engheta, Nader
2007-01-01
In this work, we investigate the detailed theory of the supercoupling, anomalous tunneling effect, and field confinement originally identified by Silveirinha and Engheta [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157403 (2006)], where we demonstrated the possibility of using materials with permittivity ε near zero to drastically improve the transmission of electromagnetic energy through a narrow irregular channel with very subwavelength transverse cross section. Here, we present additional physical insights, describe applications of the tunneling effect in relevant waveguide scenarios (e.g., the 'perfect' or 'super' waveguide coupling), and study the effect of metal losses in the metallic walls and the possibility of using near-zero ε materials to confine energy in a subwavelength cavity with gigantic field enhancement. In addition, we systematically study the propagation of electromagnetic waves through narrow channels filled with anisotropic near-zero ε materials. It is demonstrated that these materials may have interesting potentials, and that for some particular geometries, the reflectivity of the channel is independent of the specific dimensions or parameters of near-zero ε transition. We also describe several realistic metamaterial implementations of the studied problems, based on standard metallic waveguides, microstrip line configurations, and wire media
Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake
Ellis, J. M.
1986-01-01
Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.
Photoelastic investigation of the stresses in mitred bent-cylinders under bending, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawa, Yoshiaki
1984-01-01
The states of stress distribution in mitred bend subjected to inplane uniform bending moment have been studied systematically by means of photoelastic stress freezing method. The relations between the stress concentration factor of fiber stress σsub(l) and of hoop stress σsub(theta) near the bent part and the angle of mitred bend are thoroughly investigated. The effects of fillet radius of the bent-part and wall thickness on the stress concentration factors are also discussed. (author)
Occipital bending in depression.
Maller, Jerome J; Thomson, Richard H S; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Anderson, Rodney; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B
2014-06-01
There are reports of differences in occipital lobe asymmetry within psychiatric populations when compared with healthy control subjects. Anecdotal evidence and enlarged lateral ventricles suggests that there may also be a different pattern of curvature whereby one occipital lobe wraps around the other, termed 'occipital bending'. We investigated the prevalence of occipital bending in 51 patients with major depressive disorder (males mean age = 41.96 ± 14.00 years, females mean age = 40.71 ± 12.41 years) and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (males mean age = 40.29 ± 10.23 years, females mean age = 42.47 ± 14.25 years) and found the prevalence to be three times higher among patients with major depressive disorder (18/51, 35.3%) when compared with control subjects (6/48, 12.5%). The results suggest that occipital bending is more common among patients with major depressive disorder than healthy subjects, and that occipital asymmetry and occipital bending are separate phenomena. Incomplete neural pruning may lead to the cranial space available for brain growth being restricted, or ventricular enlargement may exacerbate the natural occipital curvature patterns, subsequently causing the brain to become squashed and forced to 'wrap' around the other occipital lobe. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, they provide an impetus for further research into the relevance of occipital bending in major depression disorder. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miloud Abdelkrim
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds–Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations. The performances of standard k-ε and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.
Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend
Miloud, Abdelkrim; Aounallah, Mohammed; Belkadi, Mustapha; Adjlout, Lahouari; Imine, Omar; Imine, Bachir
2014-03-01
Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The performances of standard k-ɛ and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.
Wave-induced Ship Hull Vibrations in Stochastic Seaways
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Dogliani, M.
1996-01-01
A theoretical Study is undertaken on the determination of wave-induced loads in flexible ship hulls. The calculations are performed within the framework of a non-linear, quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. Included are non-linear effects due to changes in added mass......, hydrodynamic damping and water line breadth with sectional immersion in waves. The study is limited to continuous excitations from the waves and thus transient so-called whipping vibrations due to slamming loads are not considered.Because of the non-linearities the ship hull responses become non...... to the large separation between dominating wave frequencies and the lowest two-node frequency of the hull beam. Both extreme value predictions and fatigue damage are considered.For a fast container ship the rigid body and two-node (springing) vertical wave-induced bending moments amidship are calculated...
CERN PhotoLab
1980-01-01
The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipole (bending magnets; BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The BLG had a steel length of 4.70 m, a good field width of 0.24 m, and a weight of about 70 t. Jean-Claude Brunet inspects the lower half of a BLG. For the BST magnets see 7811105 and 8006036.
The continuous structure bending of the three-layer plate with the lightweight aggregate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuravlev Alexander
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of finding the effective way to solve the task of the composite construction bending of the three-layer plate with the lightweight aggregate, which operates on a continuous pattern. The expressions for the parameters determination, regarding a reduction of support bending moments due to the shear deformation of the middle layer, are given. The three-membered structure equation, connecting three bending moments, occurring above three adjacent pillars of the continuous three-layer beam, is obtained based on the condition of the movement compatibility.
Yang, Rui; Hu, Bowei; Zhang, Aofang; Gao, Dongxing; Wang, Hui; Shi, Ayuan; Lei, Zhenya; Yang, Pei
2017-03-21
Transmission properties through sharp rectangular waveguide bends are investigated to determine the cut-off bending angles of the wave propagation. We show that a simple metallic diaphragm at the bending corner with properly devised sub-wavelength defect apertures of C-slits would be readily to turn on the transmissions with scarce reflections of the propagating modes, while preserving the integrity of the transmitting fields soon after the bends. In particularly, our design also demonstrates the capability of eliminating all the unwanted cavity resonant transmissions that exist in the three-dimensional cascade sharp waveguide bends, and solely let the desired signals travel along the whole passage of the waveguide. The present approach, using C-slit diaphragms to support the sharp bending behaviors of the guided waves with greatly enhanced transmissions, would be especially effective in constructing novel waveguides and pave the way for the development of more compact and miniaturized electromagnetic systems that exploit these waveguide bends.
Assembling Transgender Moments
Greteman, Adam J.
2017-01-01
In this article, the author seeks to assemble moments--scholarly, popular, and aesthetic--in order to explore the possibilities that emerge as moments collect in education's encounters with the needs, struggles, and possibilities of transgender lives and practices. Assembling moments, the author argues, illustrates the value of "moments"…
On damping of screw dislocation bending vibrations in dissipative crystal: limiting cases
Dezhin, V. V.
2018-03-01
The expression for the generalized susceptibility of the dislocation obtained earlier was used. The electronic drag mechanism of dislocations is considered. The study of small dislocation oscillations was limited. The contribution of the attenuation of low-frequency bending screw dislocation vibrations to the overall coefficient of dynamic dislocation drag in the long-wave and short-wave limits is calculated. The damping of short-wave bending screw dislocation vibrations caused by an external action of an arbitrary frequency has been investigated. The contribution of long-wave bending screw dislocation vibrations damping in the total drag coefficient at an arbitrary frequency is found.
Electric moments in molecule interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eibenberger, Sandra; Gerlich, Stefan; Arndt, Markus; Tuexen, Jens; Mayor, Marcel
2011-01-01
We investigate the influence of different electric moments on the shift and dephasing of molecules in a matter wave interferometer. Firstly, we provide a quantitative comparison of two molecules that are non-polar yet polarizable in their thermal ground state and that differ in their stiffness and response to thermal excitations. While C 25 H 20 is rather rigid, its larger derivative C 49 H 16 F 52 is additionally equipped with floppy side chains and vibrationally activated dipole moment variations. Secondly, we elucidate the role of a permanent electric dipole momentby contrasting the quantum interference pattern of a (nearly) non-polar and a polar porphyrin derivative. We find that a high molecular polarizability and even sizeable dipole moment fluctuations are still well compatible with high-contrast quantum interference fringes. The presence of permanent electric dipole moments, however, can lead to a dephasing and rapid degradation of the quantum fringe pattern already at moderate electric fields. This finding is of high relevance for coherence experiments with large organic molecules, which are generally equipped with strong electric moments.
The effect of cracks on the limit load of pipe bends under in-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J.E.
1976-06-01
The limit analysis of the in-plane bending of curved tubes had received attention previously, but the effect of defects in the tube has not been considered. A lower bound has been established which, with no defects present, is in agreement with previous theoretical work. The method of linear programming allows cracks to be introduced into analysis, and results have been obtained for various geometries of defect. The results show that the presence of cracks in the pipe bend can have a marked effect on the theoretical limit load: a part-through crack penetrating only half the wall thickness will reduce the limit moment by up to 10%. The worst possible case of a through-crack may reduce the limit load by 60%. (author)
The effect of cracks on the limit load of pipe bends under in-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J.E.
1976-06-01
The limit analysis of the in-plane bending of curved tubes had received attention previously, but the effect of defects in the tube has not been considered. A lower bound is established, which, with no defects present, is in agreement with previous theoretical work. The method of linear programming allows cracks to be introduced into the analysis. and results have been obtained for various geometries of defect. The results show that the presence of cracks in the pipe bend can have a marked effect on the theoretical limit load: a part-through crack penetrating only half the wall thickness will reduce the limit moment by up to 10%. The worst possible case of a through-crack may reduce the limit load by 60% (author)
AGS superconducting bending magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.; McInturff, A.D.; Dahl, P.F.; Abbatiello, F.; Aggus, J.; Bamberger, J.; Brown, D.; Damm, R.; Kassner, D.; Lasky, C.; Schlafke, A.
1976-01-01
Four large aperture superconducting bending magnets are being built for use in the experimental beams at the AGS. Each of these magnets is 2.5 m long and has a room temperature aperture of 20 cm. The magnets are similar in design to the dipoles being developed for ISABELLE and employ a low temperature iron core. Results are presented on the ''training'' behavior of the magnets and a comparison will be made with the smaller aperture versions of this design. The magnet field measurements include end fields and leakage fields as well as the harmonic components of the straight section of the magnet
Total Longitudinal Moment Calculation and Reliability Analysis of Yacht Structures
Zhi, Wenzheng; Lin, Shaofen
In order to check the reliability of the yacht in FRP (Fiber Reinforce Plastic) materials, in this paper, the vertical force and the calculation method of the overall longitudinal bending moment on yacht was analyzed. Specially, this paper focuses on the impact of speed on the still water bending moment on yacht. Then considering the mechanical properties of the cap type stiffeners in composite materials, the ultimate bearing capacity of the yacht has been worked out, finally the reliability of the yacht was calculated with using response surface methodology. The result can be used in yacht design and yacht driving.
Effect of confinements: Bending in Paramecium
Eddins, Aja; Yang, Sung; Spoon, Corrie; Jung, Sunghwan
2012-02-01
Paramecium is a unicellular eukaryote which by coordinated beating of cilia, generates metachronal waves which causes it to execute a helical trajectory. We investigate the swimming parameters of the organism in rectangular PDMS channels and try to quantify its behavior. Surprisingly a swimming Paramecium in certain width of channels executes a bend of its flexible body (and changes its direction of swimming) by generating forces using the cilia. Considering a simple model of beam constrained between two walls, we predict the bent shapes of the organism and the forces it exerts on the walls. Finally we try to explain how bending (by sensing) can occur in channels by conducting experiments in thin film of fluid and drawing analogy to swimming behavior observed in different cases.
Measuring device for bending of beryllium reflector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishida, Seiri; Sakamoto, Naoki.
1994-01-01
The device of the present invention can measure bending of a beryllium reflector formed in a reactor core of a nuclear reactor by a relatively easy operation. Namely, a sensor portion comprises a long-support that can be inserted to a fuel element-insertion hole disposed in the reactor and a plurality of distance sensors disposed in a longitudinal direction of the support. A supersonic wave sensor which is advantageous in the heat resistance, the size and the accuracy and can conduct measurement in water relatively easily is used as the distance sensors. However, other sensors, instead of the sensor described above, may also be used. The plurality of distance sensors detect the bending amount of the beryllium reflector in the longitudinal direction by such an easy operation of inserting such a sensor portion to the fuel element-insertion hole upon exchange of fuel elements. (I.S.)
On the Influence of Hull Girder Flexibility on the Wave
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seng, Sopheak; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2012-01-01
Numerical predictions and model test results of the wave induced bending moments in a 9,400 TEU post-Panamax container vessel are presented for two regular wave scenarios. Different numerical procedures have been applied: a linear and non-linear time-domain strip theory and a direct calculation (...... (CFD) solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the free surface captured by a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. In all procedures the flexibility of the hull girder is modelled as a non-uniform Timoshenko beam. It is observed that the non-linear models agree well with the model tests...... and as there is no occurrence of severe slamming in the cases considered, the inexpensive non-linear strip theory is as accurate as the direct CFD calculation method. In a comparison with the results using the rigid body assumption, the increase in the vertical bending moment (VBM) amidships due to the flexibility of the hull...... girder is found to be approximately 7% (peak-to-peak amplitude) in general. The non-linear responses, however, contain over-harmonic frequencies which may coincide with the natural frequency of the two-node vertical bending mode inducing resonance. In that case the hull girder flexibility causes...
Inclusion of Structural Flexibility in Design Load Analysis for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-08-14
Hydroelastic interactions, caused by ocean wave loading on wave energy devices with deformable structures, are studied in the time domain. A midfidelity, hybrid modeling approach of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics is developed and implemented in an open-source simulation tool for wave energy converters (WEC-Sim) to simulate the dynamic responses of wave energy converter component structural deformations under wave loading. A generalized coordinate system, including degrees of freedom associated with rigid bodies, structural modes, and constraints connecting multiple bodies, is utilized. A simplified method of calculating stress loads and sectional bending moments is implemented, with the purpose of sizing and designing wave energy converters. Results calculated using the method presented are verified with those of high-fidelity fluid-structure interaction simulations, as well as low-fidelity, frequency-domain, boundary element method analysis.
Ankle-foot orthosis bending axis influences running mechanics.
Russell Esposito, Elizabeth; Ranz, Ellyn C; Schmidtbauer, Kelly A; Neptune, Richard R; Wilken, Jason M
2017-07-01
Passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to improve locomotion for people with lower limb musculoskeletal weakness. The clinical prescription and design process are typically qualitative and based on observational assessment and experience. Prior work examining the effect of AFO design characteristics generally excludes higher impact activities such as running, providing clinicians and researchers limited information to guide the development of objective prescription guidelines. The proximal location of the bending axis may directly influence energy storage and return and resulting running mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine if the location of an AFO's bending axis influences running mechanics. Marker and force data were recorded as 12 participants with lower extremity weakness ran overground while wearing a passive-dynamic AFO with posterior struts manufactured with central (middle) and off-centered (high and low) bending axes. Lower extremity joint angles, moments, powers, and ground reaction forces were calculated and compared between limbs and across bending axis conditions. Bending axis produced relatively small but significant changes. Ankle range of motion increased as the bending axis shifted distally (pbenefits during running, although individual preference and physical ability should also be considered. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bend testing for miniature disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, F.H.; Hamilton, M.L.; Wire, G.L.
1982-01-01
A bend test was developed to obtain ductility measurements on a large number of alloy variants being irradiated in the form of miniature disks. Experimental results were shown to be in agreement with a theoretical analysis of the bend configuration. Disk specimens fabricated from the unstrained grip ends of previously tested tensile specimens were used for calibration purposes; bend ductilities and tensile ductilities were in good agreement. The criterion for estimating ductility was judged acceptable for screening purposes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....
Bending and Force Recovery in Polymer Films and Microgel Formation
Elder, Theresa Marie
To determine correlation between geometry and material three different model films: polymethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS), and polycarbonate (PC), were singly bent and doubly bent (forming D-cones). Bends were chosen as they are fundamental in larger complex geometries such as origami and crumples. Bending was carried out between two plates taking force and displacement measurements. Processing of data using moment equations yielded values for bending moduli for studied films that were close to accepted values. Force recovery showed logarithmic trends for PDMS and stretched exponential trends for PS and PC. In a separate experiment a triblock copolymer of polystyrene-polyacrylic acid-polystyrene was subjected to different good and bad solvent mixing with any resulting particle morphology examined. Particles formed more uniformly with high water concentration, particles formed with high toluene concentration and agitation yielded three separate morphologies.
Longitudinal-bending mode micromotor using multilayer piezoelectric actuator.
Yao, K; Koc, B; Uchino, K
2001-07-01
Longitudinal-bending mode ultrasonic motors with a diameter of 3 mm were fabricated using stacked multilayer piezoelectric actuators, which were self-developed from hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic. A bending vibration was converted from a longitudinal vibration with a longitudinal-bending coupler. The motors could be bidirectionally operated by changing driving frequency. Their starting and braking torque were analyzed based on the transient velocity response. With a load of moment of inertia 2.5 x 10(-7) kgm2, the motor showed a maximum starting torque of 127.5 microNm. The braking torque proved to be a constant independent on the motor's driving conditions and was roughly equivalent to the maximum starting torque achievable with our micromotors.
Blind estimation of a ship's relative wave heading
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio
2012-01-01
This article proposes a method to estimate a ship’s relative heading against the waves. The procedure relies purely on ship- board measurements of global responses such as motion components, accelerations and the bending moment amidships. There is no particular (mathematical) model connected to t...... to the estimate, and therefore it is called a ’blind estimate’. The approach is in this introductory study tested by analysing simulated data. The analysis reveals that it is possible to estimate a ship’s relative heading on the basis of shipboard measurements only....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sasidharan, Sumesh; Arunachalam, Veerappan; Subramaniam, Shanmugam [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli (India)
2017-02-15
Finite-element analysis based on elastic-perfectly plastic material was conducted to examine the influence of structural deformations on collapse loads of circumferential through-wall critically cracked 90 .deg. pipe bends undergoing in-plane closing bending and internal pressure. The critical crack is defined for a through-wall circumferential crack at the extrados with a subtended angle below which there is no weakening effect on collapse moment of elbows subjected to in-plane closing bending. Elliptical and semioval cross sections were postulated at the bend regions and compared. Twice-elastic-slope method was utilized to obtain the collapse loads. Structural deformations, namely, ovality and thinning, were each varied from 0% to 20% in steps of 5% and the normalized internal pressure was varied from 0.2 to 0.6. Results indicate that elliptic cross sections were suitable for pipe ratios 5 and 10, whereas for pipe ratio 20, semioval cross sections gave satisfactory solutions. The effect of ovality on collapse loads is significant, although it cancelled out at a certain value of applied internal pressure. Thinning had a negligible effect on collapse loads of bends with crack geometries considered.
Effect of geometric imperfections on the ultimate moment capacity of cold-formed sigma-shape se
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bassem L. Gendy
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In recent years, cold formed steel sections are used more and more as primary framing components and as a secondary structural system. They are used as purlins and side rails or floor joist, and after that in the building envelops. Beams are not perfectly straight and are usually associated with geometric imperfections. Initial geometric imperfections can significantly influence the stability response of cold-formed steel members. This paper reports a numerical investigation concerning the effect of these imperfections on the behavior of the simply supported beams subjected to a uniform bending moment. The beam profile is cold formed sigma sections. Group of beams with different overall member slenderness ratios were studied. Several approaches have been utilized to model the geometric imperfections. First, the elastic buckling modes were considered as the imperfect beam shape. In this approach, the elastic buckling analysis was done first to get the elastic buckling modes. In the second approach, the imperfections were considered by assuming the beam bent in a half sine wave along its length. Finally, combination of these two approaches was considered. Results reveal that, the ultimate bending moments of beams with short and intermediate overall slenderness ratios are sensitive to the imperfect shape that comprise compression flange local buckling.
Marciano, William J
2010-01-01
This book provides a self-contained description of the measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of the electron and muon, along with a discussion of the measurements of the fine structure constant, and the theory associated with magnetic and electric dipole moments. Also included are the searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron, muon, neutron and atomic nuclei. The related topic of the transition moment for lepton flavor violating processes, such as neutrinoless muon or tauon decays, and the search for such processes are included as well. The papers, written by many o
Control of influence of a thread on a bending of screws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proskuriakov, N E; Lopa, I V; Trapeznikov, E V
2017-01-01
The influence of the threads and the bending of screw on their moments of inertia of the cross section considered. This problem is actual since existing methods exclude from calculations the influence of supporting the thread, using as the basic geometrical parameter such as the internal diameter of the thread (diameter of cavities). Fundamental difference of a bend of the screw from a bend of a smooth rod consists that moment of inertia of the screw is a variable. It is shown that the change in cross-section moment of inertia along the length of the screw are essential and have periodic character. Analytical interrelation of the bending of the screw and the decreasing of moment of inertia of its cross section is established and equation describing this phenomenon is suggested. The greatest decrease of the moment of inertia occurs in the middle of the screw length, and the lowest - at its ends. Function and approximate coefficients for the main types of thread are proposed, which take into account this change. (paper)
Electric dipole moments reconsidered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rupertsberger, H.
1989-01-01
The electric dipole moments of elementary particles, atoms, molecules and their connection to the electric susceptibility are discussed for stationary states. Assuming rotational invariance it is emphasized that for such states only in the case of a parity and time reversal violating interaction the considered particles can obtain a nonvanishing expectation value for the electric dipole moment. 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Swann, Andrew Francis; Madsen, Thomas Bruun
2012-01-01
We introduce a notion of moment map adapted to actions of Lie groups that preserve a closed three-form. We show existence of our multi-moment maps in many circumstances, including mild topological assumptions on the underlying manifold. Such maps are also shown to exist for all groups whose second...
On multipole moments in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoenselaers, C.
1986-01-01
In general situations, involving gravitational waves the question of multiple moments in general relativity restricts the author to stationary axisymmetric situations. Here it has been shown that multipole moments, a set of numbers defined at spatial infinity as far away from the source as possible, determine a solution of Einstein's equations uniquely. With the rather powerful methods for generating solutions one might hope to get solutions with predefined multipole moments. Before doing so, however, one needs an efficient algorithm for calculating the moments of a given solution. Chapter 2 deals with a conjecture pertaining to such a calculational procedure and shows it to be not true. There is another context in which multipole moments are important. Consider a system composed of several objects. To separate, if possible, the various parts of their interaction, one needs a definition for multipole moments of individual members of a many body system. In spite of the fact that there is no definition for individual moments, with the exception of mass and angular momentum, Chapter 3 shows what can be done for the double Kerr solution. The authors can identify various terms in he interaction of two aligned Kerr objects and show that gravitational spin-spin interaction is indeed proportional to the product of the angular momenta
Schmüdgen, Konrad
2017-01-01
This advanced textbook provides a comprehensive and unified account of the moment problem. It covers the classical one-dimensional theory and its multidimensional generalization, including modern methods and recent developments. In both the one-dimensional and multidimensional cases, the full and truncated moment problems are carefully treated separately. Fundamental concepts, results and methods are developed in detail and accompanied by numerous examples and exercises. Particular attention is given to powerful modern techniques such as real algebraic geometry and Hilbert space operators. A wide range of important aspects are covered, including the Nevanlinna parametrization for indeterminate moment problems, canonical and principal measures for truncated moment problems, the interplay between Positivstellensätze and moment problems on semi-algebraic sets, the fibre theorem, multidimensional determinacy theory, operator-theoretic approaches, and the existence theory and important special topics of multidime...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Christian Chanchí Golondrino
2008-01-01
Full Text Available El presente artículo esboza dos aproximaciones sobre la ecuación de diseño a momento flexionante de secciones T en concreto reforzado que se comportan como secciones rectangulares y que trabajan como viguetería de losas aligeradas. La primera aproximación discute la viabilidad de usar el ancho del nervio de la vigueta en lugar de usar el ancho efectivo de la aleta, dentro del proceso de la obtención del acero, requerida para asumir un momento flexionante; la segunda aproximación discute la viabilidad de aproximar la ecuación cuadrática que rige la obtención del área del acero requerida para obtener un momento flexionante en una ecuación lineal, cuyas únicas variables son el área del acero y la altura efectiva de la sección T. Se ha dimensionado geométricamente un conjunto de secciones de losas aligeradas siguiendo los requisitos del título C13 de la norma sismo resistente colombiana NSR98, los cuales se obtuvieron para un modelo simplemente apoyado, cuya luz varía entre [2 - 7] m y el ancho del casetón ente [0.30 - 1] m. El dimensionamiento antes mencionado fue utilizado para sensibilizar la efectividad de cada una de las aproximaciones propuestas respecto a la solución general para la obtención del área del acero de la sección T que se comporta como rectangular.This article presents two approaches on the moment design equation of T shaped beams. Particularly the beam's T cross section analyzed behaves like a rectangular cross section when the beam works like a component of a slab system built from a set of T shaped beams. The first approach discusses the feasibility to use the web width instead of effective flange width to obtain the steel area associated to the moment solicitation of T shaped beam. The second approach discusses the feasibility to approach the quadratic equation used to obtain the steel required to take the bending moment into linear equation related to variables such as steel area and the effective depth
Piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms.
Tong, Jianhua; Cui, Tianhong; Shao, Peige; Wang, Liding
2003-09-01
This paper presents a new piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms. Serial bending arms are composed of two piezoelectric bimorphs with one end fixed and the other end free, driven by two signals of a biased square wave with a phase difference of pi/2. The free end of a cantilever arm will move along an elliptic orbit so that the cantilever is used to drive a cylinder rotor. The rotor's end surface contacts the free end of the cantilever, resulting in the rotor's rotation. There are six serial bending arms anchored on the base. The driving mechanism of the micromotor is proposed and analyzed. A new micromotor prototype, 5 mm in diameter, has been fabricated and characterized. The maximum rotational speed reaches 325 rpm, and the output torque is about 36.5 microNm.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A new kind of bend sensor is introduced.It can be used to detect the bend angle of an object or inclination between two objects.It has characteristics of small size, lightweight, high reliability, fine flexibility and plasticity.When this bend sensor is used with a proper converting circuit, it can implement dynamic measuring the bend angle of an object conveniently.The application of the bend sensor in dataglove is also described.
Ding, Yang; Ming, Tingyu
2016-11-01
In undulatory locomotion, torque (bending moment) is required along the body to overcome the external forces from environments and bend the body. Previous observations on animals using less than two wavelengths on the body showed such torque has a single traveling wave pattern. Using resistive force theory model and considering the torque generated by external force in a resistive force dominated media, we found that as the wave number (number of wavelengths on the locomotor's body) increases from 0.5 to 1.8, the speed of the traveling wave of torque decreases. When the wave number increases to 2 and greater, the torque pattern transits from a single traveling wave to a two traveling waves and then a complex pattern that consists two wave-like patterns. By analyzing the force distribution and its contribution to the torque, we explain the speed decrease of the torque wave and the pattern transition. This research is partially supported by the Recruitment Program of Global Young Experts (China).
Bending characteristics of resin concretes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.
Sum rules and systematics for baryon magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1983-11-01
The new experimental values of hyperon magnetic moments are compared with sum rules predicted from general quark models. Three difficulties encountered are not easily explained by simple models. The isovector contributions of nonstrange quarks to hyperon moments are smaller than the corresponding contribution to nucleon moments, indicating either appreciable configuration mixing in hyperon wave functions and absent in nucleons or an additional isovector contribution beyond that of valence quarks; e.g. from a pion cloud. The large magnitude of the THETA - moment may indicate that the strange quark contribution to the THETA moments is considerably larger than the value μ(Λ) predicted by simple models which have otherwise been very successful. The set of controversial values from different experiments of the Σ - moment include a value very close to -(1/2)μ(Σ + ) which would indicate that strange quarks do not contribute at all to the Σ moments. (author)
Sum rules and systematics for baryon magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1984-01-01
The new experimental values of hyperon magnetic moments are compared with sum rules predicted from general quark models. Three difficulties encountered are not easily explained by simple models. The isovector contributions of nonstrange quarks to hyperon moments are smaller than the corresponding contribution to nucleon moments, indicating either appreciable configuration mixing in hyperon wave functions and absent in nucleons or an additional isovector contribution beyond that of valence quarks, e.g. from a pion cloud. The large magnitude of the Ψ - moment may indicate that the strange quark contribution to the Ψ moments is considerably larger than the value μ(Λ) predicted by simple models which have otherwise been very successful. The set of controversial values from different experiments of the Σ - moment include a value very close to -1/2μ(Σ + ) which would indicate that strange quarks do not contribute at all to the Σ moments. (orig.)
The creep bending of short radius pipe bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, John
1975-01-01
In existing and proposed liquid metal fast breeder reactor design the pipework has considerable importance. Parts of the LMFBR include thin walled short radius bends which are expected to operate in the creep regime. In linear elasticity it is known that the assumption of long radius bends is not too severe as far as the flexibility characteristics are concerned although some modifications are necessary for accurate determination of the stresses. No data exists for nonlinear creep. Current work is aimed at elucidating the effect of the various assumptions common to linear elastic theory in so far as they affect the creep characteristics of bends on systems. Herein an energy based analysis using a simple n power constitutive law for stationary creep is employed to derive basic design data for flexibilities and stresses which will be necessary before complete systems can be assessed for creep. The analysis shows on comparison with the long radius work that the assumption of R>r is not much more restrictive in creep than for linear elasticity. Flexibilities for short radius bends appear to be well approximated by the long radius values. Thus the attractive reference stress information already derived may be used directly to find deformations without a complete knowledge of the constitutive relationship. However, stresses are somewhat different. Fortunately the maximum deviation occurs at relatively low levels of stress, the peak stresses being in fair agreement. When n=1 the present results reduce essentially to those obtained from existing linear elastic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulikov, I.S.; Tverkovkin, B.E.; Karasik, E.A.
1984-01-01
The bending of rod fuel elements in gas-cooled fast reactors under the action of temperature gradients radiation-induced swelling non-uniform over the perimeter of fuel cans is evaluated. It is pointed out that the radiation-induced swelling gives the main contribution to the bending of fuel elements. Calculated data on the bending of the corner fuel element in the assembly of the fast reactor with dissociating gas coolant are given. With the growth of temperature difference over the perimeter, the bending moment and deformation increase, resulting in the increase of axial stresses. The obtained data give the basis for accounting the stresses connected with thermal and radiation bending when estimating serviceability of fuel elements in gas cooled fast reactors. Fuel element bending must be also taken into account when estimating the thermal hydrualic properties
Particle electric dipole moments
Pendlebury, J M
2000-01-01
Measurements of particle electric dipole moments (EDMs) continue to put powerful constraints on theories of T-symmetry and CP-symmetry violation, which form currently one of the most prominent fields in particle physics. EDM measurements have been concentrated on neutral systems such as the neutron and atoms and molecules. These measurements allow one to deduce, in turn, the electric dipole moments of the fundamental fermions, that is, the lighter leptons and quarks and also those of some heavy nuclei.
Schroedinger propagation of initial discontinuities leads to divergence of moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.
2009-01-01
We show that the large phase expansion of the Schroedinger propagation of an initially discontinuous wave function leads to the divergence of average energy, momentum, and displacement, rendering them unphysical states. If initially discontinuous wave functions are considered to be approximations to continuous ones, the determinant of the spreading rate of these averages is the maximal gradient of the initial wave function. Therefore a dilemma arises between the inclusion of discontinuous wave functions in quantum mechanics and the requirement of finite moments.
Schroedinger propagation of initial discontinuities leads to divergence of moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marchewka, A., E-mail: avi.marchewka@gmail.co [Ruppin Academic Center, Emek-Hefer 40250 (Israel); Schuss, Z., E-mail: schuss@post.tau.ac.i [Department of Mathematics, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel)
2009-09-21
We show that the large phase expansion of the Schroedinger propagation of an initially discontinuous wave function leads to the divergence of average energy, momentum, and displacement, rendering them unphysical states. If initially discontinuous wave functions are considered to be approximations to continuous ones, the determinant of the spreading rate of these averages is the maximal gradient of the initial wave function. Therefore a dilemma arises between the inclusion of discontinuous wave functions in quantum mechanics and the requirement of finite moments.
Moment Capacity of Timber Reinforced with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jacob; Ellegaard, Peter
When designing timber trusses it is often found that the cross section controlling the dimensions of the top chord is located at a joint with a moment peak. However, the timber volume affected by the moment peak is rather limited and by embedding a punched metal plate in this area a reinforcement...... of the section is obtained, resulting in a more economic truss design. In order to develop design methods for sections with plate reinforcement, bending tests have been made. The timber is Swedish spruce of strength class K-18(S8) and K-24(S10) with a thickness of 45 mm. The punched metal plate is from Gang...
