Sample records for wave acoustic monitoring

  1. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.


    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  2. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW Resonators for Monitoring Conditioning Film Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Hohmann


    Full Text Available We propose surface acoustic wave (SAW resonators as a complementary tool for conditioning film monitoring. Conditioning films are formed by adsorption of inorganic and organic substances on a substrate the moment this substrate comes into contact with a liquid phase. In the case of implant insertion, for instance, initial protein adsorption is required to start wound healing, but it will also trigger immune reactions leading to inflammatory responses. The control of the initial protein adsorption would allow to promote the healing process and to suppress adverse immune reactions. Methods to investigate these adsorption processes are available, but it remains difficult to translate measurement results into actual protein binding events. Biosensor transducers allow user-friendly investigation of protein adsorption on different surfaces. The combination of several transduction principles leads to complementary results, allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the adsorbing layer. We introduce SAW resonators as a novel complementary tool for time-resolved conditioning film monitoring. SAW resonators were coated with polymers. The adsorption of the plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA and fibrinogen onto the polymer-coated surfaces were monitored. Frequency results were compared with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor measurements, which confirmed the suitability of the SAW resonators for this application.

  3. Monitoring polymer properties using shear horizontal surface acoustic waves. (United States)

    Gallimore, Dana Y; Millard, Paul J; Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio


    Real-time, nondestructive methods for monitoring polymer film properties are increasingly important in the development and fabrication of modern polymer-containing products. Online testing of industrial polymer films during preparation and conditioning is required to minimize material and energy consumption, improve the product quality, increase the production rate, and reduce the number of product rejects. It is well-known that shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) propagation is sensitive to mass changes as well as to the mechanical properties of attached materials. In this work, the SH-SAW was used to monitor polymer property changes primarily dictated by variations in the viscoelasticity. The viscoelastic properties of a negative photoresist film were monitored throughout the ultraviolet (UV) light-induced polymer cross-linking process using SH-SAW delay line devices. Changes in the polymer film mass and viscoelasticity caused by UV exposure produced variations in the phase velocity and attenuation of the SH-SAW propagating in the structure. Based on measured polymer-coated delay line scattering transmission responses (S(21)) and the measured polymer layer thickness and density, the viscoelastic constants c(44) and eta(44) were extracted. The polymer thickness was found to decrease 0.6% during UV curing, while variations in the polymer density were determined to be insignificant. Changes of 6% in c(44) and 22% in eta(44) during the cross-linking process were observed, showing the sensitivity of the SH-SAW phase velocity and attenuation to changes in the polymer film viscoelasticity. These results indicate the potential for SH-SAW devices as online monitoring sensors for polymer film processing.

  4. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films (United States)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)


    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  5. Monitoring Gold Nanoparticle Growth in Situ via the Acoustic Vibrations Probed by Four-Wave Mixing. (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Xiang, Dao; Gordon, Reuven


    We monitor in situ gold nanoparticle growth in aqueous solution by probing the acoustic vibrations with four-wave mixing. We observe two acoustic vibrational modes of gold nanoparticles from the nonlinear optical response: an extensional mode with longitudinal expansion and transverse contraction and a breathing mode with radial expansion and contraction. The mode frequencies, which show an inverse dependence on the nanoparticle diameter, allow one to monitor the nanoparticle size and size distribution during synthesis. The information about the nanoparticle size and size distribution calculated on the basis of the mode frequencies agrees well with the results obtained from the electron microscopy analysis, validating the four-wave mixing technique as an accurate and effective tool for in situ monitoring of colloidal growth.

  6. Passive wireless surface acoustic wave sensors for monitoring sequestration sites CO2 emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yizhong [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Chyu, Minking [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Qing-Ming [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    University of Pittsburgh’s Transducer lab has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient CO2 measuring technologies for geological sequestration sites leakage monitoring. A passive wireless CO2 sensing system based on surface acoustic wave technology and carbon nanotube nanocomposite was developed. Surface acoustic wave device was studied to determine the optimum parameters. Delay line structure was adopted as basic sensor structure. CNT polymer nanocomposite was fabricated and tested under different temperature and strain condition for natural environment impact evaluation. Nanocomposite resistance increased for 5 times under pure strain, while the temperature dependence of resistance for CNT solely was -1375ppm/°C. The overall effect of temperature on nanocomposite resistance was -1000ppm/°C. The gas response of the nanocomposite was about 10% resistance increase under pure CO2 . The sensor frequency change was around 300ppm for pure CO2 . With paralyne packaging, the sensor frequency change from relative humidity of 0% to 100% at room temperature decreased from over 1000ppm to less than 100ppm. The lowest detection limit of the sensor is 1% gas concentration, with 36ppm frequency change. Wireless module was tested and showed over one foot transmission distance at preferred parallel orientation.

  7. Flexible surface acoustic wave respiration sensor for monitoring obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (United States)

    Jin, Hao; Tao, Xiang; Dong, Shurong; Qin, Yiheng; Yu, Liyang; Luo, Jikui; Deen, M. Jamal


    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has received much attention in recent years due to its significant harm to human health and high morbidity rate. A respiration monitoring system is needed to detect OSAS, so that the patient can receive treatment in a timely manner. Wired and wireless OSAS monitoring systems have been developed, but they require a wire connection and batteries to operate, and they are bulky, heavy and not user-friendly. In this paper, we propose the use of a flexible surface acoustic wave (SAW) microsensor to detect and monitor OSAS by measuring the humidity change associated with the respiration of a person. SAW sensors on rigid 128° YX LiNbO3 substrate are also characterized for this application. Results show both types of SAW sensors are suitable for OSAS monitoring with good sensitivity, repeatability and reliability, and the response time and recovery time for the flexible SAW sensors are 1.125 and 0.75 s, respectively. Our work demonstrates the potential for an innovative flexible microsensor for the detection and monitoring of OSAS.

  8. A Methodological Review of Piezoelectric Based Acoustic Wave Generation and Detection Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Sun


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transducers have a long history of applications in nondestructive evaluation of material and structure integrity owing to their ability of transforming mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. As condition based maintenance has emerged as a valuable approach to enhancing continued aircraft airworthiness while reducing the life cycle cost, its enabling structural health monitoring (SHM technologies capable of providing on-demand diagnosis of the structure without interrupting the aircraft operation are attracting increasing R&D efforts. Piezoelectric transducers play an essential role in these endeavors. This paper is set forth to review a variety of ingenious ways in which piezoelectric transducers are used in today’s SHM technologies as a means of generation and/or detection of diagnostic acoustic waves.

  9. Contactless Monitoring of Conductivity Changes in Vanadium Pentoxide Xerogel Layers Using Surface Acoustic Waves (United States)

    Rimeika, Romualdas; Sereika, Raimundas; Čiplys, Daumantas; Bondarenka, Vladimiras; Sereika, Albertas; Shur, Michael

    The hydrated form of the vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 ·nH2O) deposited by the sol-gel method on the piezoelectric YZ-LiNbO3 substrate has been studied using surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Brush-deposited and spin-coated layers, differing in thickness by an order of magnitude (∼1 μm and ∼0.1 μm, respectively) were studied. The variations with time in the transmitted SAW amplitude and phase during the gel-to-xerogel transition of V2O5 ·nH2O were observed and attributed to the acoustoelectric interaction. The possibilities of using the SAWs for contactless monitoring of the layer sheet conductivity have been demonstrated.

  10. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.


    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  11. Quantitative Enhancement of Fatigue Crack Monitoring by Imaging Surface Acoustic Wave Reflection in a Space-Cycle Domain (United States)

    Connolly, G. D.; Rokhlin, S. I.


    The surface wave acoustic method is applied to the in-situ monitoring of fatigue crack initiation and evolution on tension specimens. A small low-frequency periodic loading is also applied, resulting in a nonlinear modulation of reflected pulses. The acoustic wave reflections are collected for: each experimental cycle; a range of applied tension and modulation load levels; and a range of spatial propagation positions, and are presented in image form to aid pattern identification. Salient features of the image are then extracted and processed to evaluate the initiation time of the crack and its subsequent size evolution until sample failure. Additionally, a method for enhancing signal to noise ratio in Ti-6242 alloy samples is demonstrated.

  12. Measuring soft tissue elasticity by monitoring surface acoustic waves using image plane digital holography (United States)

    Li, Shiguang; Oldenburg, Amy L.


    The detection of tumors in soft tissues, such as breast cancer, is important to achieve at the earliest stages of the disease to improve patient outcome. Tumors often exhibit a greater elastic modulus compared to normal tissues. In this paper, we report our first study to measure elastic properties of soft tissues by mapping the surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with image plane digital holography. The experimental results show that the SAW velocity is proportional to the square root of elastic modulus over a range from 3.7-122kPa in homogeneous tissue phantoms, consistent with Rayleigh wave theory. This technique also permits detection of the interface of two-layer phantoms 10mm deep under surface and the interface depth by quantifying the SAW dispersion.

  13. Tunable damper for an acoustic wave guide (United States)

    Rogers, Samuel C.


    A damper for tunably damping acoustic waves in an ultrasonic waveguide is provided which may be used in a hostile environment such as a nuclear reactor. The area of the waveguide, which may be a selected size metal rod in which acoustic waves are to be damped, is wrapped, or surrounded, by a mass of stainless steel wool. The wool wrapped portion is then sandwiched between tuning plates, which may also be stainless steel, by means of clamping screws which may be adjusted to change the clamping force of the sandwiched assembly along the waveguide section. The plates are preformed along their length in a sinusoidally bent pattern with a period approximately equal to the acoustic wavelength which is to be damped. The bent pattern of the opposing plates are in phase along their length relative to their sinusoidal patterns so that as the clamping screws are tightened a bending stress is applied to the waveguide at intervals along the damping section to oppose the acoustic wave motions in the waveguide and provide good coupling of the wool to the guide. The damper is tuned by selectively tightening the clamping screws while monitoring the amplitude of the acoustic waves launched in the waveguide. It may be selectively tuned to damp particular acoustic wave modes (torsional or extensional, for example) and/or frequencies while allowing others to pass unattenuated.

  14. Spin wave generation by surface acoustic waves (United States)

    Li, Xu; Labanowski, Dominic; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Lynch, Christopher S.


    Surface acoustic waves (SAW) on piezoelectric substrates can excite spin wave resonance (SWR) in magnetostrictive films through magnetoelastic coupling. This acoustically driven SWR enables the excitation of a single spin wave mode with an in-plane wave vector k matched to the magnetoelastic wave vector. A 2D frequency domain finite element model is presented that fully couples elastodynamics, micromagnetics, and piezoelectricity with interface spin pumping effects taken into account. It is used to simulate SAW driven SWR on a ferromagnetic and piezoelectric heterostructure device with an interdigital transducer configuration. These results, for the first time, present the spatial distribution of magnetization components that, together with elastic wave, exponentially decays along the propagation direction due to magnetic damping. The results also show that the system transmission rate S21(dB) can be tuned by both an external bias field and the SAW wavevector. Acoustic spin pumping at magnetic film/normal metal interface leads to damping enhancement in magnetic films that decreases the energy absorption rate from elastic energy. This weakened interaction between the magnetic energy and elastic energy leads to a lower evanescence rate of the SAW that results in a longer distance propagation. With strong magnetoelastic coupling, the SAW driven spin wave is able to propagate up to 1200 μm. The results give a quantitative indication of the acoustic spin pumping contribution to linewidth broadening.

  15. Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...... that at resonance a stationary state arise consisting of multiple oscillating shock waves. Off resonance driving leads to a nearly linear oscillating ground state but superimposed by bursts of a fast oscillating shock wave. Based on a travelling wave ansatz for the fluid velocity potential with an added 2'nd order...... polynomial in the space and time variables, we find analytical approximations to the observed single shock waves in an infinitely long tube. Using perturbation theory for the driven acoustic system approximative analytical solutions for the off resonant case are determined....

  16. Magnetic recording with acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi, E-mail:


    We demonstrate acoustically assisted magnetic recording (AAMR), a new paradigm in magnetic data storage. In this concept, otherwise unwriteable high-coercivity media, requisite for thermally stable high-density data storage, are made amenable to recording by lowering their coercivity via strain induced by surface acoustic waves. The basic principles of AAMR are proven using galfenol, a low-coercivity magnetostrictive material, as the recording medium. It is shown that the writing field needed to record data in the presence of acoustic strain is lower than the coercivity of the unstrained galfenol film. Further, it is demonstrated that interference between acoustic waves can be tailored to selectively address a bit on the recording medium.

  17. Monitoring of Soft Deposition Layers in Liquid-Filled Tubes with Guided Acoustic Waves Excited by Clamp-on Transducers. (United States)

    Tietze, Sabrina; Singer, Ferdinand; Lasota, Sandra; Ebert, Sandra; Landskron, Johannes; Schwuchow, Katrin; Drese, Klaus Stefan; Lindner, Gerhard


    The monitoring of liquid-filled tubes with respect to the formation of soft deposition layers such as biofilms on the inner walls calls for non-invasive and long-term stable sensors, which can be attached to existing pipe structures. For this task a method is developed, which uses an ultrasonic clamp-on device. This method is based on the impact of such deposition layers on the propagation of circumferential guided waves on the pipe wall. Such waves are partly converted into longitudinal compressional waves in the liquid, which are back-converted to guided waves in a circular cross section of the pipe. Validating this approach, laboratory experiments with gelatin deposition layers on steel tubes exhibited a distinguishable sensitivity of both wave branches with respect to the thickness of such layers. This allows the monitoring of the layer growth.

  18. Development of hydroacoustical techniques for the monitoring and classification of benthic habitats in Puck Bay: Modeling of acoustic waves scattering by seagrass (United States)

    Raczkowska, A.; Gorska, N.


    Puck Bay is an area of high species biodiversity belonging to the Coastal Landscape Park of Baltic Sea Protected Areas (BSPA) and is also included in the list of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and covered by the protection program "Natura 2000". The underwater meadows of the Puck Bay are important for Europe's natural habitats due to their role in enhancing the productivity of marine ecosystems and providing shelter and optimal feeding conditions for many marine organisms. One of the dominant species comprising the underwater meadows of the Southern Baltic Sea is the seagrass Zostera marina. The spatial extent of underwater seagrass meadows is altered by pollution and eutrophication; therefore, to properly manage the area one must monitor its ecological state. Remote acoustic methods are useful tools for the monitoring of benthic habitats in many marine areas because they are non-invasive and allow researchers to obtain data from a large area in a short period of time. Currently there is a need to apply these methods in the Baltic Sea. Here we present an analysis of the mechanism of scattering of acoustic waves on seagrass in the Southern Baltic Sea based on the numerical modeling of acoustic wave scattering by the biological tissues of plants. The study was conducted by adapting a model developed on the basis of DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation) developed by Stanton and Chu (2005) for fluid-like objects, including the characteristics of the Southern Baltic seagrass. Input data for the model, including the morphometry of seagrass leaves, their angle of inclination and the density plant cover, was obtained through the analysis of biological materials collected in the Puck Bay in the framework of a research project financed by the Polish Government (Development of hydroacoustic methods for studies of underwater meadows of Puck Bay, 6P04E 051 20). On the basis of the developed model, we have analyzed the dependence of the target strength of a single

  19. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    application is modulation of optical waves in waveguides. This presentation elaborates on how a SAW is generated by interdigital transducers using a 2D model of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material implemented in the high-level programming language Comsol Multiphysics. The SAW is send through a model...

  20. Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic. (United States)

    Ziskin, Marvin C


    This article is the presentation I gave at the D'Arsonval Award Ceremony on June 14, 2011 at the Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It summarizes my research activities in acoustic and electromagnetic millimeter waves over the past 47 years. My earliest research involved acoustic millimeter waves, with a special interest in diagnostic ultrasound imaging and its safety. For the last 21 years my research expanded to include electromagnetic millimeter waves, with a special interest in the mechanisms underlying millimeter wave therapy. Millimeter wave therapy has been widely used in the former Soviet Union with great reported success for many diseases, but is virtually unknown to Western physicians. I and the very capable members of my laboratory were able to demonstrate that the local exposure of skin to low intensity millimeter waves caused the release of endogenous opioids, and the transport of these agents by blood flow to all parts of the body resulted in pain relief and other beneficial effects. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Ion Acoustic Waves in the Presence of Electron Plasma Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave.......Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave....

  2. Robust acoustic wave manipulation of bubbly liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumerov, N. A., E-mail: [Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Akhatov, I. S. [Center for Design, Manufacturing and Materials, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow 143026 (Russian Federation); Ohl, C.-D. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Sametov, S. P. [Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Khazimullin, M. V. [Center for Micro- and Nanoscale Dynamics of Dispersed Systems, Bashkir State University, Ufa 450076 (Russian Federation); Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Ufa Research Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa 450054 (Russian Federation); Gonzalez-Avila, S. R. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)


    Experiments with water–air bubbly liquids when exposed to acoustic fields of frequency ∼100 kHz and intensity below the cavitation threshold demonstrate that bubbles ∼30 μm in diameter can be “pushed” away from acoustic sources by acoustic radiation independently from the direction of gravity. This manifests formation and propagation of acoustically induced transparency waves (waves of the bubble volume fraction). In fact, this is a collective effect of bubbles, which can be described by a mathematical model of bubble self-organization in acoustic fields that matches well with our experiments.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning


    The Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) has been designed to record and monitor the acoustic signal in natural gas transmission lines. In particular the three acoustic signals associated with a line leak. The system is portable ({approx}30 lbs) and is designed for line pressures up to 1000 psi. It has become apparent that cataloging of the various background acoustic signals in natural gas transmission line is very important if a system to identify leak signals is to be developed. The low-pressure (0-200 psig) laboratory test phase has been completed and a number of field trials have been conducted. Before the cataloging phase could begin, a few problems identified in field trials identified had to be corrected such as: (1) Decreased microphone sensitivity at line pressures above 250 psig. (2) The inability to deal with large data sets collected when cataloging the variety of signals in a transmission line. (3) The lack of an available online acoustic calibration system. These problems have been solved and the WVU PAMP is now fully functional over the entire pressure range found in the Natural Gas transmission lines in this region. Field portability and reliability have been greatly improved. Data collection and storage have also improved to the point were the full acoustic spectrum of acoustic signals can be accurately cataloged, recorded and described.

  4. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    was carried out to study the wear monitoring in single point cutting tool using acoustic emission techniques. 2. Propagation of stress wave due to crater wear and flank wear. Figure 1 show the crater wear occurred on the rake face of the tool. This crater wear emits stress wave, which propagates as spherical wave front and ...

  5. On Collisionless Damping of Ion Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla; Petersen, P.I.


    Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero.......Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero....

  6. Dual-mode acoustic wave biosensors microarrays (United States)

    Auner, Gregory W.; Shreve, Gina; Ying, Hao; Newaz, Golam; Hughes, Chantelle; Xu, Jianzeng


    We have develop highly sensitive and selective acoustic wave biosensor arrays with signal analysis systems to provide a fingerprint for the real-time identification and quantification of a wide array of bacterial pathogens and environmental health hazards. We have developed an unique highly sensitive dual mode acoustic wave platform prototype that, when combined with phage based selective detection elements, form a durable bacteria sensor. Arrays of these new real-time biosensors are integrated to form a biosensor array on a chip. This research and development program optimizes advanced piezoelectric aluminum nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, novel micromachining processes, advanced device structures, selective phage displays development and immobilization techniques, and system integration and signal analysis technology to develop the biosensor arrays. The dual sensor platform can be programmed to sense in a gas, vapor or liquid environment by switching between acoustic wave resonate modes. Such a dual mode sensor has tremendous implications for applications involving monitoring of pathogenic microorganisms in the clinical setting due to their ability to detect airborne pathogens. This provides a number of applications including hospital settings such as intensive care or other in-patient wards for the reduction of nosocomial infections and maintenance of sterile environments in surgical suites. Monitoring for airborn pathogen transmission in public transportation areas such as airplanes may be useful for implementation of strategies for redution of airborn transmission routes. The ability to use the same sensor in the liquid sensing mode is important for tracing the source of airborn pathogens to local liquid sources. Sensing of pathogens in saliva will be useful for sensing oral pathogens and support of decision-making strategies regarding prevention of transmission and support of treatment strategies.

  7. Acoustic multivariate condition monitoring - AMCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenhave, P.E. [Vestfold College, Maritime Dept., Toensberg (Norway)


    In Norway, Vestfold College, Maritime Department presents new opportunities for non-invasive, on- or off-line acoustic monitoring of rotating machinery such as off-shore pumps and diesel engines. New developments within acoustic sensor technology coupled with chemometric data analysis of complex signals now allow condition monitoring of hitherto unavailable flexibility and diagnostic specificity. Chemometrics paired with existing knowledge yields a new and powerful tool for condition monitoring. By the use of multivariate techniques and acoustics it is possible to quantify wear and tear as well as predict the performance of working components in complex machinery. This presentation describes the AMCM method and one result of a feasibility study conducted onboard the LPG/C `Norgas Mariner` owned by Norwegian Gas Carriers as (NGC), Oslo. (orig.) 6 refs.

  8. Swimming using surface acoustic waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannyk Bourquin

    Full Text Available Microactuation of free standing objects in fluids is currently dominated by the rotary propeller, giving rise to a range of potential applications in the military, aeronautic and biomedical fields. Previously, surface acoustic waves (SAWs have been shown to be of increasing interest in the field of microfluidics, where the refraction of a SAW into a drop of fluid creates a convective flow, a phenomenon generally known as SAW streaming. We now show how SAWs, generated at microelectronic devices, can be used as an efficient method of propulsion actuated by localised fluid streaming. The direction of the force arising from such streaming is optimal when the devices are maintained at the Rayleigh angle. The technique provides propulsion without any moving parts, and, due to the inherent design of the SAW transducer, enables simple control of the direction of travel.

  9. Acoustic wave coupled magnetoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J.S. [Institute of information Engineering, Suqian College, Suqian 223800 (China); Magnetoelectronic Laboratory, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhang, N., E-mail: [Magnetoelectronic Laboratory, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)


    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling by acoustic waveguide was developed. Longitudinal and transversal ME effects of larger than 44 and 6 (V cm{sup −1} Oe{sup −1}) were obtained with the waveguide-coupled ME device, respectively. Several resonant points were observed in the range of frequency lower than 47 kHz. Analysis showed that the standing waves in the waveguide were responsible for those resonances. The frequency and size dependence of the ME effects were investigated. A resonant condition about the geometrical size of the waveguide was obtained. Theory and experiments showed the resonant frequencies were closely influenced by the diameter and length of the waveguide. A series of double-peak curves of longitudinal magnetoelectric response were obtained, and their significance was discussed initially. - Highlights: • Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling by acoustic waveguide was developed. • The frequency and size dependence of the ME effects were investigated. • A resonant condition about the geometrical size of the waveguide was obtained. • A series of double-peak curves of longitudinal magnetoelectric response were obtained, and their significance was discussed initially.

  10. Unidirectional propagation of designer surface acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jiuyang; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou


    We propose an efficient design route to generate unidirectional propagation of the designer surface acoustic waves. The whole system consists of a periodically corrugated rigid plate combining with a pair of asymmetric narrow slits. The directionality of the structure-induced surface waves stems from the destructive interference between the evanescent waves emitted from the double slits. The theoretical prediction is validated well by simulations and experiments. Promising applications can be anticipated, such as in designing compact acoustic circuits.

  11. Acoustic emission monitoring of degradation of cross ply laminates. (United States)

    Aggelis, D G; Barkoula, N M; Matikas, T E; Paipetis, A S


    The scope of this study is to relate the acoustic activity of damage in composites to the failure mechanisms associated with these materials. Cross ply fiber reinforced composites were subjected to tensile loading with recording of their acoustic activity. Acoustic emission (AE) parameters were employed to monitor the transition of the damage mechanism from transverse cracking (mode I) to delamination (mode II). Wave propagation measurements in between loading steps revealed an increase in the relative amplitude of the propagated wave, which was attributed to the development of delamination that confined the wave to the top longitudinal plies of the composite.

