WorldWideScience

Sample records for wave astronomy satellite

  1. Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

  2. Infrared Astronomy Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, G. A.

    1981-09-01

    In 1982, the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) will be launched into a 900-km sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit to perform an unbiased, all-sky survey of the far-infrared spectrum from 8 to 120 microns. Observations telemetered to ground stations will be compiled into an IR astronomy catalog. Attention is given the cryogenically cooled, 60-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescope carried by the satellite, whose primary and secondary mirrors are fabricated from beryllium by means of 'Cryo-Null Figuring'. This technique anticipates the mirror distortions that will result from cryogenic cooling of the telescope and introduces dimensional compensations for them during machining and polishing. Consideration is also given to the interferometric characterization of telescope performance and Cryo/Thermal/Vacuum simulated space environment testing.

  3. Gravity wave astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, R.

    1979-01-01

    The properties and production of gravitational radiation are described. The prospects for their detection are considered including the Weber apparatus and gravity-wave telescopes. Possibilities of gravity-wave astronomy are noted

  4. Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.

  5. Submillimetre-wave astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, J.E.; Phillips, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Observations in the 100-1000-micron band and the instruments used to obtain them are discussed in contributions to the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Conference held at Queen Mary College, London, in September 1981. The major subject areas covered are large-scale structure and radiative transfer within interstellar clouds, spectroscopic observations of molecular sources, interstellar chemistry, and submillimeter (SM) instrumentation. Reports are included on the formation of giant cloud complexes, cool molecular clouds, models for hot-centered and externally heated clouds, dust in Bok globules, airborne FIR and SM spectroscopy, rotational transitions of CH3OH and NH2 near 1.2 mm, high-velocity flows and molecular jets, FIR emissions from late-type galaxies, ion-grain collisions as a source of interstellar molecules, bandpass filters for SM astronomy, the SM receiver of the future, HF techniques in heterodyne astronomy, and the mm-wave cosmic background

  6. Gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.

  7. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.

  8. Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www...

  9. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. General relativity; gravitational waves; astrophysics; interferometry. Author Affiliations. P Ajith1 K G Arun2. LIGO Laboratory and Theoretical Astrophysics California Institute of Technology MS 18-34, Pasadena CA 91125, USA. Chennai Mathematical Institute Plot H1, SIPCOT IT Park Siruseri, Padur Post Chennai ...

  10. HF Radio Astronomy from a Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    SSC16-XI-03 HF Radio Astronomy from a Small Satellite Frank C. Robey1, Mary Knapp2, Alan J. Fenn1, Mark Silver1, Kerry Johnson1 Frank J. Lind3...frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum (below 15 MHz) is one of the least explored windows in observational astronomy . Observations at these...pdf. [Accessed: 17-Oct-2015]. 3. G. Hallinan, “The Owens Valley LWA,” in Exascale Radio Astronomy , 2014, vol. 2. 4. C. J. Lonsdale, R. J. Cappallo

  11. Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern...

  12. First data from X-ray astronomy satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.

    1984-01-01

    EXOSAT, the European Space Agency's first x-ray astronomy satellite which was launched last year, has sent back information on x-ray sources. The article briefly discusses the observations made by the satellite concerning Cygnus x-1 and the galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. EXOSAT is the first x-ray astronomy satellite to be operated in a deep space orbit

  13. Sensors for x-ray astronomy satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi; Kondo, Ichiro; Nishioka, Yonero; Kameda, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Masaki.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of observing the cosmic X-ray, the cosmic X-ray astronomy satellite (CORSA-b, named ''Hakucho'', Japanese for cygnus,) was launched Feb. 21, 1979 by Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. The primary objectives of the satellite are: to perform panoramic survey of the space for X-ray bursts and to perform the spectral and temporal measurement of X-ray sources. The very soft X-ray sensor for X-ray observation and the horizon sensor for spacecraft attitude sensing were developed by Toshiba Corporation under technical support by University of Tokyo and Nagoya University for ''Hakucho''. The features of these sensors are outlined in this paper. (author)

  14. Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

  15. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sound + images show Bailey was out in the India-Australia match on 12 Jan 2016. Image credit: Rediff / Fox news / Twitter. Page 10. Electromagnetic follow up: the Indian context. Page 11. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves | LIGO-G1601377-v2. Varun Bhalerao (IUCAA) | 1 July 2016. 11. 20 – 60 keV:.

  16. Gamma ray astronomy and the COS-B satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.; Paul, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The European satellite COS-B, operating in space for almost seven years, has produced a full chart of the sky in gamma radiation. This chart is discussed in detail, as well as gamma astronomy, high energy photons, gamma photons, strange stars, young pulsars, stars seething with activity and quasar 3C273. Other gamma astronomy programmes are briefly mentioned. (U.K.)

  17. Gravitational Waves and Multi-Messenger Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational waves are produced by a wide variety of sources throughout the cosmos, including the mergers of black hole and neutron star binaries/compact objects spiraling into central black holes in galactic nuclei, close compact binaries/and phase transitions and quantum fluctuations in the early universe. Observing these signals can bring new, and often very precise, information about their sources across vast stretches of cosmic time. In this talk we will focus on thee opening of this gravitational-wave window on the universe, highlighting new opportunities for discovery and multi-messenger astronomy.

  18. Transient multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marka, S

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves is a pioneering field bringing us interesting results and presenting us with exciting challenges for the future. During the era of the operation of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors, we will have the opportunity to investigate sources of gravitational waves that are also expected to be observable through other messengers, such as gamma rays, x-rays, optical, radio, and/or neutrino emission. Multimessenger searches for gravitational waves with the LIGO-GEO600-Virgo interferometer network have already produced insights on cosmic events and it is expected that the simultaneous observation of electromagnetic or neutrino emission could be a crucial aspect for the first direct detection of gravitational waves in the future. Trigger time, direction and expected frequency range enhances our ability to search for gravitational wave signatures with amplitudes closer to the noise floor of the detector. Furthermore, multimessenger observations will enable the extraction of otherwise unaccessible scientific insight. We summarize the status of transient multimessenger detection efforts as well as mention some of the open questions that might be resolved by advanced or third generation gravitational wave detector networks.

  19. Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K

    2010-11-16

    Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy.

  20. Gamma ray astronomy from satellites and balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of gamma ray astronomy topics presented at the Cosmic Ray Conference. The major conclusions at the Cosmic Ray Conference in the field of gamma ray astronomy are given. (1) MeV-emission of gamma-ray bursts is a common feature. Variations in duration and energy spectra from burst to burst may explain the discrepancy between the measured log N - log S dependence and the observed isotropy of bursts. (2) The gamma-ray line at 1.809 MeV from Al(26) is the first detected line from a radioactive nucleosynthesis product. In order to understand its origin it will be necessary to measure its longitude distribution in the Milky Way. (3) The indications of a gamma-ray excess found from the direction of Loop I is consistent with the picture that the bulk of cosmic rays below 100 GeV is produced in galactic supernova remnants. (4) The interpretation of the large scale distribution of gamma rays in the Milky Way is controversial. At present an extragalactic origin of the cosmic ray nuclei in the GeV-range cannot be excluded from the gamma ray data. (5) The detection of MeV-emission from Cen A is a promising step towards the interesting field of extragalactic gamma ray astronomy

  1. Astrophysical Model Selection in Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew R.; Cornish, Neil J.; Littenberg, Tyson B.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical studies in gravitational wave astronomy have mostly focused on the information that can be extracted from individual detections, such as the mass of a binary system and its location in space. Here we consider how the information from multiple detections can be used to constrain astrophysical population models. This seemingly simple problem is made challenging by the high dimensionality and high degree of correlation in the parameter spaces that describe the signals, and by the complexity of the astrophysical models, which can also depend on a large number of parameters, some of which might not be directly constrained by the observations. We present a method for constraining population models using a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach which simultaneously infers the source parameters and population model and provides the joint probability distributions for both. We illustrate this approach by considering the constraints that can be placed on population models for galactic white dwarf binaries using a future space-based gravitational wave detector. We find that a mission that is able to resolve approximately 5000 of the shortest period binaries will be able to constrain the population model parameters, including the chirp mass distribution and a characteristic galaxy disk radius to within a few percent. This compares favorably to existing bounds, where electromagnetic observations of stars in the galaxy constrain disk radii to within 20%.

  2. Small astronomy satellite-A, Uhuru data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, D.

    1974-01-01

    Objectives were to conduct observations with the first satellite entirely devoted to X-ray astronomy and to analyze the results obtained. A catalog of X-ray sources was generated, and results of discoveries and further detailed observations of sources were presented in scientific journals and meetings. A list of how objectives were met, a brief description of the instrument, significant results, the X-ray catalog, and a complete bibliography of results are included.

  3. Gravitational-wave astronomy: delivering on the promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. F.

    2018-05-01

    Now that LIGO and Virgo have begun to detect gravitational-wave events with regularity, the field of gravitational-wave astronomy is beginning to realize its promise. Binary black holes and, very recently, binary neutron stars have been observed, and we are already learning much from them. The future, with improved sensitivity, more detectors and detectors like LISA in different frequency bands, has even more promise to open a completely hidden side of the Universe to our exploration. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  4. Gravitational-wave astronomy: delivering on the promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B F

    2018-05-28

    Now that LIGO and Virgo have begun to detect gravitational-wave events with regularity, the field of gravitational-wave astronomy is beginning to realize its promise. Binary black holes and, very recently, binary neutron stars have been observed, and we are already learning much from them. The future, with improved sensitivity, more detectors and detectors like LISA in different frequency bands, has even more promise to open a completely hidden side of the Universe to our exploration.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Source modelling at the dawn of gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide

    2016-09-01

    The age of gravitational-wave astronomy has begun. Gravitational waves are propagating spacetime perturbations ("ripples in the fabric of space-time") predicted by Einstein's theory of General Relativity. These signals propagate at the speed of light and are generated by powerful astrophysical events, such as the merger of two black holes and supernova explosions. The first detection of gravitational waves was performed in 2015 with the LIGO interferometers. This constitutes a tremendous breakthrough in fundamental physics and astronomy: it is not only the first direct detection of such elusive signals, but also the first irrefutable observation of a black-hole binary system. The future of gravitational-wave astronomy is bright and loud: the LIGO experiments will soon be joined by a network of ground-based interferometers; the space mission eLISA has now been fully approved by the European Space Agency with a proof-of-concept mission called LISA Pathfinder launched in 2015. Gravitational-wave observations will provide unprecedented tests of gravity as well as a qualitatively new window on the Universe. Careful theoretical modelling of the astrophysical sources of gravitational-waves is crucial to maximize the scientific outcome of the detectors. In this Thesis, we present several advances on gravitational-wave source modelling, studying in particular: (i) the precessional dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries; (ii) the astrophysical consequences of black-hole recoils; and (iii) the formation of compact objects in the framework of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. All these phenomena are deeply characterized by a continuous interplay between General Relativity and astrophysics: despite being a truly relativistic messenger, gravitational waves encode details of the astrophysical formation and evolution processes of their sources. We work out signatures and predictions to extract such information from current and future observations. At the dawn of a revolutionary

  6. The ASTRO-H (Hitomi) X-Ray Astronomy Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kokubun, Motohide; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kelley, Richard; Ohashi, Takaya; Aharonian, Felix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steve; Anabuki, Naohisa; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission is the sixth Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite developed by a large international collaboration, including Japan, USA, Canada, and Europe. The mission aimed to provide the highest energy resolution ever achieved at E greater than 2 keV, using a microcalorimeter instrument, and to cover a wide energy range spanning four decades in energy from soft X-rays to gamma-rays. After a successful launch on 2016 February 17, the spacecraft lost its function on 2016 March 26, but the commissioning phase for about a month provided valuable information on the on-board instruments and the spacecraft system, including astrophysical results obtained from first light observations. The paper describes the Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission, its capabilities, the initial operation, and the instruments/spacecraft performances confirmed during the commissioning operations for about a month.

  7. The dawn of gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    On Sep 14 2015, gravitational waves were for the first time detected directly. This observation by the LIGO interferometric detectors marks the dawn of a new era in our observational study of the cosmos as a qualitatively new window to its exploration has been opened. This talk reviews some of the fundamental concepts of gravitational waves and the methodology employed for their observation. The first event, dubbed GW150914, and the properties of its source, as inferred from the observation, will be discussed. The talk concludes with a selected set of the most important topics where we expect gravitational-wave observations to deepen and either challenge or confirm our present understanding of the laws and the history of our universe.

  8. Streamlining Collaboration for the Gravitational-wave Astronomy Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koranda, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the morning hours of September 14, 2015 the LaserInterferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) directlydetected gravitational waves from inspiraling and coalescingblack holes, confirming a major prediction of AlbertEinstein's general theory of relativity and beginning the eraof gravitational-wave astronomy. With the LIGO detectors in the United States, the Virgo andGEO detectors in Europe, and the KAGRA detector in Japan thegravitational-wave astrononmy community is opening a newwindow on our Universe. Realizing the full science potentialof LIGO and the other interferometers requires globalcollaboration not only within the gravitational-wave astronomycommunity but also with the astronomers and astrophysicists acrossmultipe disciplines working to realize and leverage the powerof multi-messenger astronomy. Enabling thousands of researchers from around the world andacross multiple projects to efficiently collaborate, share,and analyze data and provide streamlined access to services,computing, and tools requires new and scalable approaches toidentity and access management (IAM). We will discuss LIGO'sIAM journey that began in 2007 and how today LIGO leveragesinternal identity federations like InCommon and eduGAIN toprovide scalable and managed access for the gravitational-waveastronomy community. We will discuss the steps both largeand small research organizations and projects take as theirIAM infrastructure matures from ad-hoc silos of independent services to fully integrated and federated services thatstreamline collaboration so that scientists can focus onresearch and not managing passwords.

  9. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.C.; Mahoney, M.J.; Jacobson, A.R.; Knowles, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities. 10 references

  10. Women in Early British and Irish Astronomy Stars and Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Brück, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Careers in astronomy for women (as in other sciences) were a rarity in Britain and Ireland until well into the twentieth century. The book investigates the place of women in astronomy before that era, recounted in the form of biographies of about 25 women born between 1650 and 1900 who in varying capacities contributed to its progress during the eighteenth, nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. There are some famous names among them whose biographies have been written before now, there are others who have received less than their due recognition while many more occupied inconspicuous and sometimes thankless places as assistants to male family members. All deserve to be remembered as interesting individuals in an earlier opportunity-poor age. Placed in roughly chronological order, their lives constitute a sample thread in the story of female entry into the male world of science. The book is aimed at astronomers, amateur astronomers, historians of science, and promoters of women in science, but being writte...

  11. Science operations management. [with Infrared Astronomy Satellite project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    The operation teams engaged in the IR Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) project included scientists from the IRAS International Science Team. The detailed involvement of these scientists in the design, testing, validation, and operations phases of the IRAS mission contributed to the success of this project. The Project Management Group spent a substantial amount of time discussing science-related issues, because science team coleaders were members from the outset. A single scientific point-of-contact for the Management Group enhanced the depth and continuity of agreement reached in decision-making.

  12. Workshop on Satellite Power Systems (SPS) effects on optical and radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, G.M.; Ekstrom, P.A.

    1980-04-01

    The impacts of the SPS on astronomy were concluded to be: increased sky brightness, reducing the effective aperture of terrestrial telescopes; microwave leakage radiation causing erroneous radioastronomical signals; direct overload of radioastronomical receivers at centimeter wavelengths; and unintentional radio emissions associated with massive amounts of microwave power or with the presence of large, warm structures in orbit causing the satellites to appear as individual stationary radio sources; finally, the fixed location of the geostationary satellite orbits would result in fixed regions of the sky being unusable for observations

  13. Tension waves in tethered satellite cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallman, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    A one-degree-of-freedom simulation of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) was programmed using a distributed system model of the tether based on the one-dimensional wave equation. This model represents the time varying tension profile along the tether as the sum of two traveling waves of tension moving in opposite directions. A control loop was devised which combines a deployment rate command with the measured tension at the deployer to produce a smooth, stable rate of deployment of the subsatellite. Simulation results show a buildup of periodic bursts of high frequency oscillation in tension. This report covers the mathematical modelling and simulation results and explains the reason for the observed oscillations. The design of a possible vibration damping device is discussed.

  14. Introduction. Progress in astronomy: from gravitational waves to space weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Michael T

    2008-12-13

    This brief paper introduces and reviews the 'visions of the future' articles prepared by leading young scientists throughout the world for the first of two Christmas 2008 Triennial issues of Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, devoted, respectively, to astronomy and Earth science. Contributions in astronomy include the very topical gamma-ray bursts, new ideas on stellar collapse and the unusual atmospheres of synchronized planets orbiting nearby stars.

  15. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit on gravitational-wave physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Marka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H; Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  16. In situ statistical observations of EMIC waves by Arase satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, R.; Matsuoka, A.; Teramoto, M.; Nose, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Fujimoto, A.; Shinohara, M.; Tanaka, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We present in situ statistical survey of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by Arase satellite from 3 March to 16 July 2017. We identified 64 events using the fluxgate magnetometer (MGF) on the satellite. The EMIC wave is the key phenomena to understand the loss dynamics of MeV-energy electrons in the radiation belt. We will show the radial and latitudinal dependence of the wave occurance rate and the wave parameters (frequency band, coherence, polarization, and ellipticity). Especially the EMIC waves observed at localized weak background magnetic field will be discussed for the wave excitation mechanism in the deep inner magnetosphere.

  17. Gravitational Wave Astronomy: Opening a New Window on the Universe for Students, Educators and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Hendry, M.; Ingram, D.; Milde, S.; Pandian, S. R.; Reitze, D.; Riles, K.; Schutz, B.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T.; Ugolini, D.; Thacker, J.; Vallisneri, M.; Zermeno, A.

    2008-05-01

    The nascent field of gravitational wave astronomy offers many opportunities for effective and inspirational astronomy outreach. Gravitational waves, the `ripples in spacetime' predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity, are produced by some of the most energetic and dramatic phenomena in the cosmos, including black holes, neutron stars and supernovae - and their discovery should help to address a number of fundamental questions in physics, from the evolution of stars and galaxies to the origin of dark energy and the nature of spacetime itself. Moreover, the cutting-edge technology developed to search for gravitational waves is pushing back the frontiers of many fields, from lasers and materials science to high performance computing, and thus provides a powerful showcase for the attractions and challenges of a career in science and engineering. For several years a worldwide network of ground-based laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors, built and run by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, has been fully operational. These detectors are already among the most sensitive scientific instruments on the planet but in the next few years their sensitivity will achieve further significant improvement. Those developments promise to open an exciting new window on the Universe, heralding the arrival of gravitational wave astronomy as a revolutionary, new observational field. In this poster we describe the extensive program of public outreach activities already undertaken by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, and a number of special events which we are planning for IYA2009. These activities include: * programs at Science Centers and Observatory Visitor Centers * programs on gravitational wave astronomy for the classroom, across the K-12 spectrum * interdisciplinary events linking gravitational wave astronomy to music and the visual arts * research experiences for schools and citizens through the highly successful `Einstein@Home' program.

  18. Overview of diffraction gratings technologies for space-flight satellites and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, Arnaud; Liard, Audrey; Desserouer, Frédéric; Bonnemason, Francis; Pichon, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    The diffraction gratings are widely used in Space-flight satellites for spectrograph instruments or in ground-based telescopes in astronomy. The diffraction gratings are one of the key optical components of such systems and have to exhibit very high optical performances. HORIBA Jobin Yvon S.A.S. (part of HORIBA Group) is in the forefront of such gratings development for more than 40 years. During the past decades, HORIBA Jobin Yvon (HJY) has developed a unique expertise in diffraction grating design and manufacturing processes for holographic, ruled or etched gratings. We will present in this paper an overview of diffraction grating technologies especially designed for space and astronomy applications. We will firstly review the heritage of the company in this field with the space qualification of different grating types. Then, we will describe several key grating technologies developed for specific space or astronomy projects: ruled blazed low groove density plane reflection grating, holographic blazed replica plane grating, high-groove density holographic toroidal and spherical grating and transmission Fused Silica Etched (FSE) grismassembled grating.

  19. Numerical Relativity for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    In the next decade, gravitational wave instruments in space may provide high-precision measurements of gravitational-wave signals from strong sources, such as black holes. Currently variations on the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission concepts are under study in the hope of reducing costs. Even the observations of a reduced instrument may place strong demands on numerical relativity capabilities. Possible advances in the coming years may fuel a new generation of codes ready to confront these challenges.

  20. Astronomy and astrophysics with gravitational waves in the advanced detector era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    With the advanced gravitational wave detectors coming on line in the next 5 years, we expect to make the first detections of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources, and study the properties of the waves themselves as tests of general relativity. In addition, these gravitational waves will be powerful tools for the study of their astrophysical sources and source populations. They carry information that is quite complementary to what can be learned from electromagnetic or neutrino observations, probing the central gravitational engines that power the electromagnetic emissions at the outer layers of the source. Preparations are being made to enable near-simultaneous observations of both gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations of transient sources, using low-latency search pipelines and rapid sky localization. We will review the many opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy and astrophysics with gravitational waves enabled by the advanced detectors, and the preparations that are being made to quickly and fully exploit them. (paper)

  1. Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and Multi-Messenger Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. Although numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued for many years by a host of instabilities, recent breakthroughs have conquered these problems and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, astrophysics, and testing general relativity.

  2. LIGO: The instruments that launched gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschel, Peter; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    After decades of development, the advanced gravitational wave detectors are now in the business of making detections of the types of astrophysical sources they were designed for. And yet these detectors still have a ways to go to reach their designed sensitivity levels. This talk will cover the design and performance of these advanced detectors, with emphasis on Advanced LIGO. I will lay out the path to reaching design sensitivity, and then turn to plans for future improvements to the existing LIGO detectors’ sensitivity. Looking even further into the future, I will discuss concepts for a new generation of detectors that will be needed to probe much deeper into the cosmos.

  3. Engaging the public in the nascent era of gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Martin A.

    2015-08-01

    Within the next few years a global network of ground-based laser interferometers will become fully operational. These ultra-sensitive instruments are confidently expected to directly detect gravitational waves from astrophysical sources before the end of the decade. In anticipation of opening this entirely new window on the Universe, the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) Scientific Collaboration has recently developed a substantive program of education and public outreach activities that includes exhibitions, documentary films, social media and interactive games - as well as more traditional modes of science communication such as schools and public lectures.As the gravitational wave 'detection era' unfolds over the next decade, it will present exciting challenges for future public engagement by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and by other gravitational-wave astronomy collaborations around the world. Perhaps the most interesting opportunities will be in the area of citizen science, building upon the infrastructure already being developed through e.g. the LIGO Open Science Center (see arXiv:1410.4839) and the remarkable success of the Einstein@Home project (www.einsteinathome.org).In this presentation I will give an overview of the LSC education and public outreach program, highlighting its goals, major successes and future strategy - particularly in relation to the release of future LIGO and other gravitational wave datasets to the scientific community and to the public, and the opportunities this will present for directly engaging citizen scientists in this exciting new field of observational astronomy.

  4. Probing the size of extra dimensions with gravitational wave astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Kent; Tanahashi, Norihiro; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    In the Randall-Sundrum II braneworld model, it has been conjectured, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, that a brane-localized black hole (BH) larger than the bulk AdS curvature scale l cannot be static, and it is dual to a four-dimensional BH emitting Hawking radiation through some quantum fields. In this scenario, the number of the quantum field species is so large that this radiation changes the orbital evolution of a BH binary. We derived the correction to the gravitational waveform phase due to this effect and estimated the upper bounds on l by performing Fisher analyses. We found that the Deci-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and the Big Bang Observatory (DECIGO/BBO) can give a stronger constraint than the current tabletop result by detecting gravitational waves from small mass BH/BH and BH/neutron star (NS) binaries. Furthermore, DECIGO/BBO is expected to detect 10 5 BH/NS binaries per year. Taking this advantage, we find that DECIGO/BBO can actually measure l down to l=0.33 μm for a 5 yr observation if we know that binaries are circular a priori. This is about 40 times smaller than the upper bound obtained from the tabletop experiment. On the other hand, when we take eccentricities into binary parameters, the detection limit weakens to l=1.5 μm due to strong degeneracies between l and eccentricities. We also derived the upper bound on l from the expected detection number of extreme mass ratio inspirals with LISA and BH/NS binaries with DECIGO/BBO, extending the discussion made recently by McWilliams [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 141601 (2010)]. We found that these less robust constraints are weaker than the ones from phase differences.

  5. Developing Malaysian Ocean Wave Database Using Satellite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yaakob, Omar; Zainudin, Norazimar; Samian, Yahya; Malik, Adi M; Palaraman, Robiahtul A

    2004-01-01

    Correct wave data is a very important input to predict the performances of the marine vehicles and structures at preliminary design stages particularly regarding safety effectiveness and comfort of passengers and crews...

  6. Observational and Dynamical Wave Climatologies. VOS vs Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorieva, Victoria; Badulin, Sergei; Chernyshova, Anna

    2013-04-01

    The understanding physics of wind-driven waves is crucially important for fundamental science and practical applications. This is why experimental efforts are targeted at both getting reliable information on sea state and elaborating effective tools of the sea wave forecasting. The global Visual Wave Observations and satellite data from the GLOBWAVE project of the European Space Agency are analyzed in the context of these two viewpoints. Within the first "observational" aspect we re-analyze conventional climatologies of all basic wave parameters for the last decades [5]. An alternative "dynamical" climatology is introduced as a tool of prediction of dynamical features of sea waves on global scales. The features of wave dynamics are studied in terms of one-parametric dependencies of wave heights on wave periods following the theoretical concept of self-similar wind-driven seas [3, 1, 4] and recently proposed approach to analysis of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) data [2]. Traditional "observational" climatologies based on VOS and satellite data collections demonstrate extremely consistent pictures for significant wave heights and dominant periods. On the other hand, collocated satellite and VOS data show significant differences in wave heights, wind speeds and, especially, in wave periods. Uncertainties of visual wave observations can explain these differences only partially. We see the key reason of this inconsistency in the methods of satellite data processing which are based on formal application of data interpolation methods rather than on up-to-date physics of wind-driven waves. The problem is considered within the alternative climatology approach where dynamical criteria of wave height-to-period linkage are used for retrieving wave periods and constructing physically consistent dynamical climatology. The key dynamical parameter - exponent R of one-parametric dependence Hs ~ TR shows dramatically less pronounced latitudinal dependence as compared to observed Hs

  7. Lower hybrid wave cavities detected by the FREJA satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecseli, H.L.; Iranpour, K.; Holter, Oe.; Lybekk, B.; Holtet J.; Truelsen, J.; Holback, B.

    1994-12-01

    Localized electrostatic wave packets in the frequency region of lower-hybrid waves have been detected by the instruments on the FREJA satellite. These waves are usually associated with local density depletions indicating that the structures can be interpreted as wave filled cavities. The basic features of the observations are discussed. Based on simple statistical arguments it is attempted to present some characteristics which have to be accommodated within an ultimate theory describing the observed wave phenomena. An explanation in terms of collapse of nonlinear lower-hybrid waves is discussed in particular. It is argued that such a model seems inapplicable, at least in its simplest form, by providing time and length scales which are not in agreement with observations. Alternatives to this model are presented. 24 refs., 8 figs

  8. Advanced mobile satellite communications using COMETS satellite in MM-wave and Ka-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Shingo; Isobe, Shunkichi; Takeuchi, Makoto; Naito, Hideyuki

    1993-01-01

    Early in the 21st century, the demand for personal communications using mobile, hand-held, and VSAT terminals will rapidly increase. In a future system, many different types of services should be provided with one-hop connection. The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has studied a future advanced mobile satellite communications system using millimeter wave and Ka band. In 1990, CRL started the Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite (COMETS) project. The satellite has been developed in conjunction with NASDA and will be launched in 1997. This paper describes the COMETS payload configuration and the experimental system for the advanced mobile communications mission.

  9. DARIS, a fleet of passive formation flying small satellites for low frequency radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saks, Noah; Boonstra, Albert Jan; Rajan, Raj Thilak; Rajan, Raj; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Beliën, Frederik; van 't Klooster, Kees

    2010-01-01

    DARIS (Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy In Space) is a mission to conduct radio astronomy in the low frequency region from 1-10MHz. This region has not yet been explored, as the Earth's ionosphere is opaque to those frequencies, and so a space based observatory is the only solution.

  10. Colloquium: Multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Baret, Bruny; Bartos, Imre; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Chassande-Mottin, Eric; Corsi, Alessandra; Di Palma, Irene; Dietz, Alexander; Donzaud, Corinne; Eichler, David; Finley, Chad; Guetta, Dafne; Halzen, Francis; Jones, Gareth; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Kotake, Kei; Kouchner, Antoine; Mandic, Vuk; Márka, Szabolcs; Márka, Zsuzsa; Moscoso, Luciano; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Piran, Tsvi; Pradier, Thierry; Romero, Gustavo E.; Sutton, Patrick; Thrane, Eric; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Waxman, Eli

    2013-10-01

    Many of the astrophysical sources and violent phenomena observed in our Universe are potential emitters of gravitational waves and high-energy cosmic radiation, including photons, hadrons, and presumably also neutrinos. Both gravitational waves (GW) and high-energy neutrinos (HEN) are cosmic messengers that may escape much denser media than photons. They travel unaffected over cosmological distances, carrying information from the inner regions of the astrophysical engines from which they are emitted (and from which photons and charged cosmic rays cannot reach us). For the same reasons, such messengers could also reveal new, hidden sources that have not been observed by conventional photon-based astronomy. Coincident observation of GWs and HENs may thus play a critical role in multimessenger astronomy. This is particularly true at the present time owing to the advent of a new generation of dedicated detectors: the neutrino telescopes IceCube at the South Pole and ANTARES in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the GW interferometers Virgo in Italy and LIGO in the United States. Starting from 2007, several periods of concomitant data taking involving these detectors have been conducted. More joint data sets are expected with the next generation of advanced detectors that are to be operational by 2015, with other detectors, such as KAGRA in Japan, joining in the future. Combining information from these independent detectors can provide original ways of constraining the physical processes driving the sources and also help confirm the astrophysical origin of a GW or HEN signal in case of coincident observation. Given the complexity of the instruments, a successful joint analysis of this combined GW and HEN observational data set will be possible only if the expertise and knowledge of the data is shared between the two communities. This Colloquium aims at providing an overview of both theoretical and experimental state of the art and perspectives for GW and HEN

  11. Migratory herbivorous waterfowl track satellite-derived green wave index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Shariatinajafabadi

    Full Text Available Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI, has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7. Data were collected over three years (2008-2010. Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%, while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%. Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration, thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.

  12. A Bayesian approach to multi-messenger astronomy: identification of gravitational-wave host galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, XiLong; Messenger, Christopher; Heng, Ik Siong

    2014-01-01

    We present a general framework for incorporating astrophysical information into Bayesian parameter estimation techniques used by gravitational wave data analysis to facilitate multi-messenger astronomy. Since the progenitors of transient gravitational wave events, such as compact binary coalescences, are likely to be associated with a host galaxy, improvements to the source sky location estimates through the use of host galaxy information are explored. To demonstrate how host galaxy properties can be included, we simulate a population of compact binary coalescences and show that for ∼8.5% of simulations within 200 Mpc, the top 10 most likely galaxies account for a ∼50% of the total probability of hosting a gravitational wave source. The true gravitational wave source host galaxy is in the top 10 galaxy candidates ∼10% of the time. Furthermore, we show that by including host galaxy information, a better estimate of the inclination angle of a compact binary gravitational wave source can be obtained. We also demonstrate the flexibility of our method by incorporating the use of either the B or K band into our analysis.

  13. Evolution of double white dwarf binaries undergoing direct-impact accretion: Implications for gravitational wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2017-01-01

    For close double white dwarf binaries, the mass-transfer phenomenon known as direct-impact accretion (when the mass transfer stream impacts the accretor directly rather than forming a disc) may play a pivotal role in the long-term evolution of the systems. In this analysis, we explore the long-term evolution of white dwarf binaries accreting through direct-impact and explore implications of such systems to gravitational wave astronomy. We cover a broad range of parameter space which includes initial component masses and the strength of tidal coupling, and show that these systems, which lie firmly within the LISA frequency range, show strong negative chirps which can last as long as several million years. Detections of double white dwarf systems in the direct-impact phase by detectors such as LISA would provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.

  14. Upper atmospheric gravity wave details revealed in nightglow satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven D.; Straka, William C.; Yue, Jia; Smith, Steven M.; Alexander, M. Joan; Hoffmann, Lars; Setvák, Martin; Partain, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    Gravity waves (disturbances to the density structure of the atmosphere whose restoring forces are gravity and buoyancy) comprise the principal form of energy exchange between the lower and upper atmosphere. Wave breaking drives the mean upper atmospheric circulation, determining boundary conditions to stratospheric processes, which in turn influence tropospheric weather and climate patterns on various spatial and temporal scales. Despite their recognized importance, very little is known about upper-level gravity wave characteristics. The knowledge gap is mainly due to lack of global, high-resolution observations from currently available satellite observing systems. Consequently, representations of wave-related processes in global models are crude, highly parameterized, and poorly constrained, limiting the description of various processes influenced by them. Here we highlight, through a series of examples, the unanticipated ability of the Day/Night Band (DNB) on the NOAA/NASA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership environmental satellite to resolve gravity structures near the mesopause via nightglow emissions at unprecedented subkilometric detail. On moonless nights, the Day/Night Band observations provide all-weather viewing of waves as they modulate the nightglow layer located near the mesopause (∼90 km above mean sea level). These waves are launched by a variety of physical mechanisms, ranging from orography to convection, intensifying fronts, and even seismic and volcanic events. Cross-referencing the Day/Night Band imagery with conventional thermal infrared imagery also available helps to discern nightglow structures and in some cases to attribute their sources. The capability stands to advance our basic understanding of a critical yet poorly constrained driver of the atmospheric circulation. PMID:26630004

  15. Gravitational-wave Astronomy: Opening a New Window on the Universe for Students, Educators and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaglià, M.; Hendry, M.; Ingram, D.; Milde, S.; Reitze, D.; Riles, K.; Schutz, B.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T.; Thacker, J.; Torres, C. V.; Ugolini, D.; Vallisneri, M.; Zermeno, A.

    2008-11-01

    The nascent field of gravitational-wave astronomy offers many opportunities for effective and inspirational astronomy outreach. Gravitational waves, the ``ripples in space-time'' predicted by Einstein's theory of General Relativity, are produced by some of the most energetic and dramatic phenomena in the cosmos, including black holes, neutron stars and supernovae. The detection of gravitational waves will help to address a number of fundamental questions in physics, from the evolution of stars and galaxies to the origin of dark energy and the nature of space-time itself. Moreover, the cutting-edge technology developed to search for gravitational waves is pushing back the frontiers of many fields, from lasers and materials science to high performance computing, and thus provides a powerful showcase for the attractions and challenges of a career in science and engineering. For several years a worldwide network of ground-based laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors has been fully operational, including the two LIGO detectors in the United States. These detectors are already among the most sensitive scientific instruments on the planet and in the next few years their sensitivity will achieve further significant improvement. Those developments promise to open an exciting new window on the universe, heralding the arrival of gravitational-wave astronomy as a revolutionary, new observational field. In this paper we describe the extensive program of public outreach activities already undertaken by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, and a number of special events which we are planning for IYA2009.

  16. Advancements in Kinetic Inductance Detector, Spectrometer, and Amplifier Technologies for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, George

    The inductance of a conductor expresses its tendency to oppose a change in current flowing through it. For superconductors, in addition to the familiar magnetic inductance due to energy stored in the magnetic field generated by this current, kinetic inductance due to inertia of charge carriers is a significant and often dominant contribution to total inductance. Devices based on modifying the kinetic inductance of thin film superconductors have widespread application to millimeter-wave astronomy. Lithographically patterning such a film into a high quality factor resonator produces a high sensitivity photodetector known as a kinetic inductance detector (KID), which is sensitive to frequencies above the superconducting energy gap of the chosen material. Inherently multiplexable in the frequency domain and relatively simple to fabricate, KIDs pave the way to the large format focal plane array instruments necessary to conduct the next generation of cosmic microwave background (CMB), star formation, and galaxy evolution studies. In addition, non-linear kinetic inductance can be exploited to develop traveling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifiers (TKIPs) based on superconducting delay lines to read out these instruments. I present my contributions to both large and small scale collaborative efforts to develop KID arrays, spectrometers integrated with KIDs, and TKIPs. I optimize a dual polarization TiN KID absorber for the next generation Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry, which is designed to investigate the role magnetic fields play in star formation. As part of an effort to demonstrate aluminum KIDs on sky for CMB polarimetry, I fabricate devices for three design variants. SuperSpec and WSpec are respectively the on-chip and waveguide implementations of a filter bank spectrometer concept designed for survey spectroscopy of high redshift galaxies. I provide a robust tool for characterizing the performance of all Super

  17. Parameter estimation in astronomy through application of the likelihood ratio. [satellite data analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, W.

    1979-01-01

    Many problems in the experimental estimation of parameters for models can be solved through use of the likelihood ratio test. Applications of the likelihood ratio, with particular attention to photon counting experiments, are discussed. The procedures presented solve a greater range of problems than those currently in use, yet are no more difficult to apply. The procedures are proved analytically, and examples from current problems in astronomy are discussed.

  18. Advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and MM-wave bands in Japan's R and D satellite project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Shunkichi; Ohmori, Shingo; Hamamoto, Naokazu; Yamamoto, Minoru

    1991-01-01

    Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) studied an advanced mobile satellite communications system using Ka and millimeter-wave bands in the R&D Satellite project. The project started in 1990 and the satellite will be launched in 1997. On-board multi-beam interconnecting is one of basic functions to realize one-hop connection among Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs), mobile, and hand-held terminals in future mobile satellite communications system. An Intermediate Frequency (IF) filter bank and regenerative transponder are suitable for this function. The transponder configuration of an advanced mobile communications mission of the R&D Satellite for experiment is shown. High power transmitters of Ka and millimeter-wave bands, a 3x3 IF filter band and Single Channel Per Carrier/Time Division Multiplexing (SCPC/TDM) regenerative MODEMS, which will be boarded on the R&D Satellite, are being developed for the purpose of studying the feasibility of advanced mobile communications system.

  19. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  20. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  1. Excitation of plasma waves by electron guns at the ISEE-1 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebreton, Zh.P.; Torbert, R.; Anderson, R.; Kharvi, K.

    1985-01-01

    Study of the effects resulting from excitation of plasma waves by electron beams injected from JSEE-1 satellite is carried out. Cases of the satellite traversing the magnetosphere magnetosheath and solar wind are considered. 10-60 μA and 0-40 V electron beam injection from the satellite increased electrostatic waves spectral intensity. The waves below ionic plasma frequency are interpreted as ion acoustic waves. To explain the-above-electron-plasma-frequency wave oscillation a communication system between electron plasma mode and electron flux with the velocities above the mean thermal velocity of plasma cold electrons is suggested

  2. Plasma waves and electric discharges induced by a beam from a high-latitude satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuns, G.; Koen, G.

    1985-01-01

    Using P78-2 satellite measurements of characteristics of space probe charging in synchronous orbit are carried out. A particle beam generation system including electron and ion guns was part of the satellite equipment. Electric charge analyser placed aboard the satellite in course of electron and ion beam generation recorded plasma waves and electric discharges

  3. Engineering parameter determination from the radio astronomy explorer /RAE I/ satellite attitude data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, E. A.; Davis, R. M.; Blanchard, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    An RAE-I satellite description is given, taking into account a dynamics experiment and the attitude sensing system. A computer program for analyzing flexible spacecraft attitude motions is considered, giving attention to the geometry of rod deformation. The characteristics of observed attitude data are discussed along with an analysis of the main boom root angle, the bending rigidity, and the damper plane angle.

  4. Simulating satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    OpenAIRE

    M. Füllekrug; C. Hanuise; M. Parrot

    2010-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables simulating satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which observes 100 kHz ...

  5. The IRAS minisurvey. [Infra Red Astronomy Satellite study of selected sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Clegg, P. E.; Emerson, J. P.; Beichman, C. A.; Aumann, H. H.; Gautier, T. N.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.; Beintema, D. A.; Boggess, N.

    1984-01-01

    Before the main Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) all-sky survey was started, a preliminary survey of 900 sq deg was carried out. Some results from this 'minisurvey' are given here. The completeness of the minisurvey at galactic latitudes from 20 to 40 deg drops sharply at flux densities below 0.4, 0.4, 0.5, and 2.5 Jy at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, respectively. The corresponding surface densities of point sources brighter than these flux levels are 1.1, 0.4, 0.65, and 1.25/sq deg, respectively. Outside the galactic plane, the majority of the sources at 12 and 25 microns are stars, while galaxies make up a significant proportion of 60 micron sources. The 100 micron band is dominated by emission from interstellar dust over much of the minisurvey area.

  6. Traveling wave interferometry particularly for solar power satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, J.H.; Rice, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for use in scientific measurement analysis and control. Travelling interference fringes are generated by radiating at least two different periodic waves at two different frequencies, one from each of two different radiators. The waves are received, mixed and filtered to detect at least one beat signal from these waves which represents the travelling interference fringe. The phase of that beat signal is detected relative to a reference signal of the same frequency as the beat signal. The radiated waves may be received at a second antenna and the phase of the beat of the waves at the first antenna is compared to the phase of the beat as observed at the second antenna. A third wave may be radiated from the first antenna to provide a reference signal which is the beat generated by the third wave and the other wave from the same radiator

  7. Comparison of Global Distributions of Zonal-Mean Gravity Wave Variance Inferred from Different Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.