Fatigue loading on a 5MW offshore wind turbine due to the combined action of waves and current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peeringa, Johan M
2014-01-01
In the design of an offshore wind turbine the natural frequencies of the structure are of importance. In the design of fixed offshore wind turbine support structures it cannot be avoided that the first eigenmode of the structure lies in the frequency band of wave excitation. This study indicates that wave-current interaction should be taken into account for support structure design load calculations. Wave-current interaction changes the shape of the wave spectrum and the energy content in the wave frequency range of 0.2 – 0.35Hz. This is in the range of natural frequencies fixed offshore wind turbine structures are designed for. The waves are affected by the current in two ways. First there is a frequency shift, Doppler effect, for the fixed observer when the wave travels on a current. Second the shape of the wave is modified in case the wave travels from an area without current into an area with current. Due to wave-current interaction the wave height and wave length change. For waves on an opposing current the wave energy content increases, while for wave on a following current the wave energy content slightly reduces. Simulations of normal production cases between cut-in and cut-out wind speed are performed for a 5MW wind turbine in 20m water depth including waves with 1) a following current, 2) an opposing current and 3) no current present. In case of waves having an opposing current, the 1Hz equivalent fore-aft tower bending moment at the seabed is about 10% higher compared to load cases with waves only
Bending of electromagnetic beams and head-tail radio sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bodo, G; Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)
1981-08-01
An interpretation is presented of bridge bending in head-tail radio sources in the framework of an electromagnetic beam model. The physical effect responsible for the structural distortion is proposed to be the refraction of a large-amplitude wave in a medium with a density gradient perpendicular to the wave propagation vector; this gradient is consistently produced by the relative motion of the beam source in the surrounding medium with a velocity higher than the speed of sound. These effects are calculated in some detail and a quantitative fit of model parameters to the typical radio source associated with NGC 1265 is discussed.
Bending of electromagnetic beams and head-tail radio sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Turin Univ.
1981-01-01
An interpretation is presented of bridge bending in head-tail radio sources in the framework of an electromagnetic beam model. The physical effect responsible for the structural distortion is proposed to be the refraction of a large-amplitude wave in a medium with a density gradient perpendicular to the wave propagation vector; this gradient is consistently produced by the relative motion of the beam source in the surrounding medium with a velocity higher than the speed of sound. These effects are calculated in some detail and a quantitative fit of model parameters to the typical radio source associated with NGC 1265 is discussed. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanks, T.C.; Kanamori, H.
1979-05-10
The nearly conincident forms of the relations between seismic moment M/sub o/ and the magnitudes M/sub L/, M/sub s/, and M/sub w/ imply a moment magnitude scale M=2/3 log M/sub o/-10.7 which is uniformly valid for 3< or approx. =M/sub L/< or approx. = 7, 5 < or approx. =M/sub s/< or approx. =7 1/2 and M/sub w/> or approx. = 7 1/2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Overseth, O.E.
1981-01-01
The Fermilab Neutral Hyperon Beam Collaboration has measured the magnetic moments of Λ 0 , XI-neutral and XI-minus hyperons. With a recently published result for the Σ + hyperon, we now have precision measurements on the magnetic moments of six baryons. This allows a sensitive test of the quark model. The data are in qualitative agreement with the simple additive static quark model. Quantitatively however the data disagree with theoretical predictions by typically 15%. Several theoretical attempts to understand or remedy this discrepancy will be mentioned
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunet, M.; Morestin, F.; Godereaux, S.
2000-01-01
An inverse identification technique is proposed based on bending-unbending experiments on anisotropic sheet-metal strips. The initial anisotropy theory of plasticity is extended to include the concept of combined isotropic and non-linear kinematic hardening. This theory is adopted to characterise the anisotropic hardening due to loading-unloading which occurs in sheet-metal forming processes. To this end, a specific bending-unbending apparatus has been built to provide experimental moment-curvature curves. The constant bending moment applied over the length of the specimen to determine numerically the strain-stress behaviour but without Finite Element Analysis. Four constitutive parameters have to be identified by an inverse approach. Our identification results show that bending-unbending tests are suitable to model quite accurately the constitutive behaviour of sheet metals under complex loading paths. (author)
MIT miniaturized disk bend test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.
1983-01-01
A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Other mechanical properties can also be obtained using the MDBT approach. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly. 11 figures
The gearing function of running shoe longitudinal bending stiffness.
Willwacher, Steffen; König, Manuel; Braunstein, Björn; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter
2014-07-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether altered longitudinal bending stiffness (LBS) levels of the midsole of a running shoe lead to a systematic change in lower extremity joint lever arms of the ground reaction force (GRF). Joint moments and GRF lever arms in the sagittal plane were determined from 19 male subjects running at 3.5 m/s using inverse dynamics procedures. LBS was manipulated using carbon fiber insoles of 1.9 mm and 3.2 mm thickness. Increasing LBS led to a significant shift of joint lever arms to a more anterior position. Effects were more pronounced at distal joints. Ankle joint moments were not significantly increased in the presence of higher GRF lever arms when averaged over all subjects. Still, two individual strategies (1: increase ankle joint moments while keeping push-off times almost constant, 2: decrease ankle joint moments and increase push-off times) could be identified in response to increased ankle joint lever arms that might reflect individual differences between subjects with respect to strength capacities or anthropometric characteristics. The results of the present study indicate that LBS systematically influences GRF lever arms of lower extremity joints during the push-off phase in running. Further, individual responses to altered LBS levels could be identified that could aid in finding optimum LBS values for a given individual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pieters, Jurgen
2001-01-01
'Moments of Negotiation' offers the first book-length and indepth analysis of the New Historicist reading method, which the American Shakespeare-scolar Stephen Greenblatt introduced at the beginning of the 1980s. Ever since, Greenblatt has been hailed as the prime representative of this movement,
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Towner, I.S.; Khanna, F.C.
1984-01-01
Consideration of core polarization, isobar currents and meson-exchange processes gives a satisfactory understanding of the ground-state magnetic moments in closed-shell-plus (or minus)-one nuclei, A = 3, 15, 17, 39 and 41. Ever since the earliest days of the nuclear shell model the understanding of magnetic moments of nuclear states of supposedly simple configurations, such as doubly closed LS shells +-1 nucleon, has been a challenge for theorists. The experimental moments, which in most cases are known with extraordinary precision, show a small yet significant departure from the single-particle Schmidt values. The departure, however, is difficult to evaluate precisely since, as will be seen, it results from a sensitive cancellation between several competing corrections each of which can be as large as the observed discrepancy. This, then, is the continuing fascination of magnetic moments. In this contribution, we revisit the subjet principally to identify the role played by isobar currents, which are of much concern at this conference. But in so doing we warn quite strongly of the dangers of considering just isobar currents in isolation; equal consideration must be given to competing processes which in this context are the mundane nuclear structure effects, such as core polarization, and the more popular meson-exchange currents
Higgins, Chris
2014-01-01
In "The Humanist Moment," Chris Higgins sets out to recover a tenable, living humanism, rejecting both the version vilified by the anti-humanists and the one sentimentalized by the reactionary nostalgists. Rescuing humanism from such polemics is only the first step, as we find at least nine rival, contemporary definitions of humanism.…
Effects of particle-number-projection on nuclear moment of intertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozmej, P.
1976-01-01
The formalism of the moment of inertia in cranking model and BCS theory has been extended for the partially particle-number-projected BCS wave functions. The ground state moments of inertia obtained by this method are a little greater than those calculated by BCS method. A smooth growth of the moments of inertia for diminishing pairing strength constant has been obtained. (author)
Measurement of seismic moments at the RSTN station RSSD for NTS explosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, S.R.; Patton, H.J.
1983-01-01
We have estimated the seismic moment for two Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions (Nebbiolo, 6/24/82; Atrisco, 8/5/82) at the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) station in South Dakota (RSSD; distance from NTS approx. 1280 km). The moments are calculated from the vertical component mid-period channel for the Rayleigh waves and the merged mid- and short-period band for the P waves. The moment estimates from surface waves give values of 1.0 x 10 23 and 2.0 x 10 23 dyn-cm for Nebbiolo and Atrisco, respectively. The body-wave moments obtained at 0.5 Hz are approximately five times greater than those from surface waves and give values of 4.8 x 10 23 and 1.0 x 10 24 dyn-cm for Nebbiolo and Atrisco, respectively. The apparent discrepancy between the body and surface-wave moments can be resolved if there is overshoot (of 5:1) in the explosion source spectrum. As a check on the absolute value of the surface-wave moments, we compared them to moment values predicted from empirical moment-yield relationships for different emplacement media at NTS (Patton, 1983). We found that the agreement between observed and predicted values is satisfactory, within the measurement error on the moments at the one sigma level
Design Specifications for the Hanstholm WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tommy Larsen
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The WEPTOS wave energy converter (WEC is a novel device that combines an established and efficient wave energy absorbing mechanism with a smart structure, which can regulate the amount of incoming wave energy and reduce loads in extreme wave conditions. This adjustable A-shaped slack-moored and floating structure absorbs the energy of the waves through a multitude of rotors. The shape of the rotors is based on the renowned Salter’s Duck. On each leg, the rotors pivot around a common axle, through which the rotors transfer the absorbed power to a common power take off system. The study investigates the required capacity of the power take off (PTO system and the structural forces on a WEPTOS WEC prototype, intended for installation at Hanstholm (Denmark, based on large scale experimental tests using a highly realistic laboratory model of the complete device. The results hereof includes the rotational speed and transmitted torque (and hereby power to the PTO system using different PTO control strategies, the impact of fluctuations of the available mechanical power and the effect of limiting the PTO capacity on the annual energy production. Acquisition of structural forces includes mooring forces and structural bending moments in both production and extreme wave conditions, illustrating that the regulation of the angle in the A shape ensures that extreme forces on the structure can be kept in the same order of magnitude as in production conditions.
Hydroelastic response of a floating runway to cnoidal waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertekin, R. C.; Xia, Dingwu
2014-01-01
The hydroelastic response of mat-type Very Large Floating Structures (VLFSs) to severe sea conditions, such as tsunamis and hurricanes, must be assessed for safety and survivability. An efficient and robust nonlinear hydroelastic model is required to predict accurately the motion of and the dynamic loads on a VLFS due to such large waves. We develop a nonlinear theory to predict the hydroelastic response of a VLFS in the presence of cnoidal waves and compare the predictions with the linear theory that is also developed here. This hydroelastic problem is formulated by directly coupling the structure with the fluid, by use of the Level I Green-Naghdi theory for the fluid motion and the Kirchhoff thin plate theory for the runway. The coupled fluid structure system, together with the appropriate jump conditions are solved in two-dimensions by the finite-difference method. The numerical model is used to study the nonlinear response of a VLFS to storm waves which are modeled by use of the cnoidal-wave theory. Parametric studies show that the nonlinearity of the waves is very important in accurately predicting the dynamic bending moment and wave run-up on a VLFS in high seas
Hydroelastic response of a floating runway to cnoidal waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertekin, R. C., E-mail: ertekin@hawaii.edu [Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Xia, Dingwu [Engineering Services, British Petroleum GoM, Houston, Texas 77079 (United States)
2014-02-15
The hydroelastic response of mat-type Very Large Floating Structures (VLFSs) to severe sea conditions, such as tsunamis and hurricanes, must be assessed for safety and survivability. An efficient and robust nonlinear hydroelastic model is required to predict accurately the motion of and the dynamic loads on a VLFS due to such large waves. We develop a nonlinear theory to predict the hydroelastic response of a VLFS in the presence of cnoidal waves and compare the predictions with the linear theory that is also developed here. This hydroelastic problem is formulated by directly coupling the structure with the fluid, by use of the Level I Green-Naghdi theory for the fluid motion and the Kirchhoff thin plate theory for the runway. The coupled fluid structure system, together with the appropriate jump conditions are solved in two-dimensions by the finite-difference method. The numerical model is used to study the nonlinear response of a VLFS to storm waves which are modeled by use of the cnoidal-wave theory. Parametric studies show that the nonlinearity of the waves is very important in accurately predicting the dynamic bending moment and wave run-up on a VLFS in high seas.
Redefining the political moment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Arvanitakis
2011-07-01
Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan
2004-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 10 (2004), s. 1364-1367 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : projective transform * moment invariants * object recognition Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.352, year: 2004 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20040112.pdf
Bending and stretching of plates
Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S
1964-01-01
The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Studness, C.M.
1990-01-01
This article looks at the attempts by Gulf States Utilities to get the River Bend Nuclear Plant into its rate base. The review begins with the initial filing of rate cases in Texas and Louisiana in 1986 and continues through many court cases and appeals all the way to the Texas Supreme Court. The preferred and preference shareholders now nominally control the company through election of 10 of 15 members of the company's board of directors. This case is used as an argument for deregulation in favor of competition
Long-Term Bending Creep Behavior of Thin-Walled CFRP Tendon Pretensioned Spun Concrete Poles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni P. Terrasi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the long-term behavior of a series of highly-loaded, spun concrete pole specimens prestressed with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP tendons, which were subjected to outdoor four-point bending creep tests since 1996 in the frame of collaboration with the Swiss precast concrete producer, SACAC (Società Anonima Cementi Armati Centrifugati. The 2 m span cylindrical beams studied are models for lighting poles produced for the last 10 years and sold on the European market. Five thin-walled pole specimens were investigated (diameter: 100 mm; wall-thickness: 25–27 mm. All specimens were produced in a pretensioning and spinning technique and were prestressed by pultruded CFRP tendons. Initially, two reference pole specimens were tested in quasi-static four-point bending to determine the short-term failure moment and to model the short-term flexural behavior. Then, three pole specimens were loaded to different bending creep moments: while the lowest loaded specimen was initially uncracked, the second specimen was loaded with 50% of the short-term bending failure moment and exhibited cracking immediately after load introduction. The highest loaded pole specimen sustained a bending moment of 72% of the short-term bending failure moment for 16.5 years before failing in July 2013, due to the bond failure of the tendons, which led to local crushing of the high-performance spun concrete (HPSC. Besides this, long-term monitoring of the creep tests has shown a limited time- and temperature-dependent increase of the deflections over the years, mainly due to the creep of the concrete. A concrete creep-based model allowed for the calculation of the long-term bending curvatures with reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, the pole specimens showed crack patterns that were stable over time and minimal slippage of the tendons with respect to the pole’s end-faces for the two lower load levels. The latter proves the successful and durable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benoit, M.; Marcos, F.; Teisson, Ch.
1999-01-01
Nuclear power stations located on the coast take the water they use to cool their circuits from the sea. The water intake and discharge devices must be able to operate in all weathers, notably during extreme storms, with waves 10 m high and over. To predict the impact of the waves on the equipment, they are modeled digitally from the moment they form in the middle of the ocean right up to the moment they break on the shore. (authors)
Heavy quark and magnetic moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mubarak, Ahmad; Jallu, M.S.
1979-01-01
The magnetic moments and transition moments of heavy hadrons including the conventional particles are obtained under the SU(5) truth symmetry scheme. To this end state vectors are defined and the quark additivity principle is taken into account. (author)
Moment methods for nonlinear maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pusch, G.D.; Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON
1993-01-01
It is shown that Differential Algebra (DA) may be used to push moments of distributions through a map, at a computational cost per moment comparable to pushing a single particle. The algorithm is independent of order, and whether or not the map is symplectic. Starting from the known result that moment-vectors transform linearly - like a tensor - even under a nonlinear map, I suggest that the form of the moment transformation rule indicates that the moment-vectors are elements of the dual to DA-vector space. I propose several methods of manipulating moments and constructing invariants using DA. I close with speculations on how DA might be used to ''close the circle'' to solve the inverse moment problem, yielding an entirely DA-and-moment-based space-charge code. (Author)
Ductile failure of pipes with defects under combined pressure and bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darlaston, B.J.L.; Harrison, R.P.
1977-01-01
The main part of the experimental programme was carried out on 3.5'' diam. pipes with a wall thickness of 0.064''. Various lengths of defect were assessed but only two depths, 0.044'' and 0.060''. Some full penetration defect tests were carried out under bending loading. The defects were 0.012'' wide and nominally flat bottomed. The tensile properties of the pipes were determined by taking specimens from each of the tubes. The pipes were exposed to pressure only test, bending only test and combined bending and pressure test. The results are given in tables. The observations led to the postulation of a design rule relating to the effect of defect in pipes under combined internal pressure and bending. It applies only to ductile situations in which the mode of failure is by a collapse mechanism: If the failure of a pipe containing an axial defect occurs by plastic collapse then provided the bending moment does not exceed half that for collapse due to bending alone, it will have a negligible effect on the failure pressure. (J.B.)
Paul Callaghan luminous moments
Callaghan, Paul
2013-01-01
Acknowledged internationally for his ground-breaking scientific research in the field of magnetic resonance, Sir Paul Callaghan was a scientist and visionary with a rare gift for promoting science to a wide audience. He was named New Zealander of the Year in 2011. His death in early 2012 robbed New Zealand of an inspirational leader. Paul Callaghan: Luminous Moments brings together some of his most significant writing. Whether he describes his childhood in Wanganui, reflects on discovering the beauty of science, sets out New Zealand's future potential or discusses the experience of fa
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mischke, R.E.
2003-01-01
The status of experiments to measure the electric dipole moment of the neutron is presented and the planned experiment at Los Alamos is described. The goal of this experiment is an improvement in sensitivity of a factor of 50 to 100 over the current limit. It has the potential to reveal new sources of T and CP violation and to challenge calculations that propose extensions to the Standard Model. The experiment employs several advances in technique to reach its goals and the feasibility of meeting these technical challenges is currently under study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marc eWittmann
2011-10-01
Full Text Available It has been suggested that perception and action can be understood as evolving in temporal epochs or sequential processing units. Successive events are fused into units forming a unitary experience or ‘psychological present’. Studies have identified several temporal integration levels on different time scales which are fundamental for our understanding of behaviour and subjective experience. In recent literature concerning the philosophy and neuroscience of consciousness these separate temporal processing levels are not always precisely distinguished. Therefore, empirical evidence from psychophysics and neuropsychology on these distinct temporal processing levels is presented and discussed within philosophical conceptualizations of time experience. On an elementary level, one can identify a functional moment, a basic temporal building block of perception in the range of milliseconds that defines simultaneity and succession. Below a certain threshold temporal order is not perceived, individual events are processed as co-temporal. On a second level, an experienced moment, which is based on temporal integration of up to a few seconds, has been reported in many qualitatively different experiments in perception and action. It has been suggested that this segmental processing mechanism creates temporal windows that provide a logistical basis for conscious representation and the experience of nowness. On a third level of integration, continuity of experience is enabled by working-memory in the range of multiple seconds allowing the maintenance of cognitive operations and emotional feelings, leading to mental presence, a temporal window of an individual’s experienced presence.
Elasto-plastic behavior of pipe subjected to steady axial load and cyclic bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao Yanping; Lu Mingwan; Zhang Xiong
2004-01-01
The elasto-plastic behavior of a pipe subjected to a steady axial force and a cyclic bending moment is studied. By using two parameters c and d, which describe the elasto-plastic interfaces of beam cross-section, the boundary curve equations between various types of elasto-plastic behavior, such as shakedown, plastic fatigue, ratcheting, and plastic collapse, are derived. The results are applicable for beams of any cross-section with two orthogonal axes of symmetry. As a result, the load regime diagram for a pipe is obtained, which gives an intuitive picture of the elasto-plastic behavior of the pipe under a given combination of constant axial load and cyclic bending moment
EFFICIENCY OF MOMENT AMPLIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR THE SECOND-ORDER ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAMES
Paschal Chiadighikaobi
2018-01-01
Beam-column is the member subjected to axial compression and bending. Secondary Moment was accounted for in the design and was additional moment induced by axial load. Comparing the results analysis from two computer aided software (SAP2000 and Java). The moment amplification factor Af was inputted in the Java code. Af did not create any change in the result outputs in the Java Code results. There are many different ways to apply amplification factors to first-order analysis results, each wit...
Piezoelectric line moment actuator for active radiation control from light-weight structures
Jandak, Vojtech; Svec, Petr; Jiricek, Ondrej; Brothanek, Marek
2017-11-01
This article outlines the design of a piezoelectric line moment actuator used for active structural acoustic control. Actuators produce a dynamic bending moment that appears in the controlled structure resulting from the inertial forces when the attached piezoelectric stripe actuators start to oscillate. The article provides a detailed theoretical analysis necessary for the practical realization of these actuators, including considerations concerning their placement, a crucial factor in the overall system performance. Approximate formulas describing the dependency of the moment amplitude on the frequency and the required electric voltage are derived. Recommendations applicable for the system's design based on both theoretical and empirical results are provided.
Impact compressive and bending behaviour of rocks accompanied by electromagnetic phenomena.
Kobayashi, Hidetoshi; Horikawa, Keitaro; Ogawa, Kinya; Watanabe, Keiko
2014-08-28
It is well known that electromagnetic phenomena are often observed preceding earthquakes. However, the mechanism by which these electromagnetic waves are generated during the fracture and deformation of rocks has not been fully identified. Therefore, in order to examine the relationship between the electromagnetic phenomena and the mechanical properties of rocks, uniaxial compression and three-point bending tests for two kinds of rocks with different quartz content, granite and gabbro, have been carried out at quasi-static and dynamic rates. Especially, in the bending tests, pre-cracked specimens of granite were also tested. Using a split Hopkinson pressure bar and a ferrite-core antenna in close proximity to the specimens, both the stress-strain (load-displacement) curve and simultaneous electromagnetic wave magnitude were measured. It was found that the dynamic compressive and bending strengths and the stress increase slope of both rocks were higher than those observed in static tests; therefore, there is a strain-rate dependence in their strength and stress increase rate. It was found from the tests using the pre-cracked bending specimens that the intensity of electromagnetic waves measured during crack extension increased almost proportionally to the increase of the maximum stress intensity factor of specimens. This tendency was observed in both the dynamic and quasi-static three-point bending tests for granite. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vardoulakis, I.; Kourkoulis, S.K.; Exadaktylos, G.
1998-01-01
A gradient bending theory is developed based on a strain energy function that includes the classical Bernoulli-Euler term, the shape correction term (microstructural length scale) introduced by Timoshenko, and a term associated with surface energy (micromaterial length scale) accounting for the bending moment gradient effect. It is shown that the last term is capable to interpret the size effect in three-point bending (3PB), namely the decrease of the failure load with decreasing beam length for the same aspect ratio. This theory is used to describe the mechanical behaviour of Dionysos-Pentelikon marble in 3PB. Series of tests with prismatic marble beams of the same aperture but with different lengths were conducted and it was concluded that the present theory predicts well the size effect. (orig.)
Tubular bending and pull-out forces in high-curvature well bores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dareing, D.W.; Ahlers, C.A.
1991-01-01
This paper is concerned with drag forces developed on tubulars in high-curvature well bores typically found in drainhole and horizontal drilling. The dog-leg severity of these types of boreholes are considerably higher than those typically found in conventional directional drilling. The objective of the study was to determine the significance of bending stiffness on drag forces in the pull-out mode. The method of analysis treats the tubular as a multi-spanned curved beam under tension and solves for radial displacements, slope, shear and bending moment over each span. Calculations show that bending stiffness is a minor factor provided there are no locally severe dog legs superimposed in the high-curvature well bore
Testing machine for fatigue crack kinetic investigation in specimens under bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panasyuk, V.V.; Ratych, L.V.; Dmytrakh, I.N.
1978-01-01
A kinematic diagram of testing mashine for the investigation of fatigue crack kinetics in prismatic specimens, subjected to pure bending is described. Suggested is a technique of choosing an optimum ratio of the parameters of ''the testing machine-specimen'' system, which provide the stabilization of the stress intensity coefficient for a certain region of crack development under hard loading. On the example of the 40KhS and 15Kh2MFA steel specimens the pliability of the machine constructed according to the described diagram and designed for the 30ONxm maximum bending moment. The results obtained can be used in designing of the testing machines for studying pure bending under hard loading and in choosing the sizes of specimens with rectangular cross sections for investigations into the kinetics of the fatigue crack
A Numerical Study of the Spring-Back Phenomenon in Bending with a Rebar Bending Machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang Hwan Choi
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Recently, the rebar bending methodology started to change from field processing to utilizing rebar bending machines at plant sites prior to transport to the construction locations. Computerized control of rebar plant bending machines provides more accurate and faster bending of rebars than the low quality inefficient field processing alternative. The bending process involves plastic deformation of rebars, where bending stress beyond the yield point of the material is applied. When the bending stress is removed, spring back is caused by the elastic restoring stress. Therefore, an accurate numerical analysis of the spring-back process is required to reduce the bending process errors. The most sensitive factors affecting the spring-back process are the bending radius, the bending angle, the diameter of the rebar, the friction coefficient, and the yielding strength of material. In this paper, we suggest a numerical modeling method using these factors. The finite element modeling of the dynamic mechanical behavior of the material during bending is performed using a commercial dynamic analysis program “DAFUL.” We use the least squares approach to derive the spring-back deflection as a function of the rebar bending parameters.
Approximating distributions from moments
Pawula, R. F.
1987-11-01
A method based upon Pearson-type approximations from statistics is developed for approximating a symmetric probability density function from its moments. The extended Fokker-Planck equation for non-Markov processes is shown to be the underlying foundation for the approximations. The approximation is shown to be exact for the beta probability density function. The applicability of the general method is illustrated by numerous pithy examples from linear and nonlinear filtering of both Markov and non-Markov dichotomous noise. New approximations are given for the probability density function in two cases in which exact solutions are unavailable, those of (i) the filter-limiter-filter problem and (ii) second-order Butterworth filtering of the random telegraph signal. The approximate results are compared with previously published Monte Carlo simulations in these two cases.
Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger
2013-01-01
We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...
Effect of couple-stress on the pure bending of a prismatic bar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tzung, F.; Kao, B.; Ho, F.; Tang, P.
1981-02-01
An evaluation of the applicability of the couple-stress theory to the stress analysis of graphite structures is performed by solving a pure bending problem. The differences between solutions from the couple-stress theory and from the classical theory of elasticity are compared. It is found that the differences are sufficient to account for the inconsistencies which have often been observed between the classical elasticity theory and actual behavior of graphite under bend and tensile loadings. An experimental procedure to measure the material constants in the couple-stress theory is also suggested. The linear couple-stress theory, the origins of which go back to the turn of the last century, adds linear relations between couple-stresses and rotation gradients to the classical stress-strain law. By adopting the classical assumption that the plane cross section remains plane after deformation, the pure-bending problem is reduced to a plane couple-stress problem with traction-free boundary conditions. A general solution for an isotropic elastic prismatic bar under pure bending is then obtained using the Airy stress function and another stress function wich accounts for the couple-stresss. For a cylindrical bar, it reduces to a simple series solution. The moment-curvature and stress-curvature relations derived for a cylindrical bar from the general solution are used to examine the effect of couple-stresses. Numerical compilation of relations indicates that the couple stress parameters can be practically determined by measuring the moment-curvature ratio of various diametered specimens under bending. Although there is not sufficient data for such evaluation at present, it appears that the theory is consistent with the limited bend and tensile strength data of cylindrical specimens for H-451 graphite
Quadrupole moments as measures of electron correlation in two-electron atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceraulo, S.C.; Berry, R.S.
1991-01-01
We have calculated quadrupole moments, Q zz , of helium in several of its doubly excited states and in two of its singly excited Rydberg states, and of the alkaline-earth atoms Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba in their ground and low-lying excited states. The calculations use well-converged, frozen-core configuration-interaction (CI) wave functions and, for interpretive purposes, Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic wave functions and single-term, optimized, molecular rotor-vibrator (RV) wave functions. The quadrupole moments calculated using RV wave functions serve as a test of the validity of the correlated, moleculelike model, which has been used to describe the effects of electron correlation in these two-electron and pseudo-two-electron atoms. Likewise, the quadrupole moments calculated with HF wave functions test the validity of the independent-particle model. In addition to their predictive use and their application to testing simple models, the quadrupole moments calculated with CI wave functions reveal previously unavailable information about the electronic structure of these atoms. Experimental methods by which these quadrupole moments might be measured are also discussed. The quadrupole moments computed from CI wave functions are presented as predictions; measurements of Q zz have been made for only two singly excited Rydberg states of He, and a value of Q zz has been computed previously for only one of the states reported here. We present these results in the hope of stimulating others to measure some of these quadrupole moments
Simplified method for the transverse bending analysis of twin celled concrete box girder bridges
Chithra, J.; Nagarajan, Praveen; S, Sajith A.
2018-03-01
Box girder bridges are one of the best options for bridges with span more than 25 m. For the study of these bridges, three-dimensional finite element analysis is the best suited method. However, performing three-dimensional analysis for routine design is difficult as well as time consuming. Also, software used for the three-dimensional analysis are very expensive. Hence designers resort to simplified analysis for predicting longitudinal and transverse bending moments. Among the many analytical methods used to find the transverse bending moments, SFA is the simplest and widely used in design offices. Results from simplified frame analysis can be used for the preliminary analysis of the concrete box girder bridges.From the review of literatures, it is found that majority of the work done using SFA is restricted to the analysis of single cell box girder bridges. Not much work has been done on the analysis multi-cell concrete box girder bridges. In this present study, a double cell concrete box girder bridge is chosen. The bridge is modelled using three- dimensional finite element software and the results are then compared with the simplified frame analysis. The study mainly focuses on establishing correction factors for transverse bending moment values obtained from SFA.
Plastic loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kuk Hee; Kim, Yun Jae; Park, Chi Yong; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong
2007-01-01
Based on three-Dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit and TES(Twice- Elastic-Slope) loads for pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic.perfectly-plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide TES plastic loads. A wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and TES plastic load solutions for pipe bends under out-of-plane bending are proposed
Wave induced extreme hull girder loads on containerships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Shi, Bill
2009-01-01
This paper provides simple but rational procedures for prediction of extreme wave – induced sectional hull girder forces with reasonable engineering accuracy. The procedures take into account main ship hull characteristics such as: length, breadth, draught, block coefficient, bow flare coefficient......, forward speed and hull flexibility. The vertical hull girder loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Firstly a quadratic strip theory is presented which can give separate predictions for the hogging and sagging bending moments and shear forces and for hull girder loads. Then this procedure...... is based on rational methods it can be applied for novel single hull ship types not presently covered by the rules of the classification societies or to account for specific operational profiles....
Moment invariants for particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lysenko, W.P.; Overley, M.S.
1988-01-01
The rms emittance is a certain function of second moments in 2-D phase space. It is preserved for linear uncoupled (1-D) motion. In this paper, the authors present new functions of moments that are invariants for coupled motion. These invariants were computed symbolically using a computer algebra system. Possible applications for these invariants are discussed. Also, approximate moment invariants for nonlinear motion are presented
Combined tension and bending testing of tapered composite laminates
O'Brien, T. Kevin; Murri, Gretchen B.; Hagemeier, Rick; Rogers, Charles
1994-11-01
A simple beam element used at Bell Helicopter was incorporated in the Computational Mechanics Testbed (COMET) finite element code at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) to analyze the responce of tappered laminates typical of flexbeams in composite rotor hubs. This beam element incorporated the influence of membrane loads on the flexural response of the tapered laminate configurations modeled and tested in a combined axial tension and bending (ATB) hydraulic load frame designed and built at LaRC. The moments generated from the finite element model were used in a tapered laminated plate theory analysis to estimate axial stresses on the surface of the tapered laminates due to combined bending and tension loads. Surfaces strains were calculated and compared to surface strains measured using strain gages mounted along the laminate length. The strain distributions correlated reasonably well with the analysis. The analysis was then used to examine the surface strain distribution in a non-linear tapered laminate where a similarly good correlation was obtained. Results indicate that simple finite element beam models may be used to identify tapered laminate configurations best suited for simulating the response of a composite flexbeam in a full scale rotor hub.
Electrostatic bending response of a charged helix
Zampetaki, A. V.; Stockhofe, J.; Schmelcher, P.
2018-04-01
We explore the electrostatic bending response of a chain of charged particles confined on a finite helical filament. We analyze how the energy difference Δ E between the bent and the unbent helical chain scales with the length of the helical segment and the radius of curvature and identify features that are not captured by the standard notion of the bending rigidity, normally used as a measure of bending tendency in the linear response regime. Using Δ E to characterize the bending response of the helical chain we identify two regimes with qualitatively different bending behaviors for the ground state configuration: the regime of small and the regime of large radius-to-pitch ratio, respectively. Within the former regime, Δ E changes smoothly with the variation of the system parameters. Of particular interest are its oscillations with the number of charged particles encountered for commensurate fillings which yield length-dependent oscillations in the preferred bending direction of the helical chain. We show that the origin of these oscillations is the nonuniformity of the charge distribution caused by the long-range character of the Coulomb interactions and the finite length of the helix. In the second regime of large values of the radius-to-pitch ratio, sudden changes in the ground state structure of the charges occur as the system parameters vary, leading to complex and discontinuous variations in the ground state bending response Δ E .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roos, E.; Herter, K.-H.; Julisch, P.; Otremba, F.; Schuler, X.
