WorldWideScience

Sample records for wave analyses review

  1. Review of water wave kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterndorff, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    The present report covers a comprehensive review of water wave kinematics carried out by Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI) in connection with the EFP`93 project: Dynamics of Mono Tower Platforms (ref. EFP`93, 1313/93-0009). This project is carried out in cooperation with Ramboell, Hannemann and Hoejlund A/S. The main objectives of the project are to develop and verify a method for the determination of the non-linear wave load and the dynamic response of mono tower platforms. One of the characteristics of mono tower platforms is that due to the small water plane area the hydrodynamic loading will be very concentrated. Such platforms may therefore respond strongly and in a highly dynamic manner to short waves and high order components of extreme waves having periods corresponding to the first natural period of the platform. A key element in the hydrodynamic load process is the wave kinematics. The present report is a comprehensive review of recent literature concerning wave theories, wave-current interaction, laboratory experiments, and field measurements of water wave kinematics. The review has been concentrated on non-breaking waves on deep to intermediate water depths. Papers concerning shallow water waves have only been reviewed if they present methods which may be applied for deep to intermediate water waves. (au) EFP-93; 30 refs.

  2. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.

    2015-01-01

    leads the water into another pipe or tunnel system. A pressure gradient generated by the water level difference between the sea and basin drives the flow through the tunnel system. The tunnel system is often in the order of a couple kilometers long. Based on CFD analyses (computational fluid dynamics......Velocity caps are often used in connection with for instance offshore intake sea water for the use of for cooling water for power plants or as a source for desalinization plants. The intakes can also be used for river intakes. The velocity cap is placed on top of a vertical pipe. The vertical pipe......) this paper investigates the current and wave forces on the velocity cap and the vertical cylinder. The Morison’s force model was used in the analyses of the extracted force time series in from the CFD model. Further the distribution of the inlet velocities around the velocity cap was also analyzed in detail...

  3. Book review: Extreme ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2017-01-01

    “Extreme Ocean Waves”, edited by E. Pelinovsky and C. Kharif, second edition, Springer International Publishing, 2016; ISBN: 978-3-319-21574-7, ISBN (eBook): 978-3-319-21575-4The second edition of “Extreme Ocean Waves” published by Springer is an update of a collection of 12 papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif following the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. In this edition, three new papers have been added and three more have been substantially revised. Color figures are now included, which greatly aids in reading several of the papers, and is especially helpful in visualizing graphs as in the paper on symbolic computation of nonlinear wave resonance (Tobisch et al.). A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, including deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (which are alternatively termed freak waves), and internal waves. One new paper on tsunamis (Viroulet et al.) is now included in the second edition of this volume. Throughout the book, the reader will find a combination of laboratory, theoretical, and statistical/empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the Introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting a dramatic instance of damaging extreme waves that recently occurred in 2014.

  4. Millimeter wave imaging: a historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Roger; Robertson, Duncan A.; Wikner, David

    2017-05-01

    The SPIE Passive and Active Millimeter Wave Imaging conference has provided an annual focus and forum for practitioners in the field of millimeter wave imaging for the past two decades. To celebrate the conference's twentieth anniversary we present a historical review of the evolution of millimeter wave imaging over the past twenty years. Advances in device technology play a fundamental role in imaging capability whilst system architectures have also evolved. Imaging phenomenology continues to be a crucial topic underpinning the deployment of millimeter wave imaging in diverse applications such as security, remote sensing, non-destructive testing and synthetic vision.

  5. Analysis of dam break waves; Analyse av dambruddsboelger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttoemme, Grethe Holm (ed.)

    2010-06-15

    The project objective was to improve knowledge and methodology for dam break wave calculations in relation to current practice and NVE's current requirements. The reason was the experience of flood in Troendelag in 2006, which indicated that NVE's policies was not good enough for small and / or erosion prone rivers. The project has shown that erosion processes can be at least as large consequences as the dam break flood, and that degree of detail with respect to terrain data and the choice of roughness is important for the results in a watercourse as Lauvsnes waterway. It is also shown that the results from the use of 2D model may differ significantly from results from the 1D model. The report is making recommendations for updating guidelines for dam break wave calculations. (AG)

  6. Cochrane reviews compared with industry supported meta-analyses and other meta-analyses of the same drugs: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders W; Hilden, Jørgen; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the methodological quality and conclusions in Cochrane reviews with those in industry supported meta-analyses and other meta-analyses of the same drugs. DESIGN: Systematic review comparing pairs of meta-analyses that studied the same two drugs in the same disease and were pu...

  7. Theophylline: a review of population pharmacokinetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y J; Jiang, D Q; Meng, J X; Li, M X; Zhao, H H; Wang, Y; Wang, L Q

    2016-12-01

    Numerous population pharmacokinetic studies of theophylline have been conducted in paediatric and adult patients. The purpose of this review was to summarize the published studies concerning population pharmacokinetics of theophylline in patients of different ages and discuss factors that might cause the large variability in the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using the following keywords: 'theophylline', 'population pharmacokinetic(s)' and 'nonlinear mixed effect model'. Additionally, the relevant references listed in the retrieved articles were manually reviewed. All of the studies that reported the population pharmacokinetics of theophylline in humans were included in this review. However, articles were excluded if they were not written in English. Sixteen articles were included in this review. Among them, 11 were conducted on paediatric patients, and five were conducted on adults. A one-compartment model with first-order elimination was employed in most of the included articles. A nonlinear mixed effect modelling approach (NONMEM) was the most commonly used software to develop a population pharmacokinetic model. Body weight and age (post-conceptional age and post-natal age) were the most important factors associated with the clearance (CL) of theophylline in paediatric patients. Body weight (ideal body weight and lean body mass), age and smoking status were most frequently used to estimate the CL of theophylline in adults. The median (range) estimate values of CL for paediatric and adult patients were 0·062 (0·0056-0·0949) L/h/kg and 0·053 (0·0493-0·0517) L/h/kg, respectively. The median values of the interindividual variability of CL were 33·5% in adults and 25·8% in paediatric patients. The mean values of the residual variability were 21% in paediatric patients and 14·3% in adults. This review concludes that body weight and age were the most important factors associated with the clearance of theophylline

  8. Applied mediation analyses: a review and tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Theis; Hansen, Kim Wadt; Sørensen, Rikke; Galatius, Søren

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, mediation analysis has emerged as a powerful tool to disentangle causal pathways from an exposure/treatment to clinically relevant outcomes. Mediation analysis has been applied in scientific fields as diverse as labour market relations and randomized clinical trials of heart disease treatments. In parallel to these applications, the underlying mathematical theory and computer tools have been refined. This combined review and tutorial will introduce the reader to modern mediation analysis including: the mathematical framework; required assumptions; and software implementation in the R package medflex. All results are illustrated using a recent study on the causal pathways stemming from the early invasive treatment of acute coronary syndrome, for which the rich Danish population registers allow us to follow patients' medication use and more after being discharged from hospital.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fever during pregnancy has been suspected to harm the developing fetus. However, until now, no systematic analysis of the available evidence has been undertaken to assess the impact of maternal fever on health outcomes in the child. The goal of this study was to systemat......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fever during pregnancy has been suspected to harm the developing fetus. However, until now, no systematic analysis of the available evidence has been undertaken to assess the impact of maternal fever on health outcomes in the child. The goal of this study...... was to systematically review evidence from epidemiologic studies on adverse health outcomes of the offspring in relation to exposure to maternal fever during pregnancy. METHODS: Systematic searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were performed by using Medical Subject Headings, Boolean operators...

  10. Review article: Wave analysis methods for space plasma experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yasuhito

    2017-05-01

    A review of analysis methods is given on quasi-monochromatic waves, turbulent fluctuations, and wave-wave and wave-particle interactions for single-spacecraft data in situ in near-Earth space and interplanetary space, in particular using magnetic field and electric field data. Energy spectra for different components of the fluctuating fields, minimum variance analysis, propagation and polarization properties of electromagnetic waves, wave distribution function, helicity quantities, higher-order statistics, and detection methods for wave-particle interactions are explained.

  11. Motion and wave load analyses of large offshore structures and special vessels in waves

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiong-Jian

    1990-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University. Predictions of the environmental loading and induced motional and structural responses are among the most important aspects in the overall design process of offshore structures and ships. In this thesis, attention is focused on the wave loads and excited bodily motion responses of large offshore structures and special vessels. With the aim of improving the existing theoretical methods ...

  12. Interpretation of differential item functioning analyses using external review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Neil W; Fayers, Peter M; Aaronson, Neil K

    2010-01-01

    considered. Relatively few examples of blinded item reviews were identified, and these were mostly from educational studies. A case study using blinded bilingual reviewers alongside translation DIF analyses of a health-related quality of life instrument is described. Future researchers should consider...

  13. Publication bias in dermatology systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakpo, Paul; Vassar, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in dermatology provide high-level evidence for clinicians and policy makers that influence clinical decision making and treatment guidelines. One methodological problem with systematic reviews is the under representation of unpublished studies. This problem is due in part to publication bias. Omission of statistically non-significant data from meta-analyses may result in overestimation of treatment effect sizes which may lead to clinical consequences. Our goal was to assess whether systematic reviewers in dermatology evaluate and report publication bias. Further, we wanted to conduct our own evaluation of publication bias on meta-analyses that failed to do so. Our study considered systematic reviews and meta-analyses from ten dermatology journals from 2006 to 2016. A PubMed search was conducted, and all full-text articles that met our inclusion criteria were retrieved and coded by the primary author. 293 articles were included in our analysis. Additionally, we formally evaluated publication bias in meta-analyses that failed to do so using trim and fill and cumulative meta-analysis by precision methods. Publication bias was mentioned in 107 articles (36.5%) and was formally evaluated in 64 articles (21.8%). Visual inspection of a funnel plot was the most common method of evaluating publication bias. Publication bias was present in 45 articles (15.3%), not present in 57 articles (19.5%) and not determined in 191 articles (65.2%). Using the trim and fill method, 7 meta-analyses (33.33%) showed evidence of publication bias. Although the trim and fill method only found evidence of publication bias in 7 meta-analyses, the cumulative meta-analysis by precision method found evidence of publication bias in 15 meta-analyses (71.4%). Many of the reviews in our study did not mention or evaluate publication bias. Further, of the 42 articles that stated following PRISMA reporting guidelines, 19 (45.2%) evaluated for publication bias. In

  14. Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    wave mechanics for engineers and scientists. New Jersey: World Scientific . Dingler, J. R., and D. L. Inman. 1976. Wave-formed ripples in nearshore...sediment transport. New York: World Scientific . Papanicolaou, A. N., M. Elhakeem, G. Krallis, S. Prakash, and J. Edinger. 2008. Sediment transport...Boundary layers, Models, Near-shore processes, Review article , Sediment transport, Wave and current interaction 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  15. Alfven wave. DOE Critical Review Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, A.; Uberoi, C.

    1982-01-01

    This monograph deals with the properties of Alfven waves and with their application to fusion. The book is divided into 7 chapters dealing with linear properties in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas. Absorption is treated by means of kinetic theory. Instabilities and nonlinear processes are treated in Chapters 1 to 6, and the closing chapter is devoted to theory and experiments in plasma heating by Alfven waves. (MOW)

  16. A Review of Empirical Analyses of Disinvestment Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, James D; Salem, Mark N; D'Cruz, Brittany N; Subedi, Prasun; Kamal-Bahl, Sachin J; Neumann, Peter J

    Disinvesting in low-value health care services provides opportunities for investment in higher value care and thus an increase in health care efficiency. To identify international experience with disinvestment initiatives and to review empirical analyses of disinvestment initiatives. We performed a literature search using the PubMed database to identify international experience with disinvestment initiatives. We also reviewed empirical analyses of disinvestment initiatives. We identified 26 unique disinvestment initiatives implemented across 11 countries. Nineteen addressed multiple intervention types, six addressed only drugs, and one addressed only devices. We reviewed 18 empirical analyses of disinvestment initiatives: 7 reported that the initiative was successful, 8 reported that the initiative was unsuccessful, and 3 reported that findings were mixed; that is, the study considered multiple services and reported a decrease in the use of some but not others. Thirty-seven low-value services were evaluated across the 18 empirical analyses, for 14 (38%) of which the disinvestment initiative led to a decline in use. Six of the seven studies that reported the disinvestment initiative to be successful included an attempt to promote the disinvestment initiative among participating clinicians. The success of disinvestment initiatives has been mixed, with fewer than half the identified empirical studies reporting that use of the low-value service was reduced. Our findings suggest that promotion of the disinvestment initiative among clinicians is a key component to the success of the disinvestment initiative. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rogue waves in the ocean - review and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Kharif, Christian; Slunyaev, Alexey

    2010-05-01

    Rogue waves in the ocean and physical mechanisms of their appearance are discussed. Theyse waves are among waves naturally observed by people on the sea surface that represent inseparable feature of the Ocean. Rogue waves appear from nowhere, cause danger and disappear at once. They may occur at the surface of a relatively calm sea, reach not very high amplitudes, but be fatal for ships and crew due to their unexpectedness and abnormal features. The billows appear suddenly exceeding the surrounding waves twice and more, and obtained many names: abnormal, exceptional, extreme, giant, huge, sudden, episodic, freak, monster, rogue, vicious, killer, mad- or rabid-dog waves; cape rollers, holes in the sea, walls of water, three sisters… Freak monsters, though living for seconds, were able to arouse superstitious fear of the crew, cause damage, death of heedless sailors or the whole ship. All these epithets are full of human fear and feebleness. The serious studies of the phenomenon started about 20-30 years ago and have been intensified during the recent decade. The research is being conducted in different fields: in physics (search of physical mechanisms and adequate models of wave enhancement and statistics), in geoscience (determining the regions and weather conditions when rogue waves are most probable), and in ocean and coastal engineering (estimations of the wave loads on fixed and drifting floating structures). Thus, scientists and engineers specializing in different subject areas are involved in the solution of the problem. The state-of-art of the rogue wave study is summarized in our book [Kharif, Ch., Pelinovsky, E., and Slunyaev, A. Rogue Waves in the Ocean. Springer, 2009] and presented in given review. Firstly, we start with a brief introduction to the problem of freak waves aiming at formulating what is understood as rogue or freak waves, what consequences their existence imply in our life, why people are so worried about them. Then we discuss existing

  18. Wave response analyses of floating crane structure; Crane sen no jobu kozobutsu no haro oto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, H.; Takaki, M.; Kitamura, M.; Ahou, G. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Higashimura, M. [Fukada Salvage and Marine Works Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Identifying a dynamic load acting on a lifted load in a floating crane moving in waves is important for preparing an operation manual for the floating crane. Analyses were made on motions in waves of a floating crane with a lifting load of 3,600 tons, with considerations given to deformation of the crane structure. Discussions were given on a dynamic load acting on a lifted load. If a case that considers elastic deformation in the crane structure is compared with a case that does not consider same in calculating hull motions of the floating crane, the difference between them is small if wave length {lambda} to the ship length L is about 0.5. However, if {lambda}/L is 1.0 and 1.5, the difference grows very large. Therefore, the effect of deformation in the crane structure on hull motions of the floating crane cannot be ignored in these cases. A dynamic load acting on a lifted load that considers deformation in the crane structure is about 5% of lifted weight in a headsea condition in which the wave height is 2 m and {lambda}/L is 1.5. As opposed, an estimated value of a dynamic load when the crane structure is regarded as a rigid body is 13%, which is 2.6 times as great as the case that considers deformation of the crane structure. 3 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Coupled Mooring Analyses for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, Senu; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Hall, Matthew; Bosma, Bret

    2016-07-01

    A wave-energy-converter-specific time-domain modeling method (WEC-Sim) was coupled with a lumped-mass-based mooring model (MoorDyn) to improve its mooring dynamics modeling capability. This paper presents a verification and validation study on the coupled numerical method. First, a coupled model was built to simulate a 1/25 model scale floating power system connected to a traditional three-point catenary mooring with an angle of 120 between the lines. The body response and the tension force on the mooring lines at the fairlead in decay tests and under regular and irregular waves were examined. To validate and verify the coupled numerical method, the simulation results were compared to the measurements from a wave tank test and a commercial code (OrcaFlex). Second, a coupled model was built to simulate a two-body point absorber system with a chain-connected catenary system. The influence of the mooring connection on the point absorber was investigated. Overall, the study showed that the coupling of WEC-Sim and the MoorDyn model works reasonably well for simulating a floating system with practical mooring designs and predicting the corresponding dynamic loads on the mooring lines. Further analyses on improving coupling efficiency and the feasibility of applying the numerical method to simulate WEC systems with more complex mooring configuration are still needed.

  20. Coupled Mooring Analyses for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, Senu; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Hall, Matthew; Bosma, Bret

    2016-06-24

    A wave-energy-converter-specific time-domain modeling method (WEC-Sim) was coupled with a lumped-mass-based mooring model (MoorDyn) to improve its mooring dynamics modeling capability. This paper presents a verification and validation study on the coupled numerical method. First, a coupled model was built to simulate a 1/25 model scale floating power system connected to a traditional three-point catenary mooring with an angle of 120 between the lines. The body response and the tension force on the mooring lines at the fairlead in decay tests and under regular and irregular waves were examined. To validate and verify the coupled numerical method, the simulation results were compared to the measurements from a wave tank test and a commercial code (OrcaFlex). Second, a coupled model was built to simulate a two-body point absorber system with a chain-connected catenary system. The influence of the mooring connection on the point absorber was investigated. Overall, the study showed that the coupling of WEC-Sim and the MoorDyn model works reasonably well for simulating a floating system with practical mooring designs and predicting the corresponding dynamic loads on the mooring lines. Further analyses on improving coupling efficiency and the feasibility of applying the numerical method to simulate WEC systems with more complex mooring configuration are still needed.

  1. A review of bioinformatic methods for forensic DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Yuan; Harbison, SallyAnn

    2018-03-01

    Short tandem repeats, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and whole mitochondrial analyses are three classes of markers which will play an important role in the future of forensic DNA typing. The arrival of massively parallel sequencing platforms in forensic science reveals new information such as insights into the complexity and variability of the markers that were previously unseen, along with amounts of data too immense for analyses by manual means. Along with the sequencing chemistries employed, bioinformatic methods are required to process and interpret this new and extensive data. As more is learnt about the use of these new technologies for forensic applications, development and standardization of efficient, favourable tools for each stage of data processing is being carried out, and faster, more accurate methods that improve on the original approaches have been developed. As forensic laboratories search for the optimal pipeline of tools, sequencer manufacturers have incorporated pipelines into sequencer software to make analyses convenient. This review explores the current state of bioinformatic methods and tools used for the analyses of forensic markers sequenced on the massively parallel sequencing (MPS) platforms currently most widely used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy and exergy analyses of thermal power plants: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, S.C.; Reddy, V.S.; Tyagi, S.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2011-05-15

    The energy supply to demand narrowing down day by day around the world, the growing demand of power has made the power plants of scientific interest, but most of the power plants are designed by the energetic performance criteria based on first law of thermodynamics only. The real useful energy loss cannot be justified by the fist law of thermodynamics, because it does not differentiate between the quality and quantity of energy. The present study deals with the comparison of energy and exergy analyses of thermal power plants stimulated by coal and gas. This article provides a detailed review of different studies on thermal power plants over the years. This review would also throw light on the scope for further research and recommendations for improvement in the existing thermal power plants.

  3. Analyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Analyse i Politiken om frynsegoder med udgangspunkt i bogen Occupational Welfare - Winners and Losers publiceret på Edward Elgar......Analyse i Politiken om frynsegoder med udgangspunkt i bogen Occupational Welfare - Winners and Losers publiceret på Edward Elgar...

  4. Reporting quality of systematic reviews/meta-analyses of acupuncture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Liu

    Full Text Available The QUOROM and PRISMA statements were published in 1999 and 2009, respectively, to improve the consistency of reporting systematic reviews (SRs/meta-analyses (MAs of clinical trials. However, not all SRs/MAs adhere completely to these important standards. In particular, it is not clear how well SRs/MAs of acupuncture studies adhere to reporting standards and which reporting criteria are generally ignored in these analyses.To evaluate reporting quality in SRs/MAs of acupuncture studies.We performed a literature search for studies published prior to 2014 using the following public archives: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM database, the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD, the Chinese Scientific Journal Full-text Database (CSJD, and the Wanfang database. Data were extracted into pre-prepared Excel data-extraction forms. Reporting quality was assessed based on the PRISMA checklist (27 items.Of 476 appropriate SRs/MAs identified in our search, 203, 227, and 46 were published in Chinese journals, international journals, and the Cochrane Database, respectively. In 476 SRs/MAs, only 3 reported the information completely. By contrast, approximately 4.93% (1/203, 8.81% (2/227 and 0.00% (0/46 SRs/Mas reported less than 10 items in Chinese journals, international journals and CDSR, respectively. In general, the least frequently reported items (reported≤50% in SRs/MAs were "protocol and registration", "risk of bias across studies", and "additional analyses" in both methods and results sections.SRs/MAs of acupuncture studies have not comprehensively reported information recommended in the PRISMA statement. Our study underscores that, in addition to focusing on careful study design and performance, attention should be paid to comprehensive reporting standards in SRs/MAs on acupuncture studies.

  5. Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Interface Crack Problems - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald; Shivakumar, Kunigal; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in fracture mechanics analyses of the interfacial crack problem are reviewed. The intent of the review is to renew the awareness of the oscillatory singularity at the crack tip of a bimaterial interface and the problems that occur when calculating mode mixity using numerical methods such as the finite element method in conjunction with the virtual crack closure technique. Established approaches to overcome the nonconvergence issue of the individual mode strain energy release rates are reviewed. In the recent literature many attempts to overcome the nonconvergence issue have been developed. Among the many approaches found only a few methods hold the promise of providing practical solutions. These are the resin interlayer method, the method that chooses the crack tip element size greater than the oscillation zone, the crack tip element method that is based on plate theory and the crack surface displacement extrapolation method. Each of the methods is validated on a very limited set of simple interface crack problems. However, their utility for a wide range of interfacial crack problems is yet to be established.

  6. A review of gravitational waves from cosmic domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikawa, Ken' ichi

    2017-03-15

    In this contribution, we discuss the cosmological scenario where unstable domain walls are formed in the early universe and their late-time annihilation produces a significant amount of gravitational waves. After describing cosmological constraints on long-lived domain walls, we estimate the typical amplitude and frequency of gravitational waves observed today. We also review possible extensions of the standard model of particle physics that predict the formation of unstable domain walls and can be probed by observation of relic gravitational waves. It is shown that recent results of pulser timing arrays and direct detection experiments partially exclude the relevant parameter space, and that a much wider parameter space can be covered by the next generation of gravitational wave observatories.

  7. Pulse wave analysis and diabetes mellitus. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdova, Jaromira; Karasek, David; Goldmannova, Dominika; Krystynik, Ondrej; Schovanek, Jan; Vaverkova, Helena; Zadrazil, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the primary cause of death in diabetic patients and one of the explanations may be increased arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness assessment using pulse wave analysis, is a predictive factor of CV events. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge of relations between diabetes mellitus and pulse wave analysis. A MEDLINE search was performed to retrieve both original and review articles addressing the relations and influences on arterial stiffness in diabetics. Pulse wave analysis is considered as a gold standard in CV risk evaluation for patients at risk, especially diabetics. Arterial stiffness assessment may be helpful for choosing more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, particularly in younger patients to reduce the incidence of CV disease in these patients.

  8. Health economic analyses in medical nutrition: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzer S

    2014-03-01

    via journal webpages for further assessment. Thirty-two papers were finally included in a thorough data extraction procedure, including those identified by a “gray literature search” utilizing the Google search engine and cross-reference searches. Results regarding content of the studies showed that malnutrition was the underlying clinical condition in most cases (32%. In addition, gastrointestinal disorders (eg, surgery, cancer were often analyzed. In terms of settings, 56% of papers covered inpatients, whereas 14 papers (44% captured outpatients, including patients in community centers. Interestingly, in comparison with the papers identified overall, very few health economic models were found. Most of the articles were modeling analyses and economic trials in different design settings. Overall, only eight health economic models were published and were validated applying the Drummond checklist. In summary, most of the models included were carried out to quite a high standard, although some areas were identified for further improvement. Of the two systematic health economic reviews identified, one achieved the highest quality score when applying the AMSTAR checklist. Conclusion: The reasons for finding only a few modeling studies but quite a large number of clinical trials with health economic endpoints, might be different. Until recently, health economics has not been required for reimbursement or coverage decisions concerning medical nutrition interventions. Further, there might be specifics of medical nutrition which might not allow easy modeling and consequently explain the limited uptake so far. The health economic data on medical nutrition generated and published is quite ample. However, it has been primarily based on database analysis and clinical studies. Only a few modeling analyses have been carried out, indicating a need for further research to understand the specifics of medical nutrition and their applicability for health economic modeling. Keywords

  9. Statistical parameters of random heterogeneity estimated by analysing coda waves based on finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, K.; Saito, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Short-period (seismic waves and randomly distributed small-scale heterogeneities. Statistical properties of the random heterogeneities have been estimated by analysing short-period seismograms. However, generally, the small-scale random heterogeneity is not taken into account for the modelling of long-period (>2 s) seismograms. We found that the energy of the coda of long-period seismograms shows a spatially flat distribution. This phenomenon is well known in short-period seismograms and results from the scattering by small-scale heterogeneities. We estimate the statistical parameters that characterize the small-scale random heterogeneity by modelling the spatiotemporal energy distribution of long-period seismograms. We analyse three moderate-size earthquakes that occurred in southwest Japan. We calculate the spatial distribution of the energy density recorded by a dense seismograph network in Japan at the period bands of 8-16 s, 4-8 s and 2-4 s and model them by using 3-D finite difference (FD) simulations. Compared to conventional methods based on statistical theories, we can calculate more realistic synthetics by using the FD simulation. It is not necessary to assume a uniform background velocity, body or surface waves and scattering properties considered in general scattering theories. By taking the ratio of the energy of the coda area to that of the entire area, we can separately estimate the scattering and the intrinsic absorption effects. Our result reveals the spectrum of the random inhomogeneity in a wide wavenumber range including the intensity around the corner wavenumber as P(m) = 8πε2a3/(1 + a2m2)2, where ε = 0.05 and a = 3.1 km, even though past studies analysing higher-frequency records could not detect the corner. Finally, we estimate the intrinsic attenuation by modelling the decay rate of the energy. The method proposed in this study is suitable for quantifying the statistical properties of long-wavelength subsurface random inhomogeneity, which

  10. Characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves over Antarctica observed by Antarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network imagers using 3-D spectral analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takashi S.; Nakamura, Takuji; Ejiri, Mitsumu K.; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Taylor, Michael J.; Zhao, Yucheng; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Murphy, Damian J.; Moffat-Griffin, Tracy

    2017-09-01

    We have obtained horizontal phase velocity distributions of the gravity waves around 90 km from four Antarctic airglow imagers, which belong to an international airglow imager/instrument network known as ANGWIN (Antarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network). Results from the airglow imagers at Syowa (69°S, 40°E), Halley (76°S, 27°W), Davis (69°S, 78°E), and McMurdo (78°S, 167°E) were compared, using a new statistical analysis method based on 3-D Fourier transform (Matsuda et al., 2014) for the observation period between 7 April and 21 May 2013. Significant day-to-day and site-to-site differences were found. The averaged phase velocity spectrum during the observation period showed preferential westward direction at Syowa, McMurdo, and Halley, but no preferential direction at Davis. Gravity wave energy estimated by I'/I was 5 times larger at Davis and Syowa than at McMurdo and Halley. We also compared the phase velocity spectrum at Syowa and Davis with the background wind field and found that the directionality only over Syowa could be explained by critical level filtering of the waves. This suggests that the eastward propagating gravity waves over Davis could have been generated above the polar night jet. Comparison of nighttime variations of the phase velocity spectra with background wind measurements suggested that the effect of critical level filtering could not explain the temporal variation of gravity wave directionality well, and other reasons such as variation of wave sources should be taken into account. Directionality was determined to be dependent on the gravity wave periods.

  11. Considering Meta-Analysis, Meaning, and Metaphor: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of "Third Wave" Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimidjian, Sona; Arch, Joanna J; Schneider, Rebecca L; Desormeau, Philip; Felder, Jennifer N; Segal, Zindel V

    2016-11-01

    In this review, we examine common usage of the term "third wave" in the scientific literature, systematically review published meta-analyses of identified "third wave" therapies, and consider the implications and options for the use of "third wave" as a metaphor to describe the nature of and relationships among cognitive and behavioral therapies. We demonstrate that the "third wave" term has grown in its use over time, that it is commonly linked with specific therapies, and that the majority of such therapies have amassed a compelling evidence base attesting to their clinical and public health value. We also consider the extent to which the "third wave" designation is an effective guide for the future, and we encourage scientific inquiry and self-reflection among those concerned with cognitive and behavioral therapies and the scientific basis of psychotherapy more broadly. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Review of Approximate Analyses of Sheet Forming Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Matthias; Rolfe, Bernard; Yang, Chunhui; de Souza, Tim; Hodgson, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Approximate models are often used for the following purposes: • in on-line control systems of metal forming processes where calculation speed is critical; • to obtain quick, quantitative information on the magnitude of the main variables in the early stages of process design; • to illustrate the role of the major variables in the process; • as an initial check on numerical modelling; and • as a basis for quick calculations on processes in teaching and training packages. The models often share many similarities; for example, an arbitrary geometric assumption of deformation giving a simplified strain distribution, simple material property descriptions—such as an elastic, perfectly plastic law—and mathematical short cuts such as a linear approximation of a polynomial expression. In many cases, the output differs significantly from experiment and performance or efficiency factors are developed by experience to tune the models. In recent years, analytical models have been widely used at Deakin University in the design of experiments and equipment and as a pre-cursor to more detailed numerical analyses. Examples that are reviewed in this paper include deformation of sandwich material having a weak, elastic core, load prediction in deep drawing, bending of strip (particularly of ageing steel where kinking may occur), process analysis of low-pressure hydroforming of tubing, analysis of the rejection rates in stamping, and the determination of constitutive models by an inverse method applied to bending tests.

  13. Similarity analyses of chromatographic herbal fingerprints: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohammad [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Russell, Paul J. [Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Vander Heyden, Yvan, E-mail: yvanvdh@vub.ac.be [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Center for Pharmaceutical Research, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Similarity analyses of herbal fingerprints are reviewed. •Different (dis)similarity approaches are discussed. •(Dis)similarity-metrics and exploratory-analysis approaches are illustrated. •Correlation and distance-based measures are overviewed. •Similarity analyses illustrated by several case studies. -- Abstract: Herbal medicines are becoming again more popular in the developed countries because being “natural” and people thus often assume that they are inherently safe. Herbs have also been used worldwide for many centuries in the traditional medicines. The concern of their safety and efficacy has grown since increasing western interest. Herbal materials and their extracts are very complex, often including hundreds of compounds. A thorough understanding of their chemical composition is essential for conducting a safety risk assessment. However, herbal material can show considerable variability. The chemical constituents and their amounts in a herb can be different, due to growing conditions, such as climate and soil, the drying process, the harvest season, etc. Among the analytical methods, chromatographic fingerprinting has been recommended as a potential and reliable methodology for the identification and quality control of herbal medicines. Identification is needed to avoid fraud and adulteration. Currently, analyzing chromatographic herbal fingerprint data sets has become one of the most applied tools in quality assessment of herbal materials. Mostly, the entire chromatographic profiles are used to identify or to evaluate the quality of the herbs investigated. Occasionally only a limited number of compounds are considered. One approach to the safety risk assessment is to determine whether the herbal material is substantially equivalent to that which is either readily consumed in the diet, has a history of application or has earlier been commercialized i.e. to what is considered as reference material. In order

  14. Methological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on acupuncture for stroke: A review of review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Lin; Mo, Chuan-Wei; Lu, Li-Ya; Gao, Ri-Yang; Xu, Qian; Wu, Min-Feng; Zhou, Qian-Yi; Hu, Yue; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Xian-Tao

    2017-11-01

    To assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses regarding acupuncture intervention for stroke and the primary studies within them. Two researchers searched PubMed, Cumulative index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Ovid Medline, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang and Traditional Chinese Medical Database to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about acupuncture for stroke published from the inception to December 2016. Review characteristics and the criteria for assessing the primary studies within reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the reviews was assessed using adapted Oxman and Guyatt Scale. The methodological quality of primary studies was also assessed. Thirty-two eligible reviews were identified, 15 in English and 17 in Chinese. The English reviews were scored higher than the Chinese reviews (P=0.025), especially in criteria for avoiding bias and the scope of search. All reviews used the quality criteria to evaluate the methodological quality of primary studies, but some criteria were not comprehensive. The primary studies, in particular the Chinese reviews, had problems with randomization, allocation concealment, blinding, dropouts and withdrawals, intent-to-treat analysis and adverse events. Important methodological flaws were found in Chinese systematic reviews and primary studies. It was necessary to improve the methodological quality and reporting quality of both the systematic reviews published in China and primary studies on acupuncture for stroke.

  15. Insights in P- and S-wave relative traveltime tomography from analysing finite-frequency Fréchet kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Valérie; Kolstrup, Marianne Lanzky

    2015-09-01

    Regional body-wave tomography, also called ACH tomography, is the inversion of relative traveltime residuals of teleseismic body waves measured at regional networks. We analyse the characteristics of the finite-frequency Fréchet kernels for P and S waves for this kind of tomography. Using a simplified geometry enables us to use the complete Green's function in the expression of the Fréchet kernels and analyse elements, which are usually neglected, like the importance of the near-field terms and the P-wave traveltime sensitivity to shear wave velocity variations. By comparing the kernels of the relative residuals and absolute ones, we show that relative residuals have a reduced sensitivity to heterogeneities of large dimensions, and that this reduction is a generalization of the fact that the average model is not recovered in ACH tomography. This sensitivity reduction affects equally short- and long-period residuals. We show in addition the presence of a sensitivity reduction at large depth for the long-period waves. Kernels and reflectivity impulse responses of the crust are used to analyse if crustal corrections should be made frequency-dependent in finite-frequency regional tomography. We find that in most cases the frequency dependence due to reverberations is substantial, and that in many realistic network configurations ray theory is unlikely to be well appropriate to compute crustal corrections for the long-period waves. We also find that the lateral dimensions of the crust affecting the traveltimes is frequency dependent and reaches, at long periods, 50 km for sedimentary basins and 100 km for Moho depth.

  16. A Primer on Performing Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umscheid, Craig A

    2013-09-01

    The number of systematic reviews published in the peer-reviewed literature has increased dramatically in the last decade, and for good reason. They have become an essential resource for clinicians who want unbiased and current answers for their clinical questions; researchers and funders who want to identify the most critical evidence gaps for study; payers and administrators who want to make coverage, formulary, and purchasing decisions; and policymakers who want to develop quality measures and clinical guidelines. Targeted to beginners interested in conducting their own systematic reviews and users of systematic reviews looking for a brief introduction, this primer (1) highlights the differences between review types; (2) outlines the major steps in performing a systematic review; and (3) offers a set of resources to help authors perform and report valid and actionable systematic reviews.

  17. [Measurement of scotopic pupils comparing green light test and wave-front analyser WASCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, S; Sekundo, W

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and the reproducibility of scotopic pupil measurements using 2 different methods. Scotopic pupil diameter was measured in 56 eyes of 28 volunteers and the results were compared between the green light test at the slit lamp (Haag-Streit, Switzerland) and the automatic measurements of the wave-front analyser WASCA (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) by 2 independent examiners. Non-parametric sign test as well as All Pairwise Multiple Comparison Procedures (Student-Newman-Keuls method) were performed for the comparison of means for each individual eye as well as the results of both eyes tested by both examiners. Mean age of the subjects was 34.9 years. The colour of iris was green or blue in 22 cases and brown in 6 cases. REPRODUCIBILITY: For the green light test we found for the first investigator in the right eye a mean pupil diameter of 6.58 mm (SD 0.68). The measurement of the second investigator for the same eye was 6.64 mm (SD 0.61). The left eye values were as follows: 6.36 mm (SD 0.68) and 6.75 mm (SD 0.68). For WASCA we found for the first investigator in the right eye 6.33 mm (SD 0.64) vs. 6.30 mm (SD 0.64) for the second investigator, in the left eye 6.39 mm (SD 0.69) vs. 6.36 mm (SD 0.60). There was a statistically significant difference between the two investigators when the green light test was used (6.47 mm vs. 6.69 mm for both eyes). No difference was found using the WASCA integrated pupillometer (6.35 mm vs. 6.33 mm). There was a significant difference between the means of combined data for both measurement methods: 6.58 mm for the green light test (SD 0.57) vs. 6.34 mm for WASCA (SD 0.62). The integrated pupillometry of the WASCA analyser showed better reproducibility of measurements than the green light test. The green light test measures a slightly larger diameter (in the mean by 0.25 mm) than WASCA. Because of the fair and clinically sufficient reproducibility as well as virtually non-existing additional costs

  18. Understanding and evaluating systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bigby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review is a summary of existing evidence that answers a specific clinical question, contains a thorough, unbiased search of the relevant literature, explicit criteria for assessing studies and structured presentation of the results. A systematic review that incorporates quantitative pooling of similar studies to produce an overall summary of treatment effects is a meta-analysis. A systematic review should have clear, focused clinical objectives containing four elements expressed through the acronym PICO ( Patient, group of patients, or problem, an Intervention, a Comparison intervention and specific O utcomes. Explicit and thorough search of the literature is a pre-requisite of any good systematic review. Reviews should have pre-defined explicit criteria for what studies would be included and the analysis should include only those studies that fit the inclusion criteria. The quality (risk of bias of the primary studies should be critically appraised. Particularly the role of publication and language bias should be acknowledged and addressed by the review, whenever possible. Structured reporting of the results with quantitative pooling of the data must be attempted, whenever appropriate. The review should include interpretation of the data, including implications for clinical practice and further research. Overall, the current quality of reporting of systematic reviews remains highly variable.

  19. Book Review: Qualitative-Quantitative Analyses of Dutch and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Qualitative-Quantitative Analyses of Dutch and Afrikaans Grammar and Lexicon. Book Author: Robert S. Kirsner. 2014. John Benjamins Publishing Company ISBN 9789027215772, price ZAR481.00. 239 pages ...

  20. Wave modelling for the North Indian Ocean using MSMR analysed winds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; Rupali, S.P.; Babu, M.T.; Jayakumar, S.; Saran, A.K.; Basu, S.K.; Kumar, R.; Sarkar, A.

    are very essential for activities such as exploitation of natural resources, ship-routing, design of harbors, breakwaters and jetties, loading and unloading of ship?s cargo and estimation of sediment transport. Adequate reliable wind and wave data has...

  1. A Wave-Based Approach for Seismic Response Analyses of High-Rise Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Hilali, S. Al; Abdulla, A.; Kurbi, M. Al

    This study examines one-dimensional wave propagation in a multi-story building with seismic excitation. In particular, the building is modeled as a series of shear beams for columns/walls and lumped masses for floors. Wave response at one location of the building is then derived to an impulse displacement at another location in time and frequency domains, termed here as wave-based or generalized impulse/frequency response function (GIRF/GFRF), which is dependent upon the building characteristics above the impulse location. Not only does this study illustrate features of GIRF/GFRF in terms of building properties, it also shows broad-based applications of the modeling. Two examples are presented with the use of the modeling. One is wave-based characterization of ten-story Millikan Library in Pasadena, California with the recordings of Yorba Linda earthquake of September 3, 2002. The other is analysis for influence of stochastic floor-to-column mass ratio, story-height and seismic input in seismic wave responses.

  2. Adding up the evidence: systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Zoccali, Carmine; Dekker, Friedo W.; Jager, Kitty J.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review aims to synthesize all available individual studies on a certain topic and uses explicit and reproducible methods for searching the literature, while a meta-analysis is a mathematical synthesis of the results of these individual studies. Because of the explosion of information in

  3. Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses for Cardiology Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Munes; Alahdab, Fares; Alsaied, Tarek

    2016-07-01

    Participating in a scholarly activity is one of the training requirements for cardiology fellows. However, it can be very challenging to complete a research project during such a busy period of clinical training. To help the cardiology fellows in choosing and starting off a research project, a light has been shed on the process of conducting a systematic review, and the importance of this research activity, as well as its limitations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Review of accident analyses of RB experimental reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The RB reactor is a uranium fuel heavy water moderated critical assembly that has been put and kept in operation by the VTNCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, since April 1958. The first complete Safety Analysis Report of the RB reactor was prepared in 1961/62 yet, the first accident analysis had been made in late 1958 with the aim to examine a power transition and the total equivalent doses received by the staff during the reactivity accident that occurred on October 15, 1958. Since 1960, the RB reactor has been modified a few times. Beside the initial natural uranium metal fuel rods, new types of fuel (TVR-S types of Russian origin consisting of 2% enriched uranium metal and 80% enriched UO2 dispersed in aluminum matrix, have been available since 1962 and 1976 respectively. Modifications of the control and safety systems of the reactor were made occasionally. Special reactor cores were designed and constructed using all three types of fuel elements as well as the coupled fast-thermal ones. The Nuclear Safety Committee of the VINĆA Institute, an independent regulatory body, approved for usage all these modifications of the RB reactor on the basis of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Reports, which, beside proposed technical modifications and new regulation rules, included safety analyses of various possible accidents. A special attention was given (and a new safety methodology was proposed to thorough analyses of the design-based accidents related to the coupled fast-thermal cores that included central zones of the reactor filled by the fuel elements without any moderator. In this paper, an overview of some accidents, methodologies and computation tools used for the accident analyses of the RB reactor is given.

  5. A Study for Visual Realism of Designed Pictures on Computer Screens by Investigation and Brain-Wave Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-Ting; Lee, Kun-Chou

    2016-08-01

    In this article, the visual realism of designed pictures on computer screens is studied by investigation and brain-wave analyses. The practical electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement is always time-varying and fluctuating so that conventional statistical techniques are not adequate for analyses. This study proposes a new scheme based on "fingerprinting" to analyze the EEG. Fingerprinting is a technique of probabilistic pattern recognition used in electrical engineering, very like the identification of human fingerprinting in a criminal investigation. The goal of this study was to assess whether subjective preference for pictures could be manifested physiologically by EEG fingerprinting analyses. The most important advantage of the fingerprinting technique is that it does not require accurate measurement. Instead, it uses probabilistic classification. Participants' preference for pictures can be assessed using fingerprinting analyses of physiological EEG measurements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Dose-related beneficial and harmful effects of gabapentin in postoperative pain management - post hoc analyses from a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabritius, Maria Louise; Wetterslev, Jørn; Mathiesen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    with meta-analyses aimed to explore the beneficial and harmful effects of various doses of gabapentin administered to surgical patients. Materials and methods: Data in this paper were derived from an original review, and the subgroup analyses were predefined in an International Prospective Register...... of Systematic Reviews published protocol: PROSPERO (ID: CRD42013006538). The methods followed Cochrane guidelines. The Cochrane Library’s CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Google Scholar, and FDA database were searched for relevant trials. Randomized clinical trials comparing gabapentin...... clinical trials, with 8466 patients, were included. Sixteen were overall low risk of bias. No consistent increase in morphine-sparing effect was observed with increasing doses of gabapentin from the trials with low risk of bias. Analyzing all trials, the smallest and the highest dose subgroups demonstrated...

  7. Circular dichroism techniques: biomolecular and nanostructural analyses- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Bijan; Gill, Pooria

    2009-08-01

    This paper reviews the best known techniques using circular dichroism spectroscopy such as conventional circular dichroism (i.e. electronic circular dichroism), magnetic circular dichroisms (magnetic vibrational circular dichroism, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism), fluorescence detected circular dichroism, near-infrared circular dichroism, vibrational circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared circular dichroism, high pressure liquid chromatography circular dichroism, stopped-flow circular dichroism, and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Also, we have described here the most important applications of circular dichroism spectroscopy in structural biochemistry and nanoscience.

  8. Peer review of HEDR uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1993-06-01

    This report consists of a detailed documentation of the writings and deliberations of the peer review panel that met on May 24--25, 1993 in Richland, Washington to evaluate your draft report ``Uncertainty/Sensitivity Analysis Plan`` (PNWD-2124 HEDR). The fact that uncertainties are being considered in temporally and spatially varying parameters through the use of alternative time histories and spatial patterns deserves special commendation. It is important to identify early those model components and parameters that will have the most influence on the magnitude and uncertainty of the dose estimates. These are the items that should be investigated most intensively prior to committing to a final set of results.

  9. Analyses of anticancer drugs by capillary electrophoresis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Haque, Ashanul; Wani, Waseem A; Saleem, Kishwar; Al Za'abi, Mohammed

    2013-10-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is a fast, inexpensive and low detection limit technique for the analysis of anticancer drugs. It has been used to analyze various anticancer drugs in biological samples, pharmaceutical preparations and environmental matrices. It has also been used to detect various cancer biomarkers in cancer patients. The present article describes the state-of-the art of capillary electrophoresis for the analyses of anticancer drugs. Various drugs discussed belong to several groups such as antimitotic agents, nucleoside analogs, antibiotics, topoisomerase inhibitors and DNA intercalating agents. In addition, efforts have also been made to discuss sample preparation, applications of capillary electrophoresis in genomic research, optimization and future perspectives. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Attrition analysed in five waves of a longitudinal yearly survey of smokers: findings from the ITC Netherlands survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zethof, Dennis; Nagelhout, Gera E; de Rooij, Mark; Driezen, Pete; Fong, Geoffrey T; van den Putte, Bas; Hummel, Karin; de Vries, Hein; Thompson, Mary E; Willemsen, Marc C

    2016-08-01

    Attrition bias can affect the external validity of findings. This article analyses attrition bias and assesses the effectiveness of replenishment samples on demographic and smoking-related characteristics for the International Tobacco Control Netherlands Survey, a longitudinal survey among smokers. Attrition analyses were conducted for the first five survey waves (2008-12). We assessed, including and excluding replenishment samples, whether the demographic composition of the samples changed between the first and fifth waves. Replenishment samples were tailored to ensure the sample remained representative of the smoking population. We also constructed a multivariable survival model of attrition that included all five waves with replenishment samples. Of the original 1820 respondents recruited in 2008, 46% participated again in 2012. Demographic differences between waves due to attrition were generally small and replenishment samples tended to minimize them further. The multivariable survival analysis revealed that only two of the 10 variables analysed were significant predictors of attrition: a weak effect for gender (men dropped out more often) and weak to moderate effects for age (respondents aged 15-24 years dropped out more than aged 25-39 years, who dropped out more than those aged 40+ years). Weak to moderate attrition effects were found for men and younger age groups. This information could be used to minimize respondent attrition. Our findings suggest that sampling weights and tailored replenishment samples can effectively compensate for attrition effects. This is already being done for the International Tobacco Control Netherlands Survey, including the categories that significantly predicted attrition in this study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge management for efficient quantitative analyses during regulatory reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krudys, Kevin; Li, Fang; Florian, Jeffry; Tornoe, Christoffer; Chen, Ying; Bhattaram, Atul; Jadhav, Pravin; Neal, Lauren; Wang, Yaning; Gobburu, Joga; Lee, Peter I D

    2011-11-01

    Knowledge management comprises the strategies and methods employed to generate and leverage knowledge within an organization. This report outlines the activities within the Division of Pharmacometrics at the US FDA to effectively manage knowledge with the ultimate goal of improving drug development and advancing public health. The infrastructure required for pharmacometric knowledge management includes provisions for data standards, queryable databases, libraries of modeling tools, archiving of analysis results and reporting templates for effective communication. Two examples of knowledge management systems developed within the Division of Pharmacometrics are used to illustrate these principles. The benefits of sound knowledge management include increased productivity, allowing reviewers to focus on research questions spanning new drug applications, such as improved trial design and biomarker development. The future of knowledge management depends on the collaboration between the FDA and industry to implement data and model standards to enhance sharing and dissemination of knowledge.

  12. Analyses of the temperature field of traveling-wave rotary ultrasonic motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Hu, Junhui; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the transient and steady-state temperature field of a traveling-wave rotary ultrasonic motor is analyzed by the finite element method, based on a theoretical model of power loss of this motor in rated operation. Using this model, the temperature field of this motor is calculated and the effects of the heat conductivity of friction material, motor size, ambient temperature, and pressure on the temperature field are estimated. The calculated temperature distribution and transient temperature change agree with the experimental results. The variation of heat conductivity of the friction material has little effect on the minimum temperature in the motor but this variation seriously affects the maximum temperature in the motor when the heat conductivity of the friction material is lower than 0.5 W/(m°C). Two indices are defined to express the non-uniformity of temperature field and how quickly the temperature field reaches its steady state for traveling-wave ultrasonic motors of different sizes. It is found that traveling-wave ultrasonic motors with different sizes have different nonuniformity of temperature field and take different amounts of time to reach thermal steady state. The maximum temperature rise is lower when the ambient temperature is higher; the maximum temperature increases as the vacuum degree increases and it is not affected by the vacuum degree when the vacuum degree is too high (<10(-3) Pa).

  13. Analyses of odours from concentrated animal feeding operations: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, P.; Pifferi, V.; Falciola, L.; Ferrante, V.

    2018-02-01

    Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) are widely present all over the world due to the high population demand for food and products of animal origin. However, they have generated several environmental concerns, including odour nuisance, which affects people health and quality of life. Odours from livestock are a very complex mixtures of molecules and their analytical investigation is highly demanding. Many works have been published regarding the study of odours from CAFOs, using different techniques and technologies to face the issue. Thus, the aim of this review paper is to summarize all the ways to study odours from CAFOs, starting from the sampling methods and then treating in general the principles of Dynamic Olfactometry, Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry and Electronic Noses. Finally, a deep literature summary of Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry and Electronic Noses applied to odours coming from poultry, dairy and swine feeding operations is reported. This work aims to make some order in this field and it wants to help future researchers to deal with this environmental problem, constituting a state-of-the-art in this field.

  14. The Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Schalken; Charlotte Rietbergen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this systematic review was to examine the reporting quality of the method section of quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2016 in the field of industrial and organizational psychology with the help of the Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards (MARS), and to update previous research, such as the study of Aytug et al. (2012) and Dieckmann et al. (2009). Methods: A systematic search for quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses was conducted i...

  15. Analyses of thermoregulatory responses of feeder cattle exposed to simulated heat waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Brandl, T M; Eigenberg, R A; Hahn, G L; Nienaber, J A; Mader, T L; Spiers, D E; Parkhurst, A M

    2005-05-01

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle causes reduced performance, and in the most severe cases, death of the animals, thus causing the loss of millions of dollars in revenue to the cattle industry. A study was designed to evaluate dynamics of thermoregulation and feeding activities when feeder cattle were exposed to simulated heat waves, in comparison with repeated sinusoidal hot and thermoneutral environments. Nine beef steers were randomly assigned to an individual pen in one of three environmental chambers. Each chamber was subjected to each of three temperature regimes (heatwave simulation from Rockport, Mo., 1995, heatwave simulation from Columbia, Mo., 1999, and Controlled heat stress treatment of 32+/-7 degrees C) for a period of 18 days, according to a Latin square treatment design, with a 10-day thermoneutral period (18+/-7 degrees C) separating treatment periods. Respiration rate, core body temperature, heat production, feed intake, and feeding behavior were measured on each animal for the duration of the experiment. Differences were found in all treatments for all parameters except feeding behavior. It was shown that the two simulated heat waves elicited very different thermoregulatory responses. Based on these results the heat wave centered at Rockport, Mo. in 1995 was devastating because the animals were not acclimated to hot conditions, thus causing an acute response to heat stress. The responses of cattle to conditions at Columbia, Mo. showed some acclimation to heat prior to the peak stress days, and therefore a dampened response was seen. It appears the extreme conditions at Columbia, Mo., 1999 were made severe by environmental conditions not simulated during this study (low wind speed and intensive solar radiation). Overall, it was determined while a cyclic heat stress treatment is a representative model to test heat stress in cattle, further heat stress experiments should be conducted in an actual feedlot.

  16. Analyses of thermoregulatory responses of feeder cattle exposed to simulated heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Brandl, T. M.; Eigenberg, R. A.; Hahn, G. L.; Nienaber, J. A.; Mader, T. L.; Spiers, D. E.; Parkhurst, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle causes reduced performance, and in the most severe cases, death of the animals, thus causing the loss of millions of dollars in revenue to the cattle industry. A study was designed to evaluate dynamics of thermoregulation and feeding activities when feeder cattle were exposed to simulated heat waves, in comparison with repeated sinusoidal hot and thermoneutral environments. Nine beef steers were randomly assigned to an individual pen in one of three environmental chambers. Each chamber was subjected to each of three temperature regimes (Heatwave simulation from Rockport, Mo., 1995, Heatwave simulation from Columbia, Mo., 1999, and Controlled heat stress treatment of 32±7°C) for a period of 18 days, according to a Latin square treatment design, with a 10-day thermoneutral period (18±7°C) separating treatment periods. Respiration rate, core body temperature, heat production, feed intake, and feeding behavior were measured on each animal for the duration of the experiment. Differences were found in all treatments for all parameters except feeding behavior. It was shown that the two simulated heat waves elicited very different thermoregulatory responses. Based on these results the heat wave centered at Rockport, Mo. in 1995 was devastating because the animals were not acclimated to hot conditions, thus causing an acute response to heat stress. The responses of cattle to conditions at Columbia, Mo. showed some acclimation to heat prior to the peak stress days, and therefore a dampened response was seen. It appears the extreme conditions at Columbia, Mo., 1999 were made severe by environmental conditions not simulated during this study (low wind speed and intensive solar radiation). Overall, it was determined while a cyclic heat stress treatment is a representative model to test heat stress in cattle, further heat stress experiments should be conducted in an actual feedlot.

  17. Review of Long Wave Dynamics over Reefs and into Ports with Implication for Port Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ap van Dongeren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the dynamics of infragravity (long-period waves over reef systems and the consequences of these waves for operations in ports located behind reefs with particular attention to Western Australia. Swells which originate in the Southern Ocean generate long (infragravity waves, which propagate to the coast. On the reef edge, the swell waves are largely dissipated, transferring energy to turbulence and heat but also in that process generating long wave energy. The remaining swell waves are dominated by the infragravity waves and propagate towards the mainland and into port basins where they cause moored ship motions with consequences for the operational downtime of the port’s operations. When contemplating solutions to mitigate the impact of the long wave problems, these may be addressed from two sides: from the load side (waves and the strength side (mooring. The former will be discussed in this paper.

  18. An open source tool to analyse heat waves using flow analogues and weather regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanovics, Sabine; Jézéquel, Aglaé; Alvarez-Castro, Carmen; Yiou, Pascal; Hempelmann, Nils; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Nangini, Cathy; Vautard, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Studies on the relation of atmospheric circulation patterns and heat waves using flow analogues or weather regimes often miss an assessment of the uncertainties related to internal climate variability and the analysis method itself because of the limited length of the data sets used. However, considering this type of uncertainty is important when interpreting changes found in a transient climate using this type of methods. We used several hundreds of years long preindustrial control runs of CMIP5 climate models to address this issue in a constant model climate. Several heat waves over central Europe as simulated by the climate model were selected and then reconstructed using circulation analogues, that is by searching for days with similar pressure fields in the simulation and recombining the temperatures of these similar days to form uchronic events. The variance of these uchronic events is supposed to vary with the rarity of the original event. We therefore present the relationship between the variance of the uchronic events and the distance between the original event and its analogues. Further we present the variation of the distances due to internal climate variability. Weather regimes are typical atmospheric circulation patterns obtained for example using a cluster analysis. Each day is then assigned to a cluster, the weather regime. The frequency of the weather regimes is supposed to be constant in a constant climate, but variations of these frequencies can occur due to internal climate variability. We therefore show these variations for the weather regimes associated with the heat waves. The web processing service (WPS) flyingpigeon is an open source WPS featuring processes for studying weather extremes and climate change impacts. Flyingpigeon is part of the open source project birdhouse, a collection of WPSs following the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard and available on github. The WPS allowed to first select the data sets needed from the ESGF

  19. Caisson Movement Caused by Wave Slamming—a Comparison of ABAQUS and FLAC Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2010-01-01

    -difference analysis has been performed by means of the commercial code FLAC. Similarly, ABAQUS has been employed for finiteelement analyses based on linear as well as quadratic spatial interpolations, assuming fully drained conditions and utilizing an elastic–plastic model for the rubble foundation and the seabed...

  20. Enhancing Wave Energy Competitiveness through Co-Located Wind and Wave Energy Farms. A Review on the Shadow Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharay Astariz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy is one of the most promising alternatives to fossil fuels due to the enormous available resource; however, its development may be slowed as it is often regarded as uneconomical. The largest cost reductions are expected to be obtained through economies of scale and technological progress. In this sense, the incorporation of wave energy systems into offshore wind energy farms is an opportunity to foster the development of wave energy. The synergies between both renewables can be realised through these co-located energy farms and, thus, some challenges of offshore wind energy can be met. Among them, this paper focuses on the longer non-operational periods of offshore wind turbines—relative to their onshore counterparts—typically caused by delays in maintenance due to the harsh marine conditions. Co-located wave energy converters would act as a barrier extracting energy from the waves and resulting in a shielding effect over the wind farm. On this basis, the aim of this paper is to analyse wave energy economics in a holistic way, as well as the synergies between wave and offshore wind energy, focusing on the shadow effect and the associated increase in the accessibility to the wind turbines.

  1. The Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: A Systematic Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naomi Schalken; Charlotte Rietbergen

    2017-01-01

    ...) and Dieckmann et al. (2009).Methods: A systematic search for quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses was conducted in the top 10 journals in the field of industrial and organizational psychology between January 2009 and April 2016...

  2. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E.; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.

  3. A Review of Meta-Analyses in Education: Methodological Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soyeon; Ames, Allison J.; Myers, Nicholas D.

    2012-01-01

    The current review addresses the validity of published meta-analyses in education that determines the credibility and generalizability of study findings using a total of 56 meta-analyses published in education in the 2000s. Our objectives were to evaluate the current meta-analytic practices in education, identify methodological strengths and…

  4. How Can Meta-Analyses Guide Practice? A Review of the Learning Disability Research Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, William J.; Zaman, Maliha; Banda, Devender R.

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analysis is considered an acceptable method to evaluate research studies for evidence-based practices. The purpose of this review is to examine the applicability of using meta-analyses in the learning disability field to guide classroom practice. The authors evaluated 15 learning disability meta-analyses in three domains: large-scale…

  5. Consistency and accuracy of indexing systematic review articles and meta-analyses in medline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2009-09-01

    Systematic review articles support the advance of science and translation of research evidence into healthcare practice. Inaccurate retrieval from medline could limit access to reviews. To determine the quality of indexing systematic reviews and meta-analyses in medline. The Clinical Hedges Database, containing the results of a hand search of 161 journals, was used to test medline indexing terms for their ability to retrieve systematic reviews that met predefined methodologic criteria (labelled as 'pass' review articles) and reviews that reported a meta-analysis. The Clinical Hedges Database contained 49 028 articles; 753 were 'pass' review articles (552 with a meta-analysis). In total 758 review articles (independent of whether they passed) reported a meta-analysis. The search strategy that retrieved the highest number of 'pass' systematic reviews achieved a sensitivity of 97.1%. The publication type 'meta analysis' had a false positive rate of 5.6% (95% CI 3.9 to 7.6), and false negative rate of 0.31% (95% CI 0.26 to 0.36) for retrieving systematic reviews that reported a meta-analysis. Inaccuracies in indexing systematic reviews and meta-analyses in medline can be partly overcome by a 5-term search strategy. Introducing a publication type for systematic reviews of the literature could improve retrieval performance.

  6. Wave energy resource assessment and review of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Nik, W.B.: Sulaiman, O.O. [Maritime Technology Department, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Rosliza, R. [TATI University College, Teluk Kalong, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu, (Malaysia); Prawoto, Y. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Muzathik, A.M. [Institute of Technology, University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2011-07-01

    Increase in human population has increased the demand for more energy. Technical improvement in transport and electrical appliances gives a lot of facilities to our life nowadays. Still we need to generate or convert this energy. Energy generation based on conventional technologies is always accompanied by environmental pollution. It gives overheating and greenhouse effects that later result in biosphere degradation. Nowadays sea wave energy is being increasingly regarded in many countries as a major and promising resource. It is renewable and environmentally friendly. In this paper wave parameters related to wave energy is analyzed. Then the paper describes the development of many different types of wave-energy converters. Several topics are addressed; the characterization of the wave energy resource, range of devices and how such devices can be organized into classes.