  12. Microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady, Ihab F.; McCormick, Frederick; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, Carol


    A microfabricated bulk wave acoustic bandgap device comprises a periodic two-dimensional array of scatterers embedded within the matrix material membrane, wherein the scatterer material has a density and/or elastic constant that is different than the matrix material and wherein the periodicity of the array causes destructive interference of the acoustic wave within an acoustic bandgap. The membrane can be suspended above a substrate by an air or vacuum gap to provide acoustic isolation from the substrate. The device can be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. Such microfabricated bulk wave phononic bandgap devices are useful for acoustic isolation in the ultrasonic, VHF, or UHF regime (i.e., frequencies of order 1 MHz to 10 GHz and higher, and lattice constants of order 100 .mu.m or less).

  13. S wave propagation in acoustic anisotropic media (United States)

    Stovas, Alexey


    The acoustic anisotropic medium can be defined in two ways. The first one is known as a pseudo-acoustic approximation (Alkhalifah, 1998) that is based on the fact that in TI media, P wave propagation is weakly dependent on parameter known as "vertical S-wave velocity" (Thomsen, 1986). The standard way to define the pseudo-acoustic approximation is to set this parameter to zero. However, as it was shown later (Grechka et al., 2004), there is "S wave artifact" in such a medium. Another way is to define the stack of horizontal solid-fluid layers and perform an upscaling based on the Backus (1962) averaging. The stiffness coefficient that responds to "vertical S wave velocity" turns to zero if any of layers has zero vertical S wave velocity. In this abstract, I analyze the S wave propagation is acoustic anisotropic medium and define important kinematic properties such as the group velocity surface and Dix-type equations. The kinematic properties can easily be defined from the slowness surface. In elastic transversely isotropic medium, the equations for P and SV wave slowness surfaces are coupled. Setting "vertical S wave velocity" to zero, results in decoupling of equations. I show that the S wave group velocity surface is given by quasi-astroidal form with the reference astroid defined by vertical and horizontal projections of group velocity. I show that there are cusps attached to both vertical and horizontal symmetry axes. The new S wave parameters include vertical, horizontal and normal moveout velocities. With the help of new parameterization, suitable for S wave, I also derived the Dix-type of equations to define the effective kinematical properties of S waves in multi-layered acoustic anisotropic medium. I have shown that effective media defined from P and S waves have different parameters. I also show that there are certain symmetries between P and S waves parameters and equations. The proposed method can be used for analysis of S waves in acoustic anisotropic

  14. Real-time monitoring of methanol concentration using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor for direct methanol fuel cell without reference liquid measurement (United States)

    Tada, Kyosuke; Nozawa, Takuya; Kondoh, Jun


    In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for sensors that continuously measure liquid concentrations and detect abnormalities in liquid environments. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor is applied for the continuous monitoring of liquid concentrations. As the SH-SAW sensor functions using the relative measurement method, it normally needs a reference at each measurement. However, if the sensor is installed in a liquid flow cell, it is difficult to measure a reference liquid. Therefore, it is important to establish an estimation method for liquid concentrations using the SH-SAW sensor without requiring a reference measurement. In this study, the SH-SAW sensor is installed in a direct methanol fuel cell to monitor the methanol concentration. The estimated concentration is compared with a conventional density meter. Moreover, the effect of formic acid is examined. When the fuel temperature is higher than 70 °C, it is necessary to consider the influence of liquid conductivity. Here, an estimation method for these cases is also proposed.

  15. Writing magnetic patterns with surface acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi, E-mail: [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)


    A novel patterning technique that creates magnetization patterns in a continuous magnetostrictive film with surface acoustic waves is demonstrated. Patterns of 10 μm wide stripes of alternating magnetization and a 3 μm dot of reversed magnetization are written using standing and focusing acoustic waves, respectively. The magnetization pattern is size-tunable, erasable, and rewritable by changing the magnetic field and acoustic power. This versatility, along with its solid-state implementation (no moving parts) and electronic control, renders it as a promising technique for application in magnetic recording, magnonic signal processing, magnetic particle manipulation, and spatial magneto-optical modulation.

  16. Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Bingmu


    In this thesis, wave propagation through acoustic materials with subwavelength slits structures is studied. Guided by the findings, acoustic wave focusing is achieved with a specific material design. By using a parameter retrieving method, an effective medium theory for a slab with periodic subwavelength cut-through slits is successfully derived. The theory is based on eigenfunction solutions to the acoustic wave equation. Numerical simulations are implemented by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original structure. I analytically and numerically investigate both the validity and limitations of the theory, and the influences of material and geometry on the effective spectral responses are studied. Results show that large contrasts in impedance and density are conditions that validate the effective medium theory, and this approximation displays a better accuracy for a thick slab with narrow slits in it. Based on the effective medium theory developed, a design of a at slab with a snake shaped" subwavelength structure is proposed as a means of achieving acoustic focusing. The property of focusing is demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Good agreement is observed between the proposed structure and the equivalent lens pre- dicted by the theory, which leads to robust broadband focusing by a thin at slab.

  17. Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Piezoelectric Ceramics by Coulomb Coupling (United States)

    Habib, Anowarul; Shelke, Amit; Pluta, Mieczyslaw; Kundu, Tribikram; Pietsch, Ullrich; Grill, Wolfgang


    The transport properties of bulk and guided acoustic waves travelling in a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disc, originally manufactured to serve as ultrasonic transducer, have been monitored by scanned Coulomb coupling. The images are recorded by excitation and detection of ultrasound with local electric field probes via piezoelectric coupling. A narrow pulse has been used for excitation. Broadband coupling is achieved since neither mechanical nor electrical resonances are involved. The velocities of the traveling acoustic waves determined from the images are compared with characteristic velocities calculated from material properties listed by the manufacturer of the PZT plate.

  18. Studying materials using acoustic waves (United States)

    Apfel, R. E.


    This final report summarizes the activity of the contractor in meeting the objectives of the contract. A comprehensive bibliography and list of participants on the contract work are included along with a discussion including: microcavitation, microparticle characterization, interfacial characterization using acoustic levitation, measurements of the acoustic nonlinear parameter for determining the composition of mixtures.

  19. Classical acoustic waves in damped media. (United States)

    Albuquerque, E L; Mauriz, P W


    A Green function technique is employed to investigate the propagation of classical damped acoustic waves in complex media. The calculations are based on the linear response function approach, which is very convenient to deal with this kind of problem. Both the displacement and the gradient displacement Green functions are determined. All deformations in the media are supposed to be negligible, so the motions considered here are purely acoustic waves. The damping term gamma is included in a phenomenological way into the wave vector expression. By using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, the power spectrum of the acoustic waves is also derived and has interesting properties, the most important of them being a possible relation with the analysis of seismic reflection data.

  20. Modeling acoustic wave propagation in isotropic medium (United States)

    Krasnoveikin, V. A.; Druzhinin, N. V.; Derusova, D. A.; Tarasov, S. Yu.


    The paper carries out the graphical analysis of acoustic wave propagation in plates of different thickness to reveal the surface wave patterns formed on the plate surfaces. The results of the analysis allowed explaining the non-uniform distribution of the surface wave pattern nodes formed on the PMMA plate by a point oscillator. The wave pattern reconstruction made it possible to reveal fundamental and reflected waves as well as their interference patterns with node distributions on the surfaces of the plate. These results may be useful for defect detection in composite materials such as delamination, impact damage, gaps, etc.

  1. Acoustic metasurface for refracted wave manipulation (United States)

    Han, Li-Xiang; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Fu-Gen; Dong, Hua-Feng; Mu, Zhong-Fei; Li, Jing-bo


    Here we present a design of a transmitted acoustic metasurface based on a single row of Helmholtz resonators with varying geometric parameters. The proposed metasurface can not only steer an acoustic beam as expected from the generalized Snell's law of refraction, but also exhibits various interesting properties and potential applications such as insulation of two quasi-intersecting transmitted sound waves, ultrasonic Bessel beam generator, frequency broadening effect of anomalous refraction and focusing.

  2. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming (United States)

    Branch,; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold, G [Ithaca, NY


    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  3. Circuit quantum acoustodynamics with surface acoustic waves. (United States)

    Manenti, Riccardo; Kockum, Anton F; Patterson, Andrew; Behrle, Tanja; Rahamim, Joseph; Tancredi, Giovanna; Nori, Franco; Leek, Peter J


    The experimental investigation of quantum devices incorporating mechanical resonators has opened up new frontiers in the study of quantum mechanics at a macroscopic level. It has recently been shown that surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be piezoelectrically coupled to superconducting qubits, and confined in high-quality Fabry-Perot cavities in the quantum regime. Here we present measurements of a device in which a superconducting qubit is coupled to a SAW cavity, realising a surface acoustic version of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We use measurements of the AC Stark shift between the two systems to determine the coupling strength, which is in agreement with a theoretical model. This quantum acoustodynamics architecture may be used to develop new quantum acoustic devices in which quantum information is stored in trapped on-chip acoustic wavepackets, and manipulated in ways that are impossible with purely electromagnetic signals, due to the 10(5) times slower mechanical waves.In this work, Manenti et al. present measurements of a device in which a tuneable transmon qubit is piezoelectrically coupled to a surface acoustic wave cavity, realising circuit quantum acoustodynamic architecture. This may be used to develop new quantum acoustic devices.

  4. Acoustic-Emission Weld-Penetration Monitor (United States)

    Maram, J.; Collins, J.


    Weld penetration monitored by detection of high-frequency acoustic emissions produced by advancing weld pool as it melts and solidifies in workpiece. Acoustic emission from TIG butt weld measured with 300-kHz resonant transducer. Rise in emission level coincides with cessation of weld penetration due to sudden reduction in welding current. Such monitoring applied to control of automated and robotic welders.

  5. Broadband Acoustic Cloak for Ultrasound Waves (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Xia, Chunguang; Fang, Nicholas


    Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely, serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Because of the nonresonant nature of the building elements, this low-loss (˜6dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz. Furthermore, our experimental study indicates that this design approach should be scalable to different acoustic frequencies and offers the possibility for a variety of devices based on coordinate transformation.

  6. Nonlinear interaction between acoustic gravity waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Axelsson


    Full Text Available The resonant interaction between three acoustic gravity waves is considered. We improve on the results of previous authors and write the new coupling coefficients in a symmetric form. Particular attention is paid to the low-frequency limit.

  7. Nonlinear interaction between acoustic gravity waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Axelsson

    Full Text Available The resonant interaction between three acoustic gravity waves is considered. We improve on the results of previous authors and write the new coupling coefficients in a symmetric form. Particular attention is paid to the low-frequency limit.

  8. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalsami, Nachappa [Naperville, IL; Kulikov, Stanislav [Sarov, RU; Osorio, Ivan [Leawood, KS; Raptis, Apostolos C [Downers Grove, IL


    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  9. Energy scavenging system by acoustic wave and integrated wireless communication (United States)

    Kim, Albert

    The purpose of the project was developing an energy-scavenging device for other bio implantable devices. Researchers and scientist have studied energy scavenging method because of the limitation of traditional power source, especially for bio-implantable devices. In this research, piezoelectric power generator that activates by acoustic wave, or music was developed. Follow by power generator, a wireless communication also integrated with the device for monitoring the power generation. The Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) bimorph cantilever with a proof mass at the free end tip was studied to convert acoustic wave to power. The music or acoustic wave played through a speaker to vibrate piezoelectric power generator. The LC circuit integrated with the piezoelectric material for purpose of wireless monitoring power generation. However, wireless monitoring can be used as wireless power transmission, which means the signal received via wireless communication also can be used for power for other devices. Size of 74 by 7 by 7cm device could generate and transmit 100mVp from 70 mm distance away with electrical resonant frequency at 420.2 kHz..

  10. Acoustic waves in granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouraille, O.J.P.; Luding, Stefan


    Dynamic simulations with discrete elements are used to obtain more insight into the wave propagation in dense granular media. A small perturbation is created on one side of a dense, static packing and examined during its propagation until it arrives at the opposite side. The influence of

  11. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polzikova, N. I., E-mail:; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P. [Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Mokhovaya 11, building 7, Moscow, 125009 (Russian Federation)


    We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  12. Study of Ion Acoustic Wave Damping through Green's Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, H.C.S.; Jensen, Vagn Orla


    Green's function analyses of ion acoustic waves in streaming plasmas show that, in general, the waves damp algebraically rather than exponentially with distance from exciter.......Green's function analyses of ion acoustic waves in streaming plasmas show that, in general, the waves damp algebraically rather than exponentially with distance from exciter....

  13. Acoustical Wave Propagation in Sonic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Girip


    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to discuss the technique of controlling the mechanical properties of sonic composites. The idea is to architecture the scatterers and material from which they are made, their number and geometry in order to obtain special features in their response to external waves. We refer to perfectly reflecting of acoustical waves over a desired range of frequencies or to prohibit their propagation in certain directions, or confining the waves within specified volumes. The internal structure of the material has to be chosen in such a way that to avoid the scattering of acoustical waves inside the material. This is possible if certain band-gaps of frequencies can be generated for which the waves are forbidden to propagate in certain directions. These bandgaps can be extended to cover all possible directions of propagation by resulting a full band-gap. If the band-gaps are not wide enough, their frequency ranges do not overlap. These band-gaps can overlap due to reflections on the surface of thick scatterers, as well as due to wave propagation inside them. growth.

  14. Resonant surface acoustic wave chemical detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert W.; Brocato, Terisse; Stotts, Larry G.


    Apparatus for chemical detection includes a pair of interdigitated transducers (IDTs) formed on a piezoelectric substrate. The apparatus includes a layer of adsorptive material deposited on a surface of the piezoelectric substrate between the IDTs, where each IDT is conformed, and is dimensioned in relation to an operating frequency and an acoustic velocity of the piezoelectric substrate, so as to function as a single-phase uni-directional transducer (SPUDT) at the operating frequency. Additionally, the apparatus includes the pair of IDTs is spaced apart along a propagation axis and mutually aligned relative to said propagation axis so as to define an acoustic cavity that is resonant to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the operating frequency, where a distance between each IDT of the pair of IDTs ranges from 100 wavelength of the operating frequency to 400 wavelength of the operating frequency.

  15. An acoustical model based monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der


    In this paper the approach for an acoustical model based monitoring network is demonstrated. This network is capable of reconstructing a noise map, based on the combination of measured sound levels and an acoustic model of the area. By pre-calculating the sound attenuation within the network the

  16. Optimized reflector stacks for solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Jansman, André B.M.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Schmitz, Jurriaan


    The quality factor (Q) of a solidly mounted bulk acoustic wave resonator (SMR) is limited by substrate losses, because the acoustic mirror is traditionally optimized to reflect longitudinal waves only. We propose two different design approaches derived from optics to tailor the acoustic mirror for

  17. Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor Model


    Wilson, William; Gary ATKINSON


    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasi...

  18. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling (United States)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary


    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  19. Non-Linear Excitation of Ion Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Hirsfield, J. L.


    The excitation of ion acoustic waves by nonlinear coupling of two transverse magnetic waves generated in a microwave cavity was investigated. Measurements of the wave amplitude showed good agreement with calculations based on the Vlasov equation.......The excitation of ion acoustic waves by nonlinear coupling of two transverse magnetic waves generated in a microwave cavity was investigated. Measurements of the wave amplitude showed good agreement with calculations based on the Vlasov equation....

  20. Deconvolution of acoustically detected bubble-collapse shock waves. (United States)

    Johansen, Kristoffer; Song, Jae Hee; Johnston, Keith; Prentice, Paul


    The shock wave emitted by the collapse of a laser-induced bubble is detected at propagation distances of 30, 40and50mm, using a PVdF needle hydrophone, with a non-flat end-of-cable frequency response, calibrated for magnitude and phase, from 125kHz to 20MHz. High-speed shadowgraphic imaging at 5×106 frames per second, 10nstemporal resolution and 256 frames per sequence, records the bubble deflation from maximum to minimum radius, the collapse and shock wave generation, and the subsequent rebound in unprecedented detail, for a single sequence of an individual bubble. The Gilmore equation for bubble oscillation is solved according to the resolved bubble collapse, and simulated shock wave profiles deduced from the acoustic emissions, for comparison to the hydrophone recordings. The effects of single-frequency calibration, magnitude-only and full waveform deconvolution of the experimental data are presented, in both time and frequency domains. Magnitude-only deconvolution increases the peak pressure amplitude of the measured shock wave by approximately 9%, from single-frequency calibration, with full waveform deconvolution increasing it by a further 3%. Full waveform deconvolution generates a shock wave profile that is in agreement with the simulated profile, filtered according to the calibration bandwidth. Implications for the detection and monitoring of acoustic cavitation, where the role of periodic bubble collapse shock waves has recently been realised, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Acoustic Monitoring for Spaceflight Vehicle Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR will develop and demonstrate acoustic sensor technology enabling real-time, remotely performed measuring and monitoring of sound pressure levels and noise...

  2. Cavitation controlled acoustic probe for fabric spot cleaning and moisture monitoring (United States)

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.


    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a fabric. An acoustic probe generates acoustic waves relative to the fabric. An acoustic sensor, such as an accelerometer is coupled to the acoustic probe for generating a signal representative of cavitation activity in the fabric. The generated cavitation activity representative signal is processed to indicate moisture content of the fabric. A feature of the invention is a feedback control signal is generated responsive to the generated cavitation activity representative signal. The feedback control signal can be used to control the energy level of the generated acoustic waves and to control the application of a cleaning solution to the fabric.

  3. Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman-ur-Rehman, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P. O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics (DPAM), Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Ali, S.; Khan, S. A. [National Centre for Physics at Quaid-e-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shahzad, K. [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics (DPAM), Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)


    In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number q{sub eff} accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.

  4. Acoustic evaluation of wood quality in standing trees. Part I, Acoustic wave behavior (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Peter Carter


    Acoustic wave velocities in standing trees or live softwood species were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Tree velocities were compared with acoustic velocities measured in corresponding butt logs through a resonance acoustic method. The experimental data showed a skewed relationship between tree and log acoustic measurements. For most trees tested,...

  5. Identification of rocket-induced acoustic waves in the ionosphere (United States)

    Mabie, Justin; Bullett, Terence; Moore, Prentiss; Vieira, Gerald


    Acoustic waves can create plasma disturbances in the ionosphere, but the number of observations is limited. Large-amplitude acoustic waves generated by energetic sources like large earthquakes and tsunamis are more readily observed than acoustic waves generated by weaker sources. New observations of plasma displacements caused by rocket-generated acoustic waves were made using the Vertically Incident Pulsed Ionospheric Radar (VIPIR), an advanced high-frequency radar. Rocket-induced acoustic waves which are characterized by low amplitudes relative to those induced by more energetic sources can be detected in the ionosphere using the phase data from fixed frequency radar observations of a plasma layer. This work is important for increasing the number and quality of observations of acoustic waves in the ionosphere and could help improve the understanding of energy transport from the lower atmosphere to the thermosphere.

  6. Acoustic field distribution of sawtooth wave with nonlinear SBE model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail:; Zhang, Lue; Wang, Xiangda; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Ministry of Education, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    For precise prediction of the acoustic field distribution of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with an ellipsoid transducer, the nonlinear spheroidal beam equations (SBE) are employed to model acoustic wave propagation in medium. To solve the SBE model with frequency domain algorithm, boundary conditions are obtained for monochromatic and sawtooth waves based on the phase compensation. In numerical analysis, the influence of sinusoidal wave and sawtooth wave on axial pressure distributions are investigated.

  7. Wave-Flow Interactions and Acoustic Streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Chafin, Clifford E


    The interaction of waves and flows is a challenging topic where a complete resolution has been frustrated by the essential nonlinear features in the hydrodynamic case. Even in the case of EM waves in flowing media, the results are subtle. For a simple shear flow of constant n fluid, incident radiation is shown to be reflected and refracted in an analogous manner to Snell's law. However, the beam intensities differ and the system has an asymmetry in that an internal reflection gap opens at steep incident angles nearly oriented with the shear. For EM waves these effects are generally negligible in real systems but they introduce the topic at a reduced level of complexity of the more interesting acoustic case. Acoustic streaming is suggested, both from theory and experimental data, to be associated with vorticity generation at the driver itself. Bounds on the vorticity in bulk and nonlinear effects demonstrate that the bulk sources, even with attenuation, cannot drive such a strong flow. A review of the velocity...

  8. Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William WILSON


    Full Text Available NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasite substrate. The results of the model of a SAW Strain Sensor on Langasite are presented.

  9. Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshchupkin, Dmitry, E-mail:; Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High-Purity Materials Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Ortega, Luc [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei [Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula [Nazarbayev University Research and Innovation System, 53 Kabanbay Batyr St., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan)


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.

  10. Nonlinear Acoustic Wave Interactions in Layered Media. (United States)


    entire complex plane. The residue of GX at all of its poles must be determined in order to evaluate Equation (2-22) via Cauchy’s Residue Theorem ...4 ,0 0 Q) N +1 - 0 L I. 35 zero. Then, by Cauchy’s Residue Theorem , the Green’s function G [Equation (2-27)] for forward-guided modes is given by a...34Connection Between the Fay and Fubini Solutions for Plane Sound Waves of Finite-Amplitude." Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 39 (1966

  11. Electron Acoustic Waves in Pure Ion Plasmas (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.; O'Neil, T. M.; Valentini, F.


    Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low-frequency branch of near-linear Langmuir (plasma) waves: the frequency is such that the complex dielectric function (Dr, Di) has Dr= 0; and ``flattening'' of f(v) near the wave phase velocity vph gives Di=0 and eliminates Landau damping. Here, we observe standing axisymmetric EAWs in a pure ion column.footnotetextF. Anderegg, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 095001 (2009). At low excitation amplitudes, the EAWs have vph˜1.4 v, in close agreement with near-linear theory. At moderate excitation strengths, EAW waves are observed over a range of frequencies, with 1.3 v vphvph.footnotetextF. Valentini et al., arXiv:1206.3500v1. Large amplitude EAWs have strong phase-locked harmonic content, and experiments will be compared to same-geometry simulations, and to simulations of KEENfootnotetextB. Afeyan et al., Proc. Inertial Fusion Sci. and Applications 2003, A.N.S. Monterey (2004), p. 213. waves in HEDLP geometries.

  12. Nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion-acoustic waves in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    4], in the polar ... and potentiality in investigating various types of collec- tive processes in astrophysical, space as well as ... Different types of ion-acoustic, dust-acoustic or elec- tron-acoustic waves have been studied [27–31] ...

  13. Spherical dust acoustic solitary waves with two temperature ions

    CERN Document Server

    Eslami, Esmaeil


    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma which consists of two temperature Boltzmann distributed ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons in spherical dimension investigated and obtained spherical Kadomtsev Petviashvili (SKP) equation and shown that the dust acoustic solitary wave can exist in the SKP equation.

  14. Influence of acoustic waves on TEA CO 2 laser performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Bergmann, H


    Full Text Available In this paper the author’s present results on the influence of acoustic waves on the output laser beam from high repetition rate TEA CO 2 lasers. The authors show that acoustic waves generated inside the cavity lead to deterioration in beam quality...

  15. Wave-wave interactions and deep ocean acoustics. (United States)

    Guralnik, Z; Bourdelais, J; Zabalgogeazcoa, X; Farrell, W E


    Deep ocean acoustics, in the absence of shipping and wildlife, is driven by surface processes. Best understood is the signal generated by non-linear surface wave interactions, the Longuet-Higgins mechanism, which dominates from 0.1 to 10 Hz, and may be significant for another octave. For this source, the spectral matrix of pressure and vector velocity is derived for points near the bottom of a deep ocean resting on an elastic half-space. In the absence of a bottom, the ratios of matrix elements are universal constants. Bottom effects vitiate the usual "standing wave approximation," but a weaker form of the approximation is shown to hold, and this is used for numerical calculations. In the weak standing wave approximation, the ratios of matrix elements are independent of the surface wave spectrum, but depend on frequency and the propagation environment. Data from the Hawaii-2 Observatory are in excellent accord with the theory for frequencies between 0.1 and 1 Hz, less so at higher frequencies. Insensitivity of the spectral ratios to wind, and presumably waves, is indeed observed in the data.