2003-01-01
The determination of critical crack sizes or permissible/allowable loading levels in pipes with degraded pipe sections (circumferential cracks) for the assurance of component integrity is usually based on deterministic approaches. Therefore along with numerical calculational methods (finite element (FE) analyses) limit load calculations, such as e.g. the 'Plastic limit load concept' and the 'Flow stress concept' as well as fracture mechanics approximation methods as e.g. the R-curve method or the 'Ductile fracture handbook' and the R6-Method are currently used for practical application. Numerous experimental tests on both ferritic and austenitic pipes with different pipe dimensions were investigated at MPA Stuttgart. The geometries of the pipes were comparable to actual piping systems in Nuclear Power Plants, both BWR as well as PWR. Through wall cracks and part wall through cracks on the inside surface of the pipes were considered. The results of these tests were used to determine the flow stresses used within the limit load calculations. Therefore the deterministic concepts assessing the integrity of degraded pipes are available A new post-calculation of the above mentioned tests was performed using probabilistic approaches to assure the component integrity of degraded piping systems. As a result the calculated probability of failure was compared to experimental behaviour during the pipe test. Different reliability techniques were used for the verification of the probabilistic approaches. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avishai, Y.; Fabre de la Ripelle, M.
1987-01-01
The contribution of CP violating nucleon-nucleon interaction to the electric dipole moment of 3 He is evaluated following a recent proposal for its experimental detection. Two models of CP violating interactions are used, namely, the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism and the occurrence of the Θ term in the QCD lagrangian. These CP violating interactions are combined with realistic strong nucleon-nucleon interactions to induce a CP forbidden component of the 3 He wave function. The matrix element of the electric dipole operator is then evaluated between CP allowed and CP forbidden components yielding the observable electric dipole moment. Using the parameters emerging from the penguin terms in the Kobaysashi-Maskawa model we obtain a result much larger than the electric dipole moment of the neutron in the same model. On the other hand, no enhancement is found for the Θ-term mechanism. A possible explanation for this difference is discussed. Numerical estimates can be given only in the Kobayashi-Maskawa model, giving d( 3 He) ≅ 10 30 e . cm. In the second mechanism, the estimate give d ( 3 He) ≅ 10 16 anti Θ. (orig.)
End effects on elbows subjected to moment loadings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.
1982-01-01
So-called end effects for moment loadings on short-radius and long-radius butt welding elbows of various arc lengths are investigated with a view toward providing more accurate design formulas for critical piping systems. Data developed in this study, along with published information, were used to develop relatively simple design equations for elbows attached at both ends to long sections of straight pipe. These formulas are the basis for an alternate ASME Code procedure for evaluating the bending moment stresses in Class 1 nuclear piping (ASME Code Case N-319). The more complicated problems of elbows with other end conditions, e.g., flanges at one or both ends, are also considered. Comparisons of recently published experimental and theoretical studies with current industrial code design rules for these situations indicate that these rules also need to be improved
Resonances and dipole moments in dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dirksen, A.; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav
2011-01-01
An eigenfunction solution to the problem of plane wave scattering by dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders is used for a systematic investigation of their resonances. An overview of the resonances with electric and magnetic dipole moments, needed in, e.g., the synthesis...
A comparison of two reciprocating instruments using bending stress and cyclic fatigue tests
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pantaleo SCELZA
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the bending resistance at 45º, the static and dynamic cyclic fatigue life, and the fracture type of the WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland 25-08 and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany 25-08 instruments. A total of 60 nickel-titanium (NiTi instruments (30 Reciproc and 30 WaveOne from three different lots, each of which was 25 mm in length, were tested. The bending resistance was evaluated through the results of a cantilever-bending test conducted using a universal testing machine. Static and dynamic cyclic fatigue testing was conducted using a custom-made device. For the static and dynamic tests, a cast Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti alloy metal block with an artificial canal measuring 1.77 mm in diameter and 20.00 mm in total length was used. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine the type of fracture. Statistical analyses were performed on the results. The WaveOne instrument was less flexible than the Reciproc (p < 0.05. The Reciproc instrument showed better resistance in the static and dynamic cyclic fatigue tests (p < 0.05. The transverse cross-section and geometry of the instruments were important factors in their resistance to bending and cyclic fracture. Both of the instruments showed ductile-type fracture characteristics. It can be concluded that the Reciproc 25-08 instrument was more resistant to static and dynamic cyclic fatigue than the WaveOne 25-08 instrument, while the WaveOne 25-08 instrument was less flexible. Bending and resistance to cyclic fracture were influenced by the instruments’ geometries and transverse cross-sections. Both of the instruments showed ductile-type fracture characteristics.
Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts
Rostafinski, W.
1973-01-01
A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.
Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Zernike moment to enhance the discriminant nature (Pang et al 2006). ... was proposed which is partially invariant to changes in the local image samples, ... tigate the Krawtchouk discrete orthogonal moment-based feature ..... in scale have been achieved by changing the distance between the person and the video camera.
Variational approach to magnetic moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lipparini, E; Stringari, S; Traini, M [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Libera Universita di Trento, Italy
1977-11-07
Magnetic moments in nuclei with a spin unsaturated core plus or minus an extra nucleon have been studied using a restricted Hartree-Fock approach. The method yields simple explicit expressions for the deformed ground state and for magnetic moments. Different projection techniques of the HF scheme have been discussed and compared with perturbation theory.
On fractional Fourier transform moments
Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.
2000-01-01
Based on the relation between the ambiguity function represented in a quasi-polar coordinate system and the fractional power spectra, the fractional Fourier transform moments are introduced. Important equalities for the global second-order fractional Fourier transform moments are derived and their
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Experiments
Peng, Jen-Chieh
2008-01-01
The neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) provides unique information on CP violation and physics beyond the Standard Model. We first review the history of experimental searches for neutron electric dipole moment. The status of future neutron EDM experiments, including experiments using ultra-cold neutrons produced in superfluid helium, will then be presented.
2002-01-01
Experiment IS358 uses the intense and pure beams of copper isotopes provided by the ISOLDE RILIS (resonance ionization laser ion source). The isotopes are implanted and oriented in the low temperature nuclear orientation set-up NICOLE. Magnetic moments are measured by $\\beta$-NMR. Copper (Z=29), with a single proton above the proton-magic nickel isotopes provides an ideal testground for precise shell model calculations of magnetic moments and their experimental verification. In the course of our experiments we already determined the magnetic moments of $^{67}$Ni, $^{67}$Cu, $^{68g}$Cu, $^{69}$Cu and $^{71}$Cu which provide important information on the magicity of the N=40 subshell closure. In 2001 we plan to conclude our systematic investigations by measuring the magnetic moment of the neutron-deficient isotope $^{59}$Cu. This will pave the way for a subsequent study of the magnetic moment of $^{57}$Cu with a complementary method.
Big Bend National Park: Acoustical Monitoring 2010
2013-06-01
During the summer of 2010 (September October 2010), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Big Bend National Park (BIBE) at four sites deployed for approximately 30 days each. The baseline data collected during this period will he...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrou, A.; Prost, J.P.; Delidais, M.
1983-08-01
In order to avoid undesirable plastic response in PWR primary system components, tests were performed on 1/10 scale pipes and elbows made from AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel. L/D ratios were from 0.56 to 4.50 mm, arc angles of elbows were 30 0 , 45 0 , 60 0 and 90 0 . Pipes were subjected to bending moments at 3 internal pressure levels. They were tested to determine the mode of failure and served as a reference for elbows. Elbows were subjected to in-plane (closing and opening) and out-of-plane bending moments, at 3 pressure and 2 temperature levels. During these tests, loadings and displacements of components were monitored. Ovalisation of sections was measured regularly. The experimental plastic collapse moment corresponding to excessive deformation was compared to the maximum allowable moment under Design conditions. The experimental plastic instability moment considered as a limit for functional capability was compared to the maximum allowable moment for level C and D service limits
A theoretical study on pure bending of hexagonal close-packed metal sheet
Mehrabi, Hamed; Yang, Chunhui
2018-05-01
Hexagonal close-packed (HCP) metals have quite different mechanical behaviours in comparison to conventional cubic metals such as steels and aluminum alloys [1, 2]. They exhibit a significant tension-compression asymmetry in initial yielding and subsequent plastic hardening. The reason for this unique behaviour can be attributed to their limited symmetric crystal structure, which leads to twining deformation [3-5]. This unique behaviour strongly influences sheet metal forming of such metals, especially for roll forming, in which the bending is dominant. Hence, it is crucial to represent constitutive relations of HCP metals for accurate estimation of bending moment-curvature behaviours. In this paper, an analytical model for asymmetric elastoplastic pure bending with an application of Cazacu-Barlat asymmetric yield function [6] is presented. This yield function considers the asymmetrical tension-compression behaviour of HCP metals by using second and third invariants of the stress deviator tensor and a specified constant, which can be expressed in terms of uniaxial yield stresses in tension and compression. As a case study, the analytical model is applied to predict the moment-curvature behaviours of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets under uniaxial loading condition. Furthermore, the analytical model is implemented as a user-defined material through the UMAT interface in Abaqus [7, 8] for conducting pure bending simulations. The results show that the analytical model can reasonably capture the asymmetric tension-compression behaviour of the magnesium alloy. The predicted moment-curvature behaviour has good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, numerical results show a better accuracy by the application of the Cazacu-Barlat yield function than those using the von-Mises yield function, which are more conservative than analytical results.
This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lei Yuebao; Fox, Mike J.H.
2011-01-01
A global limit load solution for rectangular surface cracks in plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending is derived, which allows any combination of positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment. The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept and, therefore, gives limit load values based on the Tresca yielding criterion. Solutions for both cases with and without crack face contact are derived when whole or part of the crack is located in the compressive stress zone. From the solution, particular global limit load solutions for plates with extended surface cracks and through-thickness cracks under the same loading conditions are obtained. The solution is consistent with the limit load solution for surface cracks in plates under combined tension and positive bending due to Goodall and Webster and Lei when both the applied end force and bending moment are positive. The solution reduces to the limit load solution for plain plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending when the crack vanishes. - Highlights: → A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks in plates is derived. → Combined positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment are considered. → The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept.
Gamma-decay and static moments, ch. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koops, J.E.
1978-01-01
Electromagnetic properties of low-lying states in the Ni and Cu isotopes with A = 57-67 have been calculated with shell-model wave functions obtained from a schematic interaction (MSDI) and an empirical interaction (ASDI). Effective M1 and E2 operators have been extracted from experimental transition rates and static moments. An extensive compilation of experimental lifetimes, branching and mixing ratios is presented. The adopted values are compared with the calculated results. The properties of yrast levels are generally well reproduced. It is found that the ASDI wave functions are not superior to the MSDI wave functions
A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor
Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao
2016-05-01
Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.
Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adamyan, V.M., E-mail: vadamyan@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Bondarev, V.N., E-mail: bondvic@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Zavalniuk, V.V., E-mail: vzavalnyuk@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Department of Fundamental Sciences, Odessa Military Academy, 10 Fontanska Road, Odessa 65009 (Ukraine)
2016-11-11
Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.
Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamyan, V.M.; Bondarev, V.N.; Zavalniuk, V.V.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.
Collective gyromagnetic ratio and moment of inertia from density-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sprung, D.W.L.; Lie, S.G.; Vallieres, M.; Quentin, P.
1979-01-01
The collective gyromagnetic ratio and moment of inertia of deformed even-even axially symmetric nuclei are calculated in the cranking approximation using wave functions obtained with the Skyrme force S-III. Good agreement is found for gsub(R), while the moment of inertia is about 20% too small. The cranking formula leads to better agreement than the projection method. (Auth.)
Moment Magnitude discussion in Austria
Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang
2017-04-01
We implemented and tested the Moment Magnitude estimation „dbmw" from the University of Trieste in our Antelope near real-time System. It is used to get a fast Moment Magnitude solutions and Ground Motion Parameter (PGA, PGV, PSA 0.3, PSA 1.0 and PSA 3.0) to calculate Shake and Interactive maps. A Moment Magnitude Catalogue was generated and compared with the Austrian Earthquake Catalogue and all available Magnitude solution of the neighbouring agencies. Relations of Mw to Ml and Ground Motion to Intensity are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuta, K.; Arimura, K.; Nagatomo, T.; Akutsu, K.; Iwakoshi, T.; Kudo, S.; Ogura, M.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Sumikama, T.; Minamisono, K.; Miyake, T.; Minamisono, T.; Fukuda, M.; Mihara, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Sasaki, M.; Kanazawa, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Suda, M.; Hirai, M.; Momota, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Sakamoto, A.; Saihara, M.; Ohtsubo, T.; Alonso, J.R.; Krebs, G.F.; Symons, T.J.M.
2004-01-01
The magnetic moment of 33 Cl (Iπ=3/2+, T1/2=2.51s) has been re-measured precisely by β-NMR method. The obtained magnetic moment |μ|=0.7549(3)μN is consistent with the old value 0.7523(16)μN, but is 5 times more accurate. The value is well reproduced by the shell model calculation, μSM=0.70μN. Combined with the magnetic moment of the mirror partner 33 S, the nuclear matrix elements , , , and were derived
Moment methods with effective nuclear Hamiltonians; calculations of radial moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belehrad, R.H.
1981-02-01
A truncated orthogonal polynomial expansion is used to evaluate the expectation value of the radial moments of the one-body density of nuclei. The expansion contains the configuration moments, , , and 2 >, where R/sup (k)/ is the operator for the k-th power of the radial coordinate r, and H is the effective nuclear Hamiltonian which is the sum of the relative kinetic energy operator and the Bruckner G matrix. Configuration moments are calculated using trace reduction formulae where the proton and neutron orbitals are treated separately in order to find expectation values of good total isospin. The operator averages are taken over many-body shell model states in the harmonic oscillator basis where all particles are active and single-particle orbitals through six major shells are included. The radial moment expectation values are calculated for the nuclei 16 O, 40 Ca, and 58 Ni and find that is usually the largest term in the expansion giving a large model space dependence to the results. For each of the 3 nuclei, a model space is found which gives the desired rms radius and then we find that the other 5 lowest moments compare favorably with other theoretical predictions. Finally, we use a method of Gordon (5) to employ the lowest 6 radial moment expectation values in the calculation of elastic electron scattering from these nuclei. For low to moderate momentum transfer, the results compare favorably with the experimental data
Van Toen, Carolyn; Carter, Jarrod W; Oxland, Thomas R; Cripton, Peter A
2014-12-01
The tolerance of the spine to bending moments, used for evaluation of injury prevention devices, is often determined through eccentric axial compression experiments using segments of the cadaver spine. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory demonstrated that eccentric axial compression resulted in "unexpected" (artifact) moments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the static and dynamic effects of test configuration on bending moments during eccentric axial compression typical in cadaver spine segment testing. Specific objectives were to create dynamic equilibrium equations for the loads measured inferior to the specimen, experimentally verify these equations, and compare moment responses from various test configurations using synthetic (rubber) and human cadaver specimens. The equilibrium equations were verified by performing quasi-static (5 mm/s) and dynamic experiments (0.4 m/s) on a rubber specimen and comparing calculated shear forces and bending moments to those measured using a six-axis load cell. Moment responses were compared for hinge joint, linear slider and hinge joint, and roller joint configurations tested at quasi-static and dynamic rates. Calculated shear force and bending moment curves had similar shapes to those measured. Calculated values in the first local minima differed from those measured by 3% and 15%, respectively, in the dynamic test, and these occurred within 1.5 ms of those measured. In the rubber specimen experiments, for the hinge joint (translation constrained), quasi-static and dynamic posterior eccentric compression resulted in flexion (unexpected) moments. For the slider and hinge joints and the roller joints (translation unconstrained), extension ("expected") moments were measured quasi-statically and initial flexion (unexpected) moments were measured dynamically. In the cadaver experiments with roller joints, anterior and posterior eccentricities resulted in extension moments, which were unexpected and expected, for those
Analysis of dynamical corrections to baryon magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Phuoc; Durand, Loyal
2003-01-01
We present and analyze QCD corrections to the baryon magnetic moments in terms of the one-, two-, and three-body operators which appear in the effective field theory developed in our recent papers. The main corrections are extended Thomas-type corrections associated with the confining interactions in the baryon. We investigate the contributions of low-lying angular excitations to the baryon magnetic moments quantitatively and show that they are completely negligible. When the QCD corrections are combined with the nonquark model contributions of the meson loops, we obtain a model which describes the baryon magnetic moments within a mean deviation of 0.04 μ N . The nontrivial interplay of the two types of corrections to the quark-model magnetic moments is analyzed in detail, and explains why the quark model is so successful. In the course of these calculations, we parametrize the general spin structure of the j=(1/2) + baryon wave functions in a form which clearly displays the symmetry properties and the internal angular momentum content of the wave functions, and allows us to use spin-trace methods to calculate the many spin matrix elements which appear in the expressions for the baryon magnetic moments. This representation may be useful elsewhere
Fast computation of Krawtchouk moments
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Honarvar Shakibaei Asli, B.; Flusser, Jan
2014-01-01
Roč. 288, č. 1 (2014), s. 73-86 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Krawtchouk polynomial * Krawtchouk moment * Geometric moment * Impulse response * Fast computation * Digital filter Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/flusser-0432452.pdf
Reliability of non-heated tube bends of boilers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugaj, N.V.; Akhremenko, V.L.; Zamotaev, V.S.
1984-01-01
Bend failures are described for non-heated boiler tubes of 12Kh1MF and 20 steels. Methods of reliability evaluations are presented which permit revealing and replacing the bends with inadequate resources. Influences of operation conditions on bend durability is shown as well as the factors which are dominating at bend failures
EFFICIENCY OF MOMENT AMPLIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR THE SECOND-ORDER ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAMES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paschal Chiadighikaobi
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Beam-column is the member subjected to axial compression and bending. Secondary Moment was accounted for in the design and was additional moment induced by axial load. Comparing the results analysis from two computer aided software (SAP2000 and Java. The moment amplification factor Af was inputted in the Java code. Af did not create any change in the result outputs in the Java Code results. There are many different ways to apply amplification factors to first-order analysis results, each with various ranges of applicability. The results shown in this paper are the comparative results of the moment diagrams, axial forces, and shear forces. The type of steel used in the design and analysis is ASTM A992.
Bending and tensile deformation of metallic nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDowell, Matthew T; Leach, Austin M; Gall, Ken
2008-01-01
Using molecular statics simulations and the embedded atom method, a technique for bending silver nanowires and calculating Young's modulus via continuum mechanics has been developed. The measured Young's modulus values extracted from bending simulations were compared with modulus values calculated from uniaxial tension simulations for a range of nanowire sizes, orientations and geometries. Depending on axial orientation, the nanowires exhibit stiffening or softening under tension and bending as size decreases. Bending simulations typically result in a greater variation of Young's modulus values with nanowire size compared with tensile deformation, which indicates a loading-method-dependent size effect on elastic properties at sub-5 nm wire diameters. Since the axial stress is maximized at the lateral surfaces in bending, the loading-method-dependent size effect is postulated to be primarily a result of differences in nanowire surface and core elastic modulus. The divergence of Young's modulus from the bulk modulus in these simulations occurs at sizes below the range in which experiments have demonstrated a size scale effect on elastic properties of metallic nanowires. This difference indicates that other factors beyond native metallic surface properties play a role in experimentally observed nanowire elastic modulus size effects
Bending the law: tidal bending and its effects on ice viscosity and flow
Rosier, S.; Gudmundsson, G. H.
2017-12-01
Many ice shelves are subject to strong ocean tides and, in order to accommodate this vertical motion, the ice must bend within the grounding zone. This tidal bending generates large stresses within the ice, changing its effective viscosity. For a confined ice shelf, this is particularly relevant because the tidal bending stresses occur along the sidewalls, which play an important role in the overall flow regime of the ice shelf. Hence, tidal bending stresses will affect both the mean and time-varying components of ice shelf flow. GPS measurements reveal strong variations in horizontal ice shelf velocities at a variety of tidal frequencies. We show, using full-Stokes viscoelastic modelling, that inclusion of tidal bending within the model accounts for much of the observed tidal modulation of horizontal ice shelf flow. Furthermore, our model shows that in the absence of a vertical tidal forcing, the mean flow of the ice shelf is reduced considerably.
Strength measurement of optical fibers by bending
Srubshchik, Leonid S.
1999-01-01
A two-point bending technique has been used not only to measure the breaking stress of optical fiber but also to predict its static and dynamic fatigue. The present theory of this test is based on elastica theory of rod. However, within the limits of elastica theory the tensile and shear stresses cannot be determined. In this paper we study dynamic and static problems for optical fiber in the two- point bending test on the base of geometrically exact theory in which rod can suffer flexure, extension, and shear. We obtain the governing partial differential equations taking into account the fact that the lateral motion of the fiber is restrained by the presence of flat parallel plates. We develop the computational methods for solving the initial and equilibrium free-boundary nonlinear planar problems. We derive the formulas for predicting of the tensile strength from strength in the bending and calculate one example.
A comparison of two reciprocating instruments using bending stress and cyclic fatigue tests.
Scelza, Pantaleo; Harry, Davidowicz; Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo da; Barbosa, Igor Bastos; Scelza, Miriam Zaccaro
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the bending resistance at 45º, the static and dynamic cyclic fatigue life, and the fracture type of the WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) 25-08 and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) 25-08 instruments. A total of 60 nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments (30 Reciproc and 30 WaveOne) from three different lots, each of which was 25 mm in length, were tested. The bending resistance was evaluated through the results of a cantilever-bending test conducted using a universal testing machine. Static and dynamic cyclic fatigue testing was conducted using a custom-made device. For the static and dynamic tests, a cast Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti alloy metal block with an artificial canal measuring 1.77 mm in diameter and 20.00 mm in total length was used. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine the type of fracture. Statistical analyses were performed on the results. The WaveOne instrument was less flexible than the Reciproc (p fatigue tests (p ductile-type fracture characteristics. It can be concluded that the Reciproc 25-08 instrument was more resistant to static and dynamic cyclic fatigue than the WaveOne 25-08 instrument, while the WaveOne 25-08 instrument was less flexible. Bending and resistance to cyclic fracture were influenced by the instruments' geometries and transverse cross-sections. Both of the instruments showed ductile-type fracture characteristics.
Magnetic field of longitudinal gradient bend
Aiba, Masamitsu; Böge, Michael; Ehrlichman, Michael; Streun, Andreas
2018-06-01
The longitudinal gradient bend is an effective method for reducing the natural emittance in light sources. It is, however, not a common element. We have analyzed its magnetic field and derived a set of formulae. Based on the derivation, we discuss how to model the longitudinal gradient bend in accelerator codes that are used for designing electron storage rings. Strengths of multipole components can also be evaluated from the formulae, and we investigate the impact of higher order multipole components in a very low emittance lattice.
Slice through an LHC bending magnet
Slice through an LHC superconducting dipole (bending) magnet. The slice includes a cut through the magnet wiring (niobium titanium), the beampipe and the steel magnet yokes. Particle beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have the same energy as a high-speed train, squeezed ready for collision into a space narrower than a human hair. Huge forces are needed to control them. Dipole magnets (2 poles) are used to bend the paths of the protons around the 27 km ring. Quadrupole magnets (4 poles) focus the proton beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams’ paths cross. There are 1232 15m long dipole magnets in the LHC.
Bending energy of buckled edge dislocations
Kupferman, Raz
2017-12-01
The study of elastic membranes carrying topological defects has a longstanding history, going back at least to the 1950s. When allowed to buckle in three-dimensional space, membranes with defects can totally relieve their in-plane strain, remaining with a bending energy, whose rigidity modulus is small compared to the stretching modulus. In this paper we study membranes with a single edge dislocation. We prove that the minimum bending energy associated with strain-free configurations diverges logarithmically with the size of the system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dey, Sudip; Karmakar, Amit
2013-01-01
This paper presents a finite element method to compare the effects of delamination on free vibration of graphite-epoxy bending stiff and torsion stiff composite pretwisted shallow conical shells. The generalized dynamic equilibrium equation is derived from Lagrange's equation of motion neglecting the Coriolis effect for moderate rotational speeds. An eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. The multipoint constraint; algorithm is utilized to ensure the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The standard eigen value problem is solved by applying the QR iteration algorithm. Mode shapes for typical configurations are also depicted. Numerical results obtained are the first known non-dimensional frequencies which could serve as reference solutions for the future investigators.
Observation of damage process in RC beams under cucle bending by acoustic emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsu, Masayasu; Tsuji, Nobuyuki; Yasuoka, Daisuke
1997-01-01
Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are generally applied to construction of buildings and bridges, and are imposed on cyclic loading incessantly. It is considered that detected acoustic emission (AE) waveforms are associated with the damage degree and the fracture mechanisms of RC structures. Therefor, the cyclic bending tests are applied to damaged RC beam specimens. To evaluate the interior of the damaged RC beams, the AE source kinematics are determined by 'SiGMA' procedure for AE moment tensor analysis. By using 'SiGMA' procedure, AE source kinematics, such as source locations, crack types, crack orientations and crack motions, can be identified. The results show the applicability to observation of the fracture process under cyclic bending load and evaluation the degree of damage of RC beam.
Fatigue Assessment of High Strength Steel Welded Joints Under Bending Loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Myeong-Woo; Kim, Yun-Jae; Park, Jun-Hyub
2014-01-01
In this study, a fatigue assessment method for vehicle suspension systems having welded geometries was established under a bending loading condition. For the fatigue life estimation of the actual product s welded joints made of different steels, bending fatigue tests were performed on welded specimens with a simplified shape for obtaining the moment-fatigue-life plot. Further, geometry modeling of the simplified welded specimens was conducted. Results of finite element analysis were used to obtain the stress-fatigue-life plot. The analysis results were also used to calculate the stress concentration factors for notch-factor-based fatigue life estimation. The test results were compared with results of the general notch-factor-based fatigue life estimation for improving fatigue assessment. As a result, it was concluded that both the welded fatigue tests and the notch-factor-based fatigue life estimation are necessary for accurate fatigue assessment
Stochastic Generalized Method of Moments
Yin, Guosheng; Ma, Yanyuan; Liang, Faming; Yuan, Ying
2011-01-01
The generalized method of moments (GMM) is a very popular estimation and inference procedure based on moment conditions. When likelihood-based methods are difficult to implement, one can often derive various moment conditions and construct the GMM objective function. However, minimization of the objective function in the GMM may be challenging, especially over a large parameter space. Due to the special structure of the GMM, we propose a new sampling-based algorithm, the stochastic GMM sampler, which replaces the multivariate minimization problem by a series of conditional sampling procedures. We develop the theoretical properties of the proposed iterative Monte Carlo method, and demonstrate its superior performance over other GMM estimation procedures in simulation studies. As an illustration, we apply the stochastic GMM sampler to a Medfly life longevity study. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.
Stochastic Generalized Method of Moments
Yin, Guosheng
2011-08-16
The generalized method of moments (GMM) is a very popular estimation and inference procedure based on moment conditions. When likelihood-based methods are difficult to implement, one can often derive various moment conditions and construct the GMM objective function. However, minimization of the objective function in the GMM may be challenging, especially over a large parameter space. Due to the special structure of the GMM, we propose a new sampling-based algorithm, the stochastic GMM sampler, which replaces the multivariate minimization problem by a series of conditional sampling procedures. We develop the theoretical properties of the proposed iterative Monte Carlo method, and demonstrate its superior performance over other GMM estimation procedures in simulation studies. As an illustration, we apply the stochastic GMM sampler to a Medfly life longevity study. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.
Method of moments in electromagnetics
Gibson, Walton C
2007-01-01
Responding to the need for a clear, up-to-date introduction to the field, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics explores surface integral equations in electromagnetics and presents their numerical solution using the method of moments (MOM) technique. It provides the numerical implementation aspects at a nuts-and-bolts level while discussing integral equations and electromagnetic theory at a higher level. The author covers a range of topics in this area, from the initial underpinnings of the MOM to its current applications. He first reviews the frequency-domain electromagnetic theory and t
Neutron star moments of inertia
Ravenhall, D. G.; Pethick, C. J.
1994-01-01
An approximation for the moment of inertia of a neutron star in terms of only its mass and radius is presented, and insight into it is obtained by examining the behavior of the relativistic structural equations. The approximation is accurate to approximately 10% for a variety of nuclear equations of state, for all except very low mass stars. It is combined with information about the neutron-star crust to obtain a simple expression (again in terms only of mass and radius) for the fractional moment of inertia of the crust.
[Odontoid bending stiffness after anterior fixation with a single lag screw: biomechanical study].
Buchvald, P; Čapek, L; Barsa, P
2015-01-01
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of the experiment was to compare the bending stiffness of an intact odontoid process with bending stiffness after its simulated type II fracture was fixed with a single lag screw. The experiment was done with a desire to answer the question of whether a single osteosynthetic screw is sufficient for good fixation of a type II odontoid fracture. MATERIAL AND METHODS The C2 vertebrae of six cadavers were used. With simultaneous measurement of odontoid bending stiffness, the occurrence of a fracture (type IIA, Grauer's modification of the Anderson- D'Alonzo classification) was simulated using action exerted by a tearing machine in the direction perpendicular to the odontoid axis. Each odontoid fracture was subsequently treated by direct osteosynthesis with a single lag screw inserted in the axial direction by a standard surgical procedure in order to provide conditions similar to those achieved by routine surgical management. The treated odontoid process was subsequently subjected to the same tearing machine loading as applied to it at the start of the experiment. The bending stiffness measured was then compared with that found before the fracture occurred. The results were statistically evaluated by the t-test for paired samples at the level of significance α = 0.05. RESULTS The average value of bending stiffness for odontoid processes of intact vertebrae at the moment of fracture occurrence was 318.3 N/mm. After single axial lag screw fixation of the fracture, the average bending stiffness for the odontoid processes treated was 331.3 N/mm. DISCUSSION Higher values of bending stiffness after screw fixation were found in all specimens and, in comparison with the values recorded before simulated fractures, the increase was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS The results of our measurements suggest that the single lag screw fixation of a type IIA odontoid fracture will provide better stability for the fracture fragment-C2 body complex on
Amplification caused by gravitational bending of light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, P.
1985-01-01
Gravitational bending of light may not only lead to multiple imaging (gravitational lens effect), but also affects the apparent luminosity of a source. It is shown here that a mass distribution near the line-of-sight to any source always increases the observable flux relative to the case in which the deflector is absent
Interdisciplinary Invitations: Exploring Gee's Bend Quilts
Mitchell, Rebecca; Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David
2012-01-01
Engaging with the quilts of Gee's Bend offers a rich opportunity for students in grades four through eight to develop appreciation for pattern, rhythm, and innovation while learning about history, entrepreneurship, and political activism. By easily accessing print, film, and Internet resources teachers can include these vibrant quilts and…
Demonstration model of LEP bending magnet
CERN PhotoLab
1981-01-01
To save iron and raise the flux density, the LEP bending magnet laminations were separated by spacers and the space between the laminations was filled with concrete. This is a demonstration model, part of it with the spaced laminations only, the other part filled with concrete.
Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.
1987-03-24
A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.
Systematisk løbende refleksion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansson, Michael
2010-01-01
Artiklen omhandler en model kaldet systematisk løbende refleksion, der repræsenterer en procedure til overvejelse og genovervejelse af de vurderingskriterier, man lægger til grund for evaluering af et udviklingsprojekt. Pointen er at justere udviklingsprojektet ind i en ønsket retning. Formålet m...
Fuzzy model for Laser Assisted Bending Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giannini Oliviero
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study, a fuzzy model was developed to predict the residual bending in a conventional metal bending process assisted by a high power diode laser. The study was focused on AA6082T6 aluminium thin sheets. In most dynamic sheet metal forming operations, the highly nonlinear deformation processes cause large amounts of elastic strain energy stored in the formed material. The novel hybrid forming process was thus aimed at inducing the local heating of the mechanically bent workpiece in order to decrease or eliminate the related springback phenomena. In particular, the influence on the extent of springback phenomena of laser process parameters such as source power, scan speed and starting elastic deformation of mechanically bent sheets, was experimentally assessed. Consistent trends in experimental response according to operational parameters were found. Accordingly, 3D process maps of the extent of the springback phenomena according to operational parameters were constructed. The effect of the inherent uncertainties on the predicted residual bending caused by the approximation in the model parameters was evaluated. In particular, a fuzzy-logic based approach was used to describe the model uncertainties and the transformation method was applied to propagate their effect on the residual bending.
Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others
1997-08-01
The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Symmetric bends how to join two lengths of cord
Miles, Roger E
1995-01-01
A bend is a knot securely joining together two lengths of cord (or string or rope), thereby yielding a single longer length. There are many possible different bends, and a natural question that has probably occurred to many is: "Is there a 'best' bend and, if so, what is it?"Most of the well-known bends happen to be symmetric - that is, the two constituent cords within the bend have the same geometric shape and size, and interrelationship with the other. Such 'symmetric bends' have great beauty, especially when the two cords bear different colours. Moreover, they have the practical advantage o
Spin waves theory and applications
Stancil, Daniel D
2009-01-01
Magnetic materials can support propagating waves of magnetization; since these are oscillations in the magneto static properties of the material, they are called magneto static waves (sometimes 'magnons' or 'magnetic polarons'). This book discusses magnetic properties of materials, and magnetic moments of atoms and ions
Quiet Moment around the Campfire
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2014-06-18
Byron Breedlove reads his essay, "Quiet Moment around the Campfire," about the art of Frederic Remington and the transmission of pathogens as frontiers expand. Created: 6/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 6/19/2014.
Particle electric dipole-moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pendlebury, J M [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)
1997-04-01
The incentive to detect particle electric dipole-moments, as a window on time-reversal violation, remains undiminished. Efforts to improve the measurements for the neutron, the electron and some nuclei are still making rapid progress as more powerful experimental methods are brought to bear. A new measurement for the neutron at ILL is presented. (author). 7 refs.
Moment of Inertia by Differentiation
Rizcallah, Joseph A.
2015-01-01
The calculation of the moment of inertia of an extended body, as presented in standard introductory-level textbooks, involves the evaluation of a definite integral--an operation often not fully mastered by beginners, let alone the conceptual difficulties it presents, even to the advanced student, in understanding and setting up the integral in the…
Unteachable Moments and Pedagogical Relationships
Wang, Hongyu
2016-01-01
This paper discusses how Julia Kristeva's theory can inform our understanding of unteachable moments. It proposes a pedagogical relationship that can contain breakdowns of meanings and work toward breakthroughs to new awareness, particularly related to social justice pedagogy in teacher education. First, one example from the author's own teaching…
Moment Distributions of Phase Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2011-01-01
Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...
Moment methods and Lanczos methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitehead, R.R.
1980-01-01
In contrast to many of the speakers at this conference I am less interested in average properties of nuclei than in detailed spectroscopy. I will try to show, however, that the two are very closely connected and that shell-model calculations may be used to give a great deal of information not normally associated with the shell-model. It has been demonstrated clearly to us that the level spacing fluctuations in nuclear spectra convey very little physical information. This is true when the fluctuations are averaged over the entire spectrum but not if one's interest is in the lowest few states, whose spacings are relatively large. If one wishes to calculate a ground state (say) accurately, that is with an error much smaller than the excitation energy of the first excited state, very high moments, μ/sub n/, n approx. 200, are needed. As I shall show, we use such moments as a matter of course, albeit without actually calculating them; in fact I will try to show that, if at all possible, the actual calculations of moments is to be avoided like the plague. At the heart of the new shell-model methods embodied in the Glasgow shell-model program and one or two similar ones is the so-called Lanczos method and this, it turns out, has many deep and subtle connections with the mathematical theory of moments. It is these connections that I will explore here
Finite Element Analysis for Bending Process of U-Bending Specimens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Won Dong; Bahn, Chi Bum [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
ASTM G30 suggests that the applied strain can be calculated by dividing thickness by a bend radius. It should be noted, however, that the formula is reliable under an assumption that the ratio of thickness to bend radius is less than 0.2. Typically, to increase the applied stress/strain, the ratio of thickness to bend radius becomes larger than 0.2. This suggests that the estimated strain values by ASTM G30 are not reliable to predict the actual residual strain state of the highly deformed U-bend specimen. For this reason, finite element analysis (FEA) for the bending process of Ubend specimens was conducted by using a commercial finite element analysis software ABAQUS. ver.6.14- 2;2014. From the results of FEA, PWSCC initiation time and U-bend specimen size can be determined exactly. Since local stress and strain have a significant effect on the initiation of PWSCC, it was inappropriate to apply results of ASTM G30 to the PWSCC test directly. According to results of finite element analysis (FEA), elastic relaxation can cause inaccuracy in intended final residual stress. To modify this inaccuracy, additional process reducing the spring back is required. However this additional process also may cause uncertainty of stress/strain state. Therefore, the U-bending specimen size which is not creating uncertainty should be optimized and selected. With the bending radius of 8.3 mm, the thickness of 3 mm and the roller distance of 32.6 mm, calculated maximum stress and strain were 670 MPa and 0.21, respectively.
Maximal Electric Dipole Moments of Nuclei with Enhanced Schiff Moments
Ellis, John; Pilaftsis, Apostolos
2011-01-01
The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of heavy nuclei, such as 199Hg, 225Ra and 211Rn, can be enhanced by the Schiff moments induced by the presence of nearby parity-doublet states. Working within the framework of the maximally CP-violating and minimally flavour-violating (MCPMFV) version of the MSSM, we discuss the maximal values that such EDMs might attain, given the existing experimental constraints on the Thallium, neutron and Mercury EDMs. The maximal EDM values of the heavy nuclei are obtained with the help of a differential-geometrical approach proposed recently that enables the maxima of new CP-violating observables to be calculated exactly in the linear approximation. In the case of 225Ra, we find that its EDM may be as large as 6 to 50 x 10^{-27} e.cm.
Source-Type Identification Analysis Using Regional Seismic Moment Tensors
Chiang, A.; Dreger, D. S.; Ford, S. R.; Walter, W. R.
2012-12-01
Waveform inversion to determine the seismic moment tensor is a standard approach in determining the source mechanism of natural and manmade seismicity, and may be used to identify, or discriminate different types of seismic sources. The successful applications of the regional moment tensor method at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the 2006 and 2009 North Korean nuclear tests (Ford et al., 2009a, 2009b, 2010) show that the method is robust and capable for source-type discrimination at regional distances. The well-separated populations of explosions, earthquakes and collapses on a Hudson et al., (1989) source-type diagram enables source-type discrimination; however the question remains whether or not the separation of events is universal in other regions, where we have limited station coverage and knowledge of Earth structure. Ford et al., (2012) have shown that combining regional waveform data and P-wave first motions removes the CLVD-isotropic tradeoff and uniquely discriminating the 2009 North Korean test as an explosion. Therefore, including additional constraints from regional and teleseismic P-wave first motions enables source-type discrimination at regions with limited station coverage. We present moment tensor analysis of earthquakes and explosions (M6) from Lop Nor and Semipalatinsk test sites for station paths crossing Kazakhstan and Western China. We also present analyses of smaller events from industrial sites. In these sparse coverage situations we combine regional long-period waveforms, and high-frequency P-wave polarity from the same stations, as well as from teleseismic arrays to constrain the source type. Discrimination capability with respect to velocity model and station coverage is examined, and additionally we investigate the velocity model dependence of vanishing free-surface traction effects on seismic moment tensor inversion of shallow sources and recovery of explosive scalar moment. Our synthetic data tests indicate that biases in scalar
Incomplete (bending) fractures of the mandibular condyle in children
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahrendt, D.; Swischuk, L.E.; Hayden, C.K. Jr.; Texas Univ., Galveston
1984-01-01
Incomplete, bending or bowing fractures of the mandibular condyle in children frequently go undetected. The reason is that the bending deformity often is subtle and passes for normal. This is especially true if the fractures are bilateral. (orig.)
Numerical investigation of freak waves
Chalikov, D.
2009-04-01
of wave energy. It is naive to expect that high order moments such as skewness and kurtosis can serve as predictors or even indicators of freak waves. Firstly, the above characteristics cannot be calculated with the use of spectrum usually determined with low accuracy. Such calculations are definitely unstable to a slight perturbation of spectrum. Secondly, even if spectrum is determined with high accuracy (for example calculated with the use of exact model), the high order moments cannot serve as the predictors, since they change synchronically with variations of extreme wave heights. Appearance of freak waves occurs simultaneously with increase of the local kurtosis, hence, kurtosis is simply a passive indicator of the same local geometrical properties of a wave field. This effect disappears completely, if spectrum is calculated over a very wide ensemble of waves. In this case existence of a freak wave is just disguised by other, non freak waves. Thirdly, all high order moments are dependant of spectral presentation - they increase with increasing of spectral resolution and cut-frequency. Statistics of non-dimensional waves as well as emergence of extreme waves is the innate property of a nonlinear wave field. Probability function for steep waves has been constructed. Such type function can be used for development of operational forecast of freak waves based on a standard forecast provided by the 3-d generation wave prediction model (WAVEWATCH or WAM).
A Study on U-bending Technology using Rotary Draw Bending
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Ok-gyu; Kim, Won-seok [BHI Co., Gyunsang-Namdo (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Tae-wan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
In the steam generator, heat transfer phenomenon for producing the steam between the primary system of the nuclear reactor and the secondary one occurs around the heat transfer tube. That is, the primary coolant with high temperature(320 .deg.. C) and high pressure(157Kgf/cm2) derived from the reactor flows in the heat transfer tube, and the secondary one runs out that tube. Therefore, it is able to mention that the heat transfer tube itself is a boundary of the heat transfer phenomenon. The heat transfer tube bundle of each steam generator used for the PWR and the PHWR(Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) is generally composed of about 8,000-13,000 U-tubes. And these tubes are the core component as the structural and heat transfer material in the steam generator, which is in charge of cooling about 70% of the cooling surface of the primary system. For achieving the U-bending process with the thin walled tube, generally, a mandrel could be inserted in the tube according to the bending radius. But when the bending radius is small, the tube U-bending process could be also performed without the mandrel. In this study, numerical and experimental investigations on the U-bending process for producing the heat transfer tubes by using the straight and long tubes were carried out with the consideration of the elastic recovery after the U-bending. In the numerical approach, finite element analysis scheme was adopted with a commercial code, ABAQUS Implicit/Explicit. As the precedent study, the related experiment was also performed to verify the predicted results on the ovality and the minimum wall thickness of the U-bending heat transfer tube. Furthermore, its bending process was also conducted to analyze the deformation behavior for the Alloy 690 tube. In this study, the U-bending process was considered to simulate and manufactured the heat transfer tube used for the steam generator. To investigate the deformation behavior of the U-bending process, and a series of the
Thermal Analysis of Bending Under Tension Test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ceron, Ermanno; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels
2014-01-01
during testing is similar to the one in the production tool. A universal sheet tribo-tester has been developed, which can run multiple tests automatically from coil. This allows emulating the temperature increase as in production. The present work performs finite element analysis of the evolution......The tribological conditions in deep drawing can be simulated in the Bending Under Tension test to evaluate the performance of new lubricants, tool materials, etc. Deep drawing production with automatic handling runs normally at high rate. This implies considerable heating of the tools, which...... sometimes can cause lubricant film breakdown and galling. In order to replicate the production conditions in bending under tension testing it is thus important to control the tool/workpiece interface temperature. This can be done by pre-heating the tool, but it is essential that the interface temperature...
Vortex breakdown in simple pipe bends
Ault, Jesse; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard
2016-11-01
Pipe bends and elbows are one of the most common fluid mechanics elements that exists. However, despite their ubiquity and the extensive amount of research related to these common, simple geometries, unexpected complexities still remain. We show that for a range of geometries and flow conditions, these simple flows experience unexpected fluid dynamical bifurcations resembling the bubble-type vortex breakdown phenomenon. Specifically, we show with simulations and experiments that recirculation zones develop within the bends under certain conditions. As a consequence, fluid and particles can remain trapped within these structures for unexpectedly-long time scales. We also present simple techniques to mitigate this recirculation effect which can potentially have impact across industries ranging from biomedical and chemical processing to food and health sciences.
Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barry, J.E.
1986-01-01
This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation
Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurtisovski, Erol; Taulier, Nicolas; Waks, Marcel; Ober, Raymond; Urbach, Wladimir
2007-01-01
The behavior of the bending modulus κ of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic C i E j surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of κ decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of κ decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to κ
Holey fibers for low bend loss
Nakajima, Kazuhide; Saito, Kotaro; Yamada, Yusuke; Kurokawa, Kenji; Shimizu, Tomoya; Fukai, Chisato; Matsui, Takashi
2013-12-01
Bending-loss insensitive fiber (BIF) has proved an essential medium for constructing the current fiber to the home (FTTH) network. By contrast, the progress that has been made on holey fiber (HF) technologies provides us with novel possibilities including non-telecom applications. In this paper, we review recent progress on hole-assisted type BIF. A simple design consideration is overviewed. We then describe some of the properties of HAF including its mechanical reliability. Finally, we introduce some applications of HAF including to high power transmission. We show that HAF with a low bending loss has the potential for use in various future optical technologies as well as in the optical communication network.
Parallel monostrand stay cable bending fatigue
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winkler, Jan Pawel
This dissertation investigates the bending fatigue response of high-strength steel monostrands and multistrand stay cables to cyclic transverse deformations. Increasing bridge stock numbers and a push for longer cable-supported span lengths have led to an increased number of reported incidents...... of damage and replacement of bridge stay cables due to wind and traffic-induced fatigue. The understanding of fatigue mechanisms in most steel structures is well established. However, in the case of cables composed of steel strands, many important aspects related with bending fatigue remain to be clarified...... associated with variable loading, and different testing procedures. As most of the contemporary stay cables are comprised of a number of individual highstrength steel monostrands, the research study started with an extensive experimental work on the fatigue response of a single monostrand to cyclic flexural...
Foam topology. Bending versus stretching dominated architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deshpande, V.; Ashby, M.; Fleck, N.
2000-01-01
Cellular solids can deform by either the bending or stretching of the cell walls. While most cellular solids are bending-dominated, those that are stretching-dominated are much more weight-efficient for structural applications. In this study we have investigated the topological criteria that dictate the deformation mechanism of a cellular solid by analysing the rigidity (or otherwise) of pin-jointed frameworks comprising inextensional struts. We show that the minimum node connectivity for a special class of lattice structured materials to be stretching-dominated is 6 for 2D foams and 12 for 3D foams. Similarly, sandwich plates comprising of truss cores faced with planar trusses require a minimum node connectivity of 9 to undergo stretching-dominated deformation for all loading states. (author)
Stochastic generation of continuous wave spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trulsen, J.; Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans
1983-01-01
Wave packets of electromagnetic or Langmuir waves trapped in a well between oscillating reflectors are considered. An equation for the temporal evolution of the probability distribution for the carrier wave number is derived, and solved analytically in terms of moments in the limits of long...
Hydrodynamic processes in sharp meander bends and their morphological implications
Blanckaert, K.
2011-01-01
The migration rate of sharp meander bends exhibits large variance and indicates that some sharply curved bends tend to stabilize. These observations remain unexplained. This paper examines three hydrodynamic processes in sharp bends with fixed banks and discusses their morphological implications:
Effects of laser bending on the microstructural constituents
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Tshabalala, L
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This article will illustrate the correlation between microstructural and microhardness changes in high-strength-low-alloy steel that occur as a result of laser-bending. Laser bending is a process of bending metal shapes using the laser beam...
Metal-bending brake facilitates lightweight, close-tolerance fabrication
Ercoline, A. L.; Wilton, K. B.
1964-01-01
A lightweight, metal bending brake ensures very accurate bends. Features of the brake that adapt it for making complex reverse bends to close tolerances are a pronounced relief or cutaway of the underside of the bodyplate combined with modification in the leaf design and its suspension.
Characterization and study of photonic crystal fibres with bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belhadj, W.; AbdelMalek, F.; Bouchriha, H.
2006-01-01
Analysis of a photonic crystal fibre (PRCF) with bends is presented. Using the versatile finite difference time domain method, the modal characteristics of the PCFs are found. Possibilities of employing PCFs with bends in sensing are discussed. It is found that a large evanescent field is present when the bend angle exceeds 45 o
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of flow separation at bends
Hou, Q.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.; Pearce, F.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Yue, T.
2014-01-01
The separated flow in two-dimensional bends is numerically simulated for a right-angled bend with different ratios of the channel widths and for a symmetric bend with different turning angles. Unlike the potential flow solutions that have several restrictive assumptions, the Euler equations are
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of flow separation at bends
Hou, Q.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.; Pearce, F.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Yue, T.
2013-01-01
The separated flow in two-dimensional bends is numerically simulated for a right-angled bend with different ratios of the channel widths and for a symmetric bend with different turning angles. Unlike the potential flow solutions that have several restrictive assumptions, the Euler equations are
The MIT miniaturized disk bend test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.
1983-01-01
A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Possibilities exist for applying the MDBT approach to the determination of other mechanical properties. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly
AA, assembly of wide bending magnet
CERN PhotoLab
1980-01-01
The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.
Closed-form plastic collapse loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae
2006-01-01
Based on three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit, collapse and instability load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide plastic collapse loads (using the twice-elastic-slope method) and instability loads. For the bending mode, both closing bending and opening bending are considered, and a wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and collapse load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and bending are proposed
The Critical Moment of Transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svalgaard, Lotte
2018-01-01
By providing a holding environment to acknowledge sensitivities and address emotions, leadership programs prove to be powerful spaces for increasing self- and social awareness. However, the challenge is for one to maintain the newly gained self- and social awareness after leaving the holding...... environment and entering a context characterized by activity and performance. This is a frequently debated challenge for both academics and providers of management learning. Yet, critical moments in this transition remain under-exposed and under-researched. The contribution of this article is a research study......—within the context of an international MBA program—of MBA students applying their knowledge from a Leadership Stream in an international consultancy project. This article contributes to the theory and practice of management learning by providing a lens through which subjective experience of critical moments...
2006-01-01
One of the first events reconstructed in the Muon Drift Tubes, the Hadron Calorimeter and elements of the Silicon Tracker (TK) at 3 Tesla. The atmosphere in the CMS control rooms was electric. Everbody was at the helm for the first full-scale testing of the experiment. This was a crunch moment for the entire collaboration. On Tuesday, 22 August the magnet attained almost its nominal power of 4 Tesla! At the same moment, in a tiny improvised control room, the physicists were keyed up to test the entire detector system for the first time. The first cosmic ray tracks appeared on their screens in the week of 15 August. The tests are set to continue for several weeks more until the first CMS components are lowered into their final positions in the cavern.
First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Einfeld, Dieter, E-mail: dieter.einfeld@maxlab.lu.se [Lund University, PO Box 118, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden); Plesko, Mark [COSYLAB, Teslova ulica 30, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovakia); Schaper, Joachim [HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Hohnsen 4, D-31134 Hildesheim (Germany)
2014-08-27
The first proposed lattice for a ‘diffraction-limited light source’ is reported. This approach has now more or less been used for the MAX IV project. By the beginning of 1990, three third-generation synchrotron light sources had been successfully commissioned in Grenoble, Berkeley and Trieste (ESRF, ALS and ELETTRA). Each of these new machines reached their target specifications without any significant problems. In parallel, already at that time discussions were underway regarding the next generation, the ‘diffraction-limited light source (DLSR)’, which featured sub-nm rad electron beam emittance, photon beam brilliance exceeding 10{sup 22} and the potential to emit coherent radiation. Also, at about that time, a first design for a 3 GeV DLSR was developed, based on a modified multiple-bend achromat (MBA) design leading to a lattice with normalized emittance of ∊{sub x} = 0.5 nm rad. The novel feature of the MBA lattice was the use of seven vertically focusing bend magnets with different bending angles throughout the achromat cell to keep the radiation integrals and resulting beam emittance low. The baseline design called for a 400 m ring circumference with 12 straight sections of 6 m length. The dynamic aperture behaviour of the DLSR lattice was estimated to produce > 5 h beam lifetime at 100 mA stored beam current.
The multi-bend achromat storage rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eriksson, Mikael [MAX IV Laboratory Ole Römers v. 1 22100 Lund Sweden (Sweden)
2016-07-27
Not very long ago, the 3{sup rd} generation storage ring technology was judged as mature. Most of the 3{sup rd} generation storage rings used the Double-Bend Achromat (DBA) or Triple-Bend Achromat (TBA) concepts. It was however a well-known fact that increasing the number of magnet cells in the rings is a powerful way of decreasing the electron beam emittance and thus the source brilliance, but at the penalty of increasing the size and cost of the rings. Preserving the Dynamic Aperture (DA) in the rings became also an issue when increasing the number of magnet cells. The Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) concept, including a miniaturization of the ring elements, has now drastically changed the picture. The MBA rings, now in construction or being planned, offer orders of magnitudes higher brilliance than rings of conventional designs. Several light sources around the world are now implementing or planning to implement this MBA concept. This article touches on the science drivers for higher brilliance. We will then describe the MBA concept with its advantages as well as its challenges. A short survey of the MBA activity around the world will also be presented. The author apologies for focusing on the MAX IV project regarding technical solutions. This is motivated by that MAX IV is the facility he knows best and it might be regarded as a fore-runner for the MBA concept.
BENDING BEHAVIOUR OF MAGNETIC COTTON YARNS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LUPU Iuliana G.
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Magnetic yarns are composite yarns, i.e. they combine elements of various natures and properties, with proven potential for electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding. In this paper, different mixtures of hard and soft magnetic powder were chosen to cover materials made of cotton yarn. The physical properties and bending behavior of the produced composite yarns were investigated in order to evaluate the yarns for further textile processing.The cotton yarn used as base material was covered with hard (barium hexaferrite BaFe12O19 and soft (Black Toner magnetic particles. An in-house developed laboratory equipment has been used to cover the twist cotton yarns with seven mixtures having different amounts of magnetic powder (30% – 50%. The bending behavior of the coated yarns was evaluated based on the average width of cracks which appeared on the yarn surface after repeated flexural tests. The obtained results revealed that usage of a polyurethane adhesive in the coating solution prevents crack formation on the surface of hard magnetic yarns after flexural tests. At the same time, the higher the mass percentage of hard magnetic powder in the mixture, the higher was the cracks’ width. The soft magnetic yarns are more flexible and a smaller crack width is observed on their surface. Both the coating solution composition and the powder diameter are expected to influence the bending behavior of coated yarns.
The multi-bend achromat storage rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, Mikael
2016-01-01
Not very long ago, the 3"r"d generation storage ring technology was judged as mature. Most of the 3"r"d generation storage rings used the Double-Bend Achromat (DBA) or Triple-Bend Achromat (TBA) concepts. It was however a well-known fact that increasing the number of magnet cells in the rings is a powerful way of decreasing the electron beam emittance and thus the source brilliance, but at the penalty of increasing the size and cost of the rings. Preserving the Dynamic Aperture (DA) in the rings became also an issue when increasing the number of magnet cells. The Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) concept, including a miniaturization of the ring elements, has now drastically changed the picture. The MBA rings, now in construction or being planned, offer orders of magnitudes higher brilliance than rings of conventional designs. Several light sources around the world are now implementing or planning to implement this MBA concept. This article touches on the science drivers for higher brilliance. We will then describe the MBA concept with its advantages as well as its challenges. A short survey of the MBA activity around the world will also be presented. The author apologies for focusing on the MAX IV project regarding technical solutions. This is motivated by that MAX IV is the facility he knows best and it might be regarded as a fore-runner for the MBA concept.
Forming and bending of metal foams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nebosky, Paul; Tyszka, Daniel; Niebur, Glen; Schmid, Steven
2004-01-01
This study examines the formability of a porous tantalum foam, known as trabecular metal (TM). Used as a bone ingrowth surface on orthopedic implants, TM is desirable due to its combination of high strength, low relative density, and excellent osteoconductive properties. This research aims to develop bend and stretch forming as a cost-effective alternative to net machining and EDM for manufacturing thin parts made of TM. Experimentally, bending about a single axis using a wiping die was studied by observing cracking and measuring springback. It was found that die radius and clearance strongly affect the springback properties of TM, while punch speed, embossings, die radius and clearance all influence cracking. Depending on the various combinations of die radius and clearance, springback factor ranged from .70-.91. To examine the affect of the foam microstructure, bending also was examined numerically using a horizontal hexagonal mesh. As the hexagonal cells were elongated along the sheet length, elastic springback decreased. This can be explained by the earlier onset of plastic hinging occurring at the vertices of the cells. While the numerical results matched the experimental results for the case of zero clearance, differences at higher clearances arose due to an imprecise characterization of the post-yield properties of tantalum. By changing the material properties of the struts, the models can be modified for use with other open-cell metallic foams
Emittance growth of bunched beams in bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsten, B.E.; Raubenheimer, T.O.
1995-01-01
Talman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1429 (1986)] has proposed a novel relativistic effect that occurs when a charged particle beam is bent in the magnetic field from an external dipole. The consequence of this effect is that the space-charge forces from the particles do not exhibit the usual inverse-square energy dependence and some part of them are, in fact, independent of energy. This led to speculation that this effect could introduce significant emittance growth for a bending electron beam. Subsequently, it was shown that this effect's influence on the beam's transverse motion is canceled for a dc beam by a potential depression within the beam (to first order in the beam radius divided by the bend radius). In this paper, we extend the analysis to include short bunch lengths (as compared to the beam pipe dimensions) and find that there is no longer the cancellation for forces both transverse to and in the direction of motion. We provide an estimate for the emittance growth as a function of bend angle, beam radius, and current, and for magnetic compression of an electron bunch
Moment Distributions of Phase Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase-type dist...... alternative representation in terms of sub{intensity matrices. Finally we are able to nd explicit expressions for both the Lorenz curve and the Gini index....
Electric Dipole Moments of Hadrons
Wirzba, Andreas
2016-01-01
A nonzero electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron, proton, deuteron, helion or any finite system necessarily involves the breaking of a symmetry, either by the presence of external fields (leading to the case of induced EDMs) or explicitly by the breaking of the discrete parity and time-reflection symmetries in the case of permanent EDMs. Recent - and in the case of the deuteron even unpublished - results for the relevant matrix elements of nuclear EDM operators are presented and the rel...
Spins, moments and radii of Cd isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammen, Michael
2013-01-01
The complex nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and the wide range of systems covered by the roughly 3000 known nuclides leads to a multitude of effects observed in nuclear structure. Among the most prominent ones is the occurence of shell closures at so-called ''magic numbers'', which are explained by the nuclear shell model. Although the shell model already is on duty for several decades, it is still constantly extended and improved. For this process of extension, fine adjustment and verification, it is important to have experimental data of nuclear properties, especially at crucial points like in the vicinity of shell closures. This is the motivation for the work performed in this thesis: the measurement and analysis of nuclear ground state properties of the isotopic chain of 100-130 Cd by collinear laser spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted at ISOLDE/CERN using the collinear laser spectroscopy apparatus COLLAPS. This experiment is the continuation of a run on neutral atomic cadmium from A = 106 to A = 126 and extends the measured isotopes to even more exotic species. The required gain in sensitivity is mainly achieved by using a radiofrequency cooler and buncher for background reduction and by using the strong 5s 2 S 1/2 →5p 2 P 3/2 transition in singly ionized Cd. The latter requires a continuous wave laser system with a wavelength of 214.6 nm, which has been developed during this thesis. Fourth harmonic generation of an infrared titanium sapphire laser is achieved by two subsequent cavity-enhanced second harmonic generations, leading to the production of deep-UV laser light up to about 100 mW. The acquired data of the Z=48 Cd isotopes, having one proton pair less than the Z=50 shell closure at tin, covers the isotopes from N=52 up to N=82 and therefore almost the complete region between the neutron shell closures N=50 and N=82. The isotope shifts and the hyperfine structures of these isotopes have been recorded and the magnetic dipole moments
Spins, moments and radii of Cd isotopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hammen, Michael
2013-10-30
The complex nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and the wide range of systems covered by the roughly 3000 known nuclides leads to a multitude of effects observed in nuclear structure. Among the most prominent ones is the occurence of shell closures at so-called ''magic numbers'', which are explained by the nuclear shell model. Although the shell model already is on duty for several decades, it is still constantly extended and improved. For this process of extension, fine adjustment and verification, it is important to have experimental data of nuclear properties, especially at crucial points like in the vicinity of shell closures. This is the motivation for the work performed in this thesis: the measurement and analysis of nuclear ground state properties of the isotopic chain of {sup 100-130}Cd by collinear laser spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted at ISOLDE/CERN using the collinear laser spectroscopy apparatus COLLAPS. This experiment is the continuation of a run on neutral atomic cadmium from A = 106 to A = 126 and extends the measured isotopes to even more exotic species. The required gain in sensitivity is mainly achieved by using a radiofrequency cooler and buncher for background reduction and by using the strong 5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}→5p{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transition in singly ionized Cd. The latter requires a continuous wave laser system with a wavelength of 214.6 nm, which has been developed during this thesis. Fourth harmonic generation of an infrared titanium sapphire laser is achieved by two subsequent cavity-enhanced second harmonic generations, leading to the production of deep-UV laser light up to about 100 mW. The acquired data of the Z=48 Cd isotopes, having one proton pair less than the Z=50 shell closure at tin, covers the isotopes from N=52 up to N=82 and therefore almost the complete region between the neutron shell closures N=50 and N=82. The isotope shifts and the hyperfine structures of these isotopes have been
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harpøth, Anders; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Kristensen, Martin
2004-01-01
We have designed, simulated and fabricated a photonic crystal waveguide Z-bend, which displays a total bend loss of ~1dB per bend in a wavelength range of more than 200nm. The fabricated component performs in excellent agreement with 3D finite-difference time-domain calculations....
2011-12-29
... License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background PPL Bell Bend, LLC... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP... based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power...
Recent developments in bend-insensitive and ultra-bend-insensitive fibers
Boivin, David; de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Montaigne, Nelly; Gooijer, Frans; Aldea, Eugen; Jensma, Jaap; Sillard, Pierre
2010-02-01
Designed to overcome the limitations in case of extreme bending conditions, Bend- and Ultra-Bend-Insensitive Fibers (BIFs and UBIFs) appear as ideal solutions for use in FTTH networks and in components, pigtails or patch-cords for ever demanding applications such as military or sensing. Recently, however, questions have been raised concerning the Multi-Path-Interference (MPI) levels in these fibers. Indeed, they are potentially subject to interferences between the fundamental mode and the higher-order mode that is also bend resistant. This MPI is generated because of discrete discontinuities such as staples, bends and splices/connections that occur on distance scales that become comparable to the laser coherent length. In this paper, we will demonstrate the high MPI tolerance of all-solid single-trench-assisted BIFs and UBIFs. We will present the first comprehensive study combining theoretical and experimental points of view to quantify the impact of fusion splices on coherent MPI. To be complete, results for mechanical splices will also be reported. Finally, we will show how the single-trench- assisted concept combined with the versatile PCVD process allows to tightly control the distributions of fibers characteristics. Such controls are needed to massively produce BIFs and to meet the more stringent specifications of the UBIFs.
Influence of flock coating on bending rigidity of woven fabrics
Ozdemir, O.; Kesimci, M. O.
2017-10-01
This work presents the preliminary results of our efforts that focused on the effect of the flock coating on the bending rigidity of woven fabrics. For this objective, a laboratory scale flocking unit is designed and flocked samples of controlled flock density are produced. Bending rigidity of the samples with different flock densities are measured on both flocked and unflocked sides. It is shown that the bending rigidity depends on both flock density and whether the side to be measured is flocked or not. Adhesive layer thickness on the bending rigidity is shown to be dramatic. And at higher basis weights, flock density gets less effective on bending rigidity.
A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...... and flexure and show that localized cable bending has a pronounced influence on the fatigue resistance of cables under dynamic excitations....
Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Lerose, Damiana [MPI fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bochmann, Arne [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Christiansen, Silke H. [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); MPI fuer die Physik des Lichts, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Nietzsche, Sandor [Zentrum fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Ziegelmuehlenweg 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)
2011-07-01
Ion beams can be used to bend or re-align nanowires permanently, after they have been grown. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with ions of different species and energy, achieving bending and alignment in various directions. We study the bending of single nanowires as well as the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires in detail. Computer simulations show that the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Dislocations are identified to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent and resistant against annealing procedures.
Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials
Chen, Zhao-xian; Chen, Ze-guo; Ming, Yang; Wu, Ying; Lu, Yan-qing
2016-01-01
We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.
Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials
Chen, Zhao-xian
2016-01-15
We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, A
2009-09-01
Full Text Available of an optical sensor constructed to measure the light flash of an underwater blast to determine the moment of explosion. By measurement of the time taken between this moment and the time when the shock wave reaches the pressure sensors, accurate measurements...