  8. Propagation Characteristics of Electromagnetic Waves Recorded by the Four CLUSTER Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrot, M.; Santolik, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Maksimovic, M.; Harvey, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will describe the methods we use to determine the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves observed by the four CLUSTER satellites. The data is recorded aboard CLUSTER by the STAFF (Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations) spectrum analyser. This instrument has several modes of operation, and can provide the spectral matrix of three magnetic and two electric components. This spectral matrix is processed by a dedicated software (PRASSADCO: Propagation Analysis of STAFF-SA Data with Coherency Tests) in order to determine the wave normal directions with respect to the DC magnetic field. PRASSADCO also provides a number of alternative methods to estimate wave polarisation and propagation parameters, such as the Poynting vector, and the refractive index. It is therefore possible to detect the source extension of various electromagnetic waves using the 4 satellites. Results of this data processing will be shown here for one event observed by one satellite. (author)

  9. Thermospheric Extension of the Quasi 6-day Wave Observed by the TIMED Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Q.; Oberheide, J.

    2017-12-01

    The quasi 6-day wave is one of the most prevailing planetary waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region. Its peak amplitude can attain 20-30 m/s in low-latitude zonal winds at around equinoxes. Consequently, it is anticipated that the 6-day wave can induce not only significantly dynamic effects (via wave-mean flow and wave-wave interactions) in the MLT, but also have significant impacts on the Thermosphere and Ionosphere (T-I). The understanding of the 6-day wave impact on the T-I system has been advanced a lot due to the recent development of whole atmosphere models and new satellite observations. Three pathways were widely proposed to explain the upward coupling due to the 6-day wave: E-region dynamo modulation, dissipation and nonlinear interaction with thermal tides. The current work aims to show a comprehensive pattern of the 6-day wave from the mesosphere up to the thermosphere/ionosphere in neutral fields (temperature, 3-D winds and density) and plasma drifts. To achieve this goal, we carry out the 6-day wave diagnostics by two different means. Firstly, the output of a one-year WACCM+DART run with data assimilation is analyzed to show the global structure of the 6-day wave in the MLT, followed by E-P flux diagnostics to elucidate the 6-day wave source and wave-mean flow interactions. Secondly, we produce observation-based 6-day wave patterns throughout the whole thermosphere by constraining modeled (TIME-GCM) 6-day wave patterns with observed 6-day wave patterns from SABER and TIDI in the MLT region. This allows us to fill the 110-400 km gap between remote sensing and in-situ satellites, and to obtain more realistic 6-day wave plasma drift patterns.

  10. Multi-Band Multi-Tone Tunable Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer For Satellite Beacon Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone tunable millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a satellite beacon transmitter for radio wave propagation studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). In addition, the architecture for a compact beacon transmitter, which includes the multi-tone synthesizer, polarizer, horn antenna, and power/control electronics, has been investigated for a notional space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment payload on a small satellite. The above studies would enable the design of robust high throughput multi-Gbps data rate future space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  11. Experimental study of electronic electrostatic waves detected in the terrestrial magnetosphere by the satellite GEOS 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canu, P.

    1982-09-01

    After reviewing the general characteristics of electrostator waves a brief resume is given of the observations made up to the present moment. The GEOS satellite and the ''wave'' experiment are described, as well as the method and results of the statistical study of the strong electrostatic wave observed. Creating mechanisms of diffuse auroras are discussed. In a later chapter a new method of using the relaxation probe is presented as well as the results it gives on the mode of propagation of waves in the neighbourhood of the FUH frequency [fr

  12. Colloquium: Multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ando, S.; Baret, B.; Bartos, I.; Bouhou, B.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Corsi, A.; Di Palma, I.; Dietz, A.; Donzaud, C.; Eichler, D.; Finley, C.; Guetta, D.; Halzen, F.; Jones, G.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kotake, K.; Kouchner, A.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Moscoso, L.; Papa, M.A.; Piran, T.; Pradier, T.; Romero, G.E.; Sutton, P.; Thrane, E.; van Elewyck, V.; Waxman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the astrophysical sources and violent phenomena observed in our Universe are potential emitters of gravitational waves and high-energy cosmic radiation, including photons, hadrons, and presumably also neutrinos. Both gravitational waves (GW) and high-energy neutrinos (HEN) are cosmic

  13. Wave excitation in electron beam experiment on Japanese satellite JIKIKEN (EXOS-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, N.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reports on a beam-plasma interaction experiment conducted in the magnetosphere by emitting an electron beam (100-200 eV, 0.25-1.0 mA) from the JIKIKEN satellite. Topics considered include instrumentation, wave excitation, and the charging of the satellite. Various types of wave emission are detected by low frequency and high frequency wave detectors. Waves near upper-hybrid frequency and at electron cyclotron frequency are detected in a low L-value region, which will be useful diagnostic means for plasma density and magnetic field. Vehicle charging up to the beam energy is observed outside the plasmapause. The main objectives of the Controlled Beam Experiment (CBE) are to control the satellite potential by an electron beam emission, and to study the wave excitation (linear and non-linear wave phenomena due to the beam-plasma interaction). It is concluded that waves excited in the beamplasma interaction are strongly dependent on plasma and other parameters in the magnetosphere so that it will provide important knowledge of the magnetosphere plasma processes

  14. Gravitational-wave physics and astronomy an introduction to theory, experiment and data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Creighton, Jolien D E

    2011-01-01

    This most up-to-date, one-stop reference combines coverage of both theory and observational techniques, with introductory sections to bring all readers up to the same level. Written by outstanding researchers directly involved with the scientific program of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the book begins with a brief review of general relativity before going on to describe the physics of gravitational waves and the astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation. Further sections cover gravitational wave detectors, data analysis, and the outlook of gravitation

  15. Global Characteristics of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Deduced From Swarm Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyangpyo; Hwang, Junga; Park, Jaeheung; Bortnik, Jacob; Lee, Jaejin

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play an important role in controlling particle dynamics inside the Earth's magnetosphere, especially in the outer radiation belt. In order to understand the results of wave-particle interactions due to EMIC waves, it is important to know how the waves are distributed and what features they have. In this paper, we present some statistical analyses on the spatial distribution of EMIC waves in the low Earth orbit by using Swarm satellites from December 2013 to June 2017 ( 3.5 years) as a function of magnetic local time, magnetic latitude, and magnetic longitude. We also study the wave characteristics such as ellipticity, wave normal angle, peak frequency, and wave power using our automatic wave detection algorithm based on the method of Bortnik et al. (2007, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JA011900). We also investigate the geomagnetic control of the EMIC waves by comparing with geomagnetic activity represented by Kp and Dst indices. We find that EMIC waves are detected with a peak occurrence rate at midlatitude including subauroral region, dawn sector (3-7 magnetic local time), and linear polarization dominated with an oblique propagating direction to the background magnetic field. In addition, our result shows that the waves have some relation with geomagnetic activity; that is, they occur preferably during the geomagnetic storm's late recovery phase at low Earth orbit.

  16. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The first certain detection of celestial high energy gamma rays came from a satellite experiment flown on the third Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-111). A Gamma ray spark chamber telescope with substantively greater sensitivity and angular resolution (a few degrees) flown on the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-II) has now provided a better picture of the gamma ray sky, and particularly the galactic plane and pulsars. This paper will summarize the present picture of gamma ray astronomy as it has developed at this conference from measurements made with experiments carried out on balloons, those remaining on the ground, and ones flown on satellites. (orig.) [de

  17. GRACILE: a comprehensive climatology of atmospheric gravity wave parameters based on satellite limb soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ern

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gravity waves are one of the main drivers of atmospheric dynamics. The spatial resolution of most global atmospheric models, however, is too coarse to properly resolve the small scales of gravity waves, which range from tens to a few thousand kilometers horizontally, and from below 1 km to tens of kilometers vertically. Gravity wave source processes involve even smaller scales. Therefore, general circulation models (GCMs and chemistry climate models (CCMs usually parametrize the effect of gravity waves on the global circulation. These parametrizations are very simplified. For this reason, comparisons with global observations of gravity waves are needed for an improvement of parametrizations and an alleviation of model biases. We present a gravity wave climatology based on atmospheric infrared limb emissions observed by satellite (GRACILE. GRACILE is a global data set of gravity wave distributions observed in the stratosphere and the mesosphere by the infrared limb sounding satellite instruments High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER. Typical distributions (zonal averages and global maps of gravity wave vertical wavelengths and along-track horizontal wavenumbers are provided, as well as gravity wave temperature variances, potential energies and absolute momentum fluxes. This global data set captures the typical seasonal variations of these parameters, as well as their spatial variations. The GRACILE data set is suitable for scientific studies, and it can serve for comparison with other instruments (ground-based, airborne, or other satellite instruments and for comparison with gravity wave distributions, both resolved and parametrized, in GCMs and CCMs. The GRACILE data set is available as supplementary data at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879658.

  18. GRACILE: a comprehensive climatology of atmospheric gravity wave parameters based on satellite limb soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Manfred; Trinh, Quang Thai; Preusse, Peter; Gille, John C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III; Riese, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Gravity waves are one of the main drivers of atmospheric dynamics. The spatial resolution of most global atmospheric models, however, is too coarse to properly resolve the small scales of gravity waves, which range from tens to a few thousand kilometers horizontally, and from below 1 km to tens of kilometers vertically. Gravity wave source processes involve even smaller scales. Therefore, general circulation models (GCMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs) usually parametrize the effect of gravity waves on the global circulation. These parametrizations are very simplified. For this reason, comparisons with global observations of gravity waves are needed for an improvement of parametrizations and an alleviation of model biases. We present a gravity wave climatology based on atmospheric infrared limb emissions observed by satellite (GRACILE). GRACILE is a global data set of gravity wave distributions observed in the stratosphere and the mesosphere by the infrared limb sounding satellite instruments High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) and Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER). Typical distributions (zonal averages and global maps) of gravity wave vertical wavelengths and along-track horizontal wavenumbers are provided, as well as gravity wave temperature variances, potential energies and absolute momentum fluxes. This global data set captures the typical seasonal variations of these parameters, as well as their spatial variations. The GRACILE data set is suitable for scientific studies, and it can serve for comparison with other instruments (ground-based, airborne, or other satellite instruments) and for comparison with gravity wave distributions, both resolved and parametrized, in GCMs and CCMs. The GRACILE data set is available as supplementary data at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879658" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.879658.

  19. Preparing GEO 600 for gravitational wave astronomy-a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitson, M

    2005-01-01

    A number of gravitational wave detectors throughout the world are currently moving from the final stages of commissioning to a more continuous observational mode. Together, these detectors form a global network which will search for gravitational waves from various astrophysical sources, such as continuous wave signals from rotating neutron stars, transient signals from, for example, inspiralling compact objects and supernovae explosions, and stochastic gravitational wave signals from the early universe. GEO 600 is a long baseline laser-interferometric gravitational wave detector which employs advanced optical and suspension techniques to reach its design sensitivity. Almost all of the major installation work at GEO 600 is already completed and the detector is currently being commissioned to prepare it for extended observation periods. The commissioning process involves many activities in the areas of noise reduction, calibration, operational stability and characterization. This report highlights some of the major commissioning steps that have contributed to the increase in sensitivity of the instrument over the period from December 2003 to December 2004. In addition, recent extensions to the on-line calibration scheme used in GEO 600 are briefly discussed

  20. Matching Matched Filtering with Deep Networks for Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Hunter; Williams, Michael; Hayes, Fergus; Messenger, Chris

    2018-04-01

    We report on the construction of a deep convolutional neural network that can reproduce the sensitivity of a matched-filtering search for binary black hole gravitational-wave signals. The standard method for the detection of well-modeled transient gravitational-wave signals is matched filtering. We use only whitened time series of measured gravitational-wave strain as an input, and we train and test on simulated binary black hole signals in synthetic Gaussian noise representative of Advanced LIGO sensitivity. We show that our network can classify signal from noise with a performance that emulates that of match filtering applied to the same data sets when considering the sensitivity defined by receiver-operator characteristics.

  1. Matching Matched Filtering with Deep Networks for Gravitational-Wave Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Hunter; Williams, Michael; Hayes, Fergus; Messenger, Chris

    2018-04-06

    We report on the construction of a deep convolutional neural network that can reproduce the sensitivity of a matched-filtering search for binary black hole gravitational-wave signals. The standard method for the detection of well-modeled transient gravitational-wave signals is matched filtering. We use only whitened time series of measured gravitational-wave strain as an input, and we train and test on simulated binary black hole signals in synthetic Gaussian noise representative of Advanced LIGO sensitivity. We show that our network can classify signal from noise with a performance that emulates that of match filtering applied to the same data sets when considering the sensitivity defined by receiver-operator characteristics.

  2. Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system

  3. Wave excitation in electron beam experiment on Japanese satellite JIKIKEN (EXOS-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, N.

    1982-01-01

    Beam-plasma interaction experiment has been made in the magnetosphere by emitting an electron beam (100-200 eV, 0.25-1.0 mA) from the satellite JIKIKEN (EXOS-B). Various types of wave emission are detected by LF and HF wave detectors. Waves near at upper-hybrid frequency and at electron cyclotron frequency are detected in a low L-value region, which will be useful diagnostic means for plasma density and magnetic field. Vehicle charging up to the beam energy is also observed outside the plasmapause

  4. A satellite-tracking millimeter-wave reflector antenna system for mobile satellite-tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Arthur C.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Woo, Kenneth E.

    1995-03-01

    A miniature dual-band two-way mobile satellite tracking antenna system mounted on a movable ground vehicle includes a miniature parabolic reflector dish having an elliptical aperture with major and minor elliptical axes aligned horizontally and vertically, respectively, to maximize azimuthal directionality and minimize elevational directionality to an extent corresponding to expected pitch excursions of the movable ground vehicle. A feed-horn has a back end and an open front end facing the reflector dish and has vertical side walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a lesser horn angle and horizontal top and bottom walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a greater horn angle. An RF circuit couples two different signal bands between the feed-horn and the user. An antenna attitude controller maintains an antenna azimuth direction relative to the satellite by rotating it in azimuth in response to sensed yaw motions of the movable ground vehicle so as to compensate for the yaw motions to within a pointing error angle. The controller sinusoidally dithers the antenna through a small azimuth dither angle greater than the pointing error angle while sensing a signal from the satellite received at the reflector dish, and deduces the pointing angle error from dither-induced fluctuations in the received signal.

  5. Telecommunication service markets through the year 2000 in relation to millimeter wave satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    NASA is currently conducting a series of millimeter wave satellite system and market studies to develop 30/20 GHz satellite system concepts that have commercial potential for the period 1980-2000. The results of the market studies to-date focusing on the overall demand forecasts and distributions by geographic location, distance, and user category are discussed. Tables are presented indicating baseline market forecast voice and video services, data service category, impacted baseline forecast, and traffic/distance distribution voice services. It is concluded that the total market and system activity will be influential in determining the potential role of millimeter wave systems in the overall transmission needs of the nation, and the amount of the total forecasted traffic suitable for millimeter wave systems.

  6. The Astronomy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.; Proctor, A.

    2001-12-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed, and maintained at the University of Maryland, for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 91 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of the explosion, crater size, magnitude of the planetquake generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Planetary and Satellite Data Calculators: These tools allow the user to easily calculate physical data for all of the planets or satellites simultaneously, making comparison very easy. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by the National Science Foundation.

  7. Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: experimental characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Giampaolo; Savini, Giorgio; Ade, Peter A R; Haynes, Vic; Gear, Walter K

    2006-09-20

    An achromatic half-wave plate (HWP) to be used in millimeter cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments has been designed, manufactured, and tested. The design is based on the 5-plates Pancharatnam recipe and it works in the frequency range 85-185 GHz. A model has been used to predict the transmission, reflection, absorption, and phase shift as a function of frequency. The HWP has been tested by using coherent radiation from a back-wave oscillator to investigate its modulation efficiency and with incoherent radiation from a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to explore its frequency behavior. The FTS measurements have been fitted with an optical performance model which is in excellent agreement with the data. A detailed analysis of the data also allows a precise determination of the HWP fast and slow axes in the frequency band of operation. A list of the HWP performance characteristics is reported including estimates of its cross polarization.

  8. Experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    OpenAIRE

    Fullekrug, Martin; Hanuise, C; Parrot, M

    2011-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables an experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which...

  9. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors—the test-mass-to-test-mass interferometric link—behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as nongravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterized by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system's free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-frequency detectors. Working with acceleration also provides an effective way to subtract measured signals acting as systematics, including the actuation forces. Because of the strong similarity with the equations of motion, the optimal subtraction of systematic signals, known within some amplitude and time shift, with the focus on measuring the noise provides an effective way to solve the problem and marginalize over nuisance parameters. The F statistic, in widespread use throughout the gravitation waves community, is included in the method and suitably generalized to marginalize over linear parameters and noise at the same time. The method is applied to LPF simulator data and, thanks to its generality, can also be applied to the data reduction and analysis of future gravitational wave detectors.

  10. Ground-satellite study of wave-particle correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.G.; Lin, C.S.; Parks, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    Very low frequency (VLF) waves recorded at Siple, Antarctica (Lapprox.4; 84 0 W, geographic), are compared with low-energy ( 0 W, near the outer edge of the nominal ''viewing area'' of the Siple VLF receiver, which is estimated to be Lapprox.2-6 and +- 20 0 longitude. The results reveal two distinct types of chorus observed at Siple. One type is closely correlated with enhanced fluxes of >5-keV electrons detected at the synchronous altitude, and its generation region is inferred to be outside the plasmapause. The chorus upper cutoff frequency increases with time in a characteristic manner, consistent with the expected adiabatic motion of injected electrons in cyclotron resonance with the waves. The second type of chorus, which we refer to as ''plasmaspheric chorus,'' occurs inside the plasmapause, has no apparent relationship to particle injection at the synchronous altitude and shows clear evidence of being triggered by whistlers, power line radiation, and other signals. The two different types of chorus are readily distinguishable in frequency-time spectrograms

  11. Assimilation of satellite data to increase the reliability of the wave predictions in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Liliana; Raileanu, Alina

    2015-04-01

    In order to improve the wave predictions provided in the Black Sea by a wave modelling system based on the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) spectral model, a technique for assimilating the satellite data has been implemented and evaluated. For this purpose, an approach based on the Optimal Interpolation method has been considered and its results are discussed in the present work. As a first step, SWAN model simulations have been carried out for a 5-year interval (2004-2008). The assimilation is made in terms of the significant wave height (Hs) for each 24 hours considering data coming from 4 satellites (ERS-2, JASON-1, JASON-2, GEOSAT Follow-On). Subsequently, data provided by two other satellites (ENVISAT and TOPEX) are used for validations. To assess the improvement brought in the model predictions by the assimilation scheme, a comparison has been performed between the model results with and without assimilation. The statistical parameters evaluated are: bias, mean absolute error, RMS error, scatter index, correlation coefficient and symmetric slope. The results show that the data assimilation procedure induces a significant improvement of the statistical parameters (lower values for bias, errors and scatter index and values closer to the unity of the correlation coefficient and for the symmetric slope). It was found also that an important factor in improving the wave predictions is represented by the value of the correlation length accounted for the Hs prediction errors (Lmax). Previous studies indicate for this length a value around four degrees in the vicinity of 45 degrees latitude (which corresponds also to the basin of the Black Sea). This value was first considered in the assimilation technique. On the other hand, taking also into account the fact that in the Black Sea the wind-sea waves are dominant, lower values for the parameter Lmax were tested as well and it seems that the most appropriate value for this parameter is between three and four degrees

  12. Telecommunication service markets through the year 2000 in relation to millimeter wave satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    NASA is currently conducting a series of millimeter wave satellite system market studies to develop 30/20 GHz satellite system concepts that have commercial potential. Four contractual efforts were undertaken: two parallel and independent system studies and two parallel and independent market studies. The marketing efforts are focused on forecasting the total domestic demand for long haul telecommunications services for the 1980-2000 period. Work completed to date and reported in this paper include projections of: geographical distribution of traffic; traffic volume as a function of urban area size; and user identification and forecasted demand.

  13. Towards gravitational-wave astronomy of core-collapse supernova explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotake, Kei

    2010-01-01

    We study properties of gravitational waves based on the three-dimensional (3D) simulations, which demonstrate the neutrino-driven explosions aided by the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). Pushed by evidence supporting slow rotation prior to core-collapse, we focus on the asphericities in neutrino emissions and matter motions outside the protoneutron star. By performing a ray-tracing calculation in 3D, we estimate accurately the gravitational waveforms from anisotropic neutrino emissions. In contrast to the previous work assuming axisymmetry, we find that the gravitational waveforms vary much more stochastically because the explosion anisotropies depend sensitively on the growth of the SASI which develops chaotically in all directions. Our results show that the gravitational-wave spectrum has its peak near ∼ 100 Hz, reflecting the SASI-induced matter overturns of ∼ O(10) ms. We point out that the detection of such signals, possibly visible to the LIGO-class detectors for a Galactic supernova, could be an important probe into the long-veiled explosion mechanism.

  14. Investigating Gravity Waves in Polar Mesospheric Clouds Using Tomographic Reconstructions of AIM Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, V. P.; Taylor, M. J.; Doyle, T. E.; Zhao, Y.; Pautet, P.-D.; Carruth, B. L.; Rusch, D. W.; Russell, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    This research presents the first application of tomographic techniques for investigating gravity wave structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) imaged by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument on the NASA AIM satellite. Albedo data comprising consecutive PMC scenes were used to tomographically reconstruct a 3-D layer using the Partially Constrained Algebraic Reconstruction Technique algorithm and a previously developed "fanning" technique. For this pilot study, a large region (760 × 148 km) of the PMC layer (altitude 83 km) was sampled with a 2 km horizontal resolution, and an intensity weighted centroid technique was developed to create novel 2-D surface maps, characterizing the individual gravity waves as well as their altitude variability. Spectral analysis of seven selected wave events observed during the Northern Hemisphere 2007 PMC season exhibited dominant horizontal wavelengths of 60-90 km, consistent with previous studies. These tomographic analyses have enabled a broad range of new investigations. For example, a clear spatial anticorrelation was observed between the PMC albedo and wave-induced altitude changes, with higher-albedo structures aligning well with wave troughs, while low-intensity regions aligned with wave crests. This result appears to be consistent with current theories of PMC development in the mesopause region. This new tomographic imaging technique also provides valuable wave amplitude information enabling further mesospheric gravity wave investigations, including quantitative analysis of their hemispheric and interannual characteristics and variations.

  15. Controlling kilometre-scale interferometric detectors for gravitational wave astronomy: Active phase noise cancellation using EOMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, N.; Balembois, L.; Bizouard, M.A.; Brisson, V.; Casanueva, J.; Cavalier, F.; Davier, M.; Frey, V.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Leroy, N.; Loriette, V.; Maksimovic, I.; Robinet, F.

    2017-01-01

    The second generation of Gravitational waves detectors are kilometric Michelson interferometers with additional recycling Fabry–Perot cavities on the arms and ​the addition of two more recycling cavities to enhance their sensitivity, with the particularity that all the mirrors are suspended. In order to control them a new technique, based on the use of auxiliary lasers, has been developed to bring the interferometer to its working point, with all the cavities on their resonance, in an adiabatic way. The implementation of this technique in Advanced Virgo is under preparation and the propagation of a stable laser through a 3-km optical fibre is one of the most problematic issues. A new technique of active phase noise cancellation based on the use of Electro Optical Modulators has been developed, and a first prototype has been successfully tested.

  16. Controlling kilometre-scale interferometric detectors for gravitational wave astronomy: Active phase noise cancellation using EOMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, N.; Balembois, L.; Bizouard, M.A.; Brisson, V. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Casanueva, J., E-mail: casanuev@lal.in2p3.fr [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Cavalier, F.; Davier, M.; Frey, V.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Leroy, N. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Loriette, V.; Maksimovic, I. [ESPCI, CNRS, F-75005 Paris (France); Robinet, F. [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France)

    2017-02-11

    The second generation of Gravitational waves detectors are kilometric Michelson interferometers with additional recycling Fabry–Perot cavities on the arms and ​the addition of two more recycling cavities to enhance their sensitivity, with the particularity that all the mirrors are suspended. In order to control them a new technique, based on the use of auxiliary lasers, has been developed to bring the interferometer to its working point, with all the cavities on their resonance, in an adiabatic way. The implementation of this technique in Advanced Virgo is under preparation and the propagation of a stable laser through a 3-km optical fibre is one of the most problematic issues. A new technique of active phase noise cancellation based on the use of Electro Optical Modulators has been developed, and a first prototype has been successfully tested.

  17. Controlling kilometre-scale interferometric detectors for gravitational wave astronomy: Active phase noise cancellation using EOMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, N.; Balembois, L.; Bizouard, M. A.; Brisson, V.; Casanueva, J.; Cavalier, F.; Davier, M.; Frey, V.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Leroy, N.; Loriette, V.; Maksimovic, I.; Robinet, F.

    2017-02-01

    The second generation of Gravitational waves detectors are kilometric Michelson interferometers with additional recycling Fabry-Perot cavities on the arms and ​the addition of two more recycling cavities to enhance their sensitivity, with the particularity that all the mirrors are suspended. In order to control them a new technique, based on the use of auxiliary lasers, has been developed to bring the interferometer to its working point, with all the cavities on their resonance, in an adiabatic way. The implementation of this technique in Advanced Virgo is under preparation and the propagation of a stable laser through a 3-km optical fibre is one of the most problematic issues. A new technique of active phase noise cancellation based on the use of Electro Optical Modulators has been developed, and a first prototype has been successfully tested.

  18. Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Giorgio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ade, Peter A R

    2006-12-10

    We adopted an existing formalism and modified it to simulate, with high precision, the transmission, reflection, and absorption of multiple-plate birefringent devices as a function of frequency. To validate the model, we use it to compare the measured properties of an achromatic five-plate device with a broadband antireflection coating to expectations derived from the material optical constants and its geometric configuration. The half-wave plate presented here is observed to perform well with a phase shift variation of < 2 degrees from the ideal 180 degrees over a bandwidth of Deltav/v approximately 1 at millimeter wavelengths. This formalism represents a powerful design tool for birefringent polarization modulators and enables its optical properties to be specified with high accuracy.

  19. Supermassive Black Holes as Revealed by LISA: How Gravitational Wave Astronomy Will be a Game Changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly

    2018-04-01

    Astronomers now know that supermassive black holes are in nearly every galaxy.Though these black holes are an observational certainty, nearly every aspect of their evolution -- from their birth, to their fuel source, to their basic dynamics -- is a matter of lively debate. Fortunately, LISA, a space-based gravitational wave observatory set to launch in 2034, will revolutionize this field by providing data that is complementary to electromagnetic observations as well as data in regimes that are electromagnetically dark. This talk will touch on our current understanding of how SMBHs form, evolve, and alter their galaxy host, and will outline the theoretical, computational and observational work needed to make the most of LISA observations.

  20. Observations of magnetohydrodynamic waves on the ground and on a satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzerotti, L.J.; Fukunishi, H.; Maclennan, C.G.; Cahill, L.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison is made of magnetohydrodynamic waves observed near the equator on Explorer 45 and at an array of ground stations in the northern hemisphere and at their conjugate station at Siple, Antartica. The data comparisons strongly support the notion that the observed waves can be considered odd mode standing waves in the magnetosphere. This conclusion has important implications for the interpretation of single-point satellite and/or ground measurements of ULF plasma wave phenomena in the magnetosphere. Further, the data comparisons strongly suggest that the overall ULF (approx.5-30 mHz) power levels are quite similar in the magnetosphere and on the ground, at least during the intervals studied

  1. XUV astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuermann, K.P.; Technische Univ. Berlin

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of the young field of extreme-ultraviolet astronomy at wavelengths from 50 Angstroem to 912 Angstroem. In recent years, it was realized that observations in this wavelength band could be performed due to the lucky circumstance that the sun is located in an extended region of extremely low interstellar gas density. Hence, the horizon for observations at 100 Angstroem due to the photoelectric opacity of the interstellar medium is typically at a distance of about 200 pc. Since 1975 a series of rocket and satellite observations have yielded the first positive results. Sources which radiate primarily in the extreme ultraviolet have been detected and even the small list of currently observed objects has had immediate impact on the studies of both stellar evolution and the interstellar medium. Diffuse emission from the interstellar medium results from a hot 10 5 to 10 6 K component of the interstellar gas. Prime stellar candidates for extreme-ultraviolet observations are (1) hot low-luminosity stars at the blue end of the HR diagram as, e.g., white dwarfs at the beginning of the cooling sequence, (2) atmospheric emission from stars surrounded by a hot corona or with flaring activity, (3) mass-exchanging binary systems as, e.g., main-sequence close binaries or catalysmic variables. The article discusses the prospects of extreme-ultraviolet astronomy and reviews the existing observations of extreme-ultraviolet emission from the interstellar medium and from stellar sources of the different categories. (orig.)

  2. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-01-01

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1–2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs. PMID:24948180

  3. Ground receiving station (GRS) of UMS - receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave data from satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Syahmi Nordin; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2007-01-01

    The low resolution Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is being received and recorded in real-time mode at ground receiving station in School of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. The system is suitable for the developing and undeveloped countries in south and Southeast Asia and is said to be acceptable for engineering, agricultural, climatological and environmental applications. The system comprises a personal computer attached with a small APT receiver. The data transmission between the ground receiving station and NOAA satellites is using the electromagnetic wave. The relation for receiving and processing the electromagnetic wave in the transmission will be discussed. (Author)

  4. Seismic, satellite, and site observations of internal solitary waves in the NE South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Wang, Caixia; Wang, Dongxiao; Pawlowicz, Rich

    2014-06-20

    Internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the NE South China Sea (SCS) are tidally generated at the Luzon Strait. Their propagation, evolution, and dissipation processes involve numerous issues still poorly understood. Here, a novel method of seismic oceanography capable of capturing oceanic finescale structures is used to study ISWs in the slope region of the NE SCS. Near-simultaneous observations of two ISWs were acquired using seismic and satellite imaging, and water column measurements. The vertical and horizontal length scales of the seismic observed ISWs are around 50 m and 1-2 km, respectively. Wave phase speeds calculated from seismic observations, satellite images, and water column data are consistent with each other. Observed waveforms and vertical velocities also correspond well with those estimated using KdV theory. These results suggest that the seismic method, a new option to oceanographers, can be further applied to resolve other important issues related to ISWs.

  5. Registration of ELF waves in rocket-satellite experiment with plasma injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. G.; Oraevskii, V. N.; Ruzhin, Iu. Ia.; Sobolev, Ia. P.; Skomarovskii, V. S.; Chmyrev, V. M.; Namazov, C. A.; Pokhunkov, A. A.; Nesmeianov, V. I.

    1992-12-01

    Two rocket KOMBI-SAMA experiments with plasma injection at height 100-240 km were performed in August 1987 in the region of Brazilian magnetic anomaly (L = 1.25). The launching time of the rocket was determined so that plasma injection was at the time when COSMOS 1809 satellite passed as close as possible to magnetic tube of injection. Caesium plasma jet was produced during not less than 300 s by an electric plasma generator separated from the payload. When the satellite passed the geomagnetic tube intersecting the injection region an enhancement of ELF emission at 140 Hz, 450 Hz by a factor of 2 was registered on board the satellite. An enhancement of energetic particle flux by a factor of 4-5 was registered on board the rocket. Observed ELF emission below 100 Hz is interpreted as the generation of oblique electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves due to drift plasma instability at the front of the plasma jet.

  6. A Study of Mesoscale Gravity Waves over the North Atlantic with Satellite Observations and a Mesoscale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong L.; Zhang, Fuqing

    2004-01-01

    Satellite microwave data are used to study gravity wave properties and variabilities over the northeastern United States and the North Atlantic in the December-January periods. The gravity waves in this region, found in many winters, can reach the stratopause with growing amplitude. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) observations show that the wave occurrences are correlated well with the intensity and location of the tropospheric baroclinic jet front systems. To further investigate the cause(s) and properties of the North Atlantic gravity waves, we focus on a series of wave events during 19-21 January 2003 and compare AMSU-A observations to simulations from a mesoscale model (MM5). The simulated gravity waves compare qualitatively well with the satellite observations in terms of wave structures, timing, and overall morphology. Excitation mechanisms of these large-amplitude waves in the troposphere are complex and subject to further investigations.

  7. Plasma waves and electrical discharges stimulated by beam operations on a high altitude satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, H.C.; Cohen, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    A satellite experiment was conducted to measure the characteristics of the spacecraft charging process near synchronous orbit. The payload included a particle beam system (both an electron gun and an ion gun) and a charging electrical effects analyzer consisting of a pulse shape analyzer, a VLF analyzer, and an RF analyzer. The characteristics of plasma waves and electrical discharges measured by these instruments during electron and ion beam operations are discussed

  8. The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) on board the Arase (ERG) satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Yagitani, Satoshi; Ishisaka, Keigo; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Matsuda, Shoya; Imachi, Tomohiko; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Katoh, Yuto; Ota, Mamoru; Shoji, Masafumi; Matsuoka, Ayako; Shinohara, Iku

    2018-05-01

    The Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) project aims to study acceleration and loss mechanisms of relativistic electrons around the Earth. The Arase (ERG) satellite was launched on December 20, 2016, to explore in the heart of the Earth's radiation belt. In the present paper, we introduce the specifications of the Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) on board the Arase satellite. In the inner magnetosphere, plasma waves, such as the whistler-mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave, and magnetosonic wave, are expected to interact with particles over a wide energy range and contribute to high-energy particle loss and/or acceleration processes. Thermal plasma density is another key parameter because it controls the dispersion relation of plasma waves, which affects wave-particle interaction conditions and wave propagation characteristics. The DC electric field also plays an important role in controlling the global dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. The PWE, which consists of an orthogonal electric field sensor (WPT; wire probe antenna), a triaxial magnetic sensor (MSC; magnetic search coil), and receivers named electric field detector (EFD), waveform capture and onboard frequency analyzer (WFC/OFA), and high-frequency analyzer (HFA), was developed to measure the DC electric field and plasma waves in the inner magnetosphere. Using these sensors and receivers, the PWE covers a wide frequency range from DC to 10 MHz for electric fields and from a few Hz to 100 kHz for magnetic fields. We produce continuous ELF/VLF/HF range wave spectra and ELF range waveforms for 24 h each day. We also produce spectral matrices as continuous data for wave direction finding. In addition, we intermittently produce two types of waveform burst data, "chorus burst" and "EMIC burst." We also input raw waveform data into the software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer (S-WPIA), which derives direct correlation between waves and particles. Finally, we introduce our

  9. MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES WITH FLEXIBLE WIDE-AREA RADIO TRANSIENT SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Shawhan, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Simonetti, John H.; Tsai, Jr-Wei [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Chen, Kevin [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Dowell, Jayce; Obenberger, Kenneth; Taylor, Gregory B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM, 87131 (United States); Gough, Jonathan D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehman College, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Kanner, Jonah [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California CA 91125 (United States); Kavic, Michael [Department of Physics, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ∼30 s time window and ∼200–500 deg{sup 2} sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ∼2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  10. On-board Data Processing to Lower Bandwidth Requirements on an Infrared Astronomy Satellite: Case of Herschel-PACS Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reimers

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new data compression concept, “on-board processing,” for infrared astronomy, where space observatories have limited processing resources. The proposed approach has been developed and tested for the PACS camera from the European Space Agency (ESA mission, Herschel. Using lossy and lossless compression, the presented method offers high compression ratio with a minimal loss of potentially useful scientific data. It also provides higher signal-to-noise ratio than that for standard compression techniques. Furthermore, the proposed approach presents low algorithmic complexity such that it is implementable on the resource-limited hardware. The various modules of the data compression concept are discussed in detail.

  11. Software-type Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer on board the Arase satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuto; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Takashima, Takeshi; Asamura, Kazushi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kasahara, Satoshi; Mitani, Takefumi; Higashio, Nana; Matsuoka, Ayako; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsuda, Shoya; Kitahara, Masahiro; Shinohara, Iku

    2018-01-01

    We describe the principles of the Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer (WPIA) and the implementation of the Software-type WPIA (S-WPIA) on the Arase satellite. The WPIA is a new type of instrument for the direct and quantitative measurement of wave-particle interactions. The S-WPIA is installed on the Arase satellite as a software function running on the mission data processor. The S-WPIA on board the Arase satellite uses an electromagnetic field waveform that is measured by the waveform capture receiver of the plasma wave experiment (PWE), and the velocity vectors of electrons detected by the medium-energy particle experiment-electron analyzer (MEP-e), the high-energy electron experiment (HEP), and the extremely high-energy electron experiment (XEP). The prime objective of the S-WPIA is to measure the energy exchange between whistler-mode chorus emissions and energetic electrons in the inner magnetosphere. It is essential for the S-WPIA to synchronize instruments to a relative time accuracy better than the time period of the plasma wave oscillations. Since the typical frequency of chorus emissions in the inner magnetosphere is a few kHz, a relative time accuracy of better than 10 μs is required in order to measure the relative phase angle between the wave and velocity vectors. In the Arase satellite, a dedicated system has been developed to realize the time resolution required for inter-instrument communication. Here, both the time index distributed over all instruments through the satellite system and an S-WPIA clock signal are used, that are distributed from the PWE to the MEP-e, HEP, and XEP through a direct line, for the synchronization of instruments within a relative time accuracy of a few μs. We also estimate the number of particles required to obtain statistically significant results with the S-WPIA and the expected accumulation time by referring to the specifications of the MEP-e and assuming a count rate for each detector.

  12. Stamping through astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Stamps and other postal documents are an attractive vehicle for presenting astronomy and its development. Written with expertise and great enthusiasm, this unique book offers a historical and philatelic survey of astronomy and some related topics on space exploration. It contains more than 1300 color reproductions of stamps relating to the history of astronomy, ranging from the earliest observations of the sky to modern research conducted with satellites and space probes. Featured are the astronomers and astrophysicists who contributed to this marvelous story – not only Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Herschel, and Einstein but also hundreds of other minor protagonists who played an important role in the development of this, the most ancient yet the most modern of all the sciences. The book also examines in depth the diverse areas which have contributed to the history of astronomy, including the instrumentation, the theories, and the observations. Many stamps illustrate the beauty and the mystery of ce...

  13. Stimulation of plasma waves by electron guns on the ISEE-1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, J.-P.; Torbert, R.; Anderson, R.; Harvey, C.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the ISEE-1 satellite experiment relating to observations of the waves stimulated during electron injections, when the spacecraft is passing through the magnetosphere, the magnetosheath, and the solar wind, are discussed. It is shown that the injection of an electron beam current of the order of 10 to 60 microamperes with energies ranging from 0 to 40 eV produces enhancements in the electric wave spectrum. An attempt has been made to identify the low-frequency electrostatic wave observed below the ion plasma frequency as an ion acoustic mode, although the excitation mechanism is not clear. A coupling mechanism between the electron plasma mode and streaming electrons with energies higher than the thermal speed of the cold electron population has been proposed to explain the observations above the electron plasma frequency.

  14. Stimulation of plasma waves by electron guns on the ISEE-1 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebreton, J.P.; Torbert, R.; Anderson, R.; Harvey, C.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the ISEE-1 satellite experiment relating to observations of the waves stimulated during electron injections, when the spacecraft is passing through the magnetosphere, the magnetosheath, and the solar wind, are discussed. It is shown that the injection of an electron beam current of the order of 10 to 60 microamperes with energies ranging from 0 to 40 eV produces enhancements in the electric wave spectrum. An attempt has been made to identify the low-frequency electrostatic wave observed below the ion plasma frequency as an ion acoustic mode, although the excitation mechanism is not clear. A coupling mechanism between the electron plasma mode and streaming electrons with energies higher than the thermal speed of the cold electron population has been proposed to explain the observations above the electron plasma frequency. 9 references

  15. Stimulation of plasma waves by electron guns on the ISEE-1 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebreton, J.P.; Anderson, R.; Harvey, C.; Torbert, R.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter describes typical observations of the waves stimulated during the electron injections, when the spacecraft is passing through the magnetosphere, the magnetosheath and the solar wind. Topics considered include orbits of gun electrons, an electric field antenna, gun operation in the magnetosphere, natural waves in the magnetosheath and the solar wind, gun operation magnetosheath, and gun operation in the solar wind. A coupling mechanism between the electron plasma mode and streaming electrons with energies higher than the thermal speed of the cold electron population is proposed to explain the observations above the electron plasma frequency. It is demonstrated that on board the ISEE-1 satellite, the injection of an electron beam current of the order of 10 to 60 251A with energies ranging from 0 to 40 eV produced enhancements in the electric wave spectrum

  16. Transformation of internal solitary waves at the "deep" and "shallow" shelf: satellite observations and laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Shishkina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An interaction of internal solitary waves with the shelf edge in the time periods related to the presence of a pronounced seasonal pycnocline in the Red Sea and in the Alboran Sea is analysed via satellite photos and SAR images. Laboratory data on transformation of a solitary wave of depression while passing along the transverse bottom step were obtained in a tank with a two-layer stratified fluid. The certain difference between two characteristic types of hydrophysical phenomena was revealed both in the field observations and in experiments. The hydrological conditions for these two processes were named the "deep" and the "shallow" shelf respectively. The first one provides the generation of the secondary periodic short internal waves – "runaway" edge waves – due to change in the polarity of a part of a soliton approaching the shelf normally. Another one causes a periodic shear flow in the upper quasi-homogeneous water layer with the period of incident solitary wave. The strength of the revealed mechanisms depends on the thickness of the water layer between the pycnocline and the shelf bottom as well as on the amplitude of the incident solitary wave.

  17. HIMAWARI-8 Geostationary Satellite Observation of the Internal Solitary Waves in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q.; Dong, D.; Yang, X.; Husi, L.; Shang, H.