  16. On Mass Loading and Dissipation Measured with Acoustic Wave Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Voinova


    Full Text Available We summarize current trends in the analysis of physical properties (surface mass density, viscosity, elasticity, friction, and charge of various thin films measured with a solid-state sensor oscillating in a gaseous or liquid environment. We cover three different types of mechanically oscillating sensors: the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D monitoring, surface acoustic wave (SAW, resonators and magnetoelastic sensors (MESs. The fourth class of novel acoustic wave (AW mass sensors, namely thin-film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBARs on vibrating membranes is discussed in brief. The paper contains a survey of theoretical results and practical applications of the sensors and includes a comprehensive bibliography.

  17. Acoustic wave characterization of silicon phononic crystal plate (United States)

    Feng, Duan; Jiang, Wanli; Xu, Dehui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Yuelin


    In this paper, characterization of megahertz Lamb waves in a silicon phononic crystal based asymmetry filter by laser Doppler vibrometer is demonstrated. The acoustic power from a piezoelectric substrate was transmitted into the silicon superstrate by fluid coupling method, and measured results show that the displacement amplitude of the acoustic wave in the superstrate was approximately one fifth of that in the piezoelectric substrate. Effect of the phononic bandgap on the propagation of Lamb wave in the silicon superstrate is also measured, and the result shows that the phononic crystal structure could reflect part of the acoustic waves back.

  18. Vehicle exhaust gas chemical sensors using acoustic wave resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernosek, R.W.; Small, J.H.; Sawyer, P.S.; Bigbie, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, M.T. [3M Industrial and Consumer Sector Research Lab., St. Paul, MN (United States)


    Under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, novel acoustic wave-based sensors were explored for detecting gaseous chemical species in vehicle exhaust streams. The need exists for on-line, real-time monitors to continuously analyze the toxic exhaust gases -- nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) -- for determining catalytic converter efficiency, documenting compliance to emission regulations, and optimizing engine performance through feedback control. In this project, the authors adapted existing acoustic wave chemical sensor technology to the high temperature environment and investigated new robust sensor materials for improving gas detection sensitivity and selectivity. This report describes one new sensor that has potential use as an exhaust stream residual hydrocarbon monitor. The sensor consists of a thickness shear mode (TSM) quartz resonator coated with a thin mesoporous silica layer ion-exchanged with palladium ions. When operated at temperatures above 300 C, the high surface area film catalyzes the combustion of the hydrocarbon vapors in the presence of oxygen. The sensor acts as a calorimeter as the exothermic reaction slightly increases the temperature, stressing the sensor surface, and producing a measurable deviation in the resonator frequency. Sensitivities as high as 0.44 (ppm-{Delta}f) and (ppm-gas) have been measured for propylene gas, with minimum detectable signals of < 50 ppm of propylene at 500 C.

  19. Acoustic emission health monitoring of steel bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahlavan, P.L.; Paulissen, J.H.; Pijpers, R.J.M.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.; Jansen, T.H.


    Despite extensive developments in the field of Acoustic Emission (AE) for monitoring fatigue cracks in steel structures, the implementation of AE systems for large-scale bridges is hindered by limitations associated with instrumentation costs and signal processing complexities. This paper sheds

  20. Wind, waves, and acoustic background levels at Station ALOHA (United States)

    Duennebier, Fred K.; Lukas, Roger; Nosal, Eva-Marie; Aucan, JéRome; Weller, Robert A.


    Frequency spectra from deep-ocean near-bottom acoustic measurements obtained contemporaneously with wind, wave, and seismic data are described and used to determine the correlations among these data and to discuss possible causal relationships. Microseism energy appears to originate in four distinct regions relative to the hydrophone: wind waves above the sensors contribute microseism energy observed on the ocean floor; a fraction of this local wave energy propagates as seismic waves laterally, and provides a spatially integrated contribution to microseisms observed both in the ocean and on land; waves in storms generate microseism energy in deep water that travels as seismic waves to the sensor; and waves reflected from shorelines provide opposing waves that add to the microseism energy. Correlations of local wind speed with acoustic and seismic spectral time series suggest that the local Longuet-Higgins mechanism is visible in the acoustic spectrum from about 0.4 Hz to 80 Hz. Wind speed and acoustic levels at the hydrophone are poorly correlated below 0.4 Hz, implying that the microseism energy below 0.4 Hz is not typically generated by local winds. Correlation of ocean floor acoustic energy with seismic spectra from Oahu and with wave spectra near Oahu imply that wave reflections from Hawaiian coasts, wave interactions in the deep ocean near Hawaii, and storms far from Hawaii contribute energy to the seismic and acoustic spectra below 0.4 Hz. Wavefield directionality strongly influences the acoustic spectrum at frequencies below about 2 Hz, above which the acoustic levels imply near-isotropic surface wave directionality.

  1. Simulation and Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave Devises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard


    In this paper a method to model the interaction of the mechanical field from a surface acoustic wave and the optical field in the waveguides of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented. The surface acoustic waves are generated by interdigital transducers using a plane strain model...... of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material and reflections from the boundaries are avoided by applying perfectly matched layers. The optical modes in the waveguides are modeled by the time-harmonic wave equation for the magnetic field. The two models are coupled using the stress-optical relation and the change...... in effective refractive index introduced in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer arms by the stresses from the surface acoustic wave is calculated. It is shown that the effective refractive index of the fundamental optical mode increases at a surface acoustic wave crest and decreases at a trough. The height...

  2. Acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere generated by infragravity waves in the ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Godin, Oleg A; Zabotin, Nikolay A; Bullett, Terence W


    .... We show that, at frequencies below a certain transition frequency of about 3 mHz, infragravity waves continuously radiate their energy into the upper atmosphere in the form of acoustic-gravity waves...

  3. Modulation of cavity-polaritons by surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lima, M. M.; Poel, Mike van der; Hey, R.


    We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations.......We modulate cavity-polaritons using surface acoustic waves. The corresponding formation of a mini-Brillouin zone and band folding of the polariton dispersion is demonstrated for the first time. Results are in good agreement with model calculations....

  4. Surface acoustic wave devices for sensor applications (United States)

    Bo, Liu; Xiao, Chen; Hualin, Cai; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xiangguang, Tian; Luqi, Tao; Yi, Yang; Tianling, Ren


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have been widely used in different fields and will continue to be of great importance in the foreseeable future. These devices are compact, cost efficient, easy to fabricate, and have a high performance, among other advantages. SAW devices can work as filters, signal processing units, sensors and actuators. They can even work without batteries and operate under harsh environments. In this review, the operating principles of SAW sensors, including temperature sensors, pressure sensors, humidity sensors and biosensors, will be discussed. Several examples and related issues will be presented. Technological trends and future developments will also be discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  5. Observation of terahertz radiation coherently generated by acoustic waves (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael R.; Reed, Evan J.; Kim, Ki-Yong; Glownia, James H.; Howard, William M.; Piner, Edwin L.; Roberts, John C.


    Over the past decade, pioneering and innovative experiments using subpicosecond lasers have demonstrated the generation and detection of acoustic and shock waves in materials with terahertz frequencies, the highest possible frequency acoustic waves. In addition to groundbreaking demonstrations of acoustic solitons, these experiments have led to new techniques for probing the structure of thin films. Terahertz-frequency electromagnetic radiation has been used in applications as diverse as molecular and material excitations, charge transfer, imaging and plasma dynamics. However, at present, existing approaches to detect and measure the time dependence of terahertz-frequency strain waves in materials use direct optical probes-time-resolved interferometry or reflectrometry. Piezoelectric-based strain gauges have been used in acoustic shock and strain wave experiments for decades, but the time resolution of such devices is limited to ~100ps and slower, the timescale of electronic recording technology. We have recently predicted that terahertz-frequency acoustic waves can be detected by observing terahertz radiation emitted when the acoustic wave propagates past an interface between materials of differing piezoelectric coefficients. Here, we report the first experimental observation of this fundamentally new phenomenon and demonstrate that it can be used to probe structural properties of thin films.

  6. Positive amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves in auroral plasma (United States)

    Ghosh, S. S.; Lakhina, G. S.

    Rapidly moving positive potential pulses have been observed by FAST and POLAR satellites in downward current region of auroral plasma. They are characterized by their high velocities (> 1000 km/s) which are of the order of the electron drift velocities and are found to be associated with electron beams. Interestingly, it is observed that the width of such electron mode solitary waves increases with the amplitude [Ergun et al. (1998)]. Theoretically, they are interpreted as BGK electron phase space holes. However, Berthomier et al. (2000) have shown that a positive amplitude solitary wave may well exist for an electron acoustic mode. According to a weakly nonlinear theory, the width of such an electron acoustic solitary wave is expected to decrease with increasing amplitude which contradicts the observation. On the other hand, in our previous work, we have shown that the width of a large amplitude rarefactive ion acoustic solitary wave increases with an increasing amplitude [Ghosh et al. (2004)]. In the present work, we have extended our analysis to an electron acoustic solitary wave. A fully nonlinear solution of positive amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves (electron acoustic solitary holes) has been obtained by adopting the Sagdeev pseudopotetial technique. The plasma is assumed to be magnetized and traversed by the electron beam. The existence domain of such electron acoustic solitary holes is studied in detail. It is found that the width of electron acoustic solitary holes increases with increasing amplitude. Theoretically estimated width-amplitude variation profiles have been compared with recent satellite observations. It is proposed that a model based on electron acoustic mode may well interpret the fast moving solitary holes for an appropriate parameter space. References:Berthomier et al., Phys. Plasma, 7, 2987 (2000).Ergun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 826, (1998).Ghosh and Lakhina,, Nonlin. Process. Geophys, (2004), (to be appeared).

  7. Distributed acoustic sensing for pipeline monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, David; McEwen-King, Magnus [OptaSense, QinetiQ Ltd., London (United Kingdom)


    Optical fibre is deployed widely across the oil and gas industry. As well as being deployed regularly to provide high bandwidth telecommunications and infrastructure for SCADA it is increasingly being used to sense pressure, temperature and strain along buried pipelines, on subsea pipelines and downhole. In this paper we present results from the latest sensing capability using standard optical fibre to detect acoustic signals along the entire length of a pipeline. In Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) an optical fibre is used for both sensing and telemetry. In this paper we present results from the OptaSense{sup TM} system which has been used to detect third party intervention (TPI) along buried pipelines. In a typical deployment the system is connected to an existing standard single-mode fibre, up to 50km in length, and was used to independently listen to the acoustic / seismic activity at every 10 meter interval. We will show that through the use of advanced array processing of the independent, simultaneously sampled channels it is possible to detect and locate activity within the vicinity of the pipeline and through sophisticated acoustic signal processing to obtain the acoustic signature to classify the type of activity. By combining spare fibre capacity in existing buried fibre optic cables; processing and display techniques commonly found in sonar; and state-of-the-art in fibre-optic distributed acoustic sensing, we will describe the new monitoring capabilities that are available to the pipeline operator. Without the expense of retrofitting sensors to the pipeline, this technology can provide a high performance, rapidly deployable and cost effective method of providing gapless and persistent monitoring of a pipeline. We will show how this approach can be used to detect, classify and locate activity such as; third party interference (including activity indicative of illegal hot tapping); real time tracking of pigs; and leak detection. We will also show how an

  8. Nonlinear acoustic waves in micro-inhomogeneous solids

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarov, Veniamin


    Nonlinear Acoustic Waves in Micro-inhomogeneous Solids covers the broad and dynamic branch of nonlinear acoustics, presenting a wide variety of different phenomena from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The introductory chapters, written in the style of graduate-level textbook, present a review of the main achievements of classic nonlinear acoustics of homogeneous media. This enables readers to gain insight into nonlinear wave processes in homogeneous and micro-inhomogeneous solids and compare it within the framework of the book. The subsequent eight chapters covering: Physical m

  9. Capacitive acoustic wave detector and method of using same (United States)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor)


    A capacitor having two substantially parallel conductive faces is acoustically coupled to a conductive sample end such that the sample face is one end of the capacitor. A non-contacting dielectric may serve as a spacer between the two conductive plates. The formed capacitor is connected to an LC oscillator circuit such as a Hartley oscillator circuit producing an output frequency which is a function of the capacitor spacing. This capacitance oscillates as the sample end coating is oscillated by an acoustic wave generated in the sample by a transmitting transducer. The electrical output can serve as an absolute indicator of acoustic wave displacement.

  10. Passive acoustic monitoring of human physiology during activity indicates health and performance of soldiers and firefighters (United States)

    Scanlon, Michael V.


    The Army Research Laboratory has developed a unique gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor that has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin. This facilitates the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repels ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. The sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth produce excellent signatures for detection and spectral analysis of diverse physiological events. Acoustic signal processing detects heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. Comfortable acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Noise-canceling sensor arrays help remove out-of-phase motion noise and enhance covariant physiology by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and two additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist acoustic sensors will indicate systolic blood pressure. Larger torso-sized arrays can be used to acoustically inspect the lungs and heart, or built into beds for sleep monitoring. Acoustics is an excellent input for sensor fusion.

  11. Dromion solutions for an electron acoustic wave and its application ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The nonlinear evolution of an electron acoustic wave is shown to obey the Davey–. Stewartson I equation which admits so called dromion solutions. The importance of these two dimensional localized solutions for recent satellite observations of wave structures in the day side polar cap regions is discussed and the ...

  12. Cylindrical and spherical dust-acoustic wave modulations in dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nonlinear wave modulation of planar and non-planar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-acoustic waves (DAW) propagating in dusty plasmas, in the presence of non-extensive distributions for ions and electrons is investigated. By employing multiple scales technique, a cylindrically and spherically modified nonlinear ...

  13. Quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in weak relativistic plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ion-acoustic waves. Recently, Stenflo et al [24] observed two new low-frequency elec- trostatic modes in ultra-cold unmagnetized quantum dusty plasmas. Ali and Shukla ... waves in a nonuniform ultra-cold Fermi dusty gas composed of inertialess electrons, and ions as well ... the Van Allen radiation belts [34] etc. Streaming ...

  14. Cylindrical and spherical dust-acoustic wave modulations in dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The nonlinear wave modulation of planar and non-planar (cylindrical and spherical) dust-acoustic waves (DAW) propagating in dusty plasmas, in the presence of non-extensive distribu- tions for ions and electrons is investigated. By employing multiple scales technique, a cylindrically and spherically modified ...

  15. Quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations in metallic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The low-frequency electrostatic waves in metallic nanowires are studied using the quantum hydrodynamic model, in which the electron and ion components of the system are regarded as a two-species quantum plasma system. The Poisson equation as well as appropriate quantum boundary conditions give the analytical expressions of dispersion relations of the surface and bulk quantum ion-acoustic wave oscillations.

  16. Acoustic tweezing of particles using decaying opposing travelling surface acoustic waves (DOTSAW). (United States)

    Ng, Jia Wei; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Neild, Adrian


    Surface acoustic waves offer a versatile and biocompatible method of manipulating the location of suspended particles or cells within microfluidic systems. The most common approach uses the interference of identical frequency, counter propagating travelling waves to generate a standing surface acoustic wave, in which particles migrate a distance less than half the acoustic wavelength to their nearest pressure node. The result is the formation of a periodic pattern of particles. Subsequent displacement of this pattern, the prerequisite for tweezing, can be achieved by translation of the standing wave, and with it the pressure nodes; this requires changing either the frequency of the pair of waves, or their relative phase. Here, in contrast, we examine the use of two counterpropagating traveling waves of different frequency. The non-linearity of the acoustic forces used to manipulate particles, means that a small frequency difference between the two waves creates a substantially different force field, which offers significant advantages. Firstly, this approach creates a much longer range force field, in which migration takes place across multiple wavelengths, and causes particles to be gathered together in a single trapping site. Secondly, the location of this single trapping site can be controlled by the relative amplitude of the two waves, requiring simply an attenuation of one of the electrical drive signals. Using this approach, we show that by controlling the powers of the opposing incoherent waves, 5 μm particles can be migrated laterally across a fluid flow to defined locations with an accuracy of ±10 μm.

  17. Condition Monitoring and Management from Acoustic Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik Bohl


    In the following, I will use technical terms without explanation as it gives the freedom to describe the project in a shorter form for those who already know. The thesis is about condition monitoring of large diesel engines from acoustic emission signals. The experiments have been focused...... is the analysis of the angular position changes of the engine related events such as fuel injection and valve openings, caused by operational load changes. With inspiration from speech recognition and voice effects the angular timing changes have been inverted with the event alignment framework. With the event...

  18. Ionospheric effects of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves: Dispersion relation (United States)

    Jones, R. Michael; Ostrovsky, Lev A.; Bedard, Alfred J.


    There is extensive evidence for ionospheric effects associated with earthquake-related atmospheric disturbances. Although the existence of earthquake precursors is controversial, one suggested method of detecting possible earthquake precursors and tsunamis is by observing possible ionospheric effects of atmospheric waves generated by such events. To study magneto-acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere, we have derived a general dispersion relation including the effects of the Earth's magnetic field. This dispersion relation can be used in a general atmospheric ray tracing program to calculate the propagation of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves from the ground to the ionosphere. The presence of the Earth's magnetic field in the ionosphere can radically change the dispersion properties of the wave. The general dispersion relation obtained here reduces to the known dispersion relations for magnetoacoustic waves and acoustic-gravity waves in the corresponding particular cases. The work described here is the first step in achieving a generalized ray tracing program permitting propagation studies of magneto-acoustic-gravity waves.

  19. Magneto-acoustic imaging by continuous-wave excitation. (United States)

    Shunqi, Zhang; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Tao, Yin; Zhipeng, Liu


    The electrical characteristics of tissue yield valuable information for early diagnosis of pathological changes. Magneto-acoustic imaging is a functional approach for imaging of electrical conductivity. This study proposes a continuous-wave magneto-acoustic imaging method. A kHz-range continuous signal with an amplitude range of several volts is used to excite the magneto-acoustic signal and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The magneto-acoustic signal amplitude and phase are measured to locate the acoustic source via lock-in technology. An optimisation algorithm incorporating nonlinear equations is used to reconstruct the magneto-acoustic source distribution based on the measured amplitude and phase at various frequencies. Validation simulations and experiments were performed in pork samples. The experimental and simulation results agreed well. While the excitation current was reduced to 10 mA, the acoustic signal magnitude increased up to 10-7 Pa. Experimental reconstruction of the pork tissue showed that the image resolution reached mm levels when the excitation signal was in the kHz range. The signal-to-noise ratio of the detected magneto-acoustic signal was improved by more than 25 dB at 5 kHz when compared to classical 1 MHz pulse excitation. The results reported here will aid further research into magneto-acoustic generation mechanisms and internal tissue conductivity imaging.

  20. Individually Identifiable Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors, Tags and Systems (United States)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor); Solie, Leland P. (Inventor); Tucker, Dana Y. G. (Inventor); Hines, Andrew T. (Inventor)


    A surface-launched acoustic wave sensor tag system for remotely sensing and/or providing identification information using sets of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor tag devices is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include coding and other diversity techniques to produce groups of sensors that interact minimally, reducing or alleviating code collision problems typical of prior art coded SAW sensors and tags, and specific device embodiments of said coded SAW sensor tags and systems. These sensor/tag devices operate in a system which consists of one or more uniquely identifiable sensor/tag devices and a wireless interrogator. The sensor device incorporates an antenna for receiving incident RF energy and re-radiating the tag identification information and the sensor measured parameter(s). Since there is no power source in or connected to the sensor, it is a passive sensor. The device is wirelessly interrogated by the interrogator.

  1. Propagation characteristics of acoustic emission wave in reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiong Feng

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of components and damage mechanism of reinforced concrete, the wave propagation characteristics in reinforced concrete are always complicated and difficult to determine. The objective of this article is to study the failure process of reinforced concrete structure under the damage caused by pencil-broken. A new method on the basis of the acoustic emission technique and the Hilbert-Huang transform theory is proposed in this work. By using acoustic emission technique, the acoustic emission wave signal is generating while the real-time damage information and the strain field of the reinforced concrete structure is receiving simultaneously. Based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT theory, the peak frequency characteristics of the acoustic emission signals were extracted to identify the damage modes of the reinforced concrete structure. The results demonstrate that this method can quantitatively investigate the acoustic emission wave propagation characteristic in reinforced concrete structures and might also be promising in other civil constructions. Keywords: Acoustic emission, Reinforced concrete structure, Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT, Propagation characteristics

  2. Acoustic gravity wave growth and damping in convecting plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    Full Text Available The propagation of acoustic gravity waves through steadily convecting plasma in the thermosphere has been analysed theoretically. The growth and damping rates of internal gravity waves due to the feedback effects of wave-modulated Joule heating and Laplace forcing have been calculated. It is found that large convection flow velocities lead to the growth of large-scale internal gravity waves, whilst small- and medium-scale waves are heavily damped, under similar conditions. It has also been shown that wave growth is favoured for waves travelling against the plasma flow direction. The effects of critical coupling when wave phase speeds match the plasma flow speed have also been investigated. The results of these calculations are discussed in the context of the atmospheric energy budget and thermosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  3. Acoustic gravity wave growth and damping in convecting plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson


    Full Text Available The propagation of acoustic gravity waves through steadily convecting plasma in the thermosphere has been analysed theoretically. The growth and damping rates of internal gravity waves due to the feedback effects of wave-modulated Joule heating and Laplace forcing have been calculated. It is found that large convection flow velocities lead to the growth of large-scale internal gravity waves, whilst small- and medium-scale waves are heavily damped, under similar conditions. It has also been shown that wave growth is favoured for waves travelling against the plasma flow direction. The effects of critical coupling when wave phase speeds match the plasma flow speed have also been investigated. The results of these calculations are discussed in the context of the atmospheric energy budget and thermosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  4. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves. (United States)

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng


    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.

  5. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification (United States)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.


    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  6. An Unconditionally Stable Method for Solving the Acoustic Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Kai Fu


    Full Text Available An unconditionally stable method for solving the time-domain acoustic wave equation using Associated Hermit orthogonal functions is proposed. The second-order time derivatives in acoustic wave equation are expanded by these orthogonal basis functions. By applying Galerkin temporal testing procedure, the time variable can be eliminated from the calculations. The restriction of Courant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL condition in selecting time step for analyzing thin layer can be avoided. Numerical results show the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed method.

  7. Acoustic-Gravity Waves Interacting with a Rectangular Trench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Kadri


    Full Text Available A mathematical solution of the two-dimensional linear problem of an acoustic-gravity wave interacting with a rectangular trench, in a compressible ocean, is presented. Expressions for the flow field on both sides of the trench are derived. The dynamic bottom pressure produced by the acoustic-gravity waves on both sides of the trench is measurable, though on the transmission side it decreases with the trench depth. A successful recording of the bottom pressures could assist in the early detection of tsunami.

  8. Broadband aberration-free focusing reflector for acoustic waves (United States)

    Wang, Aixia; Qu, Shaobo; Ma, Hua; Wang, Jiafu; Jiang, Wei; Feng, Mingde


    An aberration-free focusing reflector (AFR) for acoustic waves is proposed with the aim to eliminate spherical aberration and coma simultaneously. Meanwhile, the AFR can focus acoustic waves with low dispersion in a wide frequency range of 14-50 kHz. The broadband aberration-free focusing effect is originated from an elliptical reflection phase gradient profile, which is achieved by milling different depths of axisymmetric grooves on a planoconcave-like brass plate using the ray theory. Theoretical and numerical results are in good agreement. The designed AFR can find broad engineering, industrial and medical applications.