Moment Closure for the Stochastic Logistic Model
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Singh, Abhyudai; Hespanha, Joao P
2006-01-01
..., which we refer to as the moment closure function. In this paper, a systematic procedure for constructing moment closure functions of arbitrary order is presented for the stochastic logistic model...
Standard test methods for bend testing of material for ductility
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2009-01-01
1.1 These test methods cover bend testing for ductility of materials. Included in the procedures are four conditions of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports separated by a defined space; a semi-guided bend test in which the specimen is bent, while in contact with a mandrel, through a specified angle or to a specified inside radius (r) of curvature, measured while under the bending force; a free-bend test in which the ends of the specimen are brought toward each other, but in which no transverse force is applied to the bend itself and there is no contact of the concave inside surface of the bend with other material; a bend and flatten test, in which a transverse force is applied to the bend such that the legs make contact with each other over the length of the specimen. 1.2 After bending, the convex surface of the bend is examined for evidence of a crack or surface irregu...
On the interpretation of the support moment
Hof, AL
2000-01-01
It has been suggested by Winter (J. Biomech. 13 (1980) 923-927) that the 'support moment', the sum of the sagittal extension moments, shows less variability in walking than any of the joint moments separately. A simple model is put forward to explain this finding. It is proposed to reformulate the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitsuya, Masaki; Sakanoue, Takashi
2015-01-01
This study focuses on the opening mode of induction bends; this mode represents the deformation outside a bend. Bending experiments on induction bends are shown and the manner of failure of these bends was investigated. Ruptures occur at the intrados of the bends, which undergo tensile stress, and accompany the local reduction of wall thickness, i.e., necking that indicates strain localization. By implementing finite element analysis (FEA), it was shown that the rupture is dominated not by the fracture criterion of material but by the initiation of strain localization that is a deformation characteristic of the material. These ruptures are due to the rapid increase of local strain after the initiation of strain localization and suddenly reach the fracture criterion. For the evaluation of the deformability of the bends, a method based on FEA that can predict the displacement at the rupture is proposed. We show that the yield surface shape and the true stress–strain relationship after uniform elongation have to be defined on the basis of the actual properties of the bend material. The von Mises yield criterion, which is commonly used in cases of elastic–plastic FEA, could not predict the rupture and overestimated the deformability. In contrast, a yield surface obtained by performing tensile tests on a biaxial specimen could predict the rupture. The prediction of the rupture was accomplished by an inverse calibration method that determined the true stress-strain relationship after uniform elongation. As an alternative to the inverse calibration, a simple extrapolation method of the true stress-strain relationship after uniform elongation which can predict the rupture is proposed. - Highlights: • A method based on FEA that can predict the displacement at the rupture is proposed. • The yield surface shape and the true stress–strain have to be defined precisely. • The von Mises yield criterion overestimated the deformability. • The ruptures are due to the
Spectrum of spin waves in cold polarized gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreeva, T. L., E-mail: phdocandreeva@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2017-02-15
The spin dynamics of cold polarized gases are investigated using the Boltzmann equation. The dispersion relation for spin waves (transverse component of the magnetic moment) and the spin diffusion coefficient of the longitudinal component of the magnetic moment are calculated without using fitting parameters. The spin wave frequency and the diffusion coefficient for rubidium atoms are estimated numerically.
Electric and Magnetic Dipole Moments
CERN. Geneva
2005-01-01
The stringent limit on the electric dipole moment of the neutron forced the issue on the strong CP-problem. The most elegant solution of which is the axion field proposed by Peccei and Quinn. The current limit on the QCD parameter theta coming from the limit on the neutron EDM is of order 10-10. I am going to describe the present status on the neutron EDM searches and further prospects on getting down to theta_qcd sensitivity of 10-13 with the new deuteron EDM in storage rings proposal. For completeness the current status and prospects of the muon g-2 experiment will also be given.
The Muon Electric Dipole Moment
Barger, Vernon; Kao, Chung; Das, Ashok
1997-01-01
The electric dipole moment of the muon ($d_\\mu$) is evaluated in a two Higgs doublet model with a softly broken discrete symmetry. For $\\tan\\beta \\equiv |v_2|/|v_1| \\sim 1$, contributions from two loop diagrams involving the $t$ quark and the $W$ boson dominate; while for $\\tan\\beta \\gsim 10$, contributions from two loop diagrams involving the $b$ quark and the $\\tau$ lepton are dominant. For $8 \\gsim \\tan\\beta \\gsim 4$, significant cancellation occurs among the contributions from two loop di...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae
2006-01-01
In the present paper, approximate plastic limit load solutions for pipe bends under combined internal pressure and bending are obtained from detailed three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials with the small geometry change option. The present FE results show that existing limit load solutions for pipe bends are lower bounds but can be very different from the present FE results in some cases, particularly for bending. Accordingly closed-form approximations are proposed for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending based on the present FE results. The proposed limit load solutions would be a basis of defective pipe bends and be useful to estimate non-linear fracture mechanics parameters based on the reference stress approach
Electromagnetic moments and effective operators in nuclei near and far from the stability line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuta, Kensaku; Minamisono, Tadanori; Ogawa, Yoko; Miyake, Toru; Morishita, Akio; Sato, Kazunori; Momota, Sadao; Nojiri, Yoichi; Mihara, Mototsugu; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Zhu, Sheng-Yung; Onishi, Takashi; Sasaki, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Minamisono, Kei; Akai, Hisazumi; Atsushi, Kitagawa; Torikoshi, Masami; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Nishio, Teiji; Koda, Shigeru; Otsubo, Tatashi; Fukuda, Shigekazu; Tanihata, Isao; Yoshida, Koichi; Ozawa, Akira; Kitagawa, Hisashi; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Hanna, Stanley S.; Alonso, Jose R.; Krebs, Gary F.; Symons, T. James M.; Osaka-RIKEN-HIMAC Collaboration
2003-12-01
Quenching of neutron effective charge has been observed by measuring the quadrupole moment of 16 N. Moreover, the neutron effective charge may be quenched in the quadrupole moment of 21 F. This quenching of effective charges is discussed in terms of the overlap integrals of the wave functions of the valence nucleons and the core. Effective g-factors may be required to explain the large spin expectation value for the mass number 9 mirror nuclei, deduced from the iso-scalar magnetic moment
Bending of light in quantum gravity.
Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Donoghue, John F; Holstein, Barry R; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre
2015-02-13
We consider the scattering of lightlike matter in the presence of a heavy scalar object (such as the Sun or a Schwarzschild black hole). By treating general relativity as an effective field theory we directly compute the nonanalytic components of the one-loop gravitational amplitude for the scattering of massless scalars or photons from an external massive scalar field. These results allow a semiclassical computation of the bending angle for light rays grazing the Sun, including long-range ℏ contributions. We discuss implications of this computation, in particular, the violation of some classical formulations of the equivalence principle.
Structural analysis of suerconducting bending magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meuser, R.B.
1980-05-01
Mechanical stresses, displacements, and the effects of displacements upon aberrations of the magnetic field in the aperture have been calculated for a class of superconducting bending-magnet configurations. The analytical model employed for the coil is one in which elements are free to slide without restraint upon each other, and upon the surrounding structure. Coil configurations considered range from an idealized one in which the current density varies as cosine theta to more realistic ones consisting of regions of uniform current density. With few exceptions, the results for the more realistic coils closely match those of the cos theta coil
Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Grimes
2008-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.
Minimum emittance of three-bend achromats
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiaoyu; Xu Gang
2012-01-01
The calculation of the minimum emittance of three-bend achromats (TBAs) made by Mathematical software can ignore the actual magnets lattice in the matching condition of dispersion function in phase space. The minimum scaling factors of two kinds of widely used TBA lattices are obtained. Then the relationship between the lengths and the radii of the three dipoles in TBA is obtained and so is the minimum scaling factor, when the TBA lattice achieves its minimum emittance. The procedure of analysis and the results can be widely used in achromats lattices, because the calculation is not restricted by the actual lattice. (authors)
Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Chain
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.
Electron wind in strong wave guide fields
Krienen, F.
1985-03-01
The X-ray activity observed near highly powered waveguide structures is usually caused by local electric discharges originating from discontinuities such as couplers, tuners or bends. In traveling waves electrons move in the direction of the power flow. Seed electrons can multipactor in a traveling wave, the moving charge pattern is different from the multipactor in a resonant structure and is self-extinguishing. The charge density in the wave guide will modify impedance and propagation constant of the wave guide. The radiation level inside the output wave guide of the SLAC, 50 MW, S-band, klystron is estimated. Possible contributions of radiation to window failure are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semete, P.; Faidy, C.; Lautier, J.L.
2001-01-01
EDF has conducted a research programme to demonstrate the fracture resistance of carbon-manganese welded pipes. The main task of this programme consisted of testing three four inches diameter (114.3 mm O.D.) thin welded pipes (8.56 mm thick) which are representative of those of the sites. The three pipes were loaded under four point bending at a quasi-static rate at -20 C till their maximum bending moment was reached. This paper presents the experimental results, finite element calculations and their comparison with the simplified fracture assessment method of the RSE-M Code. (author)
Reconstruction of convex bodies from moments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hörrmann, Julia; Kousholt, Astrid
We investigate how much information about a convex body can be retrieved from a finite number of its geometric moments. We give a sufficient condition for a convex body to be uniquely determined by a finite number of its geometric moments, and we show that among all convex bodies, those which......- rithm that approximates a convex body using a finite number of its Legendre moments. The consistency of the algorithm is established using the stabil- ity result for Legendre moments. When only noisy measurements of Legendre moments are available, the consistency of the algorithm is established under...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Jen Lai
2018-01-01
Conclusion: The system acted similar to an off-center V-bend and can be applied in clinical practice as an unconventional loop design. We suggest that this force system has the potential for second-order moment control in clinical applications.
Stress-wave velocity of wood-based panels: effect of moisture, product type, and material direction
Guangping Han; Qinglin Wu; Xiping Wang
2006-01-01
The effect of moisture on longitudinal stress-wave velocity (SWV), bending stiffness. and bending strength of commercial oriented strandboard, plywood. particleboard. and southern pine lumber was evaluated. It was shown that the stress-wave verocity decreased in general with increases in panel moisture content (MC). At a given MC level. SWV varied with panel type and...
Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aase Heidi
2005-08-01
learning long behavioural sequences may ultimately lead to deficient development of verbally governed behaviour and self control. The study represents a new approach to analyzing the moment-to-moment dynamics of behaviour, and provides support for the theory that reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD.
Peripheral Protein Unfolding Drives Membrane Bending.
Siaw, Hew Ming Helen; Raghunath, Gokul; Dyer, R Brian
2018-06-20
Dynamic modulation of lipid membrane curvature can be achieved by a number of peripheral protein binding mechanisms such as hy-drophobic insertion of amphipathic helices and membrane scaffolding. Recently, an alternative mechanism was proposed in which crowding of peripherally bound proteins induces membrane curvature through steric pressure generated by lateral collisions. This effect was enhanced using intrinsically disordered proteins that possess high hydrodynamic radii, prompting us to explore whether membrane bending can be triggered by the folding-unfolding transition of surface-bound proteins. We utilized histidine-tagged human serum albumin bound to Ni-NTA-DGS containing liposomes as our model system to test this hypothesis. We found that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the protein resulted in unfolding of HSA, which subsequently led to membrane tubule formation. The frequency of tubule formation was found to be significantly higher when the proteins were unfolded while being localized to a phase-separated domain as opposed to randomly distributed in fluid phase liposomes, indicating that the steric pressure generated from protein unfolding is directly responsible for membrane deformation. Our results are critical for the design of peripheral membrane protein-immobilization strategies and open new avenues for exploring mechanisms of membrane bending driven by conformational changes of peripheral membrane proteins.
Schrödinger propagation of initial discontinuities leads to divergence of moments
Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.
2009-09-01
We show that the large phase expansion of the Schrödinger propagation of an initially discontinuous wave function leads to the divergence of average energy, momentum, and displacement, rendering them unphysical states. If initially discontinuous wave functions are considered to be approximations to continuous ones, the determinant of the spreading rate of these averages is the maximal gradient of the initial wave function. Therefore a dilemma arises between the inclusion of discontinuous wave functions in quantum mechanics and the requirement of finite moments.
The Critical Moment of Transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svalgaard, Lotte
2018-01-01
By providing a holding environment to acknowledge sensitivities and address emotions, leadership programmes prove to be powerful spaces for increasing self- and social awareness. However, the challenge is for one to maintain the newly gained self- and social awareness after leaving the holding...... – within the context of an international MBA program – of MBA students applying their knowledge from a Leadership Stream in an International Consultancy Project. This paper contributes to the theory and practice of management learning by providing lenses to understand subjective experiences of critical...... moments of transition, developing the notion of “mindful avoidance,” and pointing out a major and neglected potential space in the design of management education....
Usage of information safety requirements in improving tube bending process
Livshitz, I. I.; Kunakov, E.; Lontsikh, P. A.
2018-05-01
This article is devoted to an improvement of the technological process's analysis with the information security requirements implementation. The aim of this research is the competition increase analysis in aircraft industry enterprises due to the information technology implementation by the example of the tube bending technological process. The article analyzes tube bending kinds and current technique. In addition, a potential risks analysis in a tube bending technological process is carried out in terms of information security.
Integrated coherent matter wave circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.
2015-01-01
An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through their electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry
Bending of pipes with inconel cladding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nachpitz, Leonardo; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo B; Vieira, Carlos R. Tavares [Primus Processamento de Tubos S.A. (PROTUBO), Macae, RJ (Brazil)
2009-07-01
The high-frequency induction bending process, using API pipes coated with Inconel 625 reconciled to a mechanical transformation for a higher degree of resistance, was developed through a careful specification and control of the manufacturing parameters and inherent heat treatments. The effects of this technology were investigated by a qualification process consisting of a sequence of tests and acceptance criteria typically required by the offshore industry, and through the obtained results was proved the effectiveness of this entire manufacturing process, without causing interference in the properties and the quality of the inconel cladding, adding a gain of resistance to the base material, guaranteed by the requirements of the API 5L Standard. (author)
Design Study: ELENA Bending Magnet Prototype
Schoerling, D
2013-01-01
The ELENA bending magnet prototype shall prove that the proposed design meets the requirements set by the ELENA beam dynamics. The following points will be discussed in detail: (i) production process of a magnetic yoke diluted with stainless steel plates, (ii) the stability and repeatability of the field homogeneity of such a yoke over the full working range, (iii) choice of soft magnetic steel, (iv) hysteresis effects, (v) mechanical deformations, (vi) thermal insulation to intercept heat load from baking for activation of NEG coating in the vacuum chamber, (vii) end shim design. In order to verify these points the following measurements will be performed: (i) Hall probe scanning, (ii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (DC), (iii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (AC).
Calo, Victor M.
2014-01-01
We analyze the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) method with optimal test functions when applied to solve the Reissner-Mindlin model of plate bending. We prove that the hybrid variational formulation underlying the DPG method is well-posed (stable) with a thickness-dependent constant in a norm encompassing the L2-norms of the bending moment, the shear force, the transverse deflection and the rotation vector. We then construct a numerical solution scheme based on quadrilateral scalar and vector finite elements of degree p. We show that for affine meshes the discretization inherits the stability of the continuous formulation provided that the optimal test functions are approximated by polynomials of degree p+3. We prove a theoretical error estimate in terms of the mesh size h and polynomial degree p and demonstrate numerical convergence on affine as well as non-affine mesh sequences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. R. R. COSTA
Full Text Available Abstract This work involved the structural optimization of precast concrete rigid frames with semi-rigid beam-to-column connections. To this end, several frames were simulated numerically using the Finite Element Method. Beams and columns were modeled using bar elements and their connections were modeled using spring elements, with variable bending stiffness. The objective function was based on the search of the least stiff connection able to ensure the global stability of the building. Lastly, a connection model with optimal stiffness was adopted to design the frame. Semi-rigid beam-to-column connections with a constraint factors of 0.33 sufficed to ensure the maximum allowable horizontal displacement and bending moment of the connection, with a global stability parameter of 1.12. This confirms that even connections with low constraints generate significant gains from the structural standpoint, without affecting construction and assembly-related aspects.
Load tests with a pipe bend DN 425, applying slowly changing bending loads up to occurrence of leak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uhlmann, D.; Hunger, H.
1990-01-01
The experimental program deals with the formation of incipient cracks and subsequent crack growth of axially oriented cracks at a pipe bend with a nominal width of DN 425. The pipe bend consists of the ferritic material 20MnMoNi55. The numerical experiments by means of 3 D-FE analyses concentrate on determining the influence of the asymmetric crack depths at the two bend halves, and of the multiple crack fields, on the effective crack strain. (DG) [de
Noncommutative QED and anomalous dipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riad, I.F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.
2000-09-01
We study QED on noncommutative spaces, NCQED. In particular we present the detailed calculation for the noncommutative electron-photon vertex and show that the Ward identity is satisfied. We discuss that in the noncommutative case moving electron will show electric dipole effects. In addition, we work out the electric and magnetic dipole moments up to one loop level. For the magnetic moment we show that noncommutative electron has an intrinsic (spin independent) magnetic moment. (author)
Electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, A.
1983-01-01
The electric dipole moment of some diatomic molecules is calculated using the Variational Cellular Method. The results obtained for the molecules CO, HB, HF and LiH are compared with other calculations and with experimental data. It is shown that there is strong dependence of the electric dipole moment with respect to the geometry of the cells. It is discussed the possibility of fixing the geometry of the problem by giving the experimental value of the dipole moment. (Author) [pt
Electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, A.
1983-01-01
The electric dipole moment of some diatomic molecules is calculated using the Variational Cellular Method. The results obtained for the CO, HB, HF and LiH molecules are compared with other calculations and with experimental data. It is shown that there is strong dependence of the electric dipole moment with respect to the geometry of the cells. The possibility of fixing the geometry of the problem by giving the experimental value of the dipole moment is discussed. (Author) [pt
Restrictions on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duncan, M.J.; Sankar, S.U.; Grifols, J.A.; Mendez, A.
1987-01-01
We examine mechanisms for producing neutrino magnetic moments from a wide class of particle theories which are extensions of the standard model. We show that it is difficult to naturally obtain a moment greater than ≅ 10 -2 electron Bohr magnetons. Thus models of phenomena requiring moments of order ≅ 10 -10 magnetons, such as those proposed as a resolution to the solar neutrino puzzle, are in conflict with current perceptions in particle physics. (orig.)
W-boson electric dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, X.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1990-01-01
The W-boson electric dipole moment is calculated in the SU(3) C xSU(2) L xU(1) Y model with several Higgs-boson doublets. Using the constraint on the CP-violating parameters from the experimental upper bound of the neutron electric dipole moment, we find that the W-boson electric dipole moment is constrained to be less than 10 -4
Relation between second-order moment radius of focal spot and near field distribution of laser beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Xueyan; Su Yi; Ye Yidong; Guan Youguang
2011-01-01
In order to analyze the effect of aberration of amplitude and phase of laser beam on second-order moment radius of focal spot, based on the Fraunhofer formula for light wave scalar diffraction theory and the definition of second-order moment radius, the general expression for focal spot second-order moment radius depending on the complex amplitude of near field is derived. The second-order moment radius of the focal spot depending on intensity distribution and phase distribution of near field is derived, and its clear physical meaning is described. The second-order moment radius and the divergence angle of focal spot may be easily calculated with the second-order moment radius expression of focal spot. At last, the divergence angles of focal spots of several kinds of Gaussian laser beams are calculated directly, and the results are in accordance with those in the related references. (authors)
On the accuracy of analyses for in-plane bending of smooth pipe bends with end constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomson, G.; Spence, J.
1985-01-01
The accuracy of theoretical analyses for in-plane bending of smooth pipebends with end constraints is discussed and investigated with a view to explaining and reducing the differences between the major works. An earlier theory of the authors is improved to give more accurate answers for bends with rigid flanges. Flanged bends are then examined in some detail, quantifying for the first time the important influence of the flange rigidity on the bend flexibility and stresses. A summary of some finite element analyses is presented from which it is clear that further work is desirable. (orig.)
The charge form factor, the quadrupole moment and the photodisintegration of 6Li
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Susila, S.; Srinivasa Rao, K.
1981-01-01
The root mean square radius, the charge form factor, the charge density, the quadrupole moment and the bremsstrahlung weighted cross section for the photodisintegration of 6 Li, are calculated using a polarised cluster model wave function, which is modified to take into account, in its relative motion part, the requirement of a shell model node. A set of parameters, in the modified cluster model wave function, which account for the available experimental data for the afore-said quantities, is determined. (author)
How to introduce the magnetic dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezerra, M; Kort-Kamp, W J M; Cougo-Pinto, M V; Farina, C
2012-01-01
We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the magnetic field at distant points, identifying the magnetic dipole moment of the distribution. We also present a simple but general demonstration of the torque exerted by a uniform magnetic field on a current loop of general form, not necessarily planar. For pedagogical reasons we start by reviewing briefly the concept of the electric dipole moment. (paper)
Gross shell structure of moments of inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.
2002-01-01
Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits
Analysis of scaled-factorial-moment data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seibert, D.
1990-01-01
We discuss the two standard constructions used in the search for intermittency, the exclusive and inclusive scaled factorial moments. We propose the use of a new scaled factorial moment that reduces to the exclusive moment in the appropriate limit and is free of undesirable multiplicity correlations that are contained in the inclusive moment. We show that there are some similarities among most of the models that have been proposed to explain factorial-moment data, and that these similarities can be used to increase the efficiency of testing these models. We begin by calculating factorial moments from a simple independent-cluster model that assumes only approximate boost invariance of the cluster rapidity distribution and an approximate relation among the moments of the cluster multiplicity distribution. We find two scaling laws that are essentially model independent. The first scaling law relates the moments to each other with a simple formula, indicating that the different factorial moments are not independent. The second scaling law relates samples with different rapidity densities. We find evidence for much larger clusters in heavy-ion data than in light-ion data, indicating possible spatial intermittency in the heavy-ion events
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2004-01-01
Topology optimization is a promising method for systematic design of optical devices. As an example, we demonstrate how the method can be used to design a 90degrees bend in a two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide with a transmission loss of less than 0.3% in almost the entire frequency range...... of the guided mode. The method can directly be applied to the design of other optical devices, e.g., multiplexers and wave splitters, with optimized performance. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....
Effect of Bend Radius on Magnitude and Location of Erosion in S-Bend
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quamrul H. Mazumder
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Solid particle erosion is a mechanical process that removes material by the impact of solid particles entrained in the flow. Erosion is a leading cause of failure of oil and gas pipelines and fittings in fluid handling industries. Different approaches have been used to control or minimize damage caused by erosion in particulated gas-solid or liquid-solid flows. S-bend geometry is widely used in different fluid handling equipment that may be susceptible to erosion damage. The results of a computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulation of diluted gas-solid and liquid-solid flows in an S-bend are presented in this paper. In addition to particle impact velocity, the bend radius may have significant influence on the magnitude and the location of erosion. CFD analysis was performed at three different air velocities (15.24 m/s–45.72 m/s and three different water velocities (0.1 m/s–10 m/s with entrained solid particles. The particle sizes used in the analysis range between 50 and 300 microns. Maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 250-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. The location of maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 300-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. Comparison of CFD results with available literature data showed reasonable and good agreement.
The neutron electric dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, X.G.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Pakvasa, S.
1989-01-01
A systematic study was made of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of neutron D n in various models of CP violation. It was found that in the standard KM model with 3 families the neutron EDM is in the range 1.4x10 -33 ≤ D n ≤ 1.6x10 -31 ecm; that the two Higgs doublet model has approximately the same value of D n as the standard model; that D n in the Weinberg model is predicted to satisfy D n > 10 -25 ecm; that in a class of left-right symmetric models D n is of the order of 10 -26-11 ecm; that in supersymmetric models D n is of the order 10 -22 φ ecm with φ being the possible phase difference of the phases of gluino mass and the gluino-quark-smark mixing matrix and that the strong CP parameter θ is found to be θ -9 , using the present experimental limit that D n -25 ecm with 90% confidence. 65 refs., 10 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jay Foster
2015-11-01
Full Text Available At least two recent collections of essays – Postmodernism and the Enlightenment (2001 and What’s Left of Enlightenment?: A Postmodern Question (2001 – have responded to postmodern critiques of Enlightenment by arguing that Enlightenment philosophes themselves embraced a number of post-modern themes. This essay situates Kant’s essay Was ist Aufklärung (1784 in the context of this recent literature about the appropriate characterization of modernity and the Enlightenment. Adopting an internalist reading of Kant’s Aufklärung essay, this paper observes that Kant is surprisingly ambivalent about who might be Enlightened and unspecific about when Enlightenment might be achieved. The paper argues that this is because Kant is concerned less with elucidating his concept of Enlightenment and more with characterizing a political condition that might provide the conditions for the possibility of Enlightenment. This paper calls this political condition modernity and it is achieved when civil order can be maintained alongside fractious and possibly insoluble public disagreement about matters of conscience, including the nature and possibility of Enlightenment. Thus, the audience for the Aufklärung essay is not the tax collector, soldier or clergyman, but rather the sovereign. Kant enjoins and advises the prince that discord and debate about matters of conscience need not entail any political unrest or upheaval. It is in this restricted (Pocockian sense that the Enlightenment essay is Kant’s Machiavellian moment.
Stereo Correspondence Using Moment Invariants
Premaratne, Prashan; Safaei, Farzad
Autonomous navigation is seen as a vital tool in harnessing the enormous potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and small robotic vehicles for both military and civilian use. Even though, laser based scanning solutions for Simultaneous Location And Mapping (SLAM) is considered as the most reliable for depth estimation, they are not feasible for use in UAV and land-based small vehicles due to their physical size and weight. Stereovision is considered as the best approach for any autonomous navigation solution as stereo rigs are considered to be lightweight and inexpensive. However, stereoscopy which estimates the depth information through pairs of stereo images can still be computationally expensive and unreliable. This is mainly due to some of the algorithms used in successful stereovision solutions require high computational requirements that cannot be met by small robotic vehicles. In our research, we implement a feature-based stereovision solution using moment invariants as a metric to find corresponding regions in image pairs that will reduce the computational complexity and improve the accuracy of the disparity measures that will be significant for the use in UAVs and in small robotic vehicles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirayama, T.; Ma, N.; Nishio, O.; Sato, N. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-12-31
Notice was given on response characteristics in a short wavelength range of a large floating structure for an offshore airport consisting of semi-submersible replaceable type units, and influence of unit lacking. An attempt was also made on performing restoration of inclination change during unit lacking and suppression of long-cycle variation in waves by using air pressure control. The result of a numerical calculation based on a three-dimensional singular point method may be summarized as follows: mass force added vertically on columns in short wavelength range differs in the outer edges and the central part; relatively uniform values are shown in the central part; and interactive interference is recognized in wave forces in the vertical direction, but the influence therefrom decreases as the wave length decreases. Calculations on vertical movements and bending moments in waves were performed by using a mode synthesizing method. The calculations used fluid force which was calculated based on the three-dimensional singular point method utilizing symmetry with respect to each condition for a complete model plus unit lacking and unit lacking plus inclination control. As a result of verifying the calculations by using an experiment, relatively good agreement was achieved in either case. A high-frequency vibration experiment made clear the characteristics of elastic response in the short-wave length range. 14 refs., 14 figs.
Gender differences in variability patterns of forward bending
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk
2016-01-01
The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure.......The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure....
Disk-bend ductility tests for irradiated materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klueh, R.L.; Braski, D.N.
1984-01-01
We modified the HEDL disk-bend test machine and are using it to qualitatively screen alloys that are susceptible to embrittlement caused by irradiation. Tests designed to understand the disk-bend test in relation to a uniaxial test are discussed. Selected results of tests of neutron-irradiated material are also presented
System effects influencing the bending strength of timber beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Källsner, B.
1998-01-01
A stochastic model of hierarchical series system type for the bending strength of spruce beams isdefined from the anticipation that the bending failure takes place at a cross-section with a defect cluster formed by knots or grain irregularities. The parameters of the model are estimated from meas...
Bends in nanotubes allow electric spin control and coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flensberg, Karsten; Marcus, Charles Masamed
2010-01-01
We investigate combined effects of spin-orbit coupling and magnetic field in carbon nanotubes containing one or more bends along their length. We show how bends can be used to provide electrical control of confined spins, while spins confined in straight segments remain insensitive to electric...
Spontaneous bending of 2D molecular bottle-brush
Subbotin, A; Jong, J; ten Brinke, G
Using a scaling approach we consider a 2D comb copolymer brush under bending deformations. We show that the rectilinear brush is locally stable and can be characterized by a persistence length lambda increasing with the molecular weight of grafting side chains as lambda similar to M-3. A bending
High-sensitivity bend angle measurements using optical fiber gratings.
Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang
2013-07-20
We present a high-sensitivity and more flexible bend measurement method, which is based on the coupling of core mode to the cladding modes at the bending region in concatenation with optical fiber grating serving as band reflector. The characteristics of a bend sensing arm composed of bending region and optical fiber grating is examined for different configurations including single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), chirped FBG (CFBG), and double FBGs. The bend loss curves for coated, stripped, and etched sections of fiber in the bending region with FBG, CFBG, and double FBG are obtained experimentally. The effect of separation between bending region and optical fiber grating on loss is measured. The loss responses for single FBG and CFBG configurations are compared to discover the effectiveness for practical applications. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the double FBG scheme is twice that of the single FBG and CFBG configurations, and hence acts as sensitivity multiplier. The bend loss response for different fiber diameters obtained through etching in 40% hydrofluoric acid, is measured in double FBG scheme that resulted in a significant increase in the sensitivity, and reduction of dead-zone.
Coda-derived source spectra, moment magnitudes and energy-moment scaling in the western Alps
Morasca, P.; Mayeda, K.; Malagnini, L.; Walter, William R.
2005-01-01
A stable estimate of the earthquake source spectra in the western Alps is obtained using an empirical method based on coda envelope amplitude measurements described by Mayeda et al. for events ranging between MW~ 1.0 and ~5.0. Path corrections for consecutive narrow frequency bands ranging between 0.3 and 25.0 Hz were included using a simple 1-D model for five three-component stations of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The 1-D assumption performs well, even though the region is characterized by a complex structural setting involving strong lateral variations in the Moho depth. For frequencies less than 1.0 Hz, we tied our dimensionless, distance-corrected coda amplitudes to an absolute scale in units of dyne cm by using independent moment magnitudes from long-period waveform modelling for three moderate magnitude events in the region. For the higher frequencies, we used small events as empirical Green's functions, with corner frequencies above 25.0 Hz. For each station, the procedure yields frequency-dependent corrections that account for site effects, including those related to fmax, as well as to S-to-coda transfer function effects. After the calibration was completed, the corrections were applied to the entire data set composed of 957 events. Our findings using the coda-derived source spectra are summarized as follows: (i) we derived stable estimates of seismic moment, M0, (and hence MW) as well as radiated S-wave energy, (ES), from waveforms recorded by as few as one station, for events that were too small to be waveform modelled (i.e. events less than MW~ 3.5); (ii) the source spectra were used to derive an equivalent local magnitude, ML(coda), that is in excellent agreement with the network averaged values using direct S waves; (iii) scaled energy, , where ER, the radiated seismic energy, is comparable to results from other tectonically active regions (e.g. western USA, Japan) and supports the idea that there is a fundamental
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neki, I.; Tada, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-12-31
This paper reports a method to develop a new finite element by source (FES) for a two-dimensional plane problem and a three-dimensional solid problem as a method to analyze ship body structures. The paper describes development of a plate bending element by using a similar method, and the fundamental principle thereof. The present method can prepare a finite element of an arbitrary shape by simply providing a contact point only on a boundary. It can also derive good calculation accuracy with less number of contact points and elements. These facts are shown by examples of analyses on a square plate, a triangle plate and a semi-circular plate. Particularly, since a plate bending problem has a large order of differential calculus in a governing equation, this method being a semi-analytical method derives a result with very good accuracy even with less number of contact points. A hypothetical boundary method or a hypothetical electric charge method presents not a very high accuracy even if a large number of contact points are provided. This is because the method hypothesizes only a bending moment vertical to the boundary, but does not consider a source of the moment relative to the boundary. In contrast, the present method hypothesizes both of bending and twisting as the sources, hence its accuracy is better than with the above two methods. 5 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neki, I; Tada, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1997-12-31
This paper reports a method to develop a new finite element by source (FES) for a two-dimensional plane problem and a three-dimensional solid problem as a method to analyze ship body structures. The paper describes development of a plate bending element by using a similar method, and the fundamental principle thereof. The present method can prepare a finite element of an arbitrary shape by simply providing a contact point only on a boundary. It can also derive good calculation accuracy with less number of contact points and elements. These facts are shown by examples of analyses on a square plate, a triangle plate and a semi-circular plate. Particularly, since a plate bending problem has a large order of differential calculus in a governing equation, this method being a semi-analytical method derives a result with very good accuracy even with less number of contact points. A hypothetical boundary method or a hypothetical electric charge method presents not a very high accuracy even if a large number of contact points are provided. This is because the method hypothesizes only a bending moment vertical to the boundary, but does not consider a source of the moment relative to the boundary. In contrast, the present method hypothesizes both of bending and twisting as the sources, hence its accuracy is better than with the above two methods. 5 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.