  7. Early Versus Delayed Motion After Rotator Cuff Repair: A Systematic Review of Overlapping Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Darby A; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Schuette, Hayden B; McCarty, Eric C; Bravman, Jonathan T

    2017-10-01

    Previous meta-analyses have been conducted to compare outcomes of early versus delayed motion after rotator cuff repair. To conduct a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses comparing early versus delayed motion rehabilitation protocols after rotator cuff repair to determine which meta-analyses provide the best available evidence. Systematic review. A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. Search terms included "rotator cuff repair," "early passive motion," "immobilization," "rehabilitation protocol," and "meta-analysis." Results were reviewed to determine study eligibility. Patient outcomes and structural healing were extracted from these meta-analyses. Meta-analysis quality was assessed using the Oxman-Guyatt and Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM) systems. The Jadad decision algorithm was then used to determine which meta-analyses provided the best level of evidence. Seven meta-analyses containing a total of 5896 patients met the eligibility criteria (1 Level I evidence, 4 Level II evidence, 2 Level III evidence). None of these meta-analyses found immobilization to be superior to early motion; however, most studies suggested that early motion would increase range of motion (ROM), thereby reducing time of recovery. Three of these studies suggested that tear size contributed to the choice of rehabilitation to ensure proper healing of the shoulder. A study by Chan et al in 2014 received the highest QUOROM and Oxman-Guyatt scores, and therefore this meta-analysis appeared to have the highest level of evidence. Additionally, a study by Riboh and Garrigues in 2014 was selected as the highest quality study in this systematic review according to the Jadad decision algorithm. The current, best available evidence suggests that early motion improves ROM after rotator cuff repair but increases the risk of rotator cuff retear. Lower quality meta-analyses indicate that tear size may provide a better strategy in

  8. A systematic review of the quality of conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in paediatric surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stephen Cullis

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate quality of conduct and reporting of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses in paediatric surgery. We also aimed to identify characteristics predictive of review quality.Systematic reviews summarise evidence by combining sources, but are potentially prone to bias. To counter this, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA was published to aid in reporting. Similarly, the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR measurement tool was designed to appraise methodology. The paediatric surgical literature has seen an increasing number of reviews over the past decade, but quality has not been evaluated.Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic review with a priori design to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of interventions in paediatric surgery. From 01/2010 to 06/2016, we searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Web of Science, Google Scholar, reference lists and journals. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. We assessed conduct and reporting using AMSTAR and PRISMA. Scores were calculated as the sum of reported items. We also extracted author, journal and article characteristics, and used them in exploratory analysis to determine which variables predict quality.112 articles fulfilled eligibility criteria (53 systematic reviews; 59 meta-analyses. Overall, 68% AMSTAR and 56.8% PRISMA items were reported adequately. Poorest scores were identified with regards a priori design, inclusion of structured summaries, including the grey literature, citing excluded articles and evaluating bias. 13 reviews were pre-registered and 6 in PRISMA-endorsing journals. The following predicted quality in univariate analysis:, word count, Cochrane review, journal h-index, impact factor, journal endorses PRISMA, PRISMA adherence suggested in author guidance, article mentions PRISMA

  9. A Review of Wave-to-Wire Models for Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markel Penalba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of wave energy converters (WECs has been very often limited to hydrodynamic control to absorb the maximum energy possible from ocean waves. This generally ignores or significantly simplifies the performance of real power take-off (PTO systems. However, including all the required dynamics and constraints in the control problem may considerably vary the control strategy and the power output. Therefore, this paper considers the incorporation into the model of all the conversion stages from ocean waves to the electricity network, referred to as wave-to-wire (W2W models, and identifies the necessary components and their dynamics and constraints, including grid constraints. In addition, the paper identifies different control inputs for the different components of the PTO system and how these inputs are articulated to the dynamics of the system. Examples of pneumatic, hydraulic, mechanical or magnetic transmission systems driving a rotary electrical generator, and linear electric generators are provided.

  10. Transcendental meditation for lowering blood pressure: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Soo Liang; Giovino, Melisa; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2017-10-01

    Transcendental meditation (TM) is a stress reduction technique that can potentially lower blood pressure (BP) safely. The American Heart Association recommends that TM may be considered in clinical practice. To provide an overview of all systematic reviews and meta-analyses of TM on BP for evidence-informed clinical decision making. Systematic searches of PubMed, EBSCOhost, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, and PsycINFO for all systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with TM as an intervention, and outcome measures include systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). Qualitative and quantitative data were synthesized. The methodological quality of the selected reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR checklist. Eight systematic reviews and meta-analyses are included. Among them is an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report, a Cochrane systematic review, 4 independent reviews, and 2 reviews from a TM related institution. The quality of most of the included reviews is fair with a mean score of 5.75/11 on the AMSTAR scale. Overall, there exists a clear trend of increasing evidence over the years supporting the efficacy of TM in lowering BP. However, some conflicting findings remain across reviews and potential risk of bias exists in many of the RCTs included in these reviews. Practising TM may potentially reduce the SBP by ∼4mm Hg and DBP by ∼2mm Hg. Such effect is comparable with other lifestyle interventions such as weight-loss diet and exercise. Further evidence from long-term well-designed RCTs conducted by independent researchers is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Gravitational Waves, Volume 1: Theory and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Eric

    2008-10-01

    A superficial introduction to gravitational waves can be found in most textbooks on general relativity, but typically, the treatment hardly does justice to a field that has grown tremendously, both in its theoretical and experimental aspects, in the course of the last twenty years. Other than the technical literature, few other sources have been available to the interested reader; exceptions include edited volumes such as [1] and [2], Weber's little book [3] which happily is still in print, and Peter Saulson's text [4] which appears, unfortunately, to be out of print. In addition to these technical references, the story of gravitational waves was famously told by a sociologist of scientific knowledge [5] (focusing mostly on the experimental aspects) and a historian of science [6] (focusing mostly on the theoretical aspects). The book Gravitational Waves, Volume 1, by Michele Maggiore, is a welcome point of departure. This is, as far as I know, the first comprehensive textbook on gravitational waves. It describes the theoretical foundations of the subject, the known (and anticipated) sources, and the principles of detection by resonant masses and laser interferometers. This book is a major accomplishment, and with the promised volume 2 on astrophysical and cosmological aspects of gravitational waves, the community of all scientists interested in this topic will be well served. Part I of the book is devoted to the theoretical aspects of gravitational waves. In chapter 1 the waves are introduced in usual relativist's fashion, in the context of an approximation to general relativity in which they are treated as a small perturbation of the Minkowski metric of flat spacetime. This is an adequate foundation to study how the waves propagate, and how they interact with freely moving masses making up a detector. The waves are presented in the usual traceless-transverse gauge, but the detection aspects are also worked out in the detector's proper rest frame; this dual

  12. A Systematic Review of Studies Using the Brief COPE: Religious Coping in Factor Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian U. Krägeloh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Religion is generally recognized as a major resource for dealing with stressful events, but its relationship with secular coping strategies continues to be debated. The present article provides a systematic review of the way in which analyses of the sub-scale turning to religion of the widely used Brief COPE [1] instrument are presented in peer-reviewed research articles, in order to investigate how the wealth of data published using this instrument can inform how religious coping relates to other coping strategies. Of the 212 identified articles that included turning to religion in their analyses, 80 combined sub-scale scores to form higher-order coping factors, 38 of which based on exploratory factor analyses of their own datasets. When factor analyses had used individual items as indicators, religious coping was more likely to load together with maladaptive coping strategies, and more likely with adaptive coping strategies when analyses were conducted at sub-scale level. To a large extent, the variation in the results from exploratory factor analyses appears to be due to the diverse and often inappropriate factor analytic techniques used to determine the factor structure of the Brief COPE instrument. Reports from factor analyses of the Brief COPE therefore have very little value when trying to make general conclusions about the role of religious coping in relation to secular coping methods.

  13. Impact of Hurricane Wind/Wave Misalignment on the Analyses of Fixed-Bottom Jacket Type Offshore Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Kai; Arwade, Sanjay R.; Myers, Andrew T.; Valamanesh, Vahid; Pang, Weichiang

    2015-01-01

    A high risk of hurricane is threatening the development of offshore wind energy in the east coast of the United States. Hurricane loads on an offshore wind turbine, namely wind and waves, not only exert large demands but also have rapidly changing characteristics, especially wind and wave directions. Waves are, in general, inert to rapid changes, whereas wind can change its properties within very short time scales. Misalignment of local winds and propagating ocean waves occurs regularly in a ...

  14. Are MEDLINE searches sufficient for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools? A review of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Danielle B; Kloda, Lorie A; Levis, Brooke; Qi, Bill; Kingsland, Emily; Thombs, Brett D

    2016-08-01

    Database searches for studies of diagnostic test accuracy are notoriously difficult to filter, highly resource-intensive, and a potential barrier to quality evidence synthesis. We examined published meta-analyses of depression screening tool accuracy to evaluate the (1) proportion of included primary studies found in any online database in the original meta-analyses that were indexed in MEDLINE; (2) the proportion of patients from MEDLINE-indexed studies; and (3) the proportion of depression cases from studies indexed in MEDLINE. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched from January 1, 2005 through October 31, 2014 for meta-analyses in any language on the accuracy of depression screening tools. We identified 16 eligible meta-analyses that included 398 primary study citations, which had been identified via an online database in the original meta-analyses, including 257 unique citations and 234 unique patient samples. The 234 unique patient samples included 69,957 total patients and 11,867 depression cases. Of these, 220 samples (94%) were from studies indexed in MEDLINE, including 97% of all patients and 96% of all depression cases. When applying a peer-reviewed search strategy in MEDLINE, 91% of all samples, 96% of patients and 95% of depression cases were retrieved. Results were similar for total and unique citations. Restricting searches to MEDLINE may capture almost all eligible studies, patients and depression cases. Although not examined in the present study, MEDLINE may not be indexed as quickly as other databases. Thus, MEDLINE searches should be complemented by date-limited searches of other databases for recent citations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Methodological quality is underrated in systematic reviews and meta-analyses in health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Isabel; Losilla, Josep-Maria; Vives, Jaume

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we compile and describe the main approaches proposed in the literature to include methodological quality (MQ) or risk of bias (RoB) into research synthesis. We also meta-review how the RoB of observational primary studies is being assessed and to what extent the results are incorporated in the conclusions of research synthesis. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews or meta-analyses related to health and clinical psychology. A random sample of 90 reviews published between January 2010 and May 2016 was examined. A total of 46 reviews (51%) performed a formal assessment of the RoB of primary studies. Only 17 reviews (19%) linked the outcomes of quality assessment with the results of the review. According to the previous literature, our results corroborate the lack of guidance to incorporate the RoB assessment in the results of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Our recommendation is to appraise MQ according to domains of RoB to rate the degree of credibility of the results of a research synthesis, as well as subgroup analysis or meta-regression as analytical methods to incorporate the quality assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. P-Wave Indices and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinli; Tse, Gary; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Letsas, Konstantinos P; Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sadeq; Kamel, Hooman; Li, Guangping; Lip, Gregory Y H; Liu, Tong

    2017-08-01

    Atrial cardiomyopathy is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area are electrocardiographic parameters that have been used to assess left atrial abnormalities related to developing atrial fibrillation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine their values for predicting ischemic stroke risk. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched until December 2016 for studies that evaluated the association between P-wave indices and stroke risk. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the overall effect estimates. Ten studies examining P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area were included. P-wave terminal force in lead V1 was found to be an independent predictor of stroke as both a continuous variable (odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD change, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.25; PP=0.01). P-wave duration was a significant predictor of incident ischemic stroke when analyzed as a categorical variable (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.37-2.52; PP=0.15). Maximum P-wave area also predicted the risk of incident ischemic stroke (OR per 1 SD change, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17). P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area are useful electrocardiographic markers that can be used to stratify the risk of incident ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. An Introduction to Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Exotic Animal Practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2017-01-01

    Developing and conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses is a complex process that requires many judgments and the input from a wide variety of stakeholders. This article presents an introduction on how to develop, conduct, and report these research studies. Veterinary clinicians should seek

  18. The prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe: Review of a series of meta-analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborgh, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Alink, L.R.A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we combine and compare the results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 551 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment research

  19. A review of computer tools for analysing the integration of renewable energy into various energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    to integrating renewable energy, but instead the ‘ideal’ energy tool is highly dependent on the specific objectives that must be fulfilled. The typical applications for the 37 tools reviewed (from analysing single-building systems to national energy-systems), combined with numerous other factors......This paper includes a review of the different computer tools that can be used to analyse the integration of renewable energy. Initially 68 tools were considered, but 37 were included in the final analysis which was carried out in collaboration with the tool developers or recommended points...... of contact. The results in this paper provide the information necessary to identify a suitable energy tool for analysing the integration of renewable energy into various energy-systems under different objectives. It is evident from this paper that there is no energy tool that addresses all issues related...

  20. Recommendations for reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Trevor A; Alabousi, Mostafa; Skidmore, Becky; Korevaar, Daniël A; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Moher, David; Thombs, Brett; McInnes, Matthew D F

    2017-10-10

    This study is to perform a systematic review of existing guidance on quality of reporting and methodology for systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) in order to compile a list of potential items that might be included in a reporting guideline for such reviews: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Diagnostic Test Accuracy (PRISMA-DTA). Study protocol published on EQUATOR website. Articles in full text or abstract form that reported on any aspect of reporting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy were eligible for inclusion. We used the Ovid platform to search Ovid MEDLINE®, Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Embase Classic+Embase through May 5, 2016. The Cochrane Methodology Register in the Cochrane Library (Wiley version) was also searched. Title and abstract screening followed by full-text screening of all search results was performed independently by two investigators. Guideline organization websites, published guidance statements, and the Cochrane Handbook for Diagnostic Test Accuracy were also searched. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) were assessed independently by two investigators for relevant items. The literature searched yielded 6967 results; 386 were included after title and abstract screening and 203 after full-text screening. After reviewing the existing literature and guidance documents, a preliminary list of 64 items was compiled into the following categories: title (three items); introduction (two items); methods (35 items); results (13 items); discussion (nine items), and disclosure (two items). Items on the methods and reporting of DTA systematic reviews in the present systematic review will provide a basis for generating a PRISMA extension for DTA systematic reviews.

  1. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  2. Living systematic reviews: 3. Statistical methods for updating meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Mark; Salanti, Georgia; McKenzie, Joanne; Elliott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    A living systematic review (LSR) should keep the review current as new research evidence emerges. Any meta-analyses included in the review will also need updating as new material is identified. If the aim of the review is solely to present the best current evidence standard meta-analysis may be sufficient, provided reviewers are aware that results may change at later updates. If the review is used in a decision-making context, more caution may be needed. When using standard meta-analysis methods, the chance of incorrectly concluding that any updated meta-analysis is statistically significant when there is no effect (the type I error) increases rapidly as more updates are performed. Inaccurate estimation of any heterogeneity across studies may also lead to inappropriate conclusions. This paper considers four methods to avoid some of these statistical problems when updating meta-analyses: two methods, that is, law of the iterated logarithm and the Shuster method control primarily for inflation of type I error and two other methods, that is, trial sequential analysis and sequential meta-analysis control for type I and II errors (failing to detect a genuine effect) and take account of heterogeneity. This paper compares the methods and considers how they could be applied to LSRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Benefits and applications of interdisciplinary digital tools for environmental meta-reviews and analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Emily; Siders, Anne

    2016-09-01

    Digitally-aided reviews of large bodies of text-based information, such as academic literature, are growing in capability but are not yet common in environmental fields. Environmental sciences and studies can benefit from application of digital tools to create comprehensive, replicable, interdisciplinary reviews that provide rapid, up-to-date, and policy-relevant reports of existing work. This work reviews the potential for applications of computational text mining and analysis tools originating in the humanities to environmental science and policy questions. Two process-oriented case studies of digitally-aided environmental literature reviews and meta-analyses illustrate potential benefits and limitations. A medium-sized, medium-resolution review (∼8000 journal abstracts and titles) focuses on topic modeling as a rapid way to identify thematic changes over time. A small, high-resolution review (∼300 full text journal articles) combines collocation and network analysis with manual coding to synthesize and question empirical field work. We note that even small digitally-aided analyses are close to the upper limit of what can be done manually. Established computational methods developed in humanities disciplines and refined by humanities and social science scholars to interrogate large bodies of textual data are applicable and useful in environmental sciences but have not yet been widely applied. Two case studies provide evidence that digital tools can enhance insight. Two major conclusions emerge. First, digital tools enable scholars to engage large literatures rapidly and, in some cases, more comprehensively than is possible manually. Digital tools can confirm manually identified patterns or identify additional patterns visible only at a large scale. Second, digital tools allow for more replicable and transparent conclusions to be drawn from literature reviews and meta-analyses. The methodological subfields of digital humanities and computational social

  4. A review of atmospheric gravity waves and travelling ionospheric disturbances: 1982-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available Recent investigations of atmospheric gravity waves (AGW and travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID in the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere are reviewed. In the past decade, the generation of gravity waves at high latitudes and their subsequent propagation to low latitudes have been studied by several global model simulations and coordinated observation campaigns such as the Worldwide Atmospheric Gravity-wave Study (WAGS, the results are presented in the first part of the review. The second part describes the progress towards understanding the AGW/TID characteristics. It points to the AGW/TID relationship which has been recently revealed with the aid of model-data comparisons and by the application of new inversion techniques. We describe the morphology and climatology of gravity waves and their ionospheric manifestations, TIDs, from numerous new observations.

  5. Therapeutic benefits of glutamine: An umbrella review of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Marc P

    2017-05-01

    Glutamine may be an essential amino acid in patients with catabolic disease, as it has been demonstrated that circulating glutamine levels drop during critical illness and following major surgery; this may result in an increase in secondary infection risk, recovery time and mortality rates. However, there is much discrepancy in the literature with regards to randomized controlled studies, and therefore, the present study is an umbrella review of published meta-analyses, conducted to examine the effectiveness of glutamine's role as a therapeutic agent. A search using PubMed, Cochrane Library and CINAHL from January 1st, 1980 to December 31st, 2016 was conducted using the following strategy: 'Glutamine AND (meta-analysis OR systematic review)' and publications were retrieved, which provided quantitative statistical analysis of pooled treatment effects on the relative risks of infectious complications, mortality and length of stay in hospital. A total of 22 meta-analyses were entered into the current umbrella review. As displayed in Tables I, II and III, these analyses are split into three groups, based on different parameters. Of the 19 meta-analyses investigating the effects of infectious complications, 15 identified statistically significant reductions in complications, with relative risks ranging between 0.42 and 0.93. In addition, 12 of the 18 meta-analyses analyzing the length of hospital stays presented statistically significant reductions in the length of stay, with reductions ranging between 0.19 to 4.73 days. Only 4 of the 15 meta-analyses studying mortality effects identified statistically significant reductions in mortality with relative risks ranging between 0.64 and 1.28. Statistically significant heterogeneity was observed in 16 of 22 meta-analyses, and publication bias was observed in five of 11 meta-analyses. Glutamine supplementation for critically ill or surgical patients through parenteral or enteral routes appears to reduce the rate of hospital

  6. Does psychotherapy work? An umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragioti, E; Karathanos, V; Gerdle, B; Evangelou, E

    2017-09-01

    To map and evaluate the evidence across meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapies for various outcomes. We identified 173 eligible studies, including 247 meta-analyses that synthesized data from 5157 RCTs via a systematic search from inception to December 2016 in the PubMed, PsycINFO and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. We calculated summary effects using random-effects models, and we assessed between-study heterogeneity. We estimated whether large studies had significantly more conservative results compared to smaller studies (small-study effects) and whether the observed positive studies were more than expected by chance. Finally, we assessed the credibility of the evidence using several criteria. One hundred and ninety-nine meta-analyses were significant at P-value ≤ 0.05, and almost all (n = 196) favoured psychotherapy. Large and very large heterogeneity was observed in 130 meta-analyses. Evidence for small-study effects was found in 72 meta-analyses, while 95 had evidence of excess of significant findings. Only 16 (7%) provided convincing evidence that psychotherapy is effective. These pertained to cognitive behavioural therapy (n = 6), meditation therapy (n = 1), cognitive remediation (n = 1), counselling (n = 1) and mixed types of psychotherapies (n = 7). Although almost 80% meta-analyses reported a nominally statistically significant finding favouring psychotherapy, only a few meta-analyses provided convincing evidence without biases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalken, Naomi; Rietbergen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this systematic review was to examine the reporting quality of the method section of quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2016 in the field of industrial and organizational psychology with the help of the Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards (MARS), and to update previous research, such as the study of Aytug et al. (2012) and Dieckmann et al. (2009). Methods: A systematic search for quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses was conducted in the top 10 journals in the field of industrial and organizational psychology between January 2009 and April 2016. Data were extracted on study characteristics and items of the method section of MARS. A cross-classified multilevel model was analyzed, to test whether publication year and journal impact factor (JIF) were associated with the reporting quality scores of articles. Results: Compliance with MARS in the method section was generally inadequate in the random sample of 120 articles. Variation existed in the reporting of items. There were no significant effects of publication year and journal impact factor (JIF) on the reporting quality scores of articles. Conclusions: The reporting quality in the method section of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was still insufficient, therefore we recommend researchers to improve the reporting in their articles by using reporting standards like MARS.

  8. The Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Schalken

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this systematic review was to examine the reporting quality of the method section of quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2016 in the field of industrial and organizational psychology with the help of the Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards (MARS, and to update previous research, such as the study of Aytug et al. (2012 and Dieckmann et al. (2009.Methods: A systematic search for quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses was conducted in the top 10 journals in the field of industrial and organizational psychology between January 2009 and April 2016. Data were extracted on study characteristics and items of the method section of MARS. A cross-classified multilevel model was analyzed, to test whether publication year and journal impact factor (JIF were associated with the reporting quality scores of articles.Results: Compliance with MARS in the method section was generally inadequate in the random sample of 120 articles. Variation existed in the reporting of items. There were no significant effects of publication year and journal impact factor (JIF on the reporting quality scores of articles.Conclusions: The reporting quality in the method section of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was still insufficient, therefore we recommend researchers to improve the reporting in their articles by using reporting standards like MARS.

  9. Conflict of interest reporting in dentistry meta-analyses: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyari, Mohammed M.; Strain, Dan; Lamfon, Hanadi A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The issue of reporting conflicts of interest (COI) in medical research has come under scrutiny over the past decade. Absolute transparency is important when dealing with conflicts of interest to provide readers with all essential information required to make an informative decision of the results. The key objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of reporting conflicts of interest in therapeutic dental meta-analyses of Randomized Control Trials (RCTs), and to investigate possible associations with other categorical variables. Study Design: We conducted an extensive literature search across multiple databases to search for relevant review articles for this study. We utilized pre-determined key words, and relied on three reviewers to test and review the use of a data extraction form that was used for the meta-analyses. Data regarding study characteristics, direction of results, and the significance of the results from each meta-analysis were extracted. Results: There were 129 meta-analyses used in this review, and the reporting on conflict of interest was low with only 50 (38.8%) of the articles possessing a conflict of interest statement (either confirming of denying COI). Of these 50 articles, there were only 4 (8%) studies that reported an actual conflict of interest. A statement of conflicts of interest was found in 29 (35.3%) of the papers that reported significant findings, whereas 35% of the papers that reported positive results reported on conflict of interest. Prior to 2009, only 17 (25%) papers reported conflicts of interest, but since 2009, 54.1% of papers collected had a conflict of interest statement. Conclusions: Meta-analyses published in the field of dentistry do not routinely report author conflicts of interest. Although few conflicts appear to exist, the field of dentistry should continue to ensure that best evidence reports provide clear and transparent reporting of potential conflicts of interest in academic journals. Key

  10. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  11. Review of radionuclide source terms used for performance-assessment analyses; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.W.

    1993-06-01

    Two aspects of the radionuclide source terms used for total-system performance assessment (TSPA) analyses have been reviewed. First, a detailed radionuclide inventory (i.e., one in which the reactor type, decay, and burnup are specified) is compared with the standard source-term inventory used in prior analyses. The latter assumes a fixed ratio of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) to boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent fuel, at specific amounts of burnup and at 10-year decay. TSPA analyses have been used to compare the simplified source term with the detailed one. The TSPA-91 analyses did not show a significant difference between the source terms. Second, the radionuclides used in source terms for TSPA aqueous-transport analyses have been reviewed to select ones that are representative of the entire inventory. It is recommended that two actinide decay chains be included (the 4n+2 ``uranium`` and 4n+3 ``actinium`` decay series), since these include several radionuclides that have potentially important release and dose characteristics. In addition, several fission products are recommended for the same reason. The choice of radionuclides should be influenced by other parameter assumptions, such as the solubility and retardation of the radionuclides.

  12. A review of wave climate and prediction along the Spanish Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sánchez-Arcilla

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the characterization of wave storms along the Spanish/Catalan Mediterranean coast. It considers the "physical" and "statistical" description of wave parameters and how they are affected by the prevailing meteo patterns and the sharp gradients in orography and bathymetry. The available field data and numerically simulated wave fields are discussed from this perspective. The resulting limits in accuracy and predictability are illustrated with specific examples. This allows deriving some conclusions for both short-term operational predictions and a long-term climatic assessment.

  13. Review on Available Information on Waves in the DanWEC Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    and physical parameter is necessary. The review of the available information on wave data in the DanWEC area presented in this document has been prepared by Lucia Margheritini (lm@civil.aau.dk), Post.Doc at the Department of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University who was involved in previous wave climate...... studies at Hanstholm location. The report should function as an assessment of the existing documents and present knowledge on wave conditions and data at the DanWEC location. The present report has been prepared under the project No. 834101 “DanWEC Vaekstforum 2011”, task 1: “Collection and presentation...

  14. Underutilisation of routinely collected data in the HIV programme in Zambia: a review of quantitatively analysed peer-reviewed articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Tendai; Musonda, Patrick; Mee, Paul; Gumede, Sehlulekile; Schaap, Ab; Mwinga, Alwyn; Phiri, Caroline; Kapata, Nathan; Michelo, Charles; Todd, Jim

    2017-06-13

    The extent to which routinely collected HIV data from Zambia has been used in peer-reviewed published articles remains unexplored. This paper is an analysis of peer-reviewed articles that utilised routinely collected HIV data from Zambia within six programme areas from 2004 to 2014. Articles on HIV, published in English, listed in the Directory of open access journals, African Journals Online, Google scholar, and PubMed were reviewed. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals, that utilised routinely collected data and included quantitative data analysis methods were included. Multi-country studies involving Zambia and another country, where the specific results for Zambia were not reported, as well as clinical trials and intervention studies that did not take place under routine care conditions were excluded, although community trials which referred patients to the routine clinics were included. Independent extraction was conducted using a predesigned data collection form. Pooled analysis was not possible due to diversity in topics reviewed. A total of 69 articles were extracted for review. Of these, 7 were excluded. From the 62 articles reviewed, 39 focused on HIV treatment and retention in care, 15 addressed prevention of mother-to-child transmission, 4 assessed social behavioural change, and 4 reported on voluntary counselling and testing. In our search, no articles were found on condom programming or voluntary male medical circumcision. The most common outcome measures reported were CD4+ count, clinical failure or mortality. The population analysed was children in 13 articles, women in 16 articles, and both adult men and women in 33 articles. During the 10 year period of review, only 62 articles were published analysing routinely collected HIV data in Zambia. Serious consideration needs to be made to maximise the utility of routinely collected data, and to benefit from the funds and efforts to collect these data. This could be achieved with government support

  15. Investigation of the Air-Wave-Sea Interaction Modes Using an Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar: Analyses of the HRDL Data Taken using DYNAMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Interaction Modes Using an Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar: Analyses of the HRDL data taken using DYNAMO 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N0001411C0464 5b. GRANT...efficiency of energy, mass and momentum exchange at the bottom and top of the ABL. 15. SUBJECT TERMS DYNAMO , ABL 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Investigation of the Air-Wave-Sea Interaction Modes Using an Airborne Doppler Wind Lidar: Analyses of the HRDL data taken during DYNAMO George

  16. The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: a review of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew C; Chapman, Jason E; Forman, Evan M; Beck, Aaron T

    2006-01-01

    This review summarizes the current meta-analysis literature on treatment outcomes of CBT for a wide range of psychiatric disorders. A search of the literature resulted in a total of 16 methodologically rigorous meta-analyses. Our review focuses on effect sizes that contrast outcomes for CBT with outcomes for various control groups for each disorder, which provides an overview of the effectiveness of cognitive therapy as quantified by meta-analysis. Large effect sizes were found for CBT for unipolar depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and childhood depressive and anxiety disorders. Effect sizes for CBT of marital distress, anger, childhood somatic disorders, and chronic pain were in the moderate range. CBT was somewhat superior to antidepressants in the treatment of adult depression. CBT was equally effective as behavior therapy in the treatment of adult depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Large uncontrolled effect sizes were found for bulimia nervosa and schizophrenia. The 16 meta-analyses we reviewed support the efficacy of CBT for many disorders. While limitations of the meta-analytic approach need to be considered in interpreting the results of this review, our findings are consistent with other review methodologies that also provide support for the efficacy CBT.

  17. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...

  18. Heat waves and morbidity: current knowledge and further direction-a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-05-18

    In the past few decades, several devastating heat wave events have significantly challenged public health. As these events are projected to increase in both severity and frequency in the future, it is important to assess the relationship between heat waves and the health indicators that can be used in the early warning systems to guide the public health response. Yet there is a knowledge gap in the impact of heat waves on morbidity. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the relationship between heat waves and different morbidity indicators, and to identify the vulnerable populations. The PubMed and ScienceDirect database were used to retrieve published literature in English from 1985 to 2014 on the relationship between heat waves and morbidity, and the following MeSH terms and keywords were used: heat wave, heat wave, morbidity, hospital admission, hospitalization, emergency call, emergency medical services, and outpatient visit. Thirty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Most studies found a short-term negative health impact of heat waves on morbidity. The elderly, children, and males were more vulnerable during heat waves, and the medical care demand increased for those with existing chronic diseases. Some social factors, such as lower socioeconomic status, can contribute to heat-susceptibility. In terms of study methods and heat wave definitions, there remain inconsistencies and uncertainties. Relevant policies and guidelines need to be developed to protect vulnerable populations. Morbidity indicators should be adopted in heat wave early warning systems in order to guide the effective implementation of public health actions.

  19. US pharmacists' effect as team members on patient care: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Kim Lee, Jeannie; Spivey, Christina A; Slack, Marion; Herrier, Richard N; Hall-Lipsy, Elizabeth; Graff Zivin, Joshua; Abraham, Ivo; Palmer, John; Martin, Jennifer R; Kramer, Sandra S; Wunz, Timothy

    2010-10-01

    One approach postulated to improve the provision of health care is effective utilization of team-based care including pharmacists. The objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive systematic review with focused meta-analyses to examine the effects of pharmacist-provided direct patient care on therapeutic, safety, and humanistic outcomes. The following databases were searched from inception to January 2009: NLM PubMed; Ovid/MEDLINE; ABI/INFORM; Health Business Fulltext Elite; Academic Search Complete; International Pharmaceutical Abstracts; PsycINFO; Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; National Guideline Clearinghouse; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; ClinicalTrials.gov; LexisNexis Academic Universe; and Google Scholar. Studies selected included those reporting pharmacist-provided care, comparison groups, and patient-related outcomes. Of these, 56,573 citations were considered. Data were extracted by multidisciplinary study review teams. Variables examined included study characteristics, pharmacists' interventions/services, patient characteristics, and study outcomes. Data for meta-analyses were extracted from randomized controlled trials meeting meta-analysis criteria. A total of 298 studies were included. Favorable results were found in therapeutic and safety outcomes, and meta-analyses conducted for hemoglobin A1c, LDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and adverse drug events were significant (P < 0.05), favoring pharmacists' direct patient care over comparative services. Results for humanistic outcomes were favorable with variability. Medication adherence, patient knowledge, and quality of life-general health meta-analyses were significant (P < 0.05), favoring pharmacists' direct patient care. Pharmacist-provided direct patient care has favorable effects across various patient outcomes, health care settings, and disease states. Incorporating pharmacists as health care team members in direct patient care is a viable solution to help improve

  20. An umbrella review of meta-analyses of interventions to improve maternal outcomes for teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Loman, Deborah G; Chantamit-O-Pas, Chutima; Schneider, Joanne Kraenzle

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform an umbrella review of meta-analyses of intervention studies designed to improve outcomes of pregnant or parenting teenagers. An extensive search retrieved nine reports which provided 21 meta-analyses analyses. Data were extracted by two reviewers. Methodological quality was assessed using the AMSTAR Instrument. Most effect sizes were small but high quality studies showed significant outcomes for reduced low birth weight (RR = 0.60), repeat pregnancies/births (OR = 0.47-0.62), maternal education (OR = 1.21-1.83), and maternal employment (OR = 1.26). Several parenting outcomes (parent-child teaching interaction post-intervention [SMD = -0.91] and at follow-up [SMD = -1.07], and parent-child relationship post-intervention [SMD = -0.71] and at follow-up [SMD = -0.90]) were significant, but sample sizes were very small. Many reports did not include moderator analyses. Behavioral interventions offer limited resources and occur too late to mitigate the educational and social disparities that precede teen pregnancy. Future intervention research and policies that redress the social determinants of early childbearing are recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonlinear physics of electrical wave propagation in the heart: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sergio; Bär, Markus; Echebarria, Blas

    2016-09-01

    The beating of the heart is a synchronized contraction of muscle cells (myocytes) that is triggered by a periodic sequence of electrical waves (action potentials) originating in the sino-atrial node and propagating over the atria and the ventricles. Cardiac arrhythmias like atrial and ventricular fibrillation (AF,VF) or ventricular tachycardia (VT) are caused by disruptions and instabilities of these electrical excitations, that lead to the emergence of rotating waves (VT) and turbulent wave patterns (AF,VF). Numerous simulation and experimental studies during the last 20 years have addressed these topics. In this review we focus on the nonlinear dynamics of wave propagation in the heart with an emphasis on the theory of pulses, spirals and scroll waves and their instabilities in excitable media with applications to cardiac modeling. After an introduction into electrophysiological models for action potential propagation, the modeling and analysis of spatiotemporal alternans, spiral and scroll meandering, spiral breakup and scroll wave instabilities like negative line tension and sproing are reviewed in depth and discussed with emphasis on their impact for cardiac arrhythmias.

  2. A methodological review of meta-analyses of the effectiveness of clinical psychology treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Aparicio, María; Marín-Martínez, Fulgencio; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; López-López, José Antonio

    2017-10-19

    This article presents a methodological review of 54 meta-analyses of the effectiveness of clinical psychological treatments, using standardized mean differences as the effect size index. We statistically analyzed the distribution of the number of studies of the meta-analyses, the distribution of the sample sizes in the studies of each meta-analysis, the distribution of the effect sizes in each of the meta-analyses, the distribution of the between-studies variance values, and the Pearson correlations between effect size and sample size in each meta-analysis. The results are presented as a function of the type of standardized mean difference: posttest standardized mean difference, standardized mean change from pretest to posttest, and standardized mean change difference between groups. These findings will help researchers design future Monte Carlo and theoretical studies on the performance of meta-analytic procedures, based on the manipulation of realistic model assumptions and parameters of the meta-analyses. Furthermore, the analysis of the distribution of the mean effect sizes through the meta-analyses provides a specific guide for the interpretation of the clinical significance of the different types of standardized mean differences within the field of the evaluation of clinical psychological interventions.

  3. Autocorrelation and Cross-Correlation Analyses of Alpha Waves in Reflection to Subjective Preference of a Flickering Light

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soeta, Y

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between the human brain activity and subjective preference of a flickering light under changing temporal frequency and mean luminance, alpha waves were analyzed by autocorrelation function (ACF...

  4. Exercise and physical activity in systemic lupus erythematosus: A systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Tom; Durcan, Laura; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associates with enhanced cardiovascular (CV) risk frequently unexplained by traditional risk factors. Physical inactivity, common in SLE, likely contributes to the burden of CV risk and may also be a factor in co-morbid chronic fatigue. This systematic review evaluates whether exercise has a deleterious effect on disease activity in SLE, and explores effects on CV function and risk factors, physical fitness and function and health-related measures. A systematic review, with meta-analyses, was conducted; quasi-randomised and randomised controlled trials in SLE comparing at least one exercise group to controls were included. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and relevant conference abstracts were searched. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool extracted data as mean differences. Heterogeneity was evaluated with χ 2 test and I 2 , with p Exercise interventions were reported to be safe, while adverse effects were rare. Meta-analyses suggest that exercise does not adversely affect disease activity, positively influences depression, improves cardiorespiratory capacity and reduces fatigue, compared to controls. Exercise programmes had no significant effects on CV risk factors compared to controls. Therapeutic exercise programmes appear safe, and do not adversely affect disease activity. Fatigue, depression and physical fitness were improved following exercise-based interventions. A multimodal approach may be suggested, however the optimal exercise protocol remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of TMD: evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, T; Axelsson, S

    2010-05-01

    This systematic review (SR) synthesises recent evidence and assesses the methodological quality of published SRs in the management of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Bandolier databases for 1987 to September 2009. Two investigators evaluated the methodological quality of each identified SR using two measurement tools: the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) and level of research design scoring. Thirty-eight SRs met inclusion criteria and 30 were analysed: 23 qualitative SRs and seven meta-analyses. Ten SRs were related to occlusal appliances, occlusal adjustment or bruxism; eight to physical therapy; seven to pharmacologic treatment; four to TMJ and maxillofacial surgery; and six to behavioural therapy and multimodal treatment. The median AMSTAR score was 6 (range 2-11). Eighteen of the SRs were based on randomised clinical trials (RCTs), three were based on case-control studies, and nine were a mix of RCTs and case series. Most SRs had pain and clinical measures as primary outcome variables, while few SRs reported psychological status, daily activities, or quality of life. There is some evidence that the following can be effective in alleviating TMD pain: occlusal appliances, acupuncture, behavioural therapy, jaw exercises, postural training, and some pharmacological treatments. Evidence for the effect of electrophysical modalities and surgery is insufficient, and occlusal adjustment seems to have no effect. One limitation of most of the reviewed SRs was that the considerable variation in methodology between the primary studies made definitive conclusions impossible.

  6. Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Otorhinolaryngologic Articles Based on the PRISMA Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Jeroen P M; Hooft, Lotty; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) provide the highest possible level of evidence. However, poor conduct or reporting of SRs and MAs may reduce their utility. The PRISMA Statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) was developed to help

  7. Exercise and sleep: a systematic review of previous meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi Sharpe

    2017-02-01

    Conduct a systematic review of previous meta-analyses on exercise and sleep outcomes in adults and a meta-analysis of studies nested within these meta-analyses. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled exercise interventions were included by searching nine electronic databases and cross-referencing. Dual-selection and data abstraction were conducted. Methodological quality of meta-analyses was assessed using AMSTAR and quality of evidence using GRADE. Random-effects models were used to pool results from the individual studies included in each meta-analysis. Three meta-analyses representing 950 adults were included. Methodological quality ranged from 36% to 64% while quality of evidence was very low to low. Statistically significant improvements (P ≤ 0.05) were observed for the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), overall sleep quality, global score, subjective sleep, and sleep latency. The number-needed-to-treat (NNT) and percentile improvements ranged from 4 to 7 and from 18.1 to 26.5, respectively. When overall sleep quality results from individual studies nested within different meta-analyses were pooled, statistically significant standardized mean difference (SMD) improvements were observed (-0.50, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.28). The NNT and percentile improvement were 7 and 19, respectively. Exercise improves selected sleep outcomes in adults. To increase public health reach, a large, well-designed, and more inclusive meta-analysis is needed. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Exploring the JIMP Concept: Literature Review (Examen du Concept IIMP: Analyse Documentaire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    partage de l’information et le risque de chevauchements. Le rôle joué par divers principes/valeurs et les attentes initiales (sous forme de ...facteurs qui facilitent la mise en place d’une capacité IIMP, et il donne des exemples de succès attribuables aux activités IIMP. Les analyses ...Sa majesté la reine, représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2010 Humansystems® Incorporated JIMP Literature Review Page i Abstract

  9. Surface Generated Acoustic Wave Biosensors for the Detection of Pathogens: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Gaso, María-Isabel; March-Iborra, Carmen; Montoya-Baides, Ángel; Arnau-Vives, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This review presents a deep insight into the Surface Generated Acoustic Wave (SGAW) technology for biosensing applications, based on more than 40 years of technological and scientific developments. In the last 20 years, SGAWs have been attracting the attention of the biochemical scientific community, due to the fact that some of these devices - Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave (SH-SAW), Surface Transverse Wave (STW), Love Wave (LW), Flexural Plate Wave (FPW), Shear Horizontal Acoustic Plate Mode (SH-APM) and Layered Guided Acoustic Plate Mode (LG-APM) - have demonstrated a high sensitivity in the detection of biorelevant molecules in liquid media. In addition, complementary efforts to improve the sensing films have been done during these years. All these developments have been made with the aim of achieving, in a future, a highly sensitive, low cost, small size, multi-channel, portable, reliable and commercially established SGAW biosensor. A setup with these features could significantly contribute to future developments in the health, food and environmental industries. The second purpose of this work is to describe the state-of-the-art of SGAW biosensors for the detection of pathogens, being this topic an issue of extremely importance for the human health. Finally, the review discuses the commercial availability, trends and future challenges of the SGAW biosensors for such applications. PMID:22346725

  10. The PRISMA extension statement for reporting of systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses of health care interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton, Brian; Salanti, Georgia; Caldwell, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    The PRISMA statement is a reporting guideline designed to improve the completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors have used this guideline worldwide to prepare their reviews for publication. In the past, these reports typically compared 2 treatment alternatives....... With the evolution of systematic reviews that compare multiple treatments, some of them only indirectly, authors face novel challenges for conducting and reporting their reviews. This extension of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) statement was developed specifically...... to improve the reporting of systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses. A group of experts participated in a systematic review, Delphi survey, and face-to-face discussion and consensus meeting to establish new checklist items for this extension statement. Current PRISMA items were also clarified...

  11. Meat consumption and cancer risk: a critical review of published meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Dietary habits play a substantial role for increasing or reducing cancer risk. We performed a critical review of scientific literature, to describe the findings of meta-analyses that explored the association between meat consumption and cancer risk. Overall, 42 eligible meta-analyses were included in this review, in which meat consumption was assumed from sheer statistics. Convincing association was found between larger intake of red meat and cancer, especially with colorectal, lung, esophageal and gastric malignancies. Increased consumption of processed meat was also found to be associated with colorectal, esophageal, gastric and bladder cancers. Enhanced intake of white meat or poultry was found to be negatively associated with some types of cancers. Larger beef consumption was significantly associated with cancer, whereas the risk was not increased consuming high amounts of pork. Our analysis suggest increased risk of cancer in subjects consuming large amounts of red and processed meat, but not in those with high intake of white meat or poultry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Creatine Supplementation and Lower Limb Strength Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanhers, Charlotte; Pereira, Bruno; Naughton, Geraldine; Trousselard, Marion; Lesage, François-Xavier; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    Creatine is the most widely used supplementation to increase strength performance. However, the few meta-analyses are more than 10 years old and suffer from inclusion bias such as the absence of randomization and placebo, the diversity of the inclusion criteria (aerobic/endurance, anaerobic/strength), no evaluation on specific muscles or group of muscles, and the considerable amount of conflicting results within the last decade. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate meta-analyzed effects of creatine supplementation on lower limb strength performance. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of all randomized controlled trials comparing creatine supplementation with a placebo, with strength performance of the lower limbs measured in exercises lasting less than 3 min. The search strategy used the keywords "creatine supplementation" and "performance". Dependent variables were creatine loading, total dose, duration, the time-intervals between baseline (T0) and the end of the supplementation (T1), as well as any training during supplementation. Independent variables were age, sex, and level of physical activity at baseline. We conducted meta-analyses at T1, and on changes between T0 and T1. Each meta-analysis was stratified within lower limb muscle groups and exercise tests. We included 60 studies (646 individuals in the creatine supplementation group and 651 controls). At T1, the effect size (ES) among stratification for squat and leg press were, respectively, 0.336 (95 % CI 0.047-0.625, p = 0.023) and 0.297 (95 % CI 0.098-0.496, p = 0.003). Overall quadriceps ES was 0.266 (95 % CI 0.150-0.381, p creatine efficacy effects, independent of all listed conditions. Creatine supplementation is effective in lower limb strength performance for exercise with a duration of less than 3 min, independent of population characteristic, training protocols, and supplementary doses and duration.

  13. The interrelation between hypothyroidism and glaucoma: a critical review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2017-12-01

    Data on the association between hypothyroidism and glaucoma are conflicting. We sought to shed light on this by conducting a critical review and meta-analyses. The meta-analyses were conducted in adherence with the widely accepted MOOSE guidelines. Using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms: hypothyroidism, myxoedema and glaucoma or intraocular pressure, case-control studies, cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were identified (PubMed) and reviewed. Using meta-analysis, the relative risk (RR) of coexistence of glaucoma and hypothyroidism was calculated. Based on the literature search, thirteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and could be categorized into two groups based on the exposure. The designs of the studies varied considerably, and there was heterogeneity related to lack of power, weak phenotype classifications and length of follow-up. Eight studies had glaucoma (5757 patients) as exposure and hypothyroidism as outcome. Among these, we found a non-significantly increased risk of hypothyroidism associated with glaucoma (RR 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-2.82). Based on five studies (168 006 patients) with hypothyroidism as exposure and glaucoma as outcome, we found the risk of glaucoma to be significantly increased (RR 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13-1.58). Based on these meta-analyses, there seems to be an association between hypothyroidism and glaucoma, which does not seem to be the case between glaucoma and hypothyroidism. However, larger scale studies with better phenotype classification, longer follow-up and taking comorbidity and other biases into consideration are needed to address a potential causal relationship. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Modifiable factors and esophageal cancer: a systematic review of published meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Clara; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Lunet, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    There are marked differences in the etiology of the major histological types of esophageal cancer (EC)-squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) and adenocarcinomas (EAC). This study aimed to summarize the current scientific knowledge on modifiable risk factors for EC, by histological type, through a systematic review of meta-analyses referenced in PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge. We identified 100 meta-analyses on risk factors for ESCC (n = 54), EAC (n = 43), or EC (n = 51). ESCC risk significantly increased with alcohol and maté drinking, smoking, red and processed meat consumption and human papillomavirus infection, while it was negatively associated with body mass index and consumption of fruit, vegetables, white meat, folate, and some carotenoids. Cessation of drinking and smoking significantly reduced ESCC risk. For EAC, an increased risk was reported for smoking, body mass index, and red and processed meat consumption, while risk decreased with Helicobacter pylori infection, low/moderate alcohol drinking, physical activity, and consumption of fruit, vegetables, folate, fiber, beta-carotene, and vitamin C. Differences in results between meta-analyses and mechanisms underlying some of the associations found are discussed. This work reinforces the importance of a separate assessment of EC subtypes to allow for a proper evaluation of incidence trends and planning of prevention/control interventions.

  15. Quantitative methods for analysing cumulative effects on fish migration success: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J E; Patterson, D A; Martins, E G; Cooke, S J; Hinch, S G

    2012-07-01

    It is often recognized, but seldom addressed, that a quantitative assessment of the cumulative effects, both additive and non-additive, of multiple stressors on fish survival would provide a more realistic representation of the factors that influence fish migration. This review presents a compilation of analytical methods applied to a well-studied fish migration, a more general review of quantitative multivariable methods, and a synthesis on how to apply new analytical techniques in fish migration studies. A compilation of adult migration papers from Fraser River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka revealed a limited number of multivariable methods being applied and the sub-optimal reliance on univariable methods for multivariable problems. The literature review of fisheries science, general biology and medicine identified a large number of alternative methods for dealing with cumulative effects, with a limited number of techniques being used in fish migration studies. An evaluation of the different methods revealed that certain classes of multivariable analyses will probably prove useful in future assessments of cumulative effects on fish migration. This overview and evaluation of quantitative methods gathered from the disparate fields should serve as a primer for anyone seeking to quantify cumulative effects on fish migration survival. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Effect of Exercise on Inflammatory Profile of Older Persons: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; da Matta Mello Portugal, Eduardo; da Silva Figueiredo, Luiz Felipe; Terra, Rodrigo; Carneiro, Lara S F; Rodrigues, Vinícius Dias; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Laks, Jerson

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins increase with aging, promoting a chronic low-grade inflammation. Studies have shown a positive effect of exercise on inflammatory markers in older persons. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are the main biomarkers investigated. However, it is unclear if exercise could decrease all these biomarkers. The aim was to analyze the effect of chronic exercise on IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP levels in older persons. Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were adopted. Original articles that investigated the effect of chronic exercise on inflammatory profile of the elderly persons were eligible for this review. The databases PubMed, PEDro, EBSCO, and BioMed Central were searched. Three reviewers evaluated each publication for reducing bias. Data about IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were collected and analyzed. A standardized mean difference based on estimated pooled effect size was calculated considering heterogeneity index (I2) and random effect. Seventy-six studies were retrieved from databases, and 8 of them were analyzed. IL-6 and CRP levels decreased after chronic exercise (overall effect P < .05). Regular exercise decreases IL-6 and CRP levels in older persons. The effect of exercise on TNF-α remains unclear.

  17. Review of 3D Printed Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Passive Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3D printing technology is catching attention nowadays. It has certain advantages over the traditional fabrication processes. We give a chronical review of the 3D printing technology from the time it was invented. This technology has also been used to fabricate millimeter-wave (mmWave and terahertz (THz passive devices. Though promising results have been demonstrated, the challenge lies in the fabrication tolerance improvement such as dimensional tolerance and surface roughness. We propose the design methodology of high order device to circumvent the dimensional tolerance and suggest specific modelling of the surface roughness of 3D printed devices. It is believed that, with the improvement of the 3D printing technology and related subjects in material science and mechanical engineering, the 3D printing technology will become mainstream for mmWave and THz passive device fabrication.

  18. Publication Bias and Nonreporting Found in Majority of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses in Anesthesiology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Riley J; Umberham, Blake A; Detweiler, Byron N; Kollmorgen, Lauren; Vassar, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are used by clinicians to derive treatment guidelines and make resource allocation decisions in anesthesiology. One cause for concern with such reviews is the possibility that results from unpublished trials are not represented in the review findings or data synthesis. This problem, known as publication bias, results when studies reporting statistically nonsignificant findings are left unpublished and, therefore, not included in meta-analyses when estimating a pooled treatment effect. In turn, publication bias may lead to skewed results with overestimated effect sizes. The primary objective of this study is to determine the extent to which evaluations for publication bias are conducted by systematic reviewers in highly ranked anesthesiology journals and which practices reviewers use to mitigate publication bias. The secondary objective of this study is to conduct publication bias analyses on the meta-analyses that did not perform these assessments and examine the adjusted pooled effect estimates after accounting for publication bias. This study considered meta-analyses and systematic reviews from 5 peer-reviewed anesthesia journals from 2007 through 2015. A PubMed search was conducted, and full-text systematic reviews that fit inclusion criteria were downloaded and coded independently by 2 authors. Coding was then validated, and disagreements were settled by consensus. In total, 207 systematic reviews were included for analysis. In addition, publication bias evaluation was performed for 25 systematic reviews that did not do so originally. We used Egger regression, Duval and Tweedie trim and fill, and funnel plots for these analyses. Fifty-five percent (n = 114) of the reviews discussed publication bias, and 43% (n = 89) of the reviews evaluated publication bias. Funnel plots and Egger regression were the most common methods for evaluating publication bias. Publication bias was reported in 34 reviews (16%). Thirty-six of the 45

  19. Current status of cost utility analyses in total joint arthroplasty: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Bozic, Kevin J; Schairer, William W; Bernstein, Jaime L; Jevsevar, David S; Marx, Robert G; Padgett, Douglas E

    2015-05-01

    Total joint arthroplasty (TJA), although considered to be highly beneficial, is associated with substantial costs to the US healthcare system. Cost utility analysis has become an increasingly important means to objectively evaluate the value of a healthcare intervention from the perspective of both extending the quantity and improving the quality of life. Relatively little is known about the overall cost utility analysis evidence base in TJA. The goals of this review were to (1) determine the cost utility of TJA interventions; (2) critically assess the quality of published US-based cost utility analyses using the Quality of Health Economic Studies instrument; and (3) determine what characteristics were common among studies receiving a high quality score. A systematic review of the literature using the MEDLINE database was performed to compile findings and critically appraise US-based cost utility analysis studies for total hip and knee arthroplasty. Based on review of 676 identified articles, 23 studies were included. We used the Quality of Health Economic Studies instrument to assess study quality and one-sided Fisher's exact tests were applied to analyze the predictors of high-quality cost utility analysis. Very few studies compare the cost utility of TJA versus nonoperative intervention; however, the available evidence suggests that TJA can be cost-saving and is highly cost-effective compared with conservative management of end-stage arthritis. The majority of identified studies are focused on the cost utility of new implant technologies or comparisons among surgical alternatives. These studies suggest that the upfront costs associated with new technologies are cost-effective when there is a major reduction in a future cost. The quality of identified studies is quite high (Quality of Health Economic Studies Instrument score: mean 86.5; range, 63-100). National funding source (p = 0.095) and lifetime horizon for analysis (p = 0.07) correlate with high

  20. Structural analyses of very large semi-submersibles in waves; Choogata hansensuishiki futai no harochu kozo oto kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, K.; Yoshida, K.; Suzuki, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    An analysis method in which the technique of a vehicle obtained when a three-dimensional singular point distribution method and Kagemoto`s mutual interaction theory are combined was expanded for the fluid area was proposed as the structural analysis of very large semi-submersibles in waves. A partial structure method is used for the structure. In a fluid area, the number of unknown quantities appearing in a final expression could be largely reduced by introducing the new concept of a group body. In this process, both hydro-elasticity and hydrodynamic mutual interaction are considered. As a result, floating bodies that could not be previously calculated can be modeled as a three-dimensional frame structure and the response analysis in waves can be carried out without damaging the accuracy. The calculation result is used as the input data required for analyzing the structural fatigue locally during structural design of very large semi-submersibles in the 3,000 (m) class. This study can present a series of procedures between the response analysis of very large floating bodies in waves and the structural design. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Environmental risk factors for autism: an evidence-based review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Velthorst, Eva; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    According to recent evidence, up to 40-50% of variance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) liability might be determined by environmental factors. In the present paper, we conducted a review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of environmental risk factors for ASD. We assessed each review for quality of evidence and provided a brief overview of putative mechanisms of environmental risk factors for ASD. Current evidence suggests that several environmental factors including vaccination, maternal smoking, thimerosal exposure, and most likely assisted reproductive technologies are unrelated to risk of ASD. On the contrary, advanced parental age is associated with higher risk of ASD. Birth complications that are associated with trauma or ischemia and hypoxia have also shown strong links to ASD, whereas other pregnancy-related factors such as maternal obesity, maternal diabetes, and caesarian section have shown a less strong (but significant) association with risk of ASD. The reviews on nutritional elements have been inconclusive about the detrimental effects of deficiency in folic acid and omega 3, but vitamin D seems to be deficient in patients with ASD. The studies on toxic elements have been largely limited by their design, but there is enough evidence for the association between some heavy metals (most important inorganic mercury and lead) and ASD that warrants further investigation. Mechanisms of the association between environmental factors and ASD are debated but might include non-causative association (including confounding), gene-related effect, oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia/ischemia, endocrine disruption, neurotransmitter alterations, and interference with signaling pathways. Compared to genetic studies of ASD, studies of environmental risk factors are in their infancy and have significant methodological limitations. Future studies of ASD risk factors would benefit from a developmental psychopathology approach, prospective design, precise exposure

  2. Features of Computer-Based Decision Aids: Systematic Review, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrowatka, Ania; Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-26

    Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however, some features performed better than

  3. Systematic review and meta-analyses of psychosocial interventions for veterans of the military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J. Kitchiner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of psychosocial therapies for common mental health disorders in veterans is unclear and requires further examination. Method: Systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Twenty databases were searched. Studies were included if they reported a psychosocial intervention designed to treat or reduce common mental health symptoms in veterans identified as being symptomatic at the time they entered the study. Studies of substance dependency disorders and psychosis were excluded. Eligible studies were assessed against methodological quality criteria and data were extracted and analysed. Results: Twenty-nine RCTs were identified. There was evidence for the use of trauma-focused therapies for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and some evidence for psychological interventions in the treatment of borderline personality disorder, depression, insomnia, and panic disorder co-morbid to PTSD. However, methodological quality of many of the studies was less than optimal. Conclusions: Trauma-focused psychological therapies are likely to be effective for combat-related PTSD but there is a need for more research to determine the efficacy of psychological treatments for other mental health disorders in veterans.

  4. SPES3 Facility RELAP5 Sensitivity Analyses on the Containment System for Design Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Achilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An Italian MSE R&D programme on Nuclear Fission is funding, through ENEA, the design and testing of SPES3 facility at SIET, for IRIS reactor simulation. IRIS is a modular, medium size, advanced, integral PWR, developed by an international consortium of utilities, industries, research centres and universities. SPES3 simulates the primary, secondary and containment systems of IRIS, with 1:100 volume scale, full elevation and prototypical thermal-hydraulic conditions. The RELAP5 code was extensively used in support to the design of the facility to identify criticalities and weak points in the reactor simulation. FER, at Zagreb University, performed the IRIS reactor analyses with the RELAP5 and GOTHIC coupled codes. The comparison between IRIS and SPES3 simulation results led to a simulation-design feedback process with step-by-step modifications of the facility design, up to the final configuration. For this, a series of sensitivity cases was run to investigate specific aspects affecting the trend of the main parameters of the plant, as the containment pressure and EHRS removed power, to limit fuel clad temperature excursions during accidental transients. This paper summarizes the sensitivity analyses on the containment system that allowed to review the SPES3 facility design and confirm its capability to appropriately simulate the IRIS plant.

  5. Variables associated with achievement in higher education: A systematic review of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Preckel, Franzis

    2017-06-01

    The last 2 decades witnessed a surge in empirical studies on the variables associated with achievement in higher education. A number of meta-analyses synthesized these findings. In our systematic literature review, we included 38 meta-analyses investigating 105 correlates of achievement, based on 3,330 effect sizes from almost 2 million students. We provide a list of the 105 variables, ordered by the effect size, and summary statistics for central research topics. The results highlight the close relation between social interaction in courses and achievement. Achievement is also strongly associated with the stimulation of meaningful learning by presenting information in a clear way, relating it to the students, and using conceptually demanding learning tasks. Instruction and communication technology has comparably weak effect sizes, which did not increase over time. Strong moderator effects are found for almost all instructional methods, indicating that how a method is implemented in detail strongly affects achievement. Teachers with high-achieving students invest time and effort in designing the microstructure of their courses, establish clear learning goals, and employ feedback practices. This emphasizes the importance of teacher training in higher education. Students with high achievement are characterized by high self-efficacy, high prior achievement and intelligence, conscientiousness, and the goal-directed use of learning strategies. Barring the paucity of controlled experiments and the lack of meta-analyses on recent educational innovations, the variables associated with achievement in higher education are generally well investigated and well understood. By using these findings, teachers, university administrators, and policymakers can increase the effectivity of higher education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Comparative effectiveness research: using systematic reviews and meta-analyses to synthesize empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapodi, Maria C; Northouse, Laurel L

    2011-01-01

    The increased demand for evidence-based health care practices calls for comparative effectiveness research (CER), namely the generation and synthesis of research evidence to compare the benefits and harms of alternative methods of care. A significant contribution of CER is the systematic identification and synthesis of available research studies on a specific topic. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of methodological issues pertaining to systematic reviews and meta-analyses to be used by investigators with the purpose of conducting CER. A systematic review or meta-analysis is guided by a research protocol, which includes (a) the research question, (b) inclusion and exclusion criteria with respect to the target population and studies, (c) guidelines for obtaining relevant studies, (d) methods for data extraction and coding, (e) methods for data synthesis, and (f) guidelines for reporting results and assessing for bias. This article presents an algorithm for generating evidence-based knowledge by systematically identifying, retrieving, and synthesizing large bodies of research studies. Recommendations for evaluating the strength of evidence, interpreting findings, and discussing clinical applicability are offered.