    2018-04-01

    The new generation geostationary meteorological satellite, Himawari-8 (H-8), was launched in 2015. Its main payload, the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI), can observe the earth with 10-minute interval and as high as 500-m spatial resolution. This makes the H-8 satellite an ideal data source for marine and atmospheric phenomena monitoring. In this study, the propagation of internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the South China Sea is investigated using AHI imagery time series for the first time. Three ISWs cases were studied at 3:30-8:00 UTC on 30 May, 2016. In all, 28 ISWs were detected and tracked between the time series image pairs. The propagation direction and phase speeds of these ISWs are calculated and analyzed. The observation results show that the properties of ISW propagation not stable and maintains nonlinear during its lifetime. The resultant ISW speeds agree well with the theoretical values estimated from the Taylor-Goldstein equation using Argo dataset. This study has demonstrated that the new generation geostationary satellite can be a useful tool to monitor and investigate the oceanic internal waves.

  18. Data processing in Software-type Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer onboard the Arase satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikishima, Mitsuru; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Katoh, Yuto; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kasahara, Satoshi; Mitani, Takefumi; Higashio, Nana; Matsuoka, Ayako; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Asamura, Kazushi; Takashima, Takeshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Kitahara, Masahiro; Matsuda, Shoya

    2018-05-01

    The software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer (S-WPIA) is an instrument package onboard the Arase satellite, which studies the magnetosphere. The S-WPIA represents a new method for directly observing wave-particle interactions onboard a spacecraft in a space plasma environment. The main objective of the S-WPIA is to quantitatively detect wave-particle interactions associated with whistler-mode chorus emissions and electrons over a wide energy range (from several keV to several MeV). The quantity of energy exchanges between waves and particles can be represented as the inner product of the wave electric-field vector and the particle velocity vector. The S-WPIA requires accurate measurement of the phase difference between wave and particle gyration. The leading edge of the S-WPIA system allows us to collect comprehensive information, including the detection time, energy, and incoming direction of individual particles and instantaneous-wave electric and magnetic fields, at a high sampling rate. All the collected particle and waveform data are stored in the onboard large-volume data storage. The S-WPIA executes calculations asynchronously using the collected electric and magnetic wave data, data acquired from multiple particle instruments, and ambient magnetic-field data. The S-WPIA has the role of handling large amounts of raw data that are dedicated to calculations of the S-WPIA. Then, the results are transferred to the ground station. This paper describes the design of the S-WPIA and its calculations in detail, as implemented onboard Arase.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. A two-channel wave analyser for sounding rockets and satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brondz, E.

    1989-04-01

    Studies of low frequency electromagnetic waves, produced originally by lightning discharges penetrating the ionosphere, provide an important source of valuable information about the earth's surrounding plasma. Use of rockets and satellites supported by ground-based observations implies, unique opportunity for measuring in situ a number of parameters simultaneously in order to correlate data from various measurements. However, every rocket experiment has to be designed bearing in mind telemetry limitations and/or short flight duration. Typical flight duration for Norwegian rockets launched from Andoeya Rocket Range is 500 to 600 s. Therefore, the most desired way to use a rocket or satellite is to carry out data analyses on board in real time. Recent achievements in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) technology have made it possible to undertake very complex on board data manipulation. As a part of rocket instrumentation, a DSP based unit able to carry out on board analyses of low frequency electromagnetic waves in the ionosphere has been designed. The unit can be seen as a general purpose computer built on the basis of a fixed-point 16 bit signal processor. The unit is supplied with a program code in order to perform wave analyses on two independent channels simultaneously. The analyser is able to perform 256 point complex fast fourier transformations, and it produce a spectral power desity estimate on both channels every 85 ms. The design and construction of the DSP based unit is described and results from the tests are presented

  20. Satellite traces, range spread-F occurrence, and gravity wave propagation at the southern anomaly crest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, M.A. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Tucuman (Argentina). CIASUR, Facultad Regional Tucuman; Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina). Lab. de Ionosfera; Pezzopane, M.; Zuccheretti, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Ezquer, R.G. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Tucuman (Argentina). CIASUR, Facultad Regional Tucuman; Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina). Lab. de Ionosfera; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-01

    Range spread-F (RSF) and occurrence of ''satellite'' traces prior to RSF onset were studied at the southern peak of the ionospheric equatorial anomaly (EA). Ionograms recorded in September 2007 at the new ionospheric station of Tucuman, Argentina (26.9 S, 294.6 E, dip latitude 15.5 S), by the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder (AIS) developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), were considered. Satellite traces (STs) are confirmed to be a necessary precursor to the appearance of an RSF trace on the ionograms. Moreover, an analysis of isoheight contours of electron density seems to suggest a relationship between RSF occurrence and gravity wave (GW) propagation. (orig.)

  1. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  2. Ground and Satellite Observations of ULF Waves Artificially Produced by HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Labenski, J.; Shroff, H.; Doxas, I.; Papadopoulos, D.; Milikh, G.; Parrot, M.

    2008-12-01

    Modulated ionospheric heating at ULF frequencies using the HAARP heater was performed from April 28 to May 3, 2008 (http://www.haarp.alaska.edu). Simultaneous ground-based ULF measurements were made locally at Gakona, AK and at Lake Ozette, WA that is 2000 km away. The ground-based results showed that ULF amplitudes measured at Gakona are mostly proportional to the electrojet strength above HAARP, indicating electrojet modulation to be the source of the local ULF waves. However, the timing of ULF events recorded at Lake Ozette did not correlated with the electrojet strength at Gakona, indicating that modulation of F region pressure is the more likely source for distant ULF waves. These observations are consistent with the theoretical understanding that ULF waves generated by current modulation are shear Alfven waves propagating along the magnetic field line, thus at high latitude their observations are limited to the vicinity of the heated spot. On the other hand, propagation of ULF waves at significant lateral distances requires generation of magnetosonic waves since they are the only mode that propagates isotropically and can thus couple efficiently in the Alfvenic duct. In addition to ground-based observations, the DEMETER satellite also provided space measurements of the heating effects during its passes over HAARP. The DEMETER results showed direct detection of HAARP ULF waves at 0.1 Hz. Moreover, density dips were observed every time HAARP was operated at CW mode, which provides clear evidence of duct formation by direct HF heating at F peak. Details of these results will be presented at the meeting. We would like to acknowledge the support provided by the HAARP facility during our ULF experiments.

  3. Accurate calibration of waveform data measured by the Plasma Wave Experiment on board the ARASE satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, M.; Katoh, Y.; Hikishima, M.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kojima, H.; Ozaki, M.; Yagitani, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) is installed on board the ARASE satellite to measure the electric field in the frequency range from DC to 10 MHz, and the magnetic field in the frequency range from a few Hz to 100 kHz using two dipole wire-probe antennas (WPT) and three magnetic search coils (MSC), respectively. In particular, the Waveform Capture (WFC), one of the receivers of the PWE, can detect electromagnetic field waveform in the frequency range from a few Hz to 20 kHz. The Software-type Wave Particle Interaction Analyzer (S-WPIA) is installed on the ARASE satellite to measure the energy exchange between plasma waves and particles. Since S-WPIA uses the waveform data measured by WFC to calculate the relative phase angle between the wave magnetic field and velocity of energetic electrons, the high-accuracy is required to calibration of both amplitude and phase of the waveform data. Generally, the calibration procedure of the signal passed through a receiver consists of three steps; the transformation into spectra, the calibration by the transfer function of a receiver, and the inverse transformation of the calibrated spectra into the time domain. Practically, in order to reduce the side robe effect, a raw data is filtered by a window function in the time domain before applying Fourier transform. However, for the case that a first order differential coefficient of the phase transfer function of the system is not negligible, the phase of the window function convoluted into the calibrated spectra is shifted differently at each frequency, resulting in a discontinuity in the time domain of the calibrated waveform data. To eliminate the effect of the phase shift of a window function, we suggest several methods to calibrate a waveform data accurately and carry out simulations assuming simple sinusoidal waves as an input signal and using transfer functions of WPT, MSC, and WFC obtained in pre-flight tests. In consequence, we conclude that the following two methods can

  4. Satellite Detection of Orographic Gravity-wave Activity in the Winter Subtropical Stratosphere over Australia and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, S. D.; Wu, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Orographic gravity-wave (OGW) parameterizations in models produce waves over subtropical mountain ranges in Australia and Africa that propagate into the stratosphere during austral winter and deposit momentum, affecting weather and climate. Satellite sensors have measured stratospheric GWs for over a decade, yet find no evidence of these waves. So are parameterizations failing here? Here we argue that the short wavelengths of subtropical OGWs place them near or below the detection limits of satellite sensors. To test this hypothesis, we reanalyze nine years of stratospheric radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua satellite during austral winter, applying new averaging techniques to maximize signal-to-noise and improve thresholds for OGW detection. Deep climatological enhancements in stratospheric OGW variance over specific mountain ranges in Australia and southern Africa are revealed for the first time, which exhibit temporal and vertical variations consistent with predicted OGW responses to varying background winds.

  5. Wave excitation in the experiment with an electron beam at the Dzhajkiken Exos-B Japanese satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavashima, N.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment on investigation of beam-plasma interaction in the magnetosphere is carried out at the ''Dzhajkiken (Exos-B)'' japanese satellite. 100-200 eV and 0.25-1 μA electron beam was injected into the magnetosphere. Using LF and HF detectors in low altitude range waves with the frequencies close to the upper hybrid and electron frequencies are recorded. Beyond the plasmapause the satellite was charged to the potential corresponding to the beam energy

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing of Ocean Winds, Surface Waves and Surface Currents during the Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Perrie, W. A.; Liu, G.; Zhang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes over the ocean have been observed by spaceborne aperture radar (SAR) since the first SAR images were available in 1978. SAR has high spatial resolution (about 1 km), relatively large coverage and capability for observations during almost all-weather, day-and-night conditions. In this study, seven C-band RADARSAT-2 dual-polarized (VV and VH) ScanSAR wide images from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Hurricane Watch Program in 2017 are collected over five hurricanes: Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate, and Ophelia. We retrieve the ocean winds by applying our C-band Cross-Polarization Coupled-Parameters Ocean (C-3PO) wind retrieval model [Zhang et al., 2017, IEEE TGRS] to the SAR images. Ocean waves are estimated by applying a relationship based on the fetch- and duration-limited nature of wave growth inside hurricanes [Hwang et al., 2016; 2017, J. Phys. Ocean.]. We estimate the ocean surface currents using the Doppler Shift extracted from VV-polarized SAR images [Kang et al., 2016, IEEE TGRS]. C-3PO model is based on theoretical analysis of ocean surface waves and SAR microwave backscatter. Based on the retrieved ocean winds, we estimate the hurricane center locations, maxima wind speeds, and radii of the five hurricanes by adopting the SHEW model (Symmetric Hurricane Estimates for Wind) by Zhang et al. [2017, IEEE TGRS]. Thus, we investigate possible relations between hurricane structures and intensities, and especially some possible effects of the asymmetrical characteristics on changes in the hurricane intensities, such as the eyewall replacement cycle. The three SAR images of Ophelia include the north coast of Ireland and east coast of Scotland allowing study of ocean surface currents respond to the hurricane. A system of methods capable of observing marine winds, surface waves, and surface currents from satellites is of value, even if these data are only available in near real-time or from SAR-related satellite images. Insight into high resolution ocean winds

  7. Satellite Based Downward Long Wave Radiation by Various Models in Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyang Sur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based downward long wave radiation measurement under clear sky conditions in Northeast Asia was conducted using five well-known physical models (Brunt 1932, Idso and Jackson 1969, Brutsaert 1975, Satterlund 1979, Prata 1996 with a newly proposed global Rld model (Abramowitz et al. 2012. Data from two flux towers in South Korea were used to validate downward long wave radiation. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS atmospheric profile products were used to develop the Rld models. The overall root mean square error (RMSE of MODIS Rld with respect to two ecosystem-type flux towers was determined to be ≈ 20 W m-2. Based on the statistical analyses, MODIS Rld estimates with Brutsaert (1975 and Abramowitz et al. (2012 models were the most applicable for evaluating Rld for clear sky conditions in Northeast Asia. The Abramowitz Rld maps with MODIS Ta and ea showed reasonable seasonal patterns, which were well-aligned with other biophysical variables reported by previous studies. The MODIS Rld map developed in this study will be very useful for identifying spatial patterns that are not detectable from ground-based Rld measurement sites.

  8. Satellite observations of middle atmosphere–thermosphere vertical coupling by gravity waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. T. Trinh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs are essential for the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that these waves are also important for the thermosphere/ionosphere (T/I system. Via vertical coupling, GWs can significantly influence the mean state of the T/I system. However, the penetration of GWs into the T/I system is not fully understood in modeling as well as observations. In the current study, we analyze the correlation between GW momentum fluxes observed in the middle atmosphere (30–90 km and GW-induced perturbations in the T/I. In the middle atmosphere, GW momentum fluxes are derived from temperature observations of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER satellite instrument. In the T/I, GW-induced perturbations are derived from neutral density measured by instruments on the Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE and CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP satellites. We find generally positive correlations between horizontal distributions at low altitudes (i.e., below 90 km and horizontal distributions of GW-induced density fluctuations in the T/I (at 200 km and above. Two coupling mechanisms are likely responsible for these positive correlations: (1 fast GWs generated in the troposphere and lower stratosphere can propagate directly to the T/I and (2 primary GWs with their origins in the lower atmosphere dissipate while propagating upwards and generate secondary GWs, which then penetrate up to the T/I and maintain the spatial patterns of GW distributions in the lower atmosphere. The mountain-wave related hotspot over the Andes and Antarctic Peninsula is found clearly in observations of all instruments used in our analysis. Latitude–longitude variations in the summer midlatitudes are also found in observations of all instruments. These variations and strong positive correlations in the summer midlatitudes suggest that GWs with origins related to convection also

  9. Satellite observations of middle atmosphere-thermosphere vertical coupling by gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Quang Thai; Ern, Manfred; Doornbos, Eelco; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) are essential for the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that these waves are also important for the thermosphere/ionosphere (T/I) system. Via vertical coupling, GWs can significantly influence the mean state of the T/I system. However, the penetration of GWs into the T/I system is not fully understood in modeling as well as observations. In the current study, we analyze the correlation between GW momentum fluxes observed in the middle atmosphere (30-90 km) and GW-induced perturbations in the T/I. In the middle atmosphere, GW momentum fluxes are derived from temperature observations of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) satellite instrument. In the T/I, GW-induced perturbations are derived from neutral density measured by instruments on the Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) and CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellites. We find generally positive correlations between horizontal distributions at low altitudes (i.e., below 90 km) and horizontal distributions of GW-induced density fluctuations in the T/I (at 200 km and above). Two coupling mechanisms are likely responsible for these positive correlations: (1) fast GWs generated in the troposphere and lower stratosphere can propagate directly to the T/I and (2) primary GWs with their origins in the lower atmosphere dissipate while propagating upwards and generate secondary GWs, which then penetrate up to the T/I and maintain the spatial patterns of GW distributions in the lower atmosphere. The mountain-wave related hotspot over the Andes and Antarctic Peninsula is found clearly in observations of all instruments used in our analysis. Latitude-longitude variations in the summer midlatitudes are also found in observations of all instruments. These variations and strong positive correlations in the summer midlatitudes suggest that GWs with origins related to convection also propagate up to the T

  10. Lightning-generated whistler waves observed by probes on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System satellite at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzworth, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Pfaff, R. F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Willcockson, W. L.; Rowland, D. E.

    2011-06-01

    Direct evidence is presented for a causal relationship between lightning and strong electric field transients inside equatorial ionospheric density depletions. In fact, these whistler mode plasma waves may be the dominant electric field signal within such depletions. Optical lightning data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite and global lightning location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network are presented as independent verification that these electric field transients are caused by lightning. The electric field instrument on C/NOFS routinely measures lightning-related electric field wave packets or sferics, associated with simultaneous measurements of optical flashes at all altitudes encountered by the satellite (401-867 km). Lightning-generated whistler waves have abundant access to the topside ionosphere, even close to the magnetic equator.

  11. Greek astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Sir Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy as a science began with the Ionian philosophers, with whom Greek philosophy and mathematics also began. While the Egyptians and Babylonians had accomplished much of astronomical worth, it remained for the unrivalled speculative genius of the Greeks, in particular, their mathematical genius, to lay the foundations of the true science of astronomy. In this classic study, a noted scholar discusses in lucid detail the specific advances made by the Greeks, many of whose ideas anticipated the discoveries of modern astronomy.Pythagoras, born at Samos about 572 B.C., was probably the first

  12. Comparison of gridded multi-mission and along-track mono-mission satellite altimetry wave heights with in situ near-shore buoy data.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shanas, P.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Hithin, N.K.

    and studied the validity of these observations against ship-reported and buoy data. Many studies have been undertaken on how best to use the data available from satellite observation systems in wave models (Mastenbroek, 1994; Young and Glowacki, 1996... Sea wave model. Journal of Geophysical Research 10, 5829–5849. Young, I.R., 1994. Global ocean wave statistics obtained from satellite observations. Applied Ocean Research 16, 235-248. Young, I.R., Glowacki, T.J., 1996. Assimilation of altimeter...

  13. MoonBEAM: A Beyond Earth-Orbit Gamma-Ray Burst Detector for Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C. M.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A. M.; Jenke, P. A.; Kocevski, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Moon Burst Energetics All-sky Monitor (MoonBEAM) is a CubeSat concept of deploying gamma-ray detectors in cislunar space to improve localization precision for gamma-ray bursts by utilizing the light travel time difference between different orbits. We present here a gamma-ray SmallSat concept in Earth-Moon L3 halo orbit that is capable of rapid response and provide a timing baseline for localization improvement when partnered with an Earth-orbit instrument. Such an instrument would probe the extreme processes in cosmic collision of compact objects and facilitate multi-messenger time-domain astronomy to explore the end of stellar life cycles and black hole formations.

  14. Gamma astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.; Cesarsky, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This article overviews the gamma astronomy research. Sources already observed, and what causes to give to them; the galactic radiation and its interpretation; techniques already used and current projects [fr

  15. Accessible Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickstein, Neil

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of a theme-based, multidisciplinary course. The article partitions into the following sections: (1) Constructing the Course; (2) Putting the Ideas to Work; (3) Connecting Science and Society; and (4) The Arts and Astronomy. (ZWH)

  16. Gigantic Circular Shock Acoustic Waves in the Ionosphere Triggered by the Launch of FORMOSAT-5 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Min-Yang; Shen, Ming-Hsueh; Lin, Charles C. H.; Yue, Jia; Chen, Chia-Hung; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Lin, Jia-Ting

    2018-02-01

    The launch of SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket delivered Taiwan's FORMOSAT-5 satellite to orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 18:51:00 UT on 24 August 2017. To facilitate the delivery of FORMOSAT-5 to its mission orbit altitude of 720 km, the Falcon 9 made a steep initial ascent. During the launch, the supersonic rocket induced gigantic circular shock acoustic waves (SAWs) in total electron content (TEC) over the western United States beginning approximately 5 min after the liftoff. The circular SAWs emanated outward with 20 min duration, horizontal phase velocities of 629-726 m/s, horizontal wavelengths of 390-450 km, and period of 10.28 ± 1 min. This is the largest rocket-induced circular SAWs on record, extending approximately 114-128°W in longitude and 26-39°N in latitude ( 1,500 km in diameter), and was due to the unique, nearly vertical attitude of the rocket during orbit insertion. The rocket-exhaust plume subsequently created a large-scale ionospheric plasma hole ( 900 km in diameter) with 10-70% TEC depletions in comparison with the reference days. While the circular SAWs, with a relatively small amplitude of TEC fluctuations, likely did not introduce range errors into the Global Navigation Satellite Systems navigation and positioning system, the subsequent ionospheric plasma hole, on the other hand, could have caused spatial gradients in the ionospheric plasma potentially leading to a range error of 1 m.

  17. Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  18. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parijskij, Y.N.; Gossachinskij, I.V.; Zuckerman, B.; Khersonsky, V.K.; Pustilnik, S.; Robinson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of major developments and discoveries in the field of radioastronomy during the period 1973-1975 is presented. The report is presented under the following headings:(1) Continuum radiation from the Galaxy; (2) Neutral hydrogen, 21 cm (galactic and extragalactic) and recombination lines; (3) Radioastronomy investigations of interstellar molecules; (4) Extragalactic radio astronomy and (6) Development in radio astronomy instruments. (B.R.H.)

  19. Lunar based gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymes, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy represents the study of the universe on the basis of the electromagnetic radiation with the highest energy. Gamma ray astronomy provides a crucial tool for the understanding of astronomical phenomena, taking into account nucleosynthesis in supernovae, black holes, active galaxies, quasars, the sources of cosmic rays, neutron stars, and matter-antimatter annihilation. Difficulties concerning the conduction of studies by gamma ray astronomy are related to the necessity to perform such studies far from earth because the atmosphere is a source of gamma rays. Studies involving the use of gamma ray instruments in earth orbit have been conducted, and more gamma ray astronomy observations are planned for the future. Imperfections of studies conducted in low earth orbit could be overcome by estalishing an observatory on the moon which represents a satellite orbiting at 60 earth radii. Details concerning such an observatory are discussed. 5 references

  20. Refraction of Radio Waves on the Radio-Occultation Satellite-to-Satellite Paths as a Characteristic of the Atmospheric State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyugov, S. S.; Yakovlev, O. I.; Pavelyev, A. G.; Pavelyev, A. A.; Anufriev, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of analyzing the radio-wave refractive characteristics measured on the radio-occultation paths between the GPS navigation satellites and the FORMOSAT-3 research satellites in the central region of the European territory of Russia in 2007-2013. The diurnal, seasonal, and annual variations in the refraction angle at altitudes of 2 to 25 km are discussed. It is shown that the refraction angle can be used as an independent characteristic of the atmospheric state and its long-term variation trends. Diurnal and nocturnal variations in the refraction angle in the winter and summer seasons are analyzed. Trends in the atmospheric refraction variations over seven years are discussed.

  1. A case study of the energy dissipation of the gravity wave field based on satellite altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Parsons, C. L.; Long, S. R.; Bliven, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    Wave breaking is proposed as the primary energy dissipation mechanism for the gravity wave field. The energy dissipation rate is calculated based on the statistical model proposed by Longuet-Higgins (1969) with a modification of the breaking criterion incorporating the surface stress according to Phillips and Banner (1974). From this modified model, an analytic expression is found for the wave attenuation rate and the half-life time of the wave field which depend only on the significant slope of the wave field and the ratio of friction velocity to initial wave phase velocity. These expressions explain why the freshly generated wave field does not last long, but why swells are capable of propagating long distances without substantial change in energy density. It is shown that breaking is many orders of magnitude more effective in dissipating wave energy than the molecular viscosity, if the significant slope is higher than 0.01. Limited observational data from satellite and laboratory are used to compare with the analytic results, and show good agreement.

  2. Small scale currents and ocean wave heights: from today's models to future satellite observations with CFOSAT and SKIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gille, Sarah; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Rocha, Cesar; Rascle, Nicolas; Gula, Jonathan; Chapron, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    Tidal currents and large oceanic currents, such as the Agulhas, Gulf Stream and Kuroshio, are known to modify ocean wave properties, causing extreme sea states that are a hazard to navigation. Recent advances in the understanding and modeling capability of ocean currents at scales of 10 km or less have revealed the ubiquitous presence of fronts and filaments. Based on realistic numerical models, we show that these structures can be the main source of variability in significant wave heights at scales less than 200 km, including important variations at 10 km. This current-induced variability creates gradients in wave heights that were previously overlooked and are relevant for extreme wave heights and remote sensing. The spectrum of significant wave heights is found to be of the order of 70⟨Hs ⟩2/(g2⟨Tm0,-1⟩2) times the current spectrum, where ⟨Hs ⟩ is the spatially-averaged significant wave height, ⟨Tm0,-1⟩ is the average energy period, and g is the gravity acceleration. This small scale variability is consistent with Jason-3 and SARAL along-track variability. We will discuss how future satellite mission with wave spectrometers can help observe these wave-current interactions. CFOSAT is due for launch in 2018, and SKIM is a proposal for ESA Earth Explorer 9.

  3. Gray Wave of the Great Transformation: A Satellite View of Urbanization, Climate Change, and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc Lee; Kamiell, Arnon Menahem

    2010-01-01

    Land cover change driven by human activity is profoundly affecting Earth's natural systems with impacts ranging from a loss of biological diversity to changes in regional and global climate. This change has been so pervasive and progressed so rapidly, compared to natural processes, scientists refer to it as "the great transformation". Urbanization or the 'gray wave' of land transformation is being increasingly recognized as an important process in global climate change. A hallmark of our success as a species, large urban conglomerates do in fact alter the land surface so profoundly that both local climate and the basic ecology of the landscape are affected in ways that have consequences to human health and economic well-being. Fortunately we have incredible new tools for planning and developing urban places that are both enjoyable and sustainable. A suite of Earth observing satellites is making it possible to study the interactions between urbanization, biological processes, and weather and climate. Using these Earth Observatories we are learning how urban heat islands form and potentially ameliorate them, how urbanization can affect rainfall, pollution, and surface water recharge at the local level and climate and food security globally.

  4. Guided-wave high-performance spectrometers for the MEOS miniature earth observation satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman V.; Wong, Brian; Zou, Jing; Jamroz, Wes; Sloan, James; Cloutis, Edward

    2017-11-01

    The MEOS Miniature Earth Observing Satellite is a low-cost mission being developed for the Canadian Space Agency with international collaborations that will innovatively combine remote correlated atmospheric/land-cover measurements with the corresponding atmospheric and ecosystem modelling in near real-time to obtain simultaneous variations in lower tropospheric GHG mixing ratios and the resulting responses of the surface ecosystems. MEOS will provide lower tropospheric CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, H2O and aerosol mixing ratios over natural sources and sinks using two kinds of synergistic observations; a forward limb measurement and a follow-on nadir measurement over the same geographical tangent point. The measurements will be accomplished using separate limb and nadir suites of innovative miniature line-imaging spectrometers and will be spatially coordinated such that the same air mass is observed in both views within a few minutes. The limb data will consist of 16-pixel vertical spectral line imaging to provide 1-km vertical resolution, while the corresponding nadir measurements will view sixteen 5 by 10 km2 ground pixels with a 160-km East-West swath width. To facilitate the mission accommodation on a low-cost microsat with a net payload mass under 22 kg, groundbreaking miniature guided-wave spectrometers with advanced optical filtering and coding technologies will be employed based on MPBC's patented IOSPEC technologies. The data synergy requirements for each view will be innovatively met using two complementary miniature line-imaging spectrometers to provide broad-band measurements from 1200 to 2450 nm at about 1.2 nm/pixel bandwidth using a multislit binary-coded MEMS-IOSPEC and simultaneous high-resolution multiple microchannels at 0.03 nm FWHM using the revolutionary FP-IOSPEC Fabry-Perot guided-wave spectrometer concept. The guided-wave spectrometer integration provides an order of magnitude reduction in the mass and volume relative to traditional bulk

  5. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  6. Study of Large-Scale Wave Structure and Development of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles Using the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    scientific journals. The papers are listed below in chronological order. Kelley, M.C., F.S. Rodrigues, J.J. Makela, R. Tsunoda, P.A. Roddy, D.E. Hunton...source region be located on the dip equator. To illustrate, Figure 6 presents a sequence of satellite OLR maps, which were taken over Peru on 19-20...to large-scale wave structure and equatorial spread F, presented at the International Symposium for Equatorial Aeronomy, Paracas, Peru , March 2012

  7. Astronomy Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gerald

    Every year large numbers of people take up the study of astronomy, mostly at amateur level. There are plenty of elementary books on the market, full of colourful photographs, but lacking in proper explanations of how and why things are as they are. Many people eventually wish to go beyond the 'coffee-table book' stage and study this fascinating subject in greater depth. This book is written for them. In addition, many people sit for public examinations in this subject each year and this book is also intended to be of use to them. All the topics from the GCSE syllabus are covered here, with sample questions at the end of each chapter. Astronomy Explained provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject in more depth than is usually found in elementary works, and will be of interest to both amateur astronomers and students of astronomy.

  8. Astronomy essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Brass, Charles O

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Astronomy includes the historical perspective of astronomy, sky basics and the celestial coordinate systems, a model and the origin of the solar system, the sun, the planets, Kepler'

  9. The physics-astronomy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.; Narlikar, K.

    1980-01-01

    Spacetime diagrams and the structure of matter are considered, and aspects of electrical interaction are investigated. Attention is given to radiation, quantum mechanics, spectrum lines, black bodies, stellar spectra, the H-R diagram, radio astronomy, millimeter-wave astronomy, interstellar grains and infrared astronomy, and X-ray astronomy. The strong and weak interactions are examined, taking into account atoms, nuclei, the evolution of stars, and the measurement of astronomical distances. A description of gravitational interaction is also presented. The laws of motion and gravitation are considered along with black holes, the significance of cosmology, Hubble's law, the expanding universe, the symmetries of the universe, Olbers' paradox, the big-bang universe, Mach's principle, the meaning of the expansion of the system of galaxies, the redshift-magnitude relation of Hubble and Humason, the early universe, and the geometry of special relativity

  10. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  11. Lithuanian Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudzius, J.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lithuanian folklore, archaic calendars and terminology show that Lithuanians were interested in astronomy from ancient times. A lot of celestial bodies have names of Lithuanian origin that are not related to widely accepted ancient Greek mythology. For example, the Milky Way is named `Pauksciu Takas' (literally the way of birds), the constellation of the Great Bear `Didieji Grizulo Ratai' (literal...

  12. γ astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfendale, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Some problems of gamma astronomy are discussed in the popular form. The most interesting research directions are considered:e + e - pair annihilation, 100 MeV gamma quanta sources, Cherenkov radiation gamma quanta recording and cosmic ray anisotropy. Special attention is paid to unique gamma quanta source - Cygnus X-3. The source possesses the highest luminosity in the gamma range

  13. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It is shown how some of the main areas of current CSIRO radioastronomy research are contributing to increasing our knowledge of the universe. The survey includes background astronomy, interstellar gas, the Sun, exploding stars and pulsars, galaxies and quasars. The Australia Telescope and other CSIRO research programs are described

  14. THE MASSIVE PULSAR PSR J1614-2230: LINKING QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS, GAMMA-RAY BURSTS, AND GRAVITATIONAL WAVE ASTRONOMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Ransom, Scott; Demorest, Paul; Alford, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The recent measurement of the Shapiro delay in the radio pulsar PSR J1614-2230 yielded a mass of 1.97 ± 0.04 M sun , making it the most massive pulsar known to date. Its mass is high enough that, even without an accompanying measurement of the stellar radius, it has a strong impact on our understanding of nuclear matter, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and the generation of gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars. This single high-mass value indicates that a transition to quark matter in neutron-star cores can occur at densities comparable to the nuclear saturation density only if the quarks are strongly interacting and are color superconducting. We further show that a high maximum neutron-star mass is required if short-duration GRBs are powered by coalescing neutron stars and, therefore, this mechanism becomes viable in the light of the recent measurement. Finally, we argue that the low-frequency (≤500 Hz) gravitational waves emitted during the final stages of neutron-star coalescence encode the properties of the equation of state because neutron stars consistent with this measurement cannot be centrally condensed. This will facilitate the measurement of the neutron star equation of state with Advanced LIGO/Virgo.

  15. Sun glitter imaging analysis of submarine sand waves in HJ-1A/B satellite CCD images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguo; He, Xiekai; Yang, Kang; Fu, Bin; Guan, Weibing

    2014-11-01

    Submarine sand waves are a widespread bed-form in tidal environment. Submarine sand waves induce current convergence and divergence that affect sea surface roughness thus become visible in sun glitter images. These sun glitter images have been employed for mapping sand wave topography. However, there are lots of effect factors in sun glitter imaging of the submarine sand waves, such as the imaging geometry and dynamic environment condition. In this paper, several sun glitter images from HJ-1A/B in the Taiwan Banks are selected. These satellite sun glitter images are used to discuss sun glitter imaging characteristics in different sensor parameters and dynamic environment condition. To interpret the imaging characteristics, calculating the sun glitter radiance and analyzing its spatial characteristics of the sand wave in different images is the best way. In this study, a simulated model based on sun glitter radiation transmission is adopted to certify the imaging analysis in further. Some results are drawn based on the study. Firstly, the sun glitter radiation is mainly determined by sensor view angle. Second, the current is another key factor for the sun glitter. The opposite current direction will cause exchanging of bright stripes and dark stripes. Third, brightness reversal would happen at the critical angle. Therefore, when using sun glitter image to obtain depth inversion, one is advised to take advantage of image properties of sand waves and to pay attention to key dynamic environment condition and brightness reversal.

  16. Experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Füllekrug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables an experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which observes 100 kHz radio waves from fifty terrestrial Long Range Aid to Navigation (LORAN transmitters. Their mean luminosity patch in the plasmasphere is a circular area with a radius of 300 km and a power density of 22 μW/Hz as observed at 660 km height above the ground. The luminosity patches exhibit a southward displacement of 450 km with respect to the locations of the LORAN transmitters. The displacement is reduced to 150 km when an upward propagation of the radio waves along the geomagnetic field line is assumed. This residual displacement indicates that the radio waves undergo 150 km sub-ionospheric propagation prior to entering a magnetospheric duct and escaping into near-Earth space. The residual displacement at low (L < 2.14 and high (L > 2.14 geomagnetic latitudes ranges from 100 km to 200 km which suggests that the smaller inclination of the geomagnetic field lines at low latitudes helps to trap the radio waves and to keep them in the magnetospheric duct. Diffuse luminosity areas are observed northward of the magnetic conjugate locations of LORAN transmitters at extremely low geomagnetic latitudes (L < 1.36 in Southeast Asia. This result suggests that the propagation along the geomagnetic field lines results in a spatial spreading of the radio wave energy over distances of 1 Mm. The summative assessment of the electric field intensities measured in space show that nadir observations of terrestrial 100 kHz radio waves, e.g., from

  17. Trends of wave height and period in the Central Arabian Sea from 1996 to 2012: A study based on satellite altimeter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hithin, N.K.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.

    The variability of annual maximum and annual mean significant wave height (SWH) and wave period in the Central Arabian Sea is studied using satellite altimeter data from 1996 to 2012 at a deep water (water depth~3500 m) buoy location (15.5°N, 69...

  18. Born-Infeld magnetars: larger than classical toroidal magnetic fields and implications for gravitational-wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jonas P.; Coelho, Jaziel G.; de Lima, Rafael C. R.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetars are neutron stars presenting bursts and outbursts of X- and soft-gamma rays that can be understood with the presence of very large magnetic fields. In this setting, nonlinear electrodynamics should be taken into account for a more accurate description of such compact systems. We study that in the context of ideal magnetohydrodynamics and make a realization of our analysis to the case of the well known Born-Infeld (BI) electromagnetism in order to come up with some of its astrophysical consequences. We focus here on toroidal magnetic fields as motivated by already known magnetars with low dipolar magnetic fields and their expected relevance in highly magnetized stars. We show that BI electrodynamics leads to larger toroidal magnetic fields when compared to Maxwell's electrodynamics. Hence, one should expect higher production of gravitational waves (GWs) and even more energetic giant flares from nonlinear stars. Given current constraints on BI's scale field, giant flare energetics and magnetic fields in magnetars, we also find that the maximum magnitude of magnetar ellipticities should be 10^{-6}-10^{-5}. Besides, BI electrodynamics may lead to a maximum increase of order 10-20% of the GW energy radiated from a magnetar when compared to Maxwell's, while much larger percentages may arise for other physically motivated scenarios. Thus, nonlinear theories of the electromagnetism might also be probed in the near future with the improvement of GW detectors.

  19. The Astronomy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2012-05-01

    {\\bf The Astronomy Workshop} (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, professional astronomers, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses as well as more specialized classes for undergraduate majors and graduate students. Here we briefly describe a few of the available tools. {\\bf Solar Systems Visualizer}: The orbital motions of planets, moons, and asteroids in the Solar System as well as many of the planets in exoplanetary systems are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Zoom in from the chaotic outer satellite systems of the giant planets all the way to their innermost ring systems. {\\bf Solar System Calculators}: These tools calculate a user-defined mathematical expression simultaneously for all of the Solar System's planets (Planetary Calculator) or moons (Satellite Calculator). Key physical and orbital data are automatically accessed as needed. {\\bf Stellar Evolution}: The "Life of the Sun" tool animates the history of the Sun as a movie, showing students how the size and color of our star has evolved and will evolve over billions of years. In "Star Race," the user selects two stars of different masses and watches their evolution in a split-screeen format that emphasizes the great differences in stellar lifetimes and fates.

  20. Alaska Satellite Facility: The Quest to Stay Ahead of the Big Data Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle-Hamer, A. L.; Nicoll, J.; Munk, S.

    2014-12-01

    Big Data is getting bigger. Fast enough is getting faster. The number and type of products produced is growing. The ideas on how to handle the day-to-day management of data and data systems need to scale with the data and the demand. We have seen the effects of rapid growth spurts at the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) and anticipate we are not done yet. Looking back, ASF was conceived in 1982 to be a single-purpose imaging radar receiving station supporting a science team focused on geophysical processes. The primary construction at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) was completed in 1988 and full operational status achieved in 1991. The expected supports were estimated at 10 minutes per day and quickly grew to 70 minutes per day. In 1994, a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between NASA and UAF formed the ASF Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) complementing, the existing agreement for ASF. The demand for the use of ASF as a receiving station and as a data center grew as fast as, and at times faster, than the capabilities. Looking forward, as demand drives the system larger just adding on more of the same often complicates rather than simplifies the system. A growing percentage of efforts and resources spent on dealing with problems that originate from a legacy system can creep up on an organization. This in turn limits the ability to keep the overall sustaining costs under control and leads to a crisis. Such growth means more-of-the-same philosophy has to shift into change-or-die philosophy in order to boot strap up to the next level. In this talk, we review how ASF has faced this several times in the past as the volume and demand of data grew along with the technology to acquire and disseminate it. We will look at what is coming for ASF as a data center and what we think are the next steps to stay ahead of the Big Data wave.

  1. Extragalactic astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sersic, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    This book condenses the author's yearly semester lectures on 'Extra galactic Astronomy' held almost without interruption over two decades at Cordoba University for students of Astronomy. After a first chapter on Morphology and Classification of galaxies, the second gives most of the basic information about normal galaxies as individuals. Active galaxies are described in chapter III whilst chapter IV deals with the mutual relationship between galaxies and their environment. The Scale of distance is considered in chapter V. Distance indicators are introduced and several conflicting viewpoints of different schools are presented. Chapter VI deals with Cosmology, just to give the necessary elements for chapter VII where the relation between gravitational instability and galaxy formation is discussed. Chapter VIII is an appendix containing additional notes. (Auth.)

  2. Quasi-biennial variation of equatorial waves as seen in satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zeyu

    The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in zonal winds in the lower stratosphere at the Equator is the most prominent inter-annual variation signal in the middle atmosphere. Theoretically, it is driven by the drag from the damping of equatorial waves including the equatorially trapped planetary scale waves, such as Kelvin waves propagating eastward and Rossby-gravity waves propagating westward, inertio-gravity waves and gravity waves. In current research, the tem-perature data collected by the SABER/TIMED mission in 2002-2009 are used to investigate the equatorial waves activities. The Fast Fourier Synoptic Mapping (FFSM) method is applied to delineate planetary wave components with the zonal wavenumber spanning over -6 to +6, hereby, positive (negative) wavenumber is assigned to westward (eastward) propagating waves. Limited by the SABER/TIMED sampling scheme, only the waves with periods longer than one day can be resolved. Focusing on the height region 70-10 hPa where the QBO signal is most significant, it is clearly observed that the composite activity of all the eastward waves exhibit QBO like variation. Specifically, for each QBO cycle, the activity at 50 hPa level is characterized by the occurrence of a substantially clear minimum that coincides to the fast downward propagation of the westerly phase, the typical pattern of the QBO phenomenon. Phase speed spectra are derived by using the FFSM analysis results. And vertical shear of the zonal wind is derived by using the rawinsonde data at Singapore. Comparison of the phase speed spectra and the wind shear indicates that the minimum is due to the westerly shear below 30 hPa. Between the minimum, significant wave activities emerge, thus the property for the components are investigated. Results show that in height range 70-10 hPa, both wave 1 to wave 3 are prominent during the inter-minimum period for each QBO cycle. At 50 hPa level, wave 1 component exhibits amplitude spectral peak at three kinds of period, 8, 11

  3. Chaco astronomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    This presentation discusses the result of 18 years of ethnographic and ethnohistorical studies on Chaco astronomies. The main features of the systems of astronomical knowledge of the Chaco Aboriginal groups will be discussed. In particular we will discuss the relevance of the Milky Way, the role of the visibility of the Pleiades, the ways in which the celestial space is represented, the constitution of astronomical orientations in geographic space, etc. We also address a key feature of their vision of the cosmos: the universe is seen by these groups as a socio-cosmos, where humans and non-humans are related. These are therefore actually socio-cosmologies. We will link this to the theories of Chaco Aboriginal groups about power and political relations.We will discuss how the study of Aboriginal astronomies must be performed along with the studies about astronomies of Creole people and European migrants, as well as anthropological studies about the science teaching in the formal education system and by the mass media. In this form we will discuss the relevance of a very complex system of interethnic relations for the conformation of these astronomical representations and practices.We will also discuss the general methodological implications of this case for the ethnoastronomy studies. In particular we will talk about the advantages of a study of regional scope and about the key importance of put in contact the ethnoastronomy with contemporary issues in social sciences.We also analyze the importance of ethnoastronomy studies in relation to studies of sociology of science, especially astronomy. We also study the potential impact on improving formal and informal science curricula and in shaping effective policies to protect the tangible and intangible astronomical heritage in a context of respect for the rights of Aboriginal groups.