Stress index development for piping with trunnion attachment under pressure and moment loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, D. H.; Kim, J. M.; Park, S. H.
1997-01-01
A finite element analysis of a trunnion pipe anchor is presented. The structure is analyzed for the case of internal pressure and moment loadings. The stress results are categorized into the average (membrane) stress, the linearly varying (bending) stress and the peak stress through the thickness. The resulting stresses are interpreted per section III of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code from which the Primary (B 1 ), Secondary (C 1 ) and Peak (K 1 ) stress indices for pressure, the Primary (B 2 ), Secondary (C 2 ) and Peak (K 2 ) stress indices for moment are developed. Based on the comparison between stress value by stress indices derived in this paper and stress value represented by the ASME Code Case N-391-1, the empirical equations for stress indices are effectively used in the piping stress analysis. Therefore, the use of empirical equations can simplify the procedure of evaluating the local stress in the piping design stage. (author)
Formulation of Forming Load in V-Bending
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koumura Yuki
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A novel method is described to calculate the forming load in V-bending by a press brake. The data of forming load are collected by FEM analysis. With an increase of the punch stroke in V-bending, the forming load increases gradually after the elastic limit, and then decreases after showing the maximum value. The proposal formulation to trace the variations in the forming load curve includes the calculating method of the load of the elastic limit, the maximum load in air bending and the variations of the forming load before/after the bending stroke of the maximum load. The calculated precision is confirmed by comparing with the measured load-stroke curves in V-bending with a press brake.
The method of moments and its application to the description of liquid He4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parlinski, K.
1974-01-01
The method of moments used to calculate the time dependent correlation functions is discussed. To reconstruct the approximate correlation function the finite number of the moments of a given function is needed. Every such approximation is an exact solution of the problem described by some model Hamiltonian. The formulae for any order of the approximation are given. Also described is another way of using the moments, which relies on the expansion of the Fourier transform of the correlation function into the series of the Hermitian polynomials, the coefficient of which are combinations of the moments. The method of moments was applied to the description of liquid He 4 which is at absolute zero temperature. The calculated moments of the density-density correlation function were applied to the description of the experimentally observed oscillations of width and average energy of the distribution of neutrons scattered by liquid helium as a function of the wave vector greater than 2 Angstroem -1 . Good agreement between the calculated and experimentally observed oscillations was obtained. It was also shown that the dynamics structure factor is highly asymmetrical. Using the calculated moments of the velocity-velocity correlation function, the expansion coefficients of the incoherent, double differential scattering cross-section into the series over the inverse wave vector were found up to the term of third order. The coefficients of this expansion do not depend explicitly on the relative particle occupation fraction of the zero-momentum state, i.e. the condensate. This expansion describes well the expermentally observed distributions of scattered neutrons for the wave vector 14.33 Angstroem -1 . The obtained results indicate that the inelastic neutron scattering method for high momentum transfers cannot be used as a straightforward method of measuring the relative occupation number of the zero-momentum state. The methods of elaboration of neutron scattering results at
Closed forms and multi-moment maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis
2013-01-01
We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are gu...
Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings
Margulis, V. A.; Karpunin, V. V.; Mironova, K. I.
2018-01-01
Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings is investigated. An analytical expression for the magnetic moment as a function of the magnetic field flux through the one-dimensional quantum rings is obtained. This expression has the oscillation character. The oscillation period is equal to one flux quanta.
6-quark contribution to nuclear magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, H.
1985-01-01
The magnetic moments of nuclei with LS closed shell +/-1 particle are calculated. Core polarization and meson exchange current are treated realistically in order to single out the 6-quark contribution. Overall agreement with experimental values is quite good. It is shown that the 6-quark system contributes to the respective iso-vector and iso-scalar moments with reasonable magnitudes
D-dimensional moments of inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, C.M.; Mead, L.R.
1995-01-01
We calculate the moments of inertia of D-dimensional spheres and spherical shells, where D is a complex number. We also examine the moments of inertia of fractional-dimensional geometrical objects such as the Cantor set and the Sierpinski carpet and their D-dimensional analogs. copyright 1995 American Association of Physics Teachers
Dynamical moments of inertia for superdeformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obikhod, T.V.
1995-01-01
The method of quantum groups has been applied for calculation the dynamical moments of inertia for the yrast superdeformed bands in 194 Hg and 192 Hg as well as to calculation of the dynamical moments of inertia of superdeformed bands in 150 Gd and 148 Gd
Polarization electric dipole moment in nonaxial nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.Yu.; Davidovskaya, O.I.
1996-01-01
An expression for the macroscopic polarization electric dipole moment is obtained for nonaxial nuclei whose radii of the proton and neutron surfaces are related by a linear equation. Dipole transitions associated with the polarization electric dipole moment are analyzed for static and dynamical multipole deformations
Droplet-model electric dipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.
1991-01-01
Denisov's recent criticism of the droplet-model formula for the dipole moment of a deformed nucleus as derived by Dorso et al., it shown to be invalid. This helps to clarify the relation of theory to the measured dipole moments, as discussed in the review article by Aberg et al. (orig.)
Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There
Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.
2015-01-01
In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…
A bend thickness sensitivity study of Candu feeder piping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, M.; Aggarwal, M.L.; Meysner, A.; Micelotta, C.
2005-01-01
In CANDU reactors, feeder bends close to the connection at the fuel channel may be subjected to the highest Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and stresses. Feeder pipe stress analysis is crucial in the life extension of aging CANDU plants. Typical feeder pipes are interconnected by upper link plates and spacers. It is well known that the stresses at the bends are sensitive to the local bend thicknesses. It is also known from the authors' study (Li and et al, 2005) that feeder inter linkage effect is significant and cannot be ignored. The field measurement of feeder bend thickness is difficult and may be subjected to uncertainty in accuracy. Hence, it is desirable to know how the stress on a subject feeder could be affected by the bend thickness variation of the neighboring feeders. This effect cannot be evaluated by the traditional 'single' feeder model approach. In this paper, the 'row' and 'combined' models developed in the previous study (Li and et al, 2005), which include the feeder interactions, are used to investigate the sensitivity of bend thickness. A series of random thickness bounded by maximum and minimum measured values were applied to feeders in the model. The results show that an individual feeder is not sensitive to the bend thickness variation of the remaining feeders in the model, but depends primarily on its own bend thickness. The highest stress at a feeder always occurs when the feeder has the smallest possible bend thickness. A minimum acceptable bend thickness for individual feeders can be computed by an iterative computing process. The dependency of field thickness measurement and the amount of required analysis work can be greatly reduced. (authors)
On Perturbation Solutions for Axisymmetric Bending Boundary Values of a Deep Thin Spherical Shell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rong Xiao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available On the basis of the general theory of elastic thin shells and the Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis, a fundamental equation for a thin shell under the moment theory is established. In this study, the author derives Reissner’s equation with a transverse shear force Q1 and the displacement component w. These basic unknown quantities are derived considering the axisymmetry of the deep, thin spherical shell and manage to constitute a boundary value question of axisymmetric bending of the deep thin spherical shell under boundary conditions. The asymptotic solution is obtained by the composite expansion method. At the end of this paper, to prove the correctness and accuracy of the derivation, an example is given to compare the numerical solution by ANSYS and the perturbation solution. Meanwhile, the effects of material and geometric parameters on the nonlinear response of axisymmetric deep thin spherical shell under uniform external pressure are also analyzed in this paper.
Shell structure of potassium isotopes deduced from their magnetic moments
Papuga, J.; Kreim, K; Barbieri, C; Blaum, K; De Rydt, M; Duguet, T; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Kowalska, M; Neugart, R; Neyens, G; Nortershauser, W; Rajabali, M M; Sanchez, R; Smirnova, N; Soma, V; Yordanov, D T
2014-09-29
$\\textbf{Background:}$ Ground-state spins and magnetic moments are sensitive to the nuclear wave function, thus they are powerful probes to study the nuclear structure of isotopes far from stability. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Purpose:}$ Extend our knowledge about the evolution of the $1/2^+$ and $3/2^+$ states for K isotopes beyond the $N = 28$ shell gap. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Method:}$ High-resolution collinear laser spectroscopy on bunched atomic beams. \\\\ \\\\ $\\textbf{Results:}$ From measured hyperfine structure spectra of K isotopes, nuclear spins and magnetic moments of the ground states were obtained for isotopes from $N = 19$ up to $N = 32$. In order to draw conclusions about the composition of the wave functions and the occupation of the levels, the experimental data were compared to shell-model calculations using SDPF-NR and SDPF-U effective interactions. In addition, a detailed discussion about the evolution of the gap between proton $1d_{3/2}$ and $2s_{1/2}$ in the shell model and $\\textit{ab initio}$ framework is al...
Moment tensor and location of seismic events in the 2017 DPRK test
Wei, S.; Shi, Q.; Chen, Q. F.; Wang, T.
2017-12-01
The main seismic event in the 2017 DPRK test was followed by a secondary event about eight minutes later. We conducted waveform analysis on the regional broadband waveform data to better constrain the moment tensor and location of these two events, to further understand their relations. In the first place, we applied the generalized Cut-And-Paste (gCAP) method to the regional data to invert the full moment tensor solutions of the two events. Our long period (0.02-0.08 Hz for Pnl, 0.02-0.055 Hz for surface waves) inversions show that the main event was composed of large positive ISO component ( 90% of the total moment) and has a moment magnitude of 5.4. In contrast, the second event shows large negative ISO component ( 50% of the total moment) with a moment magnitude of 4.5. Although there are trade-offs between the CLVD and the ISO component for the second event, chiefly caused by the coda waves from the first event, the result is more robust if we force a small CVLD component in the inversion. We also relocated the epicenter of the second event using P-wave first arrival picks, relative to the location of the first event, which has been accurately determined from the high-resolution geodetic data. The calibration from the first event allows us to precisely locate the second event, which shows an almost identical location to the first event. After a polarity correction, their high-frequency ( 0.25 - 0.9 Hz) regional surface waves also display high similarity, supporting the similar location but opposite ISO polarity of the two events. Our results suggest that the second event was likely to be caused by the collapsing after the main event, in agreement with the surface displacement derived from geodetic observation and modeling results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Yun-Jae; Oh, Chang-Kyun; Jin, Tae-Eun; Kim, Jong-Sung
2009-01-01
This paper firstly presents net-section limit moments for circumferential through-wall and part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes under in-plane bending. Closed-form solutions are proposed based on fitting results from small strain FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Net-section limit moments for circumferential cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes are found to be close to those for cracks in the centre of elbows, implying that the location of the circumferential crack within an elbow has a minimal effect on the net-section limit moment. Accordingly it is also found that the assumption that the crack locates in a straight pipe could significantly overestimate the net-section limit load (and thus maximum load-carrying capacity) of the cracked component. Based on the proposed net-section limit moment, a method to estimate elastic-plastic J based on the reference stress approach is proposed for circumferential cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes under in-plane bending.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sulpicio Sánchez-Tizapa
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un método práctico para calcular la curva envolvente de cortante y momento en puentes isostáticos con longitudes entre 15,0 y 50,0 m, considerando las cargas vivas del reglamento mexicano. La curva de cortante es una función de primer grado mientras que el momento fl ector es de segundo grado, en ambos casos la distancia a partir del extremo izquierdo de la viga es la variable independiente. Esta herramienta puede utilizarse ya sea en el diseño de puentes en el campo profesional o en cursos académicos, evitando así el uso ilegal de software profesional. Mediante un algoritmo simple desarrollado en software libre se calcularon las envolventes de ambos elementos mecánicos, utilizadas posteriormente para evaluar, mediante un análisis estadístico, los coefi cientes de las ecuaciones respectivas. El mínimo coefi ciente de correlación entre ambos métodos fue 0,98, lo cual muestra la capacidad del método. Este proceso puede ser implementado para cualquier tipo de carga viva en puentes.
Hofmeyer, H.; Kerstens, J.G.M.; Snijder, H.H.; Bakker, M.C.M.
1996-01-01
Design rules describing failure at an interior support of cold-formed steel flexural members are of an empirical nature. This is probably due to the complex character of the failure mechanisms, which makes an analytical approach difficult. An overview of research on this subject has been made. The
Didia, E E; Akon, A B; Thiam, A; Djeredou, K B
2010-03-01
One of the concerns of the dental surgeon in the realization of any operational act is the durability of this one. The mechanical resistance of the provisional prostheses contributes in a large part to the durability of those. The resins in general, have weak mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resistance in inflection of temporary bridges reinforced with glass fibre. To remedy the weak mechanical properties of resins, we thought in this study, to reinforce them with glass fibres. For this purpose, we realized with two different resins, four groups of temporary bridges of 3 elements, including two groups reinforced fibreglass and the others not. Tests of inflection 3 points have been made on these bridges and resistance to fracture was analysed. The statistical tests showed a significant difference in four groups with better resistance for the reinforced bridges.
Sulpicio Sánchez-Tizapa; Roberto Arroyo-Matus; Andrés Gama-García
2015-01-01
Este artículo presenta un método práctico para calcular la curva envolvente de cortante y momento en puentes isostáticos con longitudes entre 15,0 y 50,0 m, considerando las cargas vivas del reglamento mexicano. La curva de cortante es una función de primer grado mientras que el momento fl ector es de segundo grado, en ambos casos la distancia a partir del extremo izquierdo de la viga es la variable independiente. Esta herramienta puede utilizarse ya sea en el diseño de puentes en el cam...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baek, Tae Hyun; Park, Tae Geun; Yang, Min Bok [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)
2006-10-15
It is necessary to study on the stress concentration experimentally, which is the main reason to avoid mechanical dilapidation and failure, when designing a mechanical structure. Stress concentration factor of a specimen of cantilever beam with a circular hole in the center was measured using both strain gage and photoelastic methods in this paper. In strain-gage measurement, three strain gages along the line near a hole of the specimen were installed and maximum strain was extrapolated from three measurements. In photoelastic measurement, two methods were employed. First, the Babinet-Soleil compensation method was used to measure the maximum strain. Secondly, photoelastic 4-step phase shilling method was applied to observe the strain distribution around the hole. Measurements obtained by different experiments were comparable within the range of experimental error
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, Tae Hyun; Park, Tae Geun; Yang, Min Bok
2006-01-01
It is necessary to study on the stress concentration experimentally, which is the main reason to avoid mechanical dilapidation and failure, when designing a mechanical structure. Stress concentration factor of a specimen of cantilever beam with a circular hole in the center was measured using both strain gage and photoelastic methods in this paper. In strain-gage measurement, three strain gages along the line near a hole of the specimen were installed and maximum strain was extrapolated from three measurements. In photoelastic measurement, two methods were employed. First, the Babinet-Soleil compensation method was used to measure the maximum strain. Secondly, photoelastic 4-step phase shilling method was applied to observe the strain distribution around the hole. Measurements obtained by different experiments were comparable within the range of experimental error
Large Deformation Dynamic Bending of Composite Beams
Derian, E. J.; Hyer, M. W.
1986-01-01
Studies were conducted on the large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load. The beams were loaded with a moderate eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied to determine potential differences between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different laminate types were tested. The beams were loaded dynamically with a gravity driven impactor traveling at 19.6 ft/sec and quasi-static tests were conducted on identical beams in a displacement controlled manner. For laminates of practical interest, the failure modes under static and dynamic loadings were identical. Failure in most of the laminate types occurred in a single event involving 40% to 50% of the plies. However, failure in laminates with 30 deg or 15 deg off-axis plies occured in several events. All laminates exhibited bimodular elastic properties. Using empirically determined flexural properties, a finite element analysis was reasonably accurate in predicting the static and dynamic deformation response.
Field measurement for large bending magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazzaro, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Winfield, J.S.
2008-01-01
The results of magnetic field measurements of the large bending magnet of the MAGNEX spectrometer are presented. The experimental values are used to build an Enge function by the least-squares method. The resulting field is compared to the measured one, showing too large deviation for application to ray reconstruction techniques. Similarly, the experimental values are compared with results from a three-dimensional finite elements calculation. Again the deviations between measured and calculated field are too large for a direct application of the latter to ray reconstruction, while its reliability is sufficient for analysis purposes. In particular, it has been applied to study the effect of the inaccuracies in the probe location and orientation on the precision of field reconstruction, and to establish the requirements for the field interpolation. These inaccuracies are found to be rather important, especially for the transversal components of the field, with the consequence that their effect on the reconstructed field should be minimized by special interpolation algorithms
Occipital bending (Yakovlevian torque) in bipolar depression.
Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney; Thomson, Richard H; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B
2015-01-30
Differing levels of occipital lobe asymmetry and enlarged lateral ventricles have been reported within patients with bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy controls, suggesting different rates of occipital bending (OB). This may exert pressure on subcortical structures, such as the hippocampus, reduced among psychiatric patients. We investigated OB prevalence in 35 patients with BD and 36 healthy controls, and ventricular and occipital volumes. Prevalence was four times higher among BD patients (12/35 [34.3%]) than in control subjects (3/36 [8.3%]), as well as larger lateral ventricular volumes (LVVs). Furthermore, we found OB to relate to left-to-right ventricular and occipital lobe volume (OLV) ratios. Those with OB also had reduced left-to-right hippocampal volume ratios. The results suggest that OB is more common among BD patients than healthy subjects, and prevalent in both BD Type I and Type II patients. We posit that anomalies in neural pruning or ventricular enlargement may precipitate OB, consequently resulting in one occipital lobe twisting around the other. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, the study suggests that asymmetrical ventricular volume matched with a pattern of oppositely asymmetrical occipital volume is related to OB and may be a marker of psychiatric illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hakan Keskin
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of impregnation with Tanalith-E on the bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending of some wood types. The test samples prepared from beech, oak, walnut, poplar, ash and pine wood materials - that are of common use in the forest products industry of TURKEY - according to TS 345, were treated with according to ASTM D 1413-76 substantially. Un-impregnated samples according to impregnated wood materials, the bending strengths in beech to 6.83%, 5.12% in ash, 5.93% in pine, the elasticity module values to 7.15% in oak and ash, at a rate of 6.58% in the higher were found. The highest values of bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending were obtained in beech and ash woods impregnated with Tanalith-E, whereas the lowest values were obtained in the poplar wood.
Torsion and bending properties of shape memory and superelastic nickel-titanium rotary instruments.
Ninan, Elizabeth; Berzins, David W
2013-01-01
Recently introduced into the market are shape memory nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files. The objective of this study was to investigate the torsion and bending properties of shape memory files (CM Wire, HyFlex CM, and Phoenix Flex) and compare them with conventional (ProFile ISO and K3) and M-Wire (GT Series X and ProFile Vortex) NiTi files. Sizes 20, 30, and 40 (n = 12/size/taper) of 0.02 taper CM Wire, Phoenix Flex, K3, and ProFile ISO and 0.04 taper HyFlex CM, ProFile ISO, GT Series X, and Vortex were tested in torsion and bending per ISO 3630-1 guidelines by using a torsiometer. All data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer test (P = .05) to determine any significant differences between the files. Significant interactions were present among factors of size and file. Variability in maximum torque values was noted among the shape memory files brands, sometimes exhibiting the greatest or least torque depending on brand, size, and taper. In general, the shape memory files showed a high angle of rotation before fracture but were not statistically different from some of the other files. However, the shape memory files were more flexible, as evidenced by significantly lower bending moments (P < .008). Shape memory files show greater flexibility compared with several other NiTi rotary file brands. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jin-Weon; Na, Man-Gyun; Park, Chi-Yong
2008-01-01
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of local wall thinning on the collapse behavior of pipe elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and in-plane bending load. This study evaluated the global deformation behavior and collapse moment of the elbows, which contained various types of local wall-thinning defects at their intrados or extrados, using three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The analysis results showed that the global deformation behavior of locally wall-thinned elbows was largely governed by the mode of the bending and the elbow geometry rather than the wall-thinning parameters, except for elbows with considerably large and deep wall thinning that showed plastic instabilities induced by local buckling and plastic collapsing in the thinned area. The reduction in the collapse moment with wall-thinning depth was considerable when local buckling occurred in the thinned areas, whereas the effect of the thinning depth was small when ovalization occurred. The effects of the circumferential thinning angle and thinning length on the collapse moment of elbows were not major for shallow wall-thinning cases. For deeper wall-thinning cases, however, their effects were significant and the dependence of collapse moment on the axial thinning length was governed by the stress type applied to the wall-thinned area. Typically, the reduction in the collapse moment due to local wall thinning was clearer when the thinning defect was located at the intrados rather than the extrados, and it was apparent for elbows with larger bend radius
Nowroozi, B N; Brainerd, E L
2012-10-07
Unlike mammalian, disc-shaped intervertebral joints (IVJs), the IVJs in fishes are biconid structures, filled with fluid and thought to act as hydrostatic hinge joints during swimming. However, it remains unclear which IVJ structures are dominant in mechanical resistance to forces in fishes, and whether variation in these tissues might impact the function of the vertebral column along its length. Here, we measured the dynamic mechanical behaviour of IVJs from striped bass, Morone saxatilis. During lateral bending, angular stiffness was significantly lower in the caudal and cervical regions, relative to the abdominal region. The neutral zone, defined as the range of motion (ROM) at bending moments less than 0.001 Nm, was longer in the caudal relative to the abdominal IVJs. Hysteresis was 30-40% in all regions, suggesting that IVJs may play a role in energy dissipation during swimming. Cutting the vertical septum had no statistically significant effect, but cutting the encapsulating tissues caused a sharp decline in angular stiffness and a substantial increase in ROM and hysteresis. We conclude that stiffness decreases and ROM increases from cranial to caudal in striped bass, and that the encapsulating tissues play a prominent role in mechanical variation along the length of the vertebral column.
Four-Point Bending Strength Testing of Pultruded Fiberglass Composite Wind Turbine Blade Sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musial, W.; Bourne, B; Hughes, S; Zuteck, M. D.
2001-01-01
The ultimate strength of the PS Enterprises pultruded blade section was experimentally determined under four-point bending at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Thirteen 8-foot long full-scale blade segments were individually tested to determine their maximum moment carrying capability. Three airfoil-bending configurations were tested: high- and low-pressure skin buckling, and low pressure skin buckling with foam interior reinforcement. Maximum strain was recorded for each sample on the compressive and tensile surfaces of each test blade. Test data are compared to the results of three analytical buckling prediction methods. Based on deviations from the linear strain versus load curve, data indicate a post-buckling region. High-pressure side buckling occurred sooner than low-pressure side buckling. The buckling analyses were conservative for both configurations, but high-pressure side buckling in particular was substantially under-predicted. Both high- and low-pressure buckling configurations had very similar failure loads. These results suggests that a redundant load path may be providing strength to the section in the post-buckling region, making the onset of panel buckling a poor predictor of ultimate strength for the PS Enterprises pultrusion
Photoelastic investigation of the stresses in mitred bent cylinders under bending, (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawa, Yoshiaki
1982-01-01
Recently large bore pipes have been frequently used, and the techniques of jointing such pipes are important technical problem. As for the actual design of pipe joints, the stress condition has not been sufficiently clarified. When two same diameter pipes are jointed making a certain angle, mitred bent pipes are often used from economical and technical viewpoints as the pipes become large bore. In a mitred bent pipe, there is a sharp edge in its pipe joint, at which the measurement of stress and strain is difficult. The stress distribution near the joint when a mitred bent pipe is subjected to the bending moment in the plane containing the axes of both pipes was analyzed by the freezing three-dimensional photo-elastic method, and not only the bending stress in the joint but also the hoop stress were determined by the wedge method. This stress concentration phenomenon is due to the whole structural factor of the intersection of two pipes and the local stress peak factor caused at the wedge-shaped edge formed in the intersection. The local form of the intersection plays important role in the stress concentration. The manufactured models, the method of loading, slices and the wedge method, and the stress distribution are reported. (Kako, I.)
Photoelastic investigation of the stresses in mitered bent-cylinders under bending, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawa, Yoshiaki
1983-01-01
The results of the stress analysis near the joints by freezing photoelastic method are described when two mitered cylinders of same diameter were directly joined, and the joint was subjected to inplane bending. The intersecting angle was changed from 45 deg through 60 and 90 deg to 120 deg, and the change of the stress distribution was examined, and the relation of the axial and circumferential peak stress values to the intersecting angle, wall thickness and corner radius was determined. In the experiment changing the intersecting angle, mostly the wall thickness and corner radius were taken as 1/10 of cylinder outside diameter. The models were made of Araldite B type and by machining and filing. In order to apply pure bending moment, four-point loading method was adopted. The photoelastic pictures, the state of stress distribution and the change of stress concentration factor due to the change of the intersecting angle are reported. The stress concentration factor was relatively high, and in particular, that of axial stress at the corner was remarkably affected by the corner radius. Other points of high peak stress were found. (Kako, I.)
Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts. [acoustic propagation within rigid walls
Rostafinski, W.
1974-01-01
Investigation of the ability of circular bends to transmit acoustic energy flux. A formulation of wave-energy flow is developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies shows the ability of circular bends to transmit energy in the case of perfectly rigid walls.
The influence of end constraints on smooth pipe bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomson, G.; Spence, J.
1981-01-01
With present trends in the power industries towards higher operating temperatures and pressures, problems associated with the design and safety assessment of pipework systems have become increasingly complex. Within such systems, the importance of smooth pipe bends is well established. The work which will be presented will attempt to clarify the situation and unify the results. An analytical solution of the problem of a linear elastic smooth pipe bend with end constraints under in-plane bending will be presented. The analysis will deal with constraints in the form of flanged tangents of any length. The analysis employs the theorem of minimum total potential energy with suitable kinematically admissible displacements in the form of Fourier series. The integrations and minimisation were performed numerically, thereby permitting the removal of several of the assumptions made by previous authors. Typical results for flexibilities will be given along with comparisons with other works. The differences in some earlier theory are clarified and other more recent work using different solution techniques is substantiated. The bend behaviour is shown to be strongly influenced by the pipe bend parameter, the bend angle, the tangent pipe length and the bend/cross-sectional radius ratio. (orig./GL)
Bending-Tolerant Anodes for Lithium-Metal Batteries.
Wang, Aoxuan; Tang, Shan; Kong, Debin; Liu, Shan; Chiou, Kevin; Zhi, Linjie; Huang, Jiaxing; Xia, Yong-Yao; Luo, Jiayan
2018-01-01
Bendable energy-storage systems with high energy density are demanded for conformal electronics. Lithium-metal batteries including lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen cells have much higher theoretical energy density than lithium-ion batteries. Reckoned as the ideal anode, however, Li has many challenges when directly used, especially its tendency to form dendrite. Under bending conditions, the Li-dendrite growth can be further aggravated due to bending-induced local plastic deformation and Li-filaments pulverization. Here, the Li-metal anodes are made bending tolerant by integrating Li into bendable scaffolds such as reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films. In the composites, the bending stress is largely dissipated by the scaffolds. The scaffolds have increased available surface for homogeneous Li plating and minimize volume fluctuation of Li electrodes during cycling. Significantly improved cycling performance under bending conditions is achieved. With the bending-tolerant r-GO/Li-metal anode, bendable lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen batteries with long cycling stability are realized. A bendable integrated solar cell-battery system charged by light with stable output and a series connected bendable battery pack with higher voltage is also demonstrated. It is anticipated that this bending-tolerant anode can be combined with further electrolytes and cathodes to develop new bendable energy systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Table of Nuclear Electric Quadrupole Moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, N.J.
2013-12-01
This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended value of the moment is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary reference EFG/moment references are required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2013. (author)
Theory of nuclear magnetic moments - LT-35
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerman, A. K.
1952-09-15
The purpose of these notes is to give an account of some attempts at interpreting the observed values of nuclear magnetic moments. There is no attempt at a complete summary of the field as that would take much more space than is used here. In many cases the arguments are only outlined and references are given for those interested in further details. A discussion of the theory of nuclear magnetic moments necessitates many excursions into the details of the nuclear models because the magnetic moments have a direct bearing on the validity of these models. However the main emphasis here is on those features which tend to explain the magnetic moments and other evidence is not discussed unless it has a direct bearing on the problem. In the first part of the discussion the Shell Model of the nucleus is used, as this model seems to correlate a large body of data relating to the heavier nuclei. Included here are the modifications proposed to explain the fact that the experimental magnetic moments do not fit quantitatively with the exact predictions of the Shell Model. The next sections deal with some of the more drastic modifications introduced to explain the large nuclear quadrupole moments and the effect of these modifications on the magnetic moments. Finally we turn to more detailed investigations of the light nuclei, in particular the - Conjugate nuclei. (author)
Piezo films with adjustable anisotropic strain for bending actuators with tunable bending profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wapler, Matthias C; Stürmer, Moritz; Brunne, Jens; Wallrabe, Ulrike
2014-01-01
We present a method to produce in-plane polarized piezo films with a freely adjustable ratio of the strains in orthogonal in-plane directions. They can be used in piezo bending actuators with a tunable curvature profile. The strains are obtained as mean strains from a periodic polarization pattern produced by a suitable doubly interdigitated electrode structure. This mechanism is demonstrated for several examples using PZT sheets. We further discuss how this tuning and the parameters of the electrode layout affect the overall magnitude of the displacement. (paper)
Numerical simulation of laser bending of AISI 304 plate with a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Keywords: laser bending; process modeling; bending angle; response surface models. ... (Shi et al., 2007) presented numerical simulation of bending for with different shapes of laser ..... Matlab 2011a application code is used to develop and.
Shimizu, Yukimaru; Sugino, Koichi; Yasui, Masaji; Hayakawa, Yukitaka; Kuzuhara, Sadao
1985-01-01
Pipes with bend combinations are much used in the heat exchangers, since the curved path in the bends promotes the mixing in flow for active heat transfer. In the present paper, one of the pipes with bend combinations, namely, quasi-coiled pipes composed of many bend elements are investigated, and the relationships between the hydraulic loss and the secondary flow are studied experimentally. The configurations of the cross sections, the bent angles and the curvature ratios of the bend element...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengtao Zhou
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The Y-shape (triangular semi-submersible foundation has been adopted by most of the built full-scale floating wind turbines, such as Windfloat, Fukushima Mirai and Shimpuu. Considering the non-fully-symmetrical shape and met-ocean condition, the foundation laying angle relative to wind/wave directions will not only influence the downtime and power efficiency of the floating turbine, but also the strength and fatigue safety of the whole structure. However, the dynamic responses induced by various aligned wind and wave load directions have scarcely been investigated comparatively before. In our study, the directionality effects are investigated by means of combined wind and wave tests and coupled multi-body simulations. By comparing the measured data in three load directions, it is found that the differences of platform motions are mainly derived from the wave loads and larger pitch motion can always be observed in one of the directions. To make certain the mechanism underlying the observed phenomena, a coupled multi-body dynamic model of the floating wind turbine is established and validated. The numerical results demonstrate that the second-order hydrodynamic forces contribute greatly to the directionality distinctions for surge and pitch, and the first-order hydrodynamic forces determine the variations of tower base bending moments and nacelle accelerations. These findings indicate the directionality effects should be predetermined comprehensively before installation at sea, which is important for the operation and maintenance of the Y-shape floating wind turbines.
Creep relaxation of fuel pin bending and ovalling stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, D.P.; Jackson, R.J.
1979-06-01
Analytical methods for calculating fuel pin cladding bending and ovalling stresses due to pin bundle-duct mechanical interaction taking into account nonlinear creep are presented. Calculated results are in close agreement with finite element results by MARC-CDC program. The methods are used to investigate the effect of creep on the FTR fuel cladding bending and ovalling stresses. It is concluded that the cladding of 316 SS 20% CW and reference design has high creep rates in the FTR core region to keep the bending and ovalling stresses to low levels
Localized bending fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.