  9. Strong wave/mean-flow coupling in baroclinic acoustic streaming (United States)

    Chini, Greg; Michel, Guillaume


    Recently, Chini et al. demonstrated the potential for large-amplitude acoustic streaming in compressible channel flows subjected to strong background cross-channel density variations. In contrast with classic Rayleigh streaming, standing acoustic waves of O (ɛ) amplitude acquire vorticity owing to baroclinic torques acting throughout the domain rather than via viscous torques acting in Stokes boundary layers. More significantly, these baroclinically-driven streaming flows have a magnitude that also is O (ɛ) , i.e. comparable to that of the sound waves. In the present study, the consequent potential for fully two-way coupling between the waves and streaming flows is investigated using a novel WKBJ analysis. The analysis confirms that the wave-driven streaming flows are sufficiently strong to modify the background density gradient, thereby modifying the leading-order acoustic wave structure. Simulations of the wave/mean-flow system enabled by the WKBJ analysis are performed to illustrate the nature of the two-way coupling, which contrasts sharply with classic Rayleigh streaming, for which the waves can first be determined and the streaming flows subsequently computed.

  10. Nanoliter-droplet acoustic streaming via ultra high frequency surface acoustic waves. (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco


    The relevant length scales in sub-nanometer amplitude surface acoustic wave-driven acoustic streaming are demonstrated. We demonstrate the absence of any physical limitations preventing the downscaling of SAW-driven internal streaming to nanoliter microreactors and beyond by extending SAW microfluidics up to operating frequencies in the GHz range. This method is applied to nanoliter scale fluid mixing. © 2014 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Acoustic Gravity Waves Generated by an Oscillating Ice Sheet in Arctic Zone (United States)

    Abdolali, A.; Kadri, U.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.


    We investigate the formation of acoustic-gravity waves due to oscillations of large ice blocks, possibly triggered by atmospheric and ocean currents, ice block shrinkage or storms and ice-quakes.For the idealized case of a homogeneous weakly compressible water bounded at the surface by ice sheet and a rigid bed, the description of the infinite family of acoustic modes is characterized by the water depth h and angular frequency of oscillating ice sheet ω ; The acoustic wave field is governed by the leading mode given by: Nmax=\\floor {(ω h)/(π c)} where c is the sound speed in water and the special brackets represent the floor function (Fig1). Unlike the free-surface setting, the higher acoustic modes might exhibit a larger contribution and therefore all progressive acoustic modes have to be considered.This study focuses on the characteristics of acoustic-gravity waves generated by an oscillating elastic ice sheet in a weakly compressible fluid coupled with a free surface model [Abdolali et al. 2015] representing shrinking ice blocks in realistic sea state, where the randomly oriented ice sheets cause inter modal transition and multidirectional reflections. A theoretical solution and a 3D numerical model have been developed for the study purposes. The model is first validated against the theoretical solution [Kadri, 2016]. To overcome the computational difficulties of 3D models, we derive a depth-integrated equation valid for spatially varying ice sheet thickness and water depth. We show that the generated acoustic-gravity waves contribute significantly to deep ocean currents compared to other mechanisms. In addition, these waves travel at the sound speed in water carrying information on ice sheet motion, providing various implications for ocean monitoring and detection of ice-quakes. Fig1:Snapshots of dynamic pressure given by an oscillating ice sheet; h=4500m, c=1500m/s, semi-length b=10km, ζ =1m, omega=π rad/s. Abdolali, A., Kirby, J. T. and Bellotti, G

  12. Surface spin-electron acoustic waves in magnetically ordered metals

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Pavel A


    Degenerate plasmas with motionless ions show existence of three surface waves: the Langmuir wave, the electromagnetic wave, and the zeroth sound. Applying the separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics to half-space plasma we demonstrate the existence of the surface spin-electron acoustic wave (SSEAW). We study dispersion of the SSEAW. We show that there is hybridization between the surface Langmuir wave and the SSEAW at rather small spin polarization. In the hybridization area the dispersion branches are located close to each other. In this area there is a strong interaction between these waves leading to the energy exchange. Consequently, generating the Langmuir waves with the frequencies close to hybridization area we can generate the SSEAWs. Thus, we report a method of creation of the SEAWs.

  13. Characteristics of acoustic wave from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites (United States)

    Sokolova, Inna


    Availability of the acoustic wave on the record of microbarograph is one of discriminate signs of atmospheric (surface layer of atmosphere) and contact explosions. Nowadays there is large number of air wave records from chemical explosions recorded by the IMS infrasound stations installed during recent decade. But there is small number of air wave records from nuclear explosions as air and contact nuclear explosions had been conducted since 1945 to 1962, before the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963 (the treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water) by the Great Britain, USSR and USA. That time there was small number of installed microbarographs. First infrasound stations in the USSR appeared in 1954, and by the moment of the USSR collapse the network consisted of 25 infrasound stations, 3 of which were located on Kazakhstan territory - in Kurchatov (East Kazakhstan), in Borovoye Observatory (North Kazakhstan) and Talgar Observatory (Northern Tien Shan). The microbarograph of Talgar Observatory was installed in 1962 and recorded large number of air nuclear explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk Test Site and Novaya Zemlya Test Site. The epicentral distance to the STS was ~700 km, and to Novaya Zemlya Test Site ~3500 km. The historical analog records of the microbarograph were analyzed on the availability of the acoustic wave. The selected records were digitized, the database of acoustic signals from nuclear explosions was created. In addition, acoustic signals from atmospheric nuclear explosions conducted at the USSR Test Sites were recorded by analogue broadband seismic stations at wide range of epicentral distances, 300-3600 km. These signals coincide well by its form and spectral content with records of microbarographs and can be used for monitoring tasks and discrimination in places where infrasound observations are absent. Nuclear explosions which records contained acoustic wave were from 0.03 to 30 kt yield for

  14. Propagation of acoustic-gravity waves in arctic zones with elastic ice-sheets (United States)

    Kadri, Usama; Abdolali, Ali; Kirby, James T.


    We present an analytical solution of the boundary value problem of propagating acoustic-gravity waves generated in the ocean by earthquakes or ice-quakes in arctic zones. At the surface, we assume elastic ice-sheets of a variable thickness, and show that the propagating acoustic-gravity modes have different mode shape than originally derived by Ref. [1] for a rigid ice-sheet settings. Computationally, we couple the ice-sheet problem with the free surface model by Ref. [2] representing shrinking ice blocks in realistic sea state, where the randomly oriented ice-sheets cause inter modal transition at the edges and multidirectional reflections. We then derive a depth-integrated equation valid for spatially slowly varying thickness of ice-sheet and water depth. Surprisingly, and unlike the free-surface setting, here it is found that the higher acoustic-gravity modes exhibit a larger contribution. These modes travel at the speed of sound in water carrying information on their source, e.g. ice-sheet motion or submarine earthquake, providing various implications for ocean monitoring and detection of quakes. In addition, we found that the propagating acoustic-gravity modes can result in orbital displacements of fluid parcels sufficiently high that may contribute to deep ocean currents and circulation, as postulated by Refs. [1, 3]. References [1] U. Kadri, 2016. Generation of Hydroacoustic Waves by an Oscillating Ice Block in Arctic Zones. Advances in Acoustics and Vibration, 2016, Article ID 8076108, 7 pages [2] A. Abdolali, J. T. Kirby and G. Bellotti, 2015, Depth-integrated equation for hydro-acoustic waves with bottom damping, J. Fluid Mech., 766, R1 doi:10.1017/jfm.2015.37 [3] U. Kadri, 2014. Deep ocean water transportation by acoustic?gravity waves. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, doi:10.1002/ 2014JC010234

  15. Reflection and Transmission of Acoustic Waves at Semiconductor - Liquid Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Sharma


    Full Text Available The study of reflection and transmission characteristics of acoustic waves at the interface of a semiconductor halfspace underlying an inviscid liquid has been carried out. The reflection and transmission coefficients of reflected and transmitted waves have been obtained for quasi-longitudinal (qP wave incident at the interface from fluid to semiconductor. The numerical computations of reflection and transmission coefficients have been carried out with the help of Gauss elimination method by using MATLAB programming for silicon (Si, germanium (Ge and silicon nitride (Si3N4 semiconductors. In order to interpret and compare, the computer simulated results are plotted graphically. The study may be useful in semiconductors, seismology and surface acoustic wave (SAW devices in addition to engines of the space shuttles.

  16. Monitoring power breakers using vibro acoustic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Balan


    Full Text Available Speaking about the commutation’s equipment, it can be said that the best solution in increasing reliability and lowering the maintenance costs is a continuous monitoring of the equipment. However, if the price/quality ratio is considered, it is obvious that, for the moment, the diagnosis can be also an acceptable solution. Nowadays the predictive maintenance for equipment’s diagnosis is currently replacing the preventive diagnosis. An efficient modality of lowering the maintenance costs is to online monitoring the power breakers, during their operation in the power systems. Consequently any connecting/disconnecting operations may be used in diagnosing a power breaker. Thus any supplementary and superfluous tests and/or maintenance maneuvers are avoided. The paper presents the operational maintenance in a power station with three high voltage active breakers, Areva type. The method of establishing the state of a breaker consists in the comparison between the signature of the acoustic signal provided by the manufacturer and the signal issued from the testing operation of the breaker’s state. The software processing procedure and the methodology of determining the faults of the monitored equipment are also developed. All the tests on the circuit breaker are made according the prescriptions of normative.

  17. Operational monitoring of acoustic sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltenkov V.A.


    Full Text Available Acoustic sensor networks (ASN are widely used to monitor water leaks in the power generating systems. Since the ASN are used in harsh climatic conditions the failures of microphone elements of ASN are inevitable. That's why the failure detection of ASN elements is a problem of current interest. Two techniques of operational monitoring ASN are developed. Both of them are based on the placement of the test sound source within a network. The signal processing for ASN sensors had to detect the failed element. Techniques are based time difference of arrival (TDOA estimating at the each pair of ASN elements. TDOA estimates as argmaximum of cross-correlation function (CCF for signals on each microphone sensors pair. The M-sequence phase-shift keyed signal is applied as a test acoustic signal to ensure high accuracy of the CCF maximum estimation at low signal/noise ratio (SNR. The first technique is based on the isolation principle for TDOA sum at three points. It require to locate the test sound source in the far field. This is not always possible due to technological reasons. For the second proposed technique test sound source can be located near the ASN. It is based on a system of hyperbolic equations solving for each of the four elements of the ASN. Both techniques has been tested in the computer imitation experiment. It was found that for the SNR to –5 dB both techniques show unmistakable indicators of control quality. The second method requires significantly more time control.

  18. Wave Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Mihai; Chatterjea, Supriyo; Marin Perianu, Raluca; Bosch, S.; Dulman, S.O.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Havinga, Paul J.M.


    Real-time collection of wave information is required for short and long term investigations of natural coastal processes. Current wave monitoring techniques use only point-measurements, which are practical where the bathymetry is relatively uniform. We propose a wave monitoring method that is

  19. Wireless Passive Strain Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Devices


    Nomura, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Saitoh, A


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices offer many attractive features for applications as chemical and physical sensors. In this paper, a novel SAW strain sensor that employs SAW delay lines has been designed. Two crossed delay lines were used to measure the two-dimensional strain. A wireless sensing system is also proposed for effective operation of the strain sensor. In addition, an electronic system for accurately measuring the phase characteristics of the signal wave from the passive strain ...

  20. Acoustic Wave Dispersion and Scattering in Complex Marine Sediment Structures (United States)


    Acoustic wave dispersion and scattering in complex marine sediment structures Charles W. Holland The Pennsylvania State University Applied...shear waves on dispersion in marine sediments . The first step will be development of the theory. WORK COMPLETED A brief summary of the work...propagation and scattering in the seabed. OBJECTIVES The objectives are to advance understanding of 1) the nature and mechanisms leading to sediment

  1. Theoretical Model of Acoustic Wave Propagation in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozaczka Eugeniusz


    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the propagation of low frequency waves in a shallow sea. As a source of acoustic waves, underwater disturbances generated by ships were adopted. A specific feature of the propagation of acoustic waves in shallow water is the proximity of boundaries of the limiting media characterised by different impedance properties, which affects the acoustic field coming from a source situated in the water layer “deformed” by different phenomena. The acoustic field distribution in the real shallow sea is affected not only by multiple reflections, but also by stochastic changes in the free surface shape, and statistical changes in the seabed shape and impedance. The paper discusses fundamental problems of modal sound propagation in the water layer over different types of bottom sediments. The basic task in this case was to determine the acoustic pressure level as a function of distance and depth. The results of the conducted investigation can be useful in indirect determination of the type of bottom.

  2. Lithium niobate phononic crystal for surface acoustic waves (United States)

    Benchabane, S.; Khelif, A.; Rauch, J. Y.; Robert, L.; Laude, V.


    The recent theoretical and experimental demonstrations of stop bands for surface acoustic waves have greatly enlarged the potential application field for phononic crystals. The possibility of a direct excitation of these surface waves on a piezoelectric material, and their already extensive use in ultrasonics make them an interesting basis for phononic crystal based, acoustic signal processing devices. In this paper, we report on the demonstration of the existence of an absolute band gap for surface waves in a piezoelectric phononic crystal. The Surface Acoustic Wave propagation in a square lattice, two-dimensional lithium niobate phononic crystal is both theoretically and experimentally studied. A plane wave expansion method is used to predict the band gap position and width. The crystal was then fabricated by reactive ion etching of a bulk lithium niobate substrate. Standard interdigital transducers were used to characterize the phononic structure by direct electrical generation and detection of surface waves. A full band gap around 200 MHz was experimentally demonstrated, and close agreement is found with theoretical predictions.

  3. Numerical modelling of nonlinear full-wave acoustic propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Segura, Roberto, E-mail:; Rendón, Pablo L., E-mail: [Grupo de Acústica y Vibraciones, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-186, C.P. 04510, México D.F., México (Mexico)


    The various model equations of nonlinear acoustics are arrived at by making assumptions which permit the observation of the interaction with propagation of either single or joint effects. We present here a form of the conservation equations of fluid dynamics which are deduced using slightly less restrictive hypothesis than those necessary to obtain the well known Westervelt equation. This formulation accounts for full wave diffraction, nonlinearity, and thermoviscous dissipative effects. A two-dimensional, finite-volume method using Roe’s linearisation has been implemented to obtain numerically the solution of the proposed equations. This code, which has been written for parallel execution on a GPU, can be used to describe moderate nonlinear phenomena, at low Mach numbers, in domains as large as 100 wave lengths. Applications range from models of diagnostic and therapeutic HIFU, to parametric acoustic arrays and nonlinear propagation in acoustic waveguides. Examples related to these applications are shown and discussed.

  4. Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas...

  5. Ion Acoustic Waves in the Presence of Langmuir Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans


    The dielectric function for long-wavelength, low-frequency ion acoustic waves in the presence of short-wavelength, high-frequency electron oscillations is presented, where the ions are described by the collision-free Vlasov equation. The effect of the electron oscillations can be appropriately de...

  6. Modelling of bulk acoustic wave resonators for microwave filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Jansman, Andreas


    Modelling and development of high Q thin-film bulk acoustic wave (BAW) devices is a topic of research gaining attention due to good selectivity and steep transition band offered by these devices used for cellular applications. A preliminary survey of various modeling approaches of these devices and

  7. A frequency selective acoustic transducer for directional Lamb wave sensing. (United States)

    Senesi, Matteo; Ruzzene, Massimo


    A frequency selective acoustic transducer (FSAT) is proposed for directional sensing of guided waves. The considered FSAT design is characterized by a spiral configuration in wavenumber domain, which leads to a spatial arrangement of the sensing material producing output signals whose dominant frequency component is uniquely associated with the direction of incoming waves. The resulting spiral FSAT can be employed both for directional sensing and generation of guided waves, without relying on phasing and control of a large number of channels. The analytical expression of the shape of the spiral FSAT is obtained through the theoretical formulation for continuously distributed active material as part of a shaped piezoelectric device. Testing is performed by forming a discrete array through the points of the measurement grid of a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. The discrete array approximates the continuous spiral FSAT geometry, and provides the flexibility to test several configurations. The experimental results demonstrate the strong frequency dependent directionality of the spiral FSAT and suggest its application for frequency selective acoustic sensors, to be employed for the localization of broadband acoustic events, or for the directional generation of Lamb waves for active interrogation of structural health. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  8. Reflector stack optimization for Bulk Acoustic Wave resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, Sumy


    Thin-film bulk-acoustic-wave (BAW) devices are used for RF selectivity in mobile communication system and other wireless applications. Currently, the conventional RF filters are getting replaced by BAW filters in all major cell phone standards. In this thesis, we study solidly mounted BAW resonators

  9. Quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in weak relativistic plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A linear dispersion relation is also obtained taking into account the relativistic effect. The properties of quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves, obtained from the deformed KdV equation, are studied taking into account the quantum mechanical effects in the weak relativistic limit. It is found that relativistic effects significantly ...

  10. Acoustic wave propagation in layered spherical structures (United States)

    Yun-Tuan, Fang; Ting-Gen, Shen; Xilin, Tan


    Radiation from acoustic sources located inside quasi-periodically layered structures is studied using the transfer matrix method. In contrast to the periodically layered cases the transmission in the quasi-periodic systems has different band structures and decreases more slowly with the number of layers than in the periodic systems. The transmission periodically changes with the variation of media thickness in both types of systems, which may be useful in designing phonic devices. (

  11. Acoustic precursor wave propagation in viscoelastic media. (United States)

    Zhu, Guangran Kevin; Mojahedi, Mohammad; Sarris, Costas D


    Precursor field theory has been developed to describe the dynamics of electromagnetic field evolution in causally attenuative and dispersive media. In Debye dielectrics, the so-called Brillouin precursor exhibits an algebraic attenuation rate that makes it an ideal pulse waveform for communication, sensing, and imaging applications. Inspired by these studies in the electromagnetic domain, the present paper explores the propagation of acoustic precursors in dispersive media, with emphasis on biological media. To this end, a recently proposed causal dispersive model is employed, based on its interpretation as the acoustic counterpart of the Cole¿Cole model for dielectrics. The model stems from the fractional stress¿strain relation, which is consistent with the empirically known frequency power-law attenuation in viscoelastic media. It is shown that viscoelastic media described by this model, including human blood, support the formation and propagation of Brillouin precursors. The amplitude of these precursors exhibits a sub-exponential attenuation rate as a function of distance, actually being proportional to z(-p), where z is the distance traveled within the medium and 0.5

    acoustic-pulse-based communication and imaging systems.

  12. Acoustic Monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Chayes, D. N.


    Introduction The monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap is important economically, tactically, and strategically. In the scenario of ice cap retreat, new paths of commerce open, e.g. waterways from Northern Europe to the Far East. Where ship-going commerce is conducted, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard have always stood guard and been prepared to assist from acts of nature and of man. It is imperative that in addition to measuring the ice from satellites, e.g. Icesat, that we have an ability to measure the ice extent, its thickness, and roughness. These parameters play an important part in the modeling of the ice and the processes that control its growth or shrinking and its thickness. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first subsystem is an acoustic source, the second is an array of geophones and the third is a system to supply energy and transmit the results back to the analysis laboratory. The subsystems are described below. We conclude with a plan on how to tackle this project and the payoff to the ice cap modeler and hence the users, i.e. commerce and defense. System Two historically tested methods to generate a large amplitude multi-frequency sound source include explosives and air guns. A new method developed and tested by the University of Texas, ARL is a combustive Sound Source [Wilson, et al., 1995]. The combustive sound source is a submerged combustion chamber that is filled with the byproducts of the electrolysis of sea water, i.e. Hydrogen and Oxygen, an explosive mixture which is ignited via a spark. Thus, no additional compressors, gases, or explosives need to be transported to the Arctic to generate an acoustic pulse capable of the sediment and the ice. The second subsystem would be geophones capable of listening in the O(10 Hz) range and transmitting that data back to the laboratory. Thus two single arrays of geophones arranged orthogonal to each other with a range of 1000's of kilometers and a combustive sound source where the two

  13. Theory of Guided Acoustic Waves in Piezoelectric Solids. (United States)


    LABORATORY LEYE * THEORY OF GUIDED ACOUSTIC 0 WAVES IN PIEZOELECTRIC SOLIDS SUPRIYO DATTA 1I 717 I APPROVED FOR PUBLIC NLEASE. DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITD...Waves Line Acnus tic Waves Transducers and Reflectors 20 az. ACT -der’u, or’’’rqsJ !r~o~a , !ck rn , A non-itarative varia -;..onal cechnique...following chapters deal with a variety of interesting acous; tic field problems. Most of these results have already been published and the puroose of this

  14. Acoustic wave propagation in an axisymmetric swirling jet. (United States)

    Yu, J. C.; Mungur, P.


    An analysis has been developed to study the acoustic wave propagation in an axisymmetric swirling subsonic jet flow. The governing convected wave equation derived in the spherical coordinates includes mean shears, shear gradients and pressure gradients. The directivity patterns for various spinning and non-spinning modes due to the influence of the mean jet swirl were obtained by numerically integrating the governing wave equation. The mean flow field used in the computation was that obtained semiempirically for subsonic swirling turbulent jet and is completely specified once the degree of swirl is known. The dependence of sound directivity on jet Mach number, swirl ratio and frequency are discussed.

  15. Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors: Fabrication and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Malone, Vanessa


    We report on the development of harsh-environment surface acoustic wave sensors for wired and wireless operation. Surface acoustic wave devices with an interdigitated transducer emitter and multiple reflectors were fabricated on langasite substrates. Both wired and wireless temperature sensing was demonstrated using radar-mode (pulse) detection. Temperature resolution of better than ±0.5°C was achieved between 200°C and 600°C. Oxygen sensing was achieved by depositing a layer of ZnO on the propagation path. Although the ZnO layer caused additional attenuation of the surface wave, oxygen sensing was accomplished at temperatures up to 700°C. The results indicate that langasite SAW devices are a potential solution for harsh-environment gas and temperature sensing.

  16. Optimization of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangqian Xu


    Full Text Available The optimization of an surface acoustic wave (SAW-based rate sensor incorporating metallic dot arrays was performed by using the approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media. The optimal sensor chip designs, including the material choice of piezoelectric crystals and metallic dots, dot thickness, and sensor operation frequency were determined theoretically. The theoretical predictions were confirmed experimentally by using the developed SAW sensor composed of differential delay line-oscillators and a metallic dot array deposited along the acoustic wave propagation path of the SAW delay lines. A significant improvement in sensor sensitivity was achieved in the case of 128° YX LiNbO3, and a thicker Au dot array, and low operation frequency were used to structure the sensor.

  17. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses: Reverberant Acoustic Testing (RAT) vs. Direct Field Acoustic Testing (DFAT) (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu


    Loudspeakers have been used for acoustic qualification of spacecraft, reflectors, solar panels, and other acoustically responsive structures for more than a decade. Limited measurements from some of the recent speaker tests used to qualify flight hardware have indicated significant spatial variation of the acoustic field within the test volume. Also structural responses have been reported to differ when similar tests were performed using reverberant chambers. To address the impact of non-uniform acoustic field on structural responses, a series of acoustic tests were performed using a flat panel and a 3-ft cylinder exposed to the field controlled by speakers and repeated in a reverberant chamber. The speaker testing was performed using multi-input-single-output (MISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control schemes with and without the test articles. In this paper the spatial variation of the acoustic field due to acoustic standing waves and their impacts on the structural responses in RAT and DFAT (both using MISO and MIMO controls for DFAT) are discussed in some detail.