  4. Inuit Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John

    Inuit live mainly in the treeless Arctic regions of North America, Greenland, and parts of northeastern Siberia. Their cosmology, based on shamanistic belief, constructed a view of the sky and its contents distinctively suited to their spiritual and pragmatic needs. Their astronomy, particularly for those groups living far above the Arctic Circle, reflects the unique appearance of the celestial sphere at high northerly latitudes, demonstrated most noticeably in the annual disappearance of the sun during midwinter months.

  5. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  6. Characterizing Global Flood Wave Travel Times to Optimize the Utility of Near Real-Time Satellite Remote Sensing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. H.; David, C. H.; Andreadis, K. M.; Emery, C. M.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observing satellites provide valuable near real-time (NRT) information about flood occurrence and magnitude worldwide. This NRT information can be used in early flood warning systems and other flood management applications to save lives and mitigate flood damage. However, these NRT products are only useful to early flood warning systems if they are quickly made available, with sufficient time for flood mitigation actions to be implemented. More specifically, NRT data latency, or the time period between the satellite observation and when the user has access to the information, must be less than the time it takes a flood to travel from the flood observation location to a given downstream point of interest. Yet the paradigm that "lower latency is always better" may not necessarily hold true in river systems due to tradeoffs between data latency and data quality. Further, the existence of statistical breaks in the global distribution of flood wave travel time (i.e. a jagged statistical distribution) would represent preferable latencies for river-observation NRT remote sensing products. Here we present a global analysis of flood wave velocity (i.e. flow celerity) and travel time. We apply a simple kinematic wave model to a global hydrography dataset and calculate flow wave celerity and travel time during bankfull flow conditions. Bankfull flow corresponds to the condition of maximum celerity and thus we present the "worst-case scenario" minimum flow wave travel time. We conduct a similar analysis with respect to the time it takes flood waves to reach the next downstream city, as well as the next downstream reservoir. Finally, we conduct these same analyses, but with regards to the technical capabilities of the planned Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, which is anticipated to provide waterbody elevation and extent measurements at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. We validate these results with discharge records from paired

  7. Fundamental astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, Pekka; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Now in its sixth edition this successful undergraduate textbook gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The chapters on galactic and extragalactic astronomy as well as cosmology were extensively modernized in the previous edition. In this new edition they have been further revised to include more recent results. The long chapter on the solar system has been split into two parts: the first one deals with the general properties, and the other one describes individual objects. A new chapter on exoplanets has been added to the end of the book next to the chapter on astrobiology. In response to the fact that astronomy has evolved enormously over the last few years, only a few chapters of this book have been left unmodified. Long considered a standard text for physical science maj...

  8. Humanising Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, S.

    2008-06-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that aims to expose underprivileged children (in the age group 4-10) to the inspirational aspects of astronomy. We are currently at the stage of developing materials that will be utilised in a diverse range of environments. This paper explores UNAWE's particular approach to developing tools which includes not only indigenous and folkloric astronomical knowledge, but also the culture of transmission of such knowledge. A specific understanding and explanation of the Universe, the Sun, Moon and stars is present in every culture and can be found contained in its history, legends and belief systems. By consciously embracing different ways of knowing the Universe and not uniquely the rational model, UNAWE places the humanising potential of astronomy at the centre of its purpose. Whilst inspiring curiosity, pride and a sense of ownership in one's own cultural identity, such an approach also exposes children to the diversity of other peoples and their cultures as well as the unifying aspects of our common scientific heritage. The means of creating and delivering the astronomy programme are as relevant to the desired educational outcomes as the content. The challenge in the design of materials is to communicate this stimulating message to the very young. Respect for alternative values systems, the need for dialogue and community participation, and where possible the production of materials using local resources is emphasised. This paper touches recent experiences liaising with communities in India, South Africa, Tunisia, Venezuela and Colombia.

  9. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna-DECIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Seiji; Nakamura, Takashi; Ando, Masaki

    2006-01-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. It aims at detecting various kinds of gravitational waves between 1 mHz and 100 Hz frequently enough to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. The pre-conceptual design of DECIGO consists of three drag-free satellites, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch DECIGO in 2024 after a long and intense development phase, including two pathfinder missions for verification of required technologies

  10. Properties of ELF electromagnetic waves in and above the earth's ionosphere deduced from plasma wave experiments on the OV1-17 and Ogo 6 satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Mozer, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of ac electric field data obtained on board the OV1-17 satellite and ac magnetic field data obtained on board the Ogo 6 satellite has been made during the northern hemisphere spring and summer of 1969 with the purpose of studying extreme low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic waves above the earth's ionosphere. The results are in basic agreement with a number of previous ground-based and low-altitude satellite experiments in that the peak signal was observed at high latitudes outside the statistical location of the plasmapause on the day side of the earth, that ELF chorus was very often observed in conjunction with the steady ELF hiss emissions, that the winter hemisphere signal was considerably smaller than that observed in summer or in equinoctial months, and that the emission strength and region of occurrence are asymmetric about magnetic noon. Observations of such strong hiss signals outside the plasmasphere are somewhat surprising in light of Ogo 3 and Ogo 5 measurements which show steady ELF hiss to be closely confined to the plasmasphere at high altitudes during normal circumstances. The present study supports the hypothesis that hiss leaks out of the plasmasphere and refracts downward into the lower ionosphere; such a model predicts the observed summer-winter asymmetry and the poleward skewing of the ELF peak signal strength with decreasing altitude

  11. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1962-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 1 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This book is divided into five chapters and begins with an observational summary of the shock-wave theory of novae. The subsequent chapter provides the properties and problems of T tauri stars and related objects. These topics are followed by discussions on the structure and origin of meteorites and cosmic dust, as well as the models for evaluation of mass distribution in oblate stellar systems. The final chapter describes the methods of polarization mea

  12. Astronomy stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Rhoda

    2015-03-01

    For many years I have taught physics and astronomy courses to liberal arts students. I have found most of my students to be intelligent and diligent, but not anxious to study science. They typically take the class only because their degree requires a science course. Many arrive having already decided they will not be able to do the math or understand the scientific concepts, and have essentially built a wall between themselves and science. In the 1990s, in an effort to help break down that wall, as part of an NSF-supported course, "The Evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life," I began using creative writing assignments.

  13. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  14. Scientific Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    noise signal level exceeds 10 times the normal background. EXPERIMENTS FOR SATELLITE ASTRONOMY 615 ANTENNA MONOPOLE -., PREAMPLFE = BANDPASS-FILTER...OUTPUT TO AND DETECTOR TELEMETRYCHANNELS (18) CALIBRATION NOISE MATRIX CLOCK NOISE SOURCE ’ON’ SOURCE COMMAND F ROM PROGRAMERP ANTENNA MONOPOLE FIGURE 13...Animal Tempera- ture Sensing for Studying the Effect of Prolonged Orbital Flight on the Circadian Rhythms of Pocket Mice . Unmanned Spacecraft Meeting

  15. Millimeter wave propagation modeling of inhomogeneous rain media for satellite communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, R. R.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical propagation model that represents the scattering properties of an inhomogeneous rain often found on a satellite communications link is presented. The model includes the scattering effects of an arbitrary distribution of particle type (rain or ice), particle shape, particle size, and particle orientation within a given rain cell. An associated rain propagation prediction program predicts attenuation, isolation and phase shift as a function of ground rain rate. A frequency independent synthetic storm algorithm is presented that models nonuniform rain rates present on a satellite link. Antenna effects are included along with a discussion of rain reciprocity. The model is verified using the latest available multiple frequency data from the CTS and COMSTAR satellites. The data covers a wide range of frequencies, elevation angles, and ground site locations.

  16. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  17. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  18. Elementary astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, J.

    2006-08-01

    In developing nations such as Mexico, basic science education has scarcely improved. There are multiple reasons for this problem; they include poor teacher training and curricula that are not challenging for students. I shall suggest ways in which astronomy can be used to improve basic education, it is so attractive that it can be employed to teach how to read and write, learn a second language, mathematics, physics, as well as geography. If third world nations do not teach science in an adequate way, they will be in serious problems when they will try to achieve a better standard of living for their population. I shall also address informal education, it is by this means that most adults learn and keep up to date with subjects that are not their specialty. If we provide good outreach programs in developing nations we can aid adult training; astronomy is ideal since it is particularly multidisciplinary. In particular radio and television programs are useful for popularization since they reach such wide audiences.

  19. Wave Structures in Thermospheric Density from Satellite Electrostatic Triaxial Accelerometer Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-04

    Testud , J. (1970) Gravity waves generated diring magnetic substorms, .1. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 32:1793. .6 t9, "-€ according to their horizontal...auroral oval during polar substorms, J. Geophys. Res., 74:5721. 7. Testud , J. P., Amayenc, P., and Blanc, M. (1975) Middle and low latitude effects of...1730. 13. Bertin, F.J., Testud , J., Kersley, L., and Rees, P. R. (1978) The meteorological jet stream as a source of medium scale gravity waves in

  20. ISII-II satellite observations during Siple Station very-low-frequency wave-injection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.F.; Katsufrakis, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    One of the critical scientific objectives of space plasma physics is to understand the processes that couple distinct parts of the Earth's plasma environment, such as the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere. An important source of coupling between the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere is the flux of energetic particles which are precipitated from the Earth's radiation belts through interactions with both natural and manmade very-low-frequency (VLE) waves. One of the goals of this study is to understand a newly discovered phenomenon in which high-amplitude electrostatic waves are stimulated by electromagnetic VLF whistler-mode waves propagating at low altitudes (less than 8,000 kilometers) (Bell and Ngo in press a). This phenomenon is very common at all latitudes, and theoretical models (Bell and Ngo in press b) indicate that the electrostatic waves are stimulated when the input electromagnetic waves scatter from small scale (less than 100 meters) magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. It is believed that the stimulated electrostatic waves produce enhanced pitch angle scattering of energetic radiation belt particles, resulting in enhanced particle precipitation. The precipitated flux produces plasma density enhancements in the ionosphere, and upward diffusion of thermal plasma from the regions of enhanced ionospheric plasma density creates additional magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities in the magnetosphere

  1. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  2. Distinguishing Alfven waves from quasi-static field structures associated with the discrete aurora: Sounding rocket and HILAT satellite measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, D.J.; Kelley, M.C.; Earle, G.D.; Vickrey, J.F.; Boehm, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present and analyze sounding rocket and HILAT satellite measurements of the low frequency ( 0 in the auroral oval. By examining the time-domain field data it is often difficult to distinguish temporal fluctuations from static structures which are Doppler shifted to a non-zero frequency in the spacecraft frame. However, they show that such a distinction can be made by constructing the impedance function Z(f). Using Z(f) they find agreement with the static field interpretation below about 0.1 Hz in the spacecraft frame, i.e. Z(f) = Σ p -1 where Σ p is the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity of the ionosphere. About 0.1 Hz the authors find Z(f) > Σ p -1 , which they argue to be due to the presence of Alfven waves incident from the magnetosphere and reflecting from the lower ionosphere, forming a standing wave pattern. These waves may represent an electromagnetic coupling mechanism between the auroral acceleration region and the ionosphere

  3. Pulsar astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.; Graham-Smith, F.

    1990-01-01

    This account of the properties of pulsars tells an exciting story of discovery in modern astronomy. Pulsars, discovered in 1967, now take their place in a very wide range of astrophysics. They are one of the endpoints of stellar evolution, in which the core of a star collapses to a rapidly spinning neutron star a few kilometres in size. This book is an introductory account for those entering the field. It introduces the circumstances of the discovery and gives an overview of pulsar astrophysics. There are chapters on search techniques, distances, pulse timing, the galactic population of pulsars, binary and millisecond pulsars, geometry and physics of the emission regions, and applications to the interstellar medium. An important feature of this book is the inclusion of an up-to-date catalogue of all known pulsars. (author)

  4. TeachAstronomy.com - Digitizing Astronomy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Impey, C. D.; Austin, C.; Patikkal, A.; Paul, M.; Ganesan, N.

    2013-06-01

    Teach Astronomy—a new, free online resource—can be used as a teaching tool in non-science major introductory college level astronomy courses, and as a reference guide for casual learners and hobbyists. Digital content available on Teach Astronomy includes: a comprehensive introductory astronomy textbook by Chris Impey, Wikipedia astronomy articles, images from Astronomy Picture of the Day archives and (new) AstroPix database, two to three minute topical video clips by Chris Impey, podcasts from 365 Days of Astronomy archives, and an RSS feed of astronomy news from Science Daily. Teach Astronomy features an original technology called the Wikimap to cluster, display, and navigate site search results. Development of Teach Astronomy was motivated by steep increases in textbook prices, the rapid adoption of digital resources by students and the public, and the modern capabilities of digital technology. This past spring semester Teach Astronomy was used as content supplement to lectures in a massive, open, online course (MOOC) taught by Chris Impey. Usage of Teach Astronomy has been steadily growing since its initial release in August of 2012. The site has users in all corners of the country and is being used as a primary teaching tool in at least four states.

  5. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Jordan Vannitsen. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 38 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 70 Research Article. A Satellite Data Analysis and CubeSat Instrument Simulator Tool for Simultaneous Multi-spacecraft Measurements of Solar ...

  6. Grain investigation by the help of satellite observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedemann, C.

    1988-01-01

    Interstellar grains are investigated by the help of satellite observatories taking into account extraterrestrical ultraviolet observations, infrared astronomy by the help of orbiting cooled telescopes, observed ultraviolet properties of interstellar grains, and consequences of infrared astronomy for dust investigation

  7. Link between EMIC waves in a plasmaspheric plume and a detached sub-auroral proton arc with observations of Cluster and IMAGE satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhigang; Deng, Xiaohua; Lin, Xi; Pang, Ye; Zhou, Meng; Décréau, P. M. E.; Trotignon, J. G.; Lucek, E.; Frey, H. U.; Wang, Jingfang

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we report observations from a Cluster satellite showing that ULF wave occurred in the outer boundary of a plasmaspheric plume on September 4, 2005. The band of observed ULF waves is between the He+ ion gyrofrequency and O+ ion gyrofrequency at the equatorial plane, implying that those ULF waves can be identified as EMIC waves generated by ring current ions in the equatorial plane and strongly affected by rich cold He+ ions in plasmaspheric plumes. During the interval of observed EMIC waves, the footprint of Cluster SC3 lies in a subauroral proton arc observed by the IMAGE FUV instrument, demonstrating that the subauroral proton arc was caused by energetic ring current protons scattered into the loss cone under the Ring Current (RC)-EMIC interaction in the plasmaspheric plume. Therefore, the paper provides a direct proof that EMIC waves can be generated in the plasmaspheric plume and scatter RC ions to cause subauroral proton arcs.

  8. Ocean surface waves and winds over the north Indian Ocean from satellite altimeter - preliminary results of SAC-NIO joint project

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Rajkumar, R.; Gairola, R.M.; Gohil, B.S.; Vethamony, P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    the respective correlation coefficients. Preliminary results with limited processed data showed that the correlation coefficients are approximately 0.6. Sample maps of wave and wind (satellite derived) in 2.5 degrees x 2.5 degrees grids have been prepared...

  9. Teaching and Learning Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John

    2009-07-01

    Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World: Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns; 7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights: astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface; 11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights: educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface; 18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar; 19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy: Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide Craig and Isabel

  10. Binocular astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Binoculars have, for many, long been regarded as an “entry level” observational tool, and relatively few have used them as a serious observing instrument. This is changing! Many people appreciate the relative comfort of two-eyed observing, but those who use binoculars come to realize that they offer more than comfort. The view of the stars is more aesthetically pleasing and therefore binocular observers tend to observe more frequently and for longer periods. Binocular Astronomy, 2nd Edition, extends its coverage of small and medium binoculars to large and giant (i.e., up to 300mm aperture) binoculars and also binoviewers, which brings the work into the realm of serious observing instruments. Additionally, it goes far deeper into the varying optical characteristics of binoculars, giving newcomers and advanced astronomers the information needed to make informed choices on purchasing a pair. It also covers relevant aspects of the physiology of binocular (as in “both eyes”) observation. The first edition ...

  11. Astronomy in the City for Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.; Garc, Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Astronomy is part of our culture. Astronomy cannot be isolated in a classroom, it has to be integrated in the normal life of teachers and students. ``Astronomy in the city'' is an important part of NASE (Network for Astronomy School Education) (Ros & Hemenway 2012). In each NASE course we introduce a ``working group session'' chaired by a local expert in cultural astronomy. The chair introduces several examples of astronomy in their city and after that, the participants have the opportunity to discuss and mention several similar examples. After this session all participants visit one or two sites proposed and introduced by the chair. After more than 5 years using this method we visited and discovered several examples of astronomy in the city: •Astronomy in ancient typical clothes. •Archaeological temples oriented according to the sunrise or set. •Petroglyphs with astronomical meaning. •Astronomy in monuments. •Sundials. •Oriented Colonial churches. •Astronomy in Souvenirs. In any case, teachers and students discover that Astronomy is part of their everyday life. They can take into account the Sun's path when they park their car or when they take a bus ``what is the best part in order to be seat in the shadow during the journey?'' The result is motivation to go with ``open eyes'' when they are in the street and they try to get more and more information about their surroundings. In summary, one of the main activities is to introduce local cultural aspects in NASE astronomy courses. The participants can discover a new approach to local culture from an astronomical point of view.

  12. Innovation in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing

  13. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  14. EMIC waves observed by the low-altitude satellite DEMETER during the November 2004 magnetic storm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Píša, David; Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Menietti, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 7 (2015), s. 5455-5464 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12231 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100421206 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : DEMETER * EMIC waves * geomagnetic storm Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020233/full

  15. A Combined Time Domain Impedance Probe And Plasma Wave Receiver System For Small Satellite Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, E. A.; Clark, D. C.; Vadepu, S. K.; Patra, S.

    2017-12-01

    A Time Domain Impedance Probe (TDIP) measures electron density and electron neutral collision frequencies in the ionosphere. This instrument has been tested on a sounding rocket flight and is now being further developed to fly on a NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Program (USIP) cubesat to be launched out of the ISS in 2019. Here we report on the development of a new combined TDIP and plasma wave instrument that can be used on cubesat platforms to measure local electron parameters, and also to receive or transmit electron scale waves. This combined instrument can be used to study short time and space scale phenomena in the upper ionosphere using only RF signals. The front end analog circuitry is dual-purposed to perform active or passive probing of the ambient plasma. Two dipole antennas are used, one is optimzed for impedance measurements, while the other is optimized for transmitter-receiver performance. We show our circuit realization, and initial results from laboratory measurements using the TDIP prototype modified for receiver function. We also show Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations of an electrically long antenna immersed in a magnetized plasma used to optimize the transmitter receiver performance.

  16. A General Approach to Enhance Short Wave Satellite Imagery by Removing Background Atmospheric Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Scheirer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric interaction distorts the surface signal received by a space-borne instrument. Images derived from visible channels appear often too bright and with reduced contrast. This hampers the use of RGB imagery otherwise useful in ocean color applications and in forecasting or operational disaster monitoring, for example forest fires. In order to correct for the dominant source of atmospheric noise, a simple, fast and flexible algorithm has been developed. The algorithm is implemented in Python and freely available in PySpectral which is part of the PyTroll family of open source packages, allowing easy access to powerful real-time image-processing tools. Pre-calculated look-up tables of top of atmosphere reflectance are derived by off-line calculations with RTM DISORT as part of the LibRadtran package. The approach is independent of platform and sensor bands, and allows it to be applied to any band in the visible spectral range. Due to the use of standard atmospheric profiles and standard aerosol loads, it is possible just to reduce the background disturbance. Thus signals from excess aerosols become more discernible. Examples of uncorrected and corrected satellite images demonstrate that this flexible real-time algorithm is a useful tool for atmospheric correction.

  17. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. NAGENDRA KUMAR. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 29 Issue 1-2 March-June 2008 pp 243-248. Damping of Slow Magnetoacoustic Waves in an Inhomogeneous Coronal Plasma · Nagendra Kumar Pradeep ...

  18. The high energy astronomy observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  19. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  20. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  1. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Akshaya Rane1 2 Duncan Lorimer1 2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA. Center for Gravitational Waves and Cosmology, Chestnut Ridge Research Building, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.

  2. Attenuation of electromagnetic waves at the frequency ~1.7 kHz in the upper ionosphere observed by the DEMETER satellite in the vicinity of earthquakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Píša, David; Němec, F.; Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2012), s. 157-163 ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09107; GA ČR GA205/09/1253 Grant - others:European Community(XE) FP7:262005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : DEMETER satellite * pre- seismic activity * statistical study * waves and wave analysis Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2012 http://www.annalsofgeophysics.eu/index.php/annals/article/view/5276

  3. Investigating the Role of Gravity Wave on Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities using SABER and C/NOFS Satellites Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, M.; Damtie, B.; Moldwin, M.; Yizengaw, E.; Tesema, F.; Tebabal, A.

    2017-12-01

    Theoretical simulations have shown that gravity wave (GW) seeded perturbations amplified by Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) results in ESF (equatorial spread F); however, there have been limited observational studies using simultaneous observations of GW and ionospheric parameters. In this paper, for the fist time, simultaneous atmospheric temperature perturbation profiles that are due to GWs obtained from Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on-board the TIMED satellite and equatorial in -situ ion density and vertical plasma drift velocity observations with and without ESF activity obtained from C/NOFS satellites are used to investigate the effect of GW on the generation of ESF. The horizontal and vertical wavelengths of ionospheric oscillations and GWs respectively have been estimated applying wavelet transforms. Cross wavelet analysis has also been applied between two closely observed profiles of temperature perturbations to estimate the horizontal wavelength of the GWs. Moreover, vertically propagating GWs that dissipate energy at the upper atmosphere have been investigated using spectral analysis compared with theoretical results. The analysis show that when the ion density shows strong post sunset irregularity between 20 and 24 LT, vertically upward drift velocities increase between 17 and 19 LT, but it becomes vertically downward when the ion density shows smooth variation. The horizontal wavelengths estimated from C/NOFS and SABER observations show excellent agreement when ion density observations show strong fluctuations; otherwise, they have poor agreement. It is also found that altitude profiles of potential energy of GW increases up to 90 km and then decreases significantly. It is found that the vertical wavelength of GW, corresponding to the dominant spectral power, ranges from about 7 km to 20 km regardless of the situation of the ionosphere; however, GWs with vertical wavelengths between 100 m to 1 km are found to

  4. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Current interest in gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 100 GeV comes from the identification of Cygnus X-3 and other X-ray binaries as sources. In addition there are reports of emission from radio pulsars and a variety of other objects. The statistical significance of many of the observations is not high and many reported effects await confirmation, but there are a sufficient number of independent reports that very high energy gamma-ray astronomy must now be considered to have an observational basis. The observations are summarized with particular emphasis on those reported since 1980. The techniques used - the detection of small air showers using the secondary photons and particles at ground level - are unusual and are described. Future prospects for the field are discussed in relation to new ground-based experiments, satellite gamma-ray studies and proposed neutrino astronomy experiments. (orig.) With 296 refs

  5. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  6. The purpose of astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Davoust, Emmanuel

    1995-01-01

    This is a presentation of the purpose of astronomy in the context of modern society. After exposing two misconceptions about astronomy, I detail its role in five domains, certified knowledge, incorporated abilities, innovations, collective goods, and popular science; with each domain is associated an institution, an incentive, and a method of evaluation. Finally, I point out the role of astronomy as a source of inspiration in other fields than science.

  7. Space and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Some daring explorers like to study distant frontiers by venturing out into them, but others prefer to study them by bringing them, or representative samples, a little closer to the lab. Both options are pursued in the fields of space and astronomy. Space exploration and astronomy are intricately linked and are examined in-depth in this guide. Dedicated to the scientists who explore the frontiers of space and astronomy-and the results of their unfamiliar findings-each chapter in Space and Astronomy explores one of the frontiers of this science. The development of technology, such as rocket pro

  8. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Mann, I. R.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Haagmans, R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2015-10-01

    We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time-frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction near the dayside noon-midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT) onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  9. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22–100 mHz and Pc4-5 (1–22 mHz ultra-low-frequency (ULF waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time–frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT conjunction near the dayside noon–midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  10. Astronomy on Tap: science engagement in the pub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy on Tap is a series of free lectures by astronomers in the pub, aimed at disseminating the latest research to the public in an informal setting. Started in New York City in 2013, Astronomy on Tap has now expanded to seven cities across North and South America. Organized by local astronomers, each event features talks by astronomers from local institutions or visitors, or others whose professions or hobbies intersect with astronomy, along with games and opportunities for the public to interact with professional astronomers. The largest Astronomy on Tap events are in Austin, Texas, attracting over 150 people each month, which consists of populations outside of the self-selected groups that might be reached by more formal EPO activities. The organisers of Astronomy on Tap in Austin (AoTATX) will discuss the impact of and feedback from all of the locations, and present information on setting up new satellite locations.

  11. Japanese space gravitational wave antenna DECIGO and DPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musha, Mitsuru

    2017-11-01

    The gravitational wave detection will open a new gravitational wave astronomy, which gives a fruitful insight about early universe or birth and death of stars. In order to detect gravitational wave, we planed a space gravitational wave detector, DECIGO (DECi-heltz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory), which consists of three drag-free satellites forming triangle shaped Fabry-Perot laser interferometer with the arm length of 1000 km, and whose strain sensitivity is designed to be 2x10-24 /√Hz around 0.1 Hz. Before launching DECIGO around 2030, a milestone mission named DECIGO pathfinder (DPF) is planed to be launched whose main purpose is the feasibility test of the key technologies for DECIGO. In the present paper, the conceptual design and current status of DECIGO and DPF are reviewed.

  12. Astronomy at the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roten, Robert; Constantin, A.; Christensen, E.; Dick, E.; Lapolla, J.; Nutter, A.; Corcoran, J.; DiDomenico, N.; Eskridge, B.; Saikin, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present here an energetic grass-roots outreach program run entirely by undergraduate physics and astronomy majors at James Madison University. Our "Team Awestronomy" takes Astronomy out to the Market, literally. Once a month, for eight months during the academic year, the group sets up a “scientific corner” at the Harrisonburg Farmers Market, offering people the chance to meet with astrophysicists (in the making) and discuss science. Our group members wear t-shirts with simple messages like “Ask me about the Sun,” “...about Black Holes and Mega-Masers” or “...about Big Bang” that initiate the dialog. We help our audience with observations of solar activity through our department’s Coronado telescope equipped with a safe H-alpha filter, sunspotters, and the incredibly simple yet durable and accurate handheld (Project Star) spectrometers, and invite them to the free Saturday Planetarium shows and the star parties hosted by our department on the JMU campus. The team is also prepared with a suite of fun activities aimed particularly at K-5 kids, e.g., building (and eating, after investigating out-gassing properties of) ”dirty comets,” making craters (in pans with flour or sand) and testing how different types of impactors (pebbles, ping-pong balls or even crumpled aluminum foil) affect crater formation, and demonstrations of shock wave created in supernova explosions. The main goals of this outreach program are: 1) to illustrate to people of all ages that science is a fun, creative, and exciting process; 2) to empower people to be curious and to ask questions; 3) to demonstrate that science is a viable career path chosen by many diverse individuals; and 4) to nurture a sense of wonder and awe for the Universe. While this outreach program is aimed at a very general audience, of an extremely wide range, we expect to produce a significant impact on K-12 students in general and in particular on the home-schooled kids. There is a relatively high

  13. Indian Astronomy: History of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  14. Astronomy in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Valério A. R. M.; Paulo, Cláudio M.

    2015-03-01

    We present the state of Astronomy in Mozambique and how it has evolved since 2009 following the International Year of Astronomy. Activities have been lead by staff at University Eduardo Mondlane and several outreach activities have also flourished. In 2010 the University introduced its first astronomy module, Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics, for the second year students in the Department of Physics. The course has now produced the first students who will be graduating in late 2012 with some astronomy content. Some of these students will now be looking for further studies and those who have been keen in astronomy have been recommended to pursue this as a career. At the university level we have also discussed on the possibility to introduce a whole astronomy course by 2016 which falls well within the HCD that the university is now investing in. With the announcement that the SKA will be split between South Africa with its partner countries (including Mozambique), and Australia we have been working closely with the Ministry of Science and Technology to make astronomy a priority on its agenda. In this respect, an old telecommunications antenna is being converted by the South Africa SKA Project Office, and donated to Mozambique for educational purposes. It will be situated in Maluana, Mozambique.

  15. Extragalactic infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-05-01

    The paper concerns the field of Extragalactic Infrared Astronomy, discussed at the Fourth RAL Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Fifteen papers were presented on infrared emission from extragalactic objects. Both ground-(and aircraft-) based and IRAS infrared data were reviewed. The topics covered star formation in galaxies, active galactic nuclei and cosmology. (U.K.)

  16. Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

    In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes

  17. Five-day planetary waves in the middle atmosphere from Odin satellite data and ground-based instruments in Northern Hemisphere summer 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that 5-day planetary waves modulate noctilucent clouds and the closely related Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE at the summer mesopause. Summer stratospheric winds should inhibit wave propagation through the stratosphere and, although some numerical models (Geisler and Dickinson, 1976 do show a possibility for upward wave propagation, it has also been suggested that the upward propagation may in practice be confined to the winter hemisphere with horizontal propagation of the wave from the winter to the summer hemisphere at mesosphere heights causing the effects observed at the summer mesopause. It has further been proposed (Garcia et al., 2005 that 5-day planetary waves observed in the summer mesosphere could be excited in-situ by baroclinic instability in the upper mesosphere. In this study, we first extract and analyze 5-day planetary wave characteristics on a global scale in the middle atmosphere (up to 54 km in temperature, and up to 68 km in ozone concentration using measurements by the Odin satellite for selected days during northern hemisphere summer from 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2007. Second, we show that 5-day temperature fluctuations consistent with westward-traveling 5-day waves are present at the summer mesopause, using local ground-based meteor-radar observations. Finally we examine whether any of three possible sources of the detected temperature fluctuations at the summer mesopause can be excluded: upward propagation from the stratosphere in the summer-hemisphere, horizontal propagation from the winter-hemisphere or in-situ excitation as a result of the baroclinic instability. We find that in one case, far from solstice, the baroclinic instability is unlikely to be involved. In one further case, close to solstice, upward propagation in the same hemisphere seems to be ruled out. In all other cases, all or any of the three proposed mechanisms are consistent with the observations.

  18. Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Manson; C. E. Meek; T. Chshyolkova; S. K. Avery; D. Thorsen; J. W. MacDougall; W. Hocking; Y. Murayama; K. Igarashi

    2005-01-01

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40° N, 105° W) has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opp...

  19. γ ray astronomy with muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.; Stanev, T.; Yodh, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    Although γ ray showers are muon poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard γ ray spectra there is a relative open-quotes enhancementclose quotes of muons from γ ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower γ rays above the photoproduction threshold contribute to the number of muons N μ , which is thus proportional to the primary γ ray energy. With γ ray energy 50 times higher than the muon energy and a probability of muon production by the γ close-quote s of about 1%, muon detectors can match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector if their effective area is larger by 10 4 . The muons must have enough energy for sufficiently accurate reconstruction of their direction for doing astronomy. These conditions are satisfied by relatively shallow neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and Lake Baikal, and by γ ray detectors such as MILAGRO. TeV muons from γ ray primaries, on the other hand, are rare because they are only produced by higher energy γ rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy with the AMANDA, Lake Baikal, and MILAGRO detectors. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Sturani, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    We give an overview about the recent detection of gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO first and second observing runs and by Advanced Virgo, with emphasis on the prospects for multi-messenger astronomy involving neutrinos detections.

  1. Tides in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathis, Stéphane; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Based on the lecture notes of a school titled ‘Tides in Astronomy and Astrophysics’ that brought together students and researchers, this book focuses on the fundamental theories of tides at different scales of the universe—from tiny satellites to whole galaxies—and on the most recent developments. It also attempts to place the study of tides in a historical perspective. Starting with a general tutorial on tides, the theme of tides is approached in 9 chapters from many directions. They allow non-experts to pick up a physical intuition and a sense of orders of magnitude in the theory of tides. These carefully prepared lecture notes by leaders in the field include many illustrative figures and drawings. Some even offer a variety of simple back-of the-envelope problems.

  2. The Future of Space Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, George B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of space astronomy, considering advantages, the space telescope and ground-based astronomy, an orbiting astrophysics facility, solar physics, and other areas. Indicates that earth-based astronomy will continue to be carried out there and space astronomy will be limited to observations that can be carried out only from…

  3. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  4. Teaching Astronomy with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carmen; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Students today are expected to have access to computers and the Internet. Students young and old, in school and out of school, are interested in learning about astronomy, and have computers to use for this. Teach Astronomy is a website with a comprehensive digital astronomy textbook freely available to students and educators. In addition to the textbook, there are astronomy Wikipedia articles, image archives from Astronomy Picture of the Day and AstroPix, and video lectures covering all topics of astronomy. Teach Astronomy has a unique search tool called the wikimap that can be used to search through all of the resources on the site. Astronomy: State of the Art (ASOTA) is a massive, open, online course (MOOC). Over 18,000 students have enrolled over the past year and half. This MOOC has been presented in various forms. First, only to students on the web, with content released weekly on host site Udemy. Then to university students who met formally in the classroom for educational activities, but were also expected to watch lectures online on their own time. Presently, it is available online for students to go at their own pace. In the future it will be available in an extended format on a new host site, Coursera. ASOTA instructors use social media to interact with students. Students ask questions via the course host site, Udemy. Live question and answer sessions are conducted using Google Hangouts on Air, and interesting and relevant astronomy news, or supplementary educational content is shared via the ASOTA Facebook page. Teaching on the Internet may seem impersonal and impractical, but by learning to use all of these tools, instructors have the ability to interact with students, and keep them engaged.

  5. Wave activity (planetary, tidal throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS and Medium Frequency (MF radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB and satellite instruments (2000-2002. The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40° N, 105° W has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W, Platteville (40° N, 105° W, Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W, Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E. It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14° at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their

  6. Wave activity (planetary, tidal) throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km) over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS) and Medium Frequency (MF) radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S. K.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J. W.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    2005-02-01

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar) at Platteville (40° N, 105° W) has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W), Platteville (40° N, 105° W), Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W), Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E) and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E). It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their

  7. Wave activity (planetary, tidal throughout the middle atmosphere (20-100km over the CUJO network: Satellite (TOMS and Medium Frequency (MF radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Planetary and tidal wave activity in the tropopause-lower stratosphere and mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT is studied using combinations of ground-based (GB and satellite instruments (2000-2002. The relatively new MFR (medium frequency radar at Platteville (40° N, 105° W has provided the opportunity to create an operational network of middle-latitude MFRs, stretching from 81° W-142° E, which provides winds and tides 70-100km. CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity comprises systems at London (43° N, 81° W, Platteville (40° N, 105° W, Saskatoon (52° N, 107° W, Wakkanai (45° N, 142° E and Yamagawa (31° N, 131° E. It offers a significant 7000-km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14° at two longitudes. Satellite data mainly involve the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and provide a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity, as well as ozone variability.

    Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40° N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW propagation into the MLT, nonlinear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS satellite data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric

  8. Astronomy and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Hetherington, Edith

    2009-01-01

    While astronomy is a burgeoning science, with tremendous increases in knowledge every year, it also has a tremendous past, one that has altered humanity's understanding of our place in the universe. The impact of astronomy on culture - whether through myths and stories, or through challenges to the intellectual status quo - is incalculable. This volume in the Greenwood Guides to the Universe series examines how human cultures, in all regions and time periods, have tried to make sense of the wonders of the universe. Astronomy and Culture shows students how people throughout time have struggled

  9. Mathematical Astronomy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plofker, Kim

    Astronomy in South Asia's Sanskrit tradition, apparently originating in simple calendric computations regulating the timing of ancient ritual practices, expanded over the course of two or three millennia to include detailed spherical models, an endless variety of astrological systems, and academic mathematics in general. Assimilating various technical models, methods, and genres from the astronomy of neighboring cultures, Indian astronomers created new forms that were in turn borrowed by their foreign counterparts. Always recognizably related to the main themes of Eurasian geocentric mathematical astronomy, Indian astral science nonetheless maintained its culturally distinct character until Keplerian heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics replaced it in colonial South Asia's academic mainstream.

  10. Discovering Astronomy Through Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannone, John C.

    2011-05-01

    The literature is replete with astronomical references. And much of that literature is poetry. Using this fact, not only can the teacher infuse a new appreciation of astronomy, but also, the student has the opportunity to rediscover history through astronomy. Poetry can be an effective icebreaker in the introduction of new topics in physics and astronomy, as well as a point of conclusion to a lecture. This presentation will give examples of these things from the ancient literature (sacred Hebraic texts), classical literature (Homer's Iliad and Odyssey), traditional poetry (Longfellow, Tennyson and Poe) and modern literature (Frost, Kooser, and others, including the contemporary work of this author).

  11. Satellite- versus temperature-derived green wave indices for predicting the timing of spring migration of avian herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati Najafabadi, M.; Najafabadi, M.S.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.K.; Kölzsch, Andrea; Vrieling, A.; Nolet, Bart A.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Stahl, Julia; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    According to the green wave hypothesis, herbivores follow the flush of spring growth of forage plants during their spring migration to northern breeding grounds. In this study we compared two green wave indices for predicting the timing of the spring migration of avian herbivores: the

  12. Astronomy in Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M.; Bladon, G.; Russo, P.; Christensen, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    For a long time astronomers and other scientists believed that the importance of their work was evident to society. But in these difficult days of financial austerity, even the most obvious benefits of science have to undergo careful scrutiny. So, now more than ever is the time to highlight the importance of astronomy as a field in terms of its contributions to our technology, our mind sets and our lives. Here we will outline both the tangible and intangible reasons why astronomy is an important part of society. Whilst considerable attention will be given to technology and knowledge transfer from astronomy, perhaps the most important contribution outlined is the awareness that astronomy gives us of the vastness of the Universe and our place within it.

  13. 2004 ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    This publication of the Academy on Astronomy and Astrophysics is unique in ... bring out position papers on societal issues where science plays a major ..... funding agencies, the Astronomical Society of ..... orbit very close to the parent star.

  14. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  15. Astronomy in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier, A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Second Life (SL is a multi-user virtual environment that is not limited to adult social entertainment. SL is also a 3D playground for innovative instructors and education/outreach professionals in the sciences. Astronomy and space science have a presence in SL, but it could be so much more. This paper describes some of the current astronomy themed spaces in SL and briefly discusses future innovations.

  16. Wave Activity (Planetary, Tidal) throughout the Middle Atmoshere (25-100 km) over the CUJO Network: Satellite and Medium Frequency (MF) Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Chshyolkova, T.; Avery, S.; Thorsen, D.; MacDougall, J.; Hocking, W.; Murayama, Y.; Igarashi, K.

    Planetary and tidal wave activity in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT), and assessment of wave activity sources in the lower atmosphere, are studied using combinations of ground based (GB) and satellite instruments (2000-2002). CUJO (Canada U.S. Japan Opportunity) comprises MF radar (MFR) systems at London (43°N, 81°W), Platteville (40°N, 105°W), Saskatoon (52°N, 107°W), Wakkanai (45°N, 142°E) and Yamagawa (31°N, 131°E). It offers a significant mid-latitude 7,000 km longitudinal sector in the North American-Pacific region, and a useful range of latitudes (12-14°) at two longitudes. CUJO provides winds and tides 70-100km. Satellite data include the daily values of the total ozone column measured by the Earth Probe (EP) TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and provides a measure of tropopause-lower stratospheric planetary wave activity as well as ozone variability. The so-called UKMO data (an assimilation system) are used for correlative purposes with the TOMS data. Climatologies of ozone and winds/tides involving frequency versus time (wavelet) contour plots for periods from 2-d to 30-d and the interval from mid 2000 to 2002, show that the changes with altitude, longitude and latitude are very significant and distinctive. Geometric-mean wavelets for the region of the 40°N MFRs demonstrate occasions during the autumn, winter and spring months when there are similarities in the spectral features of the lower atmosphere and at mesopause (85km) heights. Both direct planetary wave (PW) propagation into the MLT, non-linear PW-tide interactions, and disturbances in MLT tides associated with fluctuations in the ozone forcing are considered to be possible coupling processes. The complex horizontal wave numbers of the longer period oscillations are provided in frequency contour plots for the TOMS and UKMO data to demonstrate the differences between lower atmospheric and MLT wave motions and their directions of propagation.

  17. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  18. Bad Astronomy Goes Hollywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plait, P.

    2003-05-01

    It can be argued that astronomy is the oldest of all the sciences, so you'd think that after all this time people would have a pretty good understanding of it. In reality, however, misconceptions about astronomy abound, and even basic concepts are misunderstood. There are many sources of these cosmic misconceptions, including incorrect textbooks, parents and/or teachers who don't understand astronomy and therefore spread misinformation, urban legends, and so on. Perhaps the most pervasive source of bad astronomy is Hollywood. Science fiction movies are enormously popular, but are commonly written and directed by people who don't have even a passing familiarity with astronomy. The smash hit "Armageddon" (the number one box office movie of 1998), for example, used vast quantities of incorrect astronomy in the plot. It reinforced such popular misconceptions as huge asteroids impacting the Earth with little warning, small meteorites being hot when they impact, air existing in space, and that a simple bomb can blow up an asteroid the size of a small moon (even when the bomb is buried only 800 feet deep!). However, movie scenes can be used as a hook that engages the student, helping them learn and remember the correct science. In this talk, I will light-heartedly discuss specific examples of common misinformation, using movie clips, diagrams, and a splash of common sense to show just where Hollywood gets it wrong, and what you can do to help students and the public get it right.

  19. Development of satellite green vegetation fraction time series for use in mesoscale modeling: application to the European heat wave 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joakim Refslund; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented for development of satellite green vegetation fraction (GVF) time series for use in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The GVF data is in the WRF model used to describe the temporal evolution of many land surface parameters, in addition to the evolution of veg...