2012-01-01
In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement of the st......In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement...... displacement (opening/closing and sliding) of the helically wound wires. Moreover, the results are a step towards understanding the bending fatigue damage mechanisms of monostrand cables....
Moments analysis of concurrent Poisson processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McBeth, G.W.; Cross, P.
1975-01-01
A moments analysis of concurrent Poisson processes has been carried out. Equations are given which relate combinations of distribution moments to sums of products involving the number of counts associated with the processes and the mean rate of the processes. Elimination of background is discussed and equations suitable for processing random radiation, parent-daughter pairs in the presence of background, and triple and double correlations in the presence of background are given. The theory of identification of the four principle radioactive series by moments analysis is discussed. (Auth.)
Exchange currents for hypernuclear magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, K.; Oka, M.; Suzuki, T.
1997-01-01
The meson (K and π) exchange currents for the hypernuclear magnetic moments are calculated using the effective Lagrangian method. The seagull diagram, the mesonic diagram and the Σ 0 -excitation diagram are considered. The Λ-N exchange magnetic moments for 5 Λ He and A=6 hypernuclei are calculated employing the harmonic oscillator shell model. It is found that the two-body correction is about -9% of the single particle value for 5 Λ He. The π exchange current, induced only in the Σ 0 -excitation diagram, is found to give dominant contribution for the isovector magnetic moments of hypernuclei with A=6. (orig.)
Moment analysis of hadronic vacuum polarization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo de Rafael
2014-09-01
Full Text Available I suggest a new approach to the determination of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon aμHVP in lattice QCD. It is based on properties of the Mellin transform of the hadronic spectral function and their relation to the HVP self-energy in the Euclidean. I show how aμHVP is very well approximated by a few moments associated to this Mellin transform and how these moments can be evaluated in lattice QCD, providing thus a series of tests when compared with the corresponding determinations using experimental data.
Moment analysis of hadronic vacuum polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafael, Eduardo de
2014-01-01
I suggest a new approach to the determination of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon a μ HVP in lattice QCD. It is based on properties of the Mellin transform of the hadronic spectral function and their relation to the HVP self-energy in the Euclidean. I show how a μ HVP is very well approximated by a few moments associated to this Mellin transform and how these moments can be evaluated in lattice QCD, providing thus a series of tests when compared with the corresponding determinations using experimental data
Moment analysis of hadronic vacuum polarization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rafael, Eduardo de
2014-09-07
I suggest a new approach to the determination of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon a{sub μ}{sup HVP} in lattice QCD. It is based on properties of the Mellin transform of the hadronic spectral function and their relation to the HVP self-energy in the Euclidean. I show how a{sub μ}{sup HVP} is very well approximated by a few moments associated to this Mellin transform and how these moments can be evaluated in lattice QCD, providing thus a series of tests when compared with the corresponding determinations using experimental data.
Moment approach to charged particle beam dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Channell, P.J.
1983-01-01
We have derived the hierarchy of moment equations that describes the dynamics of charged-particle beams in linear accelerators and can truncate the hierarchy at any level either by discarding higher moments or by a cumulant expansion discarding only correlation functions. We have developed a procedure for relating the density expansion linearly to the moments to any order. The relation of space-charge fields to the density has been derived; and an accurate, systematic, and computationally convenient expansion of the resultant integrals has been developed
Dipole moments of the rho meson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hecht, M.B.; McKellar, B.H.P.
1997-04-01
The electric and magnetic dipole moments (EDM) of the rho meson are calculated using the propagators and vertices derived from the quantum chromodynamics Dyson-Schwinger equations. Results obtained from using the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude studied by Chappell, Mitchell et. al., and Pichowsky and Lee, are compared. The rho meson EDM is generated through the inclusion of a quark electric dipole moment, which is left as a free variable. These results are compared to the perturbative results to obtain a measure of the effects of quark interactions and confinement. The two dipole moments are also calculated using the phenomenological MIT bag model to provide a further basis for comparison
Moments method in the theory of accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perel'shtejn, Eh.A.
1984-01-01
The moments method is widely used for solution of different physical and calculation problems in the theory of accelerators, magnetic optics and dynamics of high-current beams. Techniques using moments of the second order-mean squape characteristics of charged particle beams is shown to be most developed. The moments method is suitable and sometimes even the only technique applicable for solution of computerized problems on optimization of accelerating structures, beam transport channels, matching and other systems with accout of a beam space charge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Vikulin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related. The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.
"Bending the cost curve" in gastroenterology.
Slattery, E; Harewood, G C; Murray, F; Patchett, S
2013-12-01
Increasing attention is being focused on reigning in escalating costs of healthcare, i.e. trying to 'bend the cost curve'. In gastroenterology (GI), inpatient hospital care represents a major component of overall costs. This study aimed to characterize the trend in cost of care for GI-related hospitalizations in recent years and to identify the most costly diagnostic groups. All hospital inpatients admitted between January 2008 and December 2009 with a primary diagnosis of one of the six most common GI-related Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) in this hospital system were identified; all DRGs contained at least 40 patients during the study period. Patient Level Costing (PLC) was used to express the total cost of hospital care for each patient; PLC comprised a weighted daily bed cost plus cost of all medical services provided (e.g., radiology, pathology tests) calculated according to an activity-based costing approach; cost of medications were excluded. All costs were discounted to 2009 values. Mean length of stay (LOS) was also calculated for each DRG. Over 2 years, 470 patients were admitted with one of the six most common GI DRGs. Mean cost of care increased from 2008 to 2009 for all six DRGs with the steepest increases seen in 'GI hemorrhage (non-complex)' (31 % increase) and 'Cirrhosis/Alcoholic hepatitis (non-complex)' (45 % increase). No differences in readmission rates were observed over time. There was a strong correlation between year-to-year change in costs and change in mean LOS, r = 0.93. The cost of GI-related inpatient care appears to be increasing in recent years with the steepest increases observed in non-complex GI hemorrhage and non-complex Cirrhosis/Alcoholic hepatitis. Efforts to control the increasing costs should focus on these diagnostic categories.
Alvizuri, Celso R.
We present a catalog of full seismic moment tensors for 63 events from Uturuncu volcano in Bolivia. The events were recorded during 2011-2012 in the PLUTONS seismic array of 24 broadband stations. Most events had magnitudes between 0.5 and 2.0 and did not generate discernible surface waves; the largest event was Mw 2.8. For each event we computed the misfit between observed and synthetic waveforms, and we used first-motion polarity measurements to reduce the number of possible solutions. Each moment tensor solution was obtained using a grid search over the six-dimensional space of moment tensors. For each event we show the misfit function in eigenvalue space, represented by a lune. We identify three subsets of the catalog: (1) 6 isotropic events, (2) 5 tensional crack events, and (3) a swarm of 14 events southeast of the volcanic center that appear to be double couples. The occurrence of positively isotropic events is consistent with other published results from volcanic and geothermal regions. Several of these previous results, as well as our results, cannot be interpreted within the context of either an oblique opening crack or a crack-plus-double-couple model. Proper characterization of uncertainties for full moment tensors is critical for distinguishing among physical models of source processes. A seismic moment tensor is a 3x3 symmetric matrix that provides a compact representation of a seismic source. We develop an algorithm to estimate moment tensors and their uncertainties from observed seismic data. For a given event, the algorithm performs a grid search over the six-dimensional space of moment tensors by generating synthetic waveforms for each moment tensor and then evaluating a misfit function between the observed and synthetic waveforms. 'The' moment tensor M0 for the event is then the moment tensor with minimum misfit. To describe the uncertainty associated with M0, we first convert the misfit function to a probability function. The uncertainty, or
Irradiated Effect on Shear-Moment Interaction of Reinforced Concrete Slab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jun Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, HyungTae; Park, Kyoungsoo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Ho [Hyundai Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
Several deleterious mechanisms include chronic high-temperature exposure, freeze-thaw, and chemical attack and have been reviewed extensively in the literature. On the other hand, the effect of irradiation on RC needs further investigations for the long-term operation of existing NPPs. In this regard, the RC biological shield structure is located in closest proximity to a reactor core and expected to see the highest levels of irradiation over the lifetime. The biological shield structure may undergo a large lateral load from earthquake and become thicker for a suitable shielding. Although the bending strength is easily predictable with the altering steel properties, the more complete behaviors should be studied to see if the promised performance is achievable. Given this, in this study, the shear-moment (VM) interaction of a typical one-way slab representing the biological shield structure is investigated with incremental neutron irradiation. The effect of radiation on the behavior of one-way slab is presented by the shear and moment capacity interaction diagram. The results suggest that the yield strength increase of the longitudinal reinforcement barely affects the shear strength but it increases the bending strength significantly. This may be misleading, however, as the structural capacity to observe the energy from environmental loadings such as earthquake would be actually reducing.
Quasi real-time estimation of the moment magnitude of large earthquake from static strain changes
Itaba, S.
2016-12-01
The 2011 Tohoku-Oki (off the Pacific coast of Tohoku) earthquake, of moment magnitude 9.0, was accompanied by large static strain changes (10-7), as measured by borehole strainmeters operated by the Geological Survey of Japan in the Tokai, Kii Peninsula, and Shikoku regions. A fault model for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates, based on these borehole strainmeter data, yielded a moment magnitude of 8.7. On the other hand, based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9. Such geodetic moment magnitudes, derived from static strain changes, can be estimated almost as rapidly as determinations using seismic waves. I have to verify the validity of this method in some cases. In the case of this earthquake's largest aftershock, which occurred 29 minutes after the mainshock. The prompt report issued by JMA assigned this aftershock a magnitude of 7.3, whereas the moment magnitude derived from borehole strain data is 7.6, which is much closer to the actual moment magnitude of 7.7. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami. Our simple method of using static strain changes is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of large earthquakes, and useful to improve the accuracy of Earthquake Early Warning.
Advantages of customer/supplier involvement in the upgrade of River Bend`s IST program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Womack, R.L.; Addison, J.A.
1996-12-01
At River Bend Station, IST testing had problems. Operations could not perform the test with the required repeatability; engineering could not reliably trend test data to detect degradation; licensing was heavily burdened with regulatory concerns; and maintenance could not do preventative maintenance because of poor prediction of system health status. Using Energy`s Total Quality principles, it was determined that the causes were: lack of ownership, inadequate test equipment usage, lack of adequate procedures, and lack of program maintenance. After identifying the customers and suppliers of the IST program data, Energy management put together an upgrade team to address these concerns. These customers and suppliers made up the IST upgrade team. The team`s mission was to supply River Bend with a reliable, functional, industry correct and user friendly IST program. The IST program in place went through a verification process that identified and corrected over 400 individual program discrepancies. Over 200 components were identified for improved testing methods. An IST basis document was developed. The operations department was trained on ASME Section XI testing. All IST tests have been simplified and shortened, due to heavy involvement by operations in the procedure development process. This significantly reduced testing time, resulting in lower cost, less dose and greater system availability.
Effect of Vertically Propagating Shear Waves on Seismic Behavior of Circular Tunnels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tohid Akhlaghi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Seismic design loads for tunnels are characterized in terms of the deformations imposed on the structure by surrounding ground. The free-field ground deformations due to a seismic event are estimated, and the tunnel is designed to accommodate these deformations. Vertically propagating shear waves are the predominant form of earthquake loading that causes the ovaling deformations of circular tunnels to develop, resulting in a distortion of the cross sectional shape of the tunnel lining. In this paper, seismic behavior of circular tunnels has been investigated due to propagation of shear waves in the vertical direction using quasi-static analytical approaches as well as numerical methods. Analytical approaches are based on the closed-form solutions which compute the forces in the lining due to equivalent static ovaling deformations, while the numerical method carries out dynamic, nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis. Based on comparisons made, the accuracy and reliability of the analytical solutions are evaluated and discussed. The results show that the axial forces determined using the analytical approaches are in acceptable agreement with numerical analysis results, while the computed bending moments are less comparable and show significant discrepancies. The differences between the analytical approaches are also investigated and addressed.
Effect of epoxy resin on bending momentum in L type corner joins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Nuri Yıldırım
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In the furniture industry, the joining points of frame and box construction furniture according to the loads to be affected by the use place is important for the security of the user and service life of the furniture element. In this direction, it is aimed to determine the diagonal compression and diagonal tensile moment values of "L" type corner joints of box framed construction furniture prepared from solid wood materials. The Pinus Nigra, Fagus Orientalis L and Populus Nigra were used as solid wood materials. Wood-based biscuit joining elements were used in corner joints of the test construction and epoxy resin was used as glue for materials. The static loads were applied to construction according to ASTM-D1037. The results show that, the highest tensile and compression values were obtained from Fagus Orientalis L and the lowest values were obtained from Populus Nigra specimens. In the statistical study, the difference between the tensile and compressive bending moment values of the biscuit connection element was found to be statistically significant. This study indicates that, it is suggested to use of L type joints prepared from Fagus Orientalis L by using epoxy resin and wood based biscuit joining element in frame constructions.
Moments of inertia in a semiclassical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benchein, K.
1993-01-01
Semiclassical calculations have been performed for 31 nuclei. As a result of preliminary non-fully self-consistent calculations, the moments of inertia in investigated nuclei abd spin degrees of freedom are found
Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurz, Alexander [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2013-11-15
We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.
Effect of centrifugal transverse wakefield for microbunch in bend
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stupakov, G.V.
1999-01-01
We calculate centrifugal force for a short bunch in vacuum moving in a circular orbit and estimate the emittance growth of the beam in a bend due to this force. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung-Hwan Jang
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward one side of the structure. The nonhomogeneous distribution of the particles induces bending of the structure when inflated, as a result of asymmetric stiffness of the composite. The bilayer composites were then characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The bending performance and the axial expansion of the actuator were discussed for manipulation applications in soft robotics and bioengineering. The magnetically assisted manufacturing process for the soft bending actuator is a promising technique for various applications in soft robotics.
Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators.
Jang, Sung-Hwan; Na, Seon-Hong; Park, Yong-Lae
2017-06-12
This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward one side of the structure. The nonhomogeneous distribution of the particles induces bending of the structure when inflated, as a result of asymmetric stiffness of the composite. The bilayer composites were then characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The bending performance and the axial expansion of the actuator were discussed for manipulation applications in soft robotics and bioengineering. The magnetically assisted manufacturing process for the soft bending actuator is a promising technique for various applications in soft robotics.
Computational Strategies for the Architectural Design of Bending Active Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul
2013-01-01
Active bending introduces a new level of integration into the design of architectural structures, and opens up new complexities for the architectural design process. In particular, the introduction of material variation reconfigures the design space. Through the precise specification...
Low Cycle Fatigue of Steel in Strain Controled Cyclic Bending
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kulesa Anna
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of the fatigue life curves based on test of 15Mo3 steel under cyclic, pendulum bending and tension-compression. These studies were analyzed in terms of a large and small number of cycles where strain amplitude is dependent on the fatigue life. It has been shown that commonly used Manson-Coffin-Basquin model cannot be used for tests under cyclic bending due to the impossibility of separating elastic and plastic strains. For this purpose, some well-known models of Langer and Kandil and one new model of authors, where strain amplitude is dependent on the number of cycles, were proposed. Comparing the results of bending with tension-compression it was shown that for smaller strain amplitudes the fatigue life for both test methods were similar, for higher strain amplitudes fatigue life for bending tests was greater than for tension-compression.
Timoshenko-Wagner-Kappus Torsion Bending Theory and Wind ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Theory and Wind Tunnel Balance Design. S P Govinda ... The study of torsion and bending has always been a favourite ... Since it was difficult to work quietlyin Petersburg, .... should be stiff and strong to endure shocks and ensure long life.
kantorovich-euler lagrange-galerkin's method for bending analysis
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, ... In this work, the Kantorovich method is applied to solve the bending problem of thin ... Lagrange differential equation is determined for this functional.
Droplet-model predictions of charge moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, W.D.
1982-04-01
The Droplet Model expressions for calculating various moments of the nuclear charge distribution are given. There are contributions to the moments from the size and shape of the system, from the internal redistribution induced by the Coulomb repulsion, and from the diffuseness of the surface. A case is made for the use of diffuse charge distributions generated by convolution as an alternative to Fermi-functions
Moments of the very high multiplicity distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nechitailo, V.A.
2004-01-01
In experiment, the multiplicity distributions of inelastic processes are truncated due to finite energy, insufficient statistics, or special choice of events. It is shown that the moments of such truncated multiplicity distributions possess some typical features. In particular, the oscillations of cumulant moments at high ranks and their negative values at the second rank can be considered as ones most indicative of the specifics of these distributions. They allow one to distinguish between distributions of different type
Moment approach to tandem mirror radial transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siebert, K.D.; Callen, J.D.
1986-02-01
A moment approach is proposed for the study of tandem mirror radial transport in the resonant plateau regime. The salient features of the method are described with reference to axisymmetric tokamak transport theory. In particular, the importance of momentum conservation to the establishment of the azimuthal variations in the electrostatic potential is demonstrated. Also, an ad hoc drift kinetic equation is solved to determine parallel viscosity coefficients which are required to close the moment system
Theoretical status of baryon magnetic moments
Franklin, Jerrold
1989-05-01
This talk given at the Eighth International Symposium on High-Energy Spin Physics in Minneapolis, Minnesota (September 12-17, 1988), is a short summary of theoretical results for baryon magnetic moments. Results from the static bag model and pion exchange effects are summarized and compared with experimental data. A list of references for various models and properties effecting the baryon magnetic moments is given at the end of the article. (AIP)
Theoretical status of baryon magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franklin, J.
1989-01-01
This talk given at the Eighth International Symposium on High-Energy Spin Physics in Minneapolis, Minnesota (September 12--17, 1988), is a short summary of theoretical results for baryon magnetic moments. Results from the static bag model and pion exchange effects are summarized and compared with experimental data. A list of references for various models and properties effecting the baryon magnetic moments is given at the end of the article
From moments to functions in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, Johannes; Klein, Sebastian; Kauers, Manuel; Schneider, Carsten
2009-02-01
Single-scale quantities, like the QCD anomalous dimensions andWilson coefficients, obey difference equations. Therefore their analytic form can be determined from a finite number of moments. We demonstrate this in an explicit calculation by establishing and solving large scale recursions by means of computer algebra for the anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients in unpolarized deeply inelastic scattering from their Mellin moments to 3-loop order. (orig.)
Estimation of Uncertainties of Full Moment Tensors
2017-10-06
For our moment tensor inversions, we use the ‘cut-and-paste’ ( CAP ) code of Zhu and Helmberger (1996) and Zhu and Ben-Zion (2013), with some...modifications. For the misfit function we use an L1 norm Silwal and Tape (2016), and we incorporate the number of misfitting polarities into the waveform... norm of the eigenvalue triple provides the magnitude of the moment tensor, leaving two free parameters to define the source type. In the same year
Moments expansion densities for quantifying financial risk
Ñíguez, T.M.; Perote, J.
2017-01-01
We propose a novel semi-nonparametric distribution that is feasibly parameterized to represent the non-Gaussianities of the asset return distributions. Our Moments Expansion (ME) density presents gains in simplicity attributable to its innovative polynomials, which are defined by the difference between the nth power of the random variable and the nth moment of the density used as the basis. We show that the Gram-Charlier distribution is a particular case of the ME-type of densities. The latte...
From moments to functions in quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bluemlein, Johannes; Klein, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Kauers, Manuel; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation
2009-02-15
Single-scale quantities, like the QCD anomalous dimensions andWilson coefficients, obey difference equations. Therefore their analytic form can be determined from a finite number of moments. We demonstrate this in an explicit calculation by establishing and solving large scale recursions by means of computer algebra for the anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients in unpolarized deeply inelastic scattering from their Mellin moments to 3-loop order. (orig.)
Bend Faulting at the Edge of a Flat Slab: The 2017 Mw7.1 Puebla-Morelos, Mexico Earthquake
Melgar, Diego; Pérez-Campos, Xyoli; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Spica, Zack; Espíndola, Victor Hugo; Hammond, William C.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique
2018-03-01
We present results of a slip model from joint inversion of strong motion and static Global Positioning System data for the Mw7.1 Puebla-Morelos earthquake. We find that the earthquake nucleates at the bottom of the oceanic crust or within the oceanic mantle with most of the moment release occurring within the oceanic mantle. Given its location at the edge of the flat slab, the earthquake is likely the result of bending stresses occurring at the transition from flat slab subduction to steeply dipping subduction. The event strikes obliquely to the slab, we find a good agreement between the seafloor fabric offshore the source region and the strike of the earthquake. We argue that the event likely reactivated a fault first created during seafloor formation. We hypothesize that large bending-related events at the edge of the flat slab are more likely in areas of low misalignment between the seafloor fabric and the slab strike where reactivation of preexisting structures is favored. This hypothesis predicts decreased likelihood of bending-related events northwest of the 2017 source region but also suggests that they should be more likely southeast of the 2017 source region.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, N; Hirayama, T; Sato, N [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1997-12-31
A semisubmersible very large floating structure is compared with an equivalent pontoon type in vertical displacement and longitudinal bending moment in waves. The theoretical calculation is based on the mode synthesis method, and fluid force is analyzed by the three-dimensional singularity method for the symmetric structure, in which the effects of elastic deformation are taken into account. The semisubmersible and pontoon types are not much different from each other in eigenfrequency and mode shape in the dry mode. In the wet mode, on the other hand, the pontoon type is characterized by the synthetic mode in which torsional and bending modes overlap each other, each mode having a similar eigenfrequency. These types are different in elastic response, the pontoon type having several tens times higher coefficient of attenuation than the semisubmersible type. The pontoon type is generally lower in response, but its torsional mode is excited in transverse waves, making it higher than the semisubmersible type at near eigenfrequency of this mode. 15 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, N.; Hirayama, T.; Sato, N. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-12-31
A semisubmersible very large floating structure is compared with an equivalent pontoon type in vertical displacement and longitudinal bending moment in waves. The theoretical calculation is based on the mode synthesis method, and fluid force is analyzed by the three-dimensional singularity method for the symmetric structure, in which the effects of elastic deformation are taken into account. The semisubmersible and pontoon types are not much different from each other in eigenfrequency and mode shape in the dry mode. In the wet mode, on the other hand, the pontoon type is characterized by the synthetic mode in which torsional and bending modes overlap each other, each mode having a similar eigenfrequency. These types are different in elastic response, the pontoon type having several tens times higher coefficient of attenuation than the semisubmersible type. The pontoon type is generally lower in response, but its torsional mode is excited in transverse waves, making it higher than the semisubmersible type at near eigenfrequency of this mode. 15 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.
Gosnell, W Casey; Butcher, Michael T; Maie, Takashi; Blob, Richard W
2011-10-15
Studies of limb bone loading in terrestrial mammals have typically found anteroposterior bending to be the primary loading regime, with torsion contributing minimally. However, previous studies have focused on large, cursorial eutherian species in which the limbs are held essentially upright. Recent in vivo strain data from the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), a marsupial that uses a crouched rather than an upright limb posture, have indicated that its femur experiences appreciable torsion during locomotion as well as strong mediolateral bending. The elevated femoral torsion and strong mediolateral bending observed in D. virginiana might result from external forces such as a medial inclination of the ground reaction force (GRF), internal forces deriving from a crouched limb posture, or a combination of these factors. To evaluate the mechanism underlying the loading regime of opossum femora, we filmed D. virginiana running over a force platform, allowing us to measure the magnitude of the GRF and its three-dimensional orientation relative to the limb, facilitating estimates of limb bone stresses. This three-dimensional analysis also allows evaluations of muscular forces, particularly those of hip adductor muscles, in the appropriate anatomical plane to a greater degree than previous two-dimensional analyses. At peak GRF and stress magnitudes, the GRF is oriented nearly vertically, inducing a strong abductor moment at the hip that is countered by adductor muscles on the medial aspect of the femur that place this surface in compression and induce mediolateral bending, corroborating and explaining loading patterns that were identified in strain analyses. The crouched orientation of the femur during stance in opossums also contributes to levels of femoral torsion as high as those seen in many reptilian taxa. Femoral safety factors were as high as those of non-avian reptiles and greater than those of upright, cursorial mammals, primarily because the load
Mathematical model of polyethylene pipe bending stress state
Serebrennikov, Anatoly; Serebrennikov, Daniil
2018-03-01
Introduction of new machines and new technologies of polyethylene pipeline installation is usually based on the polyethylene pipe flexibility. It is necessary that existing bending stresses do not lead to an irreversible polyethylene pipe deformation and to violation of its strength characteristics. Derivation of the mathematical model which allows calculating analytically the bending stress level of polyethylene pipes with consideration of nonlinear characteristics is presented below. All analytical calculations made with the mathematical model are experimentally proved and confirmed.
Design and Construction of the Plat Bending Machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edy Sumarno; Abdul Hafid; Ismu H; Joko P W; Bambang Heru
2003-01-01
The plat-bending machine has been fabricated. The type is manual. That machine was made by plate, cylinder and U plat material. The machine has dimensions 110 mm in height, 650 mm in width, and 1200 mm in height. The capability of this machine is bending the plat with 2 mm in thickness and 1000 mm in width. This machine has the advantage to operate without electrical supply and easy to operate. (author)
NRC concerns about steam generator tube U-bend failures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dillon, R.L.
1981-01-01
This paper concerns itself with genralized NRC regulatory policy regarding SGT failures and staff reports and opinions which may tend to influence the developing policy specific to U-bend failures. The most significant analysis at hand in predicting NRC policy on SGT U-bend failures is Marsh's Evaluation of Steam Generator Tube Rupture Events. Marsh sets out to describe and analyze the five steam generator tube ruptures that are known to NRC. All have occurred in the period 1975 to 1980
Exact collisional moments for plasma fluid theories
Pfefferle, David; Hirvijoki, Eero; Lingam, Manasvi
2017-10-01
The velocity-space moments of the often troublesome nonlinear Landau collision operator are expressed exactly in terms of multi-index Hermite-polynomial moments of the distribution functions. The collisional moments are shown to be generated by derivatives of two well-known functions, namely the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd-Trubnikov potentials for a Gaussian distribution. The resulting formula has a nonlinear dependency on the relative mean flow of the colliding species normalised to the root-mean-square of the corresponding thermal velocities, and a bilinear dependency on densities and higher-order velocity moments of the distribution functions, with no restriction on temperature, flow or mass ratio of the species. The result can be applied to both the classic transport theory of plasmas, that relies on the Chapman-Enskog method, as well as to deriving collisional fluid equations that follow Grad's moment approach. As an illustrative example, we provide the collisional ten-moment equations with exact conservation laws for momentum- and energy-transfer rate.
The charge form factor and quadrupole moment of lithium-6 and -7
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srinivasa Rao, K.; Susila, S.; Sridhar, R.
1980-01-01
The cluster model wave functions for lithium-6 and -7 are constructed from a two oscillator shell model wave function assuming the nucleons belonging to the clusters to be in the 1s- and 1p-shells, respectively. After first finding the range of values of the parameters in the wave function for which acceptable values of the r.m.s. radius are obtained, the range is considerably refined by a study of the form factors of these cluster nuclei. A deformation parameter is introduced in the wave functions, to get a non-spherical charge density. This parameter is uniquely fixed by the quadrupole moment for the nucleus. The model wave functions are considered to be the desirable ones for the study of cluster-knock-out reactions. (author)
Magnetic moment measurement of 140Ba nuclei using transient field technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saxena, Mansi; Mandal, S.; Siwal, Davinder; Rainovski, G.; Danchev, M.; Damyanova, A.; Gladnishki, K.; Leske, J.; Bauer, C.; Bloch, T.; John, P.; Pietralla, N.; Wollersheim, H.J.; Kojouharov, I.; Pietri, S.; Schaffner, H.
2011-01-01
Mixed symmetry states have been identified in the neutron proton version of the Interacting Boson Model. The motivation of this experiment is to identify uniquely one phonon mixed symmetry states in 140 Ba nuclei by g factor measurement of the states. Magnetic moments measurements provide substantial information on the microscopic structure of the nuclei as the magnetic moment of a nuclei is described by the wave function of one state only. In this present paper we report the preliminary results of the g factor measurement of the first 2 + state of 140 Ba
Anapole Moment and Other Constraints on the Strangeness Conserving Hadronic Weak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ching-Pang Liu; Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton
2001-06-04
Standard analyses of low-energy NN and nuclear parity-violating observables have been based on a pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange model capable of describing all five independent s-p partial waves. Here a parallel analysis is performed for the one-body, exchange-current, and nuclear polarization contributions to the anapole moments of 133Cs and 205Tl. The resulting constraints are not consistent, though there remains some degree of uncertainty in the nuclear structure analysis of the atomic moments.
Anapole Moment and Other Constraints on the Strangeness Conserving Hadronic Weak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ching-Pang Liu; Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton
2001-01-01
Standard analyses of low-energy NN and nuclear parity-violating observables have been based on a pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange model capable of describing all five independent s-p partial waves. Here a parallel analysis is performed for the one-body, exchange-current, and nuclear polarization contributions to the anapole moments of 133Cs and 205Tl. The resulting constraints are not consistent, though there remains some degree of uncertainty in the nuclear structure analysis of the atomic moments
Color interaction of quarks and magnetic moments of baryons in the bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivoruchenko, M.I.
1984-01-01
The purpose of the present study is to saccount for the quark interaction in the bag model by calculating corrections to the baryon magnetic moments related to the colour interaction of quarks. The quark-in-bag wave function to that holds the confinement linear boundary condition has been found in the first order for the external magnetic field. Corrections to the baryon magnetic moments are calculated. They are related to energy variations of colour electric and colour magnetic fields. Numerical data are presented and the structure of corrections in the SU-3 group approximation is discussed. The results are compared with the potential model and the experiment
Bertolotto, Jorge A.; Umazano, Juan P.
2016-06-01
In the present work we make a theoretical study of the steady state electric linear dichroism of DNA fragments in aqueous solution. The here developed theoretical approach considers a flexible bent rod model with a saturating induced dipole moment. The electric polarizability tensor of bent DNA fragments is calculated considering a phenomenological model which theoretical and experimental backgroung is presented here. The model has into account the electric polarizability longitudinal and transversal to the macroion. Molecular flexibility is described using an elastic potential. We consider DNA fragments originally bent with bending fluctuations around an average bending angle. The induced dipole moment is supposed constant once the electric field strength grows up at critical value. To calculate the reduced electric linear dichroism we determine the optical factor considering the basis of the bent DNA perpendicular to the molecular axis. The orientational distribution function has into account the anisotropic electric properties and the molecule flexibility. We applied the present theoretical background to fit electric dichroism experimental data of DNA fragments reported in the bibliography in a wide range of molecular weight and electric field. From these fits, values of DNA physical properties are estimated. We compare and discuss the results here obtained with the theoretical and experimental data presented by other authors. The original contributions of this work are: the inclusion of the transversal electric polarizability saturating with the electric field, the description of the electric properties with an electric polarizability tensor dependant on the bending angle and the use of an arc model originally bent.
Bending spring rate investigation of nanopipette for cell injection
Shen, Yajing; Zhang, Zhenhai; Fukuda, Toshio
2015-04-01
Bending of nanopipette tips during cell penetration is a major cause of cell injection failure. However, the flexural rigidity of nanopipettes is little known due to their irregular structure. In this paper, we report a quantitative method to estimate the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette by investigating its bending spring rate. First nanopipettes with a tip size of 300 nm are fabricated from various glass tubes by laser pulling followed by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Then the bending spring rate of the nanopipettes is investigated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, a yeast cell penetration test is performed on these nanopipettes, which have different bending spring rates. The results show that nanopipettes with a higher bending spring rate have better cell penetration capability, which confirms that the bending spring rate may well reflect the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette. This method provides a quantitative parameter for characterizing the mechanical property of a nanopipette that can be potentially taken as a standard specification in the future. This general method can also be used to estimate other one-dimensional structures for cell injection, which will greatly benefit basic cell biology research and clinical applications.