  18. Ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic wave generation for acoustic charge transport in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büyükköse, S.; Vratzov, B.; van der Veen, Johan (CTIT); Santos, P.V.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard


    We demonstrate piezo-electrical generation of ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves on silicon substrates, using high-resolution UV-based nanoimprint lithography, hydrogen silsequioxane planarization, and metal lift-off. Interdigital transducers were fabricated on a ZnO layer sandwiched between

  19. Acoustic emission monitoring of the bending under tension test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Marcel; Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin; Christiansen, Peter


    Preliminary investigations have shown that acoustic emission has promising aspects as an online monitoring technique for assessment of tribological conditions during metal forming as regards to determination of the onset of galling. In the present study the acoustic emission measuring technique h...

  20. Acoustic Signature Monitoring and Management of Naval Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Graafland, F.; Hof, J. van 't


    Acoustic signatures make naval platforms susceptible to detection by threat sensors. The variable operational conditions and lifespan of a platform cause variations in the acoustic signature. To deal with these variations, a real time signature monitoring capability is being developed, with advisory

  1. Tuneable film bulk acoustic wave resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorgian, Spartak Sh; Vorobiev, Andrei K


    To handle many standards and ever increasing bandwidth requirements, large number of filters and switches are used in transceivers of modern wireless communications systems. It makes the cost, performance, form factor, and power consumption of these systems, including cellular phones, critical issues. At present, the fixed frequency filter banks based on Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBAR) are regarded as one of the most promising technologies to address performance -form factor-cost issues. Even though the FBARs improve the overall performances the complexity of these systems remains high.  Attempts are being made to exclude some of the filters by bringing the digital signal processing (including channel selection) as close to the antennas as possible. However handling the increased interference levels is unrealistic for low-cost battery operated radios. Replacing fixed frequency filter banks by one tuneable filter is the most desired and widely considered scenario. As an example, development of the softwa...

  2. A three-microphone acoustic reflection technique using transmitted acoustic waves in the airway. (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yuki; Huang, Jyongsu; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Kato, Ryo; Higashino, Mari; Shinomiya, Shohei; Kitadate, Shoko; Takahara, Yutaka; Yamaya, Atsuyo; Saito, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kojima, Koji; Oikawa, Taku; Nakagawa, Ken; Tsuchihara, Katsuma; Iguchi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Masakatsu; Mizuno, Shiro; Osanai, Kazuhiro; Toga, Hirohisa


    The acoustic reflection technique noninvasively measures airway cross-sectional area vs. distance functions and uses a wave tube with a constant cross-sectional area to separate incidental and reflected waves introduced into the mouth or nostril. The accuracy of estimated cross-sectional areas gets worse in the deeper distances due to the nature of marching algorithms, i.e., errors of the estimated areas in the closer distances accumulate to those in the further distances. Here we present a new technique of acoustic reflection from measuring transmitted acoustic waves in the airway with three microphones and without employing a wave tube. Using miniaturized microphones mounted on a catheter, we estimated reflection coefficients among the microphones and separated incidental and reflected waves. A model study showed that the estimated cross-sectional area vs. distance function was coincident with the conventional two-microphone method, and it did not change with altered cross-sectional areas at the microphone position, although the estimated cross-sectional areas are relative values to that at the microphone position. The pharyngeal cross-sectional areas including retropalatal and retroglossal regions and the closing site during sleep was visualized in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The method can be applicable to larger or smaller bronchi to evaluate the airspace and function in these localized airways.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Aini Md Ralib


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Continuous advancement in wireless technology and silicon microfabrication has fueled exciting growth in wireless products. The bulky size of discrete vibrating mechanical devices such as quartz crystals and surface acoustic wave resonators impedes the ultimate miniaturization of single-chip transceivers. Fabrication of acoustic wave resonators on silicon allows complete integration of a resonator with its accompanying circuitry.  Integration leads to enhanced performance, better functionality with reduced cost at large volume production. This paper compiles the state-of-the-art technology of silicon compatible acoustic resonators, which can be integrated with interface circuitry. Typical acoustic wave resonators are surface acoustic wave (SAW and bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators.  Performance of the resonator is measured in terms of quality factor, resonance frequency and insertion loss. Selection of appropriate piezoelectric material is significant to ensure sufficient electromechanical coupling coefficient is produced to reduce the insertion loss. The insulating passive SiO2 layer acts as a low loss material and aims to increase the quality factor and temperature stability of the design. The integration technique also is influenced by the fabrication process and packaging.  Packageless structure using AlN as the additional isolation layer is proposed to protect the SAW device from the environment for high reliability. Advancement in miniaturization technology of silicon compatible acoustic wave resonators to realize a single chip transceiver system is still needed. ABSTRAK: Kemajuan yang berterusan dalam teknologi tanpa wayar dan silikon telah menguatkan pertumbuhan yang menarik dalam produk tanpa wayar. Saiz yang besar bagi peralatan mekanikal bergetar seperti kristal kuarza menghalang pengecilan untuk merealisasikan peranti cip. Silikon serasi  gelombang akustik resonator mempunyai potensi yang besar untuk menggantikan unsur

  4. Investigation into the Effect of Acoustic Radiation Force and Acoustic Streaming on Particle Patterning in Acoustic Standing Wave Fields (United States)

    Yang, Yanye; Ni, Zhengyang; Guo, Xiasheng; Luo, Linjiao; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong


    Acoustic standing waves have been widely used in trapping, patterning, and manipulating particles, whereas one barrier remains: the lack of understanding of force conditions on particles which mainly include acoustic radiation force (ARF) and acoustic streaming (AS). In this paper, force conditions on micrometer size polystyrene microspheres in acoustic standing wave fields were investigated. The COMSOL® Mutiphysics particle tracing module was used to numerically simulate force conditions on various particles as a function of time. The velocity of particle movement was experimentally measured using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Through experimental and numerical simulation, the functions of ARF and AS in trapping and patterning were analyzed. It is shown that ARF is dominant in trapping and patterning large particles while the impact of AS increases rapidly with decreasing particle size. The combination of using both ARF and AS for medium size particles can obtain different patterns with only using ARF. Findings of the present study will aid the design of acoustic-driven microfluidic devices to increase the diversity of particle patterning. PMID:28753955

  5. Investigation into the Effect of Acoustic Radiation Force and Acoustic Streaming on Particle Patterning in Acoustic Standing Wave Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilei Liu


    Full Text Available Acoustic standing waves have been widely used in trapping, patterning, and manipulating particles, whereas one barrier remains: the lack of understanding of force conditions on particles which mainly include acoustic radiation force (ARF and acoustic streaming (AS. In this paper, force conditions on micrometer size polystyrene microspheres in acoustic standing wave fields were investigated. The COMSOL® Mutiphysics particle tracing module was used to numerically simulate force conditions on various particles as a function of time. The velocity of particle movement was experimentally measured using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV. Through experimental and numerical simulation, the functions of ARF and AS in trapping and patterning were analyzed. It is shown that ARF is dominant in trapping and patterning large particles while the impact of AS increases rapidly with decreasing particle size. The combination of using both ARF and AS for medium size particles can obtain different patterns with only using ARF. Findings of the present study will aid the design of acoustic-driven microfluidic devices to increase the diversity of particle patterning.

  6. Acoustic solitons: A robust tool to investigate the generation and detection of ultrafast acoustic waves (United States)

    Péronne, Emmanuel; Chuecos, Nicolas; Thevenard, Laura; Perrin, Bernard


    Solitons are self-preserving traveling waves of great interest in nonlinear physics but hard to observe experimentally. In this report an experimental setup is designed to observe and characterize acoustic solitons in a GaAs(001) substrate. It is based on careful temperature control of the sample and an interferometric detection scheme. Ultrashort acoustic solitons, such as the one predicted by the Korteweg-de Vries equation, are observed and fully characterized. Their particlelike nature is clearly evidenced and their unique properties are thoroughly checked. The spatial averaging of the soliton wave front is shown to account for the differences between the theoretical and experimental soliton profile. It appears that ultrafast acoustic experiments provide a precise measurement of the soliton velocity. It allows for absolute calibration of the setup as well as the response function analysis of the detection layer. Moreover, the temporal distribution of the solitons is also analyzed with the help of the inverse scattering method. It shows how the initial acoustic pulse profile which gives birth to solitons after nonlinear propagation can be retrieved. Such investigations provide a new tool to probe transient properties of highly excited matter through the study of the emitted acoustic pulse after laser excitation.

  7. Superresolution through the topological shaping of sound with an acoustic vortex wave antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Guild, Matthew D; Martin, Theodore P; Rohde, Charles A; Orris, Gregory J


    In this paper, we demonstrate far-field acoustic superresolution using shaped acoustic vortices. Compared with previously proposed near-field methods of acoustic superresolution, in this work we describe how far-field superresolution can be obtained using an acoustic vortex wave antenna. This is accomplished by leveraging the recent advances in optical vortices in conjunction with the topological diversity of a leaky wave antenna design. In particular, the use of an acoustic vortex wave antenna eliminates the need for a complicated phased array consisting of multiple active elements, and enables a superresolving aperture to be achieved with a single simple acoustic source and total aperture size less than a wavelength in diameter. A theoretical formulation is presented for the design of an acoustic vortex wave antenna with arbitrary planar arrangement, and explicit expressions are developed for the radiated acoustic pressure field. This geometric versatility enables variously-shaped acoustic vortex patterns t...

  8. Acoustic myography: a noninvasive monitor of motor unit fatigue. (United States)

    Barry, D T; Geiringer, S R; Ball, R D


    Acoustic myography is the recording of sounds produced by contracting muscle. These sounds become louder with increasing force of contraction. We have compared muscle sounds with surface EMG to monitor the dissociation of electrical from mechanical events (presumably, the loss of excitation-contraction coupling) which occur with motor unit fatigue. Acoustic signals were amplified using a standard phonocardiograph, recorded on FM magnetic tape, and digitally analyzed. Muscles were examined at rest, with intermittent contractions, and with sustained contractions. We found that with fatigue, the acoustic amplitude decayed, but the surface EMG amplitude did not. With decreased effort, however, the acoustic and the surface EMG amplitudes declined simultaneously. By simultaneously recording acoustic signals and needle EMG, individual motor units were resolved acoustically in two muscles with decreased numbers of motor units and increased motor unit size. Fasciculations also produced acoustic signals, although no acoustic signal has yet been found that correlates with fibrillations. Analysis of acoustic signals from muscle provides a noninvasive method for monitoring motor unit fatigue in vivo. It may also be useful in distinguishing muscle fatigue from decreased volition.

  9. Study on Acoustic Catheter of Boiler Tube Leakage Monitoring Systems (United States)

    Lv, Yongxing; Feng, Qiang

    Boiler tube leakage is the major reason of affecting the safe operation of the unit now, there are 3 methods of the "four tube" leakage detection: Traditional method, filtering method and acoustic spectrum analysis, acoustic spectrum analysis is the common method, but this method have low sensitivity and the sensor damage easily. Therewith, designed the special acoustic catheter with acoustic resonance cavity type, proved by experiments, the acoustic catheter with acoustic resonance cavity type can enhance leakage sound, can accurately extract leakage signals, has high sensitivity, and can avoid the effect of sensor by fire and hot-gas when the furnace is in positive pressure situation, reduce the installation and maintenance costs of the boiler tube leakage monitor system.

  10. Acoustic Guided Wave Testing of Pipes of Small Diameters (United States)

    Muravev, V. V.; Muraveva, O. V.; Strizhak, V. A.; Myshkin, Y. V.


    Acoustic path is analyzed and main parameters of guided wave testing are substanti- ated applied to pipes of small diameters. The method is implemented using longitudinal L(0,1) and torsional T(0,1) waves based on electromagnetic-acoustic (EMA) transducers. The method of multiple reflections (MMR) combines echo-through, amplitude-shadow and time-shadow methods. Due to the effect of coherent amplification of echo-pulses from defects the sensitivity to the defects of small sizes at the signal analysis on the far reflections is increased. An oppor- tunity of detection of both local defects (dents, corrosion damages, rolling features, pitting, cracks) and defects extended along the pipe is shown.

  11. Laser-generated acoustic wave studies on tattoo pigment (United States)

    Paterson, Lorna M.; Dickinson, Mark R.; King, Terence A.


    A Q-switched alexandrite laser (180 ns at 755 nm) was used to irradiate samples of agar embedded with red, black and green tattoo dyes. The acoustic waves generated in the samples were detected using a PVDF membrane hydrophone and compared to theoretical expectations. The laser pulses were found to generate acoustic waves in the black and green samples but not in the red pigment. Pressures of up to 1.4 MPa were produced with irradiances of up to 96 MWcm-2 which is comparable to the irradiances used to clear pigment embedded in skin. The pressure gradient generated across pigment particles was approximately 1.09 X 1010 Pam-1 giving a pressure difference of 1.09 +/- 0.17 MPa over a particle with mean diameter 100 micrometers . This is not sufficient to permanently damage skin which has a tensile strength of 7.4 MPa.

  12. The development of a surface acoustic wave strain sensor


    Donohoe, Brian


    Multi sensors networks are becoming increasingly prevalent in modern engineering applications. In multi sensor networks, wireless sensors are preferred over traditional wired methods. Sensors based upon the surface acoustic wave resonators (SAWR) are often identified as a potential candidate to act as wireless and passive strain sensors. This thesis details the design, fabrication, modelling, calibration and packaging of SAW strain sensors as a general purpose modular strain sensor. The motiv...

  13. Elastic Wave Propagation Mechanisms in Underwater Acoustic Environments (United States)


    Collis, and Robert I. Odom. Elastic parabolic equation solutions for oceanic T -wave generation and propagation from deep seismic sources. J. Acoust...navigation under Arctic ice. In Oceans , 2012, pages 1–8. IEEE, October 2012. 10.1109/ OCEANS .2012.6405005. PUBLICATIONS • Published in refereed journal...or elastic ice cover. OBJECTIVES To apply EPE solutions to scenarios that include fluid-elastic boundaries, either at the ocean floor, or at the

  14. Wireless Passive Strain Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nomura


    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW devices offer many attractive features for applications as chemical and physical sensors. In this paper, a novel SAW strain sensor that employs SAW delay lines has been designed. Two crossed delay lines were used to measure the two-dimensional strain. A wireless sensing system is also proposed for effective operation of the strain sensor. In addition, an electronic system for accurately measuring the phase characteristics of the signal wave from the passive strain sensor is proposed.

  15. Investigation of Ion Acoustic Waves in Collisionless Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, G. B.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul


    The Green's functions for the linearized ion Vlasov equation with a given boundary value are derived. The propagation properties of ion acoustic waves are calculated by performing convolution integrals over the Green's functions. For Te/Ti less than about 3 it is concluded that the collective...... interaction is very weak and that the propagation properties are determined almost completely by freely streaming ions. The wave damping, being due to phase mixing, is determined by the width of the perturbed distribution function rather than by the slope of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase...

  16. Wave propagation in one-dimensional nonlinear acoustic metamaterials (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Wen, Jihong; Bonello, Bernard; Yin, Jianfei; Yu, Dianlong


    The propagation of waves in nonlinear acoustic metamaterial (NAM) is fundamentally different from that in conventional linear ones. In this article we consider two one-dimensional (1D) NAM systems featuring respectively a diatomic and a tetratomic meta unit-cell. We investigate the attenuation of waves, band structures, and bifurcations to demonstrate novel nonlinear effects, which can significantly expand the bandwidth for elastic wave suppression and cause nonlinear wave phenomena. The harmonic averaging approach, continuation algorithm, and Lyapunov exponents (LEs) are combined to study the frequency responses, nonlinear modes, bifurcations of periodic solutions, and chaos. The nonlinear resonances are studied, and the influence of damping on hyperchaotic attractors is evaluated. Moreover, a ‘quantum’ behavior is found between the low-energy and high-energy orbits. This work provides a theoretical base for furthering understandings and applications of NAMs.

  17. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.


    For several decades large reverberant chambers and most recently direct field acoustic testing have been used in the aerospace industry to test larger structures with low surface densities such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify them and to detect faults in the design and fabrication. It has been reported that in reverberant chamber and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes may strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware (Reference 1). In this paper results from a recent reverberant chamber acoustic test of a composite reflector are discussed. These results provide further convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave and structural modes coupling phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to alert test organizations to this phenomenon so that they can account for the potential increase in structural responses and ensure that flight hardware undergoes safe testing. An understanding of the coupling phenomenon may also help minimize the over and/or under testing that could pose un-anticipated structural and flight qualification issues.

  18. Generation of ion-acoustic waves in an inductively coupled, low-pressure discharge lamp (United States)

    Camparo, J. C.; Klimcak, C. M.


    For a number of years it has been known that the alkali rf-discharge lamps used in atomic clocks can exhibit large amplitude intensity oscillations. These oscillations arise from ion-acoustic plasma waves and have typically been associated with erratic clock behavior. Though large amplitude ion-acoustic plasma waves are clearly deleterious for atomic clock operation, it does not follow that small amplitude oscillations have no utility. Here, we demonstrate two easily implemented methods for generating small amplitude ion-acoustic plasma waves in alkali rf-discharge lamps. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the frequency of these waves is proportional to the square root of the rf power driving the lamp and therefore that their examination can provide an easily accessible parameter for monitoring and controlling the lamp's plasma conditions. This has important consequences for precise timekeeping, since the atomic ground-state hyperfine transition, which is the heart of the atomic clock signal, can be significantly perturbed by changes in the lamp's output via the ac-Stark shift.

  19. Acoustic waves in tilted fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications (United States)

    Marques, Carlos A. F.; Alberto, Nélia J.; Domingues, Fátima; Leitão, Cátia; Antunes, Paulo; Pinto, João. L.; André, Paulo


    Tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) are one of the most attractive kind of optical fiber sensor technology due to their intrinsic properties. On the other hand, the acousto-optic effect is an important, fast and accurate mechanism that can be used to change and control several properties of fiber gratings in silica and polymer optical fiber. Several all-optical devices for optical communications and sensing have been successfully designed and constructed using this effect. In this work, we present the recent results regarding the production of optical sensors, through the acousto-optic effect in TFBGs. The cladding and core modes amplitude of a TFBG can be controlled by means of the power levels from acoustic wave source. Also, the cladding modes of a TFBG can be coupled back to the core mode by launching acoustic waves. Induced bands are created on the left side of the original Bragg wavelength due to phase matching to be satisfied. The refractive index (RI) is analyzed in detail when acoustic waves are turned on using saccharose solutions with different RI from 1.33 to 1.43.

  20. Guided wave opto-acoustic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Rakich, Peter Thomas; Camacho, Ryan; Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan Albert; Qiu, Wenjun; Wang, Zheng


    The various technologies presented herein relate to various hybrid phononic-photonic waveguide structures that can exhibit nonlinear behavior associated with traveling-wave forward stimulated Brillouin scattering (forward-SBS). The various structures can simultaneously guide photons and phonons in a suspended membrane. By utilizing a suspended membrane, a substrate pathway can be eliminated for loss of phonons that suppresses SBS in conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides. Consequently, forward-SBS nonlinear susceptibilities are achievable at about 3000 times greater than achievable with a conventional waveguide system. Owing to the strong phonon-photon coupling achievable with the various embodiments, potential application for the various embodiments presented herein cover a range of radiofrequency (RF) and photonic signal processing applications. Further, the various embodiments presented herein are applicable to applications operating over a wide bandwidth, e.g. 100 MHz to 50 GHz or more.

  1. Surface acoustic wave devices as passive buried sensors (United States)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Rétornaz, T.; Alzuaga, S.; Baron, T.; Martin, G.; Laroche, T.; Ballandras, S.; Griselin, M.; Simonnet, J.-P.


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are currently used as passive remote-controlled sensors for measuring various physical quantities through a wireless link. Among the two main classes of designs—resonator and delay line—the former has the advantage of providing narrow-band spectrum informations and hence appears compatible with an interrogation strategy complying with Industry-Scientific-Medical regulations in radio-frequency (rf) bands centered around 434, 866, or 915 MHz. Delay-line based sensors require larger bandwidths as they consists of a few interdigitated electrodes excited by short rf pulses with large instantaneous energy and short response delays but is compatible with existing equipment such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). We here demonstrate the measurement of temperature using the two configurations, particularly for long term monitoring using sensors buried in soil. Although we have demonstrated long term stability and robustness of packaged resonators and signal to noise ratio compatible with the expected application, the interrogation range (maximum 80 cm) is insufficient for most geology or geophysical purposes. We then focus on the use of delay lines, as the corresponding interrogation method is similar to the one used by GPR which allows for rf penetration distances ranging from a few meters to tens of meters and which operates in the lower rf range, depending on soil water content, permittivity, and conductivity. Assuming propagation losses in a pure dielectric medium with negligible conductivity (snow or ice), an interrogation distance of about 40 m is predicted, which overcomes the observed limits met when using interrogation methods specifically developed for wireless SAW sensors, and could partly comply with the above-mentioned applications. Although quite optimistic, this estimate is consistent with the signal to noise ratio observed during an experimental demonstration of the interrogation of a delay line buried at a depth of 5

  2. Big Bend National Park: Acoustical Monitoring 2010 (United States)


    During the summer of 2010 (September October 2010), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Big Bend National Park (BIBE) at four sites deployed for approximately 30 days each. The baseline data collected during this period will he...

  3. Wright Brothers National Memorial : acoustical monitoring 2011 (United States)


    During the winter of 2011(September - November) baseline acoustical data were collected at Wright Brothers National Memorial (WRBR) at two sites deployed for approximately 30 days each. The baseline data collected during these periods will help park ...

  4. Influence of surface acoustic waves induced acoustic streaming on the kinetics of electrochemical reactions (United States)

    Tietze, Sabrina; Schlemmer, Josefine; Lindner, Gerhard


    The kinetics of electrochemical reactions is controlled by diffusion processes of charge carriers across a boundary layer between the electrode and the electrolyte, which result in a shielding of the electric field inside the electrolyte and a concentration gradient across this boundary layer. In accumulators the diffusion rate determines the rather long time needed for charging, which is a major drawback for electric mobility. This diffusion boundary can be removed by acoustic streaming in the electrolyte induced by surface acoustic waves propagating of the electrode, which results in an increase of the charging current and thus in a reduction of the time needed for charging. For a quantitative study of the influence of acoustic streaming on the charge transport an electropolishing cell with vertically oriented copper electrodes and diluted H3PO4-Propanol electrolytes were used. Lamb waves with various excitation frequencies were exited on the anode with different piezoelectric transducers, which induced acoustic streaming in the overlaying electrolytic liquid. An increase of the polishing current of up to approximately 100 % has been obtained with such a set-up.

  5. Flow velocity measurement with the nonlinear acoustic wave scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didenkulov, Igor, E-mail: [Institute of Applied Physics, 46 Ulyanov str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin ave., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Pronchatov-Rubtsov, Nikolay, E-mail: [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin ave., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation)


    A problem of noninvasive measurement of liquid flow velocity arises in many practical applications. To this end the most often approach is the use of the linear Doppler technique. The Doppler frequency shift of signal scattered from the inhomogeneities distributed in a liquid relatively to the emitted frequency is proportional to the sound frequency and velocities of inhomogeneities. In the case of very slow flow one needs to use very high frequency sound. This approach fails in media with strong sound attenuation because acoustic wave attenuation increases with frequency and there is limit in increasing sound intensity, i.e. the cavitation threshold. Another approach which is considered in this paper is based on the method using the difference frequency Doppler Effect for flows with bubbles. This method is based on simultaneous action of two high-frequency primary acoustic waves with closed frequencies on bubbles and registration of the scattered by bubbles acoustic field at the difference frequency. The use of this method is interesting since the scattered difference frequency wave has much lower attenuation in a liquid. The theoretical consideration of the method is given in the paper. The experimental examples confirming the theoretical equations, as well as the ability of the method to be applied in medical diagnostics and in technical applications on measurement of flow velocities in liquids with strong sound attenuation is described. It is shown that the Doppler spectrum form depends on bubble concentration velocity distribution in the primary acoustic beams crossing zone that allows one to measure the flow velocity distribution.