  20. Low-Cost Planar MM-Wave Phased Array Antenna for Use in Mobile Satellite (MSAT) Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a compact 8×8 phased array antenna for mobile satellite (MSAT) devices is designed and investigated. 64-elements of 22 GHz patch antennas with coaxial-probe feeds have been used for the proposed planar design. The antenna is designed on a low-cost FR4 substrate with thickness, diel...

  1. Concluding Remarks: The Current Status and Future Prospects for GRB Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We are in a remarkable period of discovery in GRB astronomy. The current satellites including Swift, Fermi. AGILE and INTEGRAL are detecting and observing bursts of all varieties. Increasing capabilities for follow-up observations on the ground and in space are leading to rapid and deep coverage across the electromagnetic spectrum, The future will see continued operation of the current experiments and with future missions like SVOM plus possible rni_Ssions like JANUS and EXIST. An exciting expansion of capabilities is occurring in areas of gravitational waves and neutrinos that could open new windows on the GRB phenomenon. Increased IR capabilities on the ground and with missions like JWST will enable further exploration of high redshift bursts. The future is bright.

  2. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The origin of the idea of AstroSat multi wavelength satellite mission and how it evolved over the next 15 years from a concept to the successful development of instruments for giving concrete shape to this mission, is recounted in this article. AstroSat is the outcome of intense deliberations in the Indian astronomy community ...

  3. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 38; Issue 4. A Satellite Data Analysis and CubeSat Instrument Simulator Tool for Simultaneous Multi-spacecraft Measurements of Solar Energetic Particles. Jordan Vannitsen Federico Rizzitelli Kaiti Wang Boris Segret Jyh-Ching Juang Jiun-Jih Miau.

  4. Antenna architecture of a nanosatellite for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Smith, David M.P.; Boonstra, Albert Jan

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have led to the emergence of a new miniaturized satellite platforms and this opened up the path for a whole new range of applications. The Orbiting Low Frequency Antennas for Radio Astronomy (OLFAR) project is one of these applications, and aims to develop a

  5. Satellite and Ground Signatures of Kinetic and Inertial Scale ULF Alfven Waves Propagating in Warm Plasma in Earth's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Sydorenko, D.

    2015-12-01

    Results from a 3D global numerical model of Alfven wave propagation in a warm multi-species plasma in Earth's magnetosphere are presented. The model uses spherical coordinates, accounts for a non-dipole magnetic field, vertical structure of the ionosphere, and an air gap below the ionosphere. A realistic density model is used. Below the exobase altitude (2000 km) the densities and the temperatures of electrons, ions, and neutrals are obtained from the IRI and MSIS models. Above the exobase, ballistic (originating from the ionosphere and returning to ionosphere) and trapped (bouncing between two reflection points above the ionosphere) electron populations are considered similar to [Pierrard and Stegen (2008), JGR, v.113, A10209]. Plasma parameters at the exobase provided by the IRI are the boundary conditions for the ballistic electrons while the [Carpenter and Anderson (1992), JGR, v.97, p.1097] model of equatorial electron density defines parameters of the trapped electron population. In the simulations that are presented, Alfven waves with frequencies from 1 Hz to 0.01 Hz and finite azimuthal wavenumbers are excited in the magnetosphere and compared with Van Allen Probes data and ground-based observations from the CARISMA array of ground magnetometers. When short perpendicular scale waves reflect form the ionosphere, compressional Alfven waves are observed to propagate across the geomagnetic field in the ionospheric waveguide [e.g., Lysak (1999), JGR, v.104, p.10017]. Signals produced by the waves on the ground are discussed. The wave model is also applied to interpret recent Van Allen Probes observations of kinetic scale ULF waves that are associated with radiation belt electron dynamics and energetic particle injections.

  6. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  7. Data distribution in the OLFAR satellite swarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Willink-Castro, T.J.; Engelen, S.; Rajan, R.T.; Rajan, Raj; Smith, D.M.P.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Orbiting Low Frequency Antennas for Radio Astronomy (OLFAR) project aims to develop a radio telescope for very low frequencies (below 30 MHz) by using a swarm of 50 or more nano-satellites. Spread in a 100-km diameter cloud, the satellites will form a very large aperture capable of sensing the

  8. Simultaneous observations of quasi-periodic ELF/VLF wave emissions and electron precipitation by DEMETER satellite: A case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hayosh, Mykhaylo; Pasmanik, D. L.; Demekhov, A. G.; Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Titova, E. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 7 (2013), s. 4523-4533 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2280; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : quasi-periodic ELF/VLF emission s in the magnetosphere * wave-particle interactions * demeter spacecraft measurements * whistler-mode waves Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50179/abstract

  9. What next for astronomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert

    2009-12-01

    "Astronomy is in the midst of a golden age," wrote Catherine Cesarsky, my predecessor as president of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), earlier this year in Physics World (March pp22-24). I believe that is certainly true and it is an opportunity that we must take full advantage of. Astronomy is one of the great ways to bring science to the public - the images of the universe obtained using the Hubble Space Telescope, for example, are full of beauty. Astronomy is all about us. Indeed, the Earth and the life on it have developed from the cosmos, and the sky is the one laboratory that all humanity shares equally and that is accessible to all. There is little about the subject that appeals to fear - except, perhaps, the occasional killer asteroid. So what better science to inspire and educate people that what we do not know is definitely worth knowing?

  10. Astronomy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, F.; Couch, W.

    2017-12-01

    Australians have watched the sky for tens of thousands of years. The nineteenth century saw the foundation of government observatories in capital cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. While early twentieth-century astronomy focused largely on solar physics, the advent of radio astronomy at the end of the Second World War enabled Australia to take a leading role in the new science, with particular emphasis on low-frequency studies. Today, the radio quietness of its outback interior provides an excellent location for the Australian core of the Square Kilometre Array. Australian optical astronomy has flourished since the 1960s, with the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope becoming the principal national facility in 1974. Access to ESO’s facilities at the La Silla Paranal Observatory is warmly welcomed by all Australian astronomers.

  11. On Spatial Structuring of the F2 Layer Studied by the Satellite Radio Sounding of the Ionosphere Disturbed by High-Power HF Radio Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, E. D.; Turyansky, V. A.; Khudukon, B. Z.; Yurik, R. Yu.; Frolov, V. L.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of studying the characteristics of the artificial plasma structures excited in the ionospheric F2 region modified by high-power HF radio waves. The experiments were carried out at the Sura heating facility using satellite radio sounding of the ionosphere. The plasma density profile was reconstructed with the highest possible spatial resolution for today, about 4 km. In a direction close to the magnetic zenith of the pump wave, the following phenomena were observed: the formation of a cavity with a 15% lower plasma density at the altitudes of the F2 layer and below; the formation of an area with plasma density increased by 12% at altitudes greater than 400 km. With a long-term quasiperiodic impact of the pump wave on the ionosphere, wavy large-scale electron-density perturbations (the meridional scale λx ≈ 130 km and the vertical scale λz ≈ 440 km) are also formed above the Sura facility. These perturbations can be due to the plasma density modulation by an artificial acoustic-gravity wave with a period of 10.6 m, which was formed by the heat source inside a large-scale cavity with low plasma density; there is generation of the electron density irregularities for the electrons with ΔNe/Ne ≈ 3% in the form of layers having the sizes 10-12 km along and about 24 km across the geomagnetic field, which are found both below and above the F2-layer maximum. The mechanisms of the formation of these plasma structures are discussed.

  12. Women in Astronomy Workshop Report

    OpenAIRE

    Brough, Sarah; Bauer, Amanda E.; Brooks, Kate; Hopkins, Andrew; Maddison, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Here we report on the Women in Astronomy Workshop (http://asawomeninastronomy.org/meetings/wia2011/), which was held on 13 May 2011 in Sydney, Australia. The workshop was organised by the Astronomical Society of Australia's Chapter on Women in Astronomy, to discuss some of the issues that face women in astronomy and make recommendations to help support the success of women in Australian astronomy but came to broader conclusions that have value for the whole astronomical community. The worksho...

  13. Astronomy and Poetry (overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samvelyan, David

    2016-12-01

    Through this work we have tried to show how astronomy penetrates into the poetry of different periods in time and in various poets' works all over the world. The following work has significant cognitive value, demonstrates and reveals the general nature of certain poets' astronomical ideas and provides a brief analysis in some cases. As a result, we have come to the conclusion that astronomy with all its components such as the sky, our solar system and phenomena such as these have always been a source of inspiration for those who create works of art, moreover some of them have even gained actual astronomical knowledge.

  14. Astronomy in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabti, A. W.

    2006-08-01

    The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching

  15. The Cambridge encyclopaedia of astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    Astronomy has been transformed in the last two decades by a series of dramatic discoveries that have left most reference books completely out of date. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Astronomy presents a broadly based survey of the whole of astronomy which places emphasis on these critical new findings.

  16. Quickly Creating Interactive Astronomy Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    An innate advantage for astronomy teachers is having numerous breathtaking images of the cosmos available to capture students' curiosity, imagination, and wonder. Internet-based astronomy image libraries are numerous and easy to navigate. The Astronomy Picture of the Day, the Hubble Space Telescope image archive, and the NASA Planetary…

  17. School-Based Extracurricular Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy in 2009 focused considerable public attention on Astronomy and generated valuable resources for educators. These activities are an effective vehicle for promoting Science to students and to the wider school community. The most engaging practical astronomy activities are best delivered with sustained support from…

  18. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  19. The first radio astronomy from space - RAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    The spacecraft design, instrumentation, and performance of the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) satellites (RAE-1 launched to earth orbit in 1968 and RAE-2 launched to lunar orbit in 1972) are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs of typical data. Consideration is given to the three pairs of antennas, the Ryle-Vonberg and burst radiometers, and problems encountered with antenna deployment and observing patterns. Results summarized include observations of type III solar bursts, the spectral distribution of cosmic noise in broad sky regions, Jupiter at low frequencies, and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) from the earth. The importance of avoiding the AKR bands in designing future space observatories is stressed.

  20. The Cost of Astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.

    Using Scopus and national sources, I have investigated the evolution of the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale over a number of years. I find that the number of publications per year from Danish astronomers increased by a factor of four during 15 years: naturally, the correspo......Using Scopus and national sources, I have investigated the evolution of the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale over a number of years. I find that the number of publications per year from Danish astronomers increased by a factor of four during 15 years: naturally......, the corresponding potential cost of publishing must have increased similarly. The actual realized cost of publishing in core journals are investigated for a high profile Danish astronomy research institutions. I argue that the situation is highly unstable if the current cost scenario continues, and I speculate...... that Danish astronomy is risking a scholarly communication collapse due to the combination of increasing subscription cost, increased research output, and increased direct publishing costs related to Open access and other page charges....

  1. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear gamma astronomy is presented, in particular the Gamma Ray Observatory, an enormous eight tonnes machine fitted with gamma telescopes, scheduled for launching around 1985. It is thereby hoped to study the natural nuclear reactions which occur when stars explode [fr

  2. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  3. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The book reviews the development of gamma ray astronomy over the past twenty five years. A large section of the book is devoted to the problems of background radiation and the design of detectors. Gamma rays from the sun, the galactic disc, the galaxy, and extra galactic sources; are also discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Astronomy and Creationism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the effects on astronomy courses/curriculum if equal time were given to the concept that the universe was created in its present form about ten thousand years ago. Includes the full text on a resolution concerning creationism passed by the Board of Directors of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. (Author/JN)

  5. The Cost of Astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.

    Using Scopus and national sources, I have investigated the evolution of the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale over a number of years. I find that the number of publications per year from Danish astronomers increased by a factor of four during 15 years: naturally, the correspo...

  6. Physics and astronomy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moraal, H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The chapter is about physics and astronomy. The chapter gives a background about the origins of physics in South Africa. After the CSIR was founded in 1945, physics emerged as a nationwide and unified discipline. The authors show how physics...

  7. Strategies for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.

    2000-12-01

    No matter whether you are teaching school children, undergraduates, or colleagues, a few key strategies are always useful. I will present and give examples for the following five key strategies for teaching astronomy. 1. Provide a Contextual Framework: It is much easier to learn new facts or concepts if they can be ``binned" into some kind of pre-existing mental framework. Unless your listeners are already familiar with the basic ideas of modern astronomy (such as the hierarchy of structure in the universe, the scale of the universe, and the origin of the universe), you must provide this before going into the details of how we've developed this modern picture through history. 2. Create Conditions for Conceptual Change: Many people hold misconceptions about astronomical ideas. Therefore we cannot teach them the correct ideas unless we first help them unlearn their prior misconceptions. 3. Make the Material Relevant: It's human nature to be more interested in subjects that seem relevant to our lives. Therefore we must always show students the many connections between astronomy and their personal concerns, such as emphasizing how we are ``star stuff" (in the words of Carl Sagan), how studying other planets helps us understand our own, and so on. 4. Limit Use of Jargon: The number of new terms in many introductory astronomy books is larger than the number of words taught in many first courses in foreign language. This means the books are essentially teaching astronomy in a foreign language, which is a clear recipe for failure. We must find ways to replace jargon with plain language. 5. Challenge Your Students: Don't dumb your teaching down; by and large, students will rise to meet your expectations, as long as you follow the other strategies and practice good teaching.

  8. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teegarden, B.J

    1999-02-11

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world.

  9. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world

  10. Development of a 200 W CW high efficiency traveling wave tube at 12 GHz. [for use in communication technology satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. A.; Tammaru, I.

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, and test results are reported for an experimental PPM focused, traveling-wave tube that produces 235 watts of CW RF power over 85 MHz centered at 12.080 GHz. The tube uses a coupled cavity RF circuit with a velocity taper for greater than 30 percent basic efficiency. Overall efficiency of 51 percent is achieved by means of a nine stage depressed collector designed at NASA Lewis Research Center. This collector is cooled by direct radiation to deep space.

  11. Expanding radio astronomy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylard, M J

    2013-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA [1]. South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.

  12. Space Debris and Observational Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, astronomers have faced an increasing number of artificial objects contaminating their images of the night sky. Currently almost 17000 objects larger than 10 cm are tracked and have current orbits in the public catalog. Active missions are only a small fraction of these objects. Most are inactive satellites, rocket bodies, and fragments of larger objects: all space debris. Several mega-constellations are planned which will increase this number by 20% or more in low Earth orbit (LEO). In terms of observational astronomy, this population of Earth orbiting objects has three implications: 1) the number of streaks and glints from spacecraft will only increase. There are some practical steps that can be taken to minimize the number of such streaks and glints in astronomical imaging data. 2) The risk to damage to orbiting astronomical telescopes will only increase, particularly those in LEO. 3) If you are working on a plan for an orbiting telescope project, then there are specific steps that must be taken to minimize space debris generation during the mission lifetime, and actions to safely dispose of the spacecraft at end of mission to prevent it from becoming space debris and a risk to other missions. These steps may involve sacrifices to mission performance and lifetime, but are essential in today's orbital environment.

  13. Coincident Detection Significance in Multimessenger Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, G.; Burns, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dent, T.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Nielsen, A. B.; Prix, R.; Was, M.; Zhu, S. J.

    2018-06-01

    We derive a Bayesian criterion for assessing whether signals observed in two separate data sets originate from a common source. The Bayes factor for a common versus unrelated origin of signals includes an overlap integral of the posterior distributions over the common-source parameters. Focusing on multimessenger gravitational-wave astronomy, we apply the method to the spatial and temporal association of independent gravitational-wave and electromagnetic (or neutrino) observations. As an example, we consider the coincidence between the recently discovered gravitational-wave signal GW170817 from a binary neutron star merger and the gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A: we find that the common-source model is enormously favored over a model describing them as unrelated signals.

  14. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multi-Frequency VLBA Studies of the Parsec-Scale Jets in 3C 66A and 3C 66B ... Multi-Wave Luminosity of High-Synchrotron-Peaked TeV BL Lacs Detected by Fermi LAT ..... This kind of profile has been detected in the polarimetric VLBI observation of many blazar objects, ..... Training in Astronomy for Physics Students.

  15. The Space Vehicle--Teaching Physics through Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are some areas of overlap between physics and astronomy. Topics include solar power, fusion reactions, atmospheric refraction, solar spectrum, Doppler effects, Hubble constant, quasars, redshift and the expanding universe, sunspots, sundial construction, solar spectroscopes, the moon, optics, wave theory, the history of science,…

  16. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 28; Issue 1. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 28, Issue 1. March 2007, pages 1-66. pp 1-7. Oblique Propagation and Dissipation of Alfv´en Waves in Coronal Holes · A. K. Srivastava B. N. Dwivedi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  17. Using the Teach Astronomy Website to Enrich Introductory Astronomy Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Impey, C. D.; Patikkal, A.; Austin, C. L.

    2013-04-01

    This year we implemented Teach Astronomy as a free online resource to be used as a teaching tool for non-science major astronomy courses and for a general audience interested in the subject. The comprehensive astronomy content of the website includes: an introductory text book, encyclopedia articles, images, two to three minute topical video clips, podcasts, and news articles. Teach Astronomy utilizes a novel technology to cluster, display, and navigate search results, called a Wikimap. We will present an overview of how Teach Astronomy works and how instructors can use it as an effective teaching tool in the classroom. Additionally, we will gather feedback from science instructors on how to improve the features and functionality of the website, as well as develop new assignment ideas using Teach Astronomy.

  18. Analysis of ULF Waves During Substorms Observed in the Ionosphere from the Dayside Ground Magnetometer and in the Solar Wind from the Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Alimaganbetov, M.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetospheric substorm is one of the most interesting and complicated phenomena of solar-terrestrial interactions. Despite numerous theoretical and experimental studies conducted during last 50 years, its several important phenomena are not completely understood yet. One of them are intense, ultra-low-frequency (from 0.5 mHz to 100 mHz), electromagnetic pulsations which are always observed during the substorms with the ground-based magnetometers and radars at high latitudes. These waves have the largest amplitudes in the power spectral densities during substorms. Hence, they are the most effective drivers of such mechanisms as high-latitude ionosphere energization, ion outflow production, formation of plasma density cavities, etc. In our study, we focus on the waves with frequencies 0.5-1.0 mHz, which is the lowest part of the frequency spectra observed during the substorm. The questions of what phenomena cause these oscillations and what are their spatiotemporal properties are among the most important ones about the physics of the substorm. To answer these questions, we analyzed disturbances of the magnetic field obtained from the two sources for the period from October 2015 to November 2016 during several substorms. One source is the fluxgate magnetometer in Poker Flat, Alaska. Another is the NASA Advanced Composite Explorer satellite in the Lagrangian L1 point that detects most of the solar wind from the Sun. The goal of our project is to find correlations between the disturbances observed from these sources, which will be a strong argument that the solar wind has a strong influence on the electromagnetic coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth during the substorms. We observed 48 substorms during the abovementioned period. Our findings show that 1) the dominant frequency of the large-amplitude ULF waves observed during the substorms is 1 mHz or less; and 2) the same frequencies are frequently observed in the waves detected from the both

  19. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The recent years have seen breathtaking progress in technology, especially in the receiver and digital technologies relevant for radio astronomy, which has at the same time advanced to shorter wavelengths. This is the updated and completely revised 5th edition of the most used introductory text in radio astronomy. It presents a unified treatment of the entire field from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Topics covered include instruments, sensitivity considerations, observational methods and interpretations of the data recorded with both single dishes and interferometers. This text is useful to both students and experienced practicing astronomers. Besides making major updates and additions throughout the book, the authors have re-organized a number of chapters to more clearly separate basic theory from rapidly evolving practical aspects. Further, problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter.

  20. Astronomy and astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarka, Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Astrology meets a large success in our societies, from the private to the political sphere as well as in the media, in spite of the demonstrated inaccuracy of its psychological as well as operational predictions. We analyse here the relations between astrology and astronomy, as well as the criticisms opposed by the latter to the former. We show that most of these criticisms are weak. Much stronger ones emerge from the analysis of the astrological practice compared to the scientific method, leading us to conclude to the non-scientificity of astrology. Then we return to the success of astrology, and from its analysis we propose a renewed (and prophylactic) rôle for astronomy in society.

  1. Artificial Intelligence in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, E. J.; Prša, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Degeorge, M.

    2010-12-01

    From the perspective (and bias) as Eclipsing Binary researchers, we give a brief overview of the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, describe major application areas of AI in astronomy, and illustrate the power of an AI approach in an application developed under the EBAI (Eclipsing Binaries via Artificial Intelligence) project, which employs Artificial Neural Network technology for estimating light curve solution parameters of eclipsing binary systems.

  2. Archaeology and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    MEETING REPORT The interaction between archaeology and astronomy has a long, tangled and not entirely creditable history, marred by misunderstandings on both sides. But statistics and cultural awareness are bringing a better picture of how and why lasting monuments such as Stonehenge were built. Sue Bowler reports on a joint meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Prehistoric Society, held at Jodrell Bank on 17 July 2009.

  3. Astronomy on a Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  4. The Astronomy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. P.

    2005-05-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive online educational tools developed for use by students, educators, and the general public. The more than 20 tools in the Astronomy Workshop are rated for ease-of-use, and have been extensively tested in large university survey courses, classes for undergraduate majors, and High Schools. Here we briefly describe a few of the more popular tools. The Life of the Sun (New!): The history of the Sun is animated as a movie, showing students how the size and color of our star has evolved and will evolve in time. Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbital motions of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets are animated at their correct relative speeds in accurate to-scale drawings. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country of impact (if Earth is the target), energy of explosion, crater size, and magnitude of the ``planetquake'' generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Astronomical Distances: Travel away from the Earth at a chosen speed and see how long it takes to reach other planets, stars and galaxies. This tool helps students visualize astronomical distances in an intuitive way. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by a NASA EPO grant.

  5. Astronomy Research Seminars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2018-06-01

    Astronomy Research Seminars are offered by a rapidly growing number of community colleges and universities. Over the past decade some 120 student team research papers have been published with approximately 500 coauthors. Each team manages their own research, obtains and analyzes original data, writes a team paper, obtains an external review, submits their paper for publication, and gives a public PowerPoint presentation. The student teams are supported by: (1) an extensive community-of-practice which consists of professional and amateur astronomers, educators, and Seminar graduates; (2) the Institute for Student Astronomical Research (www.in4star.org); (3) the Small Telescope Astronomy Research Handbook and (4) an in-person/online, open-source Canvas learning management system with videos, quizzes, and other, extensive supporting material. Team research projects are completed in a semester or less and are managed by the students themselves. The Seminars have expanded from double star astronomy to asteroid astrometry, eclipsing binary times of minima, and exoplanet transits. Conducting authentic research inspires students, provides them with important skills in teamwork, project management and scientific literacy, and gives them confidence in their abilities to participate in scientific research. Being coauthors of published papers boosts student educational careers with respect to admissions and scholarships.

  6. Astronomy in the streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebe, Fatoumata

    2015-08-01

    The Ephemerides Association was founded last year by a PhD student in Astronomy. The association is devoted to the promotion and advancement of knowledge of the universe through research and education.The main activities of the association are scientific meetings, the planning and realization of scientific projects, the support of the scientific activities of its members, and the dissemination of related information among members and other interested persons.The association targets the disadvantaged zones of the Paris suburbs.The main issue was how to bring astronomy in those places. In the suburbs, since most of the youth are poor, most leisure activities like cinema are out of your reach. Thus, mostly of them will play football or basketball outside.We decided to go to meet young people who find themselves together in the evening. We prepare the telescope as well as the fasicules to start the observation of the planets. The discussion finally lead to their career plans and aspirations. Astronomy has become a tool to address societal issues. We present our results after one year of activity.

  7. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  8. Commercial Optics for Space Surveillance and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Kopit, E.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    Since the first days of the space program, there have been both amateur and government satellite watchers. Large, expensive government systems with custom optics are still the most capable, but with modern sensors and high speed computers, amateur trackers are easily pushing the limits of what government systems achieved only a decade ago. A very recent trend in the space world is the emergence of commercial space operations centers. Once the exclusive purview of governments, corporations are now providing orbital environment awareness services to the operators of commercial satellites. The requirement for synoptic satellite observations has led to corporations developing world-wide observing networks. A problem facing both amateur and corporate observers is the limited availability of suitable optical systems. Most observing efforts rely on long focus (f/8 or greater) optical systems with focal reducers, and a somewhat limited field of view. Often, the cameras in use are not ideally matched to the optical system. While there are a few exceptions, the choices are not many. Celestron recently introduced the C-11 RASA optical system, with an 11-inch aperture and an f/2.2 focal ratio. This optical system is designed for dedicated imaging and is ideally suited for both wide-field astronomy and the detection and tracking of satellites. The larger C-14 RASA, to be introduced later this year, was specifically designed for wide-field imaging with large commercial CCDs. It offers greater sensitivity and a wider field of view than the smaller C-11 RASA and should prove to be the instrument of choice for both amateur and corporate satellite observers. We present data from satellite observations with a production model C-11 RASA and estimated performance for the new C-14 RASA.

  9. Transmission of Babylonian Astronomy to Other Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander

    Babylonian astronomy and astrology were extensively transmitted to other civilizations in the second and first millennia BC. Greek astronomy in particular was largely shaped by knowledge of Babylonian observations and mathematical astronomy.

  10. Impact of ISWEC sea wave energy converter on posidonia oceanica meadows assessed by satellite remote sensing in the coastal areas of Pantelleria island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borfecchia, Flavio; Micheli, Carla; Belmonte, Alessandro; De Cecco, Luigi; Sannino, Gianmaria; Bracco, Giovanni; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Vittoria Struglia, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy extraction plays a key role both in energy security of small islands and in mitigation of climate change, but at the same time poses the important question of monitoring the effects of the interaction of such devices with the marine environment. In this work we present a new methodology, integrating satellite remote sensing techniques with in situ observations and biophysical parameters analysis, for the monitoring and mapping of Posidonia Oceanica (PO) meadows in shallow coastal waters. This methodology has been applied to the coastal area offshore Pantelleria Island (Southern Mediterranean) where the first Italian Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter (ISWEC) prototype has been recently installed. The prototype, developed by the Polytechnic of Turin consists of a platform 8 meters wide, 15 meters long and 4.5 meters high, moored at about 800 meters from the shore and at 31 m depth. It is characterized by high conversion efficiency, resulting from its adaptability to different wave conditions, and a limited environmental impact due to its mooring innovative method with absence of fixed anchors to the seabed. The island of Pantelleria, is characterized by high transparency of coastal waters and PO meadows ecosystems with still significant levels of biodiversity and specific adaptation to accentuated hydrodynamics of these shores. Although ISWEC is a low-impact mooring inertial system able to ensure a reliable connection to the electric grid with minimal impact on seagrass growing in the seabed, the prototype installation and operation involves an interaction with local PO and seagrass meadows and possible water transparency decreasing. In this view monitoring of local PO ecosystem is mandatory in order to allow the detection of potential stress and damages due to ISWEC related activities and/or other factors. However, monitoring and collection of accurate and repetitive information over large areas of the necessary parameters by means of

  11. Wire Probe Antenna (WPT) and Electric Field Detector (EFD) of Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) aboard the Arase satellite: specifications and initial evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaba, Yasumasa; Ishisaka, Keigo; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Imachi, Tomohiko; Yagitani, Satoshi; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Matsuda, Shoya; Shoji, Masafumi; Kurita, Satoshi; Hori, Tomoaki; Shinbori, Atsuki; Teramoto, Mariko; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Nakagawa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Naoko; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Matsuoka, Ayako; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Nomura, Reiko

    2017-12-01

    This paper summarizes the specifications and initial evaluation results of Wire Probe Antenna (WPT) and Electric Field Detector (EFD), the key components for the electric field measurement of the Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) aboard the Arase (ERG) satellite. WPT consists of two pairs of dipole antennas with 31-m tip-to-tip length. Each antenna element has a spherical probe (60 mm diameter) at each end of the wire (15 m length). They are extended orthogonally in the spin plane of the spacecraft, which is roughly perpendicular to the Sun and enables to measure the electric field in the frequency range of DC to 10 MHz. This system is almost identical to the WPT of Plasma Wave Investigation aboard the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, except for the material of the spherical probe (ERG: Al alloy, MMO: Ti alloy). EFD is a part of the EWO (EFD/WFC/OFA) receiver and measures the 2-ch electric field at a sampling rate of 512 Hz (dynamic range: ± 200 mV/m) and the 4-ch spacecraft potential at a sampling rate of 128 Hz (dynamic range: ± 100 V and ± 3 V/m), with the bias control capability of WPT. The electric field waveform provides (1) fundamental information about the plasma dynamics and accelerations and (2) the characteristics of MHD and ion waves in various magnetospheric statuses with the magnetic field measured by MGF and PWE-MSC. The spacecraft potential provides information on thermal electron plasma variations and structure combined with the electron density obtained from the upper hybrid resonance frequency provided by PWE-HFA. EFD has two data modes. The continuous (medium-mode) data are provided as (1) 2-ch waveforms at 64 Hz (in apoapsis mode, L > 4) or 256 Hz (in periapsis mode, L < 4), (2) 1-ch spectrum within 1-232 Hz with 1-s resolution, and (3) 4-ch spacecraft potential at 8 Hz. The burst (high-mode) data are intermittently obtained as (4) 2-ch waveforms at 512 Hz and (5) 4-ch spacecraft potential at 128 Hz and downloaded with the WFC

  12. Astronomy across cultures the history of non-Western astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaochun, Sun

    2000-01-01

    Astronomy Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Astronomy consists of essays dealing with the astronomical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Polynesian, Egyptian and Tibetan astronomy, among others, the book includes essays on Sky Tales and Why We Tell Them and Astronomy and Prehistory, and Astronomy and Astrology. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate astronomical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.

  13. Dyslexia and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneps, Matthew H.; Greenhill, L. J.; Rose, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disability that impairs reading. It is believed that anywhere from 5% to 20% of all people in the US may have dyslexia to a greater or lesser degree. Though dyslexia is common, it is a "silent disability" in the sense that it is not easy to tell which individuals suffer from dyslexia and which do not. There is a substantial body of evidence to suggest that people with dyslexia tend to do well in science. For example, Baruj Benacerraf, a Nobel laureate in medicine, is among those whose impairments have been documented and studied. Given that dyslexia was not diagnosed in schools prior to the late 1970's, many established science researchers may have dyslexia and be unaware of their impairment. Therefore, it would not be surprising to find that substantial numbers of scientists working in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics have dyslexia, and yet be unaware of the effects this disability has had on their research. A recently proposed theory by the authors suggests that there may be specific neurological reasons why those with dyslexia may be predisposed to science, and predicts that dyslexia may be associated with enhanced abilities for certain types of visual processing, with special implications for image processing. Our study, funded by the NSF, investigates this hypothesis in the context of astronomy and astrophysics. We expect this work will uncover and document challenges faced by scientists with dyslexia, but perhaps more importantly, lead to an understanding of the strengths these scientists bring to research. The program will serve as a clearing-house of information for scientists and students with dyslexia, and begin to provide mentoring for young people with dyslexia interested in astronomy. Scientists who have reason to believe they may have dyslexia are encouraged to contact the authors.

  14. Astrology as Cultural Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    The practice of astrology can be traced in most if not all human societies, in most time periods. Astrology has prehistoric origins and flourishes in the modern world, where it may be understood as a form of ethnoastronomy - astronomy practiced by the people. The Western tradition, which originated in Mesopotamia and was developed in the Greek world, has been most studied by academics. However, India is also home to a tradition which has survived in a continuous lineage for 2,000 years. Complex systems of astrology also developed in China and Mesoamerica, while all other human societies appear to seek social and religious meaning in the stars.

  15. Islamic Mathematical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelle, Clemency

    A short survey on Islamic mathematical astronomy practiced during the period running from the eight century until the fifteenth is presented. Various pertinent themes, such as the translation of foreign scientific works and their impact on the tradition; the introduction, assimilation, and critique of the Ptolemaic model; and the role of observations, will be covered. In addition, the zīj, the dominant format for astronomical works, will be briefly explained as well as the legacy of the Islamic tradition of astral sciences to other cultures.

  16. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deployment of detectors outside the deleterious effects of the atmosphere by sending them in space vehicles, has been explained. This has thrown open the entire spectrum of the electromagnetic and particle radiation to direct observations, thus enlarging the vistas of the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The discovery of strong emitters of X-rays such as SCO X-1, NorX-2, transient sources such as Cen X-2, Cen X-4, Cen X-1, Supernova remnants Tan X-1, etc., are reported. The background of the X-ray spectrum as measured during two rocket flights over Thumba, India is presented. (K.B.)

  17. Open Astronomy Catalogs API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillochon, James; Cowperthwaite, Philip S.

    2018-05-01

    We announce the public release of the application program interface (API) for the Open Astronomy Catalogs (OACs), the OACAPI. The OACs serve near-complete collections of supernova, tidal disruption, kilonova, and fast stars data (including photometry, spectra, radio, and X-ray observations) via a user-friendly web interface that displays the data interactively and offers full data downloads. The OACAPI, by contrast, enables users to specifically download particular pieces of the OAC dataset via a flexible programmatic syntax, either via URL GET requests, or via a module within the astroquery Python package.

  18. Science and Mathematics in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolack, Edward

    2009-01-01

    A brief historical introduction to the development of observational astronomy will be presented. The close historical relationship between the successful application of mathematical concepts and advances in astronomy will be presented. A variety of simple physical demonstrations, hands-on group activities, and puzzles will be used to understand how the properties of light can be used to understand the contents of our universe.

  19. The Astronomy Genealogy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenn, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    The Astronomy Genealogy Project, to be known as AstroGen, will list as many as possible of the world's astronomers with their academic parents (aka thesis advisors) and enable the reader to trace both academic ancestors and descendants. It will be very similar to the highly successful Mathematics Genealogy Project (MGP), available at http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu. The MGP, which has been in operation since 1996, now contains the names of about 170,000 "mathematicians." These include many physicists and astronomers, as well as practitioners of related sciences. Mitchel Keller, the director of the MGP, has generously shared the software used in that project, and the American Astronomical Society (AAS) will host AstroGen, a project of the Historical Astronomy Division, on its website. We expect to start seeking entries soon, depending on the availability of computational assistance from the AAS IT department. We are seeking volunteers to help run the project. If you are interested, please contact me at joe.tenn@sonoma.edu.

  20. Astronomy books in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Julieta

    Great cultures have created language. They have discovered its strength among other reasons for education. For a long time the Bible was one of the few books available in western culture, its influence is beyond any doubt. Many developing nations have no science books in their mother tongue. They might carry a few translations but these do not convey the local culture so it is harder for students to grasp the concepts and to build on what they know. Books, even if they are extremely simple, should be written in local languages because that will facilitate the conveying of knowledge and the creation of scientific culture. In the books examples that pertain to every day local life must be given, in particular examples that have to do with women. Women play a central role in developing nations by child bearing; if they become literate they will influence enormously the quality of their children's education, in particular their science comprehension. In Mexico a collection that includes astronomy books has recently been edited by the National Council for Culture and Arts. The books are small and light, which encourages middle-school students to carry them around and read them while traveling in public transportation, such as the subway. Every other page is a new subject, that carries illustrations, abstracts and conclusions. The astronomy books are on search for extraterrestrial life, the stars and the universe. These books are distributed nation-wide and are inexpensive. They have been written by Mexican astronomers.

  1. Making Astronomy Accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2011-05-01

    A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

  2. Challenges in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greve, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Astronomy is an attractive subject for education. It deals with fascination of the unknown and the unreachable, yet is uses tools, concepts and insights from various fundamental sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology. Because of this it can be well used for introducing sciences to young people and to raise their interest in further studies in that direction. It is also an interesting subject for teaching as its different aspects (observation techniques, theory, data sampling and analysis, modelling,?) offer various didactical approaches towards different levels of pupils, students and different backgrounds. And it gives great opportunities to teach and demonstrate the essence of scientific research, through tutorials and projects. In this paper we discuss some of the challenges education in general, and astronomy in particular, faces in the coming decades, given the major geophysical and technological changes that can be deducted from our present knowledge. This defines a general, but very important background in terms of educational needs at various levels, and in geographical distribution of future efforts of the astronomical community. Special emphasis will be given to creative approaches to teaching, to strategies that are successful (such as the use of tutorials with element from computer games), and to initiatives complementary to the regular educational system. The programs developed by the IAU will be briefly highlighted.

  3. Astronomy LITE Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2006-12-01

    Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments) is a materials, software, and curriculum development project. It focuses on light, optics, color and visual perception. According to two recent surveys of college astronomy faculty members, these are among the topics most often included in the large introductory astronomy courses. The project has aimed largely at the design and implementation of hands-on experiences for students. However, it has also included the development of lecture demonstrations that employ novel light sources and materials. In this presentation, we will show some of our new lecture demonstrations concerning geometrical and physical optics, fluorescence, phosphorescence and polarization. We have developed over 200 Flash and Java applets that can be used either by teachers in lecture settings or by students at home. They are all posted on the web at http://lite.bu.edu. For either purpose they can be downloaded directly to the user's computer or run off line. In lecture demonstrations, some of these applets can be used to control the light emitted by video projectors to produce physical effects in materials (e.g. fluorescence). Other applets can be used, for example, to demonstrate that the human percept of color does not have a simple relationship with the physical frequency of the stimulating source of light. Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education.

  4. First observations of large-scale wave structure and equatorial spread F using CERTO radio beacon on the C/NOFS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsugawa, T.; Uemoto, J.; Ishii, M.

    2009-12-01

    Equatorial spread F (ESF) is a generic name, which refers to the presence of a wide spectrum of field-aligned irregularities in the equatorial nighttime F-region that can extend over nearly seven orders of magnitude. Recently, a large-scale wave structure (LSWS) in the F-layer electron density is identified as a reliable precursor to ESF. The LSWS can be identified as a quasi-periodic modulation in the altitude of isoelectron density contours in the bottomside F-region, superimposed on a mean slope that increases in altitude from west to east. First observations of large-scale wave structure (LSWS) and the subsequent development of equatorial spread F (ESF), using total electron content (TEC) derived from the ground based reception of Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography (CETRO) radio beacon signals on board the C/NOFS (Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) satellite will be presented. For this study the TEC observations from Bac Lieu, Vietnam (9.2°N, 105.6°E geographic, 1.7°N magnetic dip latitude), Phukhet (7.8°N, 98.38°E, 0.4°S dip lat) and Kototabang, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 10.36°S dip lat) are analyzed along with ionosonde observations from Bac Lieu, Chumphon (10.7°N, 99.4°E, 3.3° dip lat) and 30.8 MHz VHF radar observations from Kototabang. It should also be mentioned here that LSWS is not easily detectable with overhead measurements using a sensor at a fixed location, at least not during its early growth phase, mainly because initially it grows in amplitude without significant zonal drift. The results indicate (1) LSWS appears to play a more important role in the development of ESF than the post-sunset rise (PSSR) of the F-layer, and (2) LSWS can appear well before E-region sunset. Other findings, that LSWS does not have significant zonal drift in the initial stages of growth, and can have zonal wavelengths of several hundred kilometers, corroborate earlier reports.

  5. Explorers of the Southern Sky: A History of Australian Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Raymond; Haynes, Roslynn D.; Malin, David; McGee, Richard

    1996-06-01

    This well-illustrated volume is the most comprehensive account of Australian astronomy to date. It is both an indispensable reference book on the history of astronomy in Australia, and a highly readable study of a scientific discipline in the context of emerging nationhood. It covers not only the science, but the individuals involved and the social and economic climate in which they worked. Starting from the ancient Aboriginal beliefs about the Sky World - the earliest known astronomy, anywhere in the world - we are led through to the most exciting high-tech current and projected research being carried out at Australia's world-class national astronomy facilities, and by groups in Australian universities. All branches of astronomy are covered - optical, infrared, X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, gravitational wave and theoretical - including the contribution of amateur astronomers. The non-technical language, many illustrations, and explanatory figures, ensure that this guide will appeal to a wide range of readers - including professional astronomers, historians of science, students, amateur astronomers and general readers.

  6. The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, M.; Kelley, R.

    2017-10-01

    On 25 March 2016, the Japanese 6th X-ray astronomical satellite ASTRO-H (Hitomi), launched on February 17, lost communication after a series of mishap in its attitude control system. In response to the mishap the X-ray astronomy community and JAXA analyzed the direct and root cause of the mishap and investigated possibility of a recovery mission with the international collaborator NASA and ESA. Thanks to great effort of scientists, agencies, and governments, the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) are proposed. The recovery mission is planned to resume high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with imaging realized by Hitomi under the international collaboration in the shortest time possible, simply by focusing one of the main science goals of Hitomi Resolving astrophysical problems by precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy'. XARM will carry a 6 x 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly, and an aligned X-ray CCD camera covering the same energy band and wider field of view, but no hard X-ray or soft gamma-ray instruments are onboard. In this paper, we introduce the science objectives, mission concept, and schedule of XARM.