  7. HOW HEALTHY IS THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUNG ATHLETES? A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Diehl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in sports during adolescence is considered a healthy behavior. The extent to which adolescent athletes engage in other healthful (or risky behaviors is less clear, however. We conducted a systematic literature review following the PRISMA Statement to assess the frequency of risky behaviors among athletes in this age group. We searched the PubMed, PsycINFO and SCA Sociological Abstracts databases for observational studies published in English over the last twenty years on the frequency of selected risk behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, use of illicit drugs, unhealthy nutrition, and doping in adolescent athletes. Two independent reviewers selected articles following the PRISMA Statement. Behavior frequency was assessed as was comparability of study design and methods. When possible, meta- analyses were performed using data from subgroups of studies in which operational indicators were comparable. Seventy-eight articles met eligibility criteria. Although report of risky behaviors varied across studies, we observed overall, that studies tend to report higher alcohol use, less smoking, less recreational drug use, and more smokeless tobacco use in (high-involved athletes. Considerable heterogeneity was noted in study design, definition of target groups and use of operational indicators (I² ranged from 93.2% to 100%. Especially the higher prevalence of using alcohol and smokeless tobacco needs more attention in interventions targeted to this group. Overall, greater consensus on methods used to assess risky behaviors in adolescent athletes

  8. Attrition analysed in five waves of a longitudinal yearly survey of smokers: Findings from the ITC Netherlands Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zethof, D.; Nagelhout, G.E.; de Rooij, M.; Driezen, P.; Fong, G.T.; van den Putte, B.; Hummel, K.; de Vries, H.; Thompson, M.E.; Willemsen, M.C.

    Background: Attrition bias can affect the external validity of findings. This article analyses attrition bias and assesses the effectiveness of replenishment samples on demographic and smoking-related characteristics for the International Tobacco Control Netherlands Survey, a longitudinal survey

  9. A review of computational methods in materials science: examples from shock-wave and polymer physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Martin O; Hiermaier, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    This review discusses several computational methods used on different length and time scales for the simulation of material behavior. First, the importance of physical modeling and its relation to computer simulation on multiscales is discussed. Then, computational methods used on different scales are shortly reviewed, before we focus on the molecular dynamics (MD) method. Here we survey in a tutorial-like fashion some key issues including several MD optimization techniques. Thereafter, computational examples for the capabilities of numerical simulations in materials research are discussed. We focus on recent results of shock wave simulations of a solid which are based on two different modeling approaches and we discuss their respective assets and drawbacks with a view to their application on multiscales. Then, the prospects of computer simulations on the molecular length scale using coarse-grained MD methods are covered by means of examples pertaining to complex topological polymer structures including star-polymers, biomacromolecules such as polyelectrolytes and polymers with intrinsic stiffness. This review ends by highlighting new emerging interdisciplinary applications of computational methods in the field of medical engineering where the application of concepts of polymer physics and of shock waves to biological systems holds a lot of promise for improving medical applications such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy or tumor treatment.

  10. Machine learning approaches to analysing textual injury surveillance data: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2015-06-01

    To synthesise recent research on the use of machine learning approaches to mining textual injury surveillance data. Systematic review. The electronic databases which were searched included PubMed, Cinahl, Medline, Google Scholar, and Proquest. The bibliography of all relevant articles was examined and associated articles were identified using a snowballing technique. For inclusion, articles were required to meet the following criteria: (a) used a health-related database, (b) focused on injury-related cases, AND used machine learning approaches to analyse textual data. The papers identified through the search were screened resulting in 16 papers selected for review. Articles were reviewed to describe the databases and methodology used, the strength and limitations of different techniques, and quality assurance approaches used. Due to heterogeneity between studies meta-analysis was not performed. Occupational injuries were the focus of half of the machine learning studies and the most common methods described were Bayesian probability or Bayesian network based methods to either predict injury categories or extract common injury scenarios. Models were evaluated through either comparison with gold standard data or content expert evaluation or statistical measures of quality. Machine learning was found to provide high precision and accuracy when predicting a small number of categories, was valuable for visualisation of injury patterns and prediction of future outcomes. However, difficulties related to generalizability, source data quality, complexity of models and integration of content and technical knowledge were discussed. The use of narrative text for injury surveillance has grown in popularity, complexity and quality over recent years. With advances in data mining techniques, increased capacity for analysis of large databases, and involvement of computer scientists in the injury prevention field, along with more comprehensive use and description of quality

  11. Cost-effectiveness analyses in orthopaedic sports medicine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Schairer, William W; Bernstein, Jaime L; Dodwell, Emily R; Marx, Robert G; Allen, Answorth A

    2015-06-01

    As increasing attention is paid to the cost of health care delivered in the United States (US), cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) are gaining in popularity. Reviews of the CEA literature have been performed in other areas of medicine, including some subspecialties within orthopaedics. Demonstrating the value of medical procedures is of utmost importance, yet very little is known about the overall quality and findings of CEAs in sports medicine. To identify and summarize CEA studies in orthopaedic sports medicine and to grade the quality of the available literature. Systematic review. A systematic review of the literature was performed to compile findings and grade the methodological quality of US-based CEA studies in sports medicine. The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument and the checklist by the US Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine were used to assess study quality. One-sided Fisher exact testing was performed to analyze the predictors of high-quality CEAs. Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, 3 studies examined rotator cuff repair, 2 examined autologous chondrocyte implantation, 1 study examined hip arthroscopic surgery, and 1 study examined the operative management of shoulder dislocations. Based on study findings, operative intervention in sports medicine is highly cost-effective. The quality of published evidence is good, with a mean quality score of 81.8 (range, 70-94). There is a trend toward higher quality in more recent publications. No significant predictor of high-quality evidence was found. The CEA literature in sports medicine is good; however, there is a paucity of studies, and the available evidence is focused on a few procedures. More work needs to be conducted to quantify the cost-effectiveness of different techniques and procedures within sports medicine. The QHES tool may be useful for the evaluation of future CEAs. © 2014 The Author(s).

  12. Obesity-Related Policy/Environmental Interventions: A Systematic Review of Economic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Robin A; Siddiqi, Sameer M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Mancino, Lisa; Prasad, Kislaya

    2016-04-01

    Policy and environmental changes to support and encourage individual-level nutrition and physical activity behavior are underway in many parts of the U.S. and around the world at national, state, and local levels. Yet, to the authors' knowledge, no summary of the cost-benefit or cost-effectiveness studies of obesity-related policy/environmental interventions exists. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement guidelines were followed to identify, screen, and describe the protocols used in this systematic review. In 2014, a unique search was conducted of titles and abstracts in MEDLINE, EconLit, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases that were published from January 2002 through January 2014 in English-language, peer-reviewed journals. The search terms described obesity, physical activity, and diet in combination with economic evaluation. In 2014 and 2015, the results were analyzed. A total of 27 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 26 described separate interventions. Of the 27 included studies, eight focused on the community and built environment, seven assessed nutrition-related changes, nine reported on the school environment, and three evaluated social marketing and media interventions. The vast majority of included studies reported beneficial economic outcomes of the interventions. Given the large and growing literature on the health and behavioral outcomes of policy and environmental interventions, the relatively low number of located cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness economic assessments appears to indicate a prime opportunity for the research community to address. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Electroconvulsive therapy in the continuation and maintenance treatment of depression: Systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Alby; Phutane, Vivek H; Clarke, Sandy; Prudic, Joan

    2017-12-01

    Acute course of electroconvulsive therapy is effective in inducing remission from depression, but recurrence rate is unacceptably high following termination of electroconvulsive therapy despite continued pharmacotherapy. Continuation electroconvulsive therapy and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy have been studied for their efficacy in preventing relapse and recurrence of depression. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of continuation electroconvulsive therapy and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in preventing relapse and recurrence of depression in comparison to antidepressant pharmacotherapy alone. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, clinicaltrials.gov and Cochrane register of controlled trials from the database inception to December 2016 without restriction on language or publication status for randomized trials of continuation electroconvulsive therapy and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy. Two independent Cochrane reviewers extracted the data in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The risk of bias was assessed using four domains of the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. Outcomes were pooled using random effect model. The primary outcome was relapse or recurrence of depression. Five studies involving 436 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Analysis of the pooled data showed that continuation electroconvulsive therapy and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy, both with pharmacotherapy, were associated with significantly fewer relapses and recurrences than pharmacotherapy alone at 6 months and 1 year after a successful acute course of electroconvulsive therapy (risk ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = [0.41, 0.98], p = 0.04, risk ratio = 0.46, 95% confidence interval = [0.21, 0.98], p = 0.05, respectively). There was insufficient data to perform a meta-analysis of stand

  14. Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Robin; Kennedy, Oliver J; Roderick, Paul; Fallowfield, Jonathan A; Hayes, Peter C; Parkes, Julie

    2017-11-22

    Objectives  To evaluate the existing evidence for associations between coffee consumption and multiple health outcomes. Design  Umbrella review of the evidence across meta-analyses of observational and interventional studies of coffee consumption and any health outcome. Data sources  PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of references. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies  Meta-analyses of both observational and interventional studies that examined the associations between coffee consumption and any health outcome in any adult population in all countries and all settings. Studies of genetic polymorphisms for coffee metabolism were excluded. Results  The umbrella review identified 201 meta-analyses of observational research with 67 unique health outcomes and 17 meta-analyses of interventional research with nine unique outcomes. Coffee consumption was more often associated with benefit than harm for a range of health outcomes across exposures including high versus low, any versus none, and one extra cup a day. There was evidence of a non-linear association between consumption and some outcomes, with summary estimates indicating largest relative risk reduction at intakes of three to four cups a day versus none, including all cause mortality (relative risk 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 0.88), cardiovascular mortality (0.81, 0.72 to 0.90), and cardiovascular disease (0.85, 0.80 to 0.90). High versus low consumption was associated with an 18% lower risk of incident cancer (0.82, 0.74 to 0.89). Consumption was also associated with a lower risk of several specific cancers and neurological, metabolic, and liver conditions. Harmful associations were largely nullified by adequate adjustment for smoking, except in pregnancy, where high versus low/no consumption was associated with low birth weight (odds ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.67), preterm birth in the first (1.22, 1.00 to 1.49) and second (1

  15. Statistical analyses of digital collections: Using a large corpus of systematic reviews to study non-citations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Using statistical methods to analyse digital material for patterns makes it possible to detect patterns in big data that we would otherwise not be able to detect. This paper seeks to exemplify this fact by statistically analysing a large corpus of references in systematic reviews. The aim...

  16. Self-help and internet-guided interventions in depression and anxiety disorders: A systematic review of meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Hof, E.; Cuijpers, P.; Stein, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract There is a growing database of research on self-help and Internet-guided interventions in the treatment of common mental disorders, and a number of meta-analyses have now been published. This article provides a systematic review of meta-analyses on the efficacy of self-help interventions,

  17. How effective are active videogames among the young and the old? Adding meta-analyses to two recent systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Crutzen, R.M.M.; Lu, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Two recent systematic reviews have surveyed the existing evidence for the effectiveness of active videogames in children/adolescents and in elderly people. In the present study, effect sizes were added to these systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were performed. Materials and Methods:

  18. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the reduction of post stroke spasticity: review article and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Azimpour

    2017-08-01

    Methods: All primary reports of spasticity indexed in PubMed, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus and search engine of Google Scholar from January 2000 to December 2016 were searched. The following terms were used as keywords: Spasticity, muscle hypertonicity, ESWT, stroke and hemiplegia. Any report was included if it met the following criteria: involving clinical trials, full-version availability, and being written in english. Two reviewers selected articles independently and reviewed the studies considering quality and eligibility, and then they extracted general information on objectives, design, participants, and outcomes. The methodologic quality of each study was assessed using the Pedro Scale. In the statistical analyses, we considered two outcomes; Modified Ashworth scale (MAS grade and passive rang of movement (PROM. The meta-analysis was done using random effect model in Stata, version 11 (Stata Corp., TX, USA. Results: Eleven studies within a total of 261 patients were included in this review. In seven studies the shock waves were applied to the upper limb muscles, and in four other studies, the effects of ESWT on the spasticity of the lower limb muscles were assessed. Immediately after applying the ESW, MAS grade was significantly decreased in comparison to the baseline values. (Standardized mean difference [SMD], -1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.2 to -1.04. The PROM was significantly increased immediately after ESWT in comparison to the baseline values (SMD, 3.23; CI 95%, 1.35 to 5.12. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ESWT can immediately improve the spasticity and increased PROM, but it seems that the mechanism of action of shock waves on spasticity is still unclear. Further clinical trial studies with higher methodological quality should be recommended.

  19. Systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses: part 6 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressing, Meike; Blettner, Maria; Klug, Stefanie J

    2009-07-01

    Because of the rising number of scientific publications, it is important to have a means of jointly summarizing and assessing different studies on a single topic. Systematic literature reviews, meta-analyses of published data, and meta-analyses of individual data (pooled reanalyses) are now being published with increasing frequency. We here describe the essential features of these methods and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. This article is based on a selective literature search. The different types of review and meta-analysis are described, the methods used in each are outlined so that they can be evaluated, and a checklist is given for the assessment of reviews and meta-analyses of scientific articles. Systematic literature reviews provide an overview of the state of research on a given topic and enable an assessment of the quality of individual studies. They also allow the results of different studies to be evaluated together when these are inconsistent. Meta-analyses additionally allow calculation of pooled estimates of an effect. The different types of review and meta-analysis are discussed with examples from the literature on one particular topic. Systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses enable the research findings and treatment effects obtained in different individual studies to be summed up and evaluated.

  20. Review of research in internal-wave and internal-tide deposits of China: Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This discussion of a review article by [27], published in the Journal of Palaeogeography (2(1: 56– 65, is aimed at illustrating that interpretations of ten ancient examples in China and one in the central Appalachians (USA as deep-water deposits of internal waves and internal tides are unsustainable. This critical assessment is based on an in-depth evaluation of oceanographic and sedimentologic data on internal waves and internal tides derived from 332 print and online published works during 1838–January 2013, which include empirical data on the physical characteristics of modern internal waves and internal tides from 51 regions of the world’s oceans [108]. In addition, core and outcrop descriptions of deep-water strata from 35 case studies worldwide carried out by the author during 1974–2011, and a selected number of case studies published by other researchers are evaluated for identifying the sedimentological challenges associated with distinguishing types of bottom-current reworked sands in the ancient sedimentary record. The emerging conclusion is that any interpretation of ancient strata as deposits of internal waves and internal tides is premature.

  1. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under neuraxial anesthesia compared with general anesthesia: Systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Marcelo A; Cavalheiro, Bárbara T; de Oliveira Filho, Getúlio R

    2017-09-01

    Pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can cause hypercapnia, hypoxemia, hemodynamic changes and shoulder pain. General anesthesia (GA) enables the control of intraoperative pain and ventilation. The need for GA has been questioned by studies suggesting that neuraxial anesthesia (NA) is adequate for LC. To quantify the prevalence of intraoperative pain and to verify whether evidence on the maintenance of ventilation, circulation and surgical anesthesia during NA compared with GA is consistent. Systematic review with meta-analyses. Anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched Medline, Cochrane and EBSCO databases up to 2016 for randomized controlled trials that compared LC in the two groups under study, neuraxial (subarachnoid or epidural) and general anesthesia. The primary outcome was the prevalence of intraoperative pain referred to the shoulder in the NA group. Hemodynamic and respiratory outcomes and adverse effects in both groups were also collected. Eleven comparative studies were considered eligible. The pooled prevalence of shoulder pain was 25%. Intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia occurred more frequently in patients who received NA, with a risk ratio of 4.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70-12.48, p=0.003) and 6.67 (95% CI 2.02-21.96, p=0.002), respectively. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was more prevalent in patients who submitted to GA. The prevalence of postoperative urinary retention did not differ between the techniques. Postoperative headache was more prevalent in patients who received NA, while the postoperative pain intensity was lower in this group. Performing meta-analyses on hypertension, hypercapnia and hypoxemia was not possible. NA as sole anesthetic technique, although feasible for LC, was associated with intraoperative pain referred to the shoulder, required anesthetic conversion in 3.4% of the cases and did not demonstrate evidence of respiratory benefits for patients with normal pulmonary

  2. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses of drugs for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia M; Ben Sedrine, Wafa; Kanis, John A; Ramaekers, Bram; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Silverman, Stuart; Wyers, Caroline E; Boonen, Annelies

    2015-03-01

    Given the limited availability of healthcare resources and the recent introduction of new anti-osteoporosis drugs, the interest in the cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis remains and even increases. This study aims to identify all recent economic evaluations on drugs for postmenopausal osteoporosis, to critically appraise the reporting quality, and to summarize the results. A literature search using Medline, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation database and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry was undertaken to identify original articles published between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013. Studies that assessed cost effectiveness of drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis were included. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement was used to assess the quality of reporting of these articles. Of 1,794 articles identified, 39 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were conducted in 14 different countries and nine active interventions were assessed. When compared with no treatment, active osteoporotic drugs were generally cost effective in postmenopausal women aged over 60-65 years with low bone mass, especially those with prior vertebral fractures. Key drivers of cost effectiveness included individual fracture risk, medication adherence, selected comparators and country-specific analyses. Quality of reporting varied between studies with an average score of 17.9 out of 24 (range 7-21.5). This review found a substantial number of published cost-effectiveness analyses of drugs in osteoporosis in the last 6 years. Results and critical appraisal of these articles can help decision makers when prioritizing health interventions and can inform the development of future economic evaluations.

  3. Economic analyses of venous thromboembolism prevention strategies in hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanam, Subarna; Pinto, Ruxandra; Cook, Deborah J; Geerts, William H; Fowler, Robert A

    2012-03-09

    Despite evidence-based guidelines for venous thromboembolism prevention, substantial variability is found in practice. Many economic evaluations of new drugs for thromboembolism prevention do not occur prospectively with efficacy studies and are sponsored by the manufacturers, raising the possibility of bias. We performed a systematic review of economic analyses of venous thromboembolism prevention in hospitalized patients to inform clinicians and policy makers about cost-effectiveness and the potential influence of sponsorship. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Databases, ACP Journal Club, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, from 1946 to September 2011. We extracted data on study characteristics, quality, costs, and efficacy. From 5,180 identified studies, 39 met eligibility and quality criteria. Each addressed pharmacologic prevention: low-molecular-weight heparins versus placebo (five), unfractionated heparin (12), warfarin (eight), one or another agents (five); fondaparinux versus enoxaparin (11); and rivaroxaban and dabigatran versus enoxaparin (two). Low-molecular-weight heparins were most economically attractive among most medical and surgical patients, whereas fondaparinux was favored for orthopedic patients. Fondaparinux was associated with increased bleeding events. Newer agents rivaroxaban and dabigatran may offer additional value. Of all economic evaluations, 64% were supported by manufacturers of a "new" agent. The new agent had a favorable outcome in 38 (97.4%) of 39 evaluations [95% confidence interval [CI] (86.5 to 99.9)]. Among studies supported by a pharmaceutical company, the sponsored medication was economically attractive in 24 (96.0%) of 25 [95% CI, 80.0 to 99.9)]. We could not detect a consistent bias in outcome based on sponsorship; however, only a minority of studies were unsponsored. Low-molecular-weight heparins and fondaparinux are the most economically attractive drugs for venous thromboembolism prevention in

  4. A Quality Analysis of Systematic Reviews in Dentistry, Part 1: Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rabbany, Mohamed; Li, Silvia; Bui, Stephanie; Muir, Jeffrey M; Bhandari, Mohit; Azarpazhooh, Amir

    2017-12-01

    As the volume of publications in dentistry continues to increase, clinicians are becoming increasingly reliant on systematic reviews and meta-analyses as their primary source of evidence. With an increase in the dependence on dental metaanalyses, it is important to ensure that they are being conducted with as little bias as possible. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the quality of therapeutic meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on dental-related topics and to analyze how quality has changed over time. All relevant studies were searched for through MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library. Title, abstract, and full-text review, as well as data extraction and quality assessment, were all conducted in duplicate. All reviewers used a pilot-tested extraction form that included the AMSTAR checklist to assess quality of systematic reviews. A logit link function ordinal regression was conducted to evaluate quality improvement trends over time. Of the 3832 studies identified, 208 studies were selected for review. Of these, 13% provided an a priori design, 53% screened and extracted data in duplicate, 29% included gray literature, 63% assessed the quality of included studies, and 39% assessed publication bias. As was indicated by the ordinal regression, the quality of meta-analyses, as per the AMSTAR criteria, has increased significantly with time (P quality of meta-analyses of RCTs has been increasing since the start of the millennium, there remains substantial room for improvement within all aspects of systematic review reporting and methodology. Therefore, it is critical for clinicians to take caution when reading systematic reviews and meta-analyses, ensuring that the principals of critical appraisal are applied when interpreting meta-analyses of RCTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Education and dementia in the context of the cognitive reserve hypothesis: a systematic review with meta-analyses and qualitative analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfei Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve (CR or brain reserve capacity explains why individuals with higher IQ, education, or occupational attainment have lower risks of developing dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD or vascular dementia (VaD. The CR hypothesis postulates that CR reduces the prevalence and incidence of AD or VaD. It also hypothesizes that among those who have greater initial cognitive reserve (in contrast to those with less reserve greater brain pathology occurs before the clinical symptoms of disease becomes manifest. Thus clinical disease onset triggers a faster decline in cognition and function, and increased mortality among those with initial greater cognitive reserve. Disease progression follows distinctly separate pathological and clinical paths. With education as a proxy we use meta-analyses and qualitative analyses to review the evidence for the CR hypothesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, PsycoINFO, EMBASE, HealthStar, and Scopus databases from January 1980 to June 2011 for observational studies with clear criteria for dementia, AD or VaD and education. One hundred and thirty-three articles with a variety of study designs met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence and incidence studies with odds ratios (ORs, relative risks or original data were included in the meta-analyses. Other studies were reviewed qualitatively. The studies covered 437,477 subjects. Prevalence and incidence studies with pooled ORs of 2.61 (95%CI 2.21-3.07 and 1.88 (95%CI 1.51-2.34 respectively, showed low education increased the risk of dementia. Heterogeneity and sensitivity tests confirmed the evidence. Generally, study characteristics had no effect on conclusions. Qualitative analyses also showed the protective effects of higher education on developing dementia and with clinical disease onset hastening a decline in cognition and function, and greater brain pathology. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic review and meta-analyses covering

  6. Nonlinear phenomena in RF wave propagation in magnetized plasma: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkolab, Miklos

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinear phenomena in RF wave propagation has been observed from the earliest days in basic laboratory experiments going back to the 1960s [1], followed by observations of parametric instability (PDI) phenomena in large scale RF heating experiments in magnetized fusion plasmas in the 1970s and beyond [2]. Although not discussed here, the importance of PDI phenomena has also been central to understanding anomalous absorption in laser-fusion experiments (ICF) [3]. In this review I shall discuss the fundamentals of nonlinear interactions among waves and particles, and in particular, their role in PDIs. This phenomenon is distinct from quasi-linear phenomena that are often invoked in calculating absorption of RF power in wave heating experiments in the core of magnetically confined plasmas [4]. Indeed, PDIs are most likely to occur in the edge of magnetized fusion plasmas where the electron temperature is modest and hence the oscillating quiver velocity of charged particles can be comparable to their thermal speeds. Specifically, I will review important aspects of PDI theory and give examples from past experiments in the ECH/EBW, lower hybrid (LHCD) and ICRF/IBW frequency regimes. Importantly, PDI is likely to play a fundamental role in determining the so-called "density limit" in lower hybrid experiments that has persisted over the decades and still central to understanding present day experiments [5-7].

  7. Nonlinear phenomena in RF wave propagation in magnetized plasma: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porkolab, Miklos

    2015-12-10

    Nonlinear phenomena in RF wave propagation has been observed from the earliest days in basic laboratory experiments going back to the 1960s [1], followed by observations of parametric instability (PDI) phenomena in large scale RF heating experiments in magnetized fusion plasmas in the 1970s and beyond [2]. Although not discussed here, the importance of PDI phenomena has also been central to understanding anomalous absorption in laser-fusion experiments (ICF) [3]. In this review I shall discuss the fundamentals of nonlinear interactions among waves and particles, and in particular, their role in PDIs. This phenomenon is distinct from quasi-linear phenomena that are often invoked in calculating absorption of RF power in wave heating experiments in the core of magnetically confined plasmas [4]. Indeed, PDIs are most likely to occur in the edge of magnetized fusion plasmas where the electron temperature is modest and hence the oscillating quiver velocity of charged particles can be comparable to their thermal speeds. Specifically, I will review important aspects of PDI theory and give examples from past experiments in the ECH/EBW, lower hybrid (LHCD) and ICRF/IBW frequency regimes. Importantly, PDI is likely to play a fundamental role in determining the so-called “density limit” in lower hybrid experiments that has persisted over the decades and still central to understanding present day experiments [5-7].

  8. Measuring cognitive distortions in pathological gambling: review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodie, Adam S; Fortune, Erica E

    2013-09-01

    There is broad agreement that cognitive distortions are an integral component of the development, maintenance, and treatment of pathological gambling. There is no authoritative catalog of the distortions that are observed more frequently in pathological gamblers than in others, but several instruments have been successfully developed that measure various distortions of interest, which are reviewed. All of the prominent instruments include measures of the illusion of control (perceiving more personal control over events than is warranted), and almost all include measures of gambler's fallacy (the belief that after a string of one event, such as a coin landing heads, an alternative event, such as the coin landing tails, becomes more likely). Beyond these two errors, there is scant consensus on relevant errors, and a wide variety has been studied. Meta-analyses were conducted on differences between PGs and non-PGs in scores on six published instruments that were developed to measure distortions in gamblers. All instruments reveal large effects using Hedge's g statistic, suggesting that the impact of distortions on PG is robust. Several subscales, assigned diverse names by scale authors, can be viewed as reflecting common distortions. Those judged to assess gambler's fallacy show evidence of more robust effects sizes than those that assess illusion of control. It is recommended that future research focus more specifically on the impact of particular distortions on gambling disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Inclusion of equity in economic analyses of public health policies: systematic review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Anita; Moodie, Marjory; Peeters, Anna; Carter, Rob

    2017-09-12

    To assess current approaches to inclusion of equity in economic analysis of public health interventions and to recommend best approaches and future directions. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have used socioeconomic position (SEP) in cost-effectiveness analyses. Studies were identified using MedLine, EconLit and HEED and were evaluated based on their SEP specific inputs and methods of quantification of the health and financial inequalities. Twenty-nine relevant studies were identified. The majority of studies comparing two or more interventions left interpretation of the size of the health and financial inequality differences to the reader. Newer approaches include: i) use of health inequality measures to quantify health inequalities; ii) inclusion of financial impacts, such as out-of-pocket expenditures; and iii) use of equity weights. The challenge with these approaches is presenting results that policy makers can easily interpret. Using CEA techniques to generate new information about the health equity implications of alternative policy options has not been widely used, but should be considered to inform future decision making. Implications for public health: Inclusion of equity in economic analysis would facilitate a more nuanced comparison of interventions in relation to efficiency, equity and financial impact. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. The Small and the Dead: A Review of Ancient DNA Studies Analysing Micromammal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Roseina; Marr, Melissa M; Brace, Selina; Barnes, Ian

    2017-11-08

    The field of ancient DNA (aDNA) has recently been in a state of exponential growth, largely driven by the uptake of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques. Much of this work has focused on the mammalian megafauna and ancient humans, with comparatively less studies looking at micromammal fauna, despite the potential of these species in testing evolutionary, environmental and taxonomic theories. Several factors make micromammal fauna ideally suited for aDNA extraction and sequencing. Micromammal subfossil assemblages often include the large number of individuals appropriate for population level analyses, and, furthermore, the assemblages are frequently found in cave sites where the constant temperature and sheltered environment provide favourable conditions for DNA preservation. This review looks at studies that include the use of aDNA in molecular analysis of micromammal fauna, in order to examine the wide array of questions that can be answered in the study of small mammals using new palaeogenetic techniques. This study highlights the bias in current aDNA studies and assesses the future use of aDNA as a tool for the study of micromammal fauna.

  11. Inequality of obesity and socioeconomic factors in Iran: a systematic review and meta- analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and demographic factors, such as education, occupation, place of residence, gender, age, and marital status have been reported to be associated with obesity. We conducted a systematic review to summarize evidences on associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight in Iranian population. We systematically searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Iran-medex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We refined data for associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight by sex, age, province, and year. There were no limitations for time and languages. Based on our search strategy we found 151 records; of them 139 were from international databases and the remaining 12 were obtained from national databases. After removing duplicates, via the refining steps, only 119 articles were found related to our study domains. Extracted results were attributed to 146596 person/data from included studies. Increased ages, low educational levels, being married, residence in urban area, as well as female sex were clearly associated with obesity. RESULTS could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These also could be used for future complementary analyses.

  12. Affective judgment and physical activity in youth: review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuti, Gabriella; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2013-06-01

    A recent meta-analysis on affective judgment and physical activity in adults yielded a medium effect-sized relationship. Despite narrative reviews and topic interest, a meta-analysis in youth has not yet been conducted. This study aims to appraise the overall effect of affective judgment on physical activity in youth via meta-analyses and explore moderators of this relationship. Literature searches were conducted between 1990 and 2011. Fixed and random effects meta-analysis with correction for sampling, measurement, and publication bias were employed. Fifty-six correlational studies and 14 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Among correlational studies, the corrected summary r was 0.26 (95 % CI 0.18-0.32). Significant moderators were gender, measure of physical activity, and recruitment context. Among intervention studies, Cohen's d was 0.25 (95 % CI 0.11-0.40). The results are close to a medium effect size which is larger than other meta-analytic physical activity correlates among youth. The construct should be included in our contemporary theories for understanding and intervening upon youth physical activity.

  13. Review of Synthetically Focused Guided Wave Imaging Techniques With Application to Defect Sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J.; Simonetti, F.; Lowe, M.; Cawley, P.

    2006-03-01

    Synthetically focused imaging has been used for some time in the NDE community. The techniques have primarily been directed towards imaging using bulk waves. There has recently been use of SAFT (Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) using guided waves in plates. Here, we review three different synthetically focused imaging algorithms for a linear array aperture: CSM (Common Source Method), SAFT and TFM (Total Focusing Method). The resolution of the different techniques is obtained from scalar diffraction theory and then validated by means of a low frequency (50kHz) steel plate experiment using PZT excitation and laser reception of the A0 mode. Imaging of through thickness slits parallel to the array is then discussed.

  14. Guided waves based SHM systems for composites structural elements: statistical analyses finalized at probability of detection definition and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, E.; Memmolo, V.; Ricci, F.; Boffa, N. D.; Maio, L.

    2015-03-01

    Maintenance approaches based on sensorised structures and Structural Health Monitoring systems could represent one of the most promising innovations in the fields of aerostructures since many years, mostly when composites materials (fibers reinforced resins) are considered. Layered materials still suffer today of drastic reductions of maximum allowable stress values during the design phase as well as of costly and recurrent inspections during the life cycle phase that don't permit of completely exploit their structural and economic potentialities in today aircrafts. Those penalizing measures are necessary mainly to consider the presence of undetected hidden flaws within the layered sequence (delaminations) or in bonded areas (partial disbonding); in order to relax design and maintenance constraints a system based on sensors permanently installed on the structure to detect and locate eventual flaws can be considered (SHM system) once its effectiveness and reliability will be statistically demonstrated via a rigorous Probability Of Detection function definition and evaluation. This paper presents an experimental approach with a statistical procedure for the evaluation of detection threshold of a guided waves based SHM system oriented to delaminations detection on a typical wing composite layered panel. The experimental tests are mostly oriented to characterize the statistical distribution of measurements and damage metrics as well as to characterize the system detection capability using this approach. Numerically it is not possible to substitute part of the experimental tests aimed at POD where the noise in the system response is crucial. Results of experiments are presented in the paper and analyzed.

  15. A Systematic Review of Meta-analyses Published in Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Mark P; Apostolakos, John M; Voss, Andreas; DiVenere, Jessica; Arciero, Robert A; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether the number of meta-analyses published by Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery has increased from the inception of the Journal through 2014. A literature search of the Journal's Web site and Medline was carried out. All studies described as a "meta-analysis" as well as systematic reviews that pooled data were included. The number of published meta-analyses was calculated and summarized by year of publication, region, topic, and level of evidence. The Journal's Web site search resulted in 517 citations for review, and the Medline search resulted in 400. After the results of each search were combined and duplicates were removed, a total of 60 studies were included in this review. The first published meta-analysis appeared in 2001. Of the 60 meta-analyses, 36 (60%) were published between 2013 and 2014. In light of the increase in the number of publications, a review of the design and conduct of a meta-analysis is presented in a straightforward question-and-answer format. The number of meta-analyses appearing in Arthroscopy has increased over the past 2 decades. This increase highlights the importance of developing an understanding of the premise and components of a meta-analysis to allow the reader to critically appraise these studies. Level IV, systematic review of Level I through IV meta-analyses. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlating tephras and cryptotephras using glass compositional analyses and numerical and statistical methods: Review and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David J.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.; Jorgensen, Murray A.; Kuehn, Stephen C.; Tryon, Christian A.; Hayward, Chris L.

    2017-11-01

    We define tephras and cryptotephras and their components (mainly ash-sized particles of glass ± crystals in distal deposits) and summarize the basis of tephrochronology as a chronostratigraphic correlational and dating tool for palaeoenvironmental, geological, and archaeological research. We then document and appraise recent advances in analytical methods used to determine the major, minor, and trace elements of individual glass shards from tephra or cryptotephra deposits to aid their correlation and application. Protocols developed recently for the electron probe microanalysis of major elements in individual glass shards help to improve data quality and standardize reporting procedures. A narrow electron beam (diameter ∼3-5 μm) can now be used to analyze smaller glass shards than previously attainable. Reliable analyses of 'microshards' (defined here as glass shards relationship of such fractionation with glass composition suggests that analyses for some elements at these resolutions may be quantifiable. In undertaking analyses, either by microprobe or LA-ICP-MS, reference material data acquired using the same procedure, and preferably from the same analytical session, should be presented alongside new analytical data. In part 2 of the review, we describe, critically assess, and recommend ways in which tephras or cryptotephras can be correlated (in conjunction with other information) using numerical or statistical analyses of compositional data. Statistical methods provide a less subjective means of dealing with analytical data pertaining to tephra components (usually glass or crystals/phenocrysts) than heuristic alternatives. They enable a better understanding of relationships among the data from multiple viewpoints to be developed and help quantify the degree of uncertainty in establishing correlations. In common with other scientific hypothesis testing, it is easier to infer using such analysis that two or more tephras are different rather than the same

  17. [Court-ordered treatment: Analysing a complex practise through a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsat, M; Auffret, E; Brunetière, C; Decamps-Mini, D; Canet, J; Olié, J-P; Richard-Devantoy, S

    2015-10-01

    In France, there are two main types of court-ordered treatment (COT) as far as mental health is concerned: obligations of treatment and injunctions of treatment. Obligations of treatment date back from 1958 whereas the law implementing injunctions of treatment is fairly recent as it was passed in 1998. Obligations and injunctions of treatment are two different types of COT that differ in terms of proceedings (obligations of treatment require no preliminary forensic psychiatric assessment; as for injunctions of treatment, they require the appointment of a coordinating medical doctor) and that are applied for different offences. However, both are psychiatric commitment procedures connecting the judicial, medical and social fields and their overall numbers have been on the rise. These common psychiatric practices have seldom been assessed and no review of the literature on the subject has ever been published. Better knowledge of such forensic practices is essential to their improvement and even to adjust the legal framework of these measures that are enjoying a boom. The purpose of this literature review is to define the prevalence of COT as well as the sociodemographic, criminal and psychiatric characteristics of those concerned by such measures. A review of the French medical literature on COT was carried out using Science Direct up to December 2013. The results of seven studies were included and analysed. This was completed with a review of the articles listed in social sciences and law databases (Cairn and Dalloz). It has become increasingly frequent to rely on psychiatric teams to implement COT while at the same time public mental health services have to face a surge in activity with restricted financial means. Obligations of treatment are far more common (about 20,000 court orders a year) than injunctions of treatment (about 4000 measures are currently being enforced). However the latter have showed an increase of 506% over the 2000 decade. Both measures

  18. Rating the quality of evidence: the GRADE system in systematic reviews/meta-analyses of AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yuke; Wei, Xuequan; Duan, Lei; Wang, Wenge; Zhong, Zhenmei; Ming, Zhenhua; Zeng, Rong

    2015-08-01

    The method of systematic reviews/meta-analyses (SRs/MAs) has been widely used in acute kidney injury (AKI) studies. However, it is not quite clear about the quality of the evidence and existing problems. To grade the evidence quality of published SRs/MAs of AKI by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system, understand the current situation of evidence rating and analyze the possible problems. Researchers systematically searched for articles about SRs/MAs of AKI published in the following four Chinese databases and four English databases, including Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Internet Database, VIP Database, Pubmed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Totally, 81 SRs/MAs were included in this study and the overall quality of evidence was not satisfactory. The number of literatures of low and very low evidence quality was 33 (40.7%) and 41 (50.6%), respectively. Limitation was the main factor which caused the quality of research evidence degrading (92.6%), and other degradation factors were inconsistency (56.8%), publication bias (44.4%), indirectness (35.8%) and imprecision (32.1%). The quality of evidence for AKI has been significantly improved after the publication of the GRADE system in 2004. Since 2004 when the GRADE system was published, the quality of evidence of AKI has been increased clearly. But quality of AKI evidence of SRs/MAs for intervention is still not satisfactory. Limitation and inconsistency were two major factors leading to degradation.

  19. Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: a systematic review of meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolato B

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Bortolato,1 Kamilla W Miskowiak,2 Cristiano A Köhler,3 Eduard Vieta,4 André F Carvalho3 1Department of Mental Health, ULSS 10 “Veneto Orientale”, Venice, Italy; 2Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Translational Psychiatry Research Group and Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil; 4Bipolar Disorders Program, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Abstract: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD. A neurocognitive profile characterized by widespread cognitive deficits across multiple domains in the context of substantial intellectual impairment, which appears to antedate illness onset, is a replicated finding in SZ. There is no specific neuropsychological signature that can facilitate the diagnostic differentiation of SZ and BD, notwithstanding, neuropsychological deficits appear more severe in SZ. The literature in this field has provided contradictory results due to methodological differences across studies. Meta-analytic techniques may offer an opportunity to synthesize findings and to control for potential sources of heterogeneity. Here, we performed a systematic review of meta-analyses of neuropsychological findings in SZ and BD. While there is no conclusive evidence for progressive cognitive deterioration in either SZ or BD, some findings point to more severe cognitive deficits in patients with early illness onset across both disorders. A compromised pattern of cognitive functioning in individuals at familiar and/or clinical risk to psychosis as well as in first-degree relatives of BD patients suggests that early neurodevelopmental factors may play a role in the emergence of cognitive deficits in both disorders. Premorbid intellectual impairment in SZ and at least in a

  20. Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs, also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs, or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP have been designed by tobacco manufacturers to focus on the reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic components and toxicants in tobacco. However, some studies have pointed out that the new cigarette products may be actually more harmful than the conventional ones due to variations in puffing or post-puffing behavior, different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled toxic aerosols, and longer exposure conditions. In order to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke, it is essential for scientists, engineers and manufacturers to develop experiments, clinical investigations, and predictive numerical models for tracking the intake and deposition of toxicants of both LHCs and conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, to link inhaled toxicants to lung and other diseases, it is necessary to determine the physical mechanisms and parameters that have significant impacts on droplet/vapor transport and deposition. Complex mechanisms include droplet coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, vapor formation and changes in composition. Of interest are also different puffing behavior, smoke inlet conditions, subject geometries, and mass transfer of deposited material into systemic regions. This review article is intended to serve as an overview of contributions mainly published between 2009 and 2013, focusing on the potential health risks of toxicants in cigarette smoke, progress made in different approaches of impact analyses for inhaled toxic aerosols, as well as challenges and future directions.

  1. Stillbirth With Group B Streptococcus Disease Worldwide: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Anna C; Blencowe, Hannah; Bianchi-Jassir, Fiorella; Embleton, Nicholas; Bassat, Quique; Ordi, Jaume; Menéndez, Clara; Cutland, Clare; Briner, Carmen; Berkley, James A; Lawn, Joy E; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Gravett, Michael G; Heath, Paul T; Ip, Margaret; Le Doare, Kirsty; Rubens, Craig E; Saha, Samir K; Schrag, Stephanie; Meulen, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter; Vekemans, Johan; Madhi, Shabir A

    2017-11-06

    There are an estimated 2.6 million stillbirths each year, many of which are due to infections, especially in low- and middle-income contexts. This paper, the eighth in a series on the burden of group B streptococcal (GBS) disease, aims to estimate the percentage of stillbirths associated with GBS disease. We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, World Health Organization Library Information System, and Scopus) and sought unpublished data from investigator groups. Studies were included if they reported original data on stillbirths (predominantly ≥28 weeks' gestation or ≥1000 g, with GBS isolated from a sterile site) as a percentage of total stillbirths. We did meta-analyses to derive pooled estimates of the percentage of GBS-associated stillbirths, regionally and worldwide for recent datasets. We included 14 studies from any period, 5 with recent data (after 2000). There were no data from Asia. We estimated that 1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0-2%) of all stillbirths in developed countries and 4% (95% CI, 2%-6%) in Africa were associated with GBS. GBS is likely an important cause of stillbirth, especially in Africa. However, data are limited in terms of geographic spread, with no data from Asia, and cases worldwide are probably underestimated due to incomplete case ascertainment. More data, using standardized, systematic methods, are critical, particularly from low- and middle-income contexts where the highest burden of stillbirths occurs. These data are essential to inform interventions, such as maternal GBS vaccination.

  2. Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs), also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs), or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) have been designed by tobacco manufacturers to focus on the reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic components and toxicants in tobacco. However, some studies have pointed out that the new cigarette products may be actually more harmful than the conventional ones due to variations in puffing or post-puffing behavior, different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled toxic aerosols, and longer exposure conditions. In order to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke, it is essential for scientists, engineers and manufacturers to develop experiments, clinical investigations, and predictive numerical models for tracking the intake and deposition of toxicants of both LHCs and conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, to link inhaled toxicants to lung and other diseases, it is necessary to determine the physical mechanisms and parameters that have significant impacts on droplet/vapor transport and deposition. Complex mechanisms include droplet coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, vapor formation and changes in composition. Of interest are also different puffing behavior, smoke inlet conditions, subject geometries, and mass transfer of deposited material into systemic regions. This review article is intended to serve as an overview of contributions mainly published between 2009 and 2013, focusing on the potential health risks of toxicants in cigarette smoke, progress made in different approaches of impact analyses for inhaled toxic aerosols, as well as challenges and future directions. PMID:24065038

  3. Comparison of High, Intermediate, and Low Frequency Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urinary Tract Stone Disease: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong Hyuk; Cho, Kang Su; Ham, Won Sik; Lee, Hyungmin; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Choi, Young Deuk; Lee, Joo Yong

    2016-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the optimal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) frequency range for treating urinary stones, i.e., high-frequency (100-120 waves/minute), intermediate-frequency (80-90 waves/minute), and low-frequency (60-70 waves/minute) lithotripsy. Relevant RCTs were identified from electronic databases for meta-analysis of SWL success and complication rates. Using pairwise and network meta-analyses, comparisons were made by qualitative and quantitative syntheses. Outcome variables are provided as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen articles were included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis using pairwise and network meta-analyses. On pairwise meta-analyses, comparable inter-study heterogeneity was observed for the success rate. On network meta-analyses, the success rates of low- (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-2.6) and intermediate-frequency SWL (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3-4.6) were higher than high-frequency SWL. Forest plots from the network meta-analysis showed no significant differences in the success rate between low-frequency SWL versus intermediate-frequency SWL (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.51-1.7). There were no differences in complication rate across different SWL frequency ranges. By rank-probability testing, intermediate-frequency SWL was ranked highest for success rate, followed by low-frequency and high-frequency SWL. Low-frequency SWL was also ranked highest for low complication rate, with high- and intermediate-frequency SWL ranked lower. Intermediate- and low-frequency SWL have better treatment outcomes than high-frequency SWL when considering both efficacy and complication.

  4. Comparison of High, Intermediate, and Low Frequency Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urinary Tract Stone Disease: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyuk Kang

    Full Text Available To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to determine the optimal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL frequency range for treating urinary stones, i.e., high-frequency (100-120 waves/minute, intermediate-frequency (80-90 waves/minute, and low-frequency (60-70 waves/minute lithotripsy.Relevant RCTs were identified from electronic databases for meta-analysis of SWL success and complication rates. Using pairwise and network meta-analyses, comparisons were made by qualitative and quantitative syntheses. Outcome variables are provided as odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Thirteen articles were included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis using pairwise and network meta-analyses. On pairwise meta-analyses, comparable inter-study heterogeneity was observed for the success rate. On network meta-analyses, the success rates of low- (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-2.6 and intermediate-frequency SWL (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3-4.6 were higher than high-frequency SWL. Forest plots from the network meta-analysis showed no significant differences in the success rate between low-frequency SWL versus intermediate-frequency SWL (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.51-1.7. There were no differences in complication rate across different SWL frequency ranges. By rank-probability testing, intermediate-frequency SWL was ranked highest for success rate, followed by low-frequency and high-frequency SWL. Low-frequency SWL was also ranked highest for low complication rate, with high- and intermediate-frequency SWL ranked lower.Intermediate- and low-frequency SWL have better treatment outcomes than high-frequency SWL when considering both efficacy and complication.

  5. Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratou, Evropi; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Zgaga, Lina; Ioannidis, John P A

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the breadth, validity, and presence of biases of the associations of vitamin D with diverse outcomes. Umbrella review of the evidence across systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations and randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation. Medline, Embase, and screening of citations and references. Three types of studies were eligible for the umbrella review: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that examined observational associations between circulating vitamin D concentrations and any clinical outcome; and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials assessing supplementation with vitamin D or active compounds (both established and newer compounds of vitamin D). 107 systematic literature reviews and 74 meta-analyses of observational studies of plasma vitamin D concentrations and 87 meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation were identified. The relation between vitamin D and 137 outcomes has been explored, covering a wide range of skeletal, malignant, cardiovascular, autoimmune, infectious, metabolic, and other diseases. Ten outcomes were examined by both meta-analyses of observational studies and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials, but the direction of the effect and level of statistical significance was concordant only for birth weight (maternal vitamin D status or supplementation). On the basis of the available evidence, an association between vitamin D concentrations and birth weight, dental caries in children, maternal vitamin D concentrations at term, and parathyroid hormone concentrations in patients with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis is probable, but further studies and better designed trials are needed to draw firmer conclusions. In contrast to previous reports, evidence does not support the argument that vitamin D only supplementation increases bone mineral density or reduces the risk of

  6. Large Amplitude Whistler Waves and Electron Acceleration in the Earth's Radiation Belts: A Review of STEREO and Wind Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, Cynthia; Breneman, A.; Goetz, K.; Kellogg, P.; Kersten, K.; Wygant, J.; Wilson, L. B., III; Looper, Mark D.; Blake, J. Bernard; Roth, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the critical problems for understanding the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts is determining the physical processes that energize and scatter relativistic electrons. We review measurements from the Wind/Waves and STEREO S/Waves waveform capture instruments of large amplitude whistler-mode waves. These observations have provided strong evidence that large amplitude (100s mV/m) whistler-mode waves are common during magnetically active periods. The large amplitude whistlers have characteristics that are different from typical chorus. They are usually nondispersive and obliquely propagating, with a large longitudinal electric field and significant parallel electric field. We will also review comparisons of STEREO and Wind wave observations with SAMPEX observations of electron microbursts. Simulations show that the waves can result in energization by many MeV and/or scattering by large angles during a single wave packet encounter due to coherent, nonlinear processes including trapping. The experimental observations combined with simulations suggest that quasilinear theoretical models of electron energization and scattering via small-amplitude waves, with timescales of hours to days, may be inadequate for understanding radiation belt dynamics.

  7. The totally extraperitoneal method versus Lichtenstein's technique for inguinal hernia repair: a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomized clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G G Koning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lichtenstein's technique is considered the reference technique for inguinal hernia repair. Recent trials suggest that the totally extraperitoneal (TEP technique may lead to reduced proportions of chronic pain. A systematic review evaluating the benefits and harms of the TEP compared with Lichtenstein's technique is needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The review was performed according to the 'Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews'. Searches were conducted until January 2012. Patients with primary uni- or bilateral inguinal hernias were included. Only trials randomising patients to TEP and Lichtenstein were included. Bias evaluation and trial sequential analysis (TSA were performed. The error matrix was constructed to minimise the risk of systematic and random errors. Thirteen trials randomized 5404 patients. There was no significant effect of the TEP compared with the Lichtenstein on the number of patients with chronic pain in a random-effects model risk ratio (RR 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.61 to 1.04; p = 0.09. There was also no significant effect on number of patients with recurrences in a random-effects model (RR 1.41; 95% CI 0.72 to 2.78; p = 0.32 and the TEP technique may or may not be associated with less severe adverse events (random-effects model RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.12; p = 0.37. TSA showed that the required information size was far from being reached for patient important outcomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: TEP versus Lichtenstein for inguinal hernia repair has been evaluated by 13 trials with high risk of bias. The review with meta-analyses, TSA and error matrix approach shows no conclusive evidence of a difference between TEP and Lichtenstein on the primary outcomes chronic pain, recurrences, and severe adverse events.

  8. Linguistic and Structural Analyses of Stand-Alone Literature Reviews: Seventy-Five Years of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heidi Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to offer a multifaceted overview of stand-alone literature reviews. These texts, literature reviews published unattached to research articles, have existed for centuries but remained largely unstudied by linguists. Thus, the goal of this project is to present these reviews' situational, grammatical, and…

  9. Reporting and Handling Missing Outcome Data in Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…

  10. Recommendations for reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Trevor A.; Alabousi, Mostafa; Skidmore, Becky; Korevaar, Daniël A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Moher, David; Thombs, Brett; McInnes, Matthew D. F.

    2017-01-01

    This study is to perform a systematic review of existing guidance on quality of reporting and methodology for systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) in order to compile a list of potential items that might be included in a reporting guideline for such reviews: Preferred Reporting Items

  11. Effects of yoga on brain waves and structural activation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Radhika; Tailor, Anisha; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has shown the vast mental and physical health benefits associated with yoga. Yoga practice can be divided into subcategories that include posture-holding exercise (asana), breathing (pranayama, Kriya), and meditation (Sahaj) practice. Studies measuring mental health outcomes have shown decreases in anxiety, and increases in cognitive performance after yoga interventions. Similar studies have also shown cognitive advantages amongst yoga practitioners versus non-practitioners. The mental health and cognitive benefits of yoga are evident, but the physiological and structural changes in the brain that lead to this remain a topic that lacks consensus. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine and review existing literature on the effects of yoga on brain waves and structural changes and activation. After a narrowed search through a set of specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 articles were used in this review. It was concluded that breathing, meditation, and posture-based yoga increased overall brain wave activity. Increases in graygray matter along with increases in amygdala and frontal cortex activation were evident after a yoga intervention. Yoga practice may be an effective adjunctive treatment for a clinical and healthy aging population. Further research can examine the effects of specific branches of yoga on a designated clinical population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Uptake of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on individual participant data in clinical practice guidelines: descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vale, C.L.; Rydzewska, L.H.; Rovers, M.M.; Emberson, J.R.; Gueyffier, F.; Stewart, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the extent to which systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) are being used to inform the recommendations included in published clinical guidelines. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Database maintained by the Cochrane IPD Meta-analysis

  13. Uptake of systematic reviews and meta-analyses based on individual participant data in clinical practice guidelines: descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vale, Claire L.; Rydzewska, Larysa H. M.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; Emberson, Jonathan R.; Gueyffier, François; Stewart, Lesley A.; Alderson, P.; Askie, L.; Bennett, D.; Burdett, S.; Clarke, M.; Dias, S.; Emberson, J.; Gueyffier, F.; Iorio, A.; Macleod, M.; Mol, B. W.; Moons, C.; Parmar, M.; Perera, R.; Phillips, R.; Pignon, J. P.; Rees, J.; Reitsma, H.; Riley, R.; Rovers, M.; Rydzewska, L.; Schmid, C.; Shepperd, S.; Stenning, S.; Stewart, L.; Tierney, J.; Tudur Smith, C.; Vale, C.; Welge, J.; White, I.; Whiteley, W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish the extent to which systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) are being used to inform the recommendations included in published clinical guidelines. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING Database maintained by the Cochrane IPD Meta-analysis Methods

  14. Vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, and bone health in adults and elderly people: a systematic review with meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Doets, E.L.; Szczecinkska, A.; Souverein, O.W.; Duffy, M.E.; Dullemeijer, C.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Pietruszka, B.; Veer, van 't P.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 and folate levels have been associated with deteriorated bone health. This systematic literature review with dose-response meta-analyses summarizes the available scientific evidence on associations of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine status with

  15. Wave Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alikhani, Amir; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1998-01-01

    The data collected over the course of the experiment must be analysed and converted into a form suitable for its intended use. Type of analyses range from simple to sophisticated. Depending on the particular experiment and the needs of the researcher. In this study three main part of irregular wave...... data analyses are presented e.g. Time Domain (Statistical) Analyses, Frequency Domain (Spectral) Analyses and Wave Reflection Analyses. Random wave profile and definitions of representative waves, distributions of individual wave height and wave periods and spectra of sea waves are presented....

  16. A large-scale assessment of temporal trends in meta-analyses using systematic review reports from the Cochrane Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanshawe, Thomas R; Shaw, Luke F; Spence, Graeme T

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that many systematic reviews contain meta-analyses that display temporal trends, such as the first study's result being more extreme than later studies' or a drift in the pooled estimate. We assessed the extent and characteristics of temporal trends using all Cochrane intervention reports published 2008-2012. We selected the largest meta-analysis within each report and analysed trends using methods including a Z-test (first versus subsequent estimates); generalised least squares; and cumulative sum charts. Predictors considered include meta-analysis size and review group. Of 1288 meta-analyses containing at least 4 studies, the point estimate from the first study was more extreme and in the same direction as the pooled estimate in 738 (57%), with a statistically significant difference (first versus subsequent) in 165 (13%). Generalised least squares indicated trends in 717 (56%); 18% of fixed effects analyses had at least one violation of cumulative sum limits. For some methods, meta-analysis size was associated with temporal patterns and use of a random effects model, but there was no consistent association with review group. All results suggest that more meta-analyses demonstrate temporal patterns than would be expected by chance. Hence, assuming the standard meta-analysis model without temporal trend is sometimes inappropriate. Factors associated with trends are likely to be context specific. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A systematic literature review on reviews and meta-analyses of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Lunde, Anita; Johannessen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To provide an overview and evaluate the evidence of biologically based CAM-practices for cancer patients. Methods Pubmed, Social Science Citation Index, AMED and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for reviews on effects of biologically based CAM-practices, including herbal...... levels of evidence and were excluded from further evaluation. Among the 32 high-quality reviews the most reviewed practices were soy/plant hormones (7), Chinese herbal medicine (7), antioxidants (5) and mistletoe (4). Fifteen of the 32 reviews included data on the efficacy of biologically-based CAM...... or interference with treatment. Conclusions Thirty-two reviews provided reliable information on the evidence for biologically based CAM-practices for cancer or cancer related symptoms. None of the reviews concluded a positive effect on the cancer, despite the widespread use of these CAM-practices among cancer...

  18. Total disc replacement versus fusion for lumbar degenerative disc disease: a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fan; Jia, Zhiwei; Zhao, Zhigang; Xie, Lin; Gao, Xinfeng; Ma, Dezhang; Liu, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Although many meta-analyses have been performed to compare total disc replacement (TDR) and fusion for treating lumbar degenerative disc disease (LDDD), their findings are inconsistent. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses comparing TDR with fusion for treating LDDD, to assist decision makers in selection among conflicting meta-analyses, and to provide treatment recommendations based on the best available evidence. This study was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. Multiple databases were comprehensively searched for meta-analyses comparing TDR with fusion for treating LDDD. Meta-analyses only comprising randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two authors independently assessed meta-analysis quality and extracted data. The Jadad decision algorithm was used to ascertain which meta-analyses represented the best evidence. A total of five meta-analyses were included. All these studies only included RCTs were determined as Level-II evidence. The scores of Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) ranged from 6 to 9 (median 7). A high-quality Cochrane review was chosen according to the Jadad algorithm. This best available evidence found that statistical significances were observed between TDR and fusion for LDDD regarding disability, pain relief, and pain in the short term, but it was not over clinically important differences. The prevent effects on adjacent segment and facet joint degeneration, as the primary goal of adopting TDR stated by the manufacturers, were not appropriately evaluated. There is discord in results from meta-analyses that assessed TDR and fusion for LDDD. According to this systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses comparing TDR and fusion for LDDD, the current best available evidence suggests that TDR may be an effective technique for the treatment of selected patients with LDDD, and is at least equal to lumbar

  19. Detecting, quantifying and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analyses: protocol of a systematic review on methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Katharina Felicitas; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Briel, Matthias; Antes, Gerd; von Elm, Erik; Lang, Britta; Gloy, Viktoria; Motschall, Edith; Schwarzer, Guido; Bassler, Dirk

    2013-07-25

    Health professionals and policymakers aspire to make healthcare decisions based on the entire relevant research evidence. This, however, can rarely be achieved because a considerable amount of research findings are not published, especially in case of 'negative' results - a phenomenon widely recognized as publication bias. Different methods of detecting, quantifying and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analyses have been described in the literature, such as graphical approaches and formal statistical tests to detect publication bias, and statistical approaches to modify effect sizes to adjust a pooled estimate when the presence of publication bias is suspected. An up-to-date systematic review of the existing methods is lacking. The objectives of this systematic review are as follows:• To systematically review methodological articles which focus on non-publication of studies and to describe methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or adjusting for publication bias in meta-analyses.• To appraise strengths and weaknesses of methods, the resources they require, and the conditions under which the method could be used, based on findings of included studies.We will systematically search Web of Science, Medline, and the Cochrane Library for methodological articles that describe at least one method of detecting and/or quantifying and/or adjusting for publication bias in meta-analyses. A dedicated data extraction form is developed and pilot-tested. Working in teams of two, we will independently extract relevant information from each eligible article. As this will be a qualitative systematic review, data reporting will involve a descriptive summary. Results are expected to be publicly available in mid 2013. This systematic review together with the results of other systematic reviews of the OPEN project (To Overcome Failure to Publish Negative Findings) will serve as a basis for the development of future policies and guidelines regarding the assessment and

  20. Minimally invasive versus open surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture: a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Wang, Chuanying; Huo, Yanqing; Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiqian

    2016-06-06

    A number of meta-analyses have been carried out to evaluate the effects of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) versus open surgery (OS) for acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, discordant findings were seen in these meta-analyses. The present study, performing a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses regarding MIS versus OS of acute Achilles tendon rupture, aimed to assist decision-makers interpret and choose among conflicting meta-analyses, as well as to offer treatment recommendations based on current best evidence. The literature search was performed to identify systematic reviews comparing MIS with OS for Achilles tendon rupture. Meta-analyses only comprising randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Two authors individually evaluated the quality of meta-analysis and extracted data. The Jadad decision algorithm was conducted to ascertain which meta-analysis offered the best evidence. A total of four meta-analyses was included. All these meta-analyses comprised RCTs or quasi-RCTs and were determined as Level-II evidence. The scores of the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) ranged from 7 to 10 (median 9.5). The Jadad algorithm indicated that the best meta-analysis should be chosen according to the search strategies and application of selection. A high-quality meta-analysis with more RCTs was chosen, which suggested that there was no statistically significant difference between MIS and OS regarding rerupture rate, tissue adhesion, sural nerve injury, deep infection, and deep vein thrombosis. However, MIS could decrease superficial infection rate, and had a better patient satisfaction for good to excellent outcomes in comparison to OS. Based on the best available evidence, MIS may be superior to OS for treating acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, due to some limitations, this should be cautiously interpreted, and further high-quality studies are needed.