  6. Microscale anechoic architecture: acoustic diffusers for ultra low power microparticle separation via traveling surface acoustic waves. (United States)

    Behrens, Jan; Langelier, Sean; Rezk, Amgad R; Lindner, Gerhard; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R


    We present a versatile and very low-power traveling SAW microfluidic sorting device able to displace and separate particles of different diameter in aqueous suspension; the travelling wave propagates through the fluid bulk and diffuses via a Schröder diffuser, adapted from its typical use in concert hall acoustics to be the smallest such diffuser to be suitable for microfluidics. The effective operating power range is two to three orders of magnitude less than current SAW devices, uniquely eliminating the need for amplifiers, and by using traveling waves to impart forces directly upon suspended microparticles, they can be separated by size.

  7. Langasite surface acoustic wave gas sensors: modeling and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Zheng,; Greve, D. W.; Oppenheim, I. J.


    We report finite element simulations of the effect of conductive sensing layers on the surface wave velocity of langasite substrates. The simulations include both the mechanical and electrical influences of the conducting sensing layer. We show that three-dimensional simulations are necessary because of the out-of-plane displacements of the commonly used (0, 138.5, 26.7) Euler angle. Measurements of the transducer input admittance in reflective delay-line devices yield a value for the electromechanical coupling coefficient that is in good agreement with the three-dimensional simulations on bare langasite substrate. The input admittance measurements also show evidence of excitation of an additional wave mode and excess loss due to the finger resistance. The results of these simulations and measurements will be useful in the design of surface acoustic wave gas sensors.

  8. Asymmetric wave transmission in a diatomic acoustic/elastic metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bing; Tan, K. T., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3903 (United States)


    Asymmetric acoustic/elastic wave transmission has recently been realized using nonlinearity, wave diffraction, or bias effects, but always at the cost of frequency distortion, direction shift, large volumes, or external energy. Based on the self-coupling of dual resonators, we propose a linear diatomic metamaterial, consisting of several small-sized unit cells, to realize large asymmetric wave transmission in low frequency domain (below 1 kHz). The asymmetric transmission mechanism is theoretically investigated, and numerically verified by both mass-spring and continuum models. This passive system does not require any frequency conversion or external energy, and the asymmetric transmission band can be theoretically predicted and mathematically controlled, which extends the design concept of unidirectional transmission devices.

  9. Geodesic acoustic modes excited by finite beta drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil Kumar; Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.


    Presented in this paper is a mode-coupling analysis for the nonlinear excitation of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamak plasmas by finite beta drift waves. The finite beta effects give rise to a strong stabilizing influence on the parametric excitation process. The dominant finite beta...... effect is the combination of the Maxwell stress, which has a tendency to cancel the primary drive from the Reynolds stress, and the finite beta modification of the drift waves. The zonal magnetic field is also excited at the GAM frequency. However, it does not contribute to the overall stability...... of the three-wave process for parameters of relevance to the edge region of tokamaks....

  10. Ion acoustic solitary waves in magneto-rotating plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A, E-mail: [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)


    Propagation of an ion acoustic wave (IAW) in a magnetized electron-ion plasma, which is rotating around an axis at an angle {theta} with the direction of magnetic field, is studied by incorporating the effects of trapped and untrapped electron distributions. Employing the perturbation scheme, Korteweg-deVries and Schamel's modified KdV equations are derived for the small angle {theta} which may support the nonlinear IAW on a slow time scale of ion motion. The amplitude and width of the solitary wave in both cases (trapped and untrapped electrons) have been discussed with the effects of oblique rotation and external magnetic field. It is shown that the nonlinear effects considerably influence the propagation of waves in rotating plasmas.

  11. Harmonic Wave Generated by Contact Acoustic Nonlinearity in Obliquely Incident Ultrasonic Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Dong Seok; Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, Chung Seok; Jhang, Kyung Young [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of this study is to image the harmonic wave generated by contact acoustic nonlinearity in obliquely incident ultrasonic wave for early detection of closed cracks. A closed crack has been simulated by contacting two aluminum block specimens producing solid-solid contact interfaces and then acoustic nonlinearity has been imaged with contact pressure. Sampling phased array(SPA) and synthetic aperture focusing technique(SAFT) are used for imaging techniques. The amplitude of the fundamental frequency decreased with applying pressure. But, the amplitude of second harmonic increased with pressure and was a maximum amplitude at the simulation point of closed crack. Then, the amplitude of second harmonic decreased. As a result, harmonic imaging of contact acoustic nonlinearity is possible and it is expected to be apply for early detection of initial cracks.

  12. Surface Modification on Acoustic Wave Biosensors for Enhanced Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D. Gallant


    Full Text Available Changes in mass loading on the surface of acoustic biosensors result in output frequency shifts which provide precise measurements of analytes. Therefore, to detect a particular biomarker, the sensor delay path must be judiciously designed to maximize sensitivity and specificity. B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (Bcl-2 found in urine is under investigation as a biomarker for non-invasive early detection of ovarian cancer. In this study, surface chemistry and biofunctionalization approaches were evaluated for their effectiveness in presenting antibodies for Bcl-2 capture while minimizing non-specific protein adsorption. The optimal combination of sequentially adsorbing protein A/G, anti-Bcl-2 IgG and Pluronic F127 onto a hydrophobic surface provided the greatest signal-to-noise ratio and enabled the reliable detection of Bcl-2 concentrations below that previously identified for early stage ovarian cancer as characterized by a modified ELISA method. Finally, the optimal surface modification was applied to a prototype acoustic device and the frequency shift for a range of Bcl-2 concentration was quantified to demonstrate the effectiveness in surface acoustic wave (SAW-based detection applications. The surface functionalization approaches demonstrated here to specifically and sensitively detect Bcl-2 in a working ultrasonic MEMS biosensor prototype can easily be modified to detect additional biomarkers and enhance other acoustic biosensors.

  13. Passive acoustic monitoring of bed load for fluvial applications (United States)

    The sediment transported as bed load in streams and rivers is notoriously difficult to monitor cheaply and accurately. Passive acoustic methods are relatively simple, inexpensive, and provide spatial integration along with high temporal resolution. In 1963 work began on monitoring emissions from par...

  14. Visualization of stress wave propagation via air-coupled acoustic emission sensors (United States)

    Rivey, Joshua C.; Lee, Gil-Yong; Yang, Jinkyu; Kim, Youngkey; Kim, Sungchan


    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of visualizing stress waves propagating in plates using air-coupled acoustic emission sensors. Specifically, we employ a device that embeds arrays of microphones around an optical lens in a helical pattern. By implementing a beamforming technique, this remote sensing system allows us to record wave propagation events in situ via a single-shot and full-field measurement. This is a significant improvement over the conventional wave propagation tracking approaches based on laser doppler vibrometry or digital image correlation techniques. In this paper, we focus on demonstrating the feasibility and efficacy of this air-coupled acoustic emission technique by using large metallic plates exposed to external impacts. The visualization results of stress wave propagation will be shown under various impact scenarios. The proposed technique can be used to characterize and localize damage by detecting the attenuation, reflection, and scattering of stress waves that occurs at damage locations. This can ultimately lead to the development of new structural health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation methods for identifying hidden cracks or delaminations in metallic or composite plate structures, simultaneously negating the need for mounted contact sensors.

  15. Examination of nanosecond laser melting thresholds in refractory metals by shear wave acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdullaev


    Full Text Available Nanosecond laser pulse-induced melting thresholds in refractory (Nb, Mo, Ta and W metals are measured using detected laser-generated acoustic shear waves. Obtained melting threshold values were found to be scaled with corresponding melting point temperatures of investigated materials displaying dissimilar shearing behavior. The experiments were conducted with motorized control of the incident laser pulse energies with small and uniform energy increments to reach high measurement accuracy and real-time monitoring of the epicentral acoustic waveforms from the opposite side of irradiated sample plates. Measured results were found to be in good agreement with numerical finite element model solving coupled elastodynamic and thermal conduction governing equations on structured quadrilateral mesh. Solid-melt phase transition was handled by means of apparent heat capacity method. The onset of melting was attributed to vanished shear modulus and rapid radial molten pool propagation within laser-heated metal leading to preferential generation of transverse acoustic waves from sources surrounding the molten mass resulting in the delay of shear wave transit times. Developed laser-based technique aims for applications involving remote examination of rapid melting processes of materials present in harsh environment (e.g. spent nuclear fuels with high spatio-temporal resolution.

  16. High-sensitivity open-loop electronics for gravimetric acoustic-wave-based sensors. (United States)

    Rabus, David; Friedt, Jean-Michel; Ballandras, Sylvain; Martin, Gilles; Carry, Emile; Blondeau-Patissier, Virginie


    Detecting chemical species in gas phase has recently received an increasing interest mainly for security control, trying to implement new systems allowing for extended dynamics and reactivity. In this work, an open-loop interrogation strategy is proposed to use radio-frequency acoustic transducers as micro-balances for that purpose. The resulting system is dedicated to the monitoring of chemical compounds in gaseous or liquid-phase state. A 16 Hz standard deviation is demonstrated at 125 MHz, with a working frequency band in the 60 to 133 MHz range, answering the requirements for using Rayleigh- and Love-wave-based delay lines operating with 40-μm acoustic wavelength transducers. Moreover, this electronic setup was used to interrogate a high-overtone bulk acoustic wave resonator (HBAR) microbalance, a new sensor class allowing for multi-mode interrogation for gravimetric measurement improvement. The noise source still limiting the system performance is due to the analog-to-digital converter of the microcontroller, thus leaving open degrees-of-freedom for improving the obtained results by optimizing the voltage reference and board layout. The operation of the system is illustrated using a calibrated galvanic deposition at the surface of Love-wave delay lines to assess theoretical predictions of their gravimetric sensitivity and to compare them with HBAR-based sensor sensitivity.

  17. Examination of nanosecond laser melting thresholds in refractory metals by shear wave acoustics (United States)

    Abdullaev, A.; Muminov, B.; Rakhymzhanov, A.; Mynbayev, N.; Utegulov, Z. N.


    Nanosecond laser pulse-induced melting thresholds in refractory (Nb, Mo, Ta and W) metals are measured using detected laser-generated acoustic shear waves. Obtained melting threshold values were found to be scaled with corresponding melting point temperatures of investigated materials displaying dissimilar shearing behavior. The experiments were conducted with motorized control of the incident laser pulse energies with small and uniform energy increments to reach high measurement accuracy and real-time monitoring of the epicentral acoustic waveforms from the opposite side of irradiated sample plates. Measured results were found to be in good agreement with numerical finite element model solving coupled elastodynamic and thermal conduction governing equations on structured quadrilateral mesh. Solid-melt phase transition was handled by means of apparent heat capacity method. The onset of melting was attributed to vanished shear modulus and rapid radial molten pool propagation within laser-heated metal leading to preferential generation of transverse acoustic waves from sources surrounding the molten mass resulting in the delay of shear wave transit times. Developed laser-based technique aims for applications involving remote examination of rapid melting processes of materials present in harsh environment (e.g. spent nuclear fuels) with high spatio-temporal resolution.

  18. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak. (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien


    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves.

  19. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jun


    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning


    The Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) has been designed to record and monitor acoustic signals in high-pressure natural gas (NG) transmission lines. Of particular interest are the three acoustic signals associated with a pipeline fracture. The system is portable (less than 30 lbm) and can be used at all line pressures up to 1000 psig. The PAMP requires a shut-off valve equipped 1/2 inch NPT access port in the pipeline. It is fully functional over the typical pressure range found in the natural gas transmission pipelines in the West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio areas. With the use of the PAMP, a full spectrum of acoustic signals can be recorded and defined in terms of acoustic energy in decibels. To detect natural gas pipeline infringements and leaks, the acoustic energy generated inside the line is monitored with a sensitive pressure-equalized microphone and a step function type {Delta}p transducer. The assembly is mounted on a 1000 psig pipe fitting-tree called the PAMP. The electronics required to record, store and analyze the data are described within this report in the format of an operating manual.

  1. Passive Wireless Hydrogen Sensors Using Orthogonal Frequency Coded Acoustic Wave Devices Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hydrogen sensors for NASA application to distributed wireless hydrogen leak...

  2. Passive Wireless Hydrogen Sensors Using Orthogonal Frequency Coded Acoustic Wave Devices Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the continued development of passive orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hydrogen sensors for NASA application...

  3. Radial wave crystals: radially periodic structures from anisotropic metamaterials for engineering acoustic or electromagnetic waves. (United States)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José


    We demonstrate that metamaterials with anisotropic properties can be used to develop a new class of periodic structures that has been named radial wave crystals. They can be sonic or photonic, and wave propagation along the radial directions is obtained through Bloch states like in usual sonic or photonic crystals. The band structure of the proposed structures can be tailored in a large amount to get exciting novel wave phenomena. For example, it is shown that acoustical cavities based on radial sonic crystals can be employed as passive devices for beam forming or dynamically orientated antennas for sound localization.

  4. Lateral field excitation (LFE) of thickness shear mode (TSM) acoustic waves in thin film bulk acoustic resonators (FBAR) as a potential biosensor. (United States)

    Dickherber, Anthony; Corso, Christopher D; Hunt, William


    Lateral field excitation (LFE) of a thin film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) is an ideal platform for biomedical sensors. A thickness shear mode (TSM) acoustic wave in a piezoelectric thin film is desirable for probing liquid samples because of the poor coupling of shear waves into the liquid. The resonator becomes an effective sensor by coating the surface with a bio- or chemi-specific layer. Perturbations of the surface can be detected by monitoring the resonance condition. Furthermore, FBARs can be easily fabricated to operate at higher frequencies, yielding greater sensitivity. An array of sensors offers the possibility of redundancy, allowing for statistical decision making as well as immediate corroboration of results. Array structures also offer the possibility of signature detection, by monitoring multiple targets in a sample simultaneously. This technology has immediate application to cancer and infectious disease diagnostics and also could serve as a tool for general proteomic research.

  5. GPS-Acoustic Seafloor Geodesy using a Wave Glider (United States)

    Chadwell, C. D.


    The conventional approach to implement the GPS-Acoustic technique uses a ship or buoy for the interface between GPS and Acoustics. The high cost and limited availability of ships restricts occupations to infrequent campaign-style measurements. A new approach to address this problem uses a remote controlled, wave-powered sea surface vehicle, the Wave Glider. The Wave Glider uses sea-surface wave action for forward propulsion with both upward and downward motions producing forward thrust. It uses solar energy for power with solar panels charging the onboard 660 W-h battery for near continuous operation. It uses Iridium for communication providing command and control from shore plus status and user data via the satellite link. Given both the sea-surface wave action and solar energy are renewable, the vehicle can operate for extended periods (months) remotely. The vehicle can be launched from a small boat and can travel at ~ 1 kt to locations offshore. We have adapted a Wave Glider for seafloor geodesy by adding a dual frequency GPS receiver embedded in an Inertial Navigation Unit, a second GPS antenna/receiver to align the INU, and a high precision acoustic ranging system. We will report results of initial testing of the system conducted at SIO. In 2014, the new approach will be used for seafloor geodetic measurements of plate motion in the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The project is for a three-year effort to measure plate motion at three sites along an East-West profile at latitude 44.6 N, offshore Newport Oregon. One site will be located on the incoming plate to measure the present day convergence between the Juan de Fuca and North American plates and two additional sites will be located on the continental slope of NA to measure the elastic deformation due to stick-slip behavior on the mega-thrust fault. These new seafloor data will constrain existing models of slip behavior that presently are poorly constrained by land geodetic data 100 km from the deformation front.

  6. Modeling of a Surface Acoustic Wave Strain Sensor (United States)

    Wilson, W. C.; Atkinson, Gary M.


    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor technology for harsh environments aimed at aerospace applications. To aid in development of sensors a model of a SAW strain sensor has been developed. The new model extends the modified matrix method to include the response of Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) reflectors and the response of SAW devices to strain. These results show that the model accurately captures the strain response of a SAW sensor on a Langasite substrate. The results of the model of a SAW Strain Sensor on Langasite are presented

  7. Non-Destructive Testing of Semiconductors Using Surface Acoustic Wave. (United States)


    the wafer can be evaluated with respect to lifetime and surface gen- Aeration velocity. The results can be shown in the form of images in pseudocolor...The mportant features of the plot are: enhaced by r-o beam spectroscopy as compared to 1) n te surface conductivicy euhibits a positive one beam, by... image scanning and signal processing is presented. PACS numbers: 72.50. + b The interaction of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) with METAL COW-,CT$ * vaC

  8. Longitudinal and Transverse Instability of Ion Acoustic Waves. (United States)

    Chapman, T; Berger, R L; Cohen, B I; Banks, J W; Brunner, S


    Ion acoustic waves are found to be susceptible to at least two distinct decay processes. Which process dominates depends on the parameters. In the cases examined, the decay channel where daughter modes propagate parallel to the mother mode is found to dominate at larger amplitudes, while the decay channel where the daughter modes propagate at angles to the mother mode dominates at smaller amplitudes. Both decay processes may occur simultaneously and with onset thresholds below those suggested by fluid theory, resulting in the eventual multidimensional collapse of the mother mode to a turbulent state.

  9. Location Dependence of Mass Sensitivity for Acoustic Wave Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewei Zhang


    Full Text Available It is introduced that the mass sensitivity (Sm of an acoustic wave (AW device with a concentrated mass can be simply determined using its mode shape function: the Sm is proportional to the square of its mode shape. By using the Sm of an AW device with a uniform mass, which is known for almost all AW devices, the Sm of an AW device with a concentrated mass at different locations can be determined. The method is confirmed by numerical simulation for one type of AW device and the results from two other types of AW devices.

  10. Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li


    Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.

  11. Solar wind implication on dust ion acoustic rogue waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelghany, A. M., E-mail:; Abd El-Razek, H. N., E-mail:; El-Labany, S. K., E-mail: [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Moslem, W. M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt)


    The relevance of the solar wind with the magnetosphere of Jupiter that contains positively charged dust grains is investigated. The perturbation/excitation caused by streaming ions and electron beams from the solar wind could form different nonlinear structures such as rogue waves, depending on the dominant role of the plasma parameters. Using the reductive perturbation method, the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to modified Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and further modified (KdV) equation. Assuming that the frequency of the carrier wave is much smaller than the ion plasma frequency, these equations are transformed into nonlinear Schrödinger equations with appropriate coefficients. Rational solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation shows that rogue wave envelopes are supported by the present plasma model. It is found that the existence region of rogue waves depends on the dust-acoustic speed and the streaming temperatures for both the ions and electrons. The dependence of the maximum rogue wave envelope amplitude on the system parameters has been investigated.

  12. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.


    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  13. Mechanical Seal Opening Condition Monitoring Based on Acoustic Emission Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erqing Zhang


    Full Text Available Since the measurement of mechanical sealing film thickness and just-lift-off time is very difficult, the sealing film condition monitoring method based on acoustic emission signal is proposed. The mechanical seal acoustic emission signal present obvious characteristics of time-varying nonlinear and pulsating. In this paper, the acoustic emission signal is used to monitor the seal end faces just-lift-off time and friction condition. The acoustic emission signal is decomposed by empirical mode decomposition into a series of intrinsic mode function with independent characteristics of different time scales and different frequency band. The acoustic emission signal only generated by end faces friction is obtained by eliminating the false intrinsic mode function components. The correlation coefficient of acoustic emission signal and Multi-scale Laplace Wavelet is calculated. It is proved that the maximum frequency (8000 Hz of the correlation coefficient is appeared at the spindle speed of 300 rpm. And at this time (300 rpm the end faces have just lifted off. By a set of mechanical oil seal running test, it is demonstrated that this method could accurately identify mechanical seal end faces just-lift-off time and friction condition.

  14. A Finite Element Model of a MEMS-based Surface Acoustic Wave Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walied A. Moussa


    Full Text Available Hydrogen plays a significant role in various industrial applications, but careful handling and continuous monitoring are crucial since it is explosive when mixed with air. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensors provide desirable characteristics for hydrogen detection due to their small size, low fabrication cost, ease of integration and high sensitivity. In this paper a finite element model of a Surface Acoustic Wave sensor is developed using ANSYS12© and tested for hydrogen detection. The sensor consists of a YZ-lithium niobate substrate with interdigital electrodes (IDT patterned on the surface. A thin palladium (Pd film is added on the surface of the sensor due to its high affinity for hydrogen. With increased hydrogen absorption the palladium hydride structure undergoes a phase change due to the formation of the β-phase, which deteriorates the crystal structure. Therefore with increasing hydrogen concentration the stiffness and the density are significantly reduced. The values of the modulus of elasticity and the density at different hydrogen concentrations in palladium are utilized in the finite element model to determine the corresponding SAW sensor response. Results indicate that with increasing the hydrogen concentration the wave velocity decreases and the attenuation of the wave is reduced.

  15. A Surface Acoustic Wave Ethanol Sensor with Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Giffney


    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW sensors are a class of piezoelectric MEMS sensors which can achieve high sensitivity and excellent robustness. A surface acoustic wave ethanol sensor using ZnO nanorods has been developed and tested. Vertically oriented ZnO nanorods were produced on a ZnO/128∘ rotated Y-cut LiNbO3 layered SAW device using a solution growth method with zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetriamine, and polyethyleneimine. The nanorods have average diameter of 45 nm and height of 1 μm. The SAW device has a wavelength of 60 um and a center frequency of 66 MHz at room temperature. In testing at an operating temperature of 270∘C with an ethanol concentration of 2300 ppm, the sensor exhibited a 24 KHz frequency shift. This represents a significant improvement in comparison to an otherwise identical sensor using a ZnO thin film without nanorods, which had a frequency shift of 9 KHz.

  16. Contrast investigations of surface acoustic waves by stroboscopic topography. 1. Orientation contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerva, H.; Graeff, W.


    Surface acoustic waves are investigated by stroboscopic topography using synchrotron radiation from the storage ring DORIS. The observed contrast of the acoustic displacements of the lattice planes has the same periods as the acoustic wave. It is demonstrated that the major part of the contrast is due to orientation contrast of the curved net planes. Intensity maxima correspond to troughs of the acoustic wave, minima to crests. A numerical treatment yielding ray tracing maps, intensity curves as well as focusing conditions which are in quantitative agreement with the experimental data is presented.

  17. Controlling an acoustic wave with a cylindrically-symmetric gradient-index system (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Li, Rui-Qi; Liang, Bin; Zou, Xin-Ye; Cheng, Jian-Chun


    We present a detailed theoretical description of wave propagation in an acoustic gradient-index system with cylindrical symmetry and demonstrate its potential to numerically control acoustic waves in different ways. The trajectory of an acoustic wave within the system is derived by employing the theory of geometric acoustics, and the validity of the theoretical descriptions is verified numerically by using the finite element method simulation. The results show that by tailoring the distribution function of the refractive index, the proposed system can yield a tunable manipulation of acoustic waves, such as acoustic bending, trapping, and absorbing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2010CB327803 and 2012CB921504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174138, 11174139, 11222442, 81127901, and 11274168), NCET-12-0254, and the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China.

  18. Analytical Solution for Waves in Planets with Atmospheric Superrotation. I. Acoustic and Inertia-Gravity Waves (United States)

    Peralta, J.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.; López-Valverde, M. A.


    This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)


    This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.

  20. Acoustic waves in transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser discharges: effect on performance and reduction techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    von Bergmann, HM


    Full Text Available Results are presented on the influence of acoustic waves on the performance of high-repetition-rate TEA CO2 lasers. It is shown that acoustic waves generated inside the laser cavity lead to nonuniform discharges, resulting in a deterioration...