  7. Gamma ray astronomy with COS-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanenburg, B.N.

    1981-01-01

    Observational results in the field of gamma-ray astronomy that have been obtained to date with the COS-B satellite are discussed and questions raised by these observations are summarized. Following a brief review of the instrumental characteristics of COS-B and the extent of COS-B gamma-ray coverage of the sky, particular attention is given to the questions raised by the discovery of many unidentified gamma-ray sources with no apparent optical, X-ray or radio counterparts and the detection of high-energy gamma radiation from the quasar 3C 273, which suggests the role of gamma-ray emission in the creation of other radiation

  8. First radio astronomy from space - RAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The spacecraft design, instrumentation, and performance of the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) satellites (RAE-1 launched to earth orbit in 1968 and RAE-2 launched to lunar orbit in 1972) are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs of typical data. Consideration is given to the three pairs of antennas, the Ryle-Vonberg and burst radiometers, and problems encountered with antenna deployment and observing patterns. Results summarized include observations of type III solar bursts, the spectral distribution of cosmic noise in broad sky regions, Jupiter at low frequencies, and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) from the earth. The importance of avoiding the AKR bands in designing future space observatories is stressed. 11 references

  9. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2012 Survey of Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…

  10. Dynamics of satellites, asteroids, and rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermott, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    Work is reported on: (1) the shapes and the internal structures of satellites; (2) the tidal heating of Miranda; (3) the dynamics of arc-like rings; and (4) the structure of the zodiacal cloud that was revealed by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite. Significant progress was made in determining the shape and internal structure of Mimas and in understanding the dynamical evolution of Miranda's orbit

  11. Astronomy for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Becan, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy For Beginners is a friendly and accessible guide to our universe, our galaxy, our solar system and the planet we call home. Each year as we cruise through space on this tiny blue-green wonder, a number of amazing and remarkable events occur. For example, like clockwork, we'll run head-on into asteroid and cometary debris that spreads shooting stars across our skies. On occasion, we'll get to watch the disk of the Moon passing the Sun, casting its shadow on the face of the Earth, and sometimes we'll get to watch our own shadow as it glides across the face of the Moon. The Sun's path w

  12. Astronomy a visual guide

    CERN Document Server

    Garlick, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    Space has fascinated man and challenged scientists for centuries and astronomy is the oldest and one of the most dynamic of the sciences. Here is a book that will stimulate your curiosity and feed your imagination. Detailed and fascinating text is clearly and richly illustrated with fabulous, vibrant photographs and diagrams. This is a comprehensive guide to understanding and observing the night sky, from distant stars and galaxies to our neighbouring planets; from comets to shooting stars; from eclipses to black holes. With details of the latest space probes, a series of monthly sky maps to provide guidance for the amateur observer and the latest photos from space, this book brings the beauty and wonder of our universe into your living room and will have you reaching for the telescope!

  13. Handbook of pulsar astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Lorimer, Duncan

    2005-01-01

    Radio pulsars are rapidly rotating highly magnetized neutron stars. Studies of these fascinating objects have provided applications in solid-state physics, general relativity, galactic astronomy, astrometry, planetary physics and even cosmology. Most of these applications and much of what we know about neutron stars are derived from single-dish radio observations using state-of-the-art receivers and data acquisition systems. This comprehensive 2004 book is a unique resource that brings together the key observational techniques, background information and a review of results, including the discovery of a double pulsar system. Useful software tools are provided which can be used to analyse example data, made available on a related website. This work will be of great value not only to graduate students but also to researchers wishing to carry out and interpret a wide variety of radio pulsar observations.

  14. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  15. Astronomy in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, B.

    2006-08-01

    It is not easy to practice astronomical observation in a high school. It is difficult to teach authentic astronomy because real-world conditions cannot be reproduced in the classroom. However, the following ideas produce some interesting experiments. 1. The reappearance experiment of the meteor spectrum. We produced emission spectra by using a gas burner and welding. It can be understood that the luminosity of emission lines varies according to temperature. Furthermore, we mixed in liquid chlorides of Na, Ca, Fe, Sg, Si, etc., in different proportions tomimic different meteor spectra. We then observed the time changes of the luminosity using a video camcorder that we attached to a spectroscope. The spectrum in the experiment closely resembled that of a meteor. 2. The verification of the black-drop phenomenon.Long ago, the black-drop phenomenon became important in the case of Venus's passage between the Earth and the Sun, a transit of Venus. We tried to reproduce this phenomenon by using a small ball painted black, solar light, and an artificial illuminant. The profile of the reproduced image was then checked in detail. We found that this phenomenon depended on the influence of the limb darkening of the Sun, the scintillation of the Earth's atmosphere, and the optical performance of the telescope. Furthermore, we imitated Venus's atmosphere as an additional experiment by applying oil on the surface of the small ball. It resulted in an interesting profile but was not a sufficient experiment. Of course, these experiments are in conditions that are very different from the actual physical conditions. However, we think that they provide a very effective method for enhancing students' interest in astronomy. We are planning other experiments with similar themes.

  16. Planets in Inuit Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John

    2018-02-01

    Inuit are an indigenous people traditionally inhabiting the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, Alaska, and parts of Russia's Chukchi Peninsula. Across this vast region, Inuit society, while not entirely homogeneous either culturally or linguistically, nevertheless shares a fundamental cosmology, in part based on a common understanding of the sky and its contents. Traditionally, Inuit used prominent celestial objects—the sun, moon, and major circumpolar asterisms—as markers for estimating the passage of time, as wayfinding and directional aids, and, importantly, as the basis of several of the foundational myths and legends underpinning their society's social order and mores. Random inquiries on Inuit astronomy made by European visitors after initial contact through the mid-18th and early 20th centuries were characteristically haphazard and usually peripheral to some other line of ethnological enquiry, such as folklore or mythology. In addition, the early accounts of Inuit star lore were often prone to misrepresentation due to several factors, including European cultural bias, translation inadequacies, a deficiency of general astronomical knowledge on the part of most commentators, and, most significantly, a failure—sometimes due to lack of opportunity—to conduct systematic observations of the sky in the presence of Inuit knowledge holders. Early accounts therefore tended to diminish the cultural significance of Inuit astronomy, almost to the point of insignificance. Unfortunately, by the time systematic fieldwork began on the topic, in the mid-1980s, unalloyed information on Inuit astronomical knowledge was already elusive, more and more compromised by European acculturation and substitution and, notably, by light pollution—a consequence of the increasing urbanization of Inuit communities beginning in the late 1950s. For the residents of most Arctic settlements, street lights reflecting off the snow have virtually eliminated the evocative

  17. Communication schemes for olfar's inter-satellite links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Willink-Castro, T.J.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2012-01-01

    The Orbiting Low Frequency Array for Radio astronomy(OLFAR) project is aimed at developing a radio telescope in space sensitive for the 0.3–30 MHz range by using a swarm of more than 50 identical nano-satellites. The satellites will form a very large aperture, capable of capturing very weak

  18. Astronomy at the frontiers of science

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is by nature an interdisciplinary activity: it involves mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. Astronomers use (and often develop) the latest technology, the fastest computers and the most refined software.  In this book twenty-two leading scientists from nine countries talk about how astronomy interacts with these other sciences. They describe modern instruments used in astronomy and the relations between astronomy and technology, industry, politics and philosophy. They also discuss what it means to be an astronomer, the history of astronomy, and the place of astronomy in society today.   The book contains twenty chapters grouped in four parts: ASTRONOMY AND PHYSICS discusses the place of astronomy among various branches of (mostly high-energy) physics. ASTRONOMY IN SOCIETY describes not only the historical context of astronomy, but issues facing astronomers today, including funding, planning, worldwide collaboration and links with industry. THE TOOLS OF OBSERVATION AND THE PROFESSION OF AS...

  19. Introducing Astronomy Related Research into Non-Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas

    The concern over the insufficient number of students choosing to enter the science and engineering fields has been discussed and documented for years. While historically addressed at the national level, many states are now recognizing that the lack of a highly-skilled technical workforce within their states' borders has a significant effect on their economic health. Astronomy, as a science field, is no exception. Articles appear periodically in the most popular astronomy magazines asking the question, "Where are the young astronomers?" Astronomy courses at the community college level are normally restricted to introductory astronomy I and II level classes that introduce the student to the basics of the night sky and astronomy. The vast majority of these courses is geared toward the non-science major and is considered by many students to be easy and watered down courses in comparison to typical physics and related science courses. A majority of students who enroll in these classes are not considering majors in science or astronomy since they believe that science is "boring and won't produce any type of career for them." Is there any way to attract students? This paper discusses an approach being undertaken at the Estrella Mountain Community College to introduce students in selected mathematics courses to aspects of astronomy related research to demonstrate that science is anything but boring. Basic statistical techniques and understanding of geometry are applied to a large virgin data set containing the magnitudes and phase characteristics of sets of variable stars. The students' work consisted of developing and presenting a project that explored analyzing selected aspects of the variable star data set. The description of the data set, the approach the students took for research projects, and results from a survey conducted at semester's end to determine if student's interest and appreciation of astronomy was affected are presented. Using the data set provided, the

  20. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    , community-based Infrastructure Roadmap, crucial to keep Europe at the forefront of astronomical research," says de Zeeuw. ESO PR Photo 44a/07 European astronomy today is fully competitive on the global scene and is at the forefront in many domains with such breakthroughs as the first detection of a planet around a sun-like star, the successful landing on Titan, the proof that a massive black hole exists in the centre of our own Galaxy, the discovery of gravitational arcs around galaxy clusters, and the proof that most Gamma Ray Bursts are caused by huge exploding stars. The rise of European astronomy to this top position by the end of last century has been achieved through extensive cooperation and coordination of efforts, in particular through ESO for optical astronomy and ESA for space astronomy. To strengthen this position and to extend it to all branches of astronomy and all nations of the new Europe, a group of European funding agencies set up the ASTRONET programme with the goal to establish a comprehensive long-term development plan of European astronomy. ASTRONET therefore covers all astrophysical domains from cosmology to the Solar system, and every observing window, from space and from the ground, and from electromagnetic radiation to particles and gravitational waves. It addresses the whole astronomical 'food chain' from infrastructure and technology development to observation, data access, modelling and theory, and the human resources needed to make it all work. This effort is quite similar in scope to the 'decadal surveys' conducted in the USA over the last half-century, but unlike its American counterpart, ASTRONET was set up directly by the national funding agencies, with strong support from the European Commission. "A shared long-term Science Vision for European astronomy is the fundamental first step in the process, soon to be followed by a detailed infrastructure and technology development roadmap," says Johannes Andersen (NOTSA, Denmark), the ASTRONET

  1. Change of the high-latitude ionosphere during heating by a powerful short radio wave of the EISCAT/Heating complex according to signals of the GLONASS satellite and the incoherent scattering radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchenko E. D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of observations of variations of temperature, electron concentration and total electron content of the high-latitude region of the ionosphere during its modification by powerful short radio waves of the heating complex EISCAT/Heating (Tromsø, Norway according to signals of the GLONASS satellites and the incoherent scattering UHF EISCAT radar (Tromsø, Norway have been provided. The geometry of passes of the GLONASS and GPS satellites for operating conditions of the heating complex in Tromsø has been considered. It has been shown that during the experiments on the EISCAT/Heating complex for the study of the modified structure of the high-latitude ionosphere it is more convenient to use the GLONASS satellites. Parameters of orbits of these satellites allow researching changes of total electron content in the direction along the geomagnetic field line at the place of observation. It has been shown that during heating of the ionosphere by powerful short radio waves its structure is becoming an irregular one. Operation of the heating complex in the mode "switched on – switched off" has caused appearance of wavy variations of total electron content with the periods close to the heating period. The main features of behavior of the total electron content in the case of the continuous heating of the ionosphere in the direction of the magnetic zenith according to the GLONASS satellite are: reduction of total electron content in the central zone of the antenna diagram, i. e. in the direction of the magnetic zenith, and presence of the increased values of total electron content at the edges of the heating zone. According to the incoherent scattering radar the heating of the ionosphere by the powerful short radio wave has created the region of the increased electron temperature and electron concentration along the direction of the magnetic zenith. The behavior of total electron content according to the GLONASS satellite and the radar of

  2. Demographics in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, James S.

    2011-05-01

    Astronomy has been undergoing a significant demographic shift over the last several decades, as shown by data presented in the 2000 National Research Council (NRC) report "Federal Funding of Astronomical Research," and the 2010 NRC report, "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics." For example, the number of advertised postdoctoral positions in astronomy has increased much more rapldly than the number of faculty positions, contributing to a holding pattern of early-career astronomers in multiple postdoctoral positions. This talk will summarize some of the current demographic trends in astronomy, including information about gender and ethnic diversity, and describe some of the possible implications for the future. I thank the members of the Astro2010 Demographics Study Group, as well as numerous white-paper contributors to Astro2010, for providing data and analyses.

  3. Essays on medieval computational astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bergón, José Chabás

    2014-01-01

    In Essays on Medieval Computational Astronomy the authors provide examples of original and intelligent approaches and solutions given by medieval astronomers to the problems of their discipline, mostly presented in the form of astronomical tables.

  4. History of the modern astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    The book treats the following topics: structure and motion of the sky - classical astronomy, origin of astrophysics, macrocosm - microcosm, and techniques and organization of research. 86 black-and-white and 15 color plates are included

  5. Adaptive Optics, LLLFT Interferometry, Astronomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    We propose to build a three telescope Michelson optical interferometer equipped with wavefront compensation technology as a demonstration and test bed for high resolution Deep Space Surveillance (DSS) and Astronomy...

  6. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  7. From astronomy to data science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Zaurín, Javier

    2018-01-01

    After almost ten years in academia I took one of the best decisions of my life: to leave it. This is my experience transitioning from astronomy to data science in search of a more open, fast-paced working environment.

  8. Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten contains the proceedings of a session of the Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group of the International Astronomical Union that took place during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU in Prague on 17th August 2006. In addition to the talks presented in Prague some contributions were solicited to give a more complete overview of `The Early History of European Radio Astronomy'.

  9. Radio astronomy on the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.O.; Asbell, J.

    1987-01-01

    The advantages and opportunities for radio astronomy on the moon during the early to mid 21st century are reviewed. In particular, it is argued that the lack of atmosphere, the extremely low seismic activity, the low RF background, and the natural cryogenic environment make the moon (particularly the far side and the poles) a nearly ideal locale for submillimeter/FIR to VLF (below 10 MHz) radio astronomy. 22 references

  10. Bibliometric evaluation of Finnish astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Finnish astronomy publishing provides us with an interesting data sample. It is small but not too small: approximately one thousand articles have been published in a decade. There are only four astronomy institutes to be compared. An interesting paradox also emerges in the field: while Finnish science assessments usually value highly the impact of scientific publishing, no serious evaluations using real bibliometric data have been made. To remedy this, a comprehensive ten-year database of ref...

  11. News clippings for introductory astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowsky, Matthew

    1999-09-01

    Most students entering our introductory astronomy course for nonscience majors arrive not merely lacking scientific facts-they also have misconceptions about the nature of science, and many have a handicapping ``science anxiety'' (in addition to math anxiety). So I have added a ``current science'' requirement to our introductory course. Each student must compile a file of five astronomy news articles taken from readily available sources.

  12. Inspiring the Next Generation: Astronomy Catalyzes K12 STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Thaller, Michelle; Winglee, Robert; Borders, Kyla

    2017-06-01

    K-12 educators need effective and relevant astronomy professional development. NASA's Mission Science provides innovative and accessible opportunities for K-12 teachers. Science questions involve scale and distance, including Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance of objects in the universe. Teachers can gain an understanding of basic telescopes, the history of telescopes, ground and satellite based telescopes, and models of JWST Telescope. An in-depth explanation of JWST and Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. During teacher training, we taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. The stations included an overview via lecture and power point, the use of ultraviolet beads to determine ultraviolet exposure, the study of lenticulars and diagramming of infrared data, looking at visible light through diffraction glasses and diagramming the data, protocols for using astronomy based research in the classroom, and infrared thermometers to compare environmental conditions around the observatory. An overview of LIDAR physics was followed up by a simulated LIDAR mapping of the topography of Mars.We will outline specific steps for K-12 infrared astronomy professional development, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional K-12 professional development.Funding was provided by Washington STEM, NASA, and the Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  13. Astronomy Research Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johson, Jolyon; Genet, Russell; Armstrong, James; Boyce, Grady; Boyce, Pat; Brewer, Mark; Buchheim, Robert; Carro, Joseph; Estrada, Reed; Estrada, Chris; Freed, Rachel; Gillette, Sean; Harshaw, Richard; Hollis, Thomas; Kenney, John; McGaughey, Seven; McNab, Christine; Mohanan, Kakkala; Sepulveda, Babs; Wallace, Dan; Wallen, Vera

    2015-05-01

    Traditional science lectures and labs are often enhanced through project- and team-based learning. Some students go beyond these classroom studies by conducting research, often under the guidance of university professors. A one-semester astronomy research seminar was initiated in 2006 in collaboration with the community of professional and amateur double star astronomers. The result was dozens of jointly-authored papers published in the Journal of Double Star Observations and the Annual Proceedings of the Society of Astronomical Sciences. This seminar, and its affiliated community, launched a series of conferences and books, providing students with additional forums to share their double star research. The original seminar, and its derivatives, enhanced educational careers through college admissions and scholarships. To expand the seminar's reach, it was restructured from a few teams at one school, to many teams, each from a different school. A volunteer from each school became an assistant instructor. Most of them were seminar veterans, experienced astronomers, or science teachers. The assistant instructors, in turn, recruited enthusiastic students for their teams. To avoid student and instructor overload, the seminar focused on its three deliverables: a formal proposal, published paper, and public PowerPoint presentation. Future seminars may offer other astronomical research options such as exoplanet transit or eclipsing binary photometry.

  14. Gnuastro: GNU Astronomy Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Gnuastro (GNU Astronomy Utilities) manipulates and analyzes astronomical data. It is an official GNU package of a large collection of programs and C/C++ library functions. Command-line programs perform arithmetic operations on images, convert FITS images to common types like JPG or PDF, convolve an image with a given kernel or matching of kernels, perform cosmological calculations, crop parts of large images (possibly in multiple files), manipulate FITS extensions and keywords, and perform statistical operations. In addition, it contains programs to make catalogs from detection maps, add noise, make mock profiles with a variety of radial functions using monte-carlo integration for their centers, match catalogs, and detect objects in an image among many other operations. The command-line programs share the same basic command-line user interface for the comfort of both the users and developers. Gnuastro is written to comply fully with the GNU coding standards and integrates well with all Unix-like operating systems. This enables astronomers to expect a fully familiar experience in the source code, building, installing and command-line user interaction that they have seen in all the other GNU software that they use. Gnuastro's extensive library is included for users who want to build their own unique programs.

  15. Stellar extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, W.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The design, calibration, and launch of a rocket-borne imaging telescope for extreme ultraviolet astronomy are described. The telescope, which employed diamond-turned grazing incidence optics and a ranicon detector, was launched November 19, 1976, from the White Sands Missile Range. The telescope performed well and returned data on several potential stellar sources of extreme ultraviolet radiation. Upper limits ten to twenty times more sensitive than previously available were obtained for the extreme ultraviolet flux from the white dwarf Sirius B. These limits fall a factor of seven below the flux predicted for the star and demonstrate that the temperature of Sirius B is not 32,000 K as previously measured, but is below 30,000 K. The new upper limits also rule out the photosphere of the white dwarf as the source of the recently reported soft x-rays from Sirius. Two other white dwarf stars, Feige 24 and G191-B2B, were observed. Upper limits on the flux at 300 A were interpreted as lower limits on the interstellar hydrogen column densities to these stars. The lower limits indicate interstellar hydrogen densitites of greater than .02 cm -3 . Four nearby stars (Sirius, Procyon, Capella, and Mirzam) were observed in a search for intense low temperature coronae or extended chromospheres. No extreme ultraviolet radiation from these stars was detected, and upper limits to their coronal emisson measures are derived

  16. Astronomy and Atmospheric Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Les; Gaina, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The authors discusse the insuccess of the observation of the Total Eclipse of the Moon from 10 december 2011 in Romania and relate them with meteoconditions. Only a very short part of the last penumbral phase was observed, while the inital part and the totality was not observed due to very dense clouds. The change in color and brightness during this phase was signaled. Meanwhile, there is an area of science where clouds are of great use and interest. This area is Atmospheric optics, while the science which study clouds is meteorology. Clouds in combination with Solar and Moon light could give rise to a variety of strange, rare and unobvious phenomena in the atmosphere (sky), sometimes confused with Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO). The importance of meteorology for astronomy and atmospheric optics is underlined and an invitation to astronomers to use unfavourable days for athmospheric observations was sent. The web address of the site by Les Cowley, designed for atmospheric optics phenomena is contained in the text of the entry.

  17. Grab 'n' go astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2014-01-01

      Like everyone else, most amateur astronomers live busy lives. After a long day, the last thing you want as an observer is to have to lug out a large telescope and spend an hour getting it ready before it can be used. Maybe you are going somewhere sure to have dark skies, but you don’t necessarily want astronomy to dominate the trip. Or you are not quite committed to owning a large telescope, but curious enough to see what a smaller, portable setup can accomplish. These are times when a small “grab ’n’ go” telescope, or even a pair of binoculars, is the ideal in­strument. And this book can guide you in choosing and best utilizing that equipment.   What makes a telescope fall into the “grab ’n’ go” category? That’s easy – speed of setting up, ease of use, and above all, portability. This ambitious text is dedicated to those who love to or – because of their limited time – must observe the sky at a moment’s notice. Whether observing from the comfort of a backyard or while on busi...

  18. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  19. Radio Astronomy on and Around the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcke, Heino; Klein Wolt, Mark; Ping, Jinsong; Chen, Linjie

    2018-06-01

    The exploration of remote places on other planets has now become a major goal in current space flight scenarios. On the other hand, astronomers have always sought the most remote and isolated sites to place their observatories and to make their most precise and most breath taking discoveries. Especially for radio astronomy, lunar exploration offers a complete new window to the universe. The polar region and the far-side of the moon are acknowledged as unique locations for a low-frequency radio telescope providing scientific data at wavelengths that cannot be obtained from the Earth nor from single satellites. Scientific areas to be covered range from radio surveys, to solar-system studies, exo-planet detection, and astroparticle physics. The key science area, however, is the detection and measurement of cosmological 21 cm hydrogen emission from the still unexplored dark ages of the universe. Developing a lunar radio facility can happen in steps and may involve small satellites, rover-based radio antennas, of free- flying constellations around the moon. A first such step could be the Netherlands-Chinese Long Wavelength Explorer (NCLE), which is supposed to be launched in 2018 as part of the ChangE’4 mission to the moon-earth L2 point.

  20. Compact Radiative Control Structures for Millimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari D.; Chuss, David T.; Chervenak, James A.; Henry, Ross M.; Moseley, s. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested compact radiative control structures, including antireflection coatings and resonant absorbers, for millimeter through submillimeter wave astronomy. The antireflection coatings consist of micromachined single crystal silicon dielectric sub-wavelength honeycombs. The effective dielectric constant of the structures is set by the honeycomb cell geometry. The resonant absorbers consist of pieces of solid single crystal silicon substrate and thin phosphorus implanted regions whose sheet resistance is tailored to maximize absorption by the structure. We present an implantation model that can be used to predict the ion energy and dose required for obtaining a target implant layer sheet resistance. A neutral density filter, a hybrid of a silicon dielectric honeycomb with an implanted region, has also been fabricated with this basic approach. These radiative control structures are scalable and compatible for use large focal plane detector arrays.

  1. Teaching of Science Through the Seedbed of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Pedraza, L. A.; Salinas Barreto, L. F.

    2017-07-01

    This astronomy seedbed seeks for different methodologies for the development of lifelong learning; this seedbed works through three lines of field that are: rocketry (work different models to reach an advanced machinery), paper models of probes and space vehicles (looking for the representation of the mechanism and its operation), comets (the study of movement in our solar system). In light of the above this seedbed will achieve a breakthrough in science thanks to this learning based on field projects, with different methodologies of study. For this reason we took into account the design and modeling of structures for the explanation of astronomical trends. Taking into account a school curriculum with research activities in astronomy, astrophysics and aerospace science-oriented from the basic knowledge of astronomy, such as the modeling of the motion of the planets, the model of an immediately propulsion rocket and the representation of the functioning of a black hole. The advances were: in rocketry on February 18 2012, in the municipality of "Villa de Leyva", in honor of the 100th anniversary of the founder of the Dominicans of St Catherine of Siena, was launched a pilot of solid fuel rocket with a payload that reached a height of a thousand meters. The modeling on paper in 2015, in the seedbed of astronomy were different models of rockets, spacecraft and satellites. In order to be able to explain in a simple and didactic way the advances in astronomy of these technological mechanism. Since 2015 the observation camp has taken place using telescopes Smith Cassegrain type. This equipment allow investigators to get photos using color filters, which demonstrate the process of this great event.

  2. “Big Data” Teen Astronomy Cafes at NOAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen; Walker, Constance E.

    2018-01-01

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory has designed and implemented a prototype educational program designed to test and understand best practices with high school students to promote an understanding of modern astronomy research with its emphasis on large data sets, data tools, and visualization tools. This program, designed to cultivate the interest of talented youth in astronomy, is based on a teen science café model developed at Los Alamos as the Café Scientifique New Mexico. In our program, we provide a free, fun way for teens to explore current research topics in astronomy on Saturday mornings at the NOAO headquarters. The program encourages stimulating conversations with astronomers in an informal and relaxed setting, with free food of course. The café is organized through a leadership team of local high school students and recruits students from all parts of the greater Tucson area. The high school students who attend have the opportunity to interact with expert astronomers working with large astronomical data sets on topics such as killer asteroids, the birth and death of stars, colliding galaxies, the structure of the universe, gravitational waves, gravitational lensing, dark energy, and dark matter. The students also have the opportunity to explore astronomical data sets and data tools using computers provided by the program. The program may serve as a model for educational outreach for the 40+ institutions involved in the LSST.

  3. Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    A new era in astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years, as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters - through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources and opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.

  4. UV astronomy throughout the ages: a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    2018-05-01

    Astronomers have long recognized the critical need for ultraviolet imaging, photometry and spectroscopy of stars, planets, and galaxies, but this need could not be satisfied without access to space and the development of efficient instrumentation. When UV measurements became feasible, first with rockets and then with satellites, major discoveries came rapidly. It is true in the UV spectral region as in all others, that significant increases in sensitivity, spectral resolution, and time domain coverage have led to significant new understanding of astrophysical phenomena. I will describe a selection of these discoveries made in each of three eras: (1) the early history of rocket instrumentation and Copernicus, the first UV satellite, (2) the discovery phase pioneered by the IUE, FUSE and EUVE satellites, and (3) the full flowering of UV astronomy with the successful operation of HST and its many instruments. I will also mention a few areas where future UV instrumentation could lead to new discoveries. This review concentrates on developments in stellar and interstellar UV spectroscopy; the major discoveries in galactic, extragalactic, and solar system research are beyond the scope of this review. The important topic of UV technologies and detectors, which enable the remarkable advances in UV astronomy are also not included in this review.

  5. The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schill, Lyndele; Ivory, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) program is designed to increase the number of underrepresented minority students into STEM and STEM careers by providing unique summer research experiences followed by long-term mentoring and cohort support. Hallmarks of the NAC program include: research or internship opportunities at one of the NAC partner sites, a framework to continue research over the academic year, peer and faculty mentoring, monthly virtual hangouts, and much more. NAC students also participate in two professional travel opportunities each year: the annual NAC conference at Howard University and poster presentation at the annual AAS winter meeting following their summer internship.The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) is a program led by the National Radio Astronomy Consortium (NRAO) and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), in partnership with the National Society of Black Physicist (NSBP), along with a number of minority and majority universities.

  6. Astronomy education through interactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Antunes de Macêdo, Josué

    2015-08-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, using the mixed methodology, combined with the three pedagogical moments. Among other aspects, the viability of the use of resources was noticed, involving digital technologies and interactive materials on teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options for future teachers and meet their training needs.

  7. International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornthum, B.; Kunjaya, C.

    2011-01-01

    The International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics, an annual astronomy and astrophysics competition for high school students, is described. Examples of problems and solutions from the competition are also given. (Contains 3 figures.)

  8. Astronomy and Shakespeare's Hamlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1996-05-01

    Payne-Gaposchkin and others have suggested that Hamlet shows evidence of the Bard's awareness of the astronomical revolutions of the sixteenth century. I summarize major arguments and note that the play's themes recur in modern astronomy teaching and research: (1) The play amounts to a redefinition of universal order and humankind's position in it. (2) There is interplay between appearance and reality. Such a contrast is commonplace wherever superficial celestial appearances obscure underlying physical realities, the nature of which emerge as the tale unfolds. (3) The outermost sphere of the Ptolemaic and Copernican models seems to encase humanity, who are liberated by the reality of Digges' model and the implications advanced by Bruno. Similarly the oppressiveness of the castle interior is relieved by the observing platform which enables the heavens to be viewed in their true light. (4) Hamlet could be bounded in a nut-shell and count himself a king of infinite space, were it not that he has bad dreams. These concern the subversiveness of the new doctrine, for Hamlet refers to the infinite universe only hypothetically and in the presence of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who are named for relatives of the Danish astronomer Brahe. (5) Hamlet, and Brahe and Bruno, have connections to the university at Wittenberg, as does the Copernican champion Rheticus. (6) Ways are needed to reveal both the truths of nature, and the true nature of Danish royalty. Those unaccustomed to science think that there is madness in Hamlet's method. In particular, `doubt' is advanced as a methodological principle of inquiry. (7) The impression of normalcy and propriety in the upper reaches of society is like the false impression of an encapsulating universe. In Hamlet this duality is dramatized tragically, whereas in King John (cf. BAAS 27, 1325, 1995) it is not; for by 1601 when the writing of Hamlet was probably completed, Shakespeare would have known of the martyrdom of Bruno the previous

  9. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1963-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 2 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of six chapters and begins with a summary of observational record on twilight extensions of the Venus cusps. The next chapter deals with the common and related properties of binary stars, with emphasis on the evaluation of their cataclysmic variables. Cataclysmic variables refer to an object in one of three classes: dwarf nova, nova, or supernova. These topics are followed by discussions on the eclipse phenomena and the eclipses i

  10. Vistas in astronomy. Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with theoretical and experimental work in solar, planetary, and stellar astronomy, including stellar spectroscopy, photometry, and radio astronomy. The topics covered include: solar flares, the historical development of solar theories, the intrinsic light variation and the reflection effect in very close eclipsing binary systems with distorted components, spectroscopic binaries, early-type stars with abnormal spectra, photometric classification of the O-B stars, the nova DQ Herculis, emission nebulas at radio wavelengths, and the planetary nebulas as radio sources. (IAA)

  11. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  12. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1966-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 4 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and starts with a description of objective prism and its application in space observations. The next chapter deals with the possibilities of deriving reliable models of the figure, density distribution, and gravity field of the Moon based on data obtained through Earth-bound telescopes. These topics are followed by a discussion on the ideal partially relativistic, partially degenerate gas in an exact manner. A ch

  13. Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perley, R.A.; Schwab, F.R.; Bridle, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques and instrumentation for radio synthesis imaging in astronomy are discussed in a collection of review essays. Topics addressed include coherence in radio astronomy, the interferometer in practice, primary antenna elements, cross correlators, calibration and editing, sensitivity, deconvolution, self-calibration, error recognition, and image analysis. Consideration is given to wide-field imaging (bandwidth and time-average smearing, noncoplanar arrays, and mosaicking), high-dynamic-range imaging, spectral-line imaging, VLBI, solar imaging with a synthesis telescope, synthesis imaging of spatially coherent objects, noise in images of very bright sources, synthesis observing strategies, and the design of aperture-synthesis arrays

  14. Informal Education: Slacker Astronomy Podcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.

    2005-12-01

    Slacker Astronomy is a weekly podcast about astronomy begun in February, 2005. Each week we cover a recent astronomical news event. We present it with humor and silliness, yet we respect the intelligence of the audience and do not ``dumb it down." Since we are professional astronomers we often cover items ignored by traditional press. We currently have around 10,000 loyal weekly listeners. All our shows are rated for content and available to the public under the Creative Commons license. Both scripts and audio are also used as source material by parents, teachers and planetarium directors.

  15. Astronomy 3.0 Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, A.

    2010-10-01

    Over the next decade, we will witness the development of a new infrastructure in support of data-intensive scientific research, which includes Astronomy. This new networked environment will offer both challenges and opportunities to our community and has the potential to transform the way data are described, curated and preserved. Based on the lessons learned during the development and management of the ADS, a case is made for adopting the emerging technologies and practices of the Semantic Web to support the way Astronomy research will be conducted. Examples of how small, incremental steps can, in the aggregate, make a significant difference in the provision and repurposing of astronomical data are provided.

  16. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1968-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 6 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and starts with the description of improved methods for analyzing and classifying families of periodic orbits in a conservative dynamical system with two degrees of freedom. The next chapter describes the variation of fractional luminosity of distorted components of close binary systems in the course of their revolution, or the accompanying changes in radial velocity. This topic is followed by discussions on vari

  17. Practical astronomy with your calculator

    CERN Document Server

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Practical Astronomy with your Calculator, first published in 1979, has enjoyed immense success. The author's clear and easy to follow routines enable you to solve a variety of practical and recreational problems in astronomy using a scientific calculator. Mathematical complexity is kept firmly in the background, leaving just the elements necessary for swiftly making calculations. The major topics are: time, coordinate systems, the Sun, the planetary system, binary stars, the Moon, and eclipses. In the third edition there are entirely new sections on generalised coordinate transformations, nutr

  18. Indian Astronomy: The Missing Link in Eurocentric History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shirin; Sharma, Deva

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive history of Astronomy should show in reasonable chronological order, the contributions from wherever they arise in the world, once they are reliably documented. However, the authors note that consistently, the extremely rich contributions from Ancient Indian scholars like Aryabatha and Bhramagupta are omitted in Eurocentric…

  19. Blazing the Trail for Astronomy Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Janelle M.; Lombardi, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Education research has long considered student learning of topics in astronomy and the space sciences, but astronomy education research as a sub-field of discipline-based education research is relatively new. Driven by a growing interest among higher education astronomy educators in improving the general education, introductory science survey…

  20. The Explorer program for astronomy and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, B.D.; Becklin, E.E.; Cassinelli, J.P.; Dupree, A.K.; Elliot, J.L.; Hoffmann, W.F.; Hudson, H.S.; Jura, M.; Kurfess, J.; Murray, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    This report was prepared to provide NASA with a strategy for proceeding with Explorer-class programs for research in space astronomy and astrophysics. The role of Explorers in astronomy and astrophysics and their past accomplishments are discussed, as are current and future astronomy and astrophysics Explorers. Specific cost needs for an effective Explorer program are considered

  1. Division B Commission 40: Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, Jessica M.; Giovaninni, Gabriele; Taylor, Russell; Carilli, Christopher; Hills, Richard; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Jonas, Justin L.; Lazio, Joseph; Morganti, Raffaella; Nan, Rendong; Rubio, Monica; Shastri, Prjaval; Kellermann, Ken; Ekers, Ronald; Ohishi, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    IAU Commission 40 for Radio Astronomy (hereafter C40) brought together scientists and engineers who carry out observational and theoretical research in radio astronomy and who develop and operate the ground and space-based radio astronomy facilities and instrumentation. As of June 2015, the

  2. The LASL gamma-ray burst astronomy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebesadel, R.W.; Evans, W.D.; Laros, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst observations performed by LASL began with the identification and initial report of the phenomenon from data acquired by the Vela satellites. The Vela instruments have recorded responses to 73 gamma-ray bursts over a ten-year interval, and are continuing to contribute toward these observations. Similar instrumentation was included aboard the NRL SOLRAD 11 spacecraft. These performed well but suffered an early demise. Recently, the LASL gamma-ray burst astronomy program has been enhanced through the implementation of experiments aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and ISEF-C spacecraft. Both of these experiments are continuing to contribute data vital to trigonometric directional analyses. (orig.)

  3. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  4. Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar medium, Light, Magnetisphere, Matter, Planet Earth, Public Impact, Solar Activity, Solar Heliosphere, Solar Interior, Solar Systems, Space, Stellar Astrophysics, Stellar Populations, Telescopes, Time The Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics covers 30 major subject areas, such as Active galaxies, Astrometry, Astrophysical theory, Atmospheres, Binary stars, Biography, Clusters, Coordinates, Cosmology, Earth, Education, Galaxies,

  5. Recent advances in infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, E.I.

    1980-01-01

    A background survey is given of developments in infrared astronomy during the last decade. Advantages obtained in using infrared wavelengths to penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and the detectors used for this work are considered. Infrared studies of, among other subjects, the stars, dust clouds, the centre of our galaxy and the 3k cosmic background radiation, are discussed. (UK)

  6. Utrecht and Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, H.

    Important roles in early Dutch Galactic radio astronomy were played by several Utrecht astronomers: Van de Hulst, Minnaert and Houtgast. The poster announcing the conference contained a number of pictures referring to scientific achievements of the Astronomical Institute Utrecht. One of these

  7. Service Learning in Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Service learning is a method of instruction where the students in a course use the course's content in a service project. The service is included as a portion of the students' course grades. During the fall semester 2010, service learning was incorporated into the Introduction to Astronomy course at Misericordia University. The class had eight…

  8. Network for Astronomy School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, Susana E.; Ros, R. M.; Garcia, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Network for Astronomy School Education Project (NASE) was developed in response to the IAU's most recent 10 Years Strategic Plan to increase the efforts of the IAU in schools. NASE's mission is to stimulate teaching astronomy in schools, through professional development of primary and secondary school science teachers in developing and emerging countries. NASE's organizational principle is to build capacity by providing courses for three years in cooperation with a Local Organizing Committee (Local NASE Group). The Local NASE Group consists of 6-8 local university professors and education professional who will promote astronomy activities and organize future courses in subsequent years in their region of their country. NASE philosophy is to introduce low-tech astronomy, and has thus developed an a suite of activities that can be carried out with inexpensive, quotidian materials. Supporting these activities is a text for teachers, plus a complete set of instructional materials for each topic. These materials are available in English and Spanish, with future editions available in Chinese and Portuguese. We describe and discuss NASE activities in Central and South America from 2009 to the present.

  9. Gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly and significant wave height from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 satellites (NODC Accession 0065055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and Ku Band significant wave height (SWH-KU) observed from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2...

  10. Introduction to methods of approximation in physics and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    van Putten, Maurice H P M

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides students with a solid introduction to the techniques of approximation commonly used in data analysis across physics and astronomy. The choice of methods included is based on their usefulness and educational value, their applicability to a broad range of problems and their utility in highlighting key mathematical concepts. Modern astronomy reveals an evolving universe rife with transient sources, mostly discovered - few predicted - in multi-wavelength observations. Our window of observations now includes electromagnetic radiation, gravitational waves and neutrinos. For the practicing astronomer, these are highly interdisciplinary developments that pose a novel challenge to be well-versed in astroparticle physics and data-analysis. The book is organized to be largely self-contained, starting from basic concepts and techniques in the formulation of problems and methods of approximation commonly used in computation and numerical analysis. This includes root finding, integration, signal dete...

  11. Multi-Messenger Astronomy and Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Lars

    This chapter presents the elaborated lecture notes on Multi-Messenger Astronomy and Dark Matter given by Lars Bergström at the 40th Saas-Fee Advanced Course on "Astrophysics at Very High Energies". One of the main problems of astrophysics and astro-particle physics is that the nature of dark matter remains unsolved. There are basically three complementary approaches to try to solve this problem. One is the detection of new particles with accelerators, the second is the observation of various types of messengers from radio waves to gamma-ray photons and neutrinos, and the third is the use of ingenious experiments for direct detection of dark matter particles. After giving an introduction to the particle universe, the author discusses the relic density of particles, basic cross sections for neutrinos and gamma-rays, supersymmetric dark matter, detection methods for neutralino dark matter, particular dark matter candidates, the status of dark matter detection, a detailled calculation on an hypothetical "Saas-Fee Wimp", primordial black holes, and gravitational waves.

  12. Acceleration of Magnetospheric Relativistic Electrons by Ultra-Low Frequency Waves: A Comparison between Two Cases Observed by Cluster and LANL Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X.; Fung, S. F.; Tan, L. C.; Sharma, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the origin and acceleration of magnetospheric relativistic electrons (MREs) in the Earth's radiation belt during geomagnetic storms is an important subject and yet one of outstanding questions in space physics. It has been statistically suggested that during geomagnetic storms, ultra-low-frequency (ULF) Pc-5 wave activities in the magnetosphere are correlated with order of magnitude increase of MRE fluxes in the outer radiation belt. Yet, physical and observational understandings of resonant interactions between ULF waves and MREs remain minimum. In this paper, we show two events during storms on September 25, 2001 and November 25, 2001, the solar wind speeds in both cases were > 500 km/s while Cluster observations indicate presence of strong ULF waves in the magnetosphere at noon and dusk, respectively, during a approx. 3-hour period. MRE observations by the Los Alamos (LANL) spacecraft show a quadrupling of 1.1-1.5 MeV electron fluxes in the September 25, 2001 event, but only a negligible increase in the November 2.5, 2001 event. We present a detailed comparison between these two events. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of MRE acceleration during the September 25, 2001 event can be attributed to the compressional wave mode with strong ULF wave activities and the physical origin of MRE acceleration depends more on the distribution of toroidal and poloidal ULF waves in the outer radiation belt.

  13. Saturn satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskol, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Saturn satellites are discussed. The satellites close to Saturn - Janus, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - rotate along the circular orbits. High reflectivity is attributed to them, and the density of the satellites is 1 g/cm 3 . Titan is one of the biggest Saturn satellites. Titan has atmosphere many times more powerful than that of Mars. The Titan atmosphere is a peculiar medium with a unique methane and hydrogen distribution in the whole Solar system. The external satellites - Hyperion, Japetus and Phoebe - are poorly investigated. Neither satellite substance density, nor their composition are known. The experimental data on the Saturn rings obtained on the ''Pioneer-11'' and ''Voyager-1'' satellites are presented [ru

  14. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Part I. Invited Discourses: 1. The Herschel view of star formation; 2. Past, present and future of Chinese astronomy; 3. The zoo of galaxies; 4. Supernovae, the accelerating cosmos, and dark energy; Part II. Joint Discussion: 5. Very massive stars in the local universe; 6. 3-D views of the cycling Sun in stellar context; 7. Ultraviolet emission in early-type galaxies; 8. From meteors and meteorites to their parent bodies: current status and future developments; 9. The connection between radio properties and high-energy emission in AGNs; 10. Space-time reference systems for future research; Part III. Special Sessions: 11. Origin and complexity of massive star clusters; 12. Cosmic evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; 13. Galaxy evolution through secular processes; 14. New era for studying interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields; 15. The IR view of massive stars: the main sequence and beyond; 16. Science with large solar telescopes; 17. The impact hazard: current activities and future plans; 18. Calibration of star-formation rate measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum; 19. Future large scale facilities; 20. Dynamics of the star-planet relations strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 21. Strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 22. Modern views of the interstellar medium; 23. High-precision tests of stellar physics from high-precision photometry; 24. Communicating astronomy with the public for scientists; 25. Data intensive astronomy; 26. Unexplained spectral phenomena in the interstellar medium; 27. Light pollution: protecting astronomical sites and increasing global awareness through education.