  1. Interpretive analysis of 85 systematic reviews suggests that narrative syntheses and meta-analyses are incommensurate in argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez-Torres, G J; O'Mara-Eves, A; Thomas, J; Brunton, G; Caird, J; Petticrew, M

    2017-03-01

    Using Toulmin's argumentation theory, we analysed the texts of systematic reviews in the area of workplace health promotion to explore differences in the modes of reasoning embedded in reports of narrative synthesis as compared with reports of meta-analysis. We used framework synthesis, grounded theory and cross-case analysis methods to analyse 85 systematic reviews addressing intervention effectiveness in workplace health promotion. Two core categories, or 'modes of reasoning', emerged to frame the contrast between narrative synthesis and meta-analysis: practical-configurational reasoning in narrative synthesis ('what is going on here? What picture emerges?') and inferential-predictive reasoning in meta-analysis ('does it work, and how well? Will it work again?'). Modes of reasoning examined quality and consistency of the included evidence differently. Meta-analyses clearly distinguished between warrant and claim, whereas narrative syntheses often presented joint warrant-claims. Narrative syntheses and meta-analyses represent different modes of reasoning. Systematic reviewers are likely to be addressing research questions in different ways with each method. It is important to consider narrative synthesis in its own right as a method and to develop specific quality criteria and understandings of how it is carried out, not merely as a complement to, or second-best option for, meta-analysis. © 2016 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Critical reading of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about diagnostic imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, M N; Zamora, J; Abraira, V

    2015-11-01

    Systematic reviews of diagnostic validity have been proposed as the best methodological tool to integrate all the available evidence and to help physicians decide whether to use a given diagnostic test. These studies aim to synthesize the results obtained in different primary studies into a couple of indices, generally sensitivity and specificity, or into a summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Although there is a certain parallelism with reviews about the efficacy of therapeutic interventions, reviews of diagnostic validity have certain peculiarities that add complexity to the analysis and interpretation of the results. This article emphasizes the methodological aspects that make it possible to critically assess the extent to which the results of a review of the validity of diagnostic tests are valid and provides rudimentary knowledge of the statistics necessary to understand the results. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Reference management software for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: an exploration of usage and usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Diane L; Ghali, William A

    2013-11-15

    Reference management software programs enable researchers to more easily organize and manage large volumes of references typically identified during the production of systematic reviews. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which authors are using reference management software to produce systematic reviews; identify which programs are used most frequently and rate their ease of use; and assess the degree to which software usage is documented in published studies. We reviewed the full text of systematic reviews published in core clinical journals indexed in ACP Journal Club from 2008 to November 2011 to determine the extent to which reference management software usage is reported in published reviews. We surveyed corresponding authors to verify and supplement information in published reports, and gather frequency and ease-of-use data on individual reference management programs. Of the 78 researchers who responded to our survey, 79.5% reported that they had used a reference management software package to prepare their review. Of these, 4.8% reported this usage in their published studies. EndNote, Reference Manager, and RefWorks were the programs of choice for more than 98% of authors who used this software. Comments with respect to ease-of-use issues focused on the integration of this software with other programs and computer interfaces, and the sharing of reference databases among researchers. Despite underreporting of use, reference management software is frequently adopted by authors of systematic reviews. The transparency, reproducibility and quality of systematic reviews may be enhanced through increased reporting of reference management software usage.

  4. Racecadotril for acute diarrhoea in children: systematic review and meta-analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Morris; Akobeng, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE\\ud Racecadotril is an antisecretory agent that can prevent fluid/electrolyte depletion from the bowel as a result of acute diarrhoea, without affecting intestinal motility. An up-to-date systematic review is indicated to summarise the evidence on Racecadotril for the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children.\\ud DESIGN\\ud A Cochrane format systematic review of Randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Data extraction and assessment of methodological quality were performed independently by...

  5. Reference management software for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: an exploration of usage and usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reference management software programs enable researchers to more easily organize and manage large volumes of references typically identified during the production of systematic reviews. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which authors are using reference management software to produce systematic reviews; identify which programs are used most frequently and rate their ease of use; and assess the degree to which software usage is documented in published studies. Methods We reviewed the full text of systematic reviews published in core clinical journals indexed in ACP Journal Club from 2008 to November 2011 to determine the extent to which reference management software usage is reported in published reviews. We surveyed corresponding authors to verify and supplement information in published reports, and gather frequency and ease-of-use data on individual reference management programs. Results Of the 78 researchers who responded to our survey, 79.5% reported that they had used a reference management software package to prepare their review. Of these, 4.8% reported this usage in their published studies. EndNote, Reference Manager, and RefWorks were the programs of choice for more than 98% of authors who used this software. Comments with respect to ease-of-use issues focused on the integration of this software with other programs and computer interfaces, and the sharing of reference databases among researchers. Conclusions Despite underreporting of use, reference management software is frequently adopted by authors of systematic reviews. The transparency, reproducibility and quality of systematic reviews may be enhanced through increased reporting of reference management software usage. PMID:24237877

  6. How Effective Are Active Videogames Among the Young and the Old? Adding Meta-analyses to Two Recent Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Riet, Jonathan; Crutzen, Rik; Lu, Amy Shirong

    2014-10-01

    Two recent systematic reviews have surveyed the existing evidence for the effectiveness of active videogames in children/adolescents and in elderly people. In the present study, effect sizes were added to these systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were performed. All reviewed studies were considered for inclusion in the meta-analyses, but only studies were included that investigated the effectiveness of active videogames, used an experimental design, and used actual health outcomes as the outcome measures (body mass index for children/adolescents [k=5] and functional balance for the elderly [k=6]). The average effect of active videogames in children and adolescents was small and nonsignificant: Hedges' g=0.20 (95 percent confidence interval, -0.08 to 0.48). Limited heterogeneity was observed, and no moderator analyses were performed. For the effect of active videogames on functional balance in the elderly, the analyses revealed a medium-sized and significant effect of g=0.68 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.13-1.24). For the elderly studies, substantial heterogeneity was observed. Moderator analyses showed that there were no significant effects of using a no-treatment control group versus an alternative treatment control group or of using games that were especially created for health-promotion purposes versus off-the-shelf games. Also, intervention duration and frequency, sample size, study quality, and dropout did not significantly moderate the effect of active videogames. The results of these meta-analyses provide preliminary evidence that active videogames can have positive effects on relevant outcome measures in children/adolescents and elderly individuals.

  7. Credibility and quality of meta-analyses addressing graft choice in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Adrian; Evaniew, Nathan; Yeung, Marco; Samuelsson, Kristian; Peterson, Devin; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2017-02-01

    This systematic review examined the methodological credibility and quality of reporting of all meta-analyses which have compared bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) versus hamstring tendon (HT) for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR). EMBASE, MEDLINE, and The Cochrane Library were systematically searched, and two reviewers independently assessed eligibility, credibility according to the Users' Guide to medical literature, and completeness of reporting according to the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analyses (PRISMA) checklist. Inter-rater agreement was quantified using Kappa, and we used Pearson's correlation coefficient to evaluate potential associations. Seventeen meta-analyses were identified comparing BPTB versus HT for ACLR. The majority of meta-analyses were published in 2011 (5; 29 %), and North America was the most common continent of publication (6; 35 %). The three most commonly reported outcomes were stability (82 %), complications (76 %), and function (return to sport, IKDC score) (71 %). The median number of satisfactorily reported items in the Users' Guide was three out of seven (IQR 2-4). The median number of satisfactorily reported items in PRISMA for the meta-analyses was 20 out of 27 (IQR 19-22). The credibility of the meta-analyses comparing BPTB versus HT autograft for ACLR although limited is improving with time. Earlier studies had limited methodological rigour; however, the more recent studies have shown promise in improved methodology. The study findings suggest that decisions should be made on a case-to-case basis with coordination of patient factors and preferences as well as surgeon experience on the background of the best available evidence. IV.

  8. Rossby Waves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    tut quiz Tutorial Quiz Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial reviews the mechanisms of Rossby waves. Rossby waves in both the northern and southern hemispheres are considered. The interactions involve answering simple fill-in-the-blank questions. Diagrams are used to illustrate some of the concepts reviewed. MR4322 Dynamic Meteorology

  9. Dose-related beneficial and harmful effects of gabapentin in postoperative pain management – post hoc analyses from a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabritius ML

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Louise Fabritius,1 Jørn Wetterslev,2 Ole Mathiesen,3 Jørgen B Dahl1 1Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Anaesthesiology, Zealand University Hospital, Køge, Denmark Background: During the last 15 years, gabapentin has become an established component of postoperative pain treatment. Gabapentin has been employed in a wide range of doses, but little is known about the optimal dose, providing the best balance between benefit and harm. This systematic review with meta-analyses aimed to explore the beneficial and harmful effects of various doses of gabapentin administered to surgical patients.Materials and methods: Data in this paper were derived from an original review, and the subgroup analyses were predefined in an International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews published protocol: PROSPERO (ID: CRD42013006538. The methods followed Cochrane guidelines. The Cochrane Library’s CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Google Scholar, and FDA database were searched for relevant trials. Randomized clinical trials comparing gabapentin versus placebo were included. Four different dose intervals were investigated: 0–350, 351–700, 701–1050, and >1050 mg. Primary co-outcomes were 24-hour morphine consumption and serious adverse events (SAEs, with emphasis put on trials with low risk of bias. Results: One hundred and twenty-two randomized clinical trials, with 8466 patients, were included. Sixteen were overall low risk of bias. No consistent increase in morphine-sparing effect was observed with increasing doses of gabapentin from the trials with low risk of bias. Analyzing all trials, the smallest and the highest dose subgroups demonstrated numerically the most prominent reduction in morphine consumption

  10. A Methodological Review of Piezoelectric Based Acoustic Wave Generation and Detection Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transducers have a long history of applications in nondestructive evaluation of material and structure integrity owing to their ability of transforming mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. As condition based maintenance has emerged as a valuable approach to enhancing continued aircraft airworthiness while reducing the life cycle cost, its enabling structural health monitoring (SHM technologies capable of providing on-demand diagnosis of the structure without interrupting the aircraft operation are attracting increasing R&D efforts. Piezoelectric transducers play an essential role in these endeavors. This paper is set forth to review a variety of ingenious ways in which piezoelectric transducers are used in today’s SHM technologies as a means of generation and/or detection of diagnostic acoustic waves.

  11. Review of radio wave for power transmission in medical applications with safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John; Geddis, Demetris; Kim, Jaehwan; Choi, Sang H.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Song, Kyo D.

    2015-04-01

    The integration of biosensors with radio frequency (RF) wireless power transmission devices is becoming popular, but there are challenges for implantable devices in medical applications. Integration and at the same time miniaturization of medical devices in a single embodiment are not trivial. The research reported herein, seeks to review possible effects of RF signals ranging from 900 MHz to 100 GHz on the human tissues and environment. Preliminary evaluation shows that radio waves selected for test have substantial influence on human tissues based on their dielectric properties. In the advancement of RF based biosensors, it is imperative to set up necessary guidelines that specify how to use RF power safely. In this paper, the dielectric properties of various human tissues will be used for estimation of influence within the selected RF frequency ranges.

  12. Review of FD-TD numerical modeling of electromagnetic wave scattering and radar cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflove, Allen; Umashankar, Korada R.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of the finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method for numerical modeling of electromagnetic wave interactions with structures are reviewed, concentrating on scattering and radar cross section (RCS). A number of two- and three-dimensional examples of FD-TD modeling of scattering and penetration are provided. The objects modeled range in nature from simple geometric shapes to extremely complex aerospace and biological systems. Rigorous analytical or experimental validatons are provided for the canonical shapes, and it is shown that FD-TD predictive data for near fields and RCS are in excellent agreement with the benchmark data. It is concluded that with continuing advances in FD-TD modeling theory for target features relevant to the RCS problems and in vector and concurrent supercomputer technology, it is likely that FD-TD numerical modeling will occupy an important place in RCS technology in the 1990s and beyond.

  13. Comment on: "Cell Therapy for Heart Disease: Trial Sequential Analyses of Two Cochrane Reviews"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellini, Greta; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Gluud, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Trial Sequential Analysis is a frequentist method to help researchers control the risks of random errors in meta-analyses (1). Fisher and colleagues used Trial Sequential Analysis on cell therapy for heart diseases (2). The present article discusses the usefulness of Trial Sequential Analysis...

  14. Biomarkers and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scassellati, Catia; Bonvicini, Cristian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether peripheral biochemical markers (biomarkers) might differentiate patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from non-ADHD individuals. Method: We conducted a systematic search and a series of meta-analyses of case-control studies comprising studies from 1969 to 2011. Results: We identified 210…

  15. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in coloproctology: interpretation and potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renehan, A.G.; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2008-01-01

    A systematic review (SR) is the unbiased appraisal of systematically identified relevant studies. Implicit in its definition is a robust and scientifically valid process, and when performed as such, SR is an important clinical research tool and influence in health policy decision-making. This edu......A systematic review (SR) is the unbiased appraisal of systematically identified relevant studies. Implicit in its definition is a robust and scientifically valid process, and when performed as such, SR is an important clinical research tool and influence in health policy decision...

  16. The Role of Diet and Lifestyle in Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Diabetes Prevention: A Review of Meta-Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Psaltopoulou, Theodora; ILIAS, Ioannis; Alevizaki, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of diabetes is crucial to lowering disease incidence, and thus minimizing the individual, familial, and public health burden. The purpose of this review is to gather current information from meta-analyses on dietary and lifestyle practices concerning reduction of risk to develop type 2 diabetes. Low glycemic index dietary patterns reduce both fasting blood glucose and glycated proteins independent of carbohydrate consumption. Diets rich in whole-grain, cereal high fiber products, a...

  17. Review of United Nations Environment Programme and Other Post-Conflict Environmental Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    natural resources. Many species are either on the brink of extinction or already extinct. For example, flamingos have not bred successfully in...reports reviewed. The evolution of the UNEP post-conflict assessment program shows a growing understanding of the importance of environmental and

  18. Use of DALYs in economic analyses on interventions for infectious diseases : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostvogels, A. J J M; De Wit, G. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/167546589; Jahn, B.; Cassini, A.; Colzani, E.; De Waure, C.; Kretzschmar, M. E E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075187981; Siebert, U.; Mühlberger, N.; Mangen, M. J J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217293964

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review was performed on full economic evaluations of infectious disease interventions using disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as outcome measure. The search was limited to the period between 1994 and September 2011 and conducted in Medline, SciSearch and EMBASE databases.

  19. Use of DALYs in economic analyses on interventions for infectious diseases: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostvogels, A. J. J. M.; de Wit, G. A.; Jahn, B.; Cassini, A.; Colzani, E.; de Waure, C.; Kretzschmar, M. E. E.; Siebert, U.; Mühlberger, N.; Mangen, M.-J. J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review was performed on full economic evaluations of infectious disease interventions using disability-adjusted life years (DALY) as outcome measure. The search was limited to the period between 1994 and September 2011 and conducted in Medline, SciSearch and EMBASE databases.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analyses of pharmacologic maintenance treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Schans, S.; Goossens, L.M.; Boland, M.R.; Kocks, J.; Postma, M.J.; Van Boven, J.F.; Rutten-van Mölken, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to systematically review recently published articles that reported the cost-effectiveness of COPD maintenance treatments, with a focus on key findings, quality, and methodological issues. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in EMBASE, Pubmed, UK-NHS (NHS-EED)

  1. A Systematic Review of Health Economic Analyses of Housing Improvement Interventions and Insecticide-Treated Bednets in the Home.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Pega

    Full Text Available Housing improvements have considerable potential for improving health. So does the provision of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria prevention. Therefore we aimed to conduct updated systematic reviews of health economic analyses in both these intervention domains.The search strategy included economic analyses of housing improvement interventions and use of insecticide-treated bednets for community-dwelling, healthy populations (published between 1 January 2000 and 15 April 2014. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and three health economics databases. Thirty-five economic analyses of seven types of intervention fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most included studies adopted a health sector perspective and were cost-effectiveness analyses using decision analytic modeling or conducted alongside trials. The overall quality of the studies was generally likely to be adequate for informing policy-making (albeit with limitations in some areas. There was fairly consistent evidence for the cost-effectiveness/favorable cost-benefit of removing indoor lead to prevent lead poisoning and sequelae, and retrofitting insulation to prevent lung disease. But the value of assessing and improving home safety and providing smoke alarms to prevent injuries was more mixed and the economic evidence was inconclusive or insufficient for: home ventilation to prevent lung disease, installing heaters to prevent lung disease and regulating tap water temperatures to prevent scalding. Few studies (n = 4 considered health equity. The 12 studies of providing insecticide-treated bednets or hammocks to prevent malaria found these interventions to be moderately to highly cost-effective.This systematic review provides updated evidence that several housing improvement interventions (such as removing indoor lead and retrofitting insulation and also the provision of insecticide-treated bednets are cost-effective interventions

  2. A Systematic Review of Health Economic Analyses of Housing Improvement Interventions and Insecticide-Treated Bednets in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank; Wilson, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background Housing improvements have considerable potential for improving health. So does the provision of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria prevention. Therefore we aimed to conduct updated systematic reviews of health economic analyses in both these intervention domains. Methods and findings The search strategy included economic analyses of housing improvement interventions and use of insecticide-treated bednets for community-dwelling, healthy populations (published between 1 January 2000 and 15 April 2014). We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and three health economics databases. Thirty-five economic analyses of seven types of intervention fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most included studies adopted a health sector perspective and were cost-effectiveness analyses using decision analytic modeling or conducted alongside trials. The overall quality of the studies was generally likely to be adequate for informing policy-making (albeit with limitations in some areas). There was fairly consistent evidence for the cost-effectiveness/favorable cost-benefit of removing indoor lead to prevent lead poisoning and sequelae, and retrofitting insulation to prevent lung disease. But the value of assessing and improving home safety and providing smoke alarms to prevent injuries was more mixed and the economic evidence was inconclusive or insufficient for: home ventilation to prevent lung disease, installing heaters to prevent lung disease and regulating tap water temperatures to prevent scalding. Few studies (n = 4) considered health equity. The 12 studies of providing insecticide-treated bednets or hammocks to prevent malaria found these interventions to be moderately to highly cost-effective. Conclusions This systematic review provides updated evidence that several housing improvement interventions (such as removing indoor lead and retrofitting insulation) and also the provision of insecticide-treated bednets are cost

  3. Psychometric Properties of "Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences": Review and Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Winifred; Toulopoulou, Timothea

    2016-01-01

    The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) has been used extensively as a measurement for psychosis proneness in clinical and research settings. However, no prior review and meta-analysis have comprehensively examined psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of CAPE scores across different studies. To study CAPE's internal reliability--ie, how well scale items correlate with one another--111 studies were reviewed. Of these, 18 reported unique internal reliability coefficients using data at hand, which were aggregated in a meta-analysis. Furthermore, to confirm the number and nature of factors tapped by CAPE, 17 factor analytic studies were reviewed and subjected to meta-analysis in cases of discrepancy. Results suggested that CAPE scores were psychometrically reliable--ie, scores obtained could be attributed to true score variance. Our review of factor analytic studies supported a 3-factor model for CAPE consisting of "Positive", "Negative", and "Depressive" subscales; and a tripartite structure for the Negative dimension consisting of "Social withdrawal", "Affective flattening", and "Avolition" subdimensions. Meta-analysis of factor analytic studies of the Positive dimension revealed a tridimensional structure consisting of "Bizarre experiences", "Delusional ideations", and "Perceptual anomalies". Information on reliability and validity of CAPE scores is important for ensuring accurate measurement of the psychosis proneness phenotype, which in turn facilitates early detection and intervention for psychotic disorders. Apart from enhancing the understanding of psychometric properties of CAPE scores, our review revealed questionable reporting practices possibly reflecting insufficient understanding regarding the significance of psychometric properties. We recommend increased focus on psychometrics in psychology programmes and clinical journals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric

  4. Psychometric Properties of “Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences”: Review and Meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Winifred; Toulopoulou, Timothea

    2016-01-01

    The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) has been used extensively as a measurement for psychosis proneness in clinical and research settings. However, no prior review and meta-analysis have comprehensively examined psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of CAPE scores across different studies. To study CAPE’s internal reliability—ie, how well scale items correlate with one another—111 studies were reviewed. Of these, 18 reported unique internal reliability coefficients using data at hand, which were aggregated in a meta-analysis. Furthermore, to confirm the number and nature of factors tapped by CAPE, 17 factor analytic studies were reviewed and subjected to meta-analysis in cases of discrepancy. Results suggested that CAPE scores were psychometrically reliable—ie, scores obtained could be attributed to true score variance. Our review of factor analytic studies supported a 3-factor model for CAPE consisting of “Positive”, “Negative”, and “Depressive” subscales; and a tripartite structure for the Negative dimension consisting of “Social withdrawal”, “Affective flattening”, and “Avolition” subdimensions. Meta-analysis of factor analytic studies of the Positive dimension revealed a tridimensional structure consisting of “Bizarre experiences”, “Delusional ideations”, and “Perceptual anomalies”. Information on reliability and validity of CAPE scores is important for ensuring accurate measurement of the psychosis proneness phenotype, which in turn facilitates early detection and intervention for psychotic disorders. Apart from enhancing the understanding of psychometric properties of CAPE scores, our review revealed questionable reporting practices possibly reflecting insufficient understanding regarding the significance of psychometric properties. We recommend increased focus on psychometrics in psychology programmes and clinical journals. PMID:26150674

  5. Effects of Exercise in the Treatment of Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Conduct a systematic review of previous meta-analyses addressing the effects of exercise in the treatment of overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled exercise trials that assessed adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents were included by searching nine electronic databases and cross-referencing from retrieved studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR Instrument. The alpha level for statistical significance was set at P≤0.05. Results. Of the 308 studies reviewed, two aggregate data meta-analyses representing 14 and 17 studies and 481 and 701 boys and girls met all eligibility criteria. Methodological quality was 64% and 73%. For both studies, statistically significant reductions in percent body fat were observed (P=0.006 and P<0.00001. The number-needed-to treat (NNT was 4 and 3 with an estimated 24.5 and 31.5 million overweight and obese children in the world potentially benefitting, 2.8 and 3.6 million in the US. No other measures of adiposity (BMI-related measures, body weight, and central obesity were statistically significant. Conclusions. Exercise is efficacious for reducing percent body fat in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Insufficient evidence exists to suggest that exercise reduces other measures of adiposity.

  6. Can pulses play a role in improving cardiometabolic health? Evidence from systematic reviews and meta‐analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguiliouk, Effie; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Kendall, Cyril W.C.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) present important unmet prevention and treatment challenges. Dietary pulses are sustainable, affordable, and nutrient‐dense foods that have shown a wide range of health benefits in the prevention and management of these conditions. Despite these findings, recommendations for pulse intake continue to vary across chronic disease guidelines, and intake levels continue to remain low. Here, we summarize findings from recent systematic reviews and meta‐analyses assessing the relationship between dietary pulse consumption and cardiometabolic health and assess the overall strength of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tool. We conclude that systematic reviews and meta‐analyses of prospective cohort studies assessing the relationship between legumes and the risk of coronary heart disease appear to provide moderate‐quality evidence of a benefit, and several systematic reviews and meta‐analyses of randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of pulses on cardiometabolic risk factors provide low‐ to moderate‐quality evidence of a benefit. There remains an urgent need, however, for more high‐quality prospective cohort studies and large, high‐quality, randomized trials to clarify the benefits of dietary pulses in the prevention and management of overweight/obesity, diabetes, and CVD. PMID:28253436

  7. Quality of meta-analyses in major leading gastroenterology and hepatology journals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Qiu, Yuanyu; Qian, Yuting; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Yiran; Cui, Jin; Zhai, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    To appraise the current reporting methodological quality of meta-analyses in five leading gastroenterology and hepatology journals, and to identify the variables associated with the reporting quality. We systematically searched the literature of meta-analyses in Gastroenterology, Gut, Hepatology, Journal of Hepatology (J HEPATOL) and American Journal of Gastroenterology (AM J GASTROENTEROL) from 2006 to 2008 and from 2012 to 2014. Characteristics were extracted based on the PRISMA statement and the AMSTAR tool. Country, number of patients, funding source were also revealed and descriptively reported. A total of 127 meta-analyses were enrolled in this study and were compared among journals, study years, and other characters. Compliances with the PRISMA statement and the AMSTAR checklist were 20.8 ± 4.2 out of a maximum of 27 and 7.6 ± 2.4 out of a maximum of 11, respectively. Some domains were poorly reported including describing a protocol and/or registration (item 5, 0.0%), describing methods, and giving results of additional analyses (item 16, 45.7% and item 23, 48.0%) for PRISMA and duplicating study selection and data extraction (item 2, 53.5%), and providing a list of included and excluded studies (item 5, 14.2%) for AMSTAR. Publication in recent years showed a significantly better methodological quality than those published in previous years. This study shows that methodological reporting quality of MAs in the major gastroenterology and hepatology journals has improved in recent years after the publication of the developed PRISMA statement, and it can be further improved. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Effects οf Yoga οn cancer patients: Secondary analysis οf Systematic Reviews/Meta-Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimos Mastrogiannis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Western medicine’s model has been enriched with alternative management and treatment methods. Yoga is a technique that incorporates physical exercises, breathing methods, meditation and relaxation which has been proposed to have positive effects on cancer patients. Aim: The aim of the present study is to critically review findings of systematic reviews/meta-analyses that are available in the international literature, regarding the effects of yoga on cancer patients. Methodology: Literature review was performed in five (5 databases: PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Database of systematic Reviews. Authors adopted the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis model in order to perform a critical review of the existing literature. Methodological assessment of papers under review was performed according to criteria of the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews instrument. Inclusion criteria were the English language, research undertaken in adults and evaluation of effects of yoga as the primary intervention. Results: Although there is a lack of guidelines regarding the assessment of systematic reviews using the above mentioned instruments, 16 papers were included in the present study. Findings are confounding, even though there is evidence supporting the use of yoga in certain types of cancer. Specifically, improvements in quality of life and psychological wellbeing, anxiety, however, not pain reduction, have been reported in women suffering from breast cancer, however, no statistically significant effect has been documented in patients with haematological malignancies. Conclusions: The majority of studies about the effects of yoga on quality of life, fatigue, sleep quality, anxiety, and depression have small samples. There is a trend towards an overall quality of life improvement, nonetheless, the lack of sufficiently powered randomized controlled trials prevents the extraction of a safe

  9. Value in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: A Systematic Review of Economic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Benjamin P; Ji, Yisi D; Peacock, Zachary S

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the state of economic analyses in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS). A systematic search of published literature up to 2016 was performed. The inclusion criteria were as follows: English-language articles on economic analyses pertaining to OMS including anesthesia and pain management; dentoalveolar surgery; orthognathic, cleft, and/or obstructive sleep apnea treatment; pathology; reconstruction; temporomandibular disorders; trauma; and other. The exclusion criteria were as follows: opinion or perspective articles, studies unrelated to OMS, nonhuman research, and implant-related studies. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs), cost-utility analyses, and cost-minimization analyses (CMAs) were evaluated with the original Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist or a modified CHEERS checklist. The search yielded 798 articles, 77 of which met the inclusion criteria (published from 1980 to 2016, 48 from the United States). There were an increasing number of studies over time (P for trend economic studies on anesthesia and pain management (9.1%); 16 studies on dentoalveolar surgery (20.7%); 15 studies on orthognathic, cleft, and/or obstructive sleep apnea treatment (19.4%); 1 study on pathology (1.3%); 6 studies on reconstruction (7.8%); no studies on temporomandibular joint disorders and/or facial pain (0%); 20 studies on trauma (25.9%); and 12 studies categorized as other (15.5%). CEAs made up 11.7% of studies, and CMAs comprised 58.4%. Of the 9 CEAs, 55.6% were published in 2010 or later. Of the 45 CMAs, 88.6% were published in 2000 or later and 61.4% in 2010 or later. CEAs met 56.0% (range, 29.2 to 87.5%) of the CHEERS criteria, whereas CMA studies met 45.1% (range, 23.9 to 76.1%) of the modified CHEERS criteria. Only 1 study succeeded in estimating costs and health outcomes (value) of an OMS procedure. There is an increasing trend in the number of economic studies in the

  10. Vaccines are different: A systematic review of budget impact analyses of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loze, Priscilla Magalhaes; Nasciben, Luciana Bertholim; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Itria, Alexander; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2017-05-15

    Several countries require manufacturers to present a budget impact analysis (BIA), together with a cost-effectiveness analysis, to support national funding requests. However, guidelines for conducting BIA of vaccines are scarce. To analyze the methodological approaches used in published budget impact analysis (BIA) of vaccines, discussing specific methodological issues related to vaccines. This systematic review of the literature on BIA of vaccines was carried out in accordance with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination - CRD guidelines. We searched multiple databases: MedLine, Embase, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS), Cochrane Library, DARE Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), HTA Database (via Centre for Reviews and Dissemination - CRD), and grey literature. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. The methodology quality of individual studies was assessed using the ISPOR 2012 Budget Impact Analysis Good Practice II Task Force. A qualitative narrative synthesis was conducted. Twenty-two studies were reviewed. The most frequently evaluated vaccines were pneumococcal (41%), influenza (23%) and rotavirus (18%). The target population was stated in 21 studies (95%) and the perspective was clear in 20 (91%). Only 36% reported the calculations used to complete the BIA, 27% informed the total and disaggregated costs for each time period, and 9% showed the change in resource use for each time period. More than half of the studies (55%, n=12) reported less than 50% of the items recommended in the checklist. The production of BIA of vaccines has increased from 2009. The report of the methodological steps was unsatisfactory, making it difficult to assess the validity of the results presented. Vaccines specific issues should be discussed in international guidelines for BIA of vaccines, to improve the quality of the studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimizing Mass Spectrometry Analyses: A Tailored Review on the Utility of Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Elizabeth S.; Oberg, Ann L.; Muddiman, David C.

    2016-05-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a tool that can analyze nearly all classes of molecules, with its scope rapidly expanding in the areas of post-translational modifications, MS instrumentation, and many others. Yet integration of novel analyte preparatory and purification methods with existing or novel mass spectrometers can introduce new challenges for MS sensitivity. The mechanisms that govern detection by MS are particularly complex and interdependent, including ionization efficiency, ion suppression, and transmission. Performance of both off-line and MS methods can be optimized separately or, when appropriate, simultaneously through statistical designs, broadly referred to as "design of experiments" (DOE). The following review provides a tutorial-like guide into the selection of DOE for MS experiments, the practices for modeling and optimization of response variables, and the available software tools that support DOE implementation in any laboratory. This review comes 3 years after the latest DOE review (Hibbert DB, 2012), which provided a comprehensive overview on the types of designs available and their statistical construction. Since that time, new classes of DOE, such as the definitive screening design, have emerged and new calls have been made for mass spectrometrists to adopt the practice. Rather than exhaustively cover all possible designs, we have highlighted the three most practical DOE classes available to mass spectrometrists. This review further differentiates itself by providing expert recommendations for experimental setup and defining DOE entirely in the context of three case-studies that highlight the utility of different designs to achieve different goals. A step-by-step tutorial is also provided.

  12. Where's the evidence? a systematic review of economic analyses of residential aged care infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Tiffany; Milte, Rachel; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2017-03-21

    Residential care infrastructure, in terms of the characteristics of the organisation (such as proprietary status, size, and location) and the physical environment, have been found to directly influence resident outcomes. This review aimed to summarise the existing literature of economic evaluations of residential care infrastructure. A systematic review of English language articles using AgeLine, CINAHL, Econlit, Informit (databases in Health; Business and Law; Social Sciences), Medline, ProQuest, Scopus, and Web of Science with retrieval up to 14 December 2015. The search strategy combined terms relating to nursing homes, economics, and older people. Full economic evaluations, partial economic evaluations, and randomised trials reporting more limited economic information, such as estimates of resource use or costs of interventions were included. Data was extracted using predefined data fields and synthesized in a narrative summary to address the stated review objective. Fourteen studies containing an economic component were identified. None of the identified studies attempted to systematically link costs and outcomes in the form of a cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, or cost-utility analysis. There was a wide variation in approaches taken for valuing the outcomes associated with differential residential care infrastructures: 8 studies utilized various clinical outcomes as proxies for the quality of care provided, and 2 focused on resident outcomes including agitation, quality of life, and the quality of care interactions. Only 2 studies included residents living with dementia. Robust economic evidence is needed to inform aged care facility design. Future research should focus on identifying appropriate and meaningful outcome measures that can be used at a service planning level, as well as the broader health benefits and cost-saving potential of different organisational and environmental characteristics in residential care. International Prospective Register of

  13. A critical review on the conversion degree of resin monomers by direct analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flávia Sanches BORGES; Chase, Melody Analia; Guggiar, Ana Liesel; González, María José; Andrade, Andreia Rodrigues de Sousa Ribeiro; Pascon, Fernanda Miori Pascon; ZANATTA, Antonio Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to carry out a review on the methods of direct detection of the conversion degree of composite resins. Materials & methods: The authors searched the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and the Web of Science (ISI) for papers dated from January 1991 to November 2011. The search was complemented by manual searches of the reference lists from each identified relevant paper. The main search terms were: “degree of conversion”, “monomer...

  14. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on non-skeletal disorders: a systematic review of meta-analyses and randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, Philippe; Mullie, Patrick; Macacu, Alina; Dragomir, Miruna; Boniol, Magali; Coppens, Kim; Pizot, Cécile; Boniol, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    Randomised trials reported up to Dec 31, 2012, did not confirm that vitamin D supplementation could protect from non-skeletal health conditions affecting adults, as was expected on the basis of data from observational studies. To examine whether the more recently published meta-analyses and trials would change past conclusions, we systematically reviewed meta-analyses of vitamin D supplementation and non-skeletal disorders published between Jan 1, 2013, and May 31, 2017, that included study participants of all ages, including pregnant women. We also searched for randomised trials not included in meta-analyses. We identified 87 meta-analyses, of which 52 were excluded because they contained less recent literature or were of suboptimal quality. We retrieved 202 articles on trials that were not included in meta-analyses. Recent meta-analyses reinforce the finding that 10-20 μg per day of vitamin D can reduce all-cause mortality and cancer mortality in middle-aged and older people. Although vitamin D doses were greater than those assessed in the past, we found no new evidence that supplementation could have an effect on most non-skeletal conditions, including cardiovascular disease, adiposity, glucose metabolism, mood disorders, muscular function, tuberculosis, and colorectal adenomas, or on maternal and perinatal conditions. New data on cancer outcomes were scarce. The compilation of results from 83 trials showed that vitamin D supplementation had no significant effect on biomarkers of systemic inflammation. The main new finding highlighted by this systematic review is that vitamin D supplementation might help to prevent common upper respiratory tract infections and asthma exacerbations. There remains little evidence to suggest that vitamin D supplementation has an effect on most conditions, including chronic inflammation, despite use of increased doses of vitamin D, strengthening the hypothesis that low vitamin D status is a consequence of ill health, rather than

  15. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ehealth interventions in somatic diseases: a systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Niels J; van Os-Medendorp, Harmieke; van Renselaar, Wilco; Ekeland, Anne G; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Raat, Hein; Nijsten, Tamar E C; Pasmans, Suzanne G M A

    2014-04-16

    eHealth potentially enhances quality of care and may reduce health care costs. However, a review of systematic reviews published in 2010 concluded that high-quality evidence on the benefits of eHealth interventions was still lacking. We conducted a systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the effectiveness/cost-effectiveness of eHealth interventions in patients with somatic diseases to analyze whether, and to what possible extent, the outcome of recent research supports or differs from previous conclusions. Literature searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and Scopus for systematic reviews and meta-analyses on eHealth interventions published between August 2009 and December 2012. Articles were screened for relevance based on preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. Citations of residual articles were screened for additional literature. Included papers were critically appraised using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement before data were extracted. Based on conclusions drawn by the authors of the included articles, reviews and meta-analyses were divided into 1 of 3 groups: suitable, promising, or limited evidence on effectiveness/cost-effectiveness. Cases of uncertainty were resolved by consensus discussion. Effect sizes were extracted from papers that included a meta-analysis. To compare our results with previous findings, a trend analysis was performed. Our literature searches yielded 31 eligible reviews, of which 20 (65%) reported on costs. Seven papers (23%) concluded that eHealth is effective/cost-effective, 13 (42%) underlined that evidence is promising, and others found limited or inconsistent proof. Methodological quality of the included reviews and meta-analyses was generally considered high. Trend analysis showed a considerable accumulation of literature on eHealth. However, a similar percentage of papers concluded that eHealth is effective/cost-effective or

  16. Racecadotril for acute diarrhoea in children: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Akobeng, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Racecadotril is an antisecretory agent that can prevent fluid/electrolyte depletion from the bowel as a result of acute diarrhoea without affecting intestinal motility. An up-to-date systematic review is indicated to summarise the evidence on racecadotril for the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children. A Cochrane format systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Data extraction and assessment of methodological quality were performed independently by two reviewers. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Children with acute diarrhoea, as defined by the primary studies. RCTs comparing racecadotril with placebo or other interventions. Duration of illness, stool output/volume and adverse events. Seven RCTs were included, five comparing racecadotril with placebo or no intervention, one with pectin/kaolin and one with loperamide. Moderate to high risk of bias was present in all studies. There was no significant difference in efficacy or adverse events between racecadotril and loperamide. A meta-analysis of three studies with 642 participants showed significantly shorter duration of symptoms with racecadotril compared with placebo (mean difference -53.48 h, 95% CI -65.64 to -41.33). A meta-analysis of five studies with 949 participants showed no significant difference in adverse events between racecadotril and placebo (risk ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.34). There is some evidence that racecadotril is more effective than placebo or no intervention in reducing the duration of illness and stool output in children with acute diarrhoea. However, the overall quality of the evidence is limited due to sparse data, heterogeneity and risk of bias. Racecadotril appears to be safe and well tolerated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Comparative clinical effectiveness of management strategies for sciatica: systematic review and network meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ruth A; Williams, Nefyn H; Sutton, Alex J; Burton, Kim; Din, Nafees Ud; Matar, Hosam E; Hendry, Maggie; Phillips, Ceri J; Nafees, Sadia; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Rickard, Ian; Wilkinson, Clare

    2015-06-01

    There are numerous treatment approaches for sciatica. Previous systematic reviews have not compared all these strategies together. To compare the clinical effectiveness of different treatment strategies for sciatica simultaneously. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. We searched 28 electronic databases and online trial registries, along with bibliographies of previous reviews for comparative studies evaluating any intervention to treat sciatica in adults, with outcome data on global effect or pain intensity. Network meta-analysis methods were used to simultaneously compare all treatment strategies and allow indirect comparisons of treatments between studies. The study was funded by the UK National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment program; there are no potential conflict of interests. We identified 122 relevant studies; 90 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs. Interventions were grouped into 21 treatment strategies. Internal and external validity of included studies was very low. For overall recovery as the outcome, compared with inactive control or conventional care, there was a statistically significant improvement following disc surgery, epidural injections, nonopioid analgesia, manipulation, and acupuncture. Traction, percutaneous discectomy, and exercise therapy were significantly inferior to epidural injections or surgery. For pain as the outcome, epidural injections and biological agents were significantly better than inactive control, but similar findings for disc surgery were not statistically significant. Biological agents were significantly better for pain reduction than bed rest, nonopioids, and opioids. Opioids, education/advice alone, bed rest, and percutaneous discectomy were inferior to most other treatment strategies; although these findings represented large effects, they were statistically equivocal. For the first time, many different treatment strategies for sciatica have been compared in the

  18. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Chronic Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Laura S; Clark, Jodi; Colclough, Janette A; Dale, Elizabeth; McMillan, Dean

    2017-06-01

    Chronic pain places a burden on individuals and the economy. Although there is evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy, it is recognized that the effects are limited. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), which aims to increase valued action in the presence of pain, has been suggested as an alternative approach. The objective of this review was to determine the clinical effectiveness of ACT for chronic pain in adults when compared with control conditions and other active treatments. The searches of this systematic review were conducted in the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), and PsycINFO. Grey literature, reference list, and reverse citation searches were also completed. Eleven trials were included. ACT was favored over controls (no alternative intervention or treatment as usual). Significant, medium to large effect sizes were found for measures of pain acceptance and psychological flexibility, which are typically considered processes of ACT. Significant small to medium effect sizes were found for measures of functioning, anxiety, and depression. Measures of pain intensity and quality of life were not significantly different than zero. Generally effect sizes were smaller at follow-up. ACT was more clinically effective than controls on a number of outcomes. It is possible that methodological limitations, some of which are common to psychological trials, may have led to overestimated effects. Only a few studies compared ACT to active treatments and while the evidence is promising for ACT in the treatment of chronic pain, further methodologically robust trials are required.

  19. Analysing the Sustainability of Urban Development: A review on the Potential Use of Volunteered Geographic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N.; Ujang, U.; Desa, G.; Ariffin, A.

    2015-10-01

    The challenges of how to ensure sustainable urban development are currently one of the important agenda among governments around the world. The stakeholders require the latest and high volume of geographic information for the decision making process to efficiently respond to challenges, improve service delivery to citizens, and plan a successful future of the city. However, it is time-consuming and costly to get the available information and some of the information is not up-to-date. Recently, GeoWeb 2.0 technological advances have increased the number of volunteers from non-professional citizen to contribute to the collection, sharing, and distribution of geographic information. The information known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has generated another approach of spatial data sources that can give up-to-date, huge volume of data, and available geographic information in a low cost for various applications. With this in mind, this paper presents a review of literature based on the potential use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in measuring sustainability of urban development. The review highlighted that social, economic, and environment as three pertinent pillars relating to the use of VGI for measurement sustainable urban development.

  20. Analysing the Sustainability of Urban Development: A review on the Potential Use of Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of how to ensure sustainable urban development are currently one of the important agenda among governments around the world. The stakeholders require the latest and high volume of geographic information for the decision making process to efficiently respond to challenges, improve service delivery to citizens, and plan a successful future of the city. However, it is time-consuming and costly to get the available information and some of the information is not up-to-date. Recently, GeoWeb 2.0 technological advances have increased the number of volunteers from non-professional citizen to contribute to the collection, sharing, and distribution of geographic information. The information known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI has generated another approach of spatial data sources that can give up-to-date, huge volume of data, and available geographic information in a low cost for various applications. With this in mind, this paper presents a review of literature based on the potential use of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI in measuring sustainability of urban development. The review highlighted that social, economic, and environment as three pertinent pillars relating to the use of VGI for measurement sustainable urban development.

  1. A review of multivariate analyses applied to healthy neurodevelopment in fetal, neonatal and pediatric MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob eLevman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate analysis (MVA is a class of statistical and pattern recognition techniques that involve the processing of data that contains multiple measurements per sample. MVA can be used to address a wide variety of neurological medical imaging related challenges including the evaluation of healthy brain development, the automated analysis of brain tissues and structures through image segmentation, evaluating the effects of genetic and environmental factors on brain development, evaluating sensory stimulation's relationship with functional brain activity and much more. Compared to adult imaging, pediatric, neonatal and fetal imaging have attracted less attention from MVA researchers, however, recent years have seen remarkable MVA research growth in pre-adult populations. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of the literature focusing on MVA applied to healthy subjects in fetal, neonatal and pediatric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain. While the results of this review demonstrate considerable interest from the scientific community in applications of MVA technologies in brain MRI, the field is still young and significant research growth will continue into the future.

  2. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan. Draft for Peer Review: Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  3. The effect of grinding on the mechanical behavior of Y-TZP ceramics: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G K R; Fraga, S; Montagner, A F; Soares, F Z M; Kleverlaan, C J; Valandro, L F

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to assess the effect of grinding on the mechanical properties, structural stability and superficial characteristics of Y-TZP ceramics. The MEDLINE via PubMed and Web of Science (ISI - Web of Knowledge) electronic databases were searched with included peer-reviewed publications in English language and with no publication year limit. From 342 potentially eligible studies, 73 were selected for full-text analysis, 30 were included in the systematic review with 20 considered in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. Statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1, with random effects model, at a significance level of 0.05. A descriptive analysis considering phase transformation, Y-TZP grain size, Vickers hardness, residual stress and aging of all included studies were executed. Four outcomes were considered in the meta-analyses (factor: grinding x as-sintered) in global and subgroups analyses (grinding tool, grit-size and cooling) for flexural strength and roughness (Ra) data. A significant difference (p<0.05) was observed in the global analysis for strength, favoring as-sintered; subgroup analyses revealed that different parameters lead to different effects on strength. In the global analysis for roughness, a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between conditions, favoring grinding; subgroup analyses revealed that different parameters also lead to different effects on roughness. High heterogeneity was found in some comparisons. Generally grinding promotes decrease in strength and increase in roughness of Y-TZP ceramics. However, the use of a grinding tool that allows greater accuracy of the movement (i.e. contra angle hand-pieces coupled to slowspeed turbines), small grit size (<50μm) and the use of plenty coolant seem to be the main factors to decrease the defect introduction and allow the occurrence of the

  4. Amplifying Each Patient's Voice: A Systematic Review of Multi-criteria Decision Analyses Involving Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Caro, J Jaime; Hamed, Alaa; Zaiser, Erica

    2017-04-01

    Qualitative methods tend to be used to incorporate patient preferences into healthcare decision making. However, for patient preferences to be given adequate consideration by decision makers they need to be quantified. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is one way to quantify and capture the patient voice. The objective of this review was to report on existing MCDAs involving patients to support the future use of MCDA to capture the patient voice. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched in June 2014 for English-language papers with no date restriction. The following search terms were used: 'multi-criteria decision*', 'multiple criteria decision*', 'MCDA', 'benefit risk assessment*', 'risk benefit assessment*', 'multicriteri* decision*', 'MCDM', 'multi-criteri* decision*'. Abstracts were included if they reported the application of MCDA to assess healthcare interventions where patients were the source of weights. Abstracts were excluded if they did not apply MCDA, such as discussions of how MCDA could be used; or did not evaluate healthcare interventions, such as MCDAs to assess the level of health need in a locality. Data were extracted on weighting method, variation in patient and expert preferences, and discussion on different weighting techniques. The review identified ten English-language studies that reported an MCDA to assess healthcare interventions and involved patients as a source of weights. These studies reported 12 applications of MCDA. Different methods of preference elicitation were employed: direct weighting in workshops; discrete choice experiment surveys; and the analytical hierarchy process using both workshops and surveys. There was significant heterogeneity in patient responses and differences between patients, who put greater weight on disease characteristics and treatment convenience, and experts, who put more weight on efficacy. The studies highlighted cognitive challenges associated with some weighting methods, though patients' views on their

  5. Author-paper affiliation network architecture influences the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cabanillas, Juan Luis; Ruano, Juan; Gomez-Garcia, Francisco; Alcalde-Mellado, Patricia; Gay-Mimbrera, Jesus; Aguilar-Luque, Macarena; Maestre-Lopez, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Padilla, Marcelino; Carmona-Fernandez, Pedro J; Velez Garcia-Nieto, Antonio; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Moderate-to-severe psoriasis is associated with significant comorbidity, an impaired quality of life, and increased medical costs, including those associated with treatments. Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of randomized clinical trials are considered two of the best approaches to the summarization of high-quality evidence. However, methodological bias can reduce the validity of conclusions from these types of studies and subsequently impair the quality of decision making. As co-authorship is among the most well-documented forms of research collaboration, the present study aimed to explore whether authors' collaboration methods might influence the methodological quality of SRs and MAs of psoriasis. Methodological quality was assessed by two raters who extracted information from full articles. After calculating total and per-item Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scores, reviews were classified as low (0-4), medium (5-8), or high (9-11) quality. Article metadata and journal-related bibliometric indices were also obtained. A total of 741 authors from 520 different institutions and 32 countries published 220 reviews that were classified as high (17.2%), moderate (55%), or low (27.7%) methodological quality. The high methodological quality subnetwork was larger but had a lower connection density than the low and moderate methodological quality subnetworks; specifically, the former contained relatively fewer nodes (authors and reviews), reviews by authors, and collaborators per author. Furthermore, the high methodological quality subnetwork was highly compartmentalized, with several modules representing few poorly interconnected communities. In conclusion, structural differences in author-paper affiliation network may influence the methodological quality of SRs and MAs on psoriasis. As the author-paper affiliation network structure affects study quality in this research field, authors who maintain an appropriate balance between

  6. Biomechanisms of Comorbidity: Reviewing Integrative Analyses of Multi-omics Datasets and Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouladi, N; Achour, I; Li, H; Berghout, J; Kenost, C; Gonzalez-Garay, M L; Lussier, Y A

    2016-11-10

    Disease comorbidity is a pervasive phenomenon impacting patients' health outcomes, disease management, and clinical decisions. This review presents past, current and future research directions leveraging both phenotypic and molecular information to uncover disease similarity underpinning the biology and etiology of disease comorbidity. We retrieved ~130 publications and retained 59, ranging from 2006 to 2015, that comprise a minimum number of five diseases and at least one type of biomolecule. We surveyed their methods, disease similarity metrics, and calculation of comorbidities in the electronic health records, if present. Among the surveyed studies, 44% generated or validated disease similarity metrics in context of comorbidity, with 60% being published in the last two years. As inputs, 87% of studies utilized intragenic loci and proteins while 13% employed RNA (mRNA, LncRNA or miRNA). Network modeling was predominantly used (35%) followed by statistics (28%) to impute similarity between these biomolecules and diseases. Studies with large numbers of biomolecules and diseases used network models or naïve overlap of disease-molecule associations, while machine learning, statistics, and information retrieval were utilized in smaller and moderate sized studies. Multiscale computations comprising shared function, network topology, and phenotypes were performed exclusively on proteins. This review highlighted the growing methods for identifying the molecular mechanisms underpinning comorbidities that leverage multiscale molecular information and patterns from electronic health records. The survey unveiled that intergenic polymorphisms have been overlooked for similarity imputation compared to their intragenic counterparts, offering new opportunities to bridge the mechanistic and similarity gaps of comorbidity.

  7. Circulating biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease risk; a systematic review and comprehensive overview of meta-analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs C van Holten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease is an important aspect in clinical decision making and setting a therapeutic strategy, and the use of serological biomarkers may improve this. Despite an overwhelming number of studies and meta-analyses on biomarkers and cardiovascular disease, there are no comprehensive studies comparing the relevance of each biomarker. We performed a systematic review of meta-analyses on levels of serological biomarkers for atherothrombosis to compare the relevance of the most commonly studied biomarkers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Medline and Embase were screened on search terms that were related to "arterial ischemic events" and "meta-analyses". The meta-analyses were sorted by patient groups without pre-existing cardiovascular disease, with cardiovascular disease and heterogeneous groups concerning general populations, groups with and without cardiovascular disease, or miscellaneous. These were subsequently sorted by end-point for cardiovascular disease or stroke and summarized in tables. We have identified 85 relevant full text articles, with 214 meta-analyses. Markers for primary cardiovascular events include, from high to low result: C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, the apolipoprotein A/apolipoprotein B ratio, high density lipoprotein, and vitamin D. Markers for secondary cardiovascular events include, from high to low result: cardiac troponins I and T, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, and cystatin C. For primary stroke, fibrinogen and serum uric acid are strong risk markers. Limitations reside in that there is no acknowledged search strategy for prognostic studies or meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: For primary cardiovascular events, markers with strong predictive potential are mainly associated with lipids. For secondary cardiovascular events, markers are more associated with ischemia. Fibrinogen is a

  8. Assessment of the quality of reporting in abstracts of systematic reviews with meta-analyses in periodontology and implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, C M; Liu, J; Huda, F; Atieh, M

    2014-04-01

    Proper scientific reporting is necessary to ensure the correct interpretation of study results by readers. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of reporting in abstracts of systematic reviews (SRs) with meta-analyses in periodontology and implant dentistry. Differences in reporting of abstracts in Cochrane and paper-based reviews were also assessed. The PubMed electronic database and the Cochrane database for SRs were searched on November 11, 2012, independently and in duplicate, for SRs with meta-analyses related to interventions in periodontology and implant dentistry. Assessment of the quality of reporting was performed independently and in duplicate, taking into account items related to the effect direction, numerical estimates of effect size, measures of precision, probability and consistency. We initially screened 433 papers and included 146 (127 paper-based and 19 Cochrane reviews, respectively). The direction of evidence was reported in two-thirds of the abstracts while strength of evidence and measure of precision (i.e., confidence interval) were reported in less than half the selected abstracts. Measures of consistency such as I(2) statistics were reported in only 5% of the selected sample of abstracts. Cochrane abstracts reported the limitations of evidence and precision better than paper-based ones. Two items ("meta-analysis" in title and abstract, respectively), were nevertheless better reported in paper-based abstracts. Abstracts of SRs with meta-analyses in periodontology and implant dentistry currently have no uniform standard of reporting, which may hinder readers' understanding of study outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Preterm Birth Associated With Group B Streptococcus Maternal Colonization Worldwide: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Jassir, Fiorella; Seale, Anna C; Kohli-Lynch, Maya; Lawn, Joy E; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Heath, Paul T; Ip, Margaret; Le Doare, Kirsty; Madhi, Shabir A; Saha, Samir K; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Rubens, Craig E

    2017-11-06

    Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of deaths among children preterm delivery. This article is the fifth of 11 in a series. We aimed to assess the association between GBS maternal colonization and preterm birth in order to inform estimates of the burden of GBS. We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data from investigator groups on the association of preterm birth (preterm birth with maternal GBS colonization to be 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], .99-1.48; P = .061) in cohort and cross-sectional studies, and the odds ratio to be 1.85 (95% CI, 1.24-2.77; P = .003) in case-control studies. Preterm birth was associated with GBS bacteriuria in cohort studies (RR, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.45-2.69]; P preterm birth is associated with maternal GBS colonization, especially where there is evidence of ascending infection (bacteriuria). Several biases reduce the chance of detecting an effect. Equally, however, results, including evidence for the association, may be due to confounding, which is rarely addressed in studies. Assessment of any effect on preterm delivery should be included in future maternal GBS vaccine trials.

  10. Extracting physics of life at the molecular level: A review of single-molecule data analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, Warren; Sarkar, Susanta K

    2015-06-01

    Studying individual biomolecules at the single-molecule level has proved very insightful recently. Single-molecule experiments allow us to probe both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties as well as make quantitative connections with ensemble experiments and equilibrium thermodynamics. However, it is important to be careful about the analysis of single-molecule data because of the noise present and the lack of theoretical framework for processes far away from equilibrium. Biomolecular motion, whether it is free in solution, on a substrate, or under force, involves thermal fluctuations in varying degrees, which makes the motion noisy. In addition, the noise from the experimental setup makes it even more complex. The details of biologically relevant interactions, conformational dynamics, and activities are hidden in the noisy single-molecule data. As such, extracting biological insights from noisy data is still an active area of research. In this review, we will focus on analyzing both fluorescence-based and force-based single-molecule experiments and gaining biological insights at the single-molecule level. Inherently nonequilibrium nature of biological processes will be highlighted. Simulated trajectories of biomolecular diffusion will be used to compare and validate various analysis techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A systematic review of instrumental variable analyses using geographic region as an instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertosick, Emily A; Assel, Melissa; Vickers, Andrew J

    2017-10-13

    Instrumental variables analysis is a methodology to mitigate the effects of measured and unmeasured confounding in observational studies of treatment effects. Geographic area is increasingly used as an instrument. We conducted a literature review to determine the properties of geographic area in studies of cancer treatments. We identified cancer studies performed in the United States which incorporated instrumental variable analysis with area-wide treatment rate within a geographic region as the instrument. We assessed the degree of treatment variability between geographic regions, assessed balance of measured confounders afforded by geographic area and compared the results of instrumental variable analysis to those of multivariable methods. Geographic region as an instrument was relatively common, with 22 eligible studies identified, many of which were published in high-impact journals. Treatment rates did not vary greatly by geographic region. Covariates were not balanced by the instrument in the majority of studies. Eight out of eleven studies found statistically significant effects of treatment on multivariable analysis but not for instrumental variables, with the central estimates of the instrumental variables analysis generally being closer to the null. We recommend caution and an investigation of IV assumptions when considering the use of geographic region as an instrument in observational studies of cancer treatments. The value of geographic region as an instrument should be critically evaluated in other areas of medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysing Psychosocial Difficulties in Depression: A Content Comparison between Systematic Literature Review and Patient Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan Kamenov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all the knowledge on depression, it is still unclear whether current literature covers all the psychosocial difficulties (PSDs important for depressed patients. The aim of the present study was to identify the gaps in the recent literature concerning PSDs and their related variables. Psychosocial difficulties were defined according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. A comparative approach between a systematic literature review, a focus group, and individual interviews with depressed patients was used. Literature reported the main psychosocial difficulties almost fully, but not in the same degree of importance as patients’ reports. Furthermore, the covered areas were very general and related to symptomatology. Regarding the related variables, literature focused on clinical variables and treatments above all but did not report that many psychosocial difficulties influence other PSDs. This study identified many existing research gaps in recent literature mainly in the area of related variables of PSDs. Future steps in this direction are needed. Moreover, we suggest that clinicians select interventions covering not only symptoms, but also PSDs and their modifiable related variables. Furthermore, identification of interventions for particular psychosocial difficulties and personalisation of therapies according to individuals’ PSDs are necessary.

  13. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  14. Recent developments in capabilities for analysing chlorinated paraffins in environmental matrices: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Louise M; Leonards, Pim E G; Gaus, Caroline; de Boer, Jacob

    2015-10-01

    Concerns about the high production volumes, persistency, bioaccumulation potential and toxicity of chlorinated paraffin (CP) mixtures, especially short-chain CPs (SCCPs), are rising. However, information on their levels and fate in the environment is still insufficient, impeding international classifications and regulations. This knowledge gap is mainly due to the difficulties that arise with CP analysis, in particular the chromatographic separation within CPs and between CPs and other compounds. No fully validated routine analytical method is available yet and only semi-quantitative analysis is possible, although the number of studies reporting new and improved methods have rapidly increased since 2010. Better cleanup procedures that remove interfering compounds, and new instrumental techniques, which distinguish between medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) and SCCPs, have been developed. While gas chromatography coupled to an electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) remains the most commonly applied technique, novel and promising use of high resolution time of flight MS (TOF-MS) has also been reported. We expect that recent developments in high resolution TOF-MS and Orbitrap technologies will further improve the detection of CPs, including long-chain CPs (LCCPs), and the group separation and quantification of CP homologues. Also, new CP quantification methods have emerged, including the use of mathematical algorithms, multiple linear regression and principal component analysis. These quantification advancements are also reflected in considerably improved interlaboratory agreements since 2010. Analysis of lower chlorinated paraffins (analysing these homologues are needed. Furthermore, suitable quantification standards would facilitate improving the quality of CP analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tacrolimus versus cyclosporine as primary immunosuppression after heart transplantation: systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Møller, Christian H; Gustafsson, Finn

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials to compare the benefits and harms of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine as primary immunosuppression after heart transplantation.......We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials to compare the benefits and harms of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine as primary immunosuppression after heart transplantation....

  16. Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Stephen Franklin; Redsell, Sarah A; Swift, Judy A; Yang, Min; Glazebrook, Cristine P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine risk factors for childhood overweight that can be identified during the first year of life to facilitate early identification and targeted intervention. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Search strategy Electronic database search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and CAB Abstracts. Eligibility criteria Prospective observational studies following up children from birth for at least 2 years. Results Thirty prospective studies were identified. Significant and strong independent associations with childhood overweight were identified for maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, high infant birth weight and rapid weight gain during the first year of life. Meta-analysis comparing breastfed with non-breastfed infants found a 15% decrease (95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; I2=73.3%; n=10) in the odds of childhood overweight. For children of mothers smoking during pregnancy there was a 47% increase (95% CI 1.26 to 1.73; I2=47.5%; n=7) in the odds of childhood overweight. There was some evidence associating early introduction of solid foods and childhood overweight. There was conflicting evidence for duration of breastfeeding, socioeconomic status at birth, parity and maternal marital status at birth. No association with childhood overweight was found for maternal age or education at birth, maternal depression or infant ethnicity. There was inconclusive evidence for delivery type, gestational weight gain, maternal postpartum weight loss and ‘fussy’ infant temperament due to the limited number of studies. Conclusions Several risk factors for both overweight and obesity in childhood are identifiable during infancy. Future research needs to focus on whether it is clinically feasible for healthcare professionals to identify infants at greatest risk. PMID:23109090

  17. Animal models of bone cancer pain: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Gillian L; Delaney, Ada; Bennett, Michael I; Dickenson, Anthony H; Egan, Kieren J; Vesterinen, Hanna M; Sena, Emily S; Macleod, Malcolm R; Colvin, Lesley A; Fallon, Marie T

    2013-06-01

    Pain can significantly decrease the quality of life of patients with advanced cancer. Current treatment strategies often provide inadequate analgesia and unacceptable side effects. Animal models of bone cancer pain are used in the development of novel pharmacological approaches. Here we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of publications describing in vivo modelling of bone cancer pain in which behavioural, general health, macroscopic, histological, biochemical, or electrophysiological outcomes were reported and compared to appropriate controls. In all, 150 publications met our inclusion criteria, describing 38 different models of bone cancer pain. Reported methodological quality was low; only 31% of publications reported blinded assessment of outcome, and 11% reported random allocation to group. No publication reported a sample size calculation. Studies that reported measures to reduce bias reported smaller differences in behavioural outcomes between tumour-bearing and control animals, and studies that presented a statement regarding a conflict of interest reported larger differences in behavioural outcomes. Larger differences in behavioural outcomes were reported in female animals, when cancer cells were injected into either the tibia or femur, and when MatLyLu prostate or Lewis Lung cancer cells were used. Mechanical-evoked pain behaviours were most commonly reported; however, the largest difference was observed in spontaneous pain behaviours. In the spinal cord astrocyte activation and increased levels of Substance P receptor internalisation, c-Fos, dynorphin, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β have been reported in bone cancer pain models, suggesting several potential therapeutic targets. However, the translational impact of animal models on clinical pain research could be enhanced by improving methodological quality. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A systematic review of surface electromyography analyses of the bench press movement task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Petr; Gołaś, Artur; Blazek, Dusan; Maszczyk, Adam; Wilk, Michał; Pietraszewski, Przemysław; Petr, Miroslav; Uhlir, Petr; Zając, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The bench press exercise (BP) plays an important role in recreational and professional training, in which muscle activity is an important multifactorial phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to systematically review electromyography (EMG) studies performed on the barbell BP exercise to answer the following research questions: Which muscles show the greatest activity during the flat BP? Which changes in muscle activity are related to specific conditions under which the BP movement is performed? PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched through June 10, 2016. A combination of the following search terms was used: bench press, chest press, board press, test, measure, assessment, dynamometer, kinematics and biomechanics. Only original, full-text articles were considered. The search process resulted in 14 relevant studies that were included in the discussion. The triceps brachii (TB) and pectoralis major (PM) muscles were found to have similar activity during the BP, which was significantly higher than the activity of the anterior deltoid. During the BP movement, muscle activity changes with exercise intensity, velocity of movement, fatigue, mental focus, movement phase and stability conditions, such as bar vibration or unstable surfaces. Under these circumstances, TB is the most common object of activity change. PM and TB EMG activity is more dominant and shows greater EMG amplitude than anterior deltoid during the BP. There are six factors that can influence muscle activity during the BP; however, the most important factor is exercise intensity, which interacts with all other factors. The research on muscle activity in the BP has several unresolved areas, such as clearly and strongly defined guidelines to perform EMG measurements (e.g., how to elaborate with surface EMG limits) or guidelines for the use of exact muscle models.