  1. Spectrum of the seismic-electromagnetic and acoustic waves caused by seismic and volcano activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koshevaya


    Full Text Available Modeling of the spectrum of the seismo-electromagnetic and acoustic waves, caused by seismic and volcanic activity, has been done. This spectrum includes the Electromagnetic Emission (EME, due to fracturing piezoelectrics in rocks and the Acoustic Emission (AE, caused by the excitation and the nonlinear passage of acoustic waves through the Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and the ionosphere. The investigated mechanism of the EME uses the model of fracturing and the crack motion. For its analysis, we consider a piezoelectric crystal under mechanical stresses, which cause the uniform crack motion, and, consequently, in the vicinity of the moving crack also cause non-stationary polarization currents. A possible spectrum of EME has been estimated. The underground fractures produce Very Low (VLF and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF acoustic waves, while the acoustic waves at higher frequencies present high losses and, on the Earth's surface, they are quite small and are not registered. The VLF acoustic wave is subject to nonlinearity under passage through the lithosphere that leads to the generation of higher harmonics and also frequency down-conversion, namely, increasing the ELF acoustic component on the Earth's surface. In turn, a nonlinear propagation of ELF acoustic wave in the atmosphere and the ionosphere leads to emerging the ultra low frequency (ULF acousto-gravity waves in the ionosphere and possible local excitation of plasma waves.

  2. Damping-Growth Transition for Ion-Acoustic Waves in a Density Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans


    A damping-growth transition for ion-acoustic waves propagating in a nonuniform plasma (e-folding length for the density ln) is observed at a wavelength λ∼2πln. This result supports calculations performed in connection with the problem of heating of the solar corona by ion-acoustic waves generated...

  3. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the extent of improvement brought about by the coatings depends strongly on the cutting conditions, with the greatest benefits being seen at higher cutting speeds and feed rates. Among these methods, tool condition monitoring using Acoustic Techniques (AET) is an emerging one. Hence, the present work was ...

  4. Monitoring of rapid sand filters using an acoustic imaging technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allouche, N.; Simons, D.G.; Rietveld, L.C.


    A novel instrument is developed to acoustically image sand filters used for water treatment and monitor their performance. The instrument consists of an omnidirectional transmitter that generates a chirp with a frequency range between 10 and 110 kHz, and an array of hydrophones. The instrument was

  5. Dynamic acoustics for the STAR-100. [computer algorithms for time dependent sound waves in jet (United States)

    Bayliss, A.; Turkel, E.


    An algorithm is described to compute time dependent acoustic waves in a jet. The method differs from previous methods in that no harmonic time dependence is assumed, thus permitting the study of nonharmonic acoustical behavior. Large grids are required to resolve the acoustic waves. Since the problem is nonstiff, explicit high order schemes can be used. These have been adapted to the STAR-100 with great efficiencies and permitted the efficient solution of problems which would not be feasible on a scalar machine.

  6. An acoustic wave equation for pure P wave in 2D TTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge


    In this paper, a pure P wave equation for an acoustic 2D TTI media is derived. Compared with conventional TTI coupled equations, the resulting equation is unconditionally stable due to the complete isolation of the SV wave mode. To avoid numerical dispersion and produce high quality images, the rapid expansion method REM is employed for numerical implementation. Synthetic results validate the proposed equation and show that it is a stable algorithm for modeling and reverse time migration RTM in a TTI media for any anisotropic parameter values. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  7. An Investigation of Acoustic Wave Propagation in Mach 2 Flow (United States)

    Nieberding, Zachary J.

    Hypersonic technology is the next advancement to enter the aerospace community; it is defined as the study of flight at speeds Mach 5 and higher where intense aerodynamic heating is prevalent. Hypersonic flight is achieved through use of scramjet engines, which intake air and compress it by means of shock waves and geometry design. The airflow is then directed through an isolator where it is further compressed, it is then delivered to the combustor at supersonic speeds. The combusted airflow and fuel mixture is then accelerated through a nozzle to achieve the hypersonic speeds. Unfortunately, scramjet engines can experience a phenomenon known as an inlet unstart, where the combustor produces pressures large enough to force the incoming airflow out of the inlet of the engine, resulting in a loss of acceleration and power. There have been several government-funded programs that look to prove the concept of the scramjet engine and also tackle this inlet unstart issue. The research conducted in this thesis is a fundamental approach towards controlling the unstart problem: it looks at the basic concept of sending a signal upstream through the boundary layer of a supersonic flow and being able to detect a characterizeable signal. Since conditions within and near the combustor are very harsh, hardware is unable to be installed in that area, so this testing will determine if a signal can be sent and if so, how far upstream can the signal be detected. This experimental approach utilizes several acoustic and mass injection sources to be evaluated over three test series in a Mach 2 continuous flow wind tunnel that will determine the success of the objective. The test series vary in that the conditions of the flow and the test objectives change. The research shows that a characterizeable signal can be transmitted upstream roughly 12 inches through the subsonic boundary layer of a supersonic cross flow. It is also shown that the signal attenuates as the distance between the

  8. Acoustic Wave Treatment For Cellulite—A New Approach (United States)

    Russe-Wilflingseder, Katharina; Russe, Elisabeth


    Background and Objectives: Cellulite is a biological caused modification of the female connective tissue. In extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) pulses are penetrating into the tissue without causing a thermal effect or micro lesions, but leading to a stimulation of tissue metabolism and blood circulation, inducing a natural repair process with cell activation and stem cells proliferation. Recently ESWT treatment showed evidence of remodelling collagen within the dermis and of stimulating microcirculation in fatty tissue. Study Design and Methods: The study was designed to assess acoustic wave treatment for cellulite by comparison treated vs. untreated side (upper-leg and buttock). Each individual served as its own control. 11 females with a BMI less then 30 and an age over 18 years were included. 6 treatments were given weekly with radial acoustic waves. Documentation was done before and 1, 4, 12 weeks after last treatment by standardized photo documentation, relaxed and with muscle contraction, measurement of body weight and circumference of the thigh, pinch test, and evaluation of hormonal status and lifestyle. The efficacy of AWT/EPAT was evaluated before and 1, 4, 12 weeks after last treatment. Patients rated the improvement of cellulite, overall satisfaction and acceptance. The therapist assessed improvement of cellulite, side effects and photo documentation treated vs. untreated side, before vs. after treatment. The blinded investigator evaluated the results using photo documentation right vs. left leg, before vs. after treatment in a frontal, lateral and dorsal view, relaxed and with muscle contraction. Results: The improvement of cellulite at the treated side was rated by patients with 27,3% at week 4 and 12, by the therapist with 34,1% at week 4 and 31,2% at week 12 after the last treatment The blinded investigator could verify an improvement of cellulite in an increasing number of patients with increasing time interval after treatment. No side

  9. Surface acoustic waves in acoustic superlattice lithium niobate coated with a waveguide layer (United States)

    Yang, G. Y.; Du, J. K.; Huang, B.; Jin, Y. A.; Xu, M. H.


    The effects of the waveguide layer on the band structure of Rayleigh waves are studied in this work based on a one-dimensional acoustic superlattice lithium niobate substrate coated with a waveguide layer. The present phononic structure is formed by the periodic domain-inverted single crystal that is the Z-cut lithium niobate substrate with a waveguide layer on the upper surface. The plane wave expansion method (PWE) is adopted to determine the band gap behavior of the phononic structure and validated by the finite element method (FEM). The FEM is also used to investigate the transmission of Rayleigh waves in the phononic structure with the interdigital transducers by means of the commercial package COMSOL. The results show that, although there is a homogeneous waveguide layer on the surface, the band gap of Rayleigh waves still exist. It is also found that increasing the thickness of the waveguide layer, the band width narrows and the band structure shifts to lower frequency. The present approach can be taken as an efficient tool in designing of phononic structures with waveguide layer.

  10. Intraoperative monitoring during surgery for acoustic neuroma: benefits of an extratympanic intrameatal electrode (United States)

    Mullatti, N; Coakham, H; Maw, A; Butler, S; Morgan, M


    OBJECTIVES—To assess the utility of an extratympanic intrameatal electrode for intraoperative monitoring during acoustic neuroma and other cerebellopontine angle tumour surgery and to define the neurophysiological and surgical factors which influence hearing preservation.
METHODS—Twenty two patients, 18 with acoustic neuromas and four with other cerebellopontine angle tumours, underwent intraoperative monitoring during tumour excision. The extratympanic intrameatal electrode (IME) was used to record the electrocochleogram (ECoG) and surface electrodes to record the brainstem auditory evoked response (ABR).
RESULTS—The compound action potential (CAP) of the ECoG was two and a half times greater in amplitude than wave I of the ABR and was easily monitored. Virtually instant information was available as minimal averaging was required. Continuous monitoring was possible from the commencement of anaesthesia to skin closure. The IME was easy to place, non-invasive, and did not interfere with the operative field. Operative procedures which affected CAP or wave V latency or amplitude were drilling around the internal auditory meatus, tumour dissection, nerve section, and brainstem and cerebellar retraction. Hearing was achieved in 59% of patients.
CONCLUSIONS—The IME had significant benefits in comparison with other methods of monitoring. The technique provided information beneficial to preservation of hearing.


  11. Ultrasonic phased array with surface acoustic wave for imaging cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ohara


    Full Text Available To accurately measure crack lengths, we developed a real-time surface imaging method (SAW PA combining an ultrasonic phased array (PA with a surface acoustic wave (SAW. SAW PA using a Rayleigh wave with a high sensitivity to surface defects was implemented for contact testing using a wedge with the third critical angle that allows the Rayleigh wave to be generated. Here, to realize high sensitivity imaging, SAW PA was optimized in terms of the wedge and the imaging area. The improved SAW PA was experimentally demonstrated using a fatigue crack specimen made of an aluminum alloy. For further verification in more realistic specimens, SAW PA was applied to stainless-steel specimens with a fatigue crack and stress corrosion cracks (SCCs. The fatigue crack was visualized with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and its length was measured with a high accuracy of better than 1 mm. The SCCs generated in the heat-affected zones (HAZs of a weld were successfully visualized with a satisfactory SNR, although responses at coarse grains appeared throughout the imaging area. The SCC lengths were accurately measured. The imaging results also precisely showed complicated distributions of SCCs, which were in excellent agreement with the optically observed distributions.

  12. Crack propagation analysis using acoustic emission sensors for structural health monitoring systems. (United States)

    Kral, Zachary; Horn, Walter; Steck, James


    Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN). Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems.

  13. Acoustic monitoring of a fluidized bed coating process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Veski, Peep; Pedersen, Joan G.


      The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of acoustic monitoring of a production scale fluidized bed coating process. The correlation between sensor signals and the estimated amount of film applied and percentage release, respectively, were investigated in coating potassium chloride...... (KCl) crystals with ethylcellulose (EC). Vibrations were measured with two different types of accelerometers. Different positions for placing the accelerometers and two different product containers were included in the study. Top spray coating of KCl was chosen as a ‘worst case' scenario from a coating...... point perspective. The acoustic monitoring has the potential of summarising the commonly used means to monitor the coating process. The best partial least squares (PLS) regressions, obtained by the high frequency accelerometer, showed for the release a correlation coefficient of 0.92 and a root mean...

  14. Universal instability of dust ion-sound waves and dust-acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsytovich, V.N. [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science Moscow, Moscow (Russian Federation); Watanabe, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)


    It is shown that the dust ion-sound waves (DISW) and the dust-acoustic waves (DAW) are universally unstable for wave numbers less than some critical wave number. The basic dusty plasma state is assumed to be quasi-neutral with balance of the plasma particle absorption on the dust particles and the ionization with the rate proportional to the electron density. An analytical expression for the critical wave numbers, for the frequencies and for the growth rates of DISW and DAW are found using the hydrodynamic description of dusty plasma components with self-consistent treatment of the dust charge variations and by taking into account the change of the ion and electron distributions in the dust charging process. Most of the previous treatment do not take into account the latter process and do not treat the basic state self-consistently. The critical lengths corresponding to these critical wave numbers can be easily achieved in the existing experiments. It is shown that at the wave numbers larger than the critical ones DISW and DAW have a large damping which was not treated previously and which can be also measured. The instabilities found in the present work on their non linear stage can lead to formation of different types of dust self-organized structures. (author)

  15. Generation of surface acoustic waves on doped semiconductor substrates (United States)

    Yuan, M.; Hubert, C.; Rauwerdink, S.; Tahraoui, A.; van Someren, B.; Biermann, K.; Santos, P. V.


    We report on the electrical generation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on doped semiconductor substrates. This is implemented by using interdigital transducers (IDTs) placed on piezoelectric ZnO films sputtered onto evaporated thin metal layers. Two material systems are investigated, namely ZnO/Au/GaAs and ZnO/Ni/InP. The rf-field applied to the transducer is electrically screened by the highly conductive metal film underneath the ZnO film without any extra ohmic losses. As a result, absorption of the rf-field by the mobile carriers in the lossy doped region underneath the IDT is avoided, ensuring efficient SAW generation. We find that the growth temperature of the ZnO film on the metal layer affects its structure and, thus, the efficiency of SAW generation. With this technique, the SAW active layers can be placed close to doped layers, expanding the application range of SAWs in semiconductor devices.

  16. Surface Acoustic Wave Tag-Based Coherence Multiplexing (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Saldanha, Nancy (Inventor)


    A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based coherence multiplexing system includes SAW tags each including a SAW transducer, a first SAW reflector positioned a first distance from the SAW transducer and a second SAW reflector positioned a second distance from the SAW transducer. A transceiver including a wireless transmitter has a signal source providing a source signal and circuitry for transmitting interrogation pulses including a first and a second interrogation pulse toward the SAW tags, and a wireless receiver for receiving and processing response signals from the SAW tags. The receiver receives scrambled signals including a convolution of the wideband interrogation pulses with response signals from the SAW tags and includes a computing device which implements an algorithm that correlates the interrogation pulses or the source signal before transmitting against the scrambled signals to generate tag responses for each of the SAW tags.

  17. Acoustic wave therapy for cellulite, body shaping and fat reduction. (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Silva, Aline Flor; Siega, Carolina


    Cellulite is a common aesthetic condition that affects almost every woman. To evaluate the efficacy of acoustic wave therapy (AWT) for cellulite and body shaping. In this open-label, single-centre trial, 30 women presenting moderate or severe cellulite underwent 12 sessions of AWT on the gluteus and back of the thighs, over six weeks. The following assessments were performed at baseline, and up to 12 weeks after treatment: Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS), body circumference measurements, subcutaneous fat thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), quality of life related by Celluqol ® and a satisfaction questionnaire. The treatment reduced cellulite severity from baseline up to 12 weeks after the last treatment session (subjects presenting severe cellulite: 60% to 38%). The mean CSS shifted from 11.1 to 9.5 (p cellulite appearance and reduce body circumferences.

  18. Multilayer-graphene-based amplifier of surface acoustic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav O. Yurchenko


    Full Text Available The amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs by a multilayer graphene (MLG-based amplifier is studied. The conductivity of massless carriers (electrons or holes in graphene in an external drift electric field is calculated using Boltzmann’s equation. At some carrier drift velocities, the real part of the variable conductivity becomes negative and MLG can be employed in SAW amplifiers. Amplification of Blustein’s and Rayleigh’s SAWs in CdS, a piezoelectric hexagonal crystal of the symmetry group C6v, is considered. The corresponding equations for SAW propagation in the device are derived and can be applied to other substrate crystals of the same symmetry. The results of the paper indicate that MLG can be considered as a perspective material for SAW amplification and related applications.

  19. Ultrafast high strain rate acoustic wave measurements at high static pressure in a diamond anvil cell (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael R.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Reed, Evan J.; Zaug, Joseph M.


    We describe experiments demonstrating the generation of ultrafast, high strain rate acoustic waves in a precompressed transparent medium at static pressure up to 24 GPa. We also observe shock waves in precompressed aluminum with transient pressures above 40 GPa under precompression. Using ultrafast interferometry, we determine parameters such as the shock pressure and acoustic wave velocity using multiple and single shot methods. These methods form the basis for material experiments under extreme conditions which are challenging to access using other techniques.

  20. Study of nonlinear ion- and electron-acoustic waves in multi-component space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Lakhina


    Full Text Available Large amplitude ion-acoustic and electron-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized multi-component plasma system consisting of cold background electrons and ions, a hot electron beam and a hot ion beam are studied using Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. Three types of solitary waves, namely, slow ion-acoustic, ion-acoustic and electron-acoustic solitons are found provided the Mach numbers exceed the critical values. The slow ion-acoustic solitons have the smallest critical Mach numbers, whereas the electron-acoustic solitons have the largest critical Mach numbers. For the plasma parameters considered here, both type of ion-acoustic solitons have positive potential whereas the electron-acoustic solitons can have either positive or negative potential depending on the fractional number density of the cold electrons relative to that of the ions (or total electrons number density. For a fixed Mach number, increases in the beam speeds of either hot electrons or hot ions can lead to reduction in the amplitudes of the ion-and electron-acoustic solitons. However, the presence of hot electron and hot ion beams have no effect on the amplitudes of slow ion-acoustic modes. Possible application of this model to the electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer is discussed.

  1. Acoustic wave emission for enhanced oil recovery (WAVE.O.R.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmann, S.; Amro, M. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Krauss, F.; Krueger, K.; Jurczyk, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)


    In the project WAVE.O.R the potential of acoustic waves to enhance oil recovery was reviewed. The project focused on laboratory experiments of the oil displacement in sandstone cores under acoustic stimulation. Additionally, the Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD) borehole device prototype was set up for a feasibility field test. The laboratory experiments showed that, depending on the stimulation frequency, acoustic stimulation allows for an enhanced oil recovery. For single frequency stimulation a mean increase of 3 % pore volumes was observed at distinguished frequencies. A cyclic stimulation, where two of these frequencies were combined, an increase of 5% pore volume was observed. The SPWD borehole device was tested and adjusted during feasibility tests in the GFZ underground laboratory in the research and education mine ''Reiche Zeche'' of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg and in the GFZ KTB-Deep Laboratory in Windischeschenbach. The first successful test of the device under realistic conditions was performed at the test site ''Piana di Toppo'' of the OGS Trieste, Italy.

  2. Acoustic Float for Marine Mammal Monitoring (United States)


    development by several teams, is to equip several ocean gliders with hydrophones and marine mammal call-detection software and send them out to monitor in...real time, but the gliders are relatively expensive, at upwards of $100,000 each [Rogers et al., 2004]. A vertical profiler float has been in...inexpensive and reliable tool for oceanogrphers [Kobayashi et al., 2006]. They also can dive to 2000 m whereass Slocum gilder and Seaglider are rated

  3. The dust acoustic waves in three dimensional scalable complex plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukhovitskii, D I


    Dust acoustic waves in the bulk of a dust cloud in complex plasma of low pressure gas discharge under microgravity conditions are considered. The dust component of complex plasma is assumed a scalable system that conforms to the ionization equation of state (IEOS) developed in our previous study. We find singular points of this IEOS that determine the behavior of the sound velocity in different regions of the cloud. The fluid approach is utilized to deduce the wave equation that includes the neutral drag term. It is shown that the sound velocity is fully defined by the particle compressibility, which is calculated on the basis of the scalable IEOS. The sound velocities and damping rates calculated for different 3D complex plasmas both in ac and dc discharges demonstrate a good correlation with experimental data that are within the limits of validity of the theory. The theory provides interpretation for the observed independence of the sound velocity on the coordinate and for a weak dependence on the particle ...

  4. Single-electron transport driven by surface acoustic waves: Moving quantum dots versus short barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Lindelof, Poul Erik


    We have investigated the response of the acoustoelectric-current driven by a surface-acoustic wave through a quantum point contact in the closed-channel regime. Under proper conditions, the current develops plateaus at integer multiples of ef when the frequency f of the surface-acoustic wave...... or the gate voltage V-g of the point contact is varied. A pronounced 1.1 MHz beat period of the current indicates that the interference of the surface-acoustic wave with reflected waves matters. This is supported by the results obtained after a second independent beam of surface-acoustic wave was added...... to an additional quantization mechanism, independent from those described in the standard model of 'moving quantum dots....

  5. Ion acoustic wave generation by a standing electromagnetic field in a subcritical plasma


    P. Fischer; Gauthereau, C.; Godiot, J.; G. Matthieussent


    An electromagnetic wave ( f = 9 GHz, Pi = 150 kW, τ = 1.5 μs) is launched into a subcritical argon plasma (n e ≃1011 cm-3, P0 ≃ 5 × 10-4 Torr), resulting in a standing wave. The associated ponderomotive force generates an ion acoustic wave with a wave vector equal to twice the electromagnetic one and with a frequency satisfying the usual dispersion relation (fA ≃ 150 kHz). The main features of the ion acoustic wave, as measured in this 3D experiment, agree with a simple theory. However, varyi...

  6. Scattering of X-rays on the surface acoustic wave in the case of grazing geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, A R; Petrosian, A


    The scattering of X-rays on a crystal is considered in grazing geometry when a surface acoustic wave is excited normal to the diffraction vector. The intensity of wave field at finite distance from crystal to detector is obtained. It is shown that in the presence of surface acoustic wave the magnitude of the main peak of specular reflected diffracted wave intensity decreases and intensity of satellites increases. The main peak of specular reflected diffracted wave intensity is split up as the grazing observation angle increases.

  7. Parallel electric field in the auroral ionosphere: excitation of acoustic waves by Alfvén waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich


    Full Text Available We investigate a new mechanism for the formation of a parallel electric field observed in the auroral ionosphere. For this purpose, the excitation of acoustic waves by propagating Alfvén waves was studied numerically. We find that the magnetic pressure perturbation due to finite amplitude Alfvén waves causes the perturbation of the plasma pressure that propagates in the form of acoustic waves, and gives rise to a parallel electric field. This mechanism explains the observations of the strong parallel electric field in the small-scale electromagnetic perturbations of the auroral ionosphere. For the cases when the parallel electric current in the small-scale auroral perturbations is so strong that the velocity of current carriers exceeds the threshold of the ion sound instability, the excited ion acoustic waves may account for the parallel electric fields as strong as tens of mV/m.

  8. Signal processing methodologies for an acoustic fetal heart rate monitor (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A., III; Stoughton, John W.


    Research and development is presented of real time signal processing methodologies for the detection of fetal heart tones within a noise-contaminated signal from a passive acoustic sensor. A linear predictor algorithm is utilized for detection of the heart tone event and additional processing derives heart rate. The linear predictor is adaptively 'trained' in a least mean square error sense on generic fetal heart tones recorded from patients. A real time monitor system is described which outputs to a strip chart recorder for plotting the time history of the fetal heart rate. The system is validated in the context of the fetal nonstress test. Comparisons are made with ultrasonic nonstress tests on a series of patients. Comparative data provides favorable indications of the feasibility of the acoustic monitor for clinical use.

  9. Attenuation compensation in least-squares reverse time migration using the visco-acoustic wave equation

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav


    Attenuation leads to distortion of amplitude and phase of seismic waves propagating inside the earth. Conventional acoustic and least-squares reverse time migration do not account for this distortion which leads to defocusing of migration images in highly attenuative geological environments. To account for this distortion, we propose to use the visco-acoustic wave equation for least-squares reverse time migration. Numerical tests on synthetic data show that least-squares reverse time migration with the visco-acoustic wave equation corrects for this distortion and produces images with better balanced amplitudes compared to the conventional approach. © 2013 SEG.

  10. Surface and quasi-longitudinal acoustic waves in KTiOAsO₄ single crystals. (United States)

    Taziev, Rinat M


    Surface and quasi-longitudinal acoustic wave properties have been investigated in potassium titanyl arsenate (KTiOAsO₄, KTA) single crystals for the first time. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and power flow angle characteristics have been obtained in rotated Y-cut of KTA crystals. High SAW electromechanical coupling coefficient (0.4%) is found in Z-cut of KTA crystals. For high-frequency devices it is promising the resonators on quasi-longitudinal acoustic wave in X-cut of KTA crystals with sharp response in interdigital transducer conductance at resonance frequency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Contrast investigations of surface acoustic waves by stroboscopic topography. 2. Wavefield deviation contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerva, H.; Graeff, W. (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany, F.R.))