  15. Research on teaching astronomy in the planetarium

    CERN Document Server

    Slater, Timothy F

    2017-01-01

    From a noted specialist in astronomy education and outreach, this Brief provides an overview of the most influential discipline-based science education research literature now guiding contemporary astronomy teaching. In recent years, systematic studies of effective and efficient teaching strategies have provided a solid foundation for enhancing college-level students’ learning in astronomy. Teaching astronomy and planetary science at the college-level was once best characterized as professor-centered, information-download lectures. Today, astronomy faculty are striving to drastically improve the learning environment by using innovative teaching approaches.  Uniquely, the authors have organized this book around strands of commonly employed astronomy teaching strategies to help readers, professors, and scholars quickly access the most relevant work while, simultaneously, avoiding the highly specialized, technical vocabulary of constructivist educational pedagogies unfamiliar to most astronomy professors. F...

  16. Observational techniques of gamma rays astronomy in low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.M. da.

    1982-02-01

    Due to the absorption of great part of the gamma-ray spectrum of cosmic origin, by the earth's atmosphere at heights above 20Km, gamma-ray astronomy achieved its full development only after the advent of the space age. Ballons and satellites are the space vehicles which have been used to transport gamma-ray telescopes to observational heights in the atmosphere, or out of it. The results of these experiments can determine the sources, the energy spectra and the intensities of the cosmic gamma-rays, and provide other important information of astrophysical interest. The detection of gamma-rays of cosmic origin is very difficult. The observational techniques used in gamma-ray astronomy are dependent on the energy range of the gamma-rays which one desires to detect. The most common telescopes of low energy gamma-ray astronomy (50KeV - 20MeV) use NaI(Tl) scintillators, or germanium diodes, as principal detectors, surrounded by an active shield (anticoincidence) of organic or inorganic scintillators. (Author) [pt

  17. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna; DECIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Seiji; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi; Tsubono, Kimio; Tanaka, Takahiro; Funaki, Ikkoh; Seto, Naoki; Numata, Kenji; Sato, Shuichi; Ioka, Kunihito; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Akutsu, Tomotada; Akutsu, Tomomi

    2008-01-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry—Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to lau...

  18. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Seiji; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi; Tsubono, Kimio; Tanaka, Takahiro; Funaki, Iklkoh; Seto, Naoki; Numata, Kenji; Sato, Shuichi; Ioka, Kunihito; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Akutsu, Tomotada; Akutsu, Tomomi

    2008-01-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry—Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to lau...

  19. Photometric Exoplanet Characterization and Multimedia Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Kimberly M. S.

    The transit method of detecting exoplanets has dominated the search for distant worlds since the success of the Kepler space telescope and will continue to lead the field after the launch of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite in 2018. But detections are just the beginning. Transit light curves can only reveal a limited amount of information about a planet, and that information is almost entirely dependent on the properties of the host star or stars. This dissertation discusses follow-up techniques to more precisely characterize transiting planets using photometric observations. A high-resolution follow-up imaging program using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) searched for previously unknown stars nearby the hosts of small and cool Kepler exoplanets and observed a higher-than-expected occurrence rate of stellar multiplicity. The rate of previously unknown stellar multiples has strong implications for the size and habitability of the orbiting planets. Three systems with newly discovered stellar multiplicity, Kepler-296 (2 stars, 5 planets), KOI-2626 (3 stars, 1 planet), and KOI-3049 (2 stars, 1 planet), were characterized in more detail. In the cases of Kepler-296 and KOI-2626, some of the planets lost their previous habitable zone status because of host star ambiguity. Next, the ultra-short period, ultra-hot Jupiter WASP-103b was used as a casestudy to test for the presence of a stratospheric temperature inversion through dayside emission spectroscopy using HST. WASP-103b's near-infrared emission spectrum is consistent with an isothermal or thermally-inverted atmosphere and shows no significant broadband water absorption feature. Detection of an anomalously strong "super- Rayleigh" slope in its optical transmission spectrum prompted follow-up transmission spectroscopy of WASP-103b's atmosphere using the MINiature Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA), which tentatively verified the unexplained "super-Rayleigh" spectral slope. The final follow-up technique for

  20. Prospects for Observing and Localizing Gravitational-Wave Transients with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, R. M.; Bloernen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Coila, A.; Collette, C. G.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etze, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Garnrnaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keite, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kirmo, J.; Kina, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; MaIlga, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'De, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Pereira, R.R.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Sillgh, A.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toeyrae, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bake, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizigl, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a possible observing scenario for the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors over the next decade, with the intention of providing information to the astronomy community to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We determine the

  1. The Parametric Instability of Alfven Waves: Effects of Temperature Anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenerani, A.; Velli, M.; Hellinger, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 851, č. 2 (2017), 99/1-99/9 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10057S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : instabilities * plasmas * waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  2. Future prospects for γ-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.

    1981-01-01

    As γ-ray astronomy moves from the discovery to the exploratory phase, the promise of γ-ray astrophysics noted by theorists in the late 1940s and 1950s is beginning to be realized. In the future, satellites should carry instruments that will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far, and, for at least some portions of the γ-ray energy range, these detectors will also have substantially improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance our knowledge of several astrophysical phenomena including the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects, astrophysical nucleosynthesis, solar particle acceleration, the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the Solar System, the structure of our Galaxy, the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays, high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies especially active ones, and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the Universe. The γ-ray results of the forthcoming programs such as Gamma-I, the Gamma Ray Observatory, the γ-ray burst network, Solar Polar, and very high energy γ-ray telescopes on the ground will almost certainly provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the Space Platform currently under study by N.A.S.A. (author)

  3. Future prospects for. gamma. -ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichtel, C [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1981-06-30

    As ..gamma..-ray astronomy moves from the discovery to the exploratory phase, the promise of ..gamma..-ray astrophysics noted by theorists in the late 1940s and 1950s is beginning to be realized. In the future, satellites should carry instruments that will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far, and, for at least some portions of the ..gamma..-ray energy range, these detectors will also have substantially improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance our knowledge of several astrophysical phenomena including the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects, astrophysical nucleosynthesis, solar particle acceleration, the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the Solar System, the structure of our Galaxy, the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays, high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies especially active ones, and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the Universe. The ..gamma..-ray results of the forthcoming programs such as Gamma-I, the Gamma Ray Observatory, the ..gamma..-ray burst network, Solar Polar, and very high energy ..gamma..-ray telescopes on the ground will almost certainly provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the Space Platform currently under study by N.A.S.A.

  4. Infrared Astronomy Professional Development for K-12 Educators: WISE Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    K-12 educators need effective and relevant astronomy professional development. WISE Telescope (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) and Spitzer Space Telescope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico during the summer of 2009. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance of objects in the universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. The stations included an overview via lecture and power point, the use of ultraviolet beads to determine ultraviolet exposure, the study of WISE lenticulars and diagramming of infrared data, listening to light by using speakers hooked up to photoreceptor cells, looking at visible light through diffraction glasses and diagramming the data, protocols for using astronomy based research in the classroom, and infrared thermometers to compare environmental conditions around the observatory. An overview of LIDAR physics was followed up by a simulated LIDAR mapping of the topography of Mars. We will outline specific steps for K-12 infrared astronomy professional development, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional K-12 professional development. Funding was provided by WISE Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, Starbucks, Arecibo Observatory, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  5. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  6. Multimedia Astronomy Communication: Effectively Communicate Astronomy to the Desired Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Star Cartier, Kimberly Michelle; Wright, Jason

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of our jobs as scientists is communicating our work to others. In this, the field of astronomy holds the double-edged sword of ubiquitous fascination: the topic has been of interest to nearly the entire global population at some point in their lives, yet the learning curve is steep within any subfield and rife with difficult-to-synthesize details. Compounding this issue is the ever-expanding array of methods to reach people in today's Communications Era. Each communication medium has its own strengths and weaknesses, is appropriate in different situations, and requires its own specific skillset in order to maximize its functionality. Despite this, little attention is given to training astronomers in effective communication techniques, often relying on newcomers to simply pick up the ability by mimicking others and assuming that a firm grasp on the subject matter will make up for deficiencies in communication theory. This can restrict astronomers to a narrow set of communication methods, harming both the communicators and the audience who may struggle to access the information through those media.Whether writing a research paper to academic peers or giving an astronomy talk to a pubic audience, successfully communicating a scientific message requires more than just an expert grasp on the topic. A communicator must understand the makeup and prior knowledge of the desired audience, be able to break down the salient points of the topic into pieces that audience can digest, select and maximize upon a medium to deliver the message, and frame the message in a way that hooks the audience and compels further interest. In this work we synthesize the requirements of effective astronomy communication into a few key questions that every communicator needs to answer. We then discuss some of the most common media currently used to communicate astronomy, give both effective and poor examples of utilizing these media to communicate astronomy, and provide key

  7. Tangible Things of American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechner, Sara Jane

    2018-01-01

    As a science that studies celestial objects situated at vast distances from us, astronomy deals with few things that can be touched directly. And yet, astronomy has many tangible things—scientific instruments, observatories, and log books, for example—which link the past to the present. There is little question about maintaining things still valuable for scientific research purposes, but why should we care about documenting and preserving the old and obsolete? One answer is that material things, when closely examined, enhance our knowledge of astronomy’s history in ways that written texts alone cannot do. A second answer is that learning about the past helps us live critically in the present. In brief case studies, this talk will find meaning in objects that are extraordinary or commonplace. These will include a sundial, an almanac, telescopes, clocks, a rotating desk, photographic plates, and fly spankers.

  8. LGBT Workplace Climate in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, B. S.; Danner, R.; Dixon, W. V.; Henderson, C. B.; Kay, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality (WGLE) held a town hall meeting at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage to explore the workplace climate for LGBTIQ individuals working in Astronomy and related fields. Topics of discussion included anti-discrimination practices, general workplace climate, and pay and benefit policies. Four employment sectors were represented: industry, the federal government, private colleges, and public universities. We will summarize and expand on the town hall discussions and findings of the panel members.

  9. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  10. Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Suvaryan, Yu. M.; Mickaelian, A. M. (Eds.)

    2016-12-01

    The book contains 29 articles of the Proceedings of the Young Scientists Conference "Cultural Astronomy in the Armenian Highland" held at the Armenian National Academy of Sciences on 20-23 June 2016. It consists of 4 main sections: "Introductory", "Cultural Astronomy", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Journalism, Astronomical Education and Amateur Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, culturologists, philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists, art historians, ethnographers and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  11. Ancient Indian Astronomy in Introductory Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari Achar, B. N.

    1997-10-01

    It is customary in introductory survey courses in astronomy to devote some time to the history of astronomy. In the available text books only the Greek contribution receives any attention. Apart from Stonehenge and Chichenitza pictures, contributions from Babylon and China are some times mentioned. Hardly any account is given of ancient Indian astronomy. Even when something is mentioned it is incomplete or incorrect or both. Examples are given from several text books currently available. An attempt is made to correct this situation by sketching the contributions from the earliest astronomy of India, namely Vedaanga Jyotisha.

  12. Improving Astronomy Achievement and Attitude through Astronomy Summer Project: A Design, Implementation and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Cumhur; Kalkan, Hüseyin; Iskeleli', Nazan Ocak; Kiroglu, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of an astronomy summer project implemented in different learning activities on elementary school students, pre-service elementary teachers and in-service teachers' astronomy achievement and their attitudes to astronomy field. This study is the result of a five-day, three-stage, science school,…

  13. The Relationship between Preservice Science Teachers' Attitude toward Astronomy and Their Understanding of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2016-01-01

    Turkish preservice science teachers have been taking a two-credit astronomy class during the last semester of their undergraduate program since 2010. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between preservice science teachers' astronomy misconceptions and their attitudes toward astronomy. Preservice science teachers were given an…

  14. First detections of gravitational waves from binary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejger, Michał

    2017-01-01

    Recent direct detections of gravitational waves from coalescing binary black holes systems herald a new era in the observational astronomy, as well as in experimental verifications of the theories of gravity. I will present the principles of detection of gravitational waves, current state-of-art laser interferometric detectors (Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo), and the most promising astrophysical sources of gravitational waves. (paper)

  15. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus: Semantic Metadata for Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Katie; Accomazzi, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Several controlled vocabularies have been developed and used by the astronomical community, each designed to serve a specific need and a specific group. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) attempts to provide a highly structured controlled vocabulary that will be relevant and useful across the entire discipline, regardless of content or platform. Because classifying articles and data will be the two major functions of the UAT, we examine the UAT in comparison with the Astronomical Subject Keywords used by major publications and the JWST Science Keywords used by STScI’s Astronomer’s Proposal Tool.

  16. The Use of Resonant Orbits in Satellite Geodesy: A Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klokočník, Jaroslav; Gooding, R. H.; Wagner, C. A.; Kostelecký, J.; Bezděk, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 43-72 ISSN 0169-3298 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No. 98056 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : satellite geodesy * Earth's gravitational field * geopotential Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.112, year: 2013

  17. Second-degree Stokes coefficients from multi-satellite SLR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blossfeld, M.; Mueller, H.; Gerstl, M.; Štefka, Vojtěch; Bouman, J.; Goettl, F.; Horwath, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 9 (2015), s. 857-871 ISSN 0949-7714 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : multi-satellite SLR * stokes coefficients * equatorial excitation functions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.486, year: 2015

  18. A New Online Astronomy Resource for Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C. D.; Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Patikkal, A.; Srinathan, A.; Austin, C. L.; Ganesan, N. K.; Guvenen, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    A new web site called "Teach Astronomy" (http://www.teachastronomy.com) has been created to serve astronomy instructors and their students, amateur astronomers, and members of the public interested in astronomy. The

  19. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  20. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2010-08-01

    Bring telescopes to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a three-year NASA-funded astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after music concerts and outdoor family events—such as a Halloween Stars-Spooky Garden Walk. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience: music lovers who are attending summer concerts held in community parks. These music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. This program includes solar observing before the concerts, telescope observations including a live image projection system, an astronomical video presentation, and astronomy banners/posters. Approximately 500-16,000 people attended each event and 25% to 50% of the people at each event participated in the astronomy program. This program also reached underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,900,000 people, which is larger than combined population of Atlanta, Boston, Denver, Minneapolis, and San Francisco. Although eleven events were planned in 2009, two were canceled due to rain and our largest event, the NY Philharmonic in the Park (attended by 67,000 people in 2008), was cancelled for financial reasons. Our largest event in 2009 was the Tanglewood Music Festival, Lenox MA, attended by 16,000 people where over 5000 people participated in astronomy activities. The Amateur Observers' Society of New York assisted with the NY concerts and the Springfield STARS astronomy club assisted at Tanglewood. In 2009 over 15,000 people participated in astronomy

  1. Third-World Astronomy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlikar, Jayant V.

    Several developing countries of the Third World have been actively interested in astronomy, as is evidenced by the membership of the IAU. The enthusiasm of individual astronomers from these countries is, however, not matched by the resources available to them to pursue their interest in astronomy, in teaching as well as research, at an above-threshold level. Major problems requiring solutions are (I) isolation from the mainstream work, which leads to research work which is not quite relevant or realistic, and to teaching based on outdated knowledge; (II) lack of financial resources, leading to shortage of books and journals in the library, insufficient computing power, out-of-date instruments, as well as inability to participate in essential activities like schools, workshops, and major international conferences and symposia; and (III) lack of handson experience with state-of-the-art instrumentation that often leads to good scientists being turned away from astronomical observations towards abstract theories. Experience of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, Italy and of the inter-university centres in India, like the IUCAA at Pune, has shown that limited resources can be made to go a long way by sharing, networking and intelligent use of communications technology. Based on the above experience, this proposal envisages setting up a Third World Astronomy Network (TWAN) under the auspices of the IAU, within the wider ICSU-umbrella with support from the UNESCO as well as participating nations. The TWAN will operate with a few key institutions as local nodal points of a wide network. The objectives of the proposed TWAN and the role of the Nodal Institutions (NIs) are spelled out in this proposal, along with the budgetary support required.

  2. Fallacies in astronomy and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpeter, Edwin E

    2005-01-01

    Both in astronomy and in medicine research, fallacies occur occasionally. Sometimes these fallacies are due to 'subconscious cheating' or the 'file drawer effect' (filing away unfavourable results instead of publishing), but it is difficult to know whether a fallacy has occurred and, if so, why. I give two examples from the past where, in my opinion, fallacies have occurred: a quadratic distance-redshift law and a periodicity in galaxy pair redshift differences. I then discuss the current quasi steady state cosmology, which is very unorthodox but it is not yet clear if fallacies have occurred. I finish with examples from medicine research, where fallacies are particularly troublesome and some countermeasures are attempted

  3. The handy astronomy answer book

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, PhD, Charles

    2013-01-01

    From planetary movements and the exploration of our solar system to black holes and dark matter, this comprehensive reference simplifies all aspects of astronomy with an approachable question-and-answer format. With chapters broken into various astronomical studies—including the universe, galaxies, planets, and space exploration—this fully updated resource is an ideal companion for students, teachers, and amateur astronomers, answering more than 1,000 questions, such as Is the universe infinite? What would happen to you if you fell onto a black hole? What are the basic concepts of Einstein's special theory of relativity? and Who was the first person in space?.

  4. CD-ROMs in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K.

    The CD-ROM has become a major data storage medium in astronomy. The release of the Digitized Sky Survey is the most recent example of this phenomena. I will summarize the large scale jukebox technologies available for making the DSS available over LANs (Local Area Networks). I will also give an overview of the developments in disciplines such as medicine, chemistry and business, where CD-ROMs have been used to distribute the full text of journals. These factors may give us insights into the future role of CD-ROMs.

  5. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Ian

    2010-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Gruber Cosmology Prize Lecture; Part II. Invited Discourses; Part III. Joint Discussions: 1. Dark matter in early-type galaxies Léon V. E. Koopmans and Tommaso Treu; 2. Diffuse light in galaxy clusters Magda Arnaboldi and Ortwin Gerhard; 3. Neutron stars - timing in extreme environments Tomaso Belloni, Mariano Méndez and Chengmin Zhang; 4. Progress in understanding the physics of Ap and related stars Margarida Cunha; 5. Modelling the Milky Way in the age of Gaia Annie C. Robin; 6. Time and astronomy Pascale Defraigne; 7. Astrophysical outflows and associated accretion phenomena Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex C. Raga; 8. Hot interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies Dong-Woo Kim and Silvia Pellegrini; 9. Are the fundamental constants varying with time? Paolo Molaro and Elisabeth Vangioni; 10. 3D views on cool stellar atmospheres - theory meets observation K. N. Nagendra, P. Bonifacio and H. G. Ludwig; 11. New advances in helio- and astero-seismology; 12. The first galaxies - theoretical predictions and observational clues; 13. Eta Carinae in the context of the most massive stars Theodore R. Gull and Augusto Damineli; 14. The ISM of galaxies in the far-infrared and sub-millimetre; 15. Magnetic fields in diffuse media Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal Pino and Alex Lazarian; 16. IHY global campaign - whole heliosphere interval; Part IV. Special Sessions: SpS 1. IR and sub-mm spectroscopy - a new tool for studying stellar evolution Glenn Wahlgren, Hans Käufl and Florian Kerber; SpS 2. The international year of astronomy Pedro Russo, Catherine Cesarsky and Lars Lindberg Christensen; SpS 3. Astronomy in Antarctica in 2009 Michael G. Burton; SpS 4. Astronomy education between past and future J. P. De Greve; SpS 5. Accelerating the rate of astronomical discovery Ray P. Norris; SpS 6. Planetary systems as potential sites for life Régis Courtin, Alan Boss and Michel Mayor; SpS 7. Young stars, brown dwarfs, and protoplanetary disks Jane Gregorio

  6. Astronomy Map of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D.

    2017-09-01

    I have created an online clickable and zoom-enabled world map - now viewed over 5,400 times - that contains weblinks to institutions where astronomy is either researched professionally and / or and taught in classrooms at the university level. Not included are stand-alone museums, planetariums, amateur astronomical societies, virtual institutes, nor observatories which do not fulfill this criteria. One can click on a marker to access the relevant institute. The map currently contains 697 institutes, and has multiple potential uses for undergraduate students, graduate students, postdocs, faculty and journal editors.

  7. The Hartebeeshoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolson, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the questions, problems and study fields of the modern astronomer. Radioastronomy has made important contributions to the study of the evolution of stars and has given much information on the birth of stars while at the other extreme, studies of neutron stars and the radio emission from the remnants of supernova explosions have given further insight into the death of individual stars. Radio astronomical studies have learned astronomers much about the structure of the Milky way and some twenty years ago, in a search for new radio galaxies, quasars were discovered. Radioastronomy research in South Africa is carried out at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

  8. High-energy gamma-ray astronomy and the COS-B mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The most significant results in gamma-ray astronomy have been produced by satellite- and balloon-borne instruments sensitive in the range 30 MeV to approximately 10 GeV. The COS-B instrument which is described is typical of this type of detector. For this reason the review of gamma-ray production mechanisms gives greater attention to those processes which are specifically important in that energy range. (orig.) [de

  9. Astronomy Education in Morocco - New Project for Implementing Astronomy in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhmaoui, H.; Loudiyi, K.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy education in Morocco, like in many developing countries, is not well developed and lacks the very basics in terms of resources, facilities and research. In 2004, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) signed an agreement of collaboration with Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane to support the continued, long-term development of astronomy and astrophysics in Morocco. This is within the IAU program "Teaching for Astronomy Development" (TAD). The initial focus of the program concentrated exclusively on the University's Bachelor of Science degree program. Within this program, and during two years, we were successful in providing adequate astronomy training to our physics faculty and few of our engineering students. We also offered our students and community general astronomy background through courses, invited talks and extra curricular activities. The project is now evolving towards a wider scope and seeks promoting astronomy education at the high school level. It is based on modules from the Hands on Universe (HOU) interactive astronomy program. Moroccan students will engage in doing observational astronomy from their PCs. They will have access to a world wide network of telescopes and will interact with their peers abroad. Through implementing astronomy education at this lower age, we foresee an increasing interest among our youth not only in astronomy but also in physics, mathematics, and technology. The limited astronomy resources, the lack of teachers experience in the field and the language barrier are amongst the difficulties that we'll be facing in achieving the objectives of this new program.

  10. Teach Astronomy: An Online Textbook for Introductory Astronomy Courses and Resources for Informal Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Impey, C. D.; Patikkal, A.

    2012-05-01

    This year we implemented Teach Astronomy (www.teachastronomy.com) as a free online resource to be used as a teaching tool for non-science major astronomy courses and for a general audience interested in the subject. The comprehensive content includes: an introductory astronomy text book by Chris Impey, astronomy articles on Wikipedia, images from the Astronomy Picture of the Day, two to three minute topical video clips by Chris Impey, podcasts from 365 Days of Astronomy, and astronomy news from Science Daily. Teach Astronomy utilizes a novel technology to cluster, display, and navigate search results, called a Wikimap. Steep increases in textbook prices and the unique capabilities of emerging web technology motivated the development of this free online resource. Recent additions to Teach Astronomy include: images and diagrams for the textbook articles, mobile device implementation, and suggested homework assignments for instructors that utilize recent discoveries in astronomy. We present an overview of how Teach Astronomy has been implemented for use in the classroom and informal settings, and suggestions for utilizing the rich content and features of the web site.

  11. Satellite myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David

    2008-01-01

    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  12. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  13. The cost of publishing in Danish astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.

    I investigate the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale, including all direct publication costs: The figures show how the annual number of publications with authors from Denmark in astronomy journals increased by a factor approximately four during 15 years (Elsevier’s Scopus...... database), and the increase of the corresponding potential (maximum) cost of publishing....

  14. Julia and Python in Astronomy: Better Together

    OpenAIRE

    Barbary, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Astronomers love Python because it is open source, easy to learn, and has a tremendous ecosystem for scientific computing. The Julia programming language has many of those same characteristics. In this talk, I discuss Julia, its use in astronomy and the growing ecosystem of astronomy packages, particularly those managed by the JuliaAstro organization (http://JuliaAstro.github.io).

  15. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  16. Some Daytime Activities in Solar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This century's transits of Venus (2004, 2012) captured significant public attention, reminding us that the wonders of astronomy need not be confined to the night. And while nighttime telescope viewing gatherings (a.k.a. "star parties") are perennially popular, astronomy classes are typically held in the daytime. The logistics of…

  17. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  18. Student Comprehension of Mathematics through Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how knowledge of astronomy can enhance college-level learning situations involving mathematics. The fundamental symbiosis between mathematics and astronomy was established early in the 17th century when Johannes Kepler deduced the 3 basic laws of planetary motion. This mutually harmonious relationship…

  19. Preservice Science Teachers' Beliefs about Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Akcay, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice science teachers' conceptual understanding of astronomy concepts. Qualitative research methods were used. The sample consists of 118 preservice science teachers (40 freshmen, 31 sophomores, and 47 juniors). The data were collected with Astronomy Conceptual Questionnaire (ACQ) that includes 13…

  20. Encouraging Student Participation in Large Astronomy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Shannon D.

    2012-01-01

    Introductory astronomy is one of the most widely taught classes in the country and the majority of the students who take these classes are non-science majors. Because this demographic of students makes up the majority of astronomy enrollments, it is especially important as instructors that we do our best to make sure these students don't finish…

  1. The future of astronomy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Elaine M.

    2017-09-01

    Australian astronomy has a bright future, thanks largely to recent government investments in major new telescopes, instruments and research centres. There are some short-term challenges as Australia's focus continues to shift from the current (mainly) national facilities for radio and optical astronomy to new multinational and global facilities.

  2. Astronomy all the time for everybody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-08-01

    General contextCommunicating astronomy with the public must be done all year and with all community members using all the available methods to promote the all aspects of astronomy: education, science, research, new technologies, dark-sky protection, astrophotography, mythology, astropoetry, astro arts and music.An annual calendarTwo aspect must be taken in consideration when create a calendar of activity:- astronomical events (eclipses, meteor showers, comets, etc.)- international and local astronomical events: Global Astronomy Months, Astronomy Day, Globe at Night, ISAN, public activitiesCommunicating astronomy with the whole communityA description of the experience of the author organizing over 500 events in 30 years of activity including all the community members: general public, students, teachers, artists, authorities, people with disabilities, minor and adult prisoners, etc.An experience of seven years as TV producer of the astronomy TV show “Ùs and the Sky” is presented.Promotion of the activityThe relation with the mass-media is an important aspect communicating astronomy with the public.Mass-media between rating and correct information of the public.The role of the cooperation with the community in astronomy projectsA successful model: EURONEAR project

  3. Overview of lunar-based astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. J.

    The Moon offers both significant advantages and drawbacks for astronomy. Recognition of these characteristics can clarify the objectives toward which developments should be directed and can help to inhibit premature or excessive selling of lunar developments on the basis of astronomy.

  4. Selected topics on data analysis in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsi, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: General Lectures Given at the Erice II Workshop on Data Analysis in Astronomy: Fundamentals in Data Analysis in Astronomy; Computational Techniques; Evolution of Architectures for Data Processing; Hardware for Graphics and Image Display; and Data Analysis Systems

  5. Boomerang Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.

    2017-10-01

    We recently reported that the orbital architecture of the Martian environment allows for material in orbit around the planet to ``cycle'' between orbiting the planet as a ring, or as coherent satellites. Here we generalize our previous analysis to examine several factors that determine whether satellites accreting at the edge of planetary rings will cycle. In order for the orbiting material to cycle, tidal evolution must decrease the semi-major axis of any accreting satellites. In some systems, the density of the ring/satellite material, the surface mass density of the ring, the tidal parameters of the system, and the rotation rate of the primary body contribute to a competition between resonant ring torques and tidal dissipation that prevent this from occurring, either permanently or temporarily. Analyzing these criteria, we examine various bodies in our solar system (such as Saturn, Uranus, and Eris) to identify systems where cycling may occur. We find that a ring-satellite cycle may give rise to the current Uranian ring-satellite system, and suggest that Miranda may have formed from an early, more massive Uranian ring.

  6. A Green Robotic Observatory for Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Archer, K.

    2008-09-01

    With the development of robotic telescopes and stable remote observing software, it is currently possible for a small institution to have an affordable astronomical facility for astronomy education. However, a faculty member has to deal with the light pollution (observatory location on campus), its nightly operations and regular maintenance apart from his day time teaching and research responsibilities. While building an observatory at a remote location is a solution, the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, not to mention the environmental impact, are beyond the reach of most institutions. In an effort to resolve these issues we have developed a robotic remote observatory that can be operated via the internet from anywhere in the world, has a zero operating carbon footprint and minimum impact on the local environment. The prototype observatory is a clam-shell design that houses an 8-inch telescope with a SBIG ST-10 CCD detector. The brain of the observatory is a low draw 12-volt harsh duty computer that runs the dome, telescope, CCD camera, focuser, and weather monitoring. All equipment runs of a 12-volt AGM-style battery that has low lead content and hence more environmental-friendly to dispose. The total power of 12-14 amp/hrs is generated from a set of solar panels that are large enough to maintain a full battery charge for several cloudy days. This completely eliminates the need for a local power grid for operations. Internet access is accomplished via a high-speed cell phone broadband connection or satellite link eliminating the need for a phone network. An independent observatory monitoring system interfaces with the observatory computer during operation. The observatory converts to a trailer for transportation to the site and is converted to a semi-permanent building without wheels and towing equipment. This ensures minimal disturbance to local environment.

  7. Multi-Institutional Collaborative Astronomy Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2011-09-01

    ASP, AAS, APS, and AAPT advocate that scientists should be engaged and acknowledged for successfully engaging in astronomy and physics education research and the scholarship of teaching because these efforts serve to improve pedagogical techniques and the evaluation of teaching. However, scientists have had the opportunity to pursue formal training in how to meaningfully engage in astronomy education research as an important scholarly endeavor. This special interest session for college and university physics and astronomy faculty, post-docs, and graduate students provided a forum to discuss the motivations, strategies, methodology, and publication routes for improving astronomy education through conducting rigorous science education research. Topics for discussion targeted the value of various education research questions, strengths and weaknesses of several different research design methodologies, strategies to successfully obtain Institutional Review Board approval to conduct education research on human subjects, and become more aware of how education research articles are created for publication in journals such as the Astronomy Education Review.

  8. Astronomers Without Borders: A Global Astronomy Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M.

    2011-10-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) brings together astronomy enthusiasts of all types - amateur astronomers, educators, professionals and "armchair" astronomers for a variety of online and physicalworld programs. The AWB web site provides social networking and a base for online programs that engage people worldwide in astronomy activities that transcend geopolitical and cultural borders. There is universal interest in astronomy, which has been present in all cultures throughout recorded history. Astronomy is also among the most accessible of sciences with the natural laboratory of the sky being available to people worldwide. There are few other interests for which people widely separated geographically can engage in activities involving the same objects. AWB builds on those advantages to bring people together. AWB also provides a platform where projects can reach a global audience. AWB also provides unique opportunities for multidisciplinary collaboration in EPO programs. Several programs including The World at Night, Global Astronomy Month and others will be described along with lessons learned.

  9. Communicating astronomy with the public in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, O.

    2008-06-01

    Communicating astronomy with the public to produce attractive materials for a broad audience on TV is a difficult job in a third world country. One way of developing effective communication in fields like astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology whilst connecting the professional astronomer with a majority of the people is to combine the knowledge of the scientist with the most spectacular TV production methods of first world countries: integrating, through commentary and analysis, astronomy and science into the public debate of lay citizens. Here I present my ten years of experience of presenting a TV programme devoted to general science outreach. I also comment on the progress of the construction of the new planetarium, a cultural centre for science and technology, to be opened as part of the commemoration activities for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy. It is hoped to guide the interest of the people of Cuba towards basic science and astronomy in the most populated and frequented area of the country.

  10. Design course in space astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A J; Perez-Fournon, I

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this course is to provide direct experience of collaboration with other European astronomy/space science students and to gain an insight into the establishment of ESA space science programmes. The first half of the course takes place in Southampton. The Southampton students work as a team to track a past ESA space science mission from initial conception through to final realization and operations. This is achieved through the study of the high quality documentation available in the form of ESA reports. Each student has well defined responsibilities within the team. The second half of the course takes place in Tenerife, at the University of La Laguna. Again the students are expected to complete a team study of a space science mission. This time, however, there are important differences: the study teams are now international, approximately half Southampton and half University of La Laguna students; and this time they are expected to design a completely new space astronomy mission with clearly specified scientific objectives and operational constraints

  11. Astronomy with a home computer

    CERN Document Server

    Monks, Neale

    2005-01-01

    Here is a one-volume guide to just about everything computer-related for amateur astronomers! Today's amateur astronomy is inextricably linked to personal computers. Computer-controlled "go-to" telescopes are inexpensive. CCD and webcam imaging make intensive use of the technology for capturing and processing images. Planetarium software provides information and an easy interface for telescopes. The Internet offers links to other astronomers, information, and software. The list goes on and on. Find out here how to choose the best planetarium program: are commercial versions really better than freeware? Learn how to optimise a go-to telescope, or connect it to a lap-top. Discover how to choose the best webcam and use it with your telescope. Create a mosaic of the Moon, or high-resolution images of the planets... Astronomy with a Home Computer is designed for every amateur astronomer who owns a home computer, whether it is running Microsoft Windows, Mac O/S or Linux. It doesn't matter what kind of telescope you...

  12. Armenian Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.; Farmanyan, Sona V.

    2016-12-01

    A review is given on archaeoastronomy in Armenia and astronomical knowledge reflected in the Armenian culture. Astronomy in Armenia was popular since ancient times and Armenia is rich in its astronomical heritage, such as the names of the constellations, ancient observatories, Armenian rock art (numerous petroglyphs of astronomical content), ancient and medieval Armenian calendars, astronomical terms and names used in Armenian language since II-I millennia B.C., records of astronomical events by ancient Armenians (e.g. Halley's comet in 87 B.C., supernovae explosion in 1054), the astronomical heritage of the Armenian medieval great thinker Anania Shirakatsi's (612-685), medieval sky maps and astronomical devices by Ghukas (Luca) Vanandetsi (XVII-XVIII centuries) and Mkhitar Sebastatsi (1676-1749), etc. For systemization and further regular studies, we have created a webpage devoted to Armenian archaeoastronomical matters at Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) website. Issues on astronomy in culture include astronomy in ancient Armenian cultures, ethnoastronomy, astronomy in Armenian religion and mythology, astronomy and astrology, astronomy in folklore and poetry, astronomy in arts, astrolinguistics and astroheraldry. A similar webpage for Astronomy in Armenian Culture is being created at ArAS website and a permanent section "Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture" has been created in ArAS Electronic Newsletter. Several meetings on this topic have been organized in Armenia during 2007-2014, including the archaeoastronomical meetings in 2012 and 2014, and a number of books have been published. Several institutions are related to these studies coordinated by Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) and researchers from the fields of astronomy, history, archaeology, literature, linguistics, etc. are involved.

  13. Cosmic Noise: The Pioneers of Early Radio Astronomy and Their Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

    2012-01-01

    Extraterrestrial radio waves (the galactic background), often referred to as "cosmic noise", were first detected accidentally by Karl Jansky at a frequency of 20 MHz in 1932, with significant followup by Grote Reber. Yet after World War II it was England and Australia that dominated the field. An entirely different sky from that of visual astronomy was revealed by the discoveries of solar noise, "radio stars” (discrete sources such as Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, Cen A and Vir A), galactic noise, lunar and meteor radar experiments, the detection of the 21 cm hydrogen line, and eventually optical identifications such as the Crab Nebula and M87. Key players included wartime radar experts such as Stanley Hey (the British Army's Operational Research Group), Martin Ryle (Cambridge University), Bernard Lovell (Jodrell Bank) and Joe Pawsey (Radiophysics Lab, Sydney). Younger leaders also emerged such as Graham Smith, Tony Hewish, John Davies, "Chris" Christiansen, Bernie Mills, Paul Wild, and John Bolton. Some optical astronomers (Jan Oort, Henk van de Hulst, Jesse Greenstein, Rudolph Minkowski, and Walter Baade) were also extremely supportive. By the end of the postwar decade, radio astronomy was firmly established within the gamut of astronomy, although very few of its practitioners had been trained as astronomers. I will also trace the technical and social aspects of this wholly new type of astronomy, with special attention on military and national influences. I argue that radio astronomy represents one of the key developments in twentieth century astronomy not only because of its own discoveries, but also its pathfinding for the further opening the electromagnetic spectrum. This study is based on exhaustive archival research and over one hundred interviews with pioneering radio astronomers. Full details are available in the book "Cosmic Noise: A History of Early Radio Astronomy" (Cambridge Univ. Pr.).

  14. Under the Radar: The First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Goss, W.

    2012-05-01

    Under the Radar, the First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott W. Miller Goss, NRAO Socorro NM Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981) was an eminent Australian scientist who made major contributions to the WWII radar effort (CSIR) from 1941 to 1945. In late 1945, she pioneered radio astronomy efforts at Dover Heights in Sydney, Australia at a beautiful cliff top overlooking the Tasman Sea. Again at Dover Heights, Payne-Scott carried out the first interferometry in radio astronomy using an Australian Army radar antenna as a radio telescope at sun-rise, 26 January 1946. She continued these ground breaking activities until 1951. Ruby Payne-Scott played a major role in discovering and elucidating the properties of Type III bursts from the sun, the most common of the five classes of transient phenomena from the solar corona. These bursts are one of the most intensively studied forms of radio emission in all of astronomy. She is also one of the inventors of aperture synthesis in radio astronomy. I examine her career at the University of Sydney and her conflicts with the CSIR hierarchy concerning the rights of women in the work place, specifically equal wages and the lack of permanent status for married women. I also explore her membership in the Communist Party of Australia as well as her partially released Australian Scientific Intelligence Organization file. Payne-Scott’s role as a major participant in the flourishing radio astronomy research of the post war era remains a remarkable story. She had a number of strong collaborations with the pioneers of early radio astronomy in Australia: Pawsey, Mills, Christiansen, Bolton and Little. I am currently working on a popular version of the Payne-Scott story; “Making Waves, The Story of Ruby Payne-Scott: Australian Pioneer Radio Astronomer” will be published in 2013 by Springer in the Astronomers’ Universe Series.

  15. Teach Astronomy: An Online Resource for Introductory Astronomy Courses and Informal Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carmen; Impey, C. D.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Patikkal, A.; Ganesan, N.

    2013-01-01

    Teach Astronomy (www.teachastronomy.com) is a new, free online resource—a teaching tool for non-science major astronomy courses and a reference guide for lifelong learners interested in the subject. Digital content available includes: a comprehensive introductory astronomy textbook by Chris Impey, Wikipedia astronomy articles, images from Astronomy Picture of the Day archives and AstroPix database, two to three minute topical video clips by Chris Impey, podcasts from 365 Days of Astronomy archives, and an RSS feed of astronomy news from Science Daily. Teach Astronomy features an original technology called the Wikimap to cluster, display, and navigate site search results. Motivation behind the development of Teach Astronomy includes steep increases in textbook prices, the rapid adoption by students and the public of digital resources, and the modern capabilities of digital technology. Recent additions to Teach Astronomy include: AstroPix images—from some of the most advanced observatories and complete with metadata, mobile device functionality, links to WikiSky where users can see the location of astronomical objects in the sky, and end of chapter textbook review questions. Next in line for development are assignments for classroom use. We present suggestions for utilizing the rich content and features of the web site.

  16. Philippine Astronomy Convention 2009 Abstract: Program Offerings in Astronomy in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J. R. F.

    2009-03-01

    The formal academic programs in Astronomy of the Rizal Technological University are the first such programs in the Philippines. The Master of Science in Astronomy program is envisioned to provide the student with a wide range of knowledge in many areas of Astronomy, leaning towards the descriptive aspects of knowledge. The student will choose the field or research most suitable to his or her interests. Three of these researches done while enrolled in the program, and even researches completed before the student actually enrolled in the program, may be considered as his or her thesis. The program suits professionals in all persuasions who wish to study Astronomy either for professional advancement or plainly for the love of the science or for intellectual satisfaction. Non-science majors can enroll. In 2008, the RTU Graduate School decided to ladderize the MS program and the Graduate Diploma in Astronomy was designed. This program is suited for science educators, astronomy lecturers and entrepreneurs, members of astronomical societies, and plain astronomy enthusiasts who like to gain in-depth knowledge in the most important aspects of astronomy. A bachelor's degree in any field is required. The program can be finished in two semesters and one summer. If the student opts to continue in the MS in Astronomy program, all the courses he or she has earned in the Diploma will be credited. The Bachelor of Science in Astronomy Technology is an intensive baccalaureate degree program designed to prepare students to become future research scientists and technologists in the field of Astronomy. The BS in Astronomy Technology is a cross-fertilized program, integrating interrelated sciences, such as engineering, geology, remote sensing, physics, atmospheric and environmental science, biology and biochemistry, and even philosophy and entrepreneurship into the study. Thus, the B.S. in Astronomy Technology program gives the student excellent job opportunities in many fields.