  19. On the origin of medium-period ionospheric waves and their possible modelling: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zolesi

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the concept of ionospheric waves with periods from about 15 min to about 4 h as one of the acoustic-gravity wave-induced phenomena. The existence of these medium-period ionospheric waves in the various ionospheric layers is supported by the results of a data analysis which has shown remarkable characteristics in occurrence and direction of the waves with a period not longer than about 2 h. The explanation offered is based on the assumption that a unique phenomenon capable to launch acoustic-gravity waves related to such ionospheric waves is the sudden change in physical conditions of the atmosphere due to the passage of the solar terminator.

  20. A journey into a Mediterranean diet and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Katherine; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Chiodini, Paolo; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Giugliano, Dario

    2015-08-10

    To summarise the evidence about the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet on the management of type 2 diabetes and prediabetic states. A systematic review of all meta-analyses and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the Mediterranean diet with a control diet on the treatment of type 2 diabetes and prediabetic states was conducted. Electronic searches were carried out up to January 2015. Trials were included for meta-analyses if they had a control group treated with another diet, if they were of sufficient duration (at least 6 months), and if they had at least 30 participants in each arm. A random-effect model was used to pool data. Adults with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. Dietary patterns that described themselves as using a 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern. The outcomes were glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and remission from the metabolic syndrome. From 2824 studies, 8 meta-analyses and 5 RCTs were eligible. A 'de novo' meta-analysis of 3 long-term (>6 months) RCTs of the Mediterranean diet and glycaemic control of diabetes favoured the Mediterranean diet as compared with lower fat diets. Another 'de novo' meta-analysis of two long-term RCTs showed a 49% increased probability of remission from the metabolic syndrome. 5 meta-analyses showed a favourable effect of the Mediterranean diet, as compared with other diets, on body weight, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. 2 meta-analyses demonstrated that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduced the risk of future diabetes by 19-23%. The Mediterranean diet was associated with better glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors than control diets, including a lower fat diet, suggesting that it is suitable for the overall management of type 2 diabetes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD with mild symptoms: a systematic review with meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugbjerg M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mette Rugbjerg,1 Ulrik Winning Iepsen,1 Karsten Juhl Jørgensen,2 Peter Lange1,3,4 1The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism and The Centre for Physical Activity Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Department of Public Health, Section of Social Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Most guidelines recommend pulmonary rehabilitation (PR for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC levels ≥2, but the effectiveness of PR in patients with less advanced disease is not well established. Our aim was to investigate the effects of PR in patients with COPD and mMRC ≤1.Methods: The methodology was developed as a part of evidence-based guideline development and is in accordance with the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE Working Group. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs through a systematic, multidatabase literature search and selected RCTs comparing the effects of PR with usual care in patients with COPD and mMRC ≤1. Predefined critical outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQoL, adverse effects and mortality, while walking distance, maximal exercise capacity, muscle strength, and dropouts were important outcomes. Two authors independently extracted data, assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and graded the evidence. Meta-analyses were performed when deemed feasible.Results: Four RCTs (489 participants were included. On the basis of moderate-quality evidence, we found a clinically and statistically significant improvement in short-term HRQoL of 4.2 units (95% confidence interval [CI]: [-4.51 to -3.89] on St George’s Respiratory

  2. Internet-Delivered Health Interventions That Work: Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses and Evaluation of Website Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary Am; Lemmen, Kelsey; Kramer, Rachel; Mann, Jason; Chopra, Vineet

    2017-03-24

    Due to easy access and low cost, Internet-delivered therapies offer an attractive alternative to improving health. Although numerous websites contain health-related information, finding evidence-based programs (as demonstrated through randomized controlled trials, RCTs) can be challenging. We sought to bridge the divide between the knowledge gained from RCTs and communication of the results by conducting a global systematic review and analyzing the availability of evidence-based Internet health programs. The study aimed to (1) discover the range of health-related topics that are addressed through Internet-delivered interventions, (2) generate a list of current websites used in the trials which demonstrate a health benefit, and (3) identify gaps in the research that may have hindered dissemination. Our focus was on Internet-delivered self-guided health interventions that did not require real-time clinical support. A systematic review of meta-analyses was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (PROSPERO Registration Number CRD42016041258). MEDLINE via Ovid, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were searched. Inclusion criteria included (1) meta-analyses of RCTs, (2) at least one Internet-delivered intervention that measured a health-related outcome, and (3) use of at least one self-guided intervention. We excluded group-based therapies. There were no language restrictions. Of the 363 records identified through the search, 71 meta-analyses met inclusion criteria. Within the 71 meta-analyses, there were 1733 studies that contained 268 unique RCTs which tested self-help interventions. On review of the 268 studies, 21.3% (57/268) had functional websites. These included evidence-based Web programs on substance abuse (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis), mental health (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder

  3. Internet-Delivered Health Interventions That Work: Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses and Evaluation of Website Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmen, Kelsey; Kramer, Rachel; Mann, Jason; Chopra, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Background Due to easy access and low cost, Internet-delivered therapies offer an attractive alternative to improving health. Although numerous websites contain health-related information, finding evidence-based programs (as demonstrated through randomized controlled trials, RCTs) can be challenging. We sought to bridge the divide between the knowledge gained from RCTs and communication of the results by conducting a global systematic review and analyzing the availability of evidence-based Internet health programs. Objectives The study aimed to (1) discover the range of health-related topics that are addressed through Internet-delivered interventions, (2) generate a list of current websites used in the trials which demonstrate a health benefit, and (3) identify gaps in the research that may have hindered dissemination. Our focus was on Internet-delivered self-guided health interventions that did not require real-time clinical support. Methods A systematic review of meta-analyses was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (PROSPERO Registration Number CRD42016041258). MEDLINE via Ovid, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were searched. Inclusion criteria included (1) meta-analyses of RCTs, (2) at least one Internet-delivered intervention that measured a health-related outcome, and (3) use of at least one self-guided intervention. We excluded group-based therapies. There were no language restrictions. Results Of the 363 records identified through the search, 71 meta-analyses met inclusion criteria. Within the 71 meta-analyses, there were 1733 studies that contained 268 unique RCTs which tested self-help interventions. On review of the 268 studies, 21.3% (57/268) had functional websites. These included evidence-based Web programs on substance abuse (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis), mental health (depression

  4. BAG-1 as a biomarker in early breast cancer prognosis: a systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, E S; Reeves, T; Robson, N H; Maishman, T; Packham, G; Cutress, R I

    2017-06-06

    The co-chaperone protein Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1) is overexpressed in breast cancer and has been incorporated in the oncotype DX and PAM50 breast cancer prognostic assays. Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 exists as multiple protein isoforms that interact with diverse partners, including chaperones Hsc70/Hsp70, Ser/Thr kinase Raf-1 and Bcl-2, to promote cancer cell survival. The BAG-1L isoform specifically binds to and increases the transcriptional activity of oestrogen receptor in cells, and in some, but not all studies, BAG-1 expression is predictive of clinical outcome in breast cancer. A systematic review of published studies reporting BAG-1 (mRNA and/or protein) expression and clinical outcome in early breast cancer. The REporting Recommendations for Tumour MARKer and Prognostic Studies (REMARK) criteria were used as a template against which data were assessed. Meta-analyses were performed for studies that provided a hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals for clinical outcomes including disease-free survival or breast cancer-specific survival from univariate analysis. Eighteen studies used differing methodologies and reported on differing outcomes. Meta-analyses were only possible on results from a subset of reported studies. Meta-analyses suggested improved outcome with high BAG-1 mRNA and high BAG-1 nuclear expression by immunohistochemisty. Increased levels of BAG-1 are associated with better breast cancer outcomes.

  5. BAG-1 as a biomarker in early breast cancer prognosis: a systematic review with meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, E S; Reeves, T; Robson, N H; Maishman, T; Packham, G; Cutress, R I

    2017-01-01

    Background: The co-chaperone protein Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1) is overexpressed in breast cancer and has been incorporated in the oncotype DX and PAM50 breast cancer prognostic assays. Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 exists as multiple protein isoforms that interact with diverse partners, including chaperones Hsc70/Hsp70, Ser/Thr kinase Raf-1 and Bcl-2, to promote cancer cell survival. The BAG-1L isoform specifically binds to and increases the transcriptional activity of oestrogen receptor in cells, and in some, but not all studies, BAG-1 expression is predictive of clinical outcome in breast cancer. Methods: A systematic review of published studies reporting BAG-1 (mRNA and/or protein) expression and clinical outcome in early breast cancer. The REporting Recommendations for Tumour MARKer and Prognostic Studies (REMARK) criteria were used as a template against which data were assessed. Meta-analyses were performed for studies that provided a hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals for clinical outcomes including disease-free survival or breast cancer-specific survival from univariate analysis. Results: Eighteen studies used differing methodologies and reported on differing outcomes. Meta-analyses were only possible on results from a subset of reported studies. Meta-analyses suggested improved outcome with high BAG-1 mRNA and high BAG-1 nuclear expression by immunohistochemisty. Conclusions: Increased levels of BAG-1 are associated with better breast cancer outcomes. PMID:28510570

  6. Vitamin B12, Folate, Homocysteine, and Bone Health in Adults and Elderly People: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. van Wijngaarden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 and folate levels have been associated with deteriorated bone health. This systematic literature review with dose-response meta-analyses summarizes the available scientific evidence on associations of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine status with fractures and bone mineral density (BMD. Twenty-seven eligible cross-sectional (n=14 and prospective (n=13 observational studies and one RCT were identified. Meta-analysis on four prospective studies including 7475 people showed a modest decrease in fracture risk of 4% per 50 pmol/L increase in vitamin B12 levels, which was borderline significant (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.00. Meta-analysis of eight studies including 11511 people showed an increased fracture risk of 4% per μmol/L increase in homocysteine concentration (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.07. We could not draw a conclusion regarding folate levels and fracture risk, as too few studies investigated this association. Meta-analyses regarding vitamin B12, folate and homocysteine levels, and BMD were possible in female populations only and showed no associations. Results from studies regarding BMD that could not be included in the meta-analyses were not univocal.

  7. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberati, Alessandro; Altman, Douglas G; Tetzlaff, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic...... reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential....... The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses....

  8. Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses - Literature-based Recommendations for Evaluating Strengths, Weaknesses, and Clinical Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Janice M; Bolton, Laura L

    2015-11-01

    Good quality systematic reviews (SRs) summarizing best available evidence can help inform clinical decisions, improv- ing patient and wound outcomes. Weak SRs can misinform readers, undermining care decisions and evidence-based practice. To examine the strengths and weaknesses of SRs and meta-analyses and the role of SRs in contemporary evidence-based wound care practice, and using the search terms systematic review, meta-analysis, and evidence-based practice, the authors searched Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for important terminology and recommendations to help clinicians evaluate SRs with meta-analysis. Reputable websites, recent textbooks, and synthesized available literature also were reviewed to describe and summarize SR strengths and weaknesses. After developing a checklist for critically evaluating SR objectives, inclusion/exclusion criteria, study quality, data extraction and synthesis methods, meta-analysis homogeneity, accuracy of results, interpretation, and consistency between significant findings and abstract or conclusions, the checklist was applied to topical wound care SRs identified in Cochrane and MEDLINE searches. Best available evidence included in the SRs from 169 randomized controlled trials on 11,571 patients supporting topical intervention healing effects on burns, surgical sites, and diabetic, venous, or pressure ulcers was summarized and showed SRs and clinical trials can demonstrate different outcomes because the information/data are compiled differently. The results illustrate how evidence insufficient to support firm conclusions may still meet immediate needs to guide carefully considered clinical wound and patient care decisions while encouraging better future science.

  9. Review of research in internal-wave and internal-tide deposits of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhenzhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of internal-wave and internal-tide deposits is a very young research field in deep-water sedimentology. It has been just twenty years since the first example of internal-wave and internal-tide deposits was identified in the stratigraphic record. Since that time, Chinese scholars have made unremitting efforts and gained some significant research achievements in this field. This paper briefly outlines the history and main achievements of research of internal-wave and internal-tide deposits in China, describes depositional characteristics, sedimentary successions, types of lithofacies, and depositional models of internal-wave and internal-tide deposits identified mainly from ancient strata, and summarizes the existing problems in this research field. New advances in marine physics should be applied to research of the subject of internal-wave and internal-tide deposition, whereas the sedimentary characteristics of internal-wave and internal-tide deposits may be used to deduce the physical processes of their creation. Flume experiments on internal-wave and internal-tide deposition should also be put in practice as often as possible, so that the mechanisms of internal-wave and internal-tide deposition can be explored.

  10. A Review of Parametric Descriptions of Tropical Cyclone Wind-Wave Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Young

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available More than three decades of observations of tropical cyclone wind and wave fields have resulted in a detailed understanding of wave-growth dynamics, although details of the physics are still lacking. These observations are presented in a consistent manner, which provides the basis to be able to characterize the full wave spectrum in a parametric form throughout tropical cyclones. The data clearly shows that an extended fetch model can be used to represent the maximum significant wave height in such storms. The shape stabilizing influence of nonlinear interactions means that the spectral shape is remarkably similar to fetch-limited cases. As such, the tropical cyclone spectrum can also be described by using well-known parametric models. A detailed process is described to parameterize the wave spectrum at any point in a tropical cyclone.

  11. The Type and Impact of Evidence Review Group Exploratory Analyses in the NICE Single Technology Appraisal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Scope, Alison; Holmes, Michael; Rice, Stephen; Rose, Micah; Tappenden, Paul; Woolacott, Nerys

    2017-06-01

    As part of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) single technology appraisal process, independent evidence review groups (ERGs) critically appraise a company's submission relating to a specific technology and indication. To explore the type of additional exploratory analyses conducted by ERGs and their impact on the recommendations made by NICE. The 100 most recently completed single technology appraisals with published guidance were selected for inclusion. A content analysis of relevant documents was undertaken to identify and extract relevant data, and narrative synthesis was used to rationalize and present these data. The types of exploratory analysis conducted in relation to companies' models were fixing errors, addressing violations, addressing matters of judgment, and the provision of a new, ERG-preferred base case. Ninety-three of the 100 ERG reports contained at least one of these analyses. The most frequently reported type of analysis in these 93 ERG reports related to the category "Matters of judgment," which was reported in 83 reports (89%). At least one of the exploratory analyses conducted and reported by an ERG is mentioned in 97% of NICE appraisal consultation documents and 94% of NICE final appraisal determinations, and had a clear influence on recommendations in 72% of appraisal consultation documents and 47% of final appraisal determinations. These results suggest that the additional analyses undertaken by ERGs in the appraisal of company submissions are highly influential in the policy-making and decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analyse - technologies; Analyse - technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudil, D.; Chevalier, M.; Cormont, Ph.; Viala, F.; Kopp, Ch.; Peillet, O.; Chatroux, D.; Lausenaz, Y.; Villard, J.F.; Bruel, L.; Berhouet, F.; Chartier, F.; Aubert, M.; Blanchet, P.; Steiner, F.; Puech, M.H.; Bienvenu, Ph.; Noire, M.H.; Bouzon, C.; Schrive, L

    1999-07-01

    In this chapter of the DCC 1999 scientific report, the following theoretical studies are detailed: emulsions characterization by ultrasonics, high resolution wavelength meter, optimization methodology for diffractive and hybrid optic system, reliability for fast switches in power electronics, study of cesium isolation in irradiated fuels, chemical optodes based on evanescent wave absorption, radionuclides (Zirconium 93 and molybdenum 93) determination in irradiated fuels processing effluents, study of viscous liquid ultrafiltration using supercritical CO{sub 2} fluid. (A.L.B.)

  13. Spin waves damping in nanometre-scale magnetic materials (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchko, V. N.

    2015-09-01

    Spin dynamics in magnetic nanostructured materials is a topic of great current interest. To describe spin motions in such magnetic systems, the phenomenological Landau-Lifshitz (LL), or the LL-Gilbert (LLG), equation is widely used. Damping term is one of the dominant features of magnetization dynamics and plays an essential role in these equations of motion. The form of this term is simple; however, an important question arises whether it provides a proper description of the magnetization coupling to the thermal bath and the related magnetic fluctuations in the real nanometre-scale magnetic materials. It is now generally accepted that for nanostructured systems the damping term in the LL (LLG) equation fails to account for the systematics of the magnetization relaxation, even at the linear response level. In ultrathin films and nanostructured magnets particular relaxation mechanisms arise, extrinsic and intrinsic, which are relevant at nanometre-length scales, yet are not so efficient in bulk materials. These mechanisms of relaxation are crucial for understanding the magnetization dynamics that results in a linewidth dependence on the nanomagnet's size. We give an overview of recent efforts regarding the description of spin waves damping in nanostructured magnetic materials. Three types of systems are reviewed: ultrathin and exchange-based films, magnetic nanometre-scale samples and patterned magnetic structures. The former is an example of a rare case where consideration can be done analytically on microscopic footing. The latter two are typical samples when analytical approaches hardly have to be developed and numerical calculations are more fruitful. Progress in simulations of magnetization dynamics in nanometre-scale magnets gives hopes that a phenomenological approach can provide us with a realistic description of spin motions in expanding diverse of magnetic nanostructures.

  14. Is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy a current treatment for urolithiasis? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahílo Mateu, P; Budía Alba, A; Liatsikos, E; Trassierra Villa, M; López-Acón, J D; de Guzmán Ordaz, D; Boronat Tormo, F

    2017-09-01

    Technological advances have prompted a change in the management of urolithiasis. Endourological techniques are gaining importance because they are highly effective treatments. The aim of this study was to answer the question of whether extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still a competitive alternative compared with other therapeutic modalities. We conducted a literature search of articles published in the past 5 years. We identified 12 randomized and comparative studies and assessed the methodology and results of the study variables. We performed a narrative synthesis of the included studies. To summarise the variables, we used the mean and standard deviation for continuous variables and absolute numbers and percentages for the qualitative variables. Of the studies reviewed, 7 evaluated the various treatments for nephrolithiasis and 5 evaluated the treatments for ureteral lithiasis. At the renal level, a stone-free rate of 33.33-91.5% at 3 months was reached with ESWL, while a rate of 90.4-100% was achieved with the other endourological techniques, without finding statistically significant differences in the studies. At the ureteral level, a stone-free rate of 73.5-82.2% at 3 months was reached with ESWL, while a rate of 79-94.1% was achieved with the other endourological techniques, without finding statistically significant differences in the studies. There is a lack of homogeneity among the published studies. ESWL is a minimally invasive treatment that with an appropriate technique and patient selection achieves high effectiveness, thus maintaining an important role at this time. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The totally extraperitoneal method versus Lichtenstein's technique for inguinal hernia repair: a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomized clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, G.G.; Wetterslev, J.; Laarhoven, C.J. van; Keus, F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lichtenstein's technique is considered the reference technique for inguinal hernia repair. Recent trials suggest that the totally extraperitoneal (TEP) technique may lead to reduced proportions of chronic pain. A systematic review evaluating the benefits and harms of the TEP compared

  16. Pharmacological Analyses of Protein Kinases Regulating Egg Maturation in Marine Nemertean Worms: A Review and Comparison with Mammalian Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Marquardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For development to proceed normally, animal eggs must undergo a maturation process that ultimately depends on phosphorylations of key regulatory proteins. To analyze the kinases that mediate these phosphorylations, eggs of marine nemertean worms have been treated with pharmacological modulators of intracellular signaling pathways and subsequently probed with immunoblots employing phospho-specific antibodies. This article both reviews such analyses and compares them with those conducted on mammals, while focusing on how egg maturation in nemerteans is affected by signaling pathways involving cAMP, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Src-family kinases, protein kinase C isotypes, AMP-activated kinase, and the Cdc2 kinase of maturation-promoting factor.

  17. The Efficacy of Noble Gases in the Attenuation of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deken, Julie; Rex, Steffen; Monbaliu, Diethard; Pirenne, Jacques; Jochmans, Ina

    2016-09-01

    Noble gases have been attributed to organ protective effects in ischemia reperfusion injury in a variety of medical conditions, including cerebral and cardiac ischemia, acute kidney injury, and transplantation. The aim of this study was to appraise the available evidence by systematically reviewing the literature and performing meta-analyses. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria specified any articles on noble gases and either ischemia reperfusion injury or transplantation. In vitro studies, publications without full text, review articles, and letters were excluded. Information on noble gas, organ, species, model, length of ischemia, conditioning and noble gas dose, duration of administration of the gas, endpoints, and effects was extracted from 79 eligible articles. Study quality was evaluated using the Jadad scale. Effect sizes were extracted from the articles or retrieved from the authors to allow meta-analyses using the random-effects approach. Argon has been investigated in cerebral, myocardial, and renal ischemia reperfusion injury; helium and xenon have additionally been tested in hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury, whereas neon was only explored in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. The majority of studies show a protective effect of these noble gases on ischemia reperfusion injury across a broad range of experimental conditions, organs, and species. Overall study quality was low. Meta-analysis for argon was only possible in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and did not show neuroprotective effects. Helium proved neuroprotective in rodents and cardioprotective in rabbits, and there were too few data on renal ischemia reperfusion injury. Xenon had the most consistent effects, being neuroprotective in rodents, cardioprotective in rodents and pigs, and renoprotective in rodents. Helium and xenon show organ protective effects mostly in small animal ischemia reperfusion injury models. Additional information on timing, dosing, and

  18. A review of significant events analysed in general practice: implications for the quality and safety of patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Nick

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant event analysis (SEA is promoted as a team-based approach to enhancing patient safety through reflective learning. Evidence of SEA participation is required for appraisal and contractual purposes in UK general practice. A voluntary educational model in the west of Scotland enables general practitioners (GPs and doctors-in-training to submit SEA reports for feedback from trained peers. We reviewed reports to identify the range of safety issues analysed, learning needs raised and actions taken by GP teams. Method Content analysis of SEA reports submitted in an 18 month period between 2005 and 2007. Results 191 SEA reports were reviewed. 48 described patient harm (25.1%. A further 109 reports (57.1% outlined circumstances that had the potential to cause patient harm. Individual 'error' was cited as the most common reason for event occurrence (32.5%. Learning opportunities were identified in 182 reports (95.3% but were often non-specific professional issues not shared with the wider practice team. 154 SEA reports (80.1% described actions taken to improve practice systems or professional behaviour. However, non-medical staff were less likely to be involved in the changes resulting from event analyses describing patient harm (p Conclusion The study provides some evidence of the potential of SEA to improve healthcare quality and safety. If applied rigorously, GP teams and doctors in training can use the technique to investigate and learn from a wide variety of quality issues including those resulting in patient harm. This leads to reported change but it is unclear if such improvement is sustained.

  19. An editorial perspective on Barbieri and Capri article: Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondher Toumi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An editorial perspective on Barbieri and Capri article: Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

  20. SmokeHaz: Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses of the Effects of Smoking on Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayes, Leah; Haslam, Patricia L; Gratziou, Christina G; Powell, Pippa; Britton, John; Vardavas, Constantine; Jimenez-Ruiz, Carlos; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-07-01

    Smoking tobacco increases the risk of respiratory disease in adults and children, but communicating the magnitude of these effects in a scientific manner that is accessible and usable by the public and policymakers presents a challenge. We have therefore summarized scientific data on the impact of smoking on respiratory diseases to provide the content for a unique resource, SmokeHaz. We conducted systematic reviews and meta-analyses of longitudinal studies (published to 2013) identified from electronic databases, gray literature, and experts. Random effect meta-analyses were used to pool the findings. We included 216 articles. Among adult smokers, we confirmed substantially increased risks of lung cancer (risk ratio (RR), 10.92; 95% CI, 8.28-14.40; 34 studies), COPD (RR, 4.01; 95% CI, 3.18-5.05; 22 studies), and asthma (RR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.42; eight studies). Exposure to passive smoke significantly increased the risk of lung cancer in adult nonsmokers and increased the risks of asthma, wheeze, lower respiratory infections, and reduced lung function in children. Smoking significantly increased the risk of sleep apnea and asthma exacerbations in adult and pregnant populations, and active and passive smoking increased the risk of tuberculosis. These findings have been translated into easily digestible content and published on the SmokeHaz website. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Working memory circuit as a function of increasing age in healthy adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Andre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Working memory ability matures through puberty and early adulthood. Deficits in working memory are linked to the risk of onset of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, and there is a significant temporal overlap between the peak of first episode psychosis risk and working memory maturation. In order to characterize the normal working memory functional maturation process through this critical phase of cognitive development we conducted a systematic review and coordinate based meta-analyses of all the available primary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (n = 382 that mapped WM function in healthy adolescents (10–17 years and young adults (18–30 years. Activation Likelihood Estimation analyses across all WM tasks revealed increased activation with increasing subject age in the middle frontal gyrus (BA6 bilaterally, the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10, the left precuneus and left inferior parietal gyri (BA7; 40. Decreased activation with increasing age was found in the right superior frontal (BA8, left junction of postcentral and inferior parietal (BA3/40, and left limbic cingulate gyrus (BA31. These results suggest that brain activation during adolescence increased with age principally in higher order cortices, part of the core working memory network, while reductions were detected in more diffuse and potentially more immature neural networks. Understanding the process by which the brain and its cognitive functions mature through healthy adulthood may provide us with new clues to understanding the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders.

  2. Anatomical dysconnectivity in bipolar disorder compared with schizophrenia: A selective review of structural network analyses using diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Stefani; Holleran, Laurena; Cannon, Dara M; McDonald, Colm

    2017-02-01

    The dysconnectivity hypothesis suggests that psychotic illnesses arise not from regionally specific focal pathophysiology, but rather from impaired neuroanatomical integration across networks of brain regions. Decreased white matter organization has been hypothesized to be a feature of psychotic illnesses in general, which is supported by meta-analyses of DTI studies in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although many diffusion MRI studies investigate bipolar disorder and schizophrenia alone, relatively few studies directly compare structural features in these psychotic illnesses. Recently, the application of graph theory analyses to DTI data has supported the dysconnectivity hypothesis in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, employing topological properties to assess neuroanatomical dysconnectivity. This selective review evaluates white matter alterations using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, with a focus upon direct comparison DTI studies in both psychotic illnesses. We then expand in more detail on the development of network analyses and the application of these techniques in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Converging evidence indicates that frontal connectivity alterations are common to both disorders, with prominent fronto-temporal deficits identified in schizophrenia and inter-hemispheric and limbic alterations reported in bipolar disorder. In bipolar disorder, most connectome reports use cortical maps alone, which given the importance of the limbic system in emotional regulation may limit the scope of network approaches in mood disorders. Further direct connectivity comparisons between these psychotic illnesses may assist in unravelling the neuroanatomical deviations underpinning the overlapping features of psychosis and cognitive impairment, and the more diagnostically distinctive features of affective disturbance in bipolar disorder and deficit syndrome in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Review on Millimeter Wave Antennas- Potential Candidate for 5G Enabled Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Matin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The millimeter wave (mmWave band is considered as the potential candidate for high speed communication services in 5G networks due to its huge bandwidth. Moreover, mmWave frequencies lead to miniaturization of RF front end including antennas. In this article, we provide an overview of recent research achievements of millimeter-wave antenna design along with the design considerations for compact antennas and antennas in package/on chip, mostly in the 60 GHz band is described along with their inherent benefits and challenges. A comparative analysis of various designs is also presented. The antennas with wide bandwidth, high-gain, compact size and low profile with easiness of integration in-package or on-chip with other components are required for 5G enabled applications.

  4. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Wernicke, B.P. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  5. Efficacy and safety of bortezomib, thalidomide, and lenalidomide in multiple myeloma: An overview of systematic reviews with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Patricia Melo; de Mendonça Lima, Tácio; Colleoni, Gisele Wally Braga; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2017-05-01

    This overview summarizes evidence for the efficacy and safety of bortezomib, thalidomide, and lenalidomide in patients with multiple myeloma. We searched the Medline, Scopus, and LILACS databases through August 2016, including systematic reviews with meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy and/or safety of bortezomib, thalidomide, or lenalidomide in patients with multiple myeloma. Two authors performed study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment using AMSTAR and GRADE instruments. Twenty-nine studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. All three drugs significantly improved overall response and progression-free survival; however, only bortezomib showed significantly greater overall survival compared with the control arm (induction therapy, continuous therapy, or at any phase of treatment). The main concerns on adverse events were thrombosis/embolism events, peripheral neuropathy, and second primary malignancies. The most common problems detected in systematic reviews were non-registration of the study protocol and conflicts of interest not clearly acknowledged. Future research should adhere to quality assessment tools so that best evidence can be used in decision-making. Protocol PROSPERO registration number: CRD42016036062. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal height and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen; Lutsiv, Olha; Mulla, Sohail; McDonald, Sarah D

    2012-08-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) are the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, but the effect of maternal height on these outcomes continues to be debated. Our objective was to determine the relationships between maternal height and PTB and LBW. Medline and EMBASE were searched from their inceptions. Studies with a reference group that assessed the effect of maternal height on PTB (< 37 weeks) and LBW (< 2500 grams) in singletons were included. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Fifty-six studies were included involving 333 505 women. In the cohort studies, the unadjusted risk of PTB in short-statured women was increased (relative risk [RR] 1.23; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.37), as was the unadjusted risk of LBW (RR 1.81; 95% CI 1.47 to 2.23), although not all of the studies with adjusted data found the same association. Maternal tall stature was not associated with PTB (unadjusted RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.82 to 1.14), although LBW was decreased (unadjusted RR 0.56; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.69), but not in the adjusted data. From our complete systematic review and meta-analyses, to our knowledge the first in this area, we conclude that short-statured women have higher unadjusted risks of PTB and LBW and tall women have approximately one half the unadjusted risk of LBW of women of reference height.

  7. Heat waves and urban heat islands in Europe: A review of relevant drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kathrin; Lauf, Steffen; Kleinschmit, Birgit; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2016-11-01

    The climate change and the proceeding urbanization create future health challenges. Consequently, more people around the globe will be impaired by extreme weather events, such as heat waves. This study investigates the causes for the emergence of surface urban heat islands and its change during heat waves in 70 European cities. A newly created climate class indicator, a set of meaningful landscape metrics, and two population-related parameters were applied to describe the Surface Urban Heat Island Magnitude (SUHIM) - the mean temperature increase within the urban heat island compared to its surrounding, as well as the Heat Magnitude (HM) - the extra heat load added to the average summer SUHIM during heat waves. We evaluated the relevance of varying urban parameters within linear models. The exemplary European-wide heat wave in July 2006 was chosen and compared to the average summer conditions using MODIS land surface temperature with an improved spatial resolution of 250m. The results revealed that the initial size of the urban heat island had significant influence on SUHIM. For the explanation of HM the size of the heat island, the regional climate and the share of central urban green spaces showed to be critical. Interestingly, cities of cooler climates and cities with higher shares of urban green spaces were more affected by additional heat during heat waves. Accordingly, cooler northern European cities seem to be more vulnerable to heat waves, whereas southern European cities appear to be better adapted. Within the ascertained population and climate clusters more detailed explanations were found. Our findings improve the understanding of the urban heat island effect across European cities and its behavior under heat waves. Also, they provide some indications for urban planners on case-specific adaptation strategies to adverse urban heat caused by heat waves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of parenting interventions for at-risk parents with infants: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayce, Signe B; Rasmussen, Ida S; Klest, Sihu K; Patras, Joshua; Pontoppidan, Maiken

    2017-12-27

    Infancy is a critical stage of life, and a secure relationship with caring and responsive caregivers is crucial for healthy infant development. Early parenting interventions aim to support families in which infants are at risk of developmental harm. Our objective is to systematically review the effects of parenting interventions on child development and on parent-child relationship for at-risk families with infants aged 0-12 months. This is a systematic review and meta-analyses. We extracted publications from 10 databases in June 2013, January 2015 and June 2016, and supplemented with grey literature and hand search. We assessed risk of bias, calculated effect sizes and conducted meta-analyses. (1) Randomised controlled trials of structured psychosocial interventions offered to at-risk families with infants aged 0-12 months in Western Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, (2) interventions with a minimum of three sessions and at least half of these delivered postnatally and (3) outcomes reported for child development or parent-child relationship. Sixteen studies were included. Meta-analyses were conducted on seven outcomes represented in 13 studies. Parenting interventions significantly improved child behaviour ( d =0.14; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.26), parent-child relationship ( d =0.44; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.80) and maternal sensitivity ( d =0.46; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.65) postintervention. There were no significant effects on cognitive development ( d= 0.13; 95% CI -0.08 to 0.41), internalising behaviour ( d= 0.16; 95% CI -0.03 to 0.33) or externalising behaviour ( d= 0.16; 95% CI -0.01 to 0.30) post-intervention. At long-term follow-up we found no significant effect on child behaviour ( d= 0.15; 95% CI -0.03 to 0.31). Interventions offered to at-risk families in the first year of the child's life appear to improve child behaviour, parent-child relationship and maternal sensitivity post-intervention, but not child cognitive

  9. Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Perinatal Death and Maternal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineles, Beth L; Hsu, Sarah; Park, Edward; Samet, Jonathan M

    2016-07-15

    We conducted a systematic review and 3-part meta-analysis to characterize the relationship between smoking and perinatal death, defined as the combination of stillbirth and neonatal death. The PubMed database was searched (1956-August 31, 2011) with keywords, and manual reference searches of included articles and Surgeon Generals' reports were conducted. The full texts of 1,713 articles were reviewed, and 142 articles that examined the associations between active or passive smoking and perinatal death were included in the meta-analyses. Data were abstracted by 2 reviewers. Any active maternal smoking was associated with increased risks of stillbirth (summary relative risk (sRR) = 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38, 1.54 (n = 57 studies)), neonatal death (sRR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.30 (n = 28)), and perinatal death (sRR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.41 (n = 46)). The risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death increased with the amount smoked by the mother. Biases in study publication, design, and analysis were present but did not significantly affect the results. These findings strengthen the evidence that women should not smoke while pregnant, and all women of reproductive age should be warned that smoking increases the risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A systematic review, and meta-analyses, of the impact of health-related claims on dietary choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Asha; Scarborough, Peter; Rayner, Mike

    2017-07-11

    Health-related claims are statements regarding the nutritional content of a food (nutrition claims) and/or indicate that a relationship exists between a food and a health outcome (health claims). Their impact on food purchasing or consumption decisions is unclear. This systematic review measured the effect of health-related claims, on pre-packaged foods in retail settings, on adult purchasing decisions (real and perceived). In September 2016, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CAB abstracts, Business Source Complete, and Web of Science/Science Citation Index & Social Science Citation Index for articles in English published in peer-review journals. Studies were included if they were controlled experiments where the experimental group(s) included a health-related claim and the control group involved an identical product without a health-related claim. Included studies measured (at an individual or population level); actual or intended choice, purchases, and/or consumption. The primary outcome was product choices and purchases, the secondary outcome was food consumption and preference. Results were standardised through calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of choosing a product when a health-related claim was present. Results were combined in a random-effects meta-analysis. Thirty-one papers were identified, 17 of which were included for meta-analyses. Most studies were conducted in Europe (n = 17) and the USA (n = 7). Identified studies were choice experiments that measured the likelihood of a product being chosen when a claim was present compared to when a claim was not present, (n = 16), 15 studies were experiments that measured either; intent-rating scale outcomes (n = 8), consumption (n = 6), a combination of the two (n = 1), or purchase data (n = 1). Overall, 20 studies found that claims increase purchasing and/or consumption, eight studies had mixed results, and two studies found consumption

  11. Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs. The present review of 304 PMASRs published between 1950 and 2013 confirmed that plant food groups are more protective than animal food groups against DRCDs. Within plant food groups, grain products are more protective than fruits and vegetables. Among animal food groups, dairy/milk products have a neutral effect on the risk of DRCDs, while red/processed meats tend to increase the risk. Among beverages, tea was the most protective and soft drinks the least protective against DRCDs. For two of the DRCDs examined, sarcopenia and kidney disease, no PMASR was found. Overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and various types of cardiovascular disease and cancer accounted for 289 of the PMASRs. There is a crucial need to further study the associations between food and beverage groups and mental health, skeletal health, digestive diseases, liver diseases, kidney diseases, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Effect of film thickness and viscoelasticity on separability of vapour classes by wavelet and principal component analyses of polymer-coated surface acoustic wave sensor transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Yadava, R. D. S.

    2011-02-01

    The transient response of a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) vapour sensor depends on partitioning and diffusion of vapour species into the polymer in conjunction with its thickness and viscoelastic properties. The shapes of transient signals carry information about vapour identities due to specificity of the partition coefficient and the diffusion coefficient. The analysis of transient signals therefore offers a simpler approach for vapour identification in comparison to conventional electronic nose systems that employ a broadly selective sensor array. The transient response-based methods are however not developed to a similar level of maturity as their sensor array counterparts. The main reason for this is associated with complex signal generation kinetics and polymer viscoelasticity. The latter is independent of vapour identities (assuming low concentrations) but influences sensor response through nonlinear dependences on polymer thickness and viscoelastic coefficients. In this paper, we endeavour to find out whether viscoelasticity and its manifestation through thickness dependences could be turned into an advantage for transient-based vapour identification. Using an established SAW sensor model with additive noise we analyse sensor transients by wavelet decomposition and principal component analysis (PCA) for various combinations of polymer thickness, viscoelastic storage and loss moduli and noise level. We calculate vapour class separability measures defined on the basis of scatter matrices of principal components of wavelet coefficients to determine the discrimination ability of sensor transients for various combinations of film thickness and viscoelastic parameters. The simulation experiments are performed by considering a polyisobutylene-coated SAW oscillator sensor under exposure to seven volatile organic compounds (chloroform, chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, n-heptane, toluene, n-hexane and n-octane). The film thicknesses are varied from thin

  13. Electroencephalographic precursors of spike-wave discharges in a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy: Power spectrum and coherence EEG analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitnikova, E.Y.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Periods in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that immediately precede the onset of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWD) were examined in WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. Precursors of SWD (preSWD) were classified based on the distribution of EEG power in delta-theta-alpha frequency bands as

  14. All-Atom Molecular-Level Computational Analyses of Polyurea/Fused-Silica Interfacial Decohesion Caused by Impinging Tensile Stress-Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Interfacial decohesion, Reactive forcefields Paper type Research paper International Journal of Structural Integrity Vol. 5 No. 4, 2014 pp. 339-367 © Emerald ...interaction was conducted to provide additional insight into the outcome of the stress-wave/interface interactions. 4. Results and discussion The main emphasis

  15. The Effects of Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages: A Systematic Review of Randomised Trials with Meta-Analyses and Trial Sequential Analyses Including Individual Patient Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Egerup

    Full Text Available Immunological disturbances are hypothesised to play a role in recurrent miscarriage (RM and therefore intravenous immunoglubulins (IVIg have been tested in RM patients.The objectives were to investigate the benefits and harms of IVIg versus placebo, no intervention, or treatment as usual in women with RM.We searched the published literature in all relevant databases.Randomised trials investigating IVIg versus placebo, no intervention, or treatment as usual in women with RM.We undertook meta-analyses of aggregated data and individual patient data using a two-step approach, and we conducted bias domain assessments and trial sequential analyses to assess the risks of systematic and random errors.We identified 11 randomised clinical trials. No significant difference in the frequency of no live birth was found when IVIg was compared with placebo or treatment as usual (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.75-1.12, p = 0.42. Trial sequential analysis showed that the required information size of 1,008 participants was not obtained. IVIg compared with placebo seems to increase the risk of adverse events. Subgroup analysis suggests that women with RM after a birth (secondary RM seemed most likely to obtain a potential beneficial effect of IVIg (RR for no live birth 0.77, 95%CI 0.58-1.02, p = 0.06, however, trial sequential analysis showed that insufficient information is presently accrued.We cannot recommend or refute IVIg in women with RM. IVIg should therefore be assessed in further randomised clinical trials with positive outcomes before any clinical use is considered.

  16. Many Miles to Go: A Systematic Review of the State of Cost-Utility Analyses in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolina, Alessandro G; Rozman, Luciana M; Decimoni, Tassia C; Leandro, Roseli; Novaes, Hillegonda M D; De Soárez, Patrícia Coelho

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the quality and quantity of cost-utility analyses (CUAs) in Brazil. The objective of this study was to provide a systematic review of published CUAs of healthcare technologies in Brazil. We performed a systematic review of economic evaluations studies published in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), NHS EED (National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database), HTA (Health Technology Assessment) Database, Web of Science, Scopus, Bireme (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), BVS ECOS (Health Economics database of the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health), and SISREBRATS (Sistema de Informação da Rede Brasileira de Avaliação de Tecnologias em Saúde [Brazilian Network for the Evaluation of Health Technologies]) from 1980 to 2013. Articles were included if they were CUAs according to the classification devised by Drummond et al. Two independent reviewers screened articles for relevance and carried out data extraction. Disagreements were resolved through discussion or through consultation with a third reviewer. We performed a qualitative narrative synthesis. Of the 535 health economic evaluations (HEEs) relating to Brazil, only 40 were CUAs and therefore included in the analysis. Most studies adhered to methodological guidelines for quality of reporting and 77.5% used quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the health outcome. Of these studies, 51.6% did not report the population used to elicit preferences for outcomes and 45.2% used a specific population such as expert opinion. The preference elicitation method was not reported in 58.1% of these studies. The majority (80.6%) of studies did not report the instrument used to derive health state valuations and no publication reported whether tariffs (or preference weights) were national or international. No study mentioned the methodology used to estimate QALYs. Many published Brazilian cost-utility studies

  17. Modelling of the travelling wave piezoelectric motor stator: an integrated review and new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, H.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Articles from different areas which are closely related to the modelling of the stator of travelling wave ultrasonic motors (TWUMs are reviewed in this work. Thus, important issues relevant to this problem are identified from the areas of vibration of annular plates, laminated plate theories, and modelling of piezoelectric transducers. From this integrated point of view, it becomes clear that there are some very important issues yet to be addressed in the modelling of TWUMs. Firstly, the influence of material properties and stator dimensions on output efficiency, electromechanical coupling coefficients (EMCC and maximum output energy is to be investigated in more detail. Secondly, the modelling of the electric potential field (by explicitly including the charge equation for TWUMs seems to be a must for better prediction of displacements and electric fields close to the resonance, as suggested by some recent works [1]. Moreover, the improvement of current models by using shear deformation (or higher order laminated plate theories (LPTs in conjunction with approximated methods of solution are discussed. In addition to analytical models, those works using Finite Element and Finite difference Methods (FEM and FDM for the modelling and simulation of the TWUM stator dynamics are reviewed.

    En este trabajo se realiza una revisión de los trabajos de investigación realizados en diversas áreas sobre el modelado del estátor de los motores ultrasónicos de onda viajera (TWUMs. Entre los problemas relevantes que se han estudiado podemos citar la vibración de placas anulares, las teorías de placas laminadas y el modelado de transductores piezoeléctricos. A raíz de este punto de vista integral se hace manifiesto que todavía quedan asuntos importantes que estudiar en el modelado de los TWUMs. En primer lugar, la influencia de las propiedades del material y las dimensiones del estátor en la eficiencia del motor, los coeficientes de acoplamiento

  18. Economic Analyses in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Review of the Literature From a Clinical Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jonas A. de, E-mail: jdesouza@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu [The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Santana, Iuri A.; Castro, Gilberto de [Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Lima Lopes, Gilberto de [Johns Hopkins Singapore International Medical Centre (Singapore); Tina Shih, Ya-Chen [The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this review was to describe cost-effectiveness and cost analysis studies across treatment modalities for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), while placing their results in context of the current clinical practice. We performed a literature search in PubMed for English-language studies addressing economic analyses of treatment modalities for SCCHN published from January 2000 to March 2013. We also performed an additional search for related studies published by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom. Identified articles were classified into 3 clinical approaches (organ preservation, radiation therapy modalities, and chemotherapy regimens) and into 2 types of economic studies (cost analysis and cost-effectiveness/cost-utility studies). All cost estimates were normalized to US dollars, year 2013 values. Our search yielded 23 articles: 13 related to organ preservation approaches, 5 to radiation therapy modalities, and 5 to chemotherapy regimens. In general, studies analyzed different questions and modalities, making it difficult to reach a conclusion. Even when restricted to comparisons of modalities within the same clinical approach, studies often yielded conflicting findings. The heterogeneity across economic studies of SCCHN should be carefully understood in light of the modeling assumptions and limitations of each study and placed in context with relevant settings of clinical practices and study perspectives. Furthermore, the scarcity of comparative effectiveness and quality-of-life data poses unique challenges for conducting economic analyses for a resource-intensive disease, such as SCCHN, that requires a multimodal care. Future research is needed to better understand how to compare the costs and cost-effectiveness of different modalities for SCCHN.

  19. A review on design of experiments and surrogate models in aircraft real-time and many-query aerodynamic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yondo, Raul; Andrés, Esther; Valero, Eusebio

    2018-01-01

    Full scale aerodynamic wind tunnel testing, numerical simulation of high dimensional (full-order) aerodynamic models or flight testing are some of the fundamental but complex steps in the various design phases of recent civil transport aircrafts. Current aircraft aerodynamic designs have increase in complexity (multidisciplinary, multi-objective or multi-fidelity) and need to address the challenges posed by the nonlinearity of the objective functions and constraints, uncertainty quantification in aerodynamic problems or the restrained computational budgets. With the aim to reduce the computational burden and generate low-cost but accurate models that mimic those full order models at different values of the design variables, Recent progresses have witnessed the introduction, in real-time and many-query analyses, of surrogate-based approaches as rapid and cheaper to simulate models. In this paper, a comprehensive and state-of-the art survey on common surrogate modeling techniques and surrogate-based optimization methods is given, with an emphasis on models selection and validation, dimensionality reduction, sensitivity analyses, constraints handling or infill and stopping criteria. Benefits, drawbacks and comparative discussions in applying those methods are described. Furthermore, the paper familiarizes the readers with surrogate models that have been successfully applied to the general field of fluid dynamics, but not yet in the aerospace industry. Additionally, the review revisits the most popular sampling strategies used in conducting physical and simulation-based experiments in aircraft aerodynamic design. Attractive or smart designs infrequently used in the field and discussions on advanced sampling methodologies are presented, to give a glance on the various efficient possibilities to a priori sample the parameter space. Closing remarks foster on future perspectives, challenges and shortcomings associated with the use of surrogate models by aircraft industrial

  20. Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS): do programme characteristics influence effectiveness? Results of a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenijevic, Jelena; Groot, Wim

    2017-02-02

    Physical activity on prescription schemes (PARS) are health promotion programmes that have been implemented in various countries. The aim of this study was to outline the differences in the design of PARS in different countries. This study also explored the differences in the adherence rate to PARS and the self-reported level of physical activity between PARS users in different countries. A systematic literature review and meta-analyses were conducted. We searched PubMed and EBASCO in July 2015 and updated our search in September 2015. Studies that reported adherence to the programme and self-reported level of physical activity, published in the English language in a peer-reviewed journal since 2000, were included. The difference in the pooled adherence rate after finishing the PARS programme and the adherence rate before or during the PARS programme was 17% (95% CI 9% to 24%). The difference in the pooled physical activity was 0.93 unit score (95 CI -3.57 to 1.71). For the adherence rate, a meta-regression was conducted. In total, 37 studies conducted in 11 different countries met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 31 reported the adherence rate, while the level of physical activity was reported in 17 studies. Results from meta-analyses show that PARS had an effect on the adherence rate of physical activity, while the results from the meta-regressions show that programme characteristics such as type of chronic disease and the follow-up period influenced the adherence rate. The effects of PARS on adherence and self-reported physical activity were influenced by programme characteristics and also by the design of the study. Future studies on the effectiveness of PARS should use a prospective longitudinal design and combine quantitative and qualitative data. Furthermore, future evaluation studies should distinguish between evaluating the adherence rate and the self-reported physical activity among participants with different chronic diseases. Published by the BMJ

  1. The application of carbon-14 analyses to the source apportionment of atmospheric carbonaceous particulate matter: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Mathew R

    2014-01-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) together constitute a substantial proportion of airborne particulate matter (PM). Insight into the sources of this major contributor to PM is important for policies to mitigate the impact of PM on human health and climate change. In recent years measurement of the abundance of the radioisotope of carbon ((14)C) in samples of PM by accelerator mass spectrometry has been used to help quantify the relative contributions from sources of fossil carbon and contemporary carbon. This review provides an introduction to the different sources of carbon within PM and the role of (14)C measurements, a description of the preparation of PM samples and of the instrumentation used to quantify (14)C, and a summary of the results and source apportionment methods reported in published studies since 2004. All studies report a sizable fraction of the carbonaceous PM as of non-fossil origin. Even for PM collected in urban locations, the proportions of non-fossil carbon generally exceed 30%; typically the proportion in urban background locations is around 40-60% depending on the local influence of biomass burning. Where values have been measured directly, proportions of non-fossil carbon in EC are lower than in OC, reflecting the greater contribution of fossil-fuel combustion to EC and the generally small sources of contemporary EC. Detailed source apportionment studies point to important contributions from biogenic-derived secondary OC, consistent with other evidence of a ubiquitous presence of heavily oxidized background secondary OC. The review concludes with some comments on current issues and future prospects, including progress towards compound-class and individual-compound-specific (14)C analyses.

  2. Methodological Quality Assessment of Meta-Analyses and Systematic Reviews of Probiotics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Pouchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinpei; Teng, Guigen; Wei, Tiantong; Gao, Wen; Wang, Huahong

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics are widely used for the induction and maintenance of remission in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and pouchitis. There are a large number of meta-analyses (MAs)/ systematic reviews (SRs) on this subject, the methodological quality of which has not been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the methodological quality of and summarize the evidence obtained from MAs/SRs of probiotic treatments for IBD and pouchitis patients. The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched to identify Chinese and English language MAs/SRs of the use of probiotics for IBD and pouchitis. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scale was used to assess the methodological quality of the studies. A total of 36 MAs/SRs were evaluated. The AMSTAR scores of the included studies ranged from 1 to 10, and the average score was 5.81. According to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, 4 articles were classified as high quality, 24 articles were classified as moderate quality, and 8 articles were classified as low quality. Most of the MAs/SRs suggested that probiotics had potential benefits for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), but failed to show effectiveness in the induction and maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease (CD). The probiotic preparation VSL#3 may play a beneficial role in pouchitis. The overall methodological quality of the current MAs/SRs in the field of probiotics for IBD and pouchitis was found to be low to moderate. More MAs/SRs of high quality are required to support using probiotics to treat IBD and pouchitis.

  3. Acupuncture-Related Techniques for Psoriasis: A Systematic Review with Pairwise and Network Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Ko, Shu-Hua; Wang, Mei-Hua; Chi, Ching-Chi; Chung, Yu-Chu

    2017-12-01

    There has be a large body of evidence on the pharmacological treatments for psoriasis, but whether nonpharmacological interventions are effective in managing psoriasis remains largely unclear. This systematic review conducted pairwise and network meta-analyses to determine the effects of acupuncture-related techniques on acupoint stimulation for the treatment of psoriasis and to determine the order of effectiveness of these remedies. This study searched the following databases from inception to March 15, 2016: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EBSCO (including Academic Search Premier, American Doctoral Dissertations, and CINAHL), Airiti Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of acupuncture-related techniques on acupoint stimulation as intervention for psoriasis were independently reviewed by two researchers. A total of 13 RCTs with 1,060 participants were included. The methodological quality of included studies was not rigorous. Acupoint stimulation, compared with nonacupoint stimulation, had a significant treatment for psoriasis. However, the most common adverse events were thirst and dry mouth. Subgroup analysis was further done to confirm that the short-term treatment effect was superior to that of the long-term effect in treating psoriasis. Network meta-analysis identified acupressure or acupoint catgut embedding, compared with medication, and had a significant effect for improving psoriasis. It was noted that acupressure was the most effective treatment. Acupuncture-related techniques could be considered as an alternative or adjuvant therapy for psoriasis in short term, especially of acupressure and acupoint catgut embedding. This study recommends further well-designed, methodologically rigorous, and more head-to-head randomized trials to explore the effects of acupuncture-related techniques for treating psoriasis.

  4. Demographic characteristics of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials in orthodontic journals with impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavakis, Georgios; Dombroski, Meghann M; Malouf, David P; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore demographic characteristics of systematic reviews (SRs), meta-analyses (MAs), and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in orthodontic journals with an impact factor (IF). An electronic search was developed and implemented to identify all the SRs, MAs, and RCTs published in the seven orthodontic journals with an IF. No restrictions were applied regarding language, publication date, or publication status. The initial search generated 1147 articles, which were reviewed by three authors in order to determine if they met the inclusion criteria. Five hundred and fifty-seven articles were included in the final analysis. Type of article, name of journal, year of publication, number of authors, country of origin, and primary affiliation were recorded. Associations between those parameters were tested with the Pearson chi-square test for independence at the 0.05 level of significance. The majority (72%) of this kind of articles published in the orthodontic literature were RCTs, followed by SRs (20.1%) and MAs (7.9%). Approximately 77.2% of all RCTs, SRs, and MAs were published between 2004 and 2013, and 72.9% came from orthodontic departments. More than 80% of all articles were collaborative efforts between three or more authors. Contributions from Asia, South and Central America significantly increased during last decade, while contributions from North America decreased by almost 30%. Most RCTs, MAs, and SRs have been published between 2004 and 2013, indicating a significant improvement of the orthodontic literature during the last decade. Asia, South and Central America have significantly increased their contributions to the high evidence orthodontic literature since 2004. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Analysing clinical decision analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habbema, J. D.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Dippel, D. W.; Marshall, S.; Hilden, J.

    1990-01-01

    We present a critical review of aspects of clinical decision analysis which uses an application to screening for familial intracranial aneurysms. The analysis is reported together with methods for assessing decision trees. These methods appear to be powerful checks on the usually rather intuitive

  6. On Mass Loading and Dissipation Measured with Acoustic Wave Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Voinova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize current trends in the analysis of physical properties (surface mass density, viscosity, elasticity, friction, and charge of various thin films measured with a solid-state sensor oscillating in a gaseous or liquid environment. We cover three different types of mechanically oscillating sensors: the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D monitoring, surface acoustic wave (SAW, resonators and magnetoelastic sensors (MESs. The fourth class of novel acoustic wave (AW mass sensors, namely thin-film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBARs on vibrating membranes is discussed in brief. The paper contains a survey of theoretical results and practical applications of the sensors and includes a comprehensive bibliography.

  7. Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development – A Review of Key Data Types, Analyses, and Selected Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Sullivan, E. C.; Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Black, Gary D.

    2009-09-30

    -of-the-art in reservoir model development, the data types and analyses that need to be performed in order to develop and parameterize credible and robust reservoir simulation models, and to review existing software that is applicable to these analyses. This report describes this effort and highlights areas in which additional software development, wiki application extensions, or related GS3 infrastructure development may be warranted.

  8. Maslov shear-waveforms in highly anisotropic shales and implications for shear-wave splitting analyses; Formes d`onde transversales de Maslov dans les argiles fortement anisotropes et implications dans les analyses de birefringence des ondes transversales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caddick, J. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Kendall, J.M.; Raymer, D.G. [Western Geophysical, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1998-09-01

    Shales are the most common sedimentary rocks in hydrocarbon environments often forming the source rock and trapping rock for a reservoir. Due to the platy nature of the constituent grains, shales are commonly anisotropic. In this paper we calculate seismic waveforms for highly anisotropic shales using Maslow asymptotic theory (MAT). This theory is an extension of classical ray theory which provides valid waveforms in regions of caustics (wavefront folding) where ray theory amplitudes are unstable. Asymptotic ray theory (ART) is based on the Fermat or geometrical ray which connects the source and receiver. In contrast, the Maslov solution integrates the contributions from neighbouring non-Fermat rays. Ray-paths, travel-times, amplitudes and synthetic seismograms are presented for three highly anisotropic shales using a very simple 1D model comprised of an anisotropic shale overlying an isotropic shale. The ART waveforms fail to account for complex waveform effects due to triplications. In comparison, the MAT waveforms predict nonsingular amplitudes at wavefront cusps and it predicts the diffracted signals from these cusps. A Maslov solution which integrates ray contributions over a single slowness component will break down when rays focus in 3D (at a point rather than along a line). One of the tested shales shows such a point caustic and integration over 2 slowness components is required to remove the amplitude singularity. Finally, we examine the effects of wavefront triplications on Alford rotations which are used to estimate shear-wave splitting. In such cases, the rotation successfully finds the fast shear-wave polarization, but it can be unreliable in its estimate of the time separation. (authors) 21 refs.

  9. Systematic reviews of randomised clinical trials examining the effects of psychotherapeutic interventions versus "no intervention" for acute major depressive disorder and a randomised trial examining the effects of "third wave" cognitive therapy versus mentalization-based treatment for acute major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Cognitive therapy and psychodynamic therapy may be effective treatment options for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment in systematic...... reviews. The two modern forms of psychotherapy, "third wave" cognitive therapy and mentalization-based treatment, have both gained some ground as treatments of psychiatric disorders. No randomised trial has compared the effects of these two interventions for major depressive disorder. We performed two...... systematic reviews with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses using The Cochrane Collaboration methodology examining the effects of cognitive therapy and psycho-dynamic therapy for major depressive disorder. We developed a thorough treatment protocol for a randomised trial with low risks of bias...

  10. Health education for patients with acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-liang; Shi, Yan; Willis, Karen; Wu, Chiung-Jung (Jo); Johnson, Maree

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This umbrella review aimed to identify the current evidence on health education-related interventions for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM); identify the educational content, delivery methods, intensity, duration and setting required. The purpose was to provide recommendations for educational interventions for high-risk patients with both ACS and T2DM. Design Umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Setting Inpatient and postdischarge settings. Participants Patients with ACS and T2DM. Data sources CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute, Journals@Ovid, EMBase, Medline, PubMed and Web of Science databases from January 2000 through May 2016. Outcomes measures Clinical outcomes (such as glycated haemoglobin), behavioural outcomes (such as smoking), psychosocial outcomes (such as anxiety) and medical service use. Results Fifty-one eligible reviews (15 for ACS and 36 for T2DM) consisting of 1324 relevant studies involving 2 88 057 patients (15 papers did not provide the total sample); 30 (58.8%) reviews were rated as high quality. Nurses only and multidisciplinary teams were the most frequent professionals to provide education, and most educational interventions were delivered postdischarge. Face-to-face sessions were the most common delivery formats, and many education sessions were also delivered by telephone or via web contact. The frequency of educational sessions was weekly or monthly, and an average of 3.7 topics was covered per education session. Psychoeducational interventions were generally effective at reducing smoking and admissions for patients with ACS. Culturally appropriate health education, self-management educational interventions, group medical visits and psychoeducational interventions were generally effective for patients with T2DM. Conclusions Results indicate that there is a body of current evidence about the efficacy of health education, its content and

  11. Cognitive correlates of pragmatic language comprehension in adult traumatic brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Dane A; Rogish, Miles; Alexander, Timothy; Riggs, Kevin J

    2017-09-13

    Effective pragmatic comprehension of language is critical for successful communication and interaction, but this ability is routinely impaired following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (1,2). Individual studies have investigated the cognitive domains associated with impaired pragmatic comprehension, but there remains little understanding of the relative importance of these domains in contributing to pragmatic comprehension impairment following TBI. This paper presents a systematic meta-analytic review of the observed correlations between pragmatic comprehension and cognitive processes following TBI. Five meta-analyses were computed, which quantified the relationship between pragmatic comprehension and five key cognitive constructs (declarative memory; working memory; attention; executive functions; social cognition). Significant moderate-to-strong correlations were found between all cognitive measures and pragmatic comprehension, where declarative memory was the strongest correlate. Thus, our findings indicate that pragmatic comprehension in TBI is associated with an array of domain general cognitive processes, and as such deficits in these cognitive domains may underlie pragmatic comprehension difficulties following TBI. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Review of 5kW wave energy LOPF buoy design study and test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia

    stage, in line with the TRL and four phases development (proof of concept, design and feasibility study, field trials and half or full‐scale trials) promoted by AAU and supported by the marine renewable energy sector. To complement this, the IEC 114 standards define 3 stages of testing (1=small scale......The purpose of this project was to document the mechanical power production against a target power curve of a 5kW grid connected wave energy buoy in Nissum Bredning at Helligsø. This test site is typically used for open sea testing of scale 1:10 devices in irregular waves. In order to better adapt...... to the moderate wave height, the buoy was down sized by a factor of 3 and a new lower target power curve for the buoy was agreed to. Downsizing the project also had the advantage that it is more cost effective and fast to experiment with small wave energy devices than with big devices, at an early development...