Bending spring rate investigation of nanopipette for cell injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Yajing; Zhang, Zhenhai; Fukuda, Toshio
2015-01-01
Bending of nanopipette tips during cell penetration is a major cause of cell injection failure. However, the flexural rigidity of nanopipettes is little known due to their irregular structure. In this paper, we report a quantitative method to estimate the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette by investigating its bending spring rate. First nanopipettes with a tip size of 300 nm are fabricated from various glass tubes by laser pulling followed by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Then the bending spring rate of the nanopipettes is investigated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, a yeast cell penetration test is performed on these nanopipettes, which have different bending spring rates. The results show that nanopipettes with a higher bending spring rate have better cell penetration capability, which confirms that the bending spring rate may well reflect the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette. This method provides a quantitative parameter for characterizing the mechanical property of a nanopipette that can be potentially taken as a standard specification in the future. This general method can also be used to estimate other one-dimensional structures for cell injection, which will greatly benefit basic cell biology research and clinical applications. (paper)
Study of laser bending of a preloaded Titanium alloy sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Xiufeng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Laser bending of sheet metals with preload offers some attractive characteristics/merits, comparing to laser free bending without prestressing on the metals. The study reported in this paper was focused on a Titanium alloy which finds widespread applications in aerospace manufacturing. FE simulation of laser bending with prestressing on the Titanium alloy sheet was conducted for the analysis of the bending process and experiment carried out to verify the model and the result. It was shown that the simulation result is close to that measured in the experiment. Based on the computed result, the load-displacement curve was analysed and transmission efficiency of the elastic energy defined to evaluate the bending effect. These enhanced understanding of the mechanism of laser bending with a preload. A method for the optimization on technological parameters was further proposed. Referring to the deformation targeted, the preload value was determined through the FE simulation. The result showed that, on the premise that the specimen surface can be prevented from damaging, transmission efficiency of the elastic energy could reach to the maximum value through adjusting technological parameters of the laser system and deformation accuracy of the specimen could also be improved through this approach. The work presented in this paper may find its application in the manufacture of Titanium alloy sheets with a more cost-effective and a more precise way.
Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Lei; Li Ping; Wen Yu-Mei; Zhu Yong
2013-01-01
As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation,the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency.The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied,and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the △E effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses.The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m)to 700 Oe,the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz ≤ fr ≤ 33.96 kHz.In addition,with the thickness of the FeCuNbSiB layer increasing from 0 μm to 90 μm,the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz.This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite,which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.
Model dependence of the 2H electric dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afnan, I. R.; Gibson, B. F.
2010-01-01
Background: Direct measurement of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron is in the future; measurement of a nuclear EDM may well come first. The deuteron is one nucleus for which exact model calculations are feasible. Purpose: We explore the model dependence of deuteron EDM calculations. Methods: Using a separable potential formulation of the Hamiltonian, we examine the sensitivity of the deuteron EDM to variation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We write the EDM as the sum of two terms, the first depending on the target wave function with plane-wave intermediate states, and the second depending on intermediate multiple scattering in the 3 P 1 channel, the latter being sensitive to the off-shell behavior of the 3 P 1 amplitude. Results: We compare the full calculation with the plane-wave approximation result, examine the tensor force contribution to the model results, and explore the effect of short-range repulsion found in realistic, contemporary potential models of the deuteron. Conclusions: Because one-pion exchange dominates the EDM calculation, separable potential model calculations will provide an adequate description of the 2 H EDM until such time as a measurement better than 10% is obtained.
The relationship between local and moment magnitude in Greece during the period 2008-2016
Konstantinou, K. I.; Melis, N. S.
2018-03-01
We perform a systematic comparison between local and moment magnitudes in Greece for the period 2008-2016 when both magnitudes have been determined using waveform data recorded by the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN). Differences between the two magnitudes scales on average do not exceed ± 0.2 units as has been found in other regions worldwide. A recalculation of local magnitude using magnitude residuals for each HUSN station shows that station site conditions have very little influence on the difference between local and moment magnitude. It is therefore more likely that wave propagation effects and in rare cases, anomalous source properties are dominant factors in shaping this difference. General orthogonal regression is applied to the whole dataset and also to subsets covering different areas of Greece or different time period to calibrate the one magnitude scale against the other using a linear model. The resulting relationships differ very little, suggesting that there is no significant regional/temporal variation between local and moment magnitudes. While these relationships predict that local magnitude is very close to moment magnitude if both are determined using HUSN data, the comparison with Global CMT moment magnitude (with M w in the range 4.5-6.2) shows that it is larger than local magnitude by 0.18 units. These results are particularly important for converting local magnitudes to equivalent moment magnitudes and thus homogenize the Greek earthquake catalog.
Performance Evaluation of Moment Connections of Moment Resisting Frames Against Progressive Collapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Mahmoudi
2017-02-01
Full Text Available When a primary structural element fails due to sudden load such as explosion, the building undergoes progressive collapse. The method for design of moment connections during progressive collapse is different to seismic design of moment connections. Because in this case, the axial force on the connections makes it behave differently. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of a variety of moment connections in preventing progressive collapse in steel moment frames. To achieve this goal, three prequalified moment connections (BSEEP, BFP and WUP-W were designed according seismic codes. These moment connections were analyzed numerically using ABAQUS software for progressive collapse. The results show that the BFP connection (bolted flange plate has capacity much more than other connections because of the use of plates at the junction of beam-column.
Spatial mode structures of electrostatic drift waves in a collisional cylindrical helicon plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.
2004-01-01
In a cylindrical helicon plasma, mode structures of coherent drift waves are studied in the poloidal plane, the plane perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The mode structures rotate with a constant angular velocity in the direction of the electron diamagnetic drift and show significant...... radial bending. The experimental observations are compared with numerical solutions of a linear nonlocal cylindrical model for drift waves [ Ellis , Plasma Phys. 22, 113 (1980) ]. In the numerical model, a transition to bended mode structures is found if the plasma collisionality is increased....... This finding proves that the experimentally observed bended mode structures are the result of high electron collisionality. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....
Does the small CMB quadrupole moment suggest new physics?
Cline, J M; Lesgourgues, Julien; Cline, James M.; Crotty, Patrick; Lesgourgues, Julien
2003-01-01
Motivated by WMAP's confirmation of an anomalously low value of the quadrupole moment of the CMB temperature fluctuations, we investigate the effects on the CMB of cutting off the primordial power spectrum P(k) at low wave numbers. This could arise, for example, from a break in the inflaton potential, a prior period of matter or radiation domination, or an oscillating scalar field which couples to the inflaton. We reanalyze the full WMAP parameter space supplemented by a low-k cutoff for P(k). The temperature correlations by themselves are better fit by a cutoff spectrum, but including the TE temperature-polarization spectrum reduces this preference to a 1.4 sigma effect. Inclusion of large scale structure data does not change the conclusion. If taken seriously, the low-k cutoff is correlated with optical depth so that reionization occurs even earlier than indicated by the WMAP analysis.
Electric dipole moment of magnetoexciton in concentric quantum rings
García, L. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.; Revinova, S. Yu
2017-12-01
We study properties of exciton in a weakly coupled concentric quantum rings, penetrated by an axially directed magnetic flux and subjected to an electric field in the ring’s plane. To this end, we adopt a simple model of quasi-one-dimensional rotator, for which the wave functions and the corresponding energies we found by using the double Fourier series expansion method. Revealed multiple intersections of the energy levels provide conditions for abrupt changes of the radial and the angular quantum numbers, making possible the tunnelling of carriers between rings and allowing the formation of a permanent large dipole moment. We show that the electric and magnetic polarizability of concentric quantum rings with a trapped exciton are very sensible to external electric and magnetic fields.
Oh, Keonyoung; Park, Sukyung
2017-02-28
A local minimum for running energetics has been reported for a specific bending stiffness, implying that shoe stiffness assists in running propulsion. However, the determinant of the metabolic optimum remains unknown. Highly stiff shoes significantly increase the moment arm of the ground reaction force (GRF) and reduce the leverage effect of joint torque at ground push-off. Inspired by previous findings, we hypothesized that the restriction of the natural metatarsophalangeal (MTP) flexion caused by stiffened shoes and the corresponding joint torque changes may reduce the benefit of shoe bending stiffness to running energetics. We proposed the critical stiffness, k cr , which is defined as the ratio of the MTP joint (MTPJ) torque to the maximal MTPJ flexion angle, as a possible threshold of the elastic benefit of shoe stiffness. 19 subjects participated in a running test while wearing insoles with five different bending stiffness levels. Joint angles, GRFs, and metabolic costs were measured and analyzed as functions of the shoe stiffness. No significant changes were found in the take-off velocity of the center of mass (CoM), but the horizontal ground push-offs were significantly reduced at different shoe stiffness levels, indicating that complementary changes in the lower-limb joint torques were introduced to maintain steady running. Slight increases in the ankle, knee, and hip joint angular impulses were observed at stiffness levels exceeding the critical stiffness, whereas the angular impulse at the MTPJ was significantly reduced. These results indicate that the shoe bending stiffness is beneficial to running energetics if it does not disturb the natural MTPJ flexion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modeling storm waves; Modeliser les houles de tempete
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benoit, M.; Marcos, F.; Teisson, Ch
1999-07-01
Nuclear power stations located on the coast take the water they use to cool their circuits from the sea. The water intake and discharge devices must be able to operate in all weathers, notably during extreme storms, with waves 10 m high and over. To predict the impact of the waves on the equipment, they are modeled digitally from the moment they form in the middle of the ocean right up to the moment they break on the shore. (authors)
KASAL, Ali; BAYINDIR, Fatih; DİLER, Harun; KUŞKUN, Tolga
2014-01-01
In this study, bending moment capacities of L-type corner joints farbricated from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) panels that are commonly produced and used and expected to be an alternative material for case (panel) furniture manufacturing were analyzed under the test loads and compared to the conventional wood based panels. Corner joints were connected with various techniques that encountered in case type furniture. For this purpose, in preparing the specimens, 3 different density and qualities of...
Measurement of the electric dipole moment and magnetic moment anomaly of the muon
Onderwater, CJG
2005-01-01
The experimental precision of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon has been improved to 0.5 part-per-million by the Brookhaven E821 experiment, similar to the theoretical uncertainty. In the same experiment, a new limit on the electric dipole moment of 2.8 x 10(-19) e-cm (95% CL) was set. The
An online database of nuclear electromagnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mertzimekis, T.J.; Stamou, K.; Psaltis, A.
2016-01-01
Measurements of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments are considered quite important for the understanding of nuclear structure both near and far from the valley of stability. The recent advent of radioactive beams has resulted in a plethora of new, continuously flowing, experimental data on nuclear structure – including nuclear moments – which hinders the information management. A new, dedicated, public and user friendly online database ( (http://magneticmoments.info)) has been created comprising experimental data of nuclear electromagnetic moments. The present database supersedes existing printed compilations, including also non-evaluated series of data and relevant meta-data, while putting strong emphasis on bimonthly updates. The scope, features and extensions of the database are reported.
Pengenalan Pose Tangan Menggunakan HuMoment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dina Budhi Utami
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Computer vision yang didasarkan pada pengenalan bentuk memiliki banyak potensi dalam interaksi manusia dan komputer. Pose tangan dapat dijadikan simbol interaksi manusia dengan komputer seperti halnya pada penggunaan berbagai pose tangan pada bahasa isyarat. Berbagai pose tangan dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan fungsi mouse, untuk mengendalikan robot, dan sebagainya. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada pembangunan sistem pengenalan pose tangan menggunakan HuMoment. Proses pengenalan pose tangan dimulai dengan melakukan segmentasi citra masukan untuk menghasilkan citra ROI (Region of Interest yaitu area telapak tangan. Selanjutnya dilakukan proses deteksi tepi. Kemudian dilakukan ekstraksi nilai HuMoment. Nilai HuMoment dikuantisasikan ke dalam bukukode yang dihasilkan dari proses pelatihan menggunakan K-Means. Proses kuantisasi dilakukan dengan menghitung nilai Euclidean Distance terkecil antara nilai HuMomment citra masukan dan bukukode. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, nilai akurasi sistem dalam mengenali pose tangan adalah 88.57%.
The vector meson with anomalous magnetic moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyarkin, O.M.
1976-01-01
The possibility of introducing an anomalous magnetic moment into the Stuckelberg version of the charged vector meson theory is considered. It is shown that the interference of states with spins equal to one and zero is absent in the presence of an anomalous magnetic moment of a particle. The differential cross section of scattering on the Coulomb field of a nucleus is calculated, and so are the differential and integral cross sections of meson pair production on annihilation of two gamma quanta. The two-photon mechanism of production of a meson pair in colliding electron-positron beams is considered. It is shown that with any value of the anomalous magnetic moment the cross section of the esup(+)esup(-) → esup(+)esup(-)γsup(*)γsup(*) → esup(+)esup(-)Wsup(+)Wsup(-) reaction exceeds that of the esup(+)esup(-) → γsup(*) → Wsup(+)Wsup(-) at sufficiently high energies
The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon
Jegerlehner, Friedrich
2017-01-01
This research monograph covers extensively the theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment and provides estimates of the theoretical uncertainties. The muon anomalous magnetic moment is one of the most precisely measured quantities in elementary particle physics and provides one of the most stringent tests of relativistic quantum field theory as a fundamental theoretical framework. It allows for an extremely precise check of the standard model of elementary particles and of its limitations. This book reviews the present state of knowledge of the anomalous magnetic moment a=(g-2)/2 of the muon. Recent experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory now reach the unbelievable precision of 0.5 parts per million, improving the accuracy of previous g-2 experiments at CERN by a factor of 14. In addition, quantum electrodynamics and electroweak and hadronic effects are reviewed. Since non-perturbative hadronic effects play a key role for the precision test, their evaluation is described in detail. Perspectives fo...
A corrector for spacecraft calculated electron moments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Geach
2005-03-01
Full Text Available We present the application of a numerical method to correct electron moments calculated on-board spacecraft from the effects of potential broadening and energy range truncation. Assuming a shape for the natural distribution of the ambient plasma and employing the scalar approximation, the on-board moments can be represented as non-linear integral functions of the underlying distribution. We have implemented an algorithm which inverts this system successfully over a wide range of parameters for an assumed underlying drifting Maxwellian distribution. The outputs of the solver are the corrected electron plasma temperature Te, density Ne and velocity vector Ve. We also make an estimation of the temperature anisotropy A of the distribution. We present corrected moment data from Cluster's PEACE experiment for a range of plasma environments and make comparisons with electron and ion data from other Cluster instruments, as well as the equivalent ground-based calculations using full 3-D distribution PEACE telemetry.
Composite quarks and their magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parthasarathy, R.
1980-08-01
A composite quark model based on the symmetry group SU(10)sub(flavour) x SU(10)sub(colour) with the assumption of mass non-degenerate sub-quarks is considered. Magnetic moments of quarks and sub-quarks are obtained from the observed nucleon magnetic moments. Using these quark and sub-quark magnetic moments, a satisfactory agreement for the radiative decays of vector mesons (rho,ω) is obtained. The ratio of the masses of the sub-quarks constituting the u,d,s quarks are found to be Msub(p)/Msub(n) = 0.3953 and Msub(p)/Msub(lambda) = 0.596, indicating a mass hierarchy Msub(p) < Msub(n) < Msub(lambda) for the sub-quarks. (author)
Kπ=0+ band moment of inertia anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng, J.Y.; Wu, C.S.; Cheng, L.; Lin, C.Z.; China Center of Advanced Science and Technology
1990-01-01
The moments of inertia of K π =0 + bands in the well-deformed nuclei are calculated by a particle-number-conserving treatment for the cranked shell model. The very accurate solutions to the low-lying K π =0 + bands are obtained by making use of an effective K truncation. Calculations show that the main contribution to the moments of inertia comes from the nucleons in the intruding high-j orbits. Considering the fact that no free parameter is involved in the calculation and no extra inert core contribution is added, the agreement between the calculated and the observed moments of inertia of 0 + bands in 168 Er is very satisfactory
Baryon magnetic moments: Symmetries and relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parreno, Assumpta [University of Barcelona; Savage, Martin [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tiburzi, Brian [City College of New York, NY (United States); City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States); Wilhelm, Jonas [Justus-Liebig-Universitat Giessen, Giessen, Germany; Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chang, Emmanuel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Orginos, Kostas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2018-04-01
Magnetic moments of the octet baryons are computed using lattice QCD in background magnetic fields, including the first treatment of the magnetically coupled Σ0- Λ system. Although the computations are performed for relatively large values of the up and down quark masses, we gain new insight into the symmetries and relations between magnetic moments by working at a three-flavor mass-symmetric point. While the spinflavor symmetry in the large Nc limit of QCD is shared by the naïve constituent quark model, we find instances where quark model predictions are considerably favored over those emerging in the large Nc limit. We suggest further calculations that would shed light on the curious patterns of baryon magnetic moments.
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment from colored scalars⋆
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fajfer Svjetlana
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present new contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment induced by a color octet, weak doublet scalar, accommodated within a modified Minimal Flavor Violating framework. These flavor non-diagonal couplings of the color octet scalar might account for an assymmetry of order 3 × 10−3 for aCP(D0 → K−K+ − aCP(D0 → π+π− at tree level. The same couplings constrained by this assymmetry also induce two-loop contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment. We find that the direct CP violating asymmetry in neutral D-meson decays is more constraining on the allowed parameter space than the current experimental bound on neutron electric dipole moment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohtsubo, T., E-mail: tohtsubo@np.gs.niigata-u.ac.jp; Kawamura, Y.; Ohya, S. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, Radioisotope Center (Japan); Nishimura, K. [Toyama University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Muto, S. [Neutron Science Laboratory, KEK (Japan); Shinozuka, T. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan)
2007-11-15
Nuclear magnetic resonances were measured for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc oriented at 8 mK in an Fe host metal. The magnetic hyperfine splitting frequencies at an external magnetic field of 0.2 T were determined to be 63.22(11) MHz and 64.81(1) MHz for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc, respectively. With the known magnetic moment of {mu}({sup 44m}Sc)=+3.88 (1) {mu}{sub N}, the magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is deduced as {mu}({sup 44}Sc)=+3.785(12) {mu}{sub N}. The measured magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is discussed in terms of the shell model using the effective interactions.
Distortional Buckling Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders in Negative Moment Area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhou Wangbao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Distortional buckling is one of the most important buckling modes of the steel-concrete composite girder under negative moment. In this study, the equivalent lateral and torsional restraints of the bottom flange of a steel-concrete composite girder under negative moments due to variable axial forces are thoroughly investigated. The results show that there is a coupling effect between the applied forces and the lateral and torsional restraint of the bottom flange. Based on the calculation formula of lateral and torsional restraints, the critical buckling stress of I-steel-concrete composite girders and steel-concrete composite box girders under variable axial force is obtained. The critical bending moment of the steel-concrete composite girders can be further calculated. Compared to the traditional calculation methods of elastic foundation beam, the paper introduces an improved method, which considers coupling effect of the external loads and the foundation spring constraints of the bottom flange. Fifteen examples of the steel-concrete composite girders in different conditions are calculated. The calculation results show a good match between the hand calculation and the ANSYS finite element method, which validated that the analytic calculation method proposed in this paper is practical.
Modeling and Calculation of Dent Based on Pipeline Bending Strain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingshan Feng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The bending strain of long-distance oil and gas pipelines can be calculated by the in-line inspection tool which used inertial measurement unit (IMU. The bending strain is used to evaluate the strain and displacement of the pipeline. During the bending strain inspection, the dent existing in the pipeline can affect the bending strain data as well. This paper presents a novel method to model and calculate the pipeline dent based on the bending strain. The technique takes inertial mapping data from in-line inspection and calculates depth of dent in the pipeline using Bayesian statistical theory and neural network. To verify accuracy of the proposed method, an in-line inspection tool is used to inspect pipeline to gather data. The calculation of dent shows the method is accurate for the dent, and the mean relative error is 2.44%. The new method provides not only strain of the pipeline dent but also the depth of dent. It is more benefit for integrity management of pipeline for the safety of the pipeline.
Determination of the neutron magnetic moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greene, G.L.; Ramsey, N.F.; Mampe, W.; Pendlebury, J.M.; Smith, K.; Dress, W.B.; Miller, P.D.; Perrin, P.
1981-01-01
The neutron magnetic moment has been measured with an improvement of a factor of 100 over the previous best measurement. Using a magnetic resonance spectrometer of the separated oscillatory field type capable of determining a resonance signal for both neutrons and protons (in flowing H 2 O), we find μ/sub n//μ/sub p/ = 0.68497935(17) (0.25 ppM). The neutron magnetic moment can also be expressed without loss of accuracy in a variety of other units
Macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment
Tejada, J.; Hernandez, J. M.; del Barco, E.
1999-05-01
In this paper we review the work done on magnetic relaxation during the last 10 years on both single-domain particles and magnetic molecules and its contribution to the discovery of quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment (Chudnovsky and Tejada, Macroscopic Quantum tunneling of the Magnetic moment, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 1998). We present first the theoretical expressions and their connection to quantum relaxation and secondly, we show and discuss the experimental results. Finally, we discuss very recent hysteresis data on Mn 12Ac molecules at extremely large sweeping rate for the external magnetic field which suggest the existence of quantum spin—phonon avalanches.
The Method of Moments in electromagnetics
Gibson, Walton C
2014-01-01
Now Covers Dielectric Materials in Practical Electromagnetic DevicesThe Method of Moments in Electromagnetics, Second Edition explains the solution of electromagnetic integral equations via the method of moments (MOM). While the first edition exclusively focused on integral equations for conducting problems, this edition extends the integral equation framework to treat objects having conducting as well as dielectric parts.New to the Second EditionExpanded treatment of coupled surface integral equations for conducting and composite conducting/dielectric objects, including objects having multipl
Hyperon magnetic moments and total cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1982-06-01
The new data on both total cross sections and magnetic moments are simply described by beginning with the additive quark model in an SU(3) limit where all quarks behave like strange quarks and breaking both additivity and SU(3) simultaneously with an additional non-additive mechanism which affects only nonstrange quark contributions. The suggestion that strange quarks behave more simply than nonstrange may provide clues to underlying structure or dynamics. Small discrepancies in the moments are analyzed and shown to provide serious difficulties for most models if they are statistically significant. (author)
Scale invariants from Gaussian-Hermite moments
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Yang, B.; Kostková, Jitka; Flusser, Jan; Suk, Tomáš
2017-01-01
Roč. 132, č. 1 (2017), s. 77-84 ISSN 0165-1684 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Scale invariants * Gaussian–Hermite moments * Variable modulation * Normalization * Zernike moments Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 3.110, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0466031.pdf
Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.
1991-01-01
The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single...... experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...
Moments of structure functions in full QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, D.; Brower, R.; Capitani, S.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.; Renner, D.; Eicker, N.; Lippert, T.; Schilling, K.; Edwards, R.G.; Heller, U.M.
2001-01-01
Moments of the quark density distribution, moments of the quark helicity distribution, and the tensor charge are calculated in full QCD. Calculations of matrix elements of operators from the operator product expansion have been performed on 16 3 x 32 lattices for Wilson fermions at β = 5.6 using configurations from the SESAM collaboration and at β = 5.5 using configurations from SCRI. One-loop perturbative renormalization corrections are included. Selected results are compared with corresponding quenched calculations and with calculations using cooled configurations
Nuclear moments of inertia at high spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deleplanque, M.A.
1982-10-01
The competition between collective motion and alignment at high spin can be evaluated by measuring two complementary dynamic moments of inertia. The first, I band, measured in γ-γ correlation experiments, relates to the collective properties of the nucleus. A new moment of inertia I/sub eff/ is defined here, which contains both collective and alignment effects. Both of these can be measured in continuum γ-ray spectra of rotational nuclei up to high frequencies. The evolution of γ-ray spectra for Er nuclei from mass 160 to 154 shows that shell effects can directly be observed in the spectra of the lighter nuclei
Magnitude conversion to unified moment magnitude using orthogonal regression relation
Das, Ranjit; Wason, H. R.; Sharma, M. L.
2012-05-01
Homogenization of earthquake catalog being a pre-requisite for seismic hazard assessment requires region based magnitude conversion relationships. Linear Standard Regression (SR) relations fail when both the magnitudes have measurement errors. To accomplish homogenization, techniques like Orthogonal Standard Regression (OSR) are thus used. In this paper a technique is proposed for using such OSR for preparation of homogenized earthquake catalog in moment magnitude Mw. For derivation of orthogonal regression relation between mb and Mw, a data set consisting of 171 events with observed body wave magnitudes (mb,obs) and moment magnitude (Mw,obs) values has been taken from ISC and GCMT databases for Northeast India and adjoining region for the period 1978-2006. Firstly, an OSR relation given below has been developed using mb,obs and Mw,obs values corresponding to 150 events from this data set. M=1.3(±0.004)m-1.4(±0.130), where mb,proxy are body wave magnitude values of the points on the OSR line given by the orthogonality criterion, for observed (mb,obs, Mw,obs) points. A linear relation is then developed between these 150 mb,obs values and corresponding mb,proxy values given by the OSR line using orthogonality criterion. The relation obtained is m=0.878(±0.03)m+0.653(±0.15). The accuracy of the above procedure has been checked with the rest of the data i.e., 21 events values. The improvement in the correlation coefficient value between mb,obs and Mw estimated using the proposed procedure compared to the correlation coefficient value between mb,obs and Mw,obs shows the advantage of OSR relationship for homogenization. The OSR procedure developed in this study can be used to homogenize any catalog containing various magnitudes (e.g., ML, mb, MS) with measurement errors, by their conversion to unified moment magnitude Mw. The proposed procedure also remains valid in case the magnitudes have measurement errors of different orders, i.e. the error variance ratio is
Luck Reveals Stellar Explosion's First Moments
2008-05-01
Through a stroke of luck, astronomers have witnessed the first violent moments of a stellar explosion known as a supernova. Astronomers have seen thousands of these stellar explosions, but all previous supernovae were discovered days after the event had begun. This is the first time scientists have been able to study a supernova from its very beginning. Seeing one just moments after the event began is a major breakthrough that points the way to unraveling longstanding mysteries about how such explosions really work. Galaxy Before Supernova Explosion NASA's Swift satellite took these images of SN 2007uy in galaxy NGC 2770 before SN 2008D exploded. An X-ray image is on the left; image at right is in visible light. CREDIT: NASA/Swift Science Team/Stefan Immler. Large Image With Labels Large Image Without Labels Galaxy After Supernova Explosion On January 9, 2008, Swift caught a bright X-ray burst from an exploding star. A few days later, SN 2008D appeared in visible light. CREDIT: NASA/Swift Science Team/Stefan Immler. Large Image With Labels Large Image Without Labels "For years, we have dreamed of seeing a star just as it was exploding," said team leader Alicia Soderberg, a Hubble and Carnegie-Princeton Fellow at Princeton University. "This newly-born supernova is going to be the Rosetta Stone of supernova studies for years to come." Theorists had predicted for four decades that a bright burst of X-rays should be produced as the shock wave from a supernova blasts out of the star and through dense material surrounding the star. However, in order to see this burst, scientists faced the nearly-impossible challenge of knowing in advance where to point their telescopes to catch a supernova in the act of exploding. On January 9, luck intervened. Soderberg and her colleagues were making a scheduled observation of the galaxy NGC 2770, 88 million light-years from Earth, using the X-ray telescope on NASA's Swift satellite. During that observation, a bright burst of X
Three types magnetic moment distribution of nonlinear excitations in a Heisenberg helimagnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi, Jian-Wen [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Li, Zai-Dong [Department of Applied Physics, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Yang, Zhan-Ying, E-mail: zyyang@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Yang, Wen-Li [Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Theoretical Physics Frontiers, Xi' an 710069 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • Three different types of soliton excitations under the spin-wave background are demonstrated in spin chain system. • The magnetic moment distributions corresponding to these solitons are characterized in detail. • The formation mechanisms of those excitations are explained by the magnon density distribution. - Abstract: We study the nonlinear spin dynamics of an anisotropic Heisenberg helimagnet in a fourth-order integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We demonstrate that there are three types of nonlinear spin excitations on a spin-wave background in the Heisenberg helimagnet, notably including anti-dark soliton, W-shaped soliton, and multi-peak soliton. The magnetic moment distribution that corresponds to each of these are characterized in detail. Additionally, the formation mechanism is clarified by the magnon density distribution.
Numerical approximation of the Boltzmann equation : moment closure
Abdel Malik, M.R.A.; Brummelen, van E.H.
2012-01-01
This work applies the moment method onto a generic form of kinetic equations to simplify kinetic models of particle systems. This leads to the moment closure problem which is addressed using entropy-based moment closure techniques utilizing entropy minimization. The resulting moment closure system
Seismic moment tensor for anisotropic media: implication for Non-double-couple earthquakes
Cai, X.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cai, M.
2008-12-01
It is often found that the inversion results of seismic moment tensor from real seismic recorded data show the trace of seismic moment tensor M is not zero, a phenomenon called non-double-couple earthquake sources mechanism. Recently we have derived the analytical expressions of M in transversely isotropic media with the titled axis of symmetry and the results shows even only pure shear-motion of fault can lead to the implosive components determined by several combined anisotropic elastic constants. Many non-double-couple earthquakes from observations often appear in volcanic and geothermal areas (Julian, 1998), where there exist a mount of stress-aligned fluid-saturated parallel vertical micro-cracks identical to transversely isotropic media (Crampin, 2008), this stress-aligned crack will modify the seismic moment tensor. In another word, non-double-couple earthquakes don't mean to have a seismic failure movement perpendicular to the fault plane, while traditional research of seismic moment tensor focus on the case of isotropy, which cannot provide correct interpretation of seismic source mechanism. Reference: Julian, B.R., Miller, A.D. and Foulger, G.R., 1998. Non-double-couple earthquakes,1. Theory, Rev. Geophys., 36, 525¨C549. Crampin,S., Peacock,S., 2008, A review of the current understanding of seismic shear-wave splitting in the Earth's crust and common fallacies in interpretation, wave motion, 45,675-722
Puzzle of the 6Li Quadrupole Moment: Steps toward Solving It
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blokhintsev, L.D.; Kukulin, V.I.; Pomerantsev, V.N.
2005-01-01
The problem of the origin of the quadrupole deformation in the 6 Li ground state is investigated with allowance for the three-deuteron component of the 6 Li wave function. Two long-standing puzzles related to the tensor interaction in the 6 Li nucleus are known: that of an anomalous smallness of the 6 Li quadrupole moment (being negative, it is smaller in magnitude than the 7 Li quadrupole moment by a factor of 5) and that of an anomalous behavior of the tensor analyzing power T 2q in the scattering of polarized 6 Li nuclei on various targets. It is shown that a large (in magnitude) negative exchange contribution to the 6 Li quadrupole moment from the three-deuteron configuration cancels almost completely the 'direct' positive contribution due to the αd folding potential. As a result, the total quadrupole moment proves to be close to zero and highly sensitive to fine details of the tensor nucleon-nucleon interaction in the 4 He nucleus and of its wave function
Zhang, Q.; Zhang, W.
2017-12-01
Diffraction stacking migration is an automatic location methods and widely used in microseismic monitoring of the hydraulic fracturing. It utilizes the stacking of thousands waveform to enhance signal-to-noise ratio of weak events. For surface monitoring, the diffraction stacking method is suffered from polarity reverse among receivers due to radiation pattern of moment source. Joint determination of location and source mechanism has been proposed to overcome the polarity problem but needs significantly increased computational calculations. As an effective method to recover source moment tensor, time reversal imaging based on wave equation can locate microseismic event by using interferometry on the image to extract source position. However, the time reversal imaging is very time consuming compared to the diffraction stacking location because of wave-equation simulation.In this study, we compare the image from diffraction stacking and time reversal imaging to check if the diffraction stacking can obtain similar moment tensor as time reversal imaging. We found that image produced by taking the largest imaging value at each point along time axis does not exhibit the radiation pattern, while with the same level of calculation efficiency, the image produced for each trial origin time can generate radiation pattern similar to time reversal imaging procedure. Thus it is potential to locate the source position by the diffraction stacking method for general moment tensor sources.
Chen, X.; Le, T.; Ewing, D.; Ching, C. Y.
2016-12-01
The mass transfer to turbulent flow through back-to-back pipe bends arranged in a 180° configuration with different lengths of pipe between the bends was measured using a dissolving gypsum test section in water. The measurements were performed for bends with a radius of curvature of 1.5 times the pipe diameter ( D) at a Reynolds numbers of 70,000 and Schmidt number of 1280. The maximum mass transfer in the bends decreased from approximately 1.8 times the mass transfer in the upstream pipe when there was no separation distance between the bends to 1.7 times when there was a 1 D or 5 D length of pipe between the bends. The location of the maximum mass transfer was on the inner sidewall downstream of the second bend when there was no separation distance between the bends. This location changed to the inner wall at the beginning of the second bend when there was a 1 D long pipe between the bends, and to the inner sidewall at the end of the first bend when there was a 5 D long pipe between the bends.