  17. NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, D. E.; Harman, P. K.; Clark, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) is a three-part professional development (PD) program for high school physics and astronomy teachers. The AAA experience consists of: (1) blended-learning professional development composed of webinars, asynchronous content learning, and a series of hands-on workshops (2) a STEM immersion experience at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center's B703 science research aircraft facility in Palmdale, California, and (3) ongoing participation in the AAA community of practice (CoP) connecting participants with astrophysics and planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The SETI Institute (SI) is partnering with school districts in Santa Clara and Los Angeles Counties during the AAA program's "incubation" period, calendar years 2016 through 2018. AAAs will be selected by the school districts based on criteria developed during spring 2016 focus group meetings led by the program's external evaluator, WestEd.. Teachers with 3+ years teaching experience who are assigned to teach at least 2 sections in any combination of the high school courses Physics (non-AP), Physics of the Universe (California integrated model), Astronomy, or Earth & Space Sciences are eligible. Partner districts will select at least 48 eligible applicants with SI oversight. WestEd will randomly assign selected AAAs to group A or group B. Group A will complete PD in January - June of 2017 and then participate in SOFIA science flights during fall 2017 (SOFIA Cycle 5). Group B will act as a control during the 2017-18 school year. Group B will then complete PD in January - June of 2018 and participate in SOFIA science flights in fall 2018 (Cycle 6). Under the current plan, opportunities for additional districts to seek AAA partnerships with SI will be offered in 2018 or 2019. A nominal two-week AAA curriculum component will be developed by SI for classroom delivery that will be aligned with selected California Draft Science Framework Disciplinary Core Ideas

  18. Environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS): studies of honey bees exposed to 2. 45 GHz continuous-wave electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary, N E; Westerdahl, B B

    1980-12-01

    A system for small animal exposure was developed for treating honey bees, Apis mellifera L., in brood and adult stages, with 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at selected power densities and exposure times. Post-treatment brood development was normal and teratological effects were not detected at exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment survival, longevity, orientation, navigation, and memory of adult bees were also normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment longevity of confined bees in the laboratory was normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 24 hours. Thermoregulation of brood nest, foraging activity, brood rearing, and social interaction were not affected by chronic exposure to 1 mw/cm/sup 2/ during 28 days. In dynamic behavioral bioassays the frequency of entry and duration of activity of unrestrained, foraging adult bees was identical in microwave-exposed (5 to 40 mw/cm/sup 2/) areas versus control areas.

  19. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, S; Seto, N; Sato, S; Arai, K; Ando, M; Tsubono, K; Agatsuma, K; Akutsu, T; Akutsu, T; Arase, Y; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Funaki, I; Takashima, T; Numata, K; Ioka, K; Kanda, N; Aoyanagi, Koh-Suke; Araya, A; Asada, H

    2008-01-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch DECIGO pathfinder first to demonstrate the technologies required to realize DECIGO and, if possible, to detect gravitational waves from our galaxy or nearby galaxies

  20. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.

    2008-11-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is a public astronomy outreach program at community parks during and after free summer music concerts and outdoor movie nights. This project also includes daytime activities because there are some afternoon concerts and daylight children's concerts, and observations using remotely operated telescopes in cloudy weather. While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at city sidewalks and parks, this program targets a completely different audience---music lovers who are attending free summer concerts held in community parks. The music lovers who may never have visited a science museum, planetarium, or star party will be exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. This program will permit the entire community to participate in telescope observations and view astronomical video information to enhance the public appreciation of astronomy. This program will also reach underrepresented and underserved groups (women, minorities, older adults). The population base for the initial target audience (Nassau and Suffolk Counties, New York) is 2,500,000. My partners are the Amateur Observers' Society of New York (AOS) and the Towns of Oyster Bay, Hempstead, North Hempstead, and Huntington. Music and Astronomy Under the Stars is program that should continue beyond the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) and can be expanded into a national program.

  1. Interactive Materials In The Teaching Of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, J. A.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-10-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Science. The following steps were to be taken: i) analysis of the pedagogical projects (PPC) of the licenciates at the IFNMG, research locus of its Campus Januária; ii) analysis of students' preconceptions about astronomy and digital technologies, identified by the application of an initial questionnaire; iii) preparation of the course taking into account the students' previous knowledge; iv) application of the education proposal developed under part-time presence modality, using various interactive tools; v) application and analysis of the final questionnaire. The test was conducted with the qualitative and quantitative methodology, combined with a content analysis. The results indicated that in the IFNMG only the licenciate-course in physics includes astronomy content diluted in various subjects of the curriculum; the rates of students prior knowledge in relation to astronomy was low; an evidence of meaningful learning of the concepts related to astronomy, and of viability of resource use involving digital technologies in the Teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options of future teachers and meet their training needs.

  2. History of British infrared astronomy since the Second World War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In this review, the author describes the development of British infrared astronomy, from its beginnings around 1960 to the present time. The paper outlines the various techniques available and the different wavelength ranges which can be covered by these techniques e.g. balloons, mountain-based telescopes, the AAT in Australia, the 60-inch flux-collector on Tenerife, and the UKIRT telescope on Hawaii, and finally the IRAS satellite. The main groups involved in the British infrared work are UCL, Imperial College, and QMC, together with cooperative programmes with the Netherlands and the USA. The scientific results which have been obtained with these installations include studies of the relict radiation, HII regions, thermal radiation from dust and grains, and a dust shell around the star Vega, to mention but a few, interferometry, photometry and spectroscopy are also discussed, as in the long awaited development of infrared detector arrays. (UK)

  3. A Brief History of Publishing Papers on Astronomy Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    While some research had been done on K-12 and planetarium astronomy teaching from the 1930's to the 1980's, the growth of research on college physics education offered astronomy education researchers a model for examining techniques for teaching introductory college astronomy survey "Astronomy 101" courses as well. This early research…

  4. Women's and Men's Career Choices in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel; White, Susan; Chu, Raymond Y.

    2016-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS) arose from the 2003 Women in Astronomy Conference, where it was noted that a majority of young members of the American Astronomical Society were women. The astronomy community wishes to make every effort to retain young women in astronomy, so they commissioned a longitudinal study to be…

  5. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  6. Galactic Astronomy in the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorguev, A. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Zabolotskikh, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    We propose a number of prospective observational programs for the ultraviolet space observatory WSO-UV, which seem to be of great importance to modern galactic astronomy. The programs include the search for binary Cepheids; the search and detailed photometric study and the analysis of radial distribution of UV-bright stars in globular clusters ("blue stragglers", blue horizontal-branch stars, RR Lyrae variables, white dwarfs, and stars with UV excesses); the investigation of stellar content and kinematics of young open clusters and associations; the study of spectral energy distribution in hot stars, including calculation of the extinction curves in the UV, optical and NIR; and accurate definition of the relations between the UV-colors and effective temperature. The high angular resolution of the observatory allows accurate astrometric measurements of stellar proper motions and their kinematic analysis.

  7. Astronomy in the Digital Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Bernard M.; Lindblom, J.; Terzian, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The Digital Universe is an Internet project whose mission is to provide free, accurate, unbiased information covering all aspects of human knowledge, and to inspire humans to learn, make use of, and expand this knowledge. It is planned to be a decades long effort, inspired by the Encyclopedia Galactica concept popularized by Carl Sagan, and is being developed by the non-profit Digital Universe Foundation. A worldwide network of experts is responsible for selecting content featured within the Digital Universe. The first publicly available content is the Encyclopedia of Earth, a Boston University project headed by Prof. Cutler Cleveland, which will be part of the Earth Portal. The second major content area will be an analogous Encyclopedia of the Cosmos to be part of the Cosmos Portal. It is anticipated that this will evolve into a major resource for astronomy education. Authors and topic editors are now being recruited for the Encyclopedia of the Cosmos.

  8. Linear regression in astronomy. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti J.

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of least-squares linear regression procedures used in observational astronomy, particularly investigations of the cosmic distance scale, are presented and discussed. The classes of linear models considered are (1) unweighted regression lines, with bootstrap and jackknife resampling; (2) regression solutions when measurement error, in one or both variables, dominates the scatter; (3) methods to apply a calibration line to new data; (4) truncated regression models, which apply to flux-limited data sets; and (5) censored regression models, which apply when nondetections are present. For the calibration problem we develop two new procedures: a formula for the intercept offset between two parallel data sets, which propagates slope errors from one regression to the other; and a generalization of the Working-Hotelling confidence bands to nonstandard least-squares lines. They can provide improved error analysis for Faber-Jackson, Tully-Fisher, and similar cosmic distance scale relations.

  9. Linear regression in astronomy. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Takashi; Feigelson, Eric D.; Akritas, Michael G.; Babu, Gutti Jogesh

    1990-01-01

    Five methods for obtaining linear regression fits to bivariate data with unknown or insignificant measurement errors are discussed: ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression of Y on X, OLS regression of X on Y, the bisector of the two OLS lines, orthogonal regression, and 'reduced major-axis' regression. These methods have been used by various researchers in observational astronomy, most importantly in cosmic distance scale applications. Formulas for calculating the slope and intercept coefficients and their uncertainties are given for all the methods, including a new general form of the OLS variance estimates. The accuracy of the formulas was confirmed using numerical simulations. The applicability of the procedures is discussed with respect to their mathematical properties, the nature of the astronomical data under consideration, and the scientific purpose of the regression. It is found that, for problems needing symmetrical treatment of the variables, the OLS bisector performs significantly better than orthogonal or reduced major-axis regression.

  10. Quantitative Activities for Introductory Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Jonathan W.; Bartlett, J. L.; Foy, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a collection of short lecture-tutorial (or homework) activities, designed to be both quantitative and accessible to the introductory astronomy student. Each of these involves interpreting some real data, solving a problem using ratios and proportionalities, and making a conclusion based on the calculation. Selected titles include: "The Mass of Neptune” "The Temperature on Titan” "Rocks in the Early Solar System” "Comets Hitting Planets” "Ages of Meteorites” "How Flat are Saturn's Rings?” "Tides of the Sun and Moon on the Earth” "The Gliese 581 Solar System"; "Buckets in the Rain” "How Hot, Bright and Big is Betelgeuse?” "Bombs and the Sun” "What Forms Stars?” "Lifetimes of Cars and Stars” "The Mass of the Milky” "How Old is the Universe?” "Is The Universe Speeding up or Slowing Down?"

  11. Infrared Astronomy and Star Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Infrared astronomy is a natural tool to use in studying star formation because infrared light penetrates the surrounding dust and because protostars are expected to emit infrared light. Infrared mapping and photometry have revealed many compact sources, often embedded in more extensive warm dust associated with a molecular cloud core. More detailed study of these objects is now beginning, and traditional interpretations are being questioned. Some compact sources are now thought to be density enhancements which are not self-luminous. Infrared excesses around young stars may not always be caused by circumstellar dust; speckle measurements have shown that at least some of the excess toward T Tauri is caused by an infrared companion. Spectroscopic studies of the dense, star-forming cores and of the compact objects themselves have uncovered a wealth of new phenomena, including the widespread occurence of energetic outflows. New discoveries with IRAS and with other planned infrared telescopes will continue to advance this field. (author)

  12. Academic Training: Astronomy from Space

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16, 18 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Astronomy from Space by T. Courvoisier / Observatoire de Genève In the very wide field of High Energy astrophysics we will select a number of topics that range from the source of radiative energy in the deep potential well around Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes and the basics of accretion disks around compact objects to the description and (where possible) the understanding of binary systems including a compact object (neutron star or black hole), of Active Galactic Nuclei and of gamma ray bursts. The approach that is chosen aims at giving an understanding of the most important phenomenologies encountered in high energy astrophysics rather than a detailed knowledge of one specific topic. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  13. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  14. L'astronomie des Anciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  15. Infrared Astronomy and Education: Linking Infrared Whole Sky Mapping with Teacher and Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, Bryan; Thaller, Michelle; Gorjian, Varoujan; Borders, Kyla; Pitman, Peter; Pereira, Vincent; Sepulveda, Babs; Stark, Ron; Knisely, Cindy; Dandrea, Amy; Winglee, Robert; Plecki, Marge; Goebel, Jeri; Condit, Matt; Kelly, Susan

    The Spitzer Space Telescope and the recently launched WISE (Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer) observe the sky in infrared light. Among the objects WISE will study are asteroids, the coolest and dimmest stars, and the most luminous galaxies. Secondary students can do authentic research using infrared data. For example, students will use WISE data to mea-sure physical properties of asteroids. In order to prepare students and teachers at this level with a high level of rigor and scientific understanding, the WISE and the Spitzer Space Tele-scope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop in infrared astronomy.The lessons learned from the Spitzer and WISE teacher and student pro-grams can be applied to other programs engaging them in authentic research experiences using data from space-borne observatories such as Herschel and Planck. Recently, WISE Educator Ambassadors and NASA Explorer School teachers developed and led an infrared astronomy workshop at Arecibo Observatory in PuertoRico. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance and age of objects in the Universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and the Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. We will outline specific steps for sec-ondary astronomy professional development, detail student involvement in infrared telescope data analysis, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional secondary professional development and student involvement in infrared astronomy. Funding was

  16. Astronomy Education: a Challenge for Contemporary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxa, M.

    2010-07-01

    Tales around the World give visibility to local, national and international fundamental connection that always existed between people and the night sky that means Astronomy. In this paper we discuss and analyze further the role of Astronomy Education for achieving an integrated concept of education, one that enables individuals to adapt to a rapidly changing social, economic and cultural environment, and to continue to learn throughout life. It is no longer enough to learn how to read, write and count. We also discuss and present initiatives undertaken in the context of various national, and international educational projects in Greece as best practices on how Astronomy Education can actually reinforce the Contemporary Education.

  17. Reflections on the astronomy of Glasgow

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, David

    2013-01-01

    How Astronomy contributed to the educational enlightenment of Glasgow, to its society and to its commerce. The words 'Astronomy' and 'Glasgow' seem an incongruous juxtaposition, and yet the two are closely linked over 500 years of history. This is a tale of enlightenment and scientific progress at both institutional and public levels. Combined with the ambitions of civic commerce, it is a story populated with noteworthy personalities and intense rivalries.It is remarkable to realise that the first Astronomy teaching in the Glasgow 'Colledge' presented an Earth-centred Universe, prior to the Co

  18. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics 9

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1972-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 9 covers reviews on the advances in astronomy and astrophysics. The book presents reviews on the Roche model and its applications to close binary systems. The text then describes the part played by lunar eclipses in the evolution of astronomy; the classical theory of lunar eclipses; deviations from geometrical theory; and the methods of photometric observations of eclipses. The problems of other phenomena related in one way or another to lunar eclipses are also considered. The book further tackles the infrared observation on the eclipsed moon, as

  19. A Website for Astronomy Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C.; Danehy, A.

    2017-09-01

    Teach Astronomy is a free, open access website designed for formal and informal learners of astronomy. The site features: an online textbook complete with quiz questions and a glossary; over ten thousand images; a curated collection of the astronomy articles in Wikipedia; a complete video lecture course; a video Frequently Asked Questions tool; and other materials provided by content partners. Clustering algorithms and an interactive visual interface allow users to browse related content. This article reviews the features of the website and how it can be used.

  20. Europe's Astronomy Teachers Meet at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    European Association for Astronomy Education Formed A joint EU/ESO Workshop (1) on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe was held at the ESO Headquarters from November 25-30, 1994, under the auspices of the 1994 European Week for Scientific Culture. More than 100 teachers from secondary schools in 17 European countries participated together with representatives of national ministries and local authorities, as well as professional astronomers. This meeting was the first of its kind ever held and was very successful. As a most visible and immediate outcome, the participants agreed to form the "European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE)", uniting astronomy educators all over Europe into one network. A provisional Executive Committee of the EAAE was elected which will work towards the organisation of a constitutional conference within the next year. The participants unanimously adopted a "Declaration on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe", specifying the overall aims and initial actions needed to achieve them. Astronomy: Science, Technology and Culture At the beginning of the Workshop the participants listened to lectures by several specialists about some of the most active fields of astronomy. The scientific sessions included topics as diverse as minor bodies in the solar system, nucleosynthesis, interstellar chemistry and cosmology. Then followed overviews of various recent advances in astronomical technology, some of which are already having direct impact on highly specialized sectors of European industry. They included the advanced use of computers in astronomy, for instance within image processing and data archiving, as well as a demonstration of remote observing. Discussing the cultural aspects, Nigel Calder (UK) and Hubert Reeves (France) emphasized the important role of astronomy in modern society, in particular its continuing influence on our perceptions of mankind's unique location in time and space. Teaching of Astronomy in European Countries

  1. The astronomy education through interactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Josué Antunes; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2014-11-01

    This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potentialities of the use of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. An advanced training course with involved learning activities about basic concepts of astronomy was offered to thirty-two Licenciate students in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, using three pedagogical moments. Among other aspects, the viability of the use of resources was noticed, involving digital technologies and interactive materials on teaching of astronomy, which may contribute to the broadening of methodological options for future teachers and meet their training needs

  2. Astronomy, Indigenous Knowledge and Interpretation: Advancing studies of Cultural Astronomy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (ISAAC) Oxford X conference came to Africa for the first time in 2014. Oxford X exposed South African students and researchers to cultural astronomy data collection and analysis methods, as well as to potential mentors to further the goal of advancing the field. Cultural Astronomy studies in South Africa, however, remain in a nascent stage, which in some ways can be said for the entire field, but especially when it comes ...

  3. Satellite Radio

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satellites have been a highly effective platform for multi- form broadcasts. This has led to a ... diversity offormats, languages, genre, and a universal reach that cannot be met by .... programs can be delivered to whom it is intended. In the case of.

  4. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy: Modelling, detection, and data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Forné, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    La detección directa de la primera señal de ondas gravitatorias, el 14 de Septiembre de 2015, puede considerarse uno de los mayores hitos científicos de todos los tiempos. No solo porque supone la confirmación de la última de las predicciones de la Teoría de la Relatividad General de Albert Einstein, sino porque anticipa una autentica revolución en el campo de las astrofísica, comparable a la producida con la invención del telescopio por Galileo Galilei en 1609. Este descubrimiento ha inaugur...

  5. In The Era of Gravita2onal wave Astronomy:

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukanta Bose

    2016-07-01

    band at. (f. 3. =495Hz). e . s. 1. SB, B. Hall, N. Mazumder, S. Dhurandhar, A. Gupta, A Lundgren, published [LIGO-G1500496]. 2. Abbot et al. (LVC), Characteriza2on of transient noise in Advanced LIGO relevant to gravita2onal ...

  6. Gravitational wave detectors: New eyes for physics and astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sitivity, they have better sensitivity than previous detectors and work in some ... the TAMA project team, but there are plans underway to combine results, showing ..... from its estimation of the expectations from measured noise in six minute inter ...

  7. Radio Astronomy and the Giant Metre-Wave Radio Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    begs the question – why (on earth) would anyone want to do so? .... For example, the Sun's spectrum has a characteristic sharp colour ..... miliar to readers is that blu-ray DVDs which work with shorter wavelength blue light can pack more.

  8. Making Space for Specialized Astronomy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, D.

    2007-10-01

    With the growth of both free and subscription-based resources, articles on astronomy have never been easier to find. Locating the best and most current materials for any given search, however, now requires multiple tools and strategies dependent on the query. An analysis of the tools currently available shows that while astronomy is well-served by Google Scholar, Scopus and Inspec, its literature is best accessed through specialized resources such as ADS (Astrophysics Data System). While no surprise to astronomers, this has major implications for those of us who teach information literacy skills to astronomy students and work in academic settings where astronomy is just one of many subjects for which our non-specialist colleagues at the reference desk provide assistance. This paper will examine some of the implications of this analysis for library instruction, reference assistance and training, and library webpage development.

  9. ORGANIZATIONS AND STRATEGIES IN ASTRONOMY VOLUME 7

    CERN Document Server

    HECK, ANDRÉ

    2006-01-01

    This book is the seventh volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series covers a large range of fields and themes: in practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, series of conferences, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and somet...

  10. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy Volume 6

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2006-01-01

    This book is the sixth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series is intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, legal issues, operational techniques, observing practicalities, educational policies, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detai...

  11. The Past and Future of American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl

    1974-01-01

    Traces the history of astronomy by analyzing the scientific literature of various time periods, reviewing prize-winning research, and noting the input from physics. Speculates on some accomplishments that may occur in the next 75 years. (GS)

  12. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy: Some Land- marks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematics and astronomy from the ... tion of the Indian contribution to math- .... only 16 years to go before Whish's re- ... which is based on the recent paper of ... The last chapter of this book is dedi- ... interesting, though elementary, exam-.

  13. Extragalactic astronomy and cosmology an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for the astonishing developments in the field of Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology, this second edition has been updated and substantially expanded. Starting with the description of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, this cogently written textbook introduces the reader to the astronomy of galaxies, their structure, active galactic nuclei, evolution and large scale distribution in the Universe. After an extensive and thorough introduction to modern observational and theoretical cosmology, the focus turns to the formation of structures and astronomical objects in the early Universe. The basics of classical astronomy and stellar astrophysics needed for extragalactic astronomy are provided in the appendix. The new edition incorporates some of the most spectacular results from new observatories like the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, Herschel, ALMA, WMAP and Planck, as well as new instruments and multi-wavelength campaigns which have expanded our understanding of the Universe and the objects populating it....

  14. The Ninth-Century Renaissance in Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the events in the ninth century that moved astronomy away from the pursuit of mystical hermetic sciences and astrology back toward observation and measurement. Describes the achievements of astronomers and the instruments and calculations used during that period. (JRH)

  15. Astronomy in the Big Data Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fields of Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics are vital for dealing with the big data issues now faced by astronomy. Like other disciplines in the big data era, astronomy has many V characteristics. In this paper, we list the different data mining algorithms used in astronomy, along with data mining software and tools related to astronomical applications. We present SDSS, a project often referred to by other astronomical projects, as the most successful sky survey in the history of astronomy and describe the factors influencing its success. We also discuss the success of Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics organizations and the conferences and summer schools on these issues that are held annually. All the above indicates that astronomers and scientists from other areas are ready to face the challenges and opportunities provided by massive data volume.

  16. Astronomy's New Messengers: A traveling exhibit to out to a young adult audience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaglia, Marco; Hendry, Martin; Marka, Szabolcs; Reitze, David H; Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory exhibit Astronomy's New Messengers: Listening to the Universe with Gravitational Waves is traveling to colleges, universities, museums and other public institutions throughout the United States. In 2010, an extended version of this exhibit will appear in a New York City venue that is accessible to a large and diverse cross section of the general public. Astronomy's New Messengers primarily communicates with an adolescent and young adult audience, potentially inspiring them into the field of science. Acknowledging that this audience is traditionally a difficult one to attract, the exhibit publicly announces itself in a charismatic fashion to reach its principal goals of broadening the community of people interested in science and encouraging interest in science among young people.

  17. 2009 International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    400 years ago, Galileo first turned a telescope to the sky, and to honor that historic moment, 2009 has been designated the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). This session will feature two scientists who have used the telescope to understand our solar system and well beyond to yield fantastic new discoveries. Jennifer Wiseman will share the work she does with NASA, presenting beautiful and tantalizing images from the Hubble Space Telescope and discussing how space astronomy can inspire all ages.

  18. EVALUATION OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS IN ASTRONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pundak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though astronomy is the oldest science, it is still an open question how to evaluate students’ understanding in astronomy. In spite of the fact that some methods and evaluation tools have been developed for that purpose, the sources of students' difficulties in astronomy are still unclear. This paper presents an investigation of the changes in conceptual frameworks in astronomy among 50 engineering students as a result of learning a general course in astronomy. A special tool called Conceptual Frameworks in Astronomy (CFA, which was initially used in 1989, was adopted to gather data for the present research. In its new version, the tool includes 23 questions and five to six optional answers to each question. Each of the answers characterizes one of the four conceptual frameworks: pre-scientific, geocentric, heliocentric and sidereal. These four conceptual frameworks act as a taxonomical system that enables us to evaluate astronomical understanding. The paper describes the background of the CFA, its development, and discusses its validity and reliability. Using the CFA we were able to: (1 identify the students’ conceptual frameworks at the beginning of the course and at its end, (2 to evaluate the students’ paradigmatic change following the course. It was found that the measure of the students’ improvement (gain index was g = 0.37. Approximately 45% of the students in the course improved their conceptual frameworks in astronomy and 26% deepened their understanding of the heliocentric or sidereal conceptual frameworks. The CFA can also be applied as an evaluation tool in all schools and institutions that teach astronomy.

  19. The communication layer for the OLFAR satellite swarm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Engelen, S.; Rajan, R.T.; Rajan, Raj; Meijerink, Arjan; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, new directions in astronomy are investigated as space observations tend to evolve from optical observations to the low-frequency domain. Ultra-long EM waves are the result of planetary emissions from outside and inside the solar system and of high-energy particle interactions. Exploring

  20. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU) of the CNRS. To build consensus on priorities in a very diverse community, the Science Vision and Roadmap were developed in an open process involving intensive interaction with the community through large open meetings and feedback via e-mail and the web. The result is a plan now backed by astronomers in 28 Member and Associated States of the EU, with over 500 million inhabitants. Over 60 selected experts from across Europe contributed to the construction of the ASTRONET Roadmap, ensuring that European astronomy has the tools to compete successfully in answering the challenges of the Science Vision. They identified and prioritised a set of new facilities to observe the Universe from radio waves to gamma rays, to open up new ways of probing the cosmos, such as gravitational waves, and to advance in the exploration of our Solar System. In the process, they considered all the elements needed by a successful scientific enterprise, from global-scale cooperation on the largest mega-project to the need for training and recruiting skilled young scientists and engineers. One of two top-priority large ground-based projects is ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope. Its 42-metre diameter mirror will make the E-ELT the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world -- "the biggest eye on the sky". The science to be done with the E-ELT is extremely exciting and includes studies of exoplanets and discs, galaxy formation and dark energy. ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw says: "The top ranking of the E-ELT in the Roadmap is a strong endorsement from the European astronomical community. This flagship project will indisputably raise the European scientific, technological and industrial profile". Among other recommendations, the Roadmap considers how to maximise the future scientific impact of existing facilities in a cost-effective manner. It also identifies a need for better access to state-of-the art computing and laboratory facilities

  1. Methodological pluralism in the teaching of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Josué Antunes; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of using a teaching strategy called methodological pluralism, consisting of the use of various methodological resources in order to provide a meaningful learning. It is part of a doctoral thesis, which aims to investigate contributions to the use of traditional resources combined with digital technologies, in order to create autonomy for future teachers of Natural Sciences and Mathematics in relation to themes in Astronomy. It was offered an extension course at the "Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology" in the North of Minas Gerais (FINMG), Campus Januaria, for thirty-two students of licentiate courses in Physics, Mathematics and Biological Sciences, involving themes of Astronomy, in order to search and contribute to improving the training of future teachers. The following aspects are used: the mixed methodology, with pre-experimental design, combined with content analysis. The results indicate the rates of students' prior knowledge in relation to Astronomy was low; meaningful learning indications of concepts related to Astronomy, and the feasibility of using digital resources Involving technologies, articulated with traditional materials in the teaching of Astronomy. This research sought to contribute to the initial teacher training, especially in relation to Astronomy Teaching, proposing new alternatives to promote the teaching of this area of knowledge, extending the methodological options of future teachers.

  2. Future Professional Communication in Astronomy II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto

    The present volume gathers together the talks presented at the second colloquium on the Future Professional Communication in Astronomy (FPCAII), held at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (Cambridge, MA) on 13-14 April 2010. This meeting provided a forum for editors, publishers, scientists, librarians and officers of learned societies to discuss the future of the field. The program included talks from leading researchers and practitioners and drew a crowd of approximately 50 attendees from 10 countries. These proceedings contain contributions from invited and contributed talks from leaders in the field, touching on a number of topics. Among them: The role of disciplinary repositories such as ADS and arXiv in astronomy and the physical sciences; Current status and future of Open Access Publishing models and their impact on astronomy and astrophysics publishing; Emerging trends in scientific article publishing: semantic annotations, multimedia content, links to data products hosted by astrophysics archives; Novel approaches to the evaluation of facilities and projects based on bibliometric indicators; Impact of Government mandates, Privacy laws, and Intellectual Property Rights on the evolving digital publishing environment in astronomy; Communicating astronomy to the public: the experience of the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  3. Improving Teach Astronomy: A Survey of Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Matthew; Riabokin, Malanka; Impey, Chris David

    2018-01-01

    Teach Astronomy is a website that provides educational resources for introductory astronomy. The motivation behind constructing this site was to provide quality online educational tools for use as a primary or supplementary instructional resource for teachers and students. The website provides an online textbook, glossary, podcasts and video summaries of concepts. As the popularity of online courses steadily increases, so does the demand for robust online educational resources. In order to cater to our users, our team conducted a survey of the instructors that use Teach Astronomy site for feedback for use in updating and streamlining the website content. The survey collected feedback regarding functionality of each of the website tools, in which courses the site was being used, and the motivation of the instructors use of our site. The overwhelming majority of responses indicate that instructors use the website as a class textbook in introductory astronomy courses for non-science majors, and instructors also generally tended to agree that the site content was comprehensive and lucid. One interesting result of the survey is to cluster topics in a way that is consistent with different levels of instruction (i.e. grouping middle-school level content and university level content distinctly). Our team will use this feedback to improve the Teach Astronomy website and maintain it as a high-quality, free online resource. We will also continue to gather feedback from instructors to ensure that the Teach Astronomy website stays current and remains a valuable online resource for instructors around the country.

  4. Multi-Messenger Astronomy: White Dwarf Binaries, LISA and GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Michael; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves has ushered in a new era in astronomy. The low-frequency band covered by the future LISA detector provides unprecedented opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy. With the Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics (GAIA) mission, we expect to discover about 1,000 eclipsing binary systems composed of a WD and a main sequence star - a sizeable increase from the approximately 34 currently known binaries of this type. In advance of the first GAIA data release and the launch of LISA within the next decade, we used the Binary Stellar Evolution (BSE) code simulate the evolution of White Dwarf Binaries (WDB) in a fixed galaxy population of about 196,000 sources. Our goal is to assess the detectability of a WDB by LISA and GAIA using the parameters from our population synthesis, we calculate GW strength h, and apparent GAIA magnitude G. We can then use a scale factor to make a prediction of how many multi- messenger sources we expect to be detectable by both LISA and GAIA in a galaxy the size of the Milky Way. We create binaries 10 times to ensure randomness in distance assignment and average our results. We then determined whether or not astronomical chirp is the difference between the total chirp and the GW chirp. With Astronomical chirp and simulations of mass transfer and tides, we can gather more information about the internal astrophysics of stars in ultra-compact binary systems.

  5. Astronomy Village Reaches for New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing a set of complex, multimedia-based instructional modules emphasizing technical and scientific issues related to Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope project. The modules" pedagogy will be open-ended and problem-based to promote development of problem-solving skills. Problem- based-learning modules that emphasize work on open-ended complex real world problems are particularly valuable in illustrating and promoting a perspective on the process of science and engineering. Research in this area shows that these kinds of learning experiences are superior to more conventional student training in terms of gains in student learning. The format for the modules will be based on the award-winning multi-media educational Astronomy Village products that present students with a simulated environment: a mountaintop community surrounded by a cluster of telescopes, satellite receivers, and telecommunication towers. A number of "buildings" are found in the Village, such as a library, a laboratory, and an auditorium. Each building contains an array of information sources and computer simulations. Students navigate through their research with a mentor via imbedded video. The first module will be "Observatory Site Selection." Students will use astronomical data, basic weather information, and sky brightness data to select the best site for an observatory. Students will investigate the six GSMT sites considered by the professional site selection teams. Students will explore weather and basic site issues (e.g., roads and topography) using remote sensing images, computational fluid dynamics results, turbulence profiles, and scintillation of the different sites. Comparison of student problem solving with expert problem solving will also be done as part of the module. As part of a site selection team they will have to construct a case and present it on why they chose a particular site. The second module will address aspects of system engineering and optimization for a GSMT

  6. Pengembangan Aplikasi Multimedia untuk Pembelajaran Satelit Astronomi NASA dengan Teknologi Augmented Reality Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilan Arya Sujati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of technology in various aspects of life of today's technology allows developers to create applications that aims to facilitate the public in obtaining information based on mobile. Seeing the importance of the role of astronomy satellites it needs to make a multimedia application with Augmented Reality technology that can provide an overview and brief specifications on astronomy satellite without having to go to the planetarium or observatory.This research is using MDLC (Multimedia Development Life Cycle framework. The process of assembly (pemasangan was performed using Unity and Vuforia library. The result is a book containing related image about NASA’s astronomy satellites which functioned as a marker and an Augmented Reality application based on Android that is capable of displaying NASA’s astronomical satellites on the top of marker that can display brief information about the shape and its parts when touched on the screen. The application that has been made function properly and in accordance with the concept and design. The ideal condition of using the application in places exposed to light with the intensity of 108,3 ± 2,5 lux upwards. In addition the camera is directed to the distance between 10-75 cm of the marker and the angle between 40 ± 0,5 O – 140 ± 0,5 O .. The greater the intensity of the light does not affect the sensitivity of the camera to detect the marker increases. In other words, the marker will not be detected if the distance marker on the camera more than 75 cm and the angle of the camera marker less than 40 ± 0,5 O or more than 140 ± 0,5 O though the light intensity is greater.

  7. Solar satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poher, C.

    1982-01-01

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  8. Solar satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poher, C.

    A reference system design, projected costs, and the functional concepts of a satellite solar power system (SSPS) for converting sunlight falling on solar panels of a satellite in GEO to a multi-GW beam which could be received by a rectenna on earth are outlined. Electricity transmission by microwaves has been demonstrated, and a reference design system for supplying 5 GW dc to earth was devised. The system will use either monocrystalline Si or concentrator GaAs solar cells for energy collection in GEO. Development is still needed to improve the lifespan of the cells. Currently, the cell performance degrades 50 percent in efficiency after 7-8 yr in space. Each SSPS satellite would weigh either 34,000 tons (Si) or 51,000 tons (GaAs), thereby requiring the fabrication of a heavy lift launch vehicle or a single-stage-to-orbit transport in order to minimize launch costs. Costs for the solar panels have been estimated at $500/kW using the GaAs technology, with transport costs for materials to GEO being $40/kg.

  9. Astronomy Learning Activities for Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2015-08-01

    Four web-based tools allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn concepts in astronomy. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. The first tool “Three Color” allows students to combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. The second tool “Star Clusters” allows students to compare images of stars in clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes in order to produce color-magnitude diagrams to determine cluster ages. The third tool adapts Travis Rector’s “NovaSearch” to allow students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae. After students find a nova, they are able to measure the time over which the nova fades away. A fourth tool, Proper Pair, allows students to interact with Hipparcos data to evaluate close double stars are physical binaries or chance superpositions. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  10. Using Games to Teach Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Paul J.

    We all know that astronomical research is a chaotic sociable deeply human enterprise full of baffling mysteries enigmatic clues and breathtakingly unexpected conclusions. Abundant evidence suggests that our students see astronomy very differently. They see it as a lonely activity: a collection of facts (and very pretty pictures) brought down from the mountain by antisocial ""experts"" for them to memorise. Can we change this false perception? I've been experimenting with using role-playing games in the classroom. I've tried these games out on a wide range of high-school and university students. Students play the roles of competing teams of astronomers battling to solve some perplexing astrophysical enigma. Do these games work? Sometimes! When they work well the really change student perceptions of science in a way that almost no other teaching technique can match. But there have been a fair number of embarrassing fiascos along the way... I will share my experiences and hard earned tips for avoiding disasters

  11. Astronomy Fun with Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Morris, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Those mobile devices your students bring to class can do more that tweet and text. Engage your students with these web-based astronomy learning tools that allow students to manipulate astronomical data to learn important concepts. The tools are HTML5, CSS3, Javascript-based applications that provide access to the content on iPad and Android tablets. With "Three Color" students can combine monochrome astronomical images taken through different color filters or in different wavelength regions into a single color image. "Star Clusters" allows students to compare images of clusters with a pre-defined template of colors and sizes to compare clusters of different ages. An adaptation of Travis Rector's "NovaSearch" allows students to examine images of the central regions of the Andromeda Galaxy to find novae and to measure the time over which the nova fades away. New additions to our suite of applications allow students to estimate the surface temperatures of exoplanets and the probability of life elsewhere in the Universe. Further information and access to these web-based tools are available at www.astro.indiana.edu/ala/.

  12. Astronomy Matters for Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Jay S.; Vergenz, Robert A.; Smith, Terry L.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to encourage more chemistry teachers to become familiar with some of the basic ideas described in typical introductory astronomy courses (1 - 9), including those about the origin of elements and forms of matter. These ideas would enrich chemistry courses and help resolve some basic misconceptions that are expressed in many introductory texts (10 - 16) and journal articles for chemistry teachers (17, 18). These misconceptions are typified by statements such as "we can classify all substances as either elements or compounds," and "nature has provided 92 elements out of which all matter is composed." If students accept these misconceptions, they could be deprived of (i) an appreciation of the history of elements and knowing that the elemental composition of the universe continues to evolve, (ii) knowing that of the first 92 elements in the periodic table, technetium and promethium do not occur naturally on Earth, and (iii) understanding that there are forms of matter other than elements and compounds. This paper briefly explores these ideas.

  13. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  14. Gravitational Waves: A New Observational Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan B.

    2010-01-01

    The era of gravitational wave astronomy is rapidly approaching, with a likely start date around the middle of this decade ' Gravitational waves, emitted by accelerated motions of very massive objects, provide detailed information about strong-field gravity and its sources, including black holes and neutron stars, that electromagnetic probes cannot access. In this talk I will discuss the anticipated sources and the status of the extremely sensitive detectors (both ground and space based) that will make gravitational wave detections possible. As ground based detectors are now taking data, I will show some initial science results related to measured upper limits on gravitational wave signals. Finally Z will describe new directions including advanced detectors and joint efforts with other fields of astronomy.

  15. The Effect of Media on Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Astronomy and Achievement in Astronomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektasli, Behzat

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that it is hard to change students' attitudes toward science. This study specifically explored if media affect preservice science teachers' attitudes toward astronomy and their astronomy achievement. The sample for the pilot study consisted of 196 preservice science and mathematics teachers for attitude assessment and 230 preservice…

  16. Thinking Big for 25 Years: Astronomy Camp Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy Camp is a deep immersion educational adventure for teenagers and adults in southern Arizona that is entering its 25th year of existence. The Camp Director (McCarthy) is the winner of the 2012 AAS Education Prize. A general overview of the program is given in an accompanying contribution (McCarthy et al.). In this presentation we describe some of the research projects conducted by Astronomy Camp participants over the years. Many of the Camps contain a strong project-oriented emphasis, which reaches its pinnacle in the Advanced Camps for teenagers. High school students from around the world participate in a microcosm of the full arc of astronomy research. They plan their own projects before the start of Camp, and the staff provide a series of "key projects." Early in the Camp the students submit observing proposals to utilize time on telescopes. (The block of observing time is secured in advance by the staff.) The participants collect, reduce and analyze astronomical data with the help of staff, and they present the results to their peers on the last night of Camp, all in a span of eight days. The Camps provide research grade telescopes and instruments, in addition to amateur telescopes. Some of the Camps occur on Kitt Peak, where we use an ensemble of telescopes: the 2.3-meter (University of Arizona) with a spectrograph; the WIYN 0.9-meter; the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope; and the 12-meter millimeter wave telescope. Additionally the Camp has one night on the 10-meter Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham. Campers use these resources to study stars, galaxies, AGN, transiting planets, molecular clouds, etc. Some of the camper-initiated projects have led to very high level performances in prestigious international competitions, such as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The key projects often contribute to published astronomical research (e.g., Benecchi et al. 2010, Icarus, 207, 978). Many former Campers have received Ph.D. degrees in

  17. C/NOFS Satellite Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Plasma Instabilities Below the Equatorial F-Peak -- Evidence for Approximately 500 km-Scale Spread-F "Precursor" Waves Driven by Zonal Shear Flow and km-Scale, Narrow-Banded Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.; Valladares, C.

    2011-01-01

    As solar activity has increased, the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated on numerous occasions above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400km. In particular, during the month of April, 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set (to our knowledge): The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second new result (for C/NOFS) is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is below the F -peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field component of these waves is strongest in the zonal direction. These waves are strongly correlated with simultaneous observations of plasma density oscillations and appear both with, and without, evidence of larger-scale spread-F depletions. These km-scale, quasi-coherent waves strongly resemble the bottomside, sinusoidal irregularities reported in the Atmosphere Explorer satellite data set by Valladares et al. [JGR, 88, 8025, 1983

  18. Time-Domain Astronomy with the Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is an all-sky monitoring instrument sensitive to energies from 8 keV to 40 MeV. Over the past 8 years of operation, the GBM has detected over 240 gamma-ray bursts per year and provided timely GCN notices with localization to few-degree accuracy for follow-up observations. In addition to GRBs, Galactic transients, solar flares, and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes have also been observed. In recent years we have also been searching the continuous GBM data for electromagnetic counterpart to astrophysical neutrinos and gravitational wave events, as these are believed to be associated with gamma-ray bursts. With continuous data downlink every few hours and a temporal resolution of 2 microseconds, GBM is well suited for observing transients and supporting EM follow-up in the era of multi-messenger astronomy.

  19. Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, M., E-mail: martino.calvo@neel.cnrs.fr [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Goupy, J.; D' Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Bourrion, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Catalano, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Monfardini, A. [Institute Néel, CNRS, Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-11

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mm-wave astronomy and to particle physics.

  20. Superconducting Kinetic Inductance Detectors for astronomy and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; D'Addabbo, A.; Benoit, A.; Bourrion, O.; Catalano, A.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) represent a novel detector technology based on superconducting resonators. Since their first demonstration in 2003, they have been rapidly developed and are today a strong candidate for present and future experiments in the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. This has been possible thanks to the unique features of such devices: in particular, they couple a very high sensitivity to their intrinsic suitability for frequency domain multiplexed readout, making the fabrication of large arrays of ultrasensitive detectors possible. There are many fields of application that can profit of such detectors. Here, we will briefly review the principle of operation of a KID, and give two sample applications, to mm-wave astronomy and to particle physics.