  13. Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Versus Hamstring Tendon Autografts for Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review of Overlapping Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, Hayden B; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Houck, Darby A; McCarty, Eric C

    2017-11-01

    Previous meta-analyses have compared bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) with hamstring tendon (HT) autografts for primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). To conduct a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses comparing BPTB with HT autografts for ACLR to determine which meta-analyses provide the best available evidence. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. A systematic review was performed by searching the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. Search words included "anterior cruciate ligament" AND "patellar tendon" AND "hamstring tendon" AND "meta-analysis." Results were reviewed to determine study eligibility. Patient outcomes and postoperative complications were extracted from the included meta-analyses. Meta-analysis quality was assessed using the Oxman-Guyatt and Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM) scores. The Jadad decision algorithm was then utilized to determine which meta-analyses provided the best level of evidence. Sixteen meta-analyses containing an average of 1396 patients met the eligibility criteria. Most studies found BPTB autografts to provide superior stability but more postoperative complications, such as anterior knee pain and kneeling pain. Studies by Gabler et al (2016), Mohtadi et al (2011), and Xie et al (2015) received the highest Oxman-Guyatt and QUOROM scores, and therefore, these meta-analyses proved to provide the highest level of evidence. Additionally, Xie et al was selected as the highest-quality study in this systematic review based on the Jadad decision algorithm. The current best evidence suggests that ACLR with BPTB autografts provides superior static knee stability and that there are fewer postoperative complications in ACLR with HT autografts.

  14. Analysing the intermittent flapping flight of a Manx Shearwater, Puffinus puffinus, and its sporadic use of a wave-meandering wing-sailing flight strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, R. J.; Stansfield, S.; Bishop, C. M.

    2014-06-01

    Flights of Manx Shearwaters over the Irish Sea were investigated using GPS (n = 6) and simultaneous high sample rate triaxial accelerometry (n = 1). This pelagic species executes flight through intermittent bursts of flapping flight interspersed with gliding phases while meandering low over the waves. To facilitate the analysis and interpretation of body-mounted accelerometry in these challenging circumstances we introduce a combined time and frequency domain technique allowing accurate separation of flapping from gliding, measurement of wing-beat frequency and determination of flapping duty cycle. Considerable fluctuations in cycle period and time-averaged flapping duty cycle were found. Our approach offered high temporal precision, which was crucial as half the flapping bursts were briefer than 0.8 s and half the cycle times shorter than 2.55 s. Flapping duty cycles exceeding 38% were likeliest for short range flights and ascending flights. At higher duty cycles, cycle time decreased and wing-beat frequency and amplitude was only moderately elevated. Near-continuous flapping was only observed during steep ascents and strong headwinds. During a long-range foraging flight with good GPS coverage duty cycles between 7% and 63% were observed. We posit that flapping was modulated in order to maintain a steady airspeed in somewhat variable wind and wave conditions as part of a complex wave-meandering wing-sailing flight strategy that was often effective in reducing locomotion costs. Periods of very low duty cycle flight appear to have benefited from instantaneous crosswinds exceeding 10 m s-1 with an estimated three-fold reduction in biomechanical power. Accelerometry offers a very practical tool for studying flight performance and the methods herein described can be readily adapted to other species that intermittently beat their wings.

  15. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  16. Pulse transit time by R-wave-gated infrared photoplethysmography: review of the literature and personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naschitz, Jochanan E; Bezobchuk, Stanislas; Mussafia-Priselac, Renata; Sundick, Scott; Dreyfuss, Daniel; Khorshidi, Igal; Karidis, Argyro; Manor, Hagit; Nagar, Mihael; Peck, Elisabeth Rubin; Peck, Shannon; Storch, Shimon; Rosner, Itzhak; Gaitini, Luis

    2004-12-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is the time it takes a pulse wave to travel between two arterial sites. A rela tively short PTT is observed with high blood pressure (BP), aging, arteriosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Most methods used for measuring the PTT are cumbersome and expensive. In contrast, the interval between the peak of the R-wave on the electrocardiogram and the onset of the corresponding pulse in the finger pad measured by photoplethysmography can be easily measured. We review herein the literature and impart the experience at our institution on clinical applications of R-wave-gated photo-plethysmography (RWPP) as measurement of PTT. The MEDLINE data base on clinical applications of RWPP was reviewed. In addition, studies performed in the author's institution are presented. When used as a surrogate for beat-to-beat BP monitoring, RWPP did not meet the level of accuracy required for medical practice (two studies). RWPP produced accurate and reproducible signals when utilized as a surrogate for intra-thoracic pressure changes in obstructive sleep apnea, as well as BP arousals which accompany central sleep apnea (five studies). In estimation of arterial stiffness, RWPP was unsatisfactory (one study). In assessment of cardiovascular reactivity, abnormal values of RWPP were noted in autonomic failure (one study), while disease-specific reactivity patterns were identified utilizing a method involving RWPP (two studies). In clinical practice, sleep-apnea may be accurately monitored by RWPP. RWPP seems to reflect autonomic influences and may be particularly well-suited for the study of vascular reactivity. Thus, further descriptions of disease-specific cardiovascular reactivity patterns may be possible with techniques based on RWPP. Other clinical uses of RWPP are investigational.

  17. Role of stable isotope analyses in reconstructing past life-histories and the provenancing human skeletal remains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrawat Jagmahender Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present scenario of use of stable isotopes (mainly δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, 87Sr to trace past life behaviours like breast feeding and weaning practices, the geographic origin, migration history, paleodiet and subsistence patterns of past populations from the chemical signatures of isotopes imprinted in human skeletal remains. This approach is based on the state that food-web isotopic signatures are seen in the human bones and teeth and such signatures can change parallely with a variety of biogeochemical processes. By measuring δ13C and δ15N isotopic values of subadult tissues of different ages, the level of breast milk ingestion at particular ages and the components of the complementary foods can be assessed. Strontium and oxygen isotopic analyses have been used for determining the geographic origins and reconstructing the way of life of past populations as these isotopes can map the isotopic outline of the area from where the person acquired water and food during initial lifetime. The isotopic values of strontium and oxygen values are considered specific to geographical areas and serve as reliable chemical signatures of migration history of past human populations (local or non-local to the site. Previous isotopic studies show that the subsistence patterns of the past human populations underwent extensive changes from nomadic to complete agricultural dependence strategies. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of local fauna of any archaeological site can be used to elucidate the prominence of freshwater resources in the diet of the past human populations found near the site. More extensive research covering isotopic descriptions of various prehistoric, historic and modern populations is needed to explore the role of stable isotope analysis for provenancing human skeletal remains and assessing human migration patterns/routes, geographic origins, paleodiet and subsistence practices of past populations.

  18. Can simply answering research questions change behaviour? Systematic review and meta analyses of brief alcohol intervention trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McCambridge

    Full Text Available Participant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed in randomized manipulations of the effects of answering questions on drinking behaviour in brief intervention trials.Multiple methods were used to identify primary studies. Between-group differences in total weekly alcohol consumption, quantity per drinking day and AUDIT scores were evaluated in random effects meta-analyses. Ten trials were included in this review, of which two did not provide findings for quantitative study, in which three outcomes were evaluated. Between-group differences were of the magnitude of 13.7 (-0.17 to 27.6 grams of alcohol per week (approximately 1.5 U.K. units or 1 standard U.S. drink and 1 point (0.1 to 1.9 in AUDIT score. There was no difference in quantity per drinking day.Answering questions on drinking in brief intervention trials appears to alter subsequent self-reported behaviour. This potentially generates bias by exposing non-intervention control groups to an integral component of the intervention. The effects of brief alcohol interventions may thus have been consistently under-estimated. These findings are relevant to evaluations of any interventions to alter behaviours which involve participant self-report.

  19. Can simply answering research questions change behaviour? Systematic review and meta analyses of brief alcohol intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros

    2011-01-01

    Participant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed in randomized manipulations of the effects of answering questions on drinking behaviour in brief intervention trials. Multiple methods were used to identify primary studies. Between-group differences in total weekly alcohol consumption, quantity per drinking day and AUDIT scores were evaluated in random effects meta-analyses. Ten trials were included in this review, of which two did not provide findings for quantitative study, in which three outcomes were evaluated. Between-group differences were of the magnitude of 13.7 (-0.17 to 27.6) grams of alcohol per week (approximately 1.5 U.K. units or 1 standard U.S. drink) and 1 point (0.1 to 1.9) in AUDIT score. There was no difference in quantity per drinking day. Answering questions on drinking in brief intervention trials appears to alter subsequent self-reported behaviour. This potentially generates bias by exposing non-intervention control groups to an integral component of the intervention. The effects of brief alcohol interventions may thus have been consistently under-estimated. These findings are relevant to evaluations of any interventions to alter behaviours which involve participant self-report.

  20. Controversies about sugars: results from systematic reviews and meta-analyses on obesity, cardiometabolic disease and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tauseef A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2016-11-01

    Fructose-containing sugars are a focus of attention as a public health target for their putative role in obesity and cardiometabolic disease including diabetes. The fructose moiety is singled out to be the primary driver for the harms of sugars due to its unique endocrine signal and pathophysiological role. However, this is only supported by ecological studies, animal models of overfeeding and select human intervention studies with supraphysiological doses or lack of control for energy. The highest level of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of controlled trials has not shown that fructose-containing sugars behave any differently from other forms of digestible carbohydrates. Fructose-containing sugars can only lead to weight gain and other unintended harms on cardiometabolic risk factors insofar as the excess calories they provide. Prospective cohort studies, which provide the strongest observational evidence, have shown an association between fructose-containing sugars and cardiometabolic risk including weight gain, cardiovascular disease outcomes and diabetes only when restricted to sugar-sweetened beverages and not for sugars from other sources. In fact, sugar-sweetened beverages are a marker of an unhealthy lifestyle and their drinkers consume more calories, exercise less, smoke more and have a poor dietary pattern. The potential for overconsumption of sugars in the form of sugary foods and drinks makes targeting sugars, as a source of excess calories, a prudent strategy. However, sugar content should not be the sole determinant of a healthy diet. There are many other factors in the diet-some providing excess calories while others provide beneficial nutrients. Rather than just focusing on one energy source, we should consider the whole diet for health benefits.

  1. Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in England, 1950-2009: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Kirkbride

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic review of incidence rates in England over a sixty-year period to determine the extent to which rates varied along accepted (age, sex and less-accepted epidemiological gradients (ethnicity, migration and place of birth and upbringing, time.To determine variation in incidence of several psychotic disorders as above.Published and grey literature searches (MEDLINE, PSycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, ASSIA, HMIC, and identification of unpublished data through bibliographic searches and author communication.Published 1950-2009; conducted wholly or partially in England; original data on incidence of non-organic adult-onset psychosis or one or more factor(s pertaining to incidence.People, 16-64 years, with first -onset psychosis, including non-affective psychoses, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychotic depression and substance-induced psychosis.Title, abstract and full-text review by two independent raters to identify suitable citations. Data were extracted to a standardized extraction form. Descriptive appraisals of variation in rates, including tables and forest plots, and where suitable, random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions to test specific hypotheses; rate heterogeneity was assessed by the I²-statistic.83 citations met inclusion. Pooled incidence of all psychoses (N = 9 was 31.7 per 100,000 person-years (95%CI: 24.6-40.9, 23.2 (95%CI: 18.3-29.5 for non-affective psychoses (N = 8, 15.2 (95%CI: 11.9-19.5 for schizophrenia (N = 15 and 12.4 (95%CI: 9.0-17.1 for affective psychoses (N = 7. This masked rate heterogeneity (I²: 0.54-0.97, possibly explained by socio-environmental factors; our review confirmed (via meta-regression the typical age-sex interaction in psychosis risk, including secondary peak onset in women after 45 years. Rates of most disorders were elevated in several ethnic minority groups compared with the white (British population. For example, for schizophrenia: black Caribbean (pooled

  2. Electroencephalographic precursors of spike-wave discharges in a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy: Power spectrum and coherence EEG analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, Evgenia; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2009-04-01

    Periods in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that immediately precede the onset of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWD) were examined in WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. Precursors of SWD (preSWD) were classified based on the distribution of EEG power in delta-theta-alpha frequency bands as measured in the frontal cortex. In 95% of preSWD, an elevation of EEG power was detected in delta band (1-4Hz). 73% of preSWD showed high power in theta frequencies (4.5-8Hz); these preSWD might correspond to 5-9Hz oscillations that were found in GAERS before SWD onset [Pinault, D., Vergnes, M., Marescaux, C., 2001. Medium-voltage 5-9Hz oscillations give rise to spike-and-wave discharges in a genetic model of absence epilepsy: in vivo dual extracellular recording of thalamic relay and reticular neurons. Neuroscience 105, 181-201], however, theta component of preSWD in our WAG/Rij rats was not shaped into a single rhythm. It is concluded that a coalescence of delta and theta in the cortex is favorable for the occurrence of SWD. The onset of SWD was associated with strengthening of intracortical and thalamo-cortical coherence in 9.5-14Hz and in double beta frequencies. No features of EEG coherence can be considered as unique for any of preSWD subtype. Reticular and ventroposteromedial thalamic nuclei were strongly coupled even before the onset of SWD. All this suggests that SWD derive from an intermixed delta-theta EEG background; seizure onset associates with reinforcement of intracortical and cortico-thalamic associations.

  3. Validated finite element analyses of WaveOne Endodontic Instruments: a comparison between M-Wire and NiTi alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonessio, N; Pereira, E S J; Lomiento, G; Arias, A; Bahia, M G A; Buono, V T L; Peters, O A

    2015-05-01

    To validate torsional analysis, based on finite elements, of WaveOne instruments against in vitro tests and to model the effects of different nickel-titanium (NiTi) materials. WaveOne reciprocating instruments (Small, Primary and Large, n = 8 each, M-Wire) were tested under torsion according to standard ISO 3630-1. Torsional profiles including torque and angle at fracture were determined. Test conditions were reproduced through Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations based on micro-CT scans at 10-μm resolution; results were compared to experimental data using analysis of variance and two-sided one sample t-tests. The same simulation was performed on virtual instruments with identical geometry and load condition, based on M-Wire or conventional NiTi alloy. Torsional profiles from FEA simulations were in significant agreement with the in vitro results. Therefore, the models developed in this study were accurate and able to provide reliable simulation of the torsional performance. Stock NiTi files under torsional tests had up to 44.9%, 44.9% and 44.1% less flexibility than virtual M-Wire files at small deflections for Small, Primary and Large instruments, respectively. As deflection levels increased, the differences in flexibility between the two sets of simulated instruments decreased until fracture. Stock NiTi instruments had a torsional fracture resistance up to 10.3%, 8.0% and 7.4% lower than the M-Wire instruments, for the Small, Primary and Large file, respectively. M-Wire instruments benefitted primarily through higher material flexibility while still at low deflection levels, compared with conventional NiTi alloy. At fracture, the instruments did not take complete advantage of the enhanced fractural resistance of the M-Wire material, which determines only limited improvements of the torsional performance. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Characteristics of meta-analyses and their component studies in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: a cross-sectional, descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cochrane systematic reviews collate and summarise studies of the effects of healthcare interventions. The characteristics of these reviews and the meta-analyses and individual studies they contain provide insights into the nature of healthcare research and important context for the development of relevant statistical and other methods. Methods We classified every meta-analysis with at least two studies in every review in the January 2008 issue of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR according to the medical specialty, the types of interventions being compared and the type of outcome. We provide descriptive statistics for numbers of meta-analyses, numbers of component studies and sample sizes of component studies, broken down by these categories. Results We included 2321 reviews containing 22,453 meta-analyses, which themselves consist of data from 112,600 individual studies (which may appear in more than one meta-analysis. Meta-analyses in the areas of gynaecology, pregnancy and childbirth (21%, mental health (13% and respiratory diseases (13% are well represented in the CDSR. Most meta-analyses address drugs, either with a control or placebo group (37% or in a comparison with another drug (25%. The median number of meta-analyses per review is six (inter-quartile range 3 to 12. The median number of studies included in the meta-analyses with at least two studies is three (inter-quartile range 2 to 6. Sample sizes of individual studies range from 2 to 1,242,071, with a median of 91 participants. Discussion It is clear that the numbers of studies eligible for meta-analyses are typically very small for all medical areas, outcomes and interventions covered by Cochrane reviews. This highlights the particular importance of suitable methods for the meta-analysis of small data sets. There was little variation in number of studies per meta-analysis across medical areas, across outcome data types or across types of

  5. A physical method to analyse scattered waves from burnt coal seam and its application to estimate thickness of fire scars in central Borneo using L-Band SAR data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetuko, J.; Tateishi, R.; Takeuchi, N. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Center for Environmental Remote Sensing

    2003-08-01

    A physical method was conducted to analyse scattered waves from burnt coal seam in order to estimate the thickness of fire scars. The model was composed of three media namely; air, burnt coal seam and peat. For computation purposes, the equivalent circuit of this model was conducted using a classical transmission line circuit method. The relationship between backscattering coefficient and thickness of burnt coal seam was defined in terms of the logarithm of the reflection coefficient (in power). The analysis result was confirmed by simulation using a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The simulation was performed using a two-dimensional (2-D) finite-difference model for scattered waves from a burnt coal seam. The model used the equations of scattered electromagnetic fields that were derived from Maxwell's equations. A Mur method was used to surround the simulation space and absorb the outward travelling waves. Analysis and simulation results were similar. Subsequently, the model was applied to estimate the thickness of burnt coal seam in central Borneo fire events, that occurred in 1997, using a Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) SAR data. Results showed that fire scars in the study area reached 0.52m in depth (thickness). This agrees with ground measurements.

  6. Within What Distance Does "Greenness" Best Predict Physical Health? A Systematic Review of Articles with GIS Buffer Analyses across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Matthew; Lee, Kangjae

    2017-06-23

    Is the amount of "greenness" within a 250-m, 500-m, 1000-m or a 2000-m buffer surrounding a person's home a good predictor of their physical health? The evidence is inconclusive. We reviewed Web of Science articles that used geographic information system buffer analyses to identify trends between physical health, greenness, and distance within which greenness is measured. Our inclusion criteria were: (1) use of buffers to estimate residential greenness; (2) statistical analyses that calculated significance of the greenness-physical health relationship; and (3) peer-reviewed articles published in English between 2007 and 2017. To capture multiple findings from a single article, we selected our unit of inquiry as the analysis, not the article. Our final sample included 260 analyses in 47 articles. All aspects of the review were in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Analyses were independently judged as more, less, or least likely to be biased based on the inclusion of objective health measures and income/education controls. We found evidence that larger buffer sizes, up to 2000 m, better predicted physical health than smaller ones. We recommend that future analyses use nested rather than overlapping buffers to evaluate to what extent greenness not immediately around a person's home (i.e., within 1000-2000 m) predicts physical health.

  7. Genetic and non-genetic risk factors for pre-eclampsia: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Evangelos; Papatheodorou, Stefania I

    2017-11-16

    To summarize evidence from the literature on the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, assess the presence of statistical biases and identify associations with robust evidence. We searched PubMed and ISI Web of Science from inception to October, 2016, to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies examining associations between genetic and non-genetic risk factors for preeclampsia. For each meta-analysis we estimated the summary effect size by random-effects and fixed-effects models, the 95% confidence interval and the 95% prediction interval. We estimated the between-study heterogeneity expressed by I(2) (considering above 75% as very large), evidence of small-study effects (large studies had significantly more conservative results than smaller studies and evidence of excess significance bias (too many studies with statistically significant results). Fifty-seven eligible papers were identified providing data on 130 associations including 1466 primary studies, covering a very wide range of risk factors: co-morbid diseases, genetic factors, exposure to environmental agents and a range of biomarkers. Sixty-five (50%) associations had nominally statistically significant findings at P1000 cases, 95% prediction intervals excluding the null, not suggestive of large heterogeneity (I(2) 0.10), or excess of significance (P>0.05). Across the statistically significant genetic risk factors (P5G (recessive model) polymorphism was supported with strong evidence for a contribution to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Eleven factors (serum iron level, PAPP-A, chronic kidney disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, mental stress, bacterial & viral infections, cigarette smoking, oocyte donation vs assisted reproductive technology, obese vs normal weight women, severe obese vs normal weight women and primiparity) presented highly suggestive evidence for preeclampsia. A large proportion of meta-analyses of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for

  8. Reporting and Methodology of Multivariable Analyses in Prognostic Observational Studies Published in 4 Anesthesiology Journals: A Methodological Descriptive Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guglielminotti, Jean; Dechartres, Agnès; Mentré, France; Montravers, Philippe; Longrois, Dan; Laouénan, Cedric

    .... In this methodological descriptive review, we critically assessed the reporting and methodology of multivariable analysis used in observational prognostic studies published in anesthesiology journals...

  9. Is intramedullary fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fracture superior to plate fixation? Evidence from a systematic review of discordant meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongsheng; Wang, Zhihong; Cao, Junming; Yang, Yipeng; Xia, Hehuan; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-07-01

    An increasing number of meta-analyses comparing intramedullary fixation (IF) with plate fixation (PF) for displaced midshaft clavicle fracture have been reported, but the inconsistent results obtained might confuse decision-making. We systematically reviewed discordant meta-analyses for assisting the decision-maker in interpreting and selecting amongst discordant meta-analyses and providing surgical recommendations for displaced midshaft clavicle fracture according to currently best available evidence. Meta-analyses on IF and PF for displaced midshaft clavicle fracture were identified by searching PubMed, Emabase and the Cochrane Library. A review of meta-analysis quality and data extraction was individually conducted by two reviewers. The meta-analysis providing the best available evidence was identified using the Jadad decision algorithm. Nine studies were included, five of which were of Level-II evidence and four of which were of Level-III evidence. These meta-analyses scored from 6 to 10 according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews instrument. With respect to the Jadad decision algorithm, the best meta-analysis was chosen depending upon publication characteristics and methodology of primary studies, language restrictions, and whether data on individual patients were analysed. A meta-analysis incorporating more randomised controlled trials was eventually selected. The best available evidence indicated that the differences between IF and PF were not significant in terms of shoulder function or the rate of treatment failure. However, IF significantly decreased the operative time and the rate of non-operative complications, especially the rate of infection. Based on the best available evidence, IF may be superior to PF for treating displaced midshaft clavicle fracture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Is surgical intervention more effective than non-surgical treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture? A systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaohong; Lin, Linghan; Li, Hao; Zhao, Yachao; Liu, Longgang; Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Deli; He, Qing; Ruan, Dike

    2016-12-01

    There is discordance in the results from meta-analyses on surgical versus non-surgical treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture. We systematically reviewed the overlapping meta-analyses on this topic to provide information that will be helpful to decision makers when selecting treatments based on the current best available evidence. We comprehensively searched multiple databases for systematic reviews that compared surgical and non-surgical treatments for acute Achilles tendon rupture. We only included meta-analyses that comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The methodological quality and extracted data were assessed. The meta-analysis that offered the best evidence was ascertained with the Jadad decision algorithm. Nine meta-analyses were included in our study and all of them included RCTs with Level-II evidence. Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) scores ranged from 5 to 10 (median 7). The Jadad decision algorithm was used to select a high-quality meta-analysis with more RCTs. The results from this study showed that when functional rehabilitation was used, non-surgical intervention was similar to surgical treatment regarding the incidence of range of motion, rerupture, calf circumference and functional outcomes, and the incidence of other complications was reduced. Non-surgical intervention significantly increased the rerupture rate if functional rehabilitation was not considered. The findings of meta-analyses regarding surgical versus non-surgical treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture are inconsistent. According to this systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses, the current best available evidence suggests that centers offering functional rehabilitation may prefer non-surgical intervention. Surgical treatment may be preferred at centers that do not have functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the mechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit by supersonic shear wave imaging elastography: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Mônica Marinho e Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This review aimed to describe the state of the art in muscle-tendon unit (MTU assessment by supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI elastography in states of muscle contraction and stretching, during aging, and in response to injury and therapeutic interventions. A consensus exists that MTU elasticity increases during passive stretching or contraction, and decreases after static stretching, electrostimulation, massage, and dry needling. There is currently no agreement regarding changes in the MTU due to aging and injury. Currently, the application of SSI for the purpose of diagnosis, rehabilitation, and physical training remains limited by a number of issues, including the lack of normative value ranges, the lack of consensus regarding the appropriate terminology, and an inadequate understanding of the main technical limitations of this novel technology.

  12. Extracorporeal shock wave treatment for shoulder calcific tendonitis: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouzopoulos, G.; Tzurbakis, M. [Orthopaedic Department of Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (Greece); Stamatakos, M. [University of Athens, General Surgery Department of Laiko Hospital, Athens (Greece); Mouzopoulos, D. [Radiology Department of IKA Pentelis, Athens (Greece)

    2007-09-15

    The treatment of patients with calcific tendonitis is typically conservative, including physical therapy, iontophoresis, deep friction, local or systemic application of noninflammatory drugs, needle irrigation-aspiration of calcium deposit, and subacromial bursal steroid injection. If the pain becomes chronic or intermittent after several months of conservative treatment, arthroscopic and open procedures are available to curette the calcium deposit, and additional subacromial decompression can be performed if necessary. As an alternative, minimally invasive extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been postulated to be an effective treatment option for treating calcific tendinitis of the shoulder, before surgery. Herein we discuss the indications, mechanism of therapeutic effect, efficacy of treatment, and complications after ESWT application. (orig.)

  13. Standardised mindfulness-based interventions in healthcare: an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinske A Gotink

    Full Text Available Mindfulness-based therapies are being used in a wide range of common chronic conditions in both treatment and prevention despite lack of consensus about their effectiveness in different patient categories.To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness MBSR and MBCT in different patient categories.A systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs, using the standardized MBSR or MBCT programs. We used PRISMA guidelines to assess the quality of the included reviews and performed a random effects meta-analysis with main outcome measure Cohen's d. All types of participants were considered.The search produced 187 reviews: 23 were included, covering 115 unique RCTs and 8,683 unique individuals with various conditions. Compared to wait list control and compared to treatment as usual, MBSR and MBCT significantly improved depressive symptoms (d=0.37; 95%CI 0.28 to 0.45, based on 5 reviews, N=2814, anxiety (d=0.49; 95%CI 0.37 to 0.61, based on 4 reviews, N=2525, stress (d=0.51; 95%CI 0.36 to 0.67, based on 2 reviews, N=1570, quality of life (d=0.39; 95%CI 0.08 to 0.70, based on 2 reviews, N=511 and physical functioning (d=0.27; 95%CI 0.12 to 0.42, based on 3 reviews, N=1015. Limitations include heterogeneity within patient categories, risk of publication bias and limited long-term follow-up in several studies.The evidence supports the use of MBSR and MBCT to alleviate symptoms, both mental and physical, in the adjunct treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, depression, anxiety disorders and in prevention in healthy adults and children.

  14. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of home telemonitoring interventions for patients with chronic diseases: a critical assessment of their methodological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsiou, Spyros; Paré, Guy; Jaana, Mirou

    2013-07-23

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of home telemonitoring interventions for patients with chronic diseases have increased over the past decade and become increasingly important to a wide range of clinicians, policy makers, and other health care stakeholders. While a few criticisms about their methodological rigor and synthesis approaches have recently appeared, no formal appraisal of their quality has been conducted yet. The primary aim of this critical review was to evaluate the methodology, quality, and reporting characteristics of prior reviews that have investigated the effects of home telemonitoring interventions in the context of chronic diseases. Ovid MEDLINE, the Database of Abstract of Reviews of Effects (DARE), and Health Technology Assessment Database (HTA) of the Cochrane Library were electronically searched to find relevant systematic reviews, published between January 1966 and December 2012. Potential reviews were screened and assessed for inclusion independently by three reviewers. Data pertaining to the methods used were extracted from each included review and examined for accuracy by two reviewers. A validated quality assessment instrument, R-AMSTAR, was used as a framework to guide the assessment process. Twenty-four reviews, nine of which were meta-analyses, were identified from more than 200 citations. The bibliographic search revealed that the number of published reviews has increased substantially over the years in this area and although most reviews focus on studying the effects of home telemonitoring on patients with congestive heart failure, researcher interest has extended to other chronic diseases as well, such as diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. Nevertheless, an important number of these reviews appear to lack optimal scientific rigor due to intrinsic methodological issues. Also, the overall quality of reviews does not appear to have improved over time. While several criteria were met

  15. Ain't Necessarily So : Review and Critique of Recent Meta-Analyses of Behavioral Medicine Interventions in Health Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Objective: We examined four meta-analyses of behavioral interventions for adults (Dixon, Keefe, Scipio, Perri, & Abernethy, 2007; Hoffman, Papas, Chatkoff, & Kerns, 2007; Irwin, Cole, & Nicassio, 2006; and Jacobsen, Donovan, Vadaparampil, & Small, 2007) that have appeared in the Evidence Based

  16. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ehealth interventions in somatic diseases: A systematic review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Elbert (Niels); H. van Os-Medendorp (Harmieke); W. van Renselaar (Wilco); A.G. Ekeland (Anne G); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona); H. Raat (Hein); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); S.G.M.A. Pasmans (Suzanne)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractEHealth potentially enhances quality of care and may reduce health care costs. However, a review of systematic reviews published in 2010 concluded that high-quality evidence on the benefits of eHealth interventions was still lacking. Objective: We conducted a systematic review of

  17. Surveying the traumatic stress literature: the effective use of bibliographic databases in preparing reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Fred; Hamblen, Jessica L

    2010-12-01

    The value of a systematic review or meta-analysis depends upon the care with which it is designed and conducted. A major factor in this is the literature search that identifies the articles to be reviewed. Careful selection of bibliographic databases and the use of well-designed search strategies based on the controlled vocabularies contained in published thesauri are essential to ensure retrieval of all relevant articles. This commentary offers suggestions for identifying the literature to be searched, designing a suitable search strategy, using a controlled vocabulary, and describing the bibliographic methodology underlying a systematic review or meta-analysis.

  18. Computation of leaky guided waves dispersion spectrum using vibroacoustic analyses and the Matrix Pencil Method: a validation study for immersed rectangular waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, M; Bartoli, I; Castellazzi, G; Marzani, A

    2014-09-01

    The paper aims at validating a recently proposed Semi Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) formulation coupled with a 2.5D Boundary Element Method (2.5D BEM) for the extraction of dispersion data in immersed waveguides of generic cross-section. To this end, three-dimensional vibroacoustic analyses are carried out on two waveguides of square and rectangular cross-section immersed in water using the commercial Finite Element software Abaqus/Explicit. Real wavenumber and attenuation dispersive data are extracted by means of a modified Matrix Pencil Method. It is demonstrated that the results obtained using the two techniques are in very good agreement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Wave of the Future?: Integrating IR, Outcomes Assessment, Planning, Program Review, and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimer, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Integrating institutional research, outcomes assessment, program review, strategic planning, and accreditation can be a powerful means of creating a culture of evidence-based decision making and continuous improvement. This study examined how this "integrated" model is organized in practice, how such offices began, why this approach was chosen,…

  20. B-waves revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spiegelberg

    2016-12-01

    With the still unmet need for a clinically acceptable method for acquiring intracranial compliance, and the revival of ICP waveform analysis, B-waves are moving back into the research focus. Herein we provide a concise review of the literature on B-waves, including a critical assessment of non-invasive methods for obtaining B-wave surrogates.

  1. Nonpharmacological Interventions for ADHD: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials of Dietary and Psychological Treatments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S; Brandeis, Daniel; Cortese, Samuele; Daley, David; Ferrin, Maite; Holtmann, Martin; Stevenson, Jim; Danckaerts, Marina; van der Oord, Saskia; Döpfner, Manfred; Dittmann, Ralf W; Simonoff, Emily; Zuddas, Alessandro; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Coghill, David; Hollis, Chris; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel; Wong, Ian C.K; Sergeant, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analytic review of six types of nonpharmacological interventions, including dietary and psychological treatments, for children with ADHD found positive effects on ADHD symptoms for all types...

  2. Effects of parenting interventions for at-risk parents with infants: a systematic review and meta-analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Rayce, Signe B; Rasmussen, Ida S; Klest, Sihu K; Patras, Joshua; Pontoppidan, Maiken

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Infancy is a critical stage of life, and a secure relationship with caring and responsive caregivers is crucial for healthy infant development. Early parenting interventions aim to support families in which infants are at risk of developmental harm. Our objective is to systematically review the effects of parenting interventions on child development and on parent–child relationship for at-risk families with infants aged 0–12 months. Design This is a systematic review and meta-analy...

  3. A systematic review of care delivery models and economic analyses in lymphedema: health policy impact (2004-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, N L; Weiss, R; Feldman, J L; Stewart, B R; Armer, J M; Cormier, J N; Shih, Y-C T

    2013-03-01

    A project of the American Lymphedema Framework Project (ALFP), this review seeks to examine the policy and economic impact of caring for patients with lymphedema, a common side effect of cancer treatment. This review is the first of its kind undertaken to investigate, coordinate, and streamline lymphedema policy initiatives in the United States with potential applicability worldwide. As part of a large scale literature review aiming to systematically evaluate the level of evidence of contemporary peer-reviewed lymphedema literature (2004 to 2011), publications on care delivery models, health policy, and economic impact were retrieved, summarized, and evaluated by a team of investigators and clinical experts. The review substantiates lymphedema education models and clinical models implemented at the community, health care provider, and individual level that improve delivery of care. The review exposes the lack of economic analysis related to lymphedema. Despite a dearth of evidence, efforts towards policy initiatives at the federal and state level are underway. These initiatives and the evidence to support them are examined and recommendations for translating these findings into clinical practice are made. Medical and community-based disease management interventions, taking on a public approach, are effective delivery models for lymphedema care and demonstrate great potential to improve cancer survivorship care. Efforts to create policy at the federal, state, and local level should target implementation of these models. More research is needed to identify costs associated with the treatment of lymphedema and to model the cost outlays and potential cost savings associated with comprehensive management of chronic lymphedema.

  4. Systematic review finds that study data not published in full text articles have unclear impact on meta-analyses results in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Christine M; Blümle, Anette; Schell, Lisa K; Schwarzer, Guido; Oeller, Patrick; Cabrera, Laura; von Elm, Erik; Briel, Matthias; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis as part of a systematic review aims to provide a thorough, comprehensive and unbiased statistical summary of data from the literature. However, relevant study results could be missing from a meta-analysis because of selective publication and inadequate dissemination. If missing outcome data differ systematically from published ones, a meta-analysis will be biased with an inaccurate assessment of the intervention effect. As part of the EU-funded OPEN project (www.open-project.eu) we conducted a systematic review that assessed whether the inclusion of data that were not published at all and/or published only in the grey literature influences pooled effect estimates in meta-analyses and leads to different interpretation. Systematic review of published literature (methodological research projects). Four bibliographic databases were searched up to February 2016 without restriction of publication year or language. Methodological research projects were considered eligible for inclusion if they reviewed a cohort of meta-analyses which (i) compared pooled effect estimates of meta-analyses of health care interventions according to publication status of data or (ii) examined whether the inclusion of unpublished or grey literature data impacts the result of a meta-analysis. Seven methodological research projects including 187 meta-analyses comparing pooled treatment effect estimates according to different publication status were identified. Two research projects showed that published data showed larger pooled treatment effects in favour of the intervention than unpublished or grey literature data (Ratio of ORs 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.28 and 1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.66). In the remaining research projects pooled effect estimates and/or overall findings were not significantly changed by the inclusion of unpublished and/or grey literature data. The precision of the pooled estimate was increased with narrower 95% confidence interval. Although we may anticipate that

  5. Using meta-regression analyses in addition to conventional systematic review methods to examine the variation in cost-effectiveness results - A case study Utilization, expenditure, economics and financing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Burgers (Laura); F.T. van de Wetering (Fleur); J.L. Severens (Hans); E. Orlewska (William Ken)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Systematic reviews of cost-effectiveness analyses summarize results and describe study characteristics. Variability in the study results is often explained qualitatively or based on sensitivity analyses of individual studies. However, variability due to input parameters and

  6. Peer Review of "Analysis and Simulation of Near-Field Wave Motion Data from the Source Physics Experiment Explosions," Antoun, et al, 2011 Monitoring Research Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steedman, David W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    The following is primarily a review of 'Analysis and Simulation of Near-Field Wave Motion Data from the Source Physics Experiment Explosions,' Antoun, et al, published by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) after SPE-1 in 2011 (Ref. 1). However, LLNL analysis of SPE-2 (Ref. 2) will also be discussed. A review by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel of Reference 1 finds both the evidence of the effects of joints on the data and the correlation of calculations with the data weak. This conclusion is made on three separate levels: (1) Fundamental observations made of the various referenced figures taken as presented; (2) Observations made following corrections to errors and omissions to the selected data; and (3) Observations made after considering likely errors in the raw data set. The evidence presented in the referenced papers relies on subjective interpretation of various figures. This is the nature of this technical field of study and, indeed, much of our observation is also subjective.

  7. Effectiveness and harms of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines in children, adults and elderly: a critical review and re-analysis of 15 meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Lamberto; Ioannidis, John P A; Flacco, Maria Elena; De Vito, Corrado; Villari, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    Fifteen meta-analyses have been published between 1995 and 2011 to evaluate the efficacy/effectiveness and harms of diverse influenza vaccines--seasonal, H5N1 and 2009 (H1N1)--in various age-classes (healthy children, adults or elderly). These meta-analyses have often adopted different analyses and study selection criteria. Because it is difficult to have a clear picture of vaccine benefits and harms examining single systematic reviews, we compiled the main findings and evaluated which could be the most reasonable explanations for some differences in findings (or their interpretation) across previously published meta-analyses. For each age group, we performed analyses that included all trials that had been included in at least one relevant meta-analysis, also exploring whether effect sizes changed over time. Although we identified several discrepancies among the meta-analyses on seasonal vaccines for children and elderly, overall most seasonal influenza vaccines showed statistically significant efficacy/effectiveness, which was acceptable or high for laboratory-confirmed cases and of modest magnitude for clinically-confirmed cases. The available evidence on parenteral inactivated vaccines for children aged < 2 y remains scarce. Pre-pandemic "avian" H5N1 and pandemic 2009 (H1N1) vaccines can achieve satisfactory immunogenicity, but no meta-analysis has addressed H1N1 vaccination impact on clinical outcomes. Data on harms are overall reassuring, but their value is diminished by inconsistent reporting.

  8. The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Waves 1 and 2: Review and summary of findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The NESARC, a “third generation” psychiatric epidemiologic survey that integrated detailed measures of alcohol and drug use and problems, has been the data source for over >850 publications. A comprehensive review of NESARC findings and their implications is lacking. Method NESARC was a survey of 43,093 participants that covered alcohol, drug and psychiatric disorders, risk factors, and consequences. Wave 1 of the NESARC was conducted in 2001-2002. Three years later, Wave 2 follow-up re-interviews were conducted with 34,653 of the original participants. Scopus and Pubmed were used to search for NESARC papers, which were sorted into topic areas and summarized. Result The most common disorders were alcohol and post-traumatic stress disorders, and major depression. Females had more internalizing disorders and males had more externalizing disorders, although the preponderance of males with alcohol disorders (the “gender gap”) is less pronounced than it was in previous decades. A race/ethnic “paradox” (lower risk among disadvantaged minorities than whites) remains unexplained. Younger participants had higher risk for substance and personality disorders, but not unipolar depressive or anxiety disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was extensive and often formed latent trans-diagnostic domains. Since 1991-1992, risk for marijuana and prescription drug disorders increased, while smoking decreased, although smoking decreases were less pronounced among those with comorbidity. A nexus of comorbidity, social support, and stress predicted transitions in diagnostic status between Waves 1 and 2. Childhood maltreatment predicted psychopathology. Alcohol and drug use disorders were seldom treated; attitudinal barriers (little perceived need, perceived alcoholism stigma, pessimism about efficacy) were more important in predicting non-treatment than financial barriers. Conclusions Understanding comorbidity and the effects of early stressors will require research

  9. Association of atopic diseases and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder : A systematic review and meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Cicek, Rukiye; de Vries, Tjalling W.; Hak, Eelko; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Over the last decades, the hypothesis has been raised that an atopic response could lead to the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study systematically reviews the observational cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that assessed the association between atopic

  10. The effect of grinding on the mechanical behavior of Y-TZP ceramics: A systematic review and meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, G.K.R.; Fraga, S.; Montagner, A.F.; Soares, F.Z.M.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Valandro, L.F.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to assess the effect of grinding on the mechanical properties, structural stability and superficial characteristics of Y-TZP ceramics. The MEDLINE via PubMed and Web of Science (ISI – Web of Knowledge) electronic databases were

  11. Standardised mindfulness-based interventions in healthcare : An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Gotink (Rinske); P. Chu (Paula); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); Benson, H. (Herbert); Fricchione, G.L. (Gregory L.); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Mindfulness-based therapies are being used in a wide range of common chronic conditions in both treatment and prevention despite lack of consensus about their effectiveness in different patient categories. Objective: To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness MBSR

  12. A new classification of spin in systematic reviews and meta-analyses was developed and ranked according to the severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yavchitz, Amélie; Ravaud, Philippe; Altman, Douglas G

    2016-01-01

    in the survey were (1) recommendations for clinical practice not supported by findings in the conclusion, (2) misleading title, and (3) selective reporting. Conclusion This study allowed for identifying spin that is likely to distort interpretation. Our classification could help authors, editors, and reviewers...

  13. Shenyi Capsule () plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: A systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiu-Wei; Hu, Nai-Dong; Sun, Gui-Zhi; Li, Meng; Zhang, Pei-Tong

    2017-10-18

    To assist decision-makers interpret and choose among conflicting meta-analyses, as well as to offer treatment recommendations based on current best evidence by performing a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses regarding Shenyi Capsule (, SC) plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A literature search was conducted to select systematic reviews comparing SC plus chemotherapy with chemotherapy for NSCLC. Meta-analyses only composed of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Two authors individually estimated the quality of meta-analysis and extracted data. The Jadad decision algorithm was applied to guarantee which meta-analysis provided the best original evidence. A total of 5 meta-analyses were included. All the studies composed of RCTs or quasi-RCTs and were regarded as level-II evidence. The scores of the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews ranged from 3 to 6 (median 4). A high-quality meta-analysis with more RCTs was chosen, which suggested that SC plus chemotherapy could increase incidence of short-term efficacy, improve the quality of life and survival rate in comparison to chemotherapy. However, there was no statistically significant difference between SC plus chemotherapy and chemotherapy regarding chemotherapy-induced side effect, such as liver and kidney function obstacle, leukopenia, hemoglobin decrement and gastrointestinal adverse reaction. Based on the best available evidence, treatment effect of SC plus chemotherapy was better than chemotherapy and did not increase side effects. Therefore, SC plus chemotherapy may be superior to chemotherapy for treating NSCLC. However, due to some limitations, SC plus chemotherapy should be cautiously considered, and further high-quality meta-analyses are needed.

  14. Can pulses play a role in improving cardiometabolic health? Evidence from systematic reviews and meta?analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Viguiliouk, Effie; Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Kendall, Cyril W. C.; John L Sievenpiper

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) present important unmet prevention and treatment challenges. Dietary pulses are sustainable, affordable, and nutrient?dense foods that have shown a wide range of health benefits in the prevention and management of these conditions. Despite these findings, recommendations for pulse intake continue to vary across chronic disease guidelines, and intake levels continue to remain low. Here, we summarize findings from recent systematic reviews and...

  15. Endorsement of PRISMA statement and quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in nursing journals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Wilson W S; Lo, Kenneth K H; Khalechelvam, Parames

    2017-02-07

    Systematic reviews (SRs) often poorly report key information, thereby diminishing their usefulness. Previous studies evaluated published SRs and determined that they failed to meet explicit criteria or characteristics. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was recommended as a reporting guideline for SR and meta-analysis (MA), but previous studies showed that adherence to the statement was not high for SRs published in different medical fields. Thus, the aims of this study are twofold: (1) to investigate the number of nursing journals that have required or recommended the use of the PRISMA statement for reporting SR, and (2) to examine the adherence of SRs and/or meta-analyses to the PRISMA statement published in nursing journals. A cross-sectional study. Nursing journals listed in the ISI journal citation report were divided into 2 groups based on the recommendation of PRISMA statement in their 'Instruction for Authors'. SRs and meta-analyses published in 2014 were searched in 3 databases. 37 SRs and meta-analyses were randomly selected in each group. The adherence of each item to the PRISMA was examined and summarised using descriptive statistics. The quality of the SRs was assessed by Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews. The differences between the 2 groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Out of 107 nursing journals, 30 (28.0%) recommended or required authors to follow the PRISMA statement when they submit SRs or meta-analyses. The median rates of adherence to the PRISMA statement for reviews published in journals with and without PRISMA endorsement were 64.9% (IQR: 17.6-92.3%) and 73.0% (IQR: 59.5-94.6%), respectively. No significant difference was observed in any of the items between the 2 groups. The median adherence of SRs and meta-analyses in nursing journals to PRISMA is low at 64.9% and 73.0%, respectively. Nonetheless, the adherence level of nursing journals to the

  16. The differential impact of scientific quality, bibliometric factors, and social media activity on the influence of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Juan; Aguilar-Luque, Macarena; Gómez-Garcia, Francisco; Alcalde Mellado, Patricia; Gay-Mimbrera, Jesus; Carmona-Fernandez, Pedro J; Maestre-López, Beatriz; Sanz-Cabanillas, Juan Luís; Hernández Romero, José Luís; González-Padilla, Marcelino; Vélez García-Nieto, Antonio; Isla-Tejera, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using on line social networks to promote their work. Some authors have suggested that measuring social media activity can predict the impact of a primary study (i.e., whether or not an article will be highly cited). However, the influence of variables such as scientific quality, research disclosures, and journal characteristics on systematic reviews and meta-analyses has not yet been assessed. The present study aims to describe the effect of complex interactions between bibliometric factors and social media activity on the impact of systematic reviews and meta-analyses about psoriasis (PROSPERO 2016: CRD42016053181). Methodological quality was assessed using the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Altmetrics, which consider Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ mention counts as well as Mendeley and SCOPUS readers, and corresponding article citation counts from Google Scholar were obtained for each article. Metadata and journal-related bibliometric indices were also obtained. One-hundred and sixty-four reviews with available altmetrics information were included in the final multifactorial analysis, which showed that social media and impact factor have less effect than Mendeley and SCOPUS readers on the number of cites that appear in Google Scholar. Although a journal's impact factor predicted the number of tweets (OR, 1.202; 95% CI, 1.087-1.049), the years of publication and the number of Mendeley readers predicted the number of citations in Google Scholar (OR, 1.033; 95% CI, 1.018-1.329). Finally, methodological quality was related neither with bibliometric influence nor social media activity for systematic reviews. In conclusion, there seems to be a lack of connectivity between scientific quality, social media activity, and article usage, thus predicting scientific success based on these variables may be inappropriate in the particular case of systematic reviews.

  17. Nonpharmacological interventions for ADHD: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Brandeis, Daniel; Cortese, Samuele; Daley, David; Ferrin, Maite; Holtmann, Martin; Stevenson, Jim; Danckaerts, Marina; van der Oord, Saskia; Döpfner, Manfred; Dittmann, Ralf W; Simonoff, Emily; Zuddas, Alessandro; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Coghill, David; Hollis, Chris; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel; Wong, Ian C K; Sergeant, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    Nonpharmacological treatments are available for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although their efficacy remains uncertain. The authors undertook meta-analyses of the efficacy of dietary (restricted elimination diets, artificial food color exclusions, and free fatty acid supplementation) and psychological (cognitive training, neurofeedback, and behavioral interventions) ADHD treatments. Using a common systematic search and a rigorous coding and data extraction strategy across domains, the authors searched electronic databases to identify published randomized controlled trials that involved individuals who were diagnosed with ADHD (or who met a validated cutoff on a recognized rating scale) and that included an ADHD outcome. Fifty-four of the 2,904 nonduplicate screened records were included in the analyses. Two different analyses were performed. When the outcome measure was based on ADHD assessments by raters closest to the therapeutic setting, all dietary (standardized mean differences=0.21-0.48) and psychological (standardized mean differences=0.40-0.64) treatments produced statistically significant effects. However, when the best probably blinded assessment was employed, effects remained significant for free fatty acid supplementation (standardized mean difference=0.16) and artificial food color exclusion (standardized mean difference=0.42) but were substantially attenuated to nonsignificant levels for other treatments. Free fatty acid supplementation produced small but significant reductions in ADHD symptoms even with probably blinded assessments, although the clinical significance of these effects remains to be determined. Artificial food color exclusion produced larger effects but often in individuals selected for food sensitivities. Better evidence for efficacy from blinded assessments is required for behavioral interventions, neurofeedback, cognitive training, and restricted elimination diets before they can be supported as treatments for

  18. Is inertial flywheel resistance training superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength? A systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicens-Bordas, J; Esteve, E; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A; Bandholm, T; Thorborg, K

    2017-10-18

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine if inertial flywheel resistance training is superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength. The secondary aim was to determine whether inertial flywheel resistance training is superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving other muscular adaptations. A systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with no publication date restrictions until November 2016. We performed meta-analyses on randomised and non-randomised controlled trials to determine the standardized mean difference between the effects of inertial flywheel and gravity-dependent resistance training on muscle strength. A total of 76 and 71 participants were included in the primary and secondary analyses, respectively. After systematic review, we included three randomised and four non-randomised controlled trials. In the primary analysis for the primary outcome muscle strength, the pooled results from randomised controlled trials showed no difference (SMD=-0.05; 95%CI -0.51 to 0.40; p=0.82; I2=0%). In the secondary analyses of the primary outcome, the pooled results from non-randomised controlled trials showed no difference (SMD=0.02; 95%CI -0.45 to 0.49; p=0.93; I2=0%; and SMD=0.03; 95%CI -0.43 to 0.50; p=0.88; I2=0%). Meta-analysis on secondary outcomes could not be performed. Based on the available data, inertial flywheel resistance training was not superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in enhancing muscle strength. Data for other strength variables and other muscular adaptations was insufficient to draw firm conclusions from. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The clinical efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in pediatric urolithiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei; Wang, Zijie; Song, Rijin; Wang, Xiaolan; Qi, Kai; Dai, Qiying; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Min

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in pediatric urolithiasis. A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials (CENTRAL) were searched, and the stone-free rates (SFRs) of various stone sizes and stone positions were extracted from the eligible articles. The quality of the original articles was assessed according to the McHarm Scale. The risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidential intervals (CIs) were pooled, and the sensitive analysis was performed to evaluate the heterogeneity among all eligible studies. In total, 14 studies with 1842 patients were identified. The pooled RR for the SFR of stones less than 10 mm and greater than 10 mm was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.21, P pediatric urolithiasis were steinstrasse and abdominal colic, the incidences of which were 6.00 and 6.29 %, respectively. The SFR of stones 10 mm, and the SFR of stones located in proximal ureter was statistically greater than stones in middle or distal ureter in pediatric urolithiasis, leaving no significant between stones in renal PC and renal pelvis, or between upper/middle PC and lower PC. The use of ESWL in children is highly efficient, with negligible complications; ESWL therapy could be considered the first-line treatment for pediatric urolithiasis.

  20. High-energy extracorporeal shock-wave therapy for treating chronic calcific tendinitis of the shoulder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannuru, Raveendhara R; Flavin, Nina E; Vaysbrot, Elizaveta; Harvey, William; McAlindon, Timothy

    2014-04-15

    Calcific and noncalcific tendinitis of the shoulder can be unresponsive to conventional therapies. Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) has been suggested as an alternative treatment. To assess the efficacy of ESWT in patients with calcific and noncalcific tendinitis. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched up to 1 November 2013. Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing high-energy versus low-energy ESWT or placebo for treatment of calcific or noncalcific tendinitis of the shoulder. Outcome measures included pain (visual analogue scale score), functional assessment (Constant-Murley score), and resolution of calcifications. Three independent reviewers abstracted data and determined eligibility and quality by consensus. Twenty-eight RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Studies were heterogeneous. Twenty RCTs compared ESWT energy levels and placebo and consistently showed that high-energy ESWT was significantly better than placebo in decreasing pain and improving function and resorption of calcifications in calcific tendinitis. No significant difference was found between ESWT and placebo in treatment of noncalcific tendinitis. The number of RCTs was small, and the studies were heterogeneous. High-energy ESWT is effective for improving pain and shoulder function in chronic calcific shoulder tendinitis and can result in complete resolution of calcifications. This therapy may be underutilized for a condition that can be difficult to manage. None.

  1. Metamaterials, from electromagnetic waves to water waves, bending waves and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, G.

    2015-08-04

    We will review our recent work on metamaterials for different types of waves. Transposition of transform optics to water waves and bending waves on plates will be considered with potential applications of cloaking to water waves protection and anti-vibrating systems.

  2. Parent-based adolescent sexual health interventions and effect on communication outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Diane; Markham, Christine; Bluethmann, Shirley; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2015-03-01

    Parent-based adolescent sexual health interventions aim to reduce sexual risk behaviors by bolstering parental protective behaviors. Few studies of theory use, methods, applications, delivery and outcomes of parent-based interventions have been conducted. A systematic search of databases for the period 1998-2013 identified 28 published trials of U.S. parent-based interventions to examine theory use, setting, reach, delivery mode, dose and effects on parent-child communication. Established coding schemes were used to assess use of theory and describe methods employed to achieve behavioral change; intervention effects were explored in meta-analyses. Most interventions were conducted with minority parents in group sessions or via self-paced activities; interventions averaged seven hours, and most used theory extensively. Meta-analyses found improvements in sexual health communication: Analysis of 11 controlled trials indicated a medium effect on increasing communication (Cohen's d, 0.5), and analysis of nine trials found a large effect on increasing parental comfort with communication (0.7); effects were positive regardless of delivery mode or intervention dose. Intervention participants were 68% more likely than controls to report increased communication and 75% more likely to report increased comfort. These findings point to gaps in the range of programs examined in published trials-for example, interventions for parents of sexual minority youth, programs for custodial grandparents and faith-based services. Yet they provide support for the effectiveness of parent-based interventions in improving communication. Innovative delivery approaches could extend programs' reach, and further research on sexual health outcomes would facilitate the meta-analysis of intervention effectiveness in improving adolescent sexual health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  3. Appearance-based interventions to reduce ultraviolet exposure and/or increase sun protection intentions and behaviours: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alison L; Grogan, Sarah; Clark-Carter, David; Buckley, Emily

    2013-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted to identify and review research examining the impact of appearance-based interventions on sun protection intentions and/or ultraviolet (UV) exposure behaviour. A search of 16 databases including PsycARTICLES, Cochrane Library and Web of Knowledge was conducted to identify studies examining the impact of appearance-based interventions on reducing UV exposure and/or increasing sun protection intentions and behaviours. A total of 21 articles met the inclusion criteria, and these studies were subjected to a systematic review and meta-analyses to determine the effectiveness of the interventions. Interventions used a variety of techniques including UV technology and photoaging information. Study design and outcome measures varied. The research indicated that appearance-based interventions have a positive effect on UV exposure and sun protection intentions and behaviour. Findings suggest that interventions based on the appearance-damaging effects of UV exposure, and the positive effects of sun protection, may have a role in health promotion. It is concluded that there is a need for further research incorporating a wider range of participants, and using qualitative and mixed methods designs. What is already known on the subject? Recreational exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, are the primary causes of all melanomas, leading to skin cancer. A previous systematic review (Dodd & Forshaw, ) looking at the efficacy of appearance-focussed interventions in skin cancer prevention, suggested that there were significant effects for UV protection behaviour after such interventions. What does this study add? An up-to-date systematic review of studies that has carried out appearance-based interventions to reduce UV exposure and/or increase sun protection intentions and behaviours. A meta-analysis of data providing statistical evidence indicating that appearance-based interventions have a positive effect on UV exposure and sun

  4. A review and additional post-hoc analyses of the incidence and impact of constipation observed in darifenacin clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tack J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jan Tack,1 Jean-Jacques Wyndaele,2 Greg Ligozio,3 Mathias Egermark41University of Leuven, Gastroenterology Section, Leuven, 2University of Antwerp, Department of Urology, Antwerp, Belgium; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, NJ, USA; 4Roche Diagnostics Scandinavia AB, Bromma, Sweden and formerly of Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: Constipation is a common side effect of antimuscarinic treatment for overactive bladder (OAB. This review evaluates the incidence and impact of constipation on the lives of patients with OAB being treated with darifenacin.Methods: Constipation data from published Phase III and Phase IIIb/IV darifenacin studies were reviewed and analyzed. Over 4000 patients with OAB (aged 18–89 years; ≥80% female enrolled in nine studies (three Phase III [data from these fixed-dose studies were pooled and provide the primary focus for this review], three Phase IIIb, and three Phase IV. The impact of constipation was assessed by discontinuations, use of concomitant laxatives, patient-reported perception of treatment, and a bowel habit questionnaire.Results: In the pooled Phase III trials, 14.8% (50/337 of patients on darifenacin 7.5 mg/day and 21.3% (71/334 on 15 mg/day experienced constipation compared with 12.6% (28/223 and 6.2% (24/388 with tolterodine and placebo, respectively. In addition, a few patients discontinued treatment due to constipation (0.6% [2/337], 1.2% [4/334], 1.8% [4/223], and 0.3% [1/388] in the darifenacin 7.5 mg/day or 15 mg/day, tolterodine, and placebo groups, respectively, or required concomitant laxatives (3.3% [11/337], 6.6% [22/334], 7.2% [16/223], and 1.5% [6/388] in the darifenacin 7.5 mg/day or 15 mg/day, tolterodine, and placebo groups, respectively. Patient-reported perception of treatment quality was observed to be similar between patients who experienced constipation and those who did not. During the long-term extension study, a bowel habit questionnaire showed only small

  5. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  6. Review of a licensed dengue vaccine: Inappropriate subgroup analyses and selective reporting may cause harm in mass vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dans, Antonio L; Dans, Leonila F; Lansang, Mary Ann D; Silvestre, Maria Asuncion A; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2017-11-24

    Severe life-threatening dengue fever usually occurs when a child is infected by dengue virus a 2nd time. This is caused by a phenomenon called antibody dependent enhancement or ADE. Since dengue vaccines can mimic a first infection in seronegative children (those with no previous infection), a natural infection later in life could lead to severe disease. The possibility that dengue vaccines can cause severe dengue through ADE has led to serious concern regarding the safety of mass vaccination programs. A published meta-analysis addressed this safety issue for a new vaccine against dengue fever - Dengvaxia ™. The trials in this meta-analysis have been used to campaign for mass vaccination programs in developing countries. We discuss the results of this paper and point out problems in the analyses. Reporting the findings in an Asian trial (CYD14), the authors show a 7-fold rise in one outcome - hospitalization for dengue fever in children harm for another outcome - hospitalization for severe dengue fever (as confirmed by an independent data monitoring committee): 1. in children younger than 9 years, the relative risk was 8.5 [95% CI 0.5, 146.8], and 2. in the overall study group, the relative risk was 5.5 [95% CI: 0.9, 33] The authors conduct a subgroup analysis to support claims that the vaccine is probably safe among children aged 9 years or more. This subgroup analysis has limited credibility because: 1) it was a post-hoc analysis; 2) it was one of a large number of subgroup analyses; 3) the test of interaction was not reported; but was insignificant (p=0.14); and 4) there is no biological basis for a threshold age of 9 years. The more likely explanation for the higher risk in younger children is ADE, that is, more frequent seronegativity, rather than age itself. The selective reporting and inappropriate subgroup claims mask the potential harm of dengue mass vaccination programs. Countries planning public use of the vaccine must conduct diligent post

  7. Exothermic waves in continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyi, G. G.

    Theoretical and experimental research related to the generation and propagation of exothermic waves in combustible gas mixtures as well as solid and liquid combustible media is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to detonation phenomena, the stationary structure of chemical detonation waves for various gas and condensed explosive models, discontinuous solutions for motions with exothermic discontinuities, and heat release in thermonuclear reactions. The discussion also covers frontal polymerization and crystallization waves, stationary combustion waves in systems with high-temperature self-propagating synthesis, and initiation of exothermic waves in continua with allowance for transfer processes.

  8. Pulsars and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. J.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between pulsar-like compact stars and gravitational waves is briefly reviewed. Due to regular spins, pulsars could be useful tools for us to detect ~nano-Hz low-frequency gravitational waves by pulsar-timing array technique; besides, they would also be ~kilo-Hz high-frequency gravitational wave radiators because of their compactness. The wave strain of an isolated pulsar depends on the equation state of cold matter at supra-nuclear densities. Therefore, a real detection of gravitational wave should be very meaningful in gravity physics, micro-theory of elementary strong interaction, and astronomy.

  9. Does early motion lead to a higher failure rate or better outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair? A systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Bryan M; Zuke, William A; Go, Beatrice; Mascarenhas, Randy; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A; Forsythe, Brian

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the study were as follows: to perform a systematic review of meta-analyses comparing "early motion" and "delayed motion" after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair; to provide a framework to analyze the best available evidence to develop recommendations; and to identify gaps where suggestions could be made for future investigations. Literature searches were performed to identify meta-analyses examining arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with early-motion vs. delayed-motion rehabilitation protocols. Clinical data were extracted, and meta-analysis quality was assessed using the Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses and Oxman-Guyatt scales. Nine meta-analyses met inclusion criteria. No clear superiority was noted in clinical outcome scores for early-motion or delayed-motion rehabilitation. Results of tendon healing were found to be either no different or in favor of delayed motion, but no differences were noted in rotator cuff tear recurrence rates postoperatively. The majority of meta-analyses found significantly better range of motion with early motion up to a year postoperatively for forward elevation and up to 6 months for external rotation, but significant differences were not reported for functional improvements and strength at 12 months postoperatively. Subgroup analyses suggested that larger preoperative tear sizes have significantly greater retear rates with early-motion rehabilitation. The current highest level of evidence suggests that early-motion rehabilitation after rotator cuff repair results in superior postoperative range of motion up to 1 year. Whereas early motion and delayed motion after cuff repair may lead to comparable functional outcomes and retear rates, concern exists that early motion may result in greater retear rates, particularly with larger tear sizes. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Methodological Standards for Meta-Analyses and Qualitative Systematic Reviews of Cardiac Prevention and Treatment Studies: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Goutham; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Boyd, Jack; D'Amico, Frank; Durant, Nefertiti H; Hlatky, Mark A; Howard, George; Kirley, Katherine; Masi, Christopher; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Solomonides, Anthony E; West, Colin P; Wessel, Jennifer

    2017-09-05

    Meta-analyses are becoming increasingly popular, especially in the fields of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. They are often considered to be a reliable source of evidence for making healthcare decisions. Unfortunately, problems among meta-analyses such as the misapplication and misinterpretation of statistical methods and tests are long-standing and widespread. The purposes of this statement are to review key steps in the development of a meta-analysis and to provide recommendations that will be useful for carrying out meta-analyses and for readers and journal editors, who must interpret the findings and gauge methodological quality. To make the statement practical and accessible, detailed descriptions of statistical methods have been omitted. Based on a survey of cardiovascular meta-analyses, published literature on methodology, expert consultation, and consensus among the writing group, key recommendations are provided. Recommendations reinforce several current practices, including protocol registration; comprehensive search strategies; methods for data extraction and abstraction; methods for identifying, measuring, and dealing with heterogeneity; and statistical methods for pooling results. Other practices should be discontinued, including the use of levels of evidence and evidence hierarchies to gauge the value and impact of different study designs (including meta-analyses) and the use of structured tools to assess the quality of studies to be included in a meta-analysis. We also recommend choosing a pooling model for conventional meta-analyses (fixed effect or random effects) on the basis of clinical and methodological similarities among studies to be included, rather than the results of a test for statistical heterogeneity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. A guide to statistical analysis in microbial ecology: a community-focused, living review of multivariate data analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ramette, Alban

    2014-12-01

    The application of multivariate statistical analyses has become a consistent feature in microbial ecology. However, many microbial ecologists are still in the process of developing a deep understanding of these methods and appreciating their limitations. As a consequence, staying abreast of progress and debate in this arena poses an additional challenge to many microbial ecologists. To address these issues, we present the GUide to STatistical Analysis in Microbial Ecology (GUSTA ME): a dynamic, web-based resource providing accessible descriptions of numerous multivariate techniques relevant to microbial ecologists. A combination of interactive elements allows users to discover and navigate between methods relevant to their needs and examine how they have been used by others in the field. We have designed GUSTA ME to become a community-led and -curated service, which we hope will provide a common reference and forum to discuss and disseminate analytical techniques relevant to the microbial ecology community. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  12. Review: Elisa T. Bertuzzo (2009. Fragmented Dhaka. Analysing Everyday Life with Henri Lefebvre's Theory of Production of Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lisa Müller

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In her book "Fragmented Dhaka. Analysing Everyday Life with Henri Lefebvre's Theory of Production of Space," Elisa T. BERTUZZO aims at using Henri LEFEBVRE's concept of space and his suggestions for the study of spatial structures and practices in an empirical study. The city of Dhaka, for BERTUZZO a rural "mega city," serves as a laboratory for studying the spatial practices of everyday life and specific representations of the city. This qualitative study is thought to counteract the lack of research literature on Dhaka and takes a postmodern perspective on the process of urbanization in Bangladesh's capital by highlighting heterogeneity and ambiguity. LEFEBVRE's concepts of space are transferred into a qualitative research design in a generally convincing way. However, the presentation of the results loses some of its clarity due to the abundance of the empirical findings. Although there is some conceptual "fuzziness," this does not narrow the significance of this innovative study. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003199

  13. Spent lead-acid battery recycling in China - A review and sustainable analyses on mass flow of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Xihua; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Wenwen; Cao, Guoqing; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Lead is classified to be one of the top heavy metal pollutants in China. The corresponding environmental issues especially during the management of spent lead-acid battery have already caused significant public awareness and concern. This research gives a brief overview on the recycling situation based on an investigation of the lead industry in China and also the development of technologies for spent lead-acid batteries. The main principles and research focuses of different technologies including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and greener technologies are summarized and compared. Subsequently, the circulability of lead based on the entire life cycle analyses of lead-acid battery is calculated. By considering different recycling schemes, the recycling situation of spent lead-acid battery in China can be understood semi-quantitatively. According to this research, 30% of the primary lead production can be shut down that the lead production can still ensure consecutive life cycle operation of lead-acid battery, if proper management of the spent lead-acid battery is implemented according to current lead industry situation in China. This research provides a methodology on the view of lead circulability in the whole life cycle of a specific product and is aiming to contribute more quantitative guidelines for efficient organization of lead industry in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Socio-sexual functioning in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analyses of existing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Grace I P; Stokes, Mark A; Mesibov, Gary B

    2017-11-01

    Socio-sexual functioning encompasses an individual's interests, behaviors, and knowledge with respect to sexual, romantic, and social aspects of life. An individual's understanding of these domains is developed through a range of informal and formal avenues of sexual health education. The current model demonstrated this and proposed that, compared to typically developing individuals, those with ASD develop socio-sexual functioning differently due to having less peer engagement, less relationship experience, more parental guidance, greater use of online materials, receive less school-based sexual health education, and more support from wellbeing services. Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing literature revealed that individuals with ASD have greater difficultly adhering to privacy norms, engage in less social behavior, are described as engaging in less appropriate sexual behavior, have greater concerns about themselves, and receive less sexual health education. Having fewer opportunities for appropriate informal and formal sexual health education leaves them at a double disadvantage from others who are receiving this information from both of these avenues. Some of the current meta-analytic results are cautioned by large l-square statistics which suggest that a degree of variance is being caused by extraneous factors. Further empirical research in this area is needed to overcome current design and sample limitations. Finally, the Sexual Behavior Scale was the most commonly utilized tool in the meta-analyzed studies, thus comprehensive evaluation of its functioning is warranted. The importance of work in this area is highlighted by the central role of social and sexual wellbeing on one's quality of life. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1823-1833. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Review of existing literature revealed that individuals with ASD have greater difficultly adhering to privacy norms, engage in less social behavior

  15. Low gestational weight gain and the risk of preterm birth and low birthweight: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhen; Lutsiv, Olha; Mulla, Sohail; Rosen, Allison; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Sarah D

    2011-09-01

    Low gestational weight gain is common, with potential adverse perinatal outcomes. To determine the relation between low gestational weight gain and preterm birth and low birthweight in singletons in developing and developed countries. Medline, EMBASE and reference lists were searched, identifying 6,283 titles and abstracts. Following the MOOSE consensus statement, two assessors independently reviewed titles, abstracts, full articles, extracted data and assessed quality. Fifty-five studies, 37 cohort and 18 case-control, were included, involving 3,467,638 women. In the cohort studies (crude data, generally supported where available by adjusted data and case-control studies), women with low total gestational weight gain had increases in preterm birth <37 weeks [RR 1.64 (95%CI 1.62-1.65)], 32-36 weeks [RR 1.39 (95%CI 1.38-1.40)] and ≤ 32 weeks [RR 3.80 (95%CI 3.72-3.88)]. Low total gestational weight gain was associated with increased risks of low birthweight <2,500 g [RR 1.85 (95%CI 1.72-2.00)], in developing and developed countries [RR 1.84 (95%CI 1.71-1.99) and RR 3.02 (95%CI 1.37-6.63), respectively], 1,500-2,500 g [RR 2.02 (95%CI 1.88-2.17)] and <1,500 g (RR 2.00 (95%CI 1.67-2.40)]. Women with low weekly gestational weight gain were at increased risk of preterm birth [RR 1.56 (95%CI 1.26-1.94)], 32-36 weeks [RR 2.43 (95%CI 2.37-2.50)] and ≤ 32 weeks [RR 2.31 (95%CI 2.20-2.42)] but not low birthweight [RR 1.64 (95%CI 0.89-3.02)]. In this systematic review, we determined that singletons born to women with low total gestational weight gain have higher risks of preterm birth and low birthweight, with the lower the gain, the higher the risks. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. The effect of Tai Chi on four chronic conditions-cancer, osteoarthritis, heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Hunt, Michael A; Campbell, Kristin L; Peill, Kortni; Reid, W Darlene

    2016-04-01

    Many middle-aged and older persons have more than one chronic condition. Thus, it is important to synthesise the effectiveness of interventions across several comorbidities. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise current evidence regarding the effectiveness of Tai Chi in individuals with four common chronic conditions-cancer, osteoarthritis (OA), heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 4 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus) were searched for original articles. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts and then conducted full-text reviews, quality assessment and finally data abstraction. 33 studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were performed on disease-specific symptoms, physiological outcomes and physical performance of each chronic condition. Subgroup analyses on disease-specific symptoms were conducted by categorising studies into subsets based on the type of comparison groups. Meta-analyses showed that Tai Chi improved or showed a tendency to improve physical performance outcomes, including 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and knee extensor strength, in most or all four chronic conditions. Tai Chi also improved disease-specific symptoms of pain and stiffness in OA. The results demonstrated a favourable effect or tendency of Tai Chi to improve physical performance and showed that this type of exercise could be performed by individuals with different chronic conditions, including COPD, HF and OA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Publishing nutrition research: a review of study design, statistical analyses, and other key elements of manuscript preparation, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, Carol; Harris, Jeffrey; Bruemmer, Barbara; Archer, Sujata L; Van Horn, Linda

    2006-01-01

    To enhance the Journal's position as the premier source for peer-reviewed research in the science of food, nutrition, and dietetics, members of the Board of Editors recognize the importance of providing a resource for researchers to ensure quality and accuracy of reporting in the Journal. This first monograph of a periodic four-part series focuses on the study hypothesis, study design, and collaboration with a statistician. The basics of study design start with a clear hypothesis or research question and a definitive outcome measure. Throughout the development of a research project, the questions of what is to be discovered and why the research is being conducted need to be addressed. Decisions about parameters to measure and study design most appropriate to test a hypothesis create the foundation for future conclusions. Collaboration with a statistician can aid in the research development process. Documentation that coherently communicates the research process will advance the science of evidence-based practice in nutrition and dietetics. Real examples from published literature are provided, as well as references to books and online resources.

  18. The zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analyses of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L A; Rajić, A; Stärk, K D C; McEWEN, S A

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review-meta-analysis appraises and summarizes all the available research (128 papers) on the zoonotic potential of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. The latter has been debated for a century due to pathogenic and clinical similarities between Johne's disease in ruminants and Crohn's disease (108 studies) in humans and recently for involvement in other human diseases; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (2), sarcoidosis (3), diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) (7) and type 2 (3), multiple sclerosis (5) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (2). Meta-analytical results indicated a significant positive association, consistently across different laboratory methods for Crohn's disease [odds ratio (OR) range 4·26-8·44], T1DM (OR range 2·91-9·95) and multiple sclerosis (OR range 6·5-7·99). The latter two and the thyroiditis hypothesis require further investigation to confirm the association. Meta-regression of Crohn's disease studies using DNA detection methods indicated that choice of primers and sampling frame (e.g. general population vs. hospital-based sample) explained a significant proportion of heterogeneity. Other epidemiological studies demonstrated a lack of association between high-risk occupations and development of Crohn's disease. Due to knowledge gaps in understanding the role of M. paratuberculosis in the development or progression of human disease, the evidence at present is not strong enough to inform the potential public health impact of M. paratuberculosis exposure.

  19. Effects of exercise on depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic disease: a systematic review of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2014-04-07

    Depression is a major public health problem among adults with arthritis and other rheumatic disease. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of previous meta-analyses addressing the effects of exercise (aerobic, strength or both) on depressive symptoms in adults with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia and systemic lupus erythematous. Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials were included by searching nine electronic databases and cross-referencing. Methodological quality was assessed using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) Instrument. Random-effects models that included the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. The alpha value for statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The U3 index, number needed to treat (NNT) and number of US people who could benefit were also calculated. Of the 95 citations initially identified, two aggregate data meta-analyses representing 6 and 19 effect sizes in as many as 870 fibromyalgia participants were included. Methodological quality was 91% and 82%, respectively. Exercise minus control group reductions in depressive symptoms were found for both meta-analyses (SMD, -0.61, 95% CI, -0.99 to -0.23, p = 0.002; SMD, -0.32, 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.12, p = 0.002). Percentile improvements (U3) were equivalent to 22.9 and 12.6. The number needed to treat was 6 and 9 with an estimated 0.83 and 0.56 million US people with fibromyalgia potentially benefitting. Exercise improves depressive symptoms in adults with fibromyalgia. However, a need exists for additional meta-analytic work on this topic.

  20. Comprehensive review of genetic association studies and meta-analyses on miRNA polymorphisms and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Srivastava

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of corresponding messenger RNAs (mRNAs. Variations in the level of expression of distinct miRNAs have been observed in the genesis, progression and prognosis of multiple human malignancies. The present study was aimed to investigate the association between four highly studied miRNA polymorphisms (mir-146a rs2910164, mir-196a2 rs11614913, mir-149 rs2292832 and mir-499 rs3746444 and cancer risk by using a two-sided meta-analytic approach.An updated meta-analysis based on 53 independent case-control studies consisting of 27573 cancer cases and 34791 controls was performed. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were used to investigate the strength of the association.Overall, the pooled analysis showed that mir-196a2 rs11614913 was associated with a decreased cancer risk (OR = 0.846, P = 0.004, TT vs. CC while other miRNA SNPs showed no association with overall cancer risk. Subgroup analyses based on type of cancer and ethnicity were also performed, and results indicated that there was a strong association between miR-146a rs2910164 and overall cancer risk in Caucasian population under recessive model (OR = 1.274, 95%CI = 1.096-1.481, P = 0.002. Stratified analysis by cancer type also associated mir-196a2 rs11614913 with lung and colorectal cancer at allelic and genotypic level.The present meta-analysis suggests an important role of mir-196a2 rs11614913 polymorphism with overall cancer risk especially in Asian population. Further studies with large sample size are needed to evaluate and confirm this association.

  1. The effects of morbid obesity on maternal and neonatal health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsiv, O; Mah, J; Beyene, J; McDonald, S D

    2015-07-01

    Morbidly obese (Class III, body mass index [BMI] ≥ 40 kg m(-2)) women constitute 8% of reproductive-aged women and are an increasing proportion; however, their pregnancy risks have not yet been well understood. Hence, we performed meta-analyses following the MOOSE (Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guideline, searching Medline and Embase from their inceptions. To examine graded relationships, we compared Class III obesity to Class I and I/II, and separately to normal weight. We found important effects on all three primary outcomes in morbidly obese women: preterm birth <37 weeks was 31% higher compared with Class I (relative risk [RR] 1.31 [1.19, 1.43]) and 20% higher than Class I/II (RR 1.20 [1.13, 1.27]), large-for-gestational age was higher (RR 1.37 [1.29, 1.45] and RR 1.30 [1.24, 1.36] compared with Class I and I/II, respectively), while small-for-gestational age was lower (RR 0.89 [0.84, 0.93] compared with Class I, with nearly identical reductions for Class I/II). Morbidly obese women have higher risks of preterm birth, large-for-gestational age and numerous other adverse maternal and infant health outcomes, relative to not only normal weight but also Class I or I/II obese women. These findings have important implications for screening and care of morbidly obese pregnant women, to try to decrease adverse outcomes. © 2015 World Obesity.

  2. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  3. Somatosensory stimulation to improve hand and upper limb function after stroke-a systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Virginia Marie; Gibson, Alison; Shields, Nora

    2017-10-20

    Background Somatosensory stimulation may have a positive impact on recovery of motor function by maintaining cortical representation of the hand and acting to prime the motor system for movement. Objective Determine the efficacy of somatosensory stimulation on upper limb motor function after stroke. Methods Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PEDro and OT Seeker) were searched from inception to October 2016. Included studies were English-language randomized controlled trials where a sensory intervention was applied below the elbow to improve upper limb motor control of adults after stroke. One outcome needed to measure arm function at an impairment or activity level. Study selection and quality assessment (using the PEDro scale) were independently conducted by two reviewers. Meta-analysis was completed where there was sufficient homogeneity between trials. Results Fifteen articles were included reporting data from 14 randomized controlled trials (627 participants). There was low-quality evidence from four trials that sensory electrical stimulation did not improve upper limb activity compared to placebo (SMD 0.4, 95%CI -0.07 to 0.87, I2 38%) and moderate-quality evidence from three trials that it did not improve motor impairment (MD 3.45 units, 95%CI -1.47 to 8.36, I2 35%). Low-quality evidence from two trials demonstrated that therapist-delivered sensory stimulation did not improve upper limb activity (SMD 0.25, 95%CI -0.20 to 0.69, I2 0%) compared to usual care. Conclusion Current low- to moderate-quality evidence suggests somatosensory stimulation is not effective in improving upper limb motor impairment or activity after stroke.

  4. Process Review for Development of Quantitative Risk Analyses for Transboundary Animal Disease to Pathogen-Free Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Miller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs have the potential to cause significant detriment to animal, human, and environmental health; severe economic implications; and national security. Challenges concerning data sharing, model development, decision support, and disease emergence science have recently been promoted. These challenges and recommendations have been recognized and advocated in the disciplines intersecting with outbreak prediction and forecast modeling regarding infectious diseases. To advance the effective application of computation and risk communication, analytical products ought to follow a collaboratively agreed common plan for implementation. Research articles should seek to inform and assist prioritization of national and international strategies in developing established criteria to identify and follow best practice standards to assess risk model attributes and performance. A well-defined framework to help eliminate gaps in policy, process, and planning knowledge areas would help alleviate the intense need for the formation of a comprehensive strategy for countering TAD outbreak risks. A quantitative assessment that accurately captures the risk of introduction of a TAD through various pathways can be a powerful tool in guiding where government, academic, and industry resources ought to be allocated, whether implementation of additional risk management solutions is merited, and where research efforts should be directed to minimize risk. This review outlines a part of a process for the development of quantitative risk analysis to collect, analyze, and communicate this knowledge. A more comprehensive and unabridged manual was also developed. The framework used in supporting the application of aligning computational tools for readiness continues our approach to apply a preparedness mindset to challenges concerning threats to global biosecurity, secure food systems, and risk-mitigated agricultural economies.

  5. What Are the Real Procedural Costs of Bariatric Surgery? A Systematic Literature Review of Published Cost Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Brett; Wordsworth, Sarah; Rogers, Chris A; Welbourn, Richard; Byrne, James; Blazeby, Jane M

    2017-08-01

    This review aims to evaluate the current literature on the procedural costs of bariatric surgery for the treatment of severe obesity. Using a published framework for the conduct of micro-costing studies for surgical interventions, existing cost estimates from the literature are assessed for their accuracy, reliability and comprehensiveness based on their consideration of seven 'important' cost components. MEDLINE, PubMed, key journals and reference lists of included studies were searched up to January 2017. Eligible studies had to report per-case, total procedural costs for any type of bariatric surgery broken down into two or more individual cost components. A total of 998 citations were screened, of which 13 studies were included for analysis. Included studies were mainly conducted from a US hospital perspective, assessed either gastric bypass or adjustable gastric banding procedures and considered a range of different cost components. The mean total procedural costs for all included studies was US$14,389 (range, US$7423 to US$33,541). No study considered all of the recommended 'important' cost components and estimation methods were poorly reported. The accuracy, reliability and comprehensiveness of the existing cost estimates are, therefore, questionable. There is a need for a comparative cost analysis of the different approaches to bariatric surgery, with the most appropriate costing approach identified to be micro-costing methods. Such an analysis will not only be useful in estimating the relative cost-effectiveness of different surgeries but will also ensure appropriate reimbursement and budgeting by healthcare payers to ensure barriers to access this effective treatment by severely obese patients are minimised.

  6. Reporting and Methodology of Multivariable Analyses in Prognostic Observational Studies Published in 4 Anesthesiology Journals: A Methodological Descriptive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielminotti, Jean; Dechartres, Agnès; Mentré, France; Montravers, Philippe; Longrois, Dan; Laouénan, Cedric

    2015-10-01

    Prognostic research studies in anesthesiology aim to identify risk factors for an outcome (explanatory studies) or calculate the risk of this outcome on the basis of patients' risk factors (predictive studies). Multivariable models express the relationship between predictors and an outcome and are used in both explanatory and predictive studies. Model development demands a strict methodology and a clear reporting to assess its reliability. In this methodological descriptive review, we critically assessed the reporting and methodology of multivariable analysis used in observational prognostic studies published in anesthesiology journals. A systematic search was conducted on Medline through Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and journal websites to identify observational prognostic studies with multivariable analysis published in Anesthesiology, Anesthesia & Analgesia, British Journal of Anaesthesia, and Anaesthesia in 2010 and 2011. Data were extracted by 2 independent readers. First, studies were analyzed with respect to reporting of outcomes, design, size, methods of analysis, model performance (discrimination and calibration), model validation, clinical usefulness, and STROBE (i.e., Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) checklist. A reporting rate was calculated on the basis of 21 items of the aforementioned points. Second, they were analyzed with respect to some predefined methodological points. Eighty-six studies were included: 87.2% were explanatory and 80.2% investigated a postoperative event. The reporting was fairly good, with a median reporting rate of 79% (75% in explanatory studies and 100% in predictive studies). Six items had a reporting rate sample size (15.1%), handling of missing data (36.0%), assessment of colinearity (17.4%), assessment of interactions (13.9%), and calibration (34.9%). When reported, a few methodological shortcomings were observed, both in explanatory and predictive studies, such as an insufficient number of

  7. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  8. Strategies to prevent falls and fractures in hospitals and care homes and effect of cognitive impairment: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David; Connelly, James B; Victor, Christina R; Shaw, Fiona E; Whitehead, Anne; Genc, Yasemin; Vanoli, Alessandra; Martin, Finbarr C; Gosney, Margot A

    2007-01-13

    To evaluate the evidence for strategies to prevent falls or fractures in residents in care homes and hospital inpatients and to investigate the effect of dementia and cognitive impairment. Systematic review and meta-analyses of studies grouped by intervention and setting (hospital or care home). Meta-regression to investigate the effects of dementia and of study quality and design. Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychInfo, Cochrane Database, Clinical Trials Register, and hand searching of references from reviews and guidelines to January 2005. 1207 references were identified, including 115 systematic reviews, expert reviews, or guidelines. Of the 92 full papers inspected, 43 were included. Meta-analysis for multifaceted interventions in hospital (13 studies) showed a rate ratio of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.997) for falls but no significant effect on the number of fallers or fractures. For hip protectors in care homes (11 studies) the rate ratio for hip fractures was 0.67 (0.46 to 0.98), but there was no significant effect on falls and not enough studies on fallers. For all other interventions (multifaceted interventions in care homes; removal of physical restraints in either setting; fall alarm devices in either setting; exercise in care homes; calcium/vitamin D in care homes; changes in the physical environment in either setting; medication review in hospital) meta-analysis was either unsuitable because of insufficient studies or showed no significant effect on falls, fallers, or fractures, despite strongly positive results in some individual studies. Meta-regression showed no significant association between effect size and prevalence of dementia or cognitive impairment. There is some evidence that multifaceted interventions in hospital reduce the number of falls and that use of hip protectors in care homes prevents hip fractures. There is insufficient evidence, however, for the effectiveness of other single interventions in hospitals or care homes or

  9. Gravitation Waves seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort.

  10. What effect does regular exercise have on oxidative stress in people with Down syndrome? A systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Downs, Jenny; de Haan, Judy B; Taylor, Nicholas F; Torr, Jennifer; Fernhall, Bo; Kingsley, Michael; Mnatzaganian, George; Leonard, Helen

    2017-10-19

    What effect does regular exercise have on oxidative stress in people with Down syndrome? Systematic review with meta-analyses. A systematic review with meta-analyses was conducted. Six databases were searched from inception until August 2017. Studies where included if participants with Down syndrome (any age) had completed an exercise program of at least 6 weeks duration and at least one biomarker measured the generation or removal of reactive oxidative species. Data were extracted using a customised form. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration⿿s Risk of Bias assessment tool. Effect sizes were calculated and meta-analyses completed for clinically homogeneous data using a random effects model. Seven studies (11 articles) involving 144 inactive participants investigated the effect of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. No pattern emerged for how most biomarkers responded with non-significant pooled effect sizes and high levels of heterogeneity observed. The exception was catalase which increased significantly after exercise (standardised mean difference 0.39, 95%CI 0.04⿿0.75; I2 15%). Available studies were at high risk of bias. Two of five studies that measured more than one biomarker reported a decrease in oxidative stress with increased antioxidant activity after exercise but the other three (including one small randomised controlled trial) reported increased oxidative stress with variable change in antioxidant activity. There remains uncertainty about the effect of exercise on oxidative stress in people with Down syndrome. PROSPERO CRD42016048492. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inner harbour wave agitation using boussinesq wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Jitendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short crested waves play an important role for planning and design of harbours. In this context a numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate wave tranquility inside a real harbour located in east coast of India. The annual offshore wave climate proximity- to harbour site is established using Wave Model (WAM hindcast wave data. The deep water waves are transformed to harbour front using a Near Shore spectral Wave model (NSW. A directional analysis is carried out to determine the probable incident wave directions towards the harbour. Most critical threshold wave height and wave period is chosen for normal operating conditions using exceedence probability analysis. Irregular random waves from various directions are generated confirming to Pierson Moskowitz spectrum at 20m water depth. Wave incident into inner harbor through harbor entrance is performed using Boussinesq Wave model (BW. Wave disturbance experienced inside the harbour and at various berths are analysed. The paper discusses the progresses took place in short wave modeling and it demonstrates application of wave climate for the evaluation of harbor tranquility using various types of wave models.

  12. Inner harbour wave agitation using boussinesq wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra K. Panigrahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short crested waves play an important role for planning and design of harbours. In this context a numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate wave tranquility inside a real harbour located in east coast of India. The annual offshore wave climate proximity to harbour site is established using Wave Model (WAM hindcast wave data. The deep water waves are transformed to harbour front using a Near Shore spectral Wave model (NSW. A directional analysis is carried out to determine the probable incident wave directions towards the harbour. Most critical threshold wave height and wave period is chosen for normal operating conditions using exceedence probability analysis. Irregular random waves from various directions are generated confirming to Pierson Moskowitz spectrum at 20 m water depth. Wave incident into inner harbor through harbor entrance is performed using Boussinesq Wave model (BW. Wave disturbance experienced inside the harbour and at various berths are analysed. The paper discusses the progresses took place in short wave modeling and it demonstrates application of wave climate for the evaluation of harbor tranquility using various types of wave models.

  13. Comparison of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to prevent delirium in critically ill patients: a protocol for a systematic review incorporating network meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burry, L D; Hutton, B; Guenette, M; Williamson, D; Mehta, S; Egerod, I; Kanji, S; Adhikari, N K; Moher, D; Martin, C M; Rose, L

    2016-09-08

    Delirium is characterized by acute changes in mental status including inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness, and is highly prevalent in critically ill adults. Delirium has adverse consequences for both patients and the healthcare system; however, at this time, no effective treatment exists. The identification of effective prevention strategies is therefore a clinical and research imperative. An important limitation of previous reviews of delirium prevention is that interventions were considered in isolation and only direct evidence was used. Our systematic review will synthesize all existing data using network meta-analysis, a powerful statistical approach that enables synthesis of both direct and indirect evidence. We will search Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from 1980 to March 2016. We will search the PROSPERO registry for protocols and the Cochrane Library for published systematic reviews. We will examine reference lists of pertinent reviews and search grey literature and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for unpublished studies and ongoing trials. We will include randomized and quasi-randomized trials of critically ill adults evaluating any pharmacological, non-pharmacological, or multi-component intervention for delirium prevention, administered in or prior to (i.e., peri-operatively) transfer to the ICU. Two authors will independently screen search results and extract data from eligible studies. Risk of bias assessments will be completed on all included studies. To inform our network meta-analysis, we will first conduct conventional pair-wise meta-analyses for primary and secondary outcomes using random-effects models. We will generate our network meta-analysis using a Bayesian framework, assuming a common heterogeneity parameter across all comparisons, and accounting for correlations in multi-arm studies. We will perform analyses using WinBUGS software. This systematic review

  14. Systematic evaluation of the associations between environmental risk factors and dementia: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Vanesa; Belbasis, Lazaros; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Middleton, Lefkos T; Ioannidis, John P A; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2017-04-01

    Dementia is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease, whose etiology results from a complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors. We searched PubMed to identify meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations between nongenetic factors and dementia. We estimated the summary effect size using random-effects and fixed-effects model, the 95% CI, and the 95% prediction interval. We assessed the between-study heterogeneity (I-square), evidence of small-study effects, and excess significance. A total of 76 unique associations were examined. By applying standardized criteria, seven associations presented convincing evidence. These associations pertained to benzodiazepines use, depression at any age, late-life depression, and frequency of social contacts for all types of dementia; late-life depression for Alzheimer's disease; and type 2 diabetes mellitus for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Several risk factors present substantial evidence for association with dementia and should be assessed as potential targets for interventions, but these associations may not necessarily be causal. Copyright © 2016 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Overview of ozone human exposure and health risk analyses used in the U.S. EPA's review of the ozone air quality standard.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, R. G.

    1999-03-04

    This paper presents an overview of the ozone human exposure and health risk analyses developed under sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These analyses are being used in the current review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for ozone. The analyses consist of three principal steps: (1) estimating short-term ozone exposure for particular populations (exposure model); (2) estimating population response to exposures or concentrations (exposure-response or concentration-response models); and (3) integrating concentrations or exposure with concentration-response or exposure-response models to produce overall risk estimates (risk model). The exposure model, called the probabilistic NAAQS exposure model for ozone (pNEM/03), incorporates the following factors: hourly ambient ozone concentrations; spatial distribution of concentrations; ventilation state of individuals at time of exposure; and movement of people through various microenvironments (e.g., outdoors, indoors, inside a vehicle) of varying air quality. Exposure estimates are represented by probability distributions. Exposure-response relationships have been developed for several respiratory symptom and lung function health effects, based on the results of controlled human exposure studies. These relationships also are probabilistic and reflect uncertainties associated with sample size and variability of response among subjects. The analyses also provide estimates of excess hospital admissions in the New York City area based on results from an epidemiology study. Overall risk results for selected health endpoints and recently analyzed air quality scenarios associated with alternative 8-hour NAAQS and the current 1-hour standard for outdoor children are used to illustrate application of the methodology.

  16. Wave Overtopping Characteristics of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    Simulation work has been used extensively with the Wave dragon and other overtopping devices to analyse the power production performance of them and to optimise the structural design and the control strategy. A time domain approach to this is well documented in Jakobsen & Frigaard 1999. Using...... measurements taken from the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning prototype, some of the previous assumptions have been slightly modified and improved upon, so that the simulation method better represents the reality of what is occurring....

  17. Is quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in high impact radiology journals associated with citation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Christian B; McInnes, Matthew D F; Petrcich, William; Tunis, Adam S; Hanna, Ramez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether study quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) published in high impact factor (IF) radiology journals is associated with citation rates. All SR and MA published in English between Jan 2007-Dec 2011, in radiology journals with an IF >2.75, were identified on Ovid MEDLINE. The Assessing the Methodologic Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist for study quality, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist for study completeness, was applied to each SR & MA. Each SR & MA was then searched in Google Scholar to yield a citation rate. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between AMSTAR and PRISMA results with citation rate. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for the effect of journal IF and journal 5-year IF on correlation with citation rate. Values were reported as medians with interquartile range (IQR) provided. 129 studies from 11 journals were included (50 SR and 79 MA). Median AMSTAR result was 8.0/11 (IQR: 5-9) and median PRISMA result was 23.0/27 (IQR: 21-25). The median citation rate for SR & MA was 0.73 citations/month post-publication (IQR: 0.40-1.17). There was a positive correlation between both AMSTAR and PRISMA results and SR & MA citation rate; ρ=0.323 (P=0.0002) and ρ=0.327 (P=0.0002) respectively. Positive correlation persisted for AMSTAR and PRISMA results after journal IF was partialed out; ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) and ρ=0.256 (P=0.004), and after journal 5-year IF was partialed out; ρ=0.235 (P=0.008) and ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) respectively. There is a positive correlation between the quality and the completeness of a reported SR or MA with citation rate which persists when adjusted for journal IF and journal 5-year IF.

  18. Option B+ for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in developing countries: a review of published cost-effectiveness analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnon, Jonathan; Orji, Nneka

    2016-10-01

    To review the published literature on the cost effectiveness of Option B+ (lifelong antiretroviral therapy) for preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV during pregnancy and breastfeeding to inform decision making in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar and Medline were searched to identify studies of the cost effectiveness of the World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines for PMTCT. Study quality was appraised using the consolidated health economic evaluation reporting standards checklist. Eligible studies were reviewed in detail to assess the relevance and impact of alternative evaluation frameworks, assumptions and input parameter values. Five published cost effectiveness analyses of Option B+ for the PMTCT of HIV were identified. The reported cost-effectiveness of Option B+ varies substantially, with the results of different studies implying that Option B+ is dominant (lower costs, greater benefits), cost-effective (additional benefits at acceptable additional costs) or not cost-effective (additional benefits at unacceptable additional costs). This variation is due to significant differences in model structures and input parameter values. Structural differences were observed around the estimation of programme effects on infants, HIV-infected mothers and their HIV negative partners, over multiple pregnancies, as well assumptions regarding routine access to antiretroviral therapies. Significant differences in key input parameters were observed in transmission rates, intervention costs and effects and downstream cost savings. Across five model-based cost-effectiveness analyses of strategies for the PMTCT of HIV, the most comprehensive analysis reported that option B+ is highly likely to be cost-effective. This evaluation may have been overly favourable towards option B+ with respect to some input parameter values, but potentially important additional benefits were omitted. Decision makers might be

  19. Efficacy and tolerability of naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets compared with non-specific NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors: a systematic review and network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datto C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Datto,1 Richard Hellmund,1 Mohd Kashif Siddiqui21AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Wilmington, DE, USA; 2HERON PVT India, Chandigarh, UT, IndiaAbstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as non-selective NSAIDs (nsNSAIDs or selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors, are commonly prescribed for arthritic pain relief in patients with osteoarthritis (OA, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, or ankylosing spondylitis (AS. Treatment guidelines for chronic NSAID therapy include the consideration for gastroprotection for those at risk of gastric ulcers (GUs associated with the chronic NSAID therapy. The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets for the relief of signs and symptoms of OA, RA, and AS, and to decrease the risk of developing GUs in patients at risk of developing NSAID-associated GUs. The European Medical Association has approved this therapy for the symptomatic treatment of OA, RA, and AS in patients who are at risk of developing NSAID-associated GUs and/or duodenal ulcers, for whom treatment with lower doses of naproxen or other NSAIDs is not considered sufficient. Naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets have been compared with naproxen and celecoxib for these indications in head-to-head trials. This systematic literature review and network meta-analyses of data from randomized controlled trials was performed to compare naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets with a number of additional relevant comparators. For this study, an original review examined MEDLINE®, Embase®, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from database start to April 14, 2009. Using the same methodology, a review update was conducted to December 21, 2009. The systematic review and network analyses showed naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets have an improved upper gastrointestinal tolerability profile (dyspepsia and gastric or gastroduodenal ulcers over several active comparators (naproxen

  20. A systematic review and methodological evaluation of published cost-effectiveness analyses of aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen in early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Baptiste, Ava A; Wu, Wei; Rochon, Paula; Anderson, Geoffrey M; Bell, Chaim M

    2013-01-01

    A key priority in developing policies for providing affordable cancer care is measuring the value for money of new therapies using cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs). For CEA to be useful it should focus on relevant outcomes and include thorough investigation of uncertainty. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of five years of aromatase inhibitors (AI) versus five years of tamoxifen in the treatment of post-menopausal women with early stage breast cancer, show benefit of AI in terms of disease free survival (DFS) but not overall survival (OS) and indicate higher risk of fracture with AI. Policy-relevant CEA of AI versus tamoxifen should focus on OS and include analysis of uncertainty over key assumptions. We conducted a systematic review of published CEAs comparing an AI to tamoxifen. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews without language restrictions. We selected CEAs with outcomes expressed as cost per life year or cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). We assessed quality using the Neumann checklist. Using structured forms two abstractors collected descriptive information, sources of data, baseline assumptions on effectiveness and adverse events, and recorded approaches to assessing parameter uncertainty, methodological uncertainty, and structural uncertainty. We identified 1,622 citations and 18 studies met inclusion criteria. All CE estimates assumed a survival benefit for aromatase inhibitors. Twelve studies performed sensitivity analysis on the risk of adverse events and 7 assumed no additional mortality risk with any adverse event. Sub-group analysis was limited; 6 studies examined older women, 2 examined women with low recurrence risk, and 1 examined women with multiple comorbidities. Published CEAs comparing AIs to tamoxifen assumed an OS benefit though none has been shown in RCTs, leading to an overestimate of the cost-effectiveness of AIs. Results of these CEA analyses may be suboptimal for

  1. A Systematic Review and Methodological Evaluation of Published Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Aromatase Inhibitors versus Tamoxifen in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Baptiste, Ava A.; Wu, Wei; Rochon, Paula; Anderson, Geoffrey M.; Bell, Chaim M.

    2013-01-01

    Background A key priority in developing policies for providing affordable cancer care is measuring the value for money of new therapies using cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs). For CEA to be useful it should focus on relevant outcomes and include thorough investigation of uncertainty. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of five years of aromatase inhibitors (AI) versus five years of tamoxifen in the treatment of post-menopausal women with early stage breast cancer, show benefit of AI in terms of disease free survival (DFS) but not overall survival (OS) and indicate higher risk of fracture with AI. Policy-relevant CEA of AI versus tamoxifen should focus on OS and include analysis of uncertainty over key assumptions. Methods We conducted a systematic review of published CEAs comparing an AI to tamoxifen. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews without language restrictions. We selected CEAs with outcomes expressed as cost per life year or cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). We assessed quality using the Neumann checklist. Using structured forms two abstractors collected descriptive information, sources of data, baseline assumptions on effectiveness and adverse events, and recorded approaches to assessing parameter uncertainty, methodological uncertainty, and structural uncertainty. Results We identified 1,622 citations and 18 studies met inclusion criteria. All CE estimates assumed a survival benefit for aromatase inhibitors. Twelve studies performed sensitivity analysis on the risk of adverse events and 7 assumed no additional mortality risk with any adverse event. Sub-group analysis was limited; 6 studies examined older women, 2 examined women with low recurrence risk, and 1 examined women with multiple comorbidities. Conclusion Published CEAs comparing AIs to tamoxifen assumed an OS benefit though none has been shown in RCTs, leading to an overestimate of the cost-effectiveness of AIs. Results of these

  2. A systematic review and methodological evaluation of published cost-effectiveness analyses of aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen in early stage breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava A John-Baptiste

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A key priority in developing policies for providing affordable cancer care is measuring the value for money of new therapies using cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs. For CEA to be useful it should focus on relevant outcomes and include thorough investigation of uncertainty. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of five years of aromatase inhibitors (AI versus five years of tamoxifen in the treatment of post-menopausal women with early stage breast cancer, show benefit of AI in terms of disease free survival (DFS but not overall survival (OS and indicate higher risk of fracture with AI. Policy-relevant CEA of AI versus tamoxifen should focus on OS and include analysis of uncertainty over key assumptions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of published CEAs comparing an AI to tamoxifen. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews without language restrictions. We selected CEAs with outcomes expressed as cost per life year or cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY. We assessed quality using the Neumann checklist. Using structured forms two abstractors collected descriptive information, sources of data, baseline assumptions on effectiveness and adverse events, and recorded approaches to assessing parameter uncertainty, methodological uncertainty, and structural uncertainty. RESULTS: We identified 1,622 citations and 18 studies met inclusion criteria. All CE estimates assumed a survival benefit for aromatase inhibitors. Twelve studies performed sensitivity analysis on the risk of adverse events and 7 assumed no additional mortality risk with any adverse event. Sub-group analysis was limited; 6 studies examined older women, 2 examined women with low recurrence risk, and 1 examined women with multiple comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Published CEAs comparing AIs to tamoxifen assumed an OS benefit though none has been shown in RCTs, leading to an overestimate of the cost-effectiveness of AIs

  3. Non-skeletal health effects of vitamin D supplementation: A systematic review on findings from meta-analyses summarizing trial data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rejnmark

    Full Text Available A large number of observational studies have reported harmful effects of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD levels on non-skeletal outcomes. We performed a systematic quantitative review on characteristics of randomized clinical trials (RCTs included in meta-analyses (MAs on non-skeletal effects of vitamin D supplementation.We identified systematic reviews (SR reporting summary data in terms of MAs of RCTs on selected non-skeletal outcomes. For each outcome, we summarized the results from available SRs and scrutinized included RCTs for a number of predefined characteristics. We identified 54 SRs including data from 210 RCTs. Most MAs as well as the individual RCTs reported null-findings on risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, weight-loss, and malignant diseases. Beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation was reported in 1 of 4 MAs on depression, 2 of 9 MAs on blood pressure, 3 of 7 MAs on respiratory tract infections, and 8 of 12 MAs on mortality. Most RCTs have primarily been performed to determine skeletal outcomes, whereas non-skeletal effects have been assessed as secondary outcomes. Only one-third of the RCTs had low level of 25OHD as a criterion for inclusion and a mean baseline 25OHD level below 50 nmol/L was only present in less than half of the analyses.Published RCTs have mostly been performed in populations without low 25OHD levels. The fact that most MAs on results from RCTs did not show a beneficial effect does not disprove the hypothesis suggested by observational findings on adverse health outcomes of low 25OHD levels.

  4. Non-skeletal health effects of vitamin D supplementation: A systematic review on findings from meta-analyses summarizing trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Bislev, Lise Sofie; Cashman, Kevin D; Eiríksdottir, Gudny; Gaksch, Martin; Grübler, Martin; Grimnes, Guri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Lips, Paul; Pilz, Stefan; van Schoor, Natasja M; Kiely, Mairead; Jorde, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    A large number of observational studies have reported harmful effects of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on non-skeletal outcomes. We performed a systematic quantitative review on characteristics of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) included in meta-analyses (MAs) on non-skeletal effects of vitamin D supplementation. We identified systematic reviews (SR) reporting summary data in terms of MAs of RCTs on selected non-skeletal outcomes. For each outcome, we summarized the results from available SRs and scrutinized included RCTs for a number of predefined characteristics. We identified 54 SRs including data from 210 RCTs. Most MAs as well as the individual RCTs reported null-findings on risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, weight-loss, and malignant diseases. Beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation was reported in 1 of 4 MAs on depression, 2 of 9 MAs on blood pressure, 3 of 7 MAs on respiratory tract infections, and 8 of 12 MAs on mortality. Most RCTs have primarily been performed to determine skeletal outcomes, whereas non-skeletal effects have been assessed as secondary outcomes. Only one-third of the RCTs had low level of 25OHD as a criterion for inclusion and a mean baseline 25OHD level below 50 nmol/L was only present in less than half of the analyses. Published RCTs have mostly been performed in populations without low 25OHD levels. The fact that most MAs on results from RCTs did not show a beneficial effect does not disprove the hypothesis suggested by observational findings on adverse health outcomes of low 25OHD levels.

  5. Non-skeletal health effects of vitamin D supplementation: A systematic review on findings from meta-analyses summarizing trial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bislev, Lise Sofie; Cashman, Kevin D.; Eiríksdottir, Gudny; Gaksch, Martin; Grübler, Martin; Grimnes, Guri; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Lips, Paul; Pilz, Stefan; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Kiely, Mairead; Jorde, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Background A large number of observational studies have reported harmful effects of low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on non-skeletal outcomes. We performed a systematic quantitative review on characteristics of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) included in meta-analyses (MAs) on non-skeletal effects of vitamin D supplementation. Methods and findings We identified systematic reviews (SR) reporting summary data in terms of MAs of RCTs on selected non-skeletal outcomes. For each outcome, we summarized the results from available SRs and scrutinized included RCTs for a number of predefined characteristics. We identified 54 SRs including data from 210 RCTs. Most MAs as well as the individual RCTs reported null-findings on risk of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, weight-loss, and malignant diseases. Beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation was reported in 1 of 4 MAs on depression, 2 of 9 MAs on blood pressure, 3 of 7 MAs on respiratory tract infections, and 8 of 12 MAs on mortality. Most RCTs have primarily been performed to determine skeletal outcomes, whereas non-skeletal effects have been assessed as secondary outcomes. Only one-third of the RCTs had low level of 25OHD as a criterion for inclusion and a mean baseline 25OHD level below 50 nmol/L was only present in less than half of the analyses. Conclusions Published RCTs have mostly been performed in populations without low 25OHD levels. The fact that most MAs on results from RCTs did not show a beneficial effect does not disprove the hypothesis suggested by observational findings on adverse health outcomes of low 25OHD levels. PMID:28686645

  6. Efficacy and completion rates of rifapentine and isoniazid (3HP) compared to other treatment regimens for latent tuberculosis infection: a systematic review with network meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Christopher; Hutton, Brian; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Wolfe, Dianna; Hamel, Candyce; Quach, Pauline; Skidmore, Becky; Moher, David; Alvarez, Gonzalo G

    2017-04-11

    We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to examine the efficacy and completion rates of treatments for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). While a previous review found newer, short-duration regimens to be effective, several included studies did not confirm LTBI, and analyses did not account for variable follow-up or assess completion. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, PubMed, and additional sources to identify RCTs in patients with confirmed LTBI that involved a regimen of interest and reported on efficacy or completion. Regimens of interest included isoniazid (INH) with rifapentine once weekly for 12 weeks (INH/RPT-3), 6 and 9 months of daily INH (INH-6; INH-9), 3-4 months daily INH plus rifampicin (INH/RFMP 3-4), and 4 months daily rifampicin alone (RFMP-4). NMAs were performed to compare regimens for both endpoints. Sixteen RCTs (n = 44,149) and 14 RCTs (n = 44,128) were included in analyses of efficacy and completion. Studies were published between 1968 and 2015, and there was diversity in patient age and comorbidities. All regimens of interest except INH-9 showed significant benefits in preventing active TB compared to placebo. Comparisons between active regimens did not reveal significant differences. While definitions of regimen completion varied across studies, regimens of 3-4 months were associated with a greater likelihood of adequate completion. Most of the active regimens showed an ability to reduce the risk of active TB relative to no treatment, however important differences between active regimens were not found. Shorter rifamycin-based regimens may offer comparable benefits to longer INH regimens. Regimens of 3-4 months duration are more likely to be completed than longer regimens.

  7. Aspirin in the Treatment of Cancer: Reductions in Metastatic Spread and in Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Published Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose aspirin has been shown to reduce the incidence of cancer, but its role in the treatment of cancer is uncertain. Objectives We conducted a systematic search of the scientific literature on aspirin taken by patients following a diagnosis of cancer, together with appropriate meta-analyses. Methods Searches were completed in Medline and Embase in December 2015 using a pre-defined search strategy. References and abstracts of all the selected papers were scanned and expert colleagues were contacted for additional studies. Two reviewers applied pre-determined eligibility criteria (cross-sectional, cohort and controlled studies, and aspirin taken after a diagnosis of cancer), assessed study quality and extracted data on cancer cause-specific deaths, overall mortality and incidence of metastases. Random effects meta-analyses and planned sub-group analyses were completed separately for observational and experimental studies. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed in sensitivity analyses and appropriate omissions made. Papers were examined for any reference to bleeding and authors of the papers were contacted and questioned. Results Five reports of randomised trials were identified, together with forty two observational studies: sixteen on colorectal cancer, ten on breast and ten on prostate cancer mortality. Pooling of eleven observational reports of the effect of aspirin on cause-specific mortality from colon cancer, after the omission of one report identified on the basis of sensitivity analyses, gave a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.76 (95% CI 0.66, 0.88) with reduced heterogeneity (P = 0.04). The cause specific mortality in five reports of patients with breast cancer showed significant heterogeneity (Paspirin, and in five the effect is statistically significant. There were no significant differences between the pooled HRs for the three main cancers and after the omission of three reports already identified in sensitivity analyses heterogeneity was

  8. Oral branched-chain amino acids have a beneficial effect on manifestations of hepatic encephalopathy in a systematic review with meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluud, Lise L; Dam, Gitte; Borre, Mette; Les, Iñigo; Cordoba, Juan; Marchesini, Giulio; Aagaard, Niels K; Risum, Niels; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2013-08-01

    Supplements with branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) have cerebral, metabolic, and nutritional effects that may benefit patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). We therefore conducted a systematic review on the effects of oral BCAAs compared with control supplements or placebo for patients with cirrhosis and recurrent overt or minimal HE. The quantitative analyses included data from 8 trials (n = 382 patients). Individual patient data were retrieved from 4 trials to recalculate outcomes (n = 255 patients). The mean dose of the oral BCAA supplements was 0.25 g/(kg body weight · d). Random effects meta-analysis showed that improvements in HE manifestations were registered for 87 of 172 patients in the BCAA group compared with 56 of 210 controls [risk ratio = 1.71 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.51) number needed to treat = 5 patients]. The effect of BCAAs differed (P = 0.04) for patients with overt [risk ratio = 3.26 (95% CI: 1.47, 7.22)] and minimal HE [risk ratio = 1.32 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.79)]. Subgroup, sensitivity, regression, and sequential analyses found no other sources of heterogeneity or bias. BCAA supplements had no effect on mortality or markers of nutritional status and did not induce adverse events. In conclusion, oral BCAA supplements improve manifestations of HE but have no effect on survival.

  9. Cartilage Defect Treatments: With or without Cells? Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Chondrocytes? Traditional or Matrix-Assisted? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhantao Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage defects have been addressed by using multiple strategies. In the last two decades, promising new strategies by using assorted scaffolds and cell sources to induce tissue regeneration have emerged, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI and mesenchymal stem cell implantation (MSCI. However, it is still controversial in the clinical strategies when to choose these treatments. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses to compare the efficacy and safety of different cartilage treatments. In our study, 17 studies were selected to compare different treatments for cartilage defects. The results of meta-analyses indicated that cell-based cartilage treatments showed significant better efficacy than cell-free treatments did (OR: 4.27, 95% CI: 2.19–8.34; WMD: 10.11, 95% CI: 2.69–16.53. Another result indicated that MACT had significant better efficacy than traditional ACI did (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.30–0.82. Besides, the incidence of graft hypertrophy of MACT was slightly lower than that of traditional ACI (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.00–5.94. Current data showed that the cell-based treatments and MACT are better options for cartilage treatments, but more well-designed comparative studies are still needed to enhance our understanding of different treatments for cartilage defects.

  10. A review of trabecular bone functional adaptation: what have we learned from trabecular analyses in extant hominoids and what can we apply to fossils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L

    2016-04-01

    Many of the unresolved debates in palaeoanthropology regarding evolution of particular locomotor or manipulative behaviours are founded in differing opinions about the functional significance of the preserved external fossil morphology. However, the plasticity of internal bone morphology, and particularly trabecular bone, allowing it to respond to mechanical loading during life means that it can reveal greater insight into how a bone or joint was used during an individual's lifetime. Analyses of trabecular bone have been commonplace for several decades in a human clinical context. In contrast, the study of trabecular bone as a method for reconstructing joint position, joint loading and ultimately behaviour in extant and fossil non-human primates is comparatively new. Since the initial 2D studies in the late 1970s and 3D analyses in the 1990 s, the utility of trabecular bone to reconstruct behaviour in primates has grown to incorporate experimental studies, expanded taxonomic samples and skeletal elements, and improved methodologies. However, this work, in conjunction with research on humans and non-primate mammals, has also revealed the substantial complexity inherent in making functional inferences from variation in trabecular architecture. This review addresses the current understanding of trabecular bone functional adaptation, how it has been applied to hominoids, as well as other primates and, ultimately, how this can be used to better interpret fossil hominoid and hominin morphology. Because the fossil record constrains us to interpreting function largely from bony morphology alone, and typically from isolated bones, analyses of trabecular structure, ideally in conjunction with that of cortical structure and external morphology, can offer the best resource for reconstructing behaviour in the past. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  11. Age and sex as moderators of the placebo response – an evaluation of systematic reviews and meta-analyses across medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Katja; Colloca, Luana; Enck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of the placebo response (PR) in randomized controlled trials (RCT) have been searched for ever since RCT have become the standard for testing novel therapies and age and gender are routinely documented data in all trials irrespective of the drug tested, its indication, and the primary and secondary end points chosen. To evaluate whether age and gender have been found to be reliable predictors of the PR across medical subspecialties, we extracted 75 systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and meta-regressions performed in major medical areas (neurology, psychiatry, internal medicine) known for high PR rates. The literature database used contains approximately 2,500 papers on various aspects of the genuine PR. These ‘meta-analyses’ were screened for statistical predictors of the PR across multiple RCT, including age and gender, but also other patient-based and design-based predictors of higher PR rates. Retrieved papers were sorted for areas and disease categories. Only 15 of the 75 analyses noted an effect of younger age to be associated with higher PR, and this was predominantly in psychiatric conditions but not in depression, and internal medicine but not in gastroenterology. Female gender was associated with higher PR in only 3 analyses. Among the patient-based predictors, the most frequently noted factor was lower symptom severity at baseline, and among the design- based factors, it was a randomization ratio that selected more patients to drugs than to placebo, more frequent study visits, and more recent trials that were associated with higher PR rates. While younger age may contribute to the PR in some conditions, sex does not. There is currently no evidence that the PR is different in the elderly. PR are, however, markedly influenced by the symptom severity at baseline, and by the likelihood of receiving active treatment in placebo- controlled trials. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Systematic review of model-based analyses reporting the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of cardiovascular disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Shoko; Byrnes, Joshua; Whitty, Jennifer A; Carrington, Melinda J; Stewart, Simon; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    The reported cost effectiveness of cardiovascular disease management programs (CVD-MPs) is highly variable, potentially leading to different funding decisions. This systematic review evaluates published modeled analyses to compare study methods and quality. Articles were included if an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) or cost-utility ratio (ICUR) was reported, it is a multi-component intervention designed to manage or prevent a cardiovascular disease condition, and it addressed all domains specified in the American Heart Association Taxonomy for Disease Management. Nine articles (reporting 10 clinical outcomes) were included. Eight cost-utility and two cost-effectiveness analyses targeted hypertension (n=4), coronary heart disease (n=2), coronary heart disease plus stoke (n=1), heart failure (n=2) and hyperlipidemia (n=1). Study perspectives included the healthcare system (n=5), societal and fund holders (n=1), a third party payer (n=3), or was not explicitly stated (n=1). All analyses were modeled based on interventions of one to two years' duration. Time horizon ranged from two years (n=1), 10 years (n=1) and lifetime (n=8). Model structures included Markov model (n=8), 'decision analytic models' (n=1), or was not explicitly stated (n=1). Considerable variation was observed in clinical and economic assumptions and reporting practices. Of all ICERs/ICURs reported, including those of subgroups (n=16), four were above a US$50,000 acceptability threshold, six were below and six were dominant. The majority of CVD-MPs was reported to have favorable economic outcomes, but 25% were at unacceptably high cost for the outcomes. Use of standardized reporting tools should increase transparency and inform what drives the cost-effectiveness of CVD-MPs. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  13. What guidance are researchers given on how to present network meta-analyses to end-users such as policymakers and clinicians? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M Sullivan

    Full Text Available Network meta-analyses (NMAs are complex methodological approaches that may be challenging for non-technical end-users, such as policymakers and clinicians, to understand. Consideration should be given to identifying optimal approaches to presenting NMAs that help clarify analyses. It is unclear what guidance researchers currently have on how to present and tailor NMAs to different end-users.A systematic review of NMA guidelines was conducted to identify guidance on how to present NMAs. Electronic databases and supplementary sources were searched for NMA guidelines. Presentation format details related to sample formats, target audiences, data sources, analysis methods and results were extracted and frequencies tabulated. Guideline quality was assessed following criteria developed for clinical practice guidelines.Seven guidelines were included. Current guidelines focus on how to conduct NMAs but provide limited guidance to researchers on how to best present analyses to different end-users. None of the guidelines provided reporting templates. Few guidelines provided advice on tailoring presentations to different end-users, such as policymakers. Available guidance on presentation formats focused on evidence networks, characteristics of individual trials, comparisons between direct and indirect estimates and assumptions of heterogeneity and/or inconsistency. Some guidelines also provided examples of figures and tables that could be used to present information.Limited guidance exists for researchers on how best to present NMAs in an accessible format, especially for non-technical end-users such as policymakers and clinicians. NMA guidelines may require further integration with end-users' needs, when NMAs are used to support healthcare policy and practice decisions. Developing presentation formats that enhance understanding and accessibility of NMAs could also enhance the transparency and legitimacy of decisions informed by NMAs.

  14. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella spp.: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrik, Tirza C; Voor In 't Holt, Anne F; Vos, Margreet C

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-related infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp. are of major concern. To control transmission, deep understanding of the transmission mechanisms is needed. This systematic review aimed to identify risk factors and sources, clonal relatedness using molecular techniques, and the most effective control strategies for ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Outbreak Database was performed. We identified 2771 articles from November 25th, 1960 until April 7th, 2014 of which 148 were included in the systematic review and 23 in a random-effects meta-analysis study. The random-effects meta-analyses showed that underlying disease or condition (odds ratio [OR] = 6.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.85 to 13.66) generated the highest pooled estimate. ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. were spread through person-to-person contact and via sources in the environment; we identified both monoclonal and polyclonal presence. Multi-faceted interventions are needed to prevent transmission of ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp.

  15. Statistical methods for cost-effectiveness analyses that use data from cluster randomized trials: a systematic review and checklist for critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Manuel; Grieve, Richard; Nixon, Richard; Edmunds, W J

    2012-01-01

    The best data for cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of group-level interventions often come from cluster randomized trials (CRTs), where randomization is by cluster (e.g., the hospital attended), not by individual. for these CEAs need to recognize both the correlation between costs and outcomes and that these data may be dependent on the cluster. General checklists and methodological guidance for critically appraising CEA ignore these issues. This article develops a new checklist and applies it in a systematic review of CEAs that use CRTs. The authors developed a checklist for CEAs that use CRTs, informed by a conceptual review of statistical methods. This checklist included criteria such as whether the analysis allowed for both clustering and the correlation between individuals' costs and outcomes. The authors undertook a systematic literature review of full economic evaluations that used CRTs. The quality of studies was assessed with the new checklist and by the "Drummond checklist." The authors identified 62 papers that met the inclusion criteria. On average, studies satisfied 9 of the 10 criteria for the checklist but only 20% of criteria for the new checklist. More than 40% of studies adopted statistical methods that completely ignored clustering, and 75% disregarded any correlation between costs and outcomes. Only 4 studies employed appropriate statistical methods that allowed for both clustering and correlation. Most economic evaluations that use data from CRTs ignored clustering or correlation. Statistical methods that address these issues are available, and their use should be encouraged. The new checklist can supplement generic CEA guidelines and highlight where research practice can be improved.

  16. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  17. Health technologies for the improvement of chronic disease management: a review of the Medical Advisory Secretariat evidence-based analyses between 2006 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitovic, M; Brener, S

    2013-01-01

    As part of ongoing efforts to improve the Ontario health care system, a mega-analysis examining the optimization of chronic disease management in the community was conducted by Evidence Development and Standards, Health Quality Ontario (previously known as the Medical Advisory Secretariat [MAS]). The purpose of this report was to identify health technologies previously evaluated by MAS that may be leveraged in efforts to optimize chronic disease management in the community. The Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series and field evaluations conducted by MAS and its partners between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. Technologies related to at least 1 of 7 disease areas of interest (type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, and chronic wounds) or that may greatly impact health services utilization were reviewed. Only technologies with a moderate to high quality of evidence and associated with a clinically or statistically significant improvement in disease management were included. Technologies related to other topics in the mega-analysis on chronic disease management were excluded. Evidence-based analyses were reviewed, and outcomes of interest were extracted. Outcomes of interest included hospital utilization, mortality, health-related quality of life, disease-specific measures, and economic analysis measures. Eleven analyses were included and summarized. Technologies fell into 3 categories: those with evidence for the cure of chronic disease, those with evidence for the prevention of chronic disease, and those with evidence for the management of chronic disease. The impact on patient outcomes and hospitalization rates of new health technologies in chronic disease management is often overlooked. This analysis demonstrates that health technologies can reduce the burden of illness; improve patient outcomes; reduce resource utilization intensity; be cost

  18. Dual Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Kallosh, Renata

    1994-01-01

    We study the gravitational waves in the 10-dimensional target space of the superstring theory. Some of these waves have unbroken supersymmetries. They consist of Brinkmann metric and of a 2-form field. Sigma-model duality is applied to such waves. The corresponding solutions we call dual partners of gravitational waves, or dual waves. Some of these dual waves upon Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction to 4 dimensions become equivalent to the conformo-stationary solutions of axion-dilaton gravity...

  19. Age at Menarche, Level of Education, Parity and the Risk of Hysterectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Population-Based Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise F Wilson

    Full Text Available Although rates have declined, hysterectomy is still a frequent gynaecological procedure. To date, there has been no systematic quantification of the relationships between early/mid-life exposures and hysterectomy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to quantify the associations between age at menarche, education level, parity and hysterectomy.Eligible studies were identified by searches in PubMed and Embase through March 2015. Study-specific estimates were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored using sub-group analysis and meta-regression.Thirty-two study populations were identified for inclusion in at least one meta-analysis. Each year older at menarche was associated with lower risk of hysterectomy-summary hazard ratio 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.95; I2 = 0%; summary odds ratio 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.94; I2 = 61%. Low education levels conferred a higher risk of hysterectomy in the lowest versus highest level meta-analysis (summary hazard ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.80; I2 = 86%, summary odds ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.35, 1.69; I2 = 90% and dose-response meta-analysis (summary odds ratio 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.23; I2 = 85% per each level lower of education. Sub-group analysis showed that the birth cohort category of study participants, the reference category used for level of education, the year the included article was published, quality of the study (as assessed by the authors and control for the key variables accounted for the high heterogeneity between studies in the education level meta-analyses. In the meta-analyses of studies of parity and hysterectomy the results were not statistically significant.The present meta-analyses suggest that the early life factors of age at menarche and lower education level are associated with hysterectomy, although this evidence should be interpreted with some caution due to variance

  20. Second-Wave White Teacher Identity Studies: A Review of White Teacher Identity Literatures From 2004 through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, James C.; Berry, Theodorea Regina; Lensmire, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study of White teacher identity literatures, we historicize, define, and advance second-wave White teacher identity studies in education research and teacher education. First, we provide a discussion of methodology used to conduct this study called the synoptic text. Second, we provide an historical account of White teacher identity…

  1. Comparing the accuracy of quantitative versus qualitative analyses of interim PET to prognosticate Hodgkin lymphoma: a systematic review protocol of diagnostic test accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, Vít; Klugar, Miloslav; Bachanova, Veronika; Klugarová, Jitka; Tučková, Dagmar; Papajík, Tomáš

    2016-08-05

    Hodgkin lymphoma is an effectively treated malignancy, yet 20% of patients relapse or are refractory to front-line treatments with potentially fatal outcomes. Early detection of poor treatment responders is crucial for appropriate application of tailored treatment strategies. Tumour metabolic imaging of Hodgkin lymphoma using visual (qualitative) 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a gold standard for staging and final outcome assessment, but results gathered during the interim period are less accurate. Analysis of continuous metabolic-morphological data (quantitative) FDG-PET may enhance the robustness of interim disease monitoring, and help to improve treatment decision-making processes. The objective of this review is to compare diagnostic test accuracy of quantitative versus qualitative interim FDG-PET in the prognostication of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on this topic will be reviewed in a 3-step strategy that follows methods described by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). First, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases will be searched. Second, listed databases for published literature (MEDLINE, Tripdatabase, Pedro, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and WoS) and unpublished literature (Open Grey, Current Controlled Trials, MedNar, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cos Conference Papers Index and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the WHO) will be queried. Third, 2 independent reviewers will analyse titles, abstracts and full texts, and perform hand search of relevant studies, and then perform critical appraisal and data extraction from selected studies using the DATARI tool (JBI). If possible, a statistical meta-analysis will be performed on pooled sensitivity and specificity data gathered from the selected studies. Statistical heterogeneity will be assessed. Funnel plots, Begg's rank correlations and Egger's regression tests will be used to detect and/or correct publication bias. The results will

  2. Aspirin in the Treatment of Cancer: Reductions in Metastatic Spread and in Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Published Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C Elwood

    Full Text Available Low-dose aspirin has been shown to reduce the incidence of cancer, but its role in the treatment of cancer is uncertain.We conducted a systematic search of the scientific literature on aspirin taken by patients following a diagnosis of cancer, together with appropriate meta-analyses.Searches were completed in Medline and Embase in December 2015 using a pre-defined search strategy. References and abstracts of all the selected papers were scanned and expert colleagues were contacted for additional studies. Two reviewers applied pre-determined eligibility criteria (cross-sectional, cohort and controlled studies, and aspirin taken after a diagnosis of cancer, assessed study quality and extracted data on cancer cause-specific deaths, overall mortality and incidence of metastases. Random effects meta-analyses and planned sub-group analyses were completed separately for observational and experimental studies. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed in sensitivity analyses and appropriate omissions made. Papers were examined for any reference to bleeding and authors of the papers were contacted and questioned.Five reports of randomised trials were identified, together with forty two observational studies: sixteen on colorectal cancer, ten on breast and ten on prostate cancer mortality. Pooling of eleven observational reports of the effect of aspirin on cause-specific mortality from colon cancer, after the omission of one report identified on the basis of sensitivity analyses, gave a hazard ratio (HR of 0.76 (95% CI 0.66, 0.88 with reduced heterogeneity (P = 0.04. The cause specific mortality in five reports of patients with breast cancer showed significant heterogeneity (P<0.0005 but the omission of one outlying study reduced heterogeneity (P = 0.19 and led to an HR = 0.87 (95% CI 0.69, 1.09. Heterogeneity between nine studies of prostate cancer was significant, but again, the omission of one study led to acceptable homogeneity (P = 0.26 and an

  3. Wave kinematics and response of slender offshore structures. Vol 4: Wave kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riber, H.J.

    1999-08-01

    The kinematics of large surface waves has been measured by means of sonar's placed on the sea floor at the Tyra field. Measurements from the most severe storm are analysed and extreme wave velocity profiles are compared to Stoke wave velocity profiles. Statistical distributions of crest velocity and wave celerity are presented. The analysis shows how the deviation from the Stokes prediction varies with wave heights and steepness. Analyses of the directional wave field leads to the conclusion that the extreme waves are three-dimensional. It is shown that the peculiar kinematics of extreme waves is of great relevance to the design of jacket type structures. (au)

  4. Large variations in risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality in treatment naïve hepatitis B patients: systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Thiele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complications to chronic hepatitis B (HBV include incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and mortality. The risk of these complications may vary in different patient groups. AIM: To estimate the incidence and predictors of HCC and in untreated HBV patients. METHODS: Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials and observational studies. Results are expressed as annual incidence (events per 100 person-years with 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses of patient and study characteristics were performed to identify common risk factors. RESULTS: We included 68 trials and studies with a total of 27,584 patients (264,919 person-years. In total, 1,285 of 26,687 (5% patients developed HCC and 730 of 12,511 (6% patients died. The annual incidence was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76-0.99 for HCC and 1.26 (95% CI, 1.01-1.51 for mortality. Patients with cirrhosis had a higher risk of HCC (incidence 3.16; 95% CI, 2.58-3.74 than patients without cirrhosis (0.10; 95% CI, 0.02-0.18. The risk of dying was also higher for patients with than patients without cirrhosis (4.89; 95% CI, 3.16-6.63; and 0.11; 95% CI, 0.09-0.14. The risk of developing HCC increased with HCV coinfection, older age and inflammatory activity. The country of origin did not clearly predict HCC or mortality estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Cirrhosis was the strongest predictor of HCC incidence and mortality. Patients with HBV cirrhosis have a 31-fold increased risk of HCC and a 44-fold increased mortality compared to non-cirrhotic patients. The low incidence rates should be taken into account when considering HCC screening in non-cirrhotic patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospero CRD42013004764.

  5. The Role of the Amygdala in Facial Trustworthiness Processing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of fMRI Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveiros, Bárbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Faces play a key role in signaling social cues such as signals of trustworthiness. Although several studies identify the amygdala as a core brain region in social cognition, quantitative approaches evaluating its role are scarce. Objectives This review aimed to assess the role of the amygdala in the processing of facial trustworthiness, by analyzing its amplitude BOLD response polarity to untrustworthy versus trustworthy facial signals under fMRI tasks through a Meta-analysis of effect sizes (MA). Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) analyses were also conducted. Data sources Articles were retrieved from MEDLINE, ScienceDirect and Web-of-Science in January 2016. Following the PRISMA statement guidelines, a systematic review of original research articles in English language using the search string “(face OR facial) AND (trustworthiness OR trustworthy OR untrustworthy OR trustee) AND fMRI” was conducted. Study selection and data extraction The MA concerned amygdala responses to facial trustworthiness for the contrast Untrustworthy vs. trustworthy faces, and included whole-brain and ROI studies. To prevent potential bias, results were considered even when at the single study level they did not survive correction for multiple comparisons or provided non-significant results. ALE considered whole-brain studies, using the same methodology to prevent bias. A summary of the methodological options (design and analysis) described in the articles was finally used to get further insight into the characteristics of the studies and to perform a subgroup analysis. Data were extracted by two authors and checked independently. Data synthesis Twenty fMRI studies were considered for systematic review. An MA of effect sizes with 11 articles (12 studies) showed high heterogeneity between studies [Q(11) = 265.68, p amygdala responds preferentially to untrustworthy faces. Moreover, two ALE analyses performed with 6 articles (7 studies) identified the amygdala, insula and

  6. The effect of adding psychodynamic therapy to antidepressants in patients with major depressive disorder. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hansen, Jane Lindschou; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Psychodynamic therapy may be a treatment option for depression, but the effects have only been limitedly assessed in systematic reviews.......Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Psychodynamic therapy may be a treatment option for depression, but the effects have only been limitedly assessed in systematic reviews....

  7. Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, Marcin; Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Volakakis, Nikolaos; Seal, Chris; Sanderson, Roy; Stewart, Gavin B; Benbrook, Charles; Biavati, Bruno; Markellou, Emilia; Giotis, Charilaos; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Tahvonen, Raija; Janovská, Dagmar; Niggli, Urs; Nicot, Philippe; Leifert, Carlo

    2014-09-14

    Demand for organic foods is partially driven by consumers' perceptions that they are more nutritious. However, scientific opinion is divided on whether there are significant nutritional differences between organic and non-organic foods, and two recent reviews have concluded that there are no differences. In the present study, we carried out meta-analyses based on 343 peer-reviewed publications that indicate statistically significant and meaningful differences in composition between organic and non-organic crops/crop-based foods. Most importantly, the concentrations of a range of antioxidants such as polyphenolics were found to be substantially higher in organic crops/crop-based foods, with those of phenolic acids, flavanones, stilbenes, flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins being an estimated 19 (95 % CI 5, 33) %, 69 (95 % CI 13, 125) %, 28 (95 % CI 12, 44) %, 26 (95 % CI 3, 48) %, 50 (95 % CI 28, 72) % and 51 (95 % CI 17, 86) % higher, respectively. Many of these compounds have previously been linked to a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including CVD and neurodegenerative diseases and certain cancers, in dietary intervention and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the frequency of occurrence of pesticide residues was found to be four times higher in conventional crops, which also contained significantly higher concentrations of the toxic metal Cd. Significant differences were also detected for some other (e.g. minerals and vitamins) compounds. There is evidence that higher antioxidant concentrations and lower Cd concentrations are linked to specific agronomic practices (e.g. non-use of mineral N and P fertilisers, respectively) prescribed in organic farming systems. In conclusion, organic crops, on average, have higher concentrations of antioxidants, lower concentrations of Cd and a lower incidence of pesticide residues than the non-organic comparators across regions and production seasons.

  8. Overweight and obesity in mothers and risk of preterm birth and low birth weight infants: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sarah D; Han, Zhen; Mulla, Sohail; Beyene, Joseph

    2010-07-20

    To determine the relation between overweight and obesity in mothers and preterm birth and low birth weight in singleton pregnancies in developed and developing countries. Systematic review and meta-analyses. Medline and Embase from their inceptions, and reference lists of identified articles. Studies including a reference group of women with normal body mass index that assessed the effect of overweight and obesity on two primary outcomes: preterm birth (before 37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2500 g). Two assessors independently reviewed titles, abstracts, and full articles, extracted data using a piloted data collection form, and assessed quality. 84 studies (64 cohort and 20 case-control) were included, totalling 1 095 834 women. Although the overall risk of preterm birth was similar in overweight and obese women and women of normal weight, the risk of induced preterm birth was increased in overweight and obese women (relative risk 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.37). Although overall the risk of having an infant of low birth weight was decreased in overweight and obese women (0.84, 0.75 to 0.95), the decrease was greater in developing countries than in developed countries (0.58, 0.47 to 0.71 v 0.90, 0.79 to 1.01). After accounting for publication bias, the apparent protective effect of overweight and obesity on low birth weight disappeared with the addition of imputed "missing" studies (0.95, 0.85 to 1.07), whereas the risk of preterm birth appeared significantly higher in overweight and obese women (1.24, 1.13 to 1.37). Overweight and obese women have increased risks of preterm birth and induced preterm birth and, after accounting for publication bias, appeared to have increased risks of preterm birth overall. The beneficial effects of maternal overweight and obesity on low birth weight were greater in developing countries and disappeared after accounting for publication bias.

  9. The association between systemic glucocorticoid therapy and the risk of infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: systematic review and meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy on the risk of infection in patients with RA. Methods A systematic review was conducted by using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials database to January 2010 to identify studies among populations of patients with RA that reported a comparison of infection incidence between patients treated with GC therapy and patients not exposed to GC therapy. Results In total, 21 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 42 observational studies were included. In the RCTs, GC therapy was not associated with a risk of infection (relative risk (RR), 0.97 (95% CI, 0.69, 1.36)). Small numbers of events in the RCTs meant that a clinically important increased or decreased risk could not be ruled out. The observational studies generated a RR of 1.67 (1.49, 1.87), although significant heterogeneity was present. The increased risk (and heterogeneity) persisted when analyses were stratified by varying definitions of exposure, outcome, and adjustment for confounders. A positive dose-response effect was seen. Conclusions Whereas observational studies suggested an increased risk of infection with GC therapy, RCTs suggested no increased risk. Inconsistent reporting of safety outcomes in the RCTs, as well as marked heterogeneity, probable residual confounding, and publication bias in the observational studies, limits the opportunity for a definitive conclusion. Clinicians should remain vigilant for infection in patients with RA treated with GC therapy. PMID:21884589

  10. Long term maintenance of weight loss with non-surgical interventions in obese adults: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, S U; Knittle, K; Avenell, A; Araújo-Soares, V; Sniehotta, F F

    2014-05-14

    To systematically review and describe currently available approaches to supporting maintenance of weight loss in obese adults and to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Studies were identified through to January 2014. Randomised trials of interventions to maintain weight loss provided to initially obese adults (aged ≥ 18) after weight loss of ≥ 5% body weight with long term (≥ 12 months) follow-up of weight change (main outcome) were included. Potential studies were screened independently and in duplicate; study characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of interventions on weight loss maintenance with the inverse variance method and a random effects model. Results are presented as mean differences in weight change, with 95% confidence intervals. 45 trials involving 7788 individuals were included. Behavioural interventions focusing on both food intake and physical activity resulted in an average difference of -1.56 kg (95% confidence interval -2.27 to -0.86 kg; 25 comparisons, 2949 participants) in weight regain compared with controls at 12 months. Orlistat combined with behavioural interventions resulted in a -1.80 kg (-2.54 to -1.06; eight comparisons, 1738 participants) difference compared with placebo at 12 months. All orlistat studies reported higher frequencies of adverse gastrointestinal events in the experimental compared with placebo control groups. A dose-response relation for orlistat treatment was found, with 120 mg doses three times a day leading to greater weight loss maintenance (-2.34 kg, -3.03 to -1.65) compared with 60 mg and 30 mg three times a day (-0.70 kg, 95% confidence interval -1.92 to 0.52), P=0.02. Behavioural interventions that deal with both diet and physical activity show small but significant benefits on weight loss

  11. Grey literature in systematic reviews: a cross-sectional study of the contribution of non-English reports, unpublished studies and dissertations to the results of meta-analyses in child-relevant reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartling, Lisa; Featherstone, Robin; Nuspl, Megan; Shave, Kassi; Dryden, Donna M; Vandermeer, Ben

    2017-04-19

    Systematic reviews (SRs) are an important source of information about healthcare interventions. A key component of a well-conducted SR is a comprehensive literature search. There is limited evidence on the contribution of non-English reports, unpublished studies, and dissertations and their impact on results of meta-analyses. Our sample included SRs from three Cochrane Review Groups: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), Infectious Diseases (ID), Developmental Psychosocial and Learning Problems (DPLP) (n = 129). Outcomes included: 1) proportion of reviews that searched for and included each study type; 2) proportion of relevant studies represented by each study type; and 3) impact on results and conclusions of the primary meta-analysis for each study type. Most SRs searched for non-English studies; however, these were included in only 12% of reviews and represented less than 5% of included studies. There was a change in results in only four reviews (total sample = 129); in two cases the change did not have an impact on the statistical or clinical significance of results. Most SRs searched for unpublished studies but the majority did not include these (only 6%) and they represented 2% of included studies. In most cases the impact of including unpublished studies was small; a substantial impact was observed in one case that relied solely on unpublished data. Few reviews in ARI (9%) and ID (3%) searched for dissertations compared to 65% in DPLP. Overall, dissertations were included in only nine SRs and represented less than 2% of included studies. In the majority of cases the change in results was negligible or small; in the case where a large change was noted, the estimate was more conservative without dissertations. The majority of SRs searched for non-English and unpublished studies; however, these represented a small proportion of included studies and rarely impacted the results and conclusions of the review. Inclusion of these study types may have an impact

  12. Grey literature in systematic reviews: a cross-sectional study of the contribution of non-English reports, unpublished studies and dissertations to the results of meta-analyses in child-relevant reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Hartling

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews (SRs are an important source of information about healthcare interventions. A key component of a well-conducted SR is a comprehensive literature search. There is limited evidence on the contribution of non-English reports, unpublished studies, and dissertations and their impact on results of meta-analyses. Methods Our sample included SRs from three Cochrane Review Groups: Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI, Infectious Diseases (ID, Developmental Psychosocial and Learning Problems (DPLP (n = 129. Outcomes included: 1 proportion of reviews that searched for and included each study type; 2 proportion of relevant studies represented by each study type; and 3 impact on results and conclusions of the primary meta-analysis for each study type. Results Most SRs searched for non-English studies; however, these were included in only 12% of reviews and represented less than 5% of included studies. There was a change in results in only four reviews (total sample = 129; in two cases the change did not have an impact on the statistical or clinical significance of results. Most SRs searched for unpublished studies but the majority did not include these (only 6% and they represented 2% of included studies. In most cases the impact of including unpublished studies was small; a substantial impact was observed in one case that relied solely on unpublished data. Few reviews in ARI (9% and ID (3% searched for dissertations compared to 65% in DPLP. Overall, dissertations were included in only nine SRs and represented less than 2% of included studies. In the majority of cases the change in results was negligible or small; in the case where a large change was noted, the estimate was more conservative without dissertations. Conclusions The majority of SRs searched for non-English and unpublished studies; however, these represented a small proportion of included studies and rarely impacted the results and conclusions of the

  13. Alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and ischemic heart disease: a narrative review of meta-analyses and a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of heavy drinking occasions on risk for moderate drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerecke, Michael; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-10-21

    Alcohol consumption is a major global risk factor for mortality and morbidity. Much discussion has revolved around the diverse findings on the complex relationship between alcohol consumption and the leading cause of death and disability, ischemic heart disease (IHD). We conducted a systematic search of the literature up to August 2014 using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify meta-analyses and observational studies examining the relationship between alcohol drinking, drinking patterns, and IHD risk, in comparison to lifetime abstainers. In a narrative review we have summarized the many meta-analyses published in the last 10 years, discussing the role of confounding and experimental evidence. We also conducted meta-analyses examining episodic heavy drinking among on average moderate drinkers. The narrative review showed that the use of current abstainers as the reference group leads to systematic bias. With regard to average alcohol consumption in relation to lifetime abstainers, the relationship is clearly J-shaped, supported by short-term experimental evidence and similar associations within strata of potential confounders, except among smokers. Women experience slightly stronger beneficial associations and also a quicker upturn to a detrimental effect at lower levels of average alcohol consumption compared to men. There was no evidence that chronic or episodic heavy drinking confers a beneficial effect on IHD risk. People with alcohol use disorder have an elevated risk of IHD (1.5- to 2-fold). Results from our quantitative meta-analysis showed that drinkers with average intake of drinking had the lowest IHD risk (relative risk = 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.71). Drinkers with episodic heavy drinking occasions had a risk similar to lifetime abstainers (relative risk = 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.37). Epidemiological evidence for a beneficial effect of low alcohol consumption without

  14. Effects of short-wave therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiming; Zhang, Chi; Gao, Chengfei; Zhu, Siyi; Yang, Lijie; Wei, Quan; He, Chengqi

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-wave therapy with sham or no intervention for the management of patients with knee osteoarthritis. We searched the following databases from their inception up to 26 October 2016: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, CINAHL and OpenGrey. Studies included randomized controlled trials compared with a sham or no intervention in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The results were calculated via standardized mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio for continuous variables outcomes as well as dichotomous variables, respectively. Heterogeneity was explored by the I2 test and inverse-variance random effects analysis was applied to all studies. Eight trials (542 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The effect of short-wave therapy on pain was found positive (SMD, -0.53; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.21). The pain subgroup showed that patients received pulse modality achieved clinical improvement (SMD, -0.83; 95% CI, -1.14 to -0.52) and the pain scale in female patients decreased (SMD, -0.53; 95% CI, -0.98 to -0.08). In terms of extensor strength, short-wave therapy was superior to the control group ( p physical function (SMD, -0.16; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.05). For adverse effects, there was no significant difference between the treatment and control group. Short-wave therapy is beneficial for relieving pain caused by knee osteoarthritis (the pulse modality seems superior to the continuous modality), and knee extensor muscle combining with isokinetic strength. Function is not improved.

  15. The effectiveness of home-based HIV counseling and testing on reducing stigma and risky sexual behavior among adults and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Lockwood, Craig; Munn, Zachary

    2015-07-17

    -analysis software provided by Joanna Briggs Institute. Effect sizes were calculated using fixed effects model. Where the findings could not be pooled using meta-analyses, results were presented in a narrative form. Nine studies were included in this review, five of them reporting on stigma and related outcomes, three of them on sexual behavior and four of them on clinical outcomes. Meta-analysis indicated that the risk of observing any stigmatizing behavior in the community was 16% (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.89] lower among the participants exposed to home-based HCT when compared to the risk among those participants not exposed to home-based HCT. The risk of experiencing any stigmatizing behavior by HIV positive patients was 37% (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.88) lower among the intervention population compared to the risk among the control population. The risk of intimate partner violence was 34% (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.89) lower among participants exposed to home-based HCT when compared to the risk among participants in the control arm. Compared to the control arm, the risk of reporting more than one sexual partner was 58% (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.58) lower among participants exposed to home-based HCT. The risk of having any casual sexual partner in the past three months was 51% (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.59) lower among the population exposed to home-based HCT when compared to the risk among those participants not exposed to home-based HCT. The risk of having ever been forced for sex among participants exposed to home-based HCT was 20% (RR 0.8, 0.56 to 1.14) lower when compared to the risk among the control arm; however this result was not statistically significant and the wide confidence interval indicates that the risk estimate was imprecise. Home-based HCT is protective against intimate partner violence, stigmatizing behavior, having multiple sexual partners, and having casual sexual partners. The low quality of studies included makes it difficult to formulate clear

  16. Psychological interventions for the management of glycemic and psychological outcomes of type 2 diabetes mellitus in China: A systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eChapman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionChina has the largest number of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM cases globally and T2DM management has become a critical public health issue in China. Individuals with T2DM have an increased risk of developing mental health disorders, psychological disturbances and functional problems associated with living with their condition. Previous systematic reviews have demonstrated that, generally, psychological interventions are effective in the management of T2DM related outcomes; however these reviews have predominantly included studies conducted within English speaking countries, and have not determined the efficacy of the varying types of psychological interventions. As such, this paper aims to synthesize evidence and quantify the efficacy of psychological therapies for the management of glycemic and psychological outcomes of T2DM in China, relative to control conditions. MethodsA systematic search (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CNKI, Wangfang Data for all years to December 2014 identified all available literature. Eligibility criteria included: Peer reviewed journal articles; RCTs assessing the efficacy of a psychological therapy for the management of T2DM; adults diagnosed with T2DM or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; Chinese speaking participants (in mainland China. Outcome measures were glycated hemoglobin, blood glucose concentration, depression, anxiety and quality of life. Effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. Negative effect sizes corresponded to positive outcomes favoring the intervention. Results45 RCTs were eligible for the meta-analyses. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and motivational interviewing (MI were more effective than the control condition in the reduction of glycated hemoglobin (CBT: -0·97 [95% CI -1·37 to -0·57]; MI -0·71 [95% CI -1·00 to -0·43]. CBT and client-centered therapy (CCT were also associated with reductions in depression and

  17. Polar Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis in the Extended Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    2004-01-01

    The low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) is a region where solar wind momentum and energy is transferred to the magnetosphere. Enhanced "broadband" electric plasma waves from less than 5 Hz to 10(exp 5) Hz and magnetic waves from less than 5 Hz to the electron cyclotron frequency are characteristic of the LLBL. Analyses of Polar plasma waves show that these "broadband" waves are actually discrete electrostatic and electromagnetic modes as well as solitary bipolar pulses (electron holes). It is noted that all wave modes can be generated by approx. 100 eV to approx. 10 keV auroral electrons and protons. We will review wave-particle interactions, with focus on cross-diffusion rates and the contributions of such interactions toward the formation of the boundary layer. In summary, we will present a scenario where the global solar wind-magnetosphere interaction is responsible for the auroral zone particle beams, and hence for the generation of plasma waves and the formation of the boundary layer. It is speculated that all planetary magnetospheres will have boundary layers and they will be characterized by similar currents and plasma wave modes.

  18. Does adding noradrenaline reuptake inhibition to selective serotonin reuptake inhibition improve efficacy in patients with depression? A systematic review of meta-analyses and large randomised pragmatic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew J; Lenox-Smith, Alan J

    2013-08-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are recommended as first-line pharmacological treatment for depression and are the most commonly prescribed class of antidepressants. However, there is substantial evidence that noradrenaline has a role in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. This review aims to examine the evidence of including noradrenaline reuptake inhibition with serotonin reuptake inhibition with respect to increasing efficacy in the treatment of depression. Evidence from meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and randomised pragmatic trials was found in support of greater efficacy of the serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), venlafaxine and duloxetine, in moderate to severe depression compared to SSRIs but no evidence was found for superiority of milnacipran. There is sufficient current evidence that demonstrates an increase in efficacy, when noradrenaline reuptake is added to serotonin (5-HT) reuptake, to suggest that patients with severe depression or those who have failed to reach remission with a SSRI may benefit from treatment with a SNRI. However, as these conclusions are drawn from the evidence derived from meta-analyses and pragmatic trials, large adequately powered RCTs using optimal dosing regimens and clinically relevant outcome measures in severe depression and SSRI treatment failures are still required to confirm these findings.

  19. Extreme events in Faraday waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael; Xia, Hua

    2014-05-01

    Observations of extreme wave events in the ocean are rare due to their low statistical probability. In the laboratory however, the evolution of extreme wave events can be studied in great detail with high spatial and temporal resolution. The reported surface wave experiments in the short wavelength gravity-capillary range aim to contribute to the understanding of some of the underlying mechanisms for rogue wave generation. In this talk, we report on extreme wave events in parametrically excited Faraday waves. Faraday waves appear if a fluid is accelerated (normal to the fluid surface) above a critical threshold. A variety of novel tools have been deployed to characterize the 2D surface elevation. The results presented show spatio-temporal and statistical data on the surface wave conditions leading up to extreme wave events. The peak in wave amplitude during such an event is shown to exceed six times the standard deviation of the average wave field with significantly increased statistical probability compared to the background wave field [1]. The experiments also show that parametrically excited waves can be viewed as assembles of oscillons [2] (or oscillating solitons) where modulation instability seems to play a crucial role in their formation. More detailed studies on the oscillon dynamics reveal that the onset of an increased probability of extreme wave events correlates with the increase in the oscillons mobility and merger [3]. Reference: 1. Xia H., Maimbourg T., Punzmann H., and Shats M., Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples, Physical Review Letters 109, 114502 (2012) 2. Shats M., Xia H., and Punzmann H., Parametrically excited water surface ripples as ensembles of oscillons, Physical Review Letters 108, 034502 (2012) 3. Shats M., Punzmann H., Xia H., Capillary rogue waves, Physical Review Letters, 104, 104503 (2010)

  20. [Review on Application of Optical Scattering Spectroscopy for Elastic Wave Velocity Study on Materials in Earth's Interior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-jun; Li, He-ping; Dai, Li-dong; Hu, Hai-ying; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Chao-shuai

    2015-09-01

    In-situ experimental results on the elastic wave velocity of Earth materials at high pressure and high temperature in combination with data from seismic observation can help to inverse the chemical composition, state and migration of materials in Earth's interior, providing an important approach to explore information of deep earth. Applying the Brillouin scattering into the Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) to obtain the in situ elastic wave velocities of minerals, is the important approach to investigate elastic properties of Earth's Interior. With the development of DAC technology, on the one hand, the high temperature and high pressure experimental environment to simulate different layers of the earth can be achieved; on the other hand, the optical properties of DAC made many kinds of optical analysis and test methods have been widely applied in this research field. In order to gain the elastic wave velocity under high temperature and high pressure, the accurate experimental pressure and heating temperature of the sample in the cavity should be measured and calibrated first, then the scattering signal needs to dealt with, using the Brillouin frequency shift to calculate the velocity in the sample. Combined with the lattice constants obtained from X ray technique, by a solid elastic theory, all the elastic parameters of minerals can be solved. In this paper, firstly, application of methods based on optical spectrum such as Brillouin and Raman scattering in elasticity study on materials in Earth's interior, and the basic principle and research progress of them in the velocity measurement, pressure and temperature calibration are described in detail. Secondly, principle and scope of application of two common methods of spectral pressure calibration (fluorescence and Raman spectral pressure standard) are analyzed, in addition with introduce of the application of two conventional means of temperature calibration (blackbody radiation and Raman temperature scale) in

  1. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  2. Effective behaviour change techniques for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight and obese adults; systematic review and meta-regression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdal, Gro Beate; Eide, Geir Egil; Barth, Tom; Williams, Geoffrey; Meland, Eivind

    2017-03-28

    This systematic review aims to explain the heterogeneity in results of interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating for overweight and obese adults, by exploring the differential effects of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) and other intervention characteristics. The inclusion criteria specified RCTs with ≥ 12 weeks' duration, from January 2007 to October 2014, for adults (mean age ≥ 40 years, mean BMI ≥ 30). Primary outcomes were measures of healthy diet or physical activity. Two reviewers rated study quality, coded the BCTs, and collected outcome results at short (≤6 months) and long term (≥12 months). Meta-analyses and meta-regressions were used to estimate effect sizes (ES), heterogeneity indices (I 2 ) and regression coefficients. We included 48 studies containing a total of 82 outcome reports. The 32 long term reports had an overall ES = 0.24 with 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15 to 0.33 and I 2  = 59.4%. The 50 short term reports had an ES = 0.37 with 95% CI: 0.26 to 0.48, and I 2  = 71.3%. The number of BCTs unique to the intervention group, and the BCTs goal setting and self-monitoring of behaviour predicted the effect at short and long term. The total number of BCTs in both intervention arms and using the BCTs goal setting of outcome, feedback on outcome of behaviour, implementing graded tasks, and adding objects to the environment, e.g. using a step counter, significantly predicted the effect at long term. Setting a goal for change; and the presence of reporting bias independently explained 58.8% of inter-study variation at short term. Autonomy supportive and person-centred methods as in Motivational Interviewing, the BCTs goal setting of behaviour, and receiving feedback on the outcome of behaviour, explained all of the between study variations in effects at long term. There are similarities, but also differences in effective BCTs promoting change in healthy eating and physical activity and

  3. The Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes in Adults: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Literature Review and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Ramar, Kannan; Bista, Sabin R.; Casey, Kenneth R.; Lamm, Carin I.; Kristo, David A.; Mallea, Jorge M.; Rowley, James A.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Tracy, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    CSAS. (OPTION)The use of zolpidem and triazolam may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS only if the patient does not have underlying risk factors for respiratory depression. (OPTION)The following possible treatment options for CSAS related to end-stage renal disease may be considered: CPAP, supplemental oxygen, bicarbonate buffer use during dialysis, and nocturnal dialysis. (OPTION) Citation: Aurora RN; Chowdhuri S; Ramar K; Bista SR; Casey KR; Lamm CI; Kristo DA; Mallea JM; Rowley JA; Zak RS; Tracy SL. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. SLEEP 2012;35(1):17-40. PMID:22215916

  4. Equity in Health Care Financing in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Evidence from Studies Using Benefit and Financing Incidence Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Asante

    Full Text Available Health financing reforms in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs over the past decades have focused on achieving equity in financing of health care delivery through universal health coverage. Benefit and financing incidence analyses are two analytical methods for comprehensively evaluating how well health systems perform on these objectives. This systematic review assesses progress towards equity in health care financing in LMICs through the use of BIA and FIA.Key electronic databases including Medline, Embase, Scopus, Global Health, CinAHL, EconLit and Business Source Premier were searched. We also searched the grey literature, specifically websites of leading organizations supporting health care in LMICs. Only studies using benefit incidence analysis (BIA and/or financing incidence analysis (FIA as explicit methodology were included. A total of 512 records were obtained from the various sources. The full texts of 87 references were assessed against the selection criteria and 24 were judged appropriate for inclusion. Twelve of the 24 studies originated from sub-Saharan Africa, nine from the Asia-Pacific region, two from Latin America and one from the Middle East. The evidence points to a pro-rich distribution of total health care benefits and progressive financing in both sub-Saharan Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the majority of cases, the distribution of benefits at the primary health care level favoured the poor while hospital level services benefit the better-off. A few Asian countries, namely Thailand, Malaysia and Sri Lanka, maintained a pro-poor distribution of health care benefits and progressive financing.Studies evaluated in this systematic review indicate that health care financing in LMICs benefits the rich more than the poor but the burden of financing also falls more on the rich. There is some evidence that primary health care is pro-poor suggesting a greater investment in such services and removal of barriers to care can enhance

  5. A critical update on endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene variations in women with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion: genetic association study, systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereza, N; Peterlin, B; Volk, M; Kapović, M; Ostojić, S

    2015-05-01

    A number of case-control studies investigated the association between idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (IRSA) and variations in the gene encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), but yielded contradictory results. Our aim was to test the association of the NOS3 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in intron 4 and +894 G/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with IRSA in Slovenian women (148 IRSA and 149 control women), conduct a systematic review of literature on the association between NOS3 gene variations and IRSA, and perform meta-analyses of studies that met the inclusion criteria, defined by virtue of the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology evidence-based guidelines for recurrent spontaneous abortion. Genotyping was performed using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The systematic review of literature (English language) was conducted using PubMed and Scopus databases, to 1 November 2014. We determined no association of IRSA with the VNTR in intron 4 and +894 G/T SNP in Slovenian women. Furthermore, 16 case-control studies were identified on the association between 15 NOS3 gene variations and IRSA. However, significant inconsistencies exist in the selection criteria of patients and controls between studies. The meta-analysis of VNTR in intron 4 was performed on five studies (894 patients, 944 controls), whereas the meta-analysis of +894 G/T SNP included six studies (1111 patients, 1121 controls). The association with IRSA was significant for the +894 G/T SNP under the dominant genetic model (GT+TT versus GG) based on fixed (odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28-1.86, P = <0.01) and random effects models (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.03-2.31, P = 0.03). In conclusion, the GT and TT genotypes of the +894 G/T SNP in women might contribute to a predisposition to IRSA. Additional genetic association and functional studies in different populations with larger numbers of participants and a

  6. Review article "Remarks on factors influencing shear wave velocities and their role in evaluating susceptibilities to earthquake-triggered slope instability: case study for the Campania area (Italy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Paoletti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave velocities have a fundamental role in connection with the mitigation of seismic hazards, as their low values are the main causes of site amplification phenomena and can significantly influence the susceptibility of a territory to seismic-induced landslides. The shear wave velocity (Vs and modulus (G of each lithological unit are influenced by factors such as the degree of fracturing and faulting, the porosity, the clay amount and the precipitation, with the latter two influencing the unit water content. In this paper we discuss how these factors can affect the Vs values and report the results of different analyses that quantify the reduction in the rock Vs and shear modulus values connected to the presence of clay and water. We also show that significant results in assessing seismic-induced slope failure susceptibility for land planning targets could be achieved through a careful evaluation, based only on literature studies, of the geo-lithological and geo-seismic features of the study area.

  7. Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin–Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego; González-Bermejo, Diana; Rosano, Giuseppe M.; Davis, Barry R.; Ridao, Manuel; Zaragoza, Abel; Montero-Corominas, Dolores; Tobías, Aurelio; de la Fuente-Honrubia, César; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Hutton, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes. Methods and Findings Eligible trials were identified by electronic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 2004 to 17 July 2014). Interventions of interest were angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin (DR) inhibitors. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke—singly and as a composite endpoint, major cardiovascular outcome—and end-stage renal disease [ESRD], doubling of serum creatinine, and all-cause mortality—singly and as a composite endpoint, progression of renal disease. Secondary endpoints were angina pectoris and hospitalization for heart failure. In all, 71 trials (103,120 participants), with a total of 14 different regimens, were pooled using network meta-analyses. When compared with ACE inhibitor, no other RAS blocker used in monotherapy and/or combination was associated with a significant reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes: ARB (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.90–1.18), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.79–1.19), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (1.32; 95% CrI 0.96–1.81), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.00; 95% CrI 0.73–1.38). For the risk of progression of renal disease, no significant differences were detected between ACE inhibitor and each of the remaining therapies: ARB (OR 1.10; 95% CrI 0.90–1.40), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.72–1.29), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (0.99; 95% CrI 0.65–1.57), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.18; 95% CrI 0.78–1.84). No significant

  8. The use of Quality-Adjusted Life Years in cost-effectiveness analyses in palliative care: Mapping the debate through an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Anne B; Adang, Eddy MM; Stalmeier, Peep FM; Kristanti, Sinta; Van den Block, Lieve; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra JFJ; Engels, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Background: In cost-effectiveness analyses in healthcare, Quality-Adjusted Life Years are often used as outcome measure of effectiveness. However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the appropriateness of its use for decision-making in palliative care. Aim: To systematically map pros and cons of using the Quality-Adjusted Life Year to inform decisions on resource allocation among palliative care interventions, as brought forward in the debate, and to discuss the Quality-Adjusted Life Year’s value for palliative care. Design: The integrative review method of Whittemore and Knafl was followed. Theoretical arguments and empirical findings were mapped. Data sources: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL, in which MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were Palliative Care, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Quality of Life, and Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Findings: Three themes regarding the pros and cons were identified: (1) restrictions in life years gained, (2) conceptualization of quality of life and its measurement, including suggestions to adapt this, and (3) valuation and additivity of time, referring to changing valuation of time. The debate is recognized in empirical studies, but alternatives not yet applied. Conclusion: The Quality-Adjusted Life Year might be more valuable for palliative care if specific issues are taken into account. Despite restrictions in life years gained, Quality-Adjusted Life Years can be achieved in palliative care. However, in measuring quality of life, we recommend to—in addition to the EQ-5D— make use of quality of life or capability instruments specifically for palliative care. Also, we suggest exploring the possibility of integrating valuation of time in a non-linear way in the Quality-Adjusted Life Year. PMID:28190374

  9. The use of Quality-Adjusted Life Years in cost-effectiveness analyses in palliative care: Mapping the debate through an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Anne B; Adang, Eddy Mm; Stalmeier, Peep Fm; Kristanti, Sinta; Van den Block, Lieve; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra Jfj; Engels, Yvonne

    2017-04-01

    In cost-effectiveness analyses in healthcare, Quality-Adjusted Life Years are often used as outcome measure of effectiveness. However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the appropriateness of its use for decision-making in palliative care. To systematically map pros and cons of using the Quality-Adjusted Life Year to inform decisions on resource allocation among palliative care interventions, as brought forward in the debate, and to discuss the Quality-Adjusted Life Year's value for palliative care. The integrative review method of Whittemore and Knafl was followed. Theoretical arguments and empirical findings were mapped. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL, in which MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were Palliative Care, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Quality of Life, and Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Three themes regarding the pros and cons were identified: (1) restrictions in life years gained, (2) conceptualization of quality of life and its measurement, including suggestions to adapt this, and (3) valuation and additivity of time, referring to changing valuation of time. The debate is recognized in empirical studies, but alternatives not yet applied. The Quality-Adjusted Life Year might be more valuable for palliative care if specific issues are taken into account. Despite restrictions in life years gained, Quality-Adjusted Life Years can be achieved in palliative care. However, in measuring quality of life, we recommend to-in addition to the EQ-5D- make use of quality of life or capability instruments specifically for palliative care. Also, we suggest exploring the possibility of integrating valuation of time in a non-linear way in the Quality-Adjusted Life Year.

  10. Effectiveness of educational and lifestyle interventions to prevent paediatric obesity: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized and non-randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, D; Guaraldi, F; Cinocca, S; Moser, G; Rucci, P; Fantini, M P

    2017-09-01

    This review and meta-analysis aim at updating a previous meta-analysis carried out by Waters et al. on the efficacy of interventions aimed at preventing childhood obesity and at identifying predictors of outcome. Using an ad-hoc search string, PubMed database was searched for studies assessing body mass index reduction associated with programmes lasting ≥12 weeks in overweight and obese children aged 2-18 years. Studies designed for children with eating disorders or relevant comorbidities were excluded. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were classified according to patient age (educational, family or both) and duration (≤1 or >1 year). The search was also extended to other databases. Hand-searching techniques were also applied. The Cochrane 'risk of bias' was applied for quality assessment. Seventy-two studies were meta-analysed. Overall, the best results were achieved by programmes combining diet and physical activity (n = 39). With regard to the setting, programmes involving both school and family and lasting ≤1 year were the most efficacious for 6- to 12-year-old children (n = 26); family-based-only interventions were also effective in children <6 years old (n = 2), although results have to be interpreted cautiously because of the small number of patients enrolled and the high study heterogeneity. In 13- to 18-year-old patients, interventions delivered at school (n = 8) were substantially unsuccessful. Interventions for childhood obesity prevention should include both diet and physical activity, be preferentially targeted towards school age children and involve both the school and family setting. However, because of the important methodological limitations associated with currently available literature, additional studies are needed to draw definite conclusions.

  11. Bariatric Surgery or Non-Surgical Weight Loss for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea? A Systematic Review and Comparison of Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Rowland, Simon P; Harling, Leanne; Tan, Alan; Efthimiou, Evangelos; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2015-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a well-recognised complication of obesity. Non-surgical weight loss (medical, behavioural and lifestyle interventions) may improve OSA outcomes, although long-term weight control remains challenging. Bariatric surgery offers a successful strategy for long-term weight loss and symptom resolution. To comparatively appraise bariatric surgery vs. non-surgical weight loss interventions in OSA treatment utilising body mass index (BMI) and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) as objective measures of weight loss and apnoea severity. A systematic literature review revealed 19 surgical (n = 525) and 20 non-surgical (n = 825) studies reporting the primary endpoints of BMI and AHI before and after intervention. Data were meta-analysed using random effects modelling. Subgroup analysis, quality scoring and risk of bias were assessed. Surgical patients had a mean pre-intervention BMI of 51.3 and achieved a significant 14 kg/m(2) weighted decrease in BMI (95%CI [11.91, 16.44]), with a 29/h weighted decrease in AHI (95%CI [22.41, 36.74]). Non-surgical patients had a mean pre-intervention BMI of 38.3 and achieved a significant weighted decrease in BMI of 3.1 kg/m(2) (95%CI [2.42, 3.79]), with a weighted decrease in AHI of 11/h (95%CI [7.81, 14.98]). Heterogeneity was high across all outcomes. Both bariatric surgery and non-surgical weight loss may have significant beneficial effects on OSA through BMI and AHI reduction. However, bariatric surgery may offer markedly greater improvement in BMI and AHI than non-surgical alternatives. Future studies must address the lack of randomised controlled and comparative trials in order to confirm the exact relationship between metabolic surgery and non-surgical weight loss interventions in OSA resolution.

  12. The contribution from psychological, social, and organizational work factors to risk of disability retirement: a systematic review with meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Knardahl

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social, and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional studies. Data extraction: Internal validity was assessed independently by two referees with a detailed checklist for sources of bias. Conclusions were drawn based on studies with acceptable quality. Data synthesis: We calculated combined effect estimates by means of averaged associations (Risk ratios across samples, weighting observed associations by the study’s sample size. Thirty-nine studies of accepted quality were found, 37 of which from the Nordic countries. Results There was moderate evidence for the role of low control (supported by weighted average RR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.21-1.61 and moderate evidence for the combination of high demands and low control (although weighted average was RR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96-2.19 as predictors of disability retirement. There were no major systematic differences in findings between the highest rated and the lowest rated studies that passed the criterion for adequate quality. There was limited evidence for downsizing, organizational change, lack of employee development and supplementary training, repetitive work tasks, effort-reward imbalance to increase risk of disability pension. Very limited evidence was found for job demands, evening or night work, and low social support from ones superior. Conclusions Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability

  13. The contribution from psychological, social, and organizational work factors to risk of disability retirement: a systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knardahl, Stein; Johannessen, Håkon A; Sterud, Tom; Härmä, Mikko; Rugulies, Reiner; Seitsamo, Jorma; Borg, Vilhelm

    2017-02-08

    Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social, and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional studies. Internal validity was assessed independently by two referees with a detailed checklist for sources of bias. Conclusions were drawn based on studies with acceptable quality. We calculated combined effect estimates by means of averaged associations (Risk ratios) across samples, weighting observed associations by the study's sample size. Thirty-nine studies of accepted quality were found, 37 of which from the Nordic countries. There was moderate evidence for the role of low control (supported by weighted average RR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.21-1.61) and moderate evidence for the combination of high demands and low control (although weighted average was RR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.96-2.19) as predictors of disability retirement. There were no major systematic differences in findings between the highest rated and the lowest rated studies that passed the criterion for adequate quality. There was limited evidence for downsizing, organizational change, lack of employee development and supplementary training, repetitive work tasks, effort-reward imbalance to increase risk of disability pension. Very limited evidence was found for job demands, evening or night work, and low social support from ones superior. Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability retirement with the most robust evidence for the role of work control. We recommend the measurement of

  14. Evaluation of the endorsement of the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement on the quality of published systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panic, Nikola; Leoncini, Emanuele; de Belvis, Giulio; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    PRISMA statement was published in 2009 in order to set standards in the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of PRISMA endorsement on the quality of reporting and methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, published in journals in the field of gastroenterology and hepatology (GH). Quality of reporting and methodological quality were evaluated by assessing the adherence of papers to PRISMA checklist and AMSTAR quality scale. After identifying the GH journals which endorsed PRISMA in instructions for authors (IA), we appraised: 15 papers published in 2012 explicitly mentioning PRISMA in the full text (Group A); 15 papers from the same journals published in 2012 not explicitly mentioning PRISMA in the full text (Group B); 30 papers published the year preceding PRISMA endorsement from the same journals as above (Group C); 30 papers published in 2012 on the 10 highest impact factor journals in GH which not endorsed PRISMA (Group D). PRISMA statement was referred in the IA in 9 out of 70 GH journals (12.9%). We found significant increase in overall adherence to PRISMA checklist (Group A, 90.1%; Group C, 83.1%; p = 0.003) and compliance to AMSTAR scale (Group A, 85.0%; Group C, 74.6%; p = 0.002), following the PRISMA endorsement from the nine GH journals. Explicit referencing of PRISMA in manuscript was not associated with increase in quality of reporting and methodological quality (Group A vs. B, p = 0.651, p = 0.900, respectively). Adherence to PRISMA checklist, and the compliance with AMSTAR were significantly higher in journals endorsing PRISMA compared to those not (Groups A+B vs. D; p = 0.003 and p = 0.016, respectively). The endorsement of PRISMA resulted in increase of both quality of reporting and methodological quality. It is advised that an increasing number of medical journals include PRISMA in the instructions for authors.

  15. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review with network meta-analyses of randomised trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrán Catalá-López

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood. A wide variety of treatments have been used for the management of ADHD. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological and complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents.We performed a systematic review with network meta-analyses. Randomised controlled trials (≥ 3 weeks follow-up were identified from published and unpublished sources through searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library (up to April 7, 2016. Interventions of interest were pharmacological (stimulants, non-stimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other unlicensed drugs, psychological (behavioural, cognitive training and neurofeedback and complementary and alternative medicine (dietary therapy, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, herbal therapy, homeopathy, and physical activity. The primary outcomes were efficacy (treatment response and acceptability (all-cause discontinuation. Secondary outcomes included discontinuation due to adverse events (tolerability, as well as serious adverse events and specific adverse events. Random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses were conducted to obtain estimates as odds ratios (ORs with 95% credibility intervals. We analysed interventions by class and individually. 190 randomised trials (52 different interventions grouped in 32 therapeutic classes that enrolled 26114 participants with ADHD were included in complex networks. At the class level, behavioural therapy (alone or in combination with stimulants, stimulants, and non-stimulant seemed significantly more efficacious than placebo. Behavioural therapy in combination with stimulants seemed superior to stimulants or non-stimulants. Stimulants seemed superior to behavioural therapy, cognitive training and non-stimulants. Behavioural therapy, stimulants and their combination

  16. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: A systematic review with network meta-analyses of randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Hutton, Brian; Núñez-Beltrán, Amparo; Page, Matthew J; Ridao, Manuel; Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego; Catalá, Miguel A; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Moher, David

    2017-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood. A wide variety of treatments have been used for the management of ADHD. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological and complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. We performed a systematic review with network meta-analyses. Randomised controlled trials (≥ 3 weeks follow-up) were identified from published and unpublished sources through searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library (up to April 7, 2016). Interventions of interest were pharmacological (stimulants, non-stimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and other unlicensed drugs), psychological (behavioural, cognitive training and neurofeedback) and complementary and alternative medicine (dietary therapy, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, herbal therapy, homeopathy, and physical activity). The primary outcomes were efficacy (treatment response) and acceptability (all-cause discontinuation). Secondary outcomes included discontinuation due to adverse events (tolerability), as well as serious adverse events and specific adverse events. Random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses were conducted to obtain estimates as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% credibility intervals. We analysed interventions by class and individually. 190 randomised trials (52 different interventions grouped in 32 therapeutic classes) that enrolled 26114 participants with ADHD were included in complex networks. At the class level, behavioural therapy (alone or in combination with stimulants), stimulants, and non-stimulant seemed significantly more efficacious than placebo. Behavioural therapy in combination with stimulants seemed superior to stimulants or non-stimulants. Stimulants seemed superior to behavioural therapy, cognitive training and non-stimulants. Behavioural therapy, stimulants and their combination showed the

  17. Gravitational waves from inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, M. C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.

    2016-09-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index nT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.

  18. Prevention and control of neglected tropical diseases: overview of randomized trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses/Prevention et controle des maladies tropicales negligees: vue d'ensemble des essais randomises, des revues systematiques et des meta-analyses/La prevencion y el control de enfermedades tropicales desatendidas: una vision general de ensayos aleatorios, examenes sistematicos y metaanalisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kappagoda, Shanthi; Ioannidis, John P.A

    2014-01-01

    ...) and to identify areas where evidence is lacking. Methods The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PubMed were searched for RCTs and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PubMed were searched for meta-analyses and systematic...

  19. Spatial distribution of superconducting and charge-density-wave order parameters in cuprates and its influence on the quasiparticle tunnel current (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Voitenko, Alexander I.

    2016-10-01

    The state of the art concerning tunnel measurements of energy gaps in cuprate oxides has been analyzed. A detailed review of the relevant literature is made, and original results calculated for the quasiparticle tunnel current J(V) between a metallic tip and a disordered d-wave superconductor partially gapped by charge density waves (CDWs) are reported, because it is this model of high-temperature superconductors that becomes popular owing to recent experiments in which CDWs were observed directly. The current was calculated suggesting the scatter of both the superconducting and CDW order parameters due to the samples' intrinsic inhomogeneity. It was shown that peculiarities in the current-voltage characteristics inherent to the case of homogeneous superconducting material are severely smeared, and the CDW-related features transform into experimentally observed peak-dip-hump structures. Theoretical results were used to fit data measured for YBa2Cu3O7-δ and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The fitting demonstrated a good qualitative agreement between the experiment and model calculations. The analysis of the energy gaps in high-Tc superconductors is important both per se and as a tool to uncover the nature of superconductivity in cuprates not elucidated so far despite of much theoretical effort and experimental progress.

  20. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  1. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  2. Evidence for effectiveness of Extracorporal Shock-Wave Therapy (ESWT) to treat calcific and non-calcific rotator cuff tendinosis--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisstede, Bionka M A; Gebremariam, Lukas; van der Sande, Renske; Hay, Elaine M; Koes, Bart W

    2011-10-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) is suggested as a treatment alternative for calcific and non-calcific rotator cuff tendinosis (RC-tendinosis), which may decrease the need for surgery. In this study we assessed the evidence for effectiveness of ESWT for these disorders. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Pedro, and Cinahl were searched for relevant systematic reviews and RCTs. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. Seventeen RCTs (11 calcific, 6 non-calcific) were included. For calcific RC-tendinosis, strong evidence was found for effectiveness in favour of high-ESWT versus low-ESWT in short-term. Moderate evidence was found in favour of high-ESWT versus placebo in short-, mid- and long-term and versus low-ESWT in mid- and long-term. Moreover, high-ESWT was more effective (moderate evidence) with focus on calcific deposit versus focus on tuberculum major in short- and long-term. RSWT was more effective (moderate evidence) than placebo in mid-term. For non-calcific RC-tendinosis, no strong or moderate evidence was found in favour of low-, mid- or high-ESWT versus placebo, each other, or other treatments. This review shows that only high-ESWT is effective for treating calcific RC-tendinosis. No evidence was found for the effectiveness of ESWT to treat non-calcific RC-tendinosis. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A review of short naps and sleep inertia: do naps of 30 min or less really avoid sleep inertia and slow-wave sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-04-01

    Napping is a widely used countermeasure to sleepiness and impaired performance caused by sleep loss and circadian pressure. Sleep inertia, the period of grogginess and impaired performance experienced after waking, is a potential side effect of napping. Many industry publications recommend naps of 30 min or less to avoid this side effect. However, the evidence to support this advice is yet to be thoroughly reviewed. Electronic databases were searched, and defined criteria were applied to select articles for review. The review covers literature on naps of 30 min or less regarding (a) sleep inertia, (b) slow-wave sleep (SWS) and (c) the relationship between sleep inertia and SWS. The review found that although the literature on short afternoon naps is relatively comprehensive, there are very few studies on naps of 30 min or less at night. Studies have mixed results regarding the onset of SWS and the duration and severity of sleep inertia following short naps, making guidelines regarding their use unclear. The varying results are likely due to differing sleep/wake profiles before the nap of interest and the time of the day at waking. The review highlights the need to have more detailed guidelines about the implementation of short naps according to the time of the day and prior sleep/wake history. Without this context, such a recommendation is potentially misleading. Further research is required to better understand the interactions between these factors, especially at night, and to provide more specific recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical posterior fusion with wave-shaped rod under local anesthesia for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: review of 12 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onari, K; Toguchi, A; Kondo, S; Mihara, H; Hachiya, M; Yamada, K

    2001-11-01

    Clinical evaluation of cervical interspinous fusion under local anesthesia in elderly patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical posterior fusion with wave-shaped rods inserted under local anesthesia for elderly high-risk patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A substantial number of patients cannot undergo surgical interventions under general anesthesia because of their general medical complications. Although such patients would become unable to walk, which might induce a worsening of their general condition, conservative treatments had been adopted as the only treatment for these patients. The authors have obtained satisfactory results by means of posterior interspinous fusion under local anesthesia even in the high-risk patients with severe cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The aims of this surgical technique were to adjust cervical alignment and to stabilize the motion segment(s) without decompression. Between May 1989 and August 1998, 12 elderly patients (3 men and 9 women) with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were treated with posterior interspinous fusion using wave-shaped rods inserted under local anesthesia. The average age at the surgery was 76.9 years. The average follow-up period was 5 years 6 months. All patients were unable to walk without any assistance because of their advanced myelopathy. It was felt that all of them would be unable to accept general anesthesia because of their generally poor medical conditions. Preoperative severity of the clinical symptoms and postoperative recovery were evaluated by a scoring system proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association, which had 17 points at full mark. The average duration of the surgical procedure was 122.8 minutes. The average total blood loss was 118.6 g. No instrument failures were denoted. Neither neural deterioration nor major complication was observed relating to the surgery. Radiographic bony union of the grafted bone was achieved in all

  5. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies......, concerning a hydraulic evaluation and optimisation of the geometry of the Wave Dragon, is presented. Furthermore, the plans for the future development projects are sketched....

  6. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  7. Electromagnetic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, H.; van den Berg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc.

  8. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...

  9. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  10. Palivizumab for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in high-risk infants and young children: a systematic review and additional economic modelling of subgroup analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Bayliss, S; Meads, C

    2011-01-01

    find any relevant studies that may have been missed. The risk factors identified from the systematic review of included studies were analysed and synthesised using stata. The base-case decision tree model developed in the original HTA journal publication [Health Technol Assess 2008;12(36)] was used to derive the cost-effectiveness of immunoprophylaxis of RSV using palivizumab in different subgroups of pre-term infants and young children who are at high risk of serious morbidity from RSV infection. Cost-effective spectra of prophylaxis with palivizumab compared with no prophylaxis for children without CLD/CHD, children with CLD, children with acyanotic CHD and children with cyanotic CHD were derived. Thirteen studies were included in this analysis.