    When imaging a surface acoustic wave by stroboscopic X-ray topography a contrast contribution exists which can be related to the deviation of X-ray beams in the deformation field of the acoustic wave. With narrow entrance slits this contribution can be separated from the surface reflected waves. Using a beam path theory of Bonse the beam trajectories inside the crystal and the intensity profiles at the surface are calculated. It is also demonstrated that this contrast which has two nearly equal peaks within the acoustic period turns to the orientation contrast with one peak per period when increasing the distance between sample and film.

  12. Generation of thermo-acoustic waves from pulsed solar/IR radiation (United States)

    Rahman, Aowabin

    Acoustic waves could potentially be used in a wide range of engineering applications; however, the high energy consumption in generating acoustic waves from electrical energy and the cost associated with the process limit the use of acoustic waves in industrial processes. Acoustic waves converted from solar radiation provide a feasible way of obtaining acoustic energy, without relying on conventional nonrenewable energy sources. One of the goals of this thesis project was to experimentally study the conversion of thermal to acoustic energy using pulsed radiation. The experiments were categorized into "indoor" and "outdoor" experiments, each with a separate experimental setup. The indoor experiments used an IR heater to power the thermo-acoustic lasers and were primarily aimed at studying the effect of various experimental parameters on the amplitude of sound waves in the low frequency range (below 130 Hz). The IR radiation was modulated externally using a chopper wheel and then impinged on a porous solid, which was housed inside a thermo-acoustic (TA) converter. A microphone located at a certain distance from the porous solid inside the TA converter detected the acoustic signals. The "outdoor" experiments, which were targeted at TA conversion at comparatively higher frequencies (in 200 Hz-3 kHz range) used solar energy to power the thermo-acoustic laser. The amplitudes (in RMS) of thermo-acoustic signals obtained in experiments using IR heater as radiation source were in the 80-100 dB range. The frequency of acoustic waves corresponded to the frequency of interceptions of the radiation beam by the chopper. The amplitudes of acoustic waves were influenced by several factors, including the chopping frequency, magnitude of radiation flux, type of porous material, length of porous material, external heating of the TA converter housing, location of microphone within the air column, and design of the TA converter. The time-dependent profile of the thermo-acoustic signals

  13. On the local plane wave methods for in situ measurement of acoustic absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnant, Ysbrand H.


    In this paper we address a series of so-called local plane wave methods (LPW) to measure acoustic absorption. As opposed to other methods, these methods do not rely on assumptions of the global sound field, like e.g. a plane wave or diffuse field, but are based on a local plane wave assumption.

  14. Plasma–maser instability of the ion acoustics wave in the presence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A theoretical study is made on the generation mechanism of ion acoustics wave in the presence of lower hybrid wave turbulence field in inhomogeneous plasma on the basis of plasma-maser interaction. The lower hybrid wave turbulence field is taken as the low-frequency turbulence field. The growth rate of test high ...

  15. Acoustic module of the Acquabona (Italy debris flow monitoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galgaro


    Full Text Available Monitoring of debris flows aimed to the assessment of their physical parameters is very important both for theoretical and practical purposes. Peak discharge and total volume of debris flows are crucial for designing effective countermeasures in many populated mountain areas where losses of lives and property damage could be avoided. This study quantifies the relationship between flow depth, acoustic amplitude of debris flow induced ground vibrations and front velocity in the experimental catchment of Acquabona, Eastern Dolomites, Italy. The analysis of data brought about the results described in the following. Debris flow depth and amplitude of the flow-induced ground vibrations show a good positive correlation. Estimation of both mean front velocity and peak discharge can be simply obtained monitoring the ground vibrations, through geophones installed close to the flow channel; the total volume of debris flow can be so directly estimated from the integral of the ground vibrations using a regression line. The application of acoustic technique to debris flow monitoring seems to be of the outmost relevance in risk reduction policies and in the correct management of the territory. Moreover this estimation is possible in other catchments producing debris flows of similar characteristics by means of their acoustic characterisation through quick and simple field tests (Standard Penetration Tests and seismic refraction surveys.

  16. An Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Huiying; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.


    Fishes and other marine mammals suffer a range of potential effects from intense sound sources generated by anthropogenic underwater processes such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording devices (USR) were built to monitor the acoustic sound pressure waves generated by those anthropogenic underwater activities, so the relevant processing software becomes indispensable for analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. However, existing software packages did not meet performance and flexibility requirements. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, named Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI), which is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed for underwater sound monitoring and analysis. In addition to the general functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs, the software can compute a series of acoustic metrics in physical units, monitor the sound's influence on fish hearing according to audiograms from different species of fishes and marine mammals, and batch process the sound files. The detailed applications of the software AAMI will be discussed along with several test case scenarios to illustrate its functionality.

  17. DNA-duplexes containing abasic sites: correlation between thermostability and acoustic wave properties. (United States)

    Hianik, T; Wang, X; Andreev, S; Dolinnaya, N; Oretskaya, T; Thompson, M


    Aldehydic apurinic or apyrimidinic sites that lack a nucleobase moiety are one of the most common forms of toxic lesions in DNA. In the present study, a close structural analog of such a site, the 2-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahydrofuranyl residue, was synthesized in order to act as a model for damaged nucleic acid probes. Prepared oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing one, two or three abasic sites were hybridized to complementary sequences immobilized on a gold surface using the neutravidin-biotin interaction for study by thickness shear mode acoustic wave detector. Measurement of the complex electrical impedance of an AT-cut quartz device with immobilized biotinylated nucleotide allowed the detection of changes of series resonance frequency, Deltafs, and motional resistance, Rm, associated with duplex formation. The changes as detected by the acoustic wave method correlated well with the thermostability of DNA duplexes in solution. With respect to the latter, UV-monitored melting curves indicate that both the number of sites and their localization in the double-stranded structure influence the amount by which a 19 b.p. duplex is destabilized. The presence of 3 abasic sites completely destabilized the DNA duplex.

  18. Vertically propagating acoustic waves launched by seismic waves visualized in ionograms (United States)

    Maruyama, Takashi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki


    After the magnitude 9.0 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku (near the east coast of Honshu, Japan), which occurred on 11 March 2011, an unusual multiple-cusp signature (MCS) was observed in ionograms at three ionosonde stations across Japan. Similar MCSs in ionograms were identified in 8 of 43 earthquakes with a seismic magnitude of 8.0 or greater for the period from 1957 to 2011. The appearance of MCSs at different epicentral distances exhibited traveling characteristics at a velocity of ~4.0 km/s, which is in the range of Rayleigh waves. There was a ~7 min offset in delay time at each epicentral distance in the travel-time diagram. This offset is consistent with the propagation time of acoustic waves from the ground to the ionosphere. We analyzed vertical structure of electron density perturbation that caused MCSs. The ionosonde technique is essentially radar-based measurement of a reflection at a height where the plasma frequency is equal to the sounding radio frequency and it is possible to obtain an electron density profile by sweeping the frequency. However, this measured height is not a true height because radio waves do not propagate at the speed of light in the ionosphere. The group velocity of radio waves decreases just below the reflection height where the sounding frequency approaches the plasma frequency. The amount of delay is larger when this region is thicker. The vertically propagating acoustic waves modulate the electron density. The radio wave speed greatly delays and a cusp signature appears in the echo trace at a phase of the periodic perturbation of electron density where the density gradient is most gradual. Simulations were conducted how large amplitude of density perturbation produces cusp signatures as observed. First, the real height density profile was obtained by converting the ionogram trace just before the arrival of coseismic disturbances. The electron density profile was then modified by adding a periodic perturbation and the

  19. Fatigue crack sizing in rail steel using crack closure-induced acoustic emission waves (United States)

    Li, Dan; Kuang, Kevin Sze Chiang; Ghee Koh, Chan


    The acoustic emission (AE) technique is a promising approach for detecting and locating fatigue cracks in metallic structures such as rail tracks. However, it is still a challenge to quantify the crack size accurately using this technique. AE waves can be generated by either crack propagation (CP) or crack closure (CC) processes and classification of these two types of AE waves is necessary to obtain more reliable crack sizing results. As the pre-processing step, an index based on wavelet power (WP) of AE signal is initially established in this paper in order to distinguish between the CC-induced AE waves and their CP-induced counterparts. Here, information embedded within the AE signal was used to perform the AE wave classification, which is preferred to the use of real-time load information, typically adopted in other studies. With the proposed approach, it renders the AE technique more amenable to practical implementation. Following the AE wave classification, a novel method to quantify the fatigue crack length was developed by taking advantage of the CC-induced AE waves, the count rate of which was observed to be positively correlated with the crack length. The crack length was subsequently determined using an empirical model derived from the AE data acquired during the fatigue tests of the rail steel specimens. The performance of the proposed method was validated by experimental data and compared with that of the traditional crack sizing method, which is based on CP-induced AE waves. As a significant advantage over other AE crack sizing methods, the proposed novel method is able to estimate the crack length without prior knowledge of the initial crack length, integration of AE data or real-time load amplitude. It is thus applicable to the health monitoring of both new and existing structures.

  20. Ion-acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas: Modulational instability and dissipative rogue waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tantawy, S.A., E-mail:


    Progress is reported on the modulational instability (MI) of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) and dissipative rogue waves (RWs) in ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs). The UNPs consist of inertial ions fluid and Maxwellian inertialess hot electrons, and the presence of an ion kinematic viscosity is allowed. For this purpose, a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) is derived and then solved analytically to show the occurrence of MI. It is found that the (in)stability regions of the wavepacks are dependent on time due to of the existence of the dissipative term. The existing regions of the MI of the IAWs are inventoried precisely. After that, we use a suitable transformation to convert the modified NLSE into the normal NLSE whose analytical solutions for rogue waves are known. The rogue wave propagation condition and its behavior are discussed. The impact of the relevant physical parameters on the profile of the RWs is examined. - Highlights: • UNPs are modeled by the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic equations. • The derivative expansion method has been employed in order to derive a modified-NLSE. • A suitable transformation is used to transform the modified-NLSE into the standard NLSE. • The effect of the ion viscosity on the modulational instability and rogue waves is investigated.

  1. Monitoring of drilling process with the application of acoustic signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labaš Milan


    Full Text Available Monitoring of rock disintegration process at drilling, scanning of input quantities: thrust F, revolution n and the course of some output quantities: the drilling rate v and the power input P are needed for the control of this process. We can calculate the specific volume work of rock disintegration w and ϕ - quotient of drilling rate v and the specific volume work of disintegration w from the presented quantities.Works on an expertimental stand showed that the correlation relationships between the input and output quantities can be found by scanning the accompanying sound of the drilling proces.Research of the rock disintegration with small-diameter diamond drill tools and different rock types is done at the Institute of Geotechnics. The aim of this research is the possibility of monitoring and controlling the rock disintegration process with the application of acoustic signal. The acoustic vibrations accompanying the drilling process are recorded by a microphone placed in a defined position in the acoustic space. The drilling device (drilling stand, the drilling tool and the rock are the source of sound. Two basic sound states exist in the drilling stand research : the noise at no-load running and the noise at the rotary drilling of rock. Suitable quantities for optimizing the rock disintegration process are searched by the study of the acoustic signal. The dominant frequencies that characterize the disintegration process for the given rock and tool are searched by the analysis of the acoustic signal. The analysis of dominant frequencies indicates the possibility of determining an optimal regime for the maximal drilling rate. Extreme of the specific disintegration energy is determinated by the dispersion of the dominant frequency.The scanned acoustic signal is processed by the Fourier transformation. The Fourier transformation facilitates the distribution of the general non-harmonic periodic process into harmonic components. The harmonic

  2. KAJIAN SIFAT AKUSTIK BUAH MANGGIS(Gracinia mangostana L) DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN GELOMBANG ULTRASONIK [Acoustic Study Of Mangosteene (Gracinia mangostana L) By Using Ultrasonic Wave


    Jajang juansah 1); I Wayan Budiastra 2); Suroso 2)


    The wave used to study the acoustic properties of mangosteen is ultrasonic wave. Ultrasonic wave with frequency of 50 KHz was used to determine acoustic properties of mangosteen. The main wave properties were the attenuation, impedance of acoustic and acoustic velocity at mangosteen. Others have been evaluated were the correlation of attenuation and acoustic velocity at parts of mangosteen with its intact mangosteen. The acoustic parameters were related to the physic-chemical parameters of th...

  3. Use of information system data of jet crushing acoustic monitoring for the process management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bulanaya


    Full Text Available The graphic interpretation of amplitude and frequency of acoustic signals of loose material jet grinding process are resulted. Criteria of process management is determined on the basis of the acoustic monitoring data of jet mill acting.

  4. Passive Wireless Cryogenic Liquid Level Sensors Using Orthogonal Frequency Coded Acoustic Wave Devices Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the continued development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) based liquid level sensors for NASA application to cryogenic liquid...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and multi-sensor systems for NASA application to remote wireless sensing of...

  6. Passive Wireless Multi-Sensor Temperature and Pressure Sensing System Using Acoustic Wave Devices Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the continued development of passive, orthogonal frequency coded (OFC) surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and multi-sensor systems, an...

  7. Passive Wireless Cryogenic Liquid Level Sensors Using Orthogonal Frequency Coded Acoustic Wave Devices Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) based liquid level sensors for NASA application to cryogenic liquid level...

  8. Visualization of GHz Acoustic Wave in LiNbO3 by Microwave Impedance Microscopy (United States)

    Zheng, Lu; Dong, Hui; Wu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yen-Lin; Wu, Weida; Wang, Zheng; Lai, Keji

    Acoustic wave devices based on piezoelectric materials play a key role in the modern information technology and the research field of phononic metamaterials. High-resolution real-space mapping of the phononic modes is therefore of fundamental importance for the understanding of scattering, diffraction, and localization of the acoustic waves. To date, however, it has been challenging to directly image the GHz-range acoustic properties in piezoelectrics. Using a microwave impedance microscope (MIM), we demonstrate the ability to visualize the interference pattern of GHz acoustic waves in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) samples, where the domain walls serve as good reflectors of the elastic deformation. The constructive and destructive interference regions exhibit different loss in the microwave images, which can be simulated by finite-element analysis of the PPLN samples. Our results pave the way to locally probe various phenomena of sound waves in phononic materials by nanoscale electromagnetic imaging.

  9. A sound idea: Manipulating domain walls in magnetic nanowires using surface acoustic waves (United States)

    Dean, J.; Bryan, M. T.; Cooper, J. D.; Virbule, A.; Cunningham, J. E.; Hayward, T. J.


    We propose a method of pinning and propagating domain walls in artificial multiferroic nanowires using electrically induced surface acoustic waves. Using finite-element micromagnetic simulations and 1D semi-analytical modelling, we demonstrate how a pair of interdigitated acoustic transducers can remotely induce an array of attractive domain wall pinning sites by forming a standing stress/strain wave along a nanowire's length. Shifts in the frequencies of the surface acoustic waves allow multiple domain walls to be synchronously transported at speeds up to 50 ms-1. Our study lays the foundation for energy-efficient domain wall devices that exploit the low propagation losses of surface acoustic waves to precisely manipulate large numbers of data bits.

  10. Interaction of Acoustic Waves with a Cryogenic Nitrogen Jet at Sub- and Supercritical Pressures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chehroudi, B


    To better understand the nature of the interaction between acoustic waves and liquid fuel jets in rocket engines, cryogenic liquid nitrogen is injected into a room temperature high-pressure chamber...

  11. Propagation of dust-acoustic waves in weakly ionized plasmas with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For an unmagnetized partially ionized dusty plasma containing electrons, singly charged positive ions, micron-sized massive negatively charged dust grains and a fraction of neutral atoms, dispersion relations for both the dust-ion-acoustic and the dust-acoustic waves have been derived, incorporating dust charge ...

  12. Measurements of shock-induced guided and surface acoustic waves along boreholes in poroelastic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, G.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Van Dongen, M.E.H.


    Acoustic experiments on the propagation of guided waves along water-filled boreholes in water-saturated porous materials are reported. The experiments were conducted using a shock tube technique. An acoustic funnel structure was placed inside the tube just above the sample in order to enhance the

  13. Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel Characterized by Wind-Generated Surface Waves and Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Ainslie, M.A.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Janmaat, J.


    Sea surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main nonplatform-related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate modelling

  14. Piezoelectric thin films for bulk acoustic wave resonator applications: from processing to microwave filters


    Lanz, Roman; Setter, Nava


    Bandpass filters for microwave frequencies realized with thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBAR) are a promising alternative to current dielectric or surface acoustic wave filters for use in mobile telecommunication applications. With equivalent performance, FBAR filters are significantly smaller than dielectric filters and allow for a larger power operation than SAW filters. In addition, FBARs offer the possibility of on-chip integration, which will result in substantial volume and co...

  15. Quantum ion acoustic solitary waves in electron-ion plasmas: A Sagdeev potential approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail:; Mushtaq, A. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)


    Linear and nonlinear ion acoustic waves are studied in unmagnetized electron-ion quantum plasmas. Sagdeev potential approach is employed to describe the nonlinear quantum ion acoustic waves. It is found that density dips structures are formed in the subsonic region in a electron-ion quantum plasma case. The amplitude of the nonlinear structures remains constant and the width is broadened with the increase in the quantization of the system. However, the nonlinear wave amplitude is reduced with the increase in the wave Mach number. The numerical results are also presented.

  16. Propagation and localization of acoustic waves in Fibonacci phononic circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aynaou, H [Laboratoire de Dynamique et d' Optique des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohamed Premier, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Boudouti, E H El [Laboratoire de Dynamique et d' Optique des Materiaux, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mohamed Premier, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Djafari-Rouhani, B [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, UFR de Physique, Universite de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Akjouj, A [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, UFR de Physique, Universite de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Velasco, V R [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    A theoretical investigation is made of acoustic wave propagation in one-dimensional phononic bandgap structures made of slender tube loops pasted together with slender tubes of finite length according to a Fibonacci sequence. The band structure and transmission spectrum is studied for two particular cases. (i) Symmetric loop structures, which are shown to be equivalent to diameter-modulated slender tubes. In this case, it is found that besides the existence of extended and forbidden modes, some narrow frequency bands appear in the transmission spectra inside the gaps as defect modes. The spatial localization of the modes lying in the middle of the bands and at their edges is examined by means of the local density of states. The dependence of the bandgap structure on the slender tube diameters is presented. An analysis of the transmission phase time enables us to derive the group velocity as well as the density of states in these structures. In particular, the stop bands (localized modes) may give rise to unusual (strong normal) dispersion in the gaps, yielding fast (slow) group velocities above (below) the speed of sound. (ii) Asymmetric tube loop structures, where the loops play the role of resonators that may introduce transmission zeros and hence new gaps unnoticed in the case of simple diameter-modulated slender tubes. The Fibonacci scaling property has been checked for both cases (i) and (ii), and it holds for a periodicity of three or six depending on the nature of the substrates surrounding the structure.

  17. Surface acoustic wave nebulization facilitating lipid mass spectrometric analysis. (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Hwan; Huang, Yue; Edgar, J Scott; Ting, Ying S; Heron, Scott R; Kao, Yuchieh; Li, Yanyan; Masselon, Christophe D; Ernst, Robert K; Goodlett, David R


    Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a novel method to transfer nonvolatile analytes directly from the aqueous phase to the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis. The lower ion energetics of SAWN and its planar nature make it appealing for analytically challenging lipid samples. This challenge is a result of their amphipathic nature, labile nature, and tendency to form aggregates, which readily precipitate clogging capillaries used for electrospray ionization (ESI). Here, we report the use of SAWN to characterize the complex glycolipid, lipid A, which serves as the membrane anchor component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a pronounced tendency to clog nano-ESI capillaries. We also show that unlike ESI SAWN is capable of ionizing labile phospholipids without fragmentation. Lastly, we compare the ease of use of SAWN to the more conventional infusion-based ESI methods and demonstrate the ability to generate higher order tandem mass spectral data of lipid A for automated structure assignment using our previously reported hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. The ease of generating SAWN-MS(n) data combined with HiTMS interpretation offers the potential for high throughput lipid A structure analysis.

  18. On the wave equation with semilinear porous acoustic boundary conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Graber, Philip Jameson


    The goal of this work is to study a model of the wave equation with semilinear porous acoustic boundary conditions with nonlinear boundary/interior sources and a nonlinear boundary/interior damping. First, applying the nonlinear semigroup theory, we show the existence and uniqueness of local in time solutions. The main difficulty in proving the local existence result is that the Neumann boundary conditions experience loss of regularity due to boundary sources. Using an approximation method involving truncated sources and adapting the ideas in Lasiecka and Tataru (1993) [28], we show that the existence of solutions can still be obtained. Second, we prove that under some restrictions on the source terms, then the local solution can be extended to be global in time. In addition, it has been shown that the decay rates of the solution are given implicitly as solutions to a first order ODE and depends on the behavior of the damping terms. In several situations, the obtained ODE can be easily solved and the decay rates can be given explicitly. Third, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data and if the interior source dominates the interior damping term and if the boundary source dominates the boundary damping, then the solution ceases to exists and blows up in finite time. Moreover, in either the absence of the interior source or the boundary source, then we prove that the solution is unbounded and grows as an exponential function. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Following butter flavour deterioration with an acoustic wave sensor. (United States)

    Gaspar, Cláudia R B S; Gomes, M Teresa S R


    Off-flavours develop naturally in butter and the process is accelerated by heat. An acoustic wave sensor was used to detect the aroma compounds evolved from heated butter and the results have shown that registered marked changes were coincident to odour changes detected by sensory analysis. The flavour compounds have also been analysed by GC/MS for identification. The response of the sensor was fully characterized in terms of the sensitivity to each of the identified compounds, and sensitivities of the system SPME/sensor were compared with the sensitivities of the system SPME/GC/MS. It was found that the sensor analytical system was more sensitive to methylketones than to fatty acids. The SPME/GC/MS system also showed the highest sensitivity to 2-heptanone, followed by 2-nonanone, but third place was occupied by undecanone and butanoic acid, to which the sensor showed moderate sensitivity. 2-heptanone was found to be an appropriate model compound to follow odour changes till the 500 h, and the lower sensitivity of the sensor to butanoic acid showed to be a positive characteristic, as saturation was prevented, and other more subtle changes in the flavour could be perceived. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acoustic Wave Velocity as a Selection Trait in Eucalyptus nitens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blackburn


    Full Text Available Previous studies in Eucalyptus nitens have revealed favourable genetic correlations exist between acoustic wave velocity (AWV in standing trees and modulus of elasticity (MOE, which can determine the suitability of trees for structural timber and/or engineered wood products. This study investigates the strength and stability of genetic variation in standing tree AWV across a range of environments in Tasmania, where there are a number of large plantation estates and breeding trials. Trees under study were from open-pollinated progeny trials established in 1993. Across sites, for standing tree AWV the ranking of E. nitens races did not change and within-race additive genetic correlations were strong (0.61 to 0.99. Heritabilities (0.16 to 0.74 and coefficients of additive genetic variation (2.6 to 4.8 were moderate for this trait. Correlations between standing tree AWV and both basic density and diameter at breast height (DBH were favourable. Results indicate that there is potential to improve MOE in E. nitens through the exploitation of genetic variation in AWV among and within races, the expression of genetic variation in AWV is relatively stable across different growing environments, and past selection for basic density and growth in pulpwood breeding programs is unlikely to have adversely affected MOE.

  1. Employing Acoustic Emission for Monitoring Oil Film Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mba


    Full Text Available The major purpose of a gear lubricant is to provide adequate oil film thickness to reduce and prevent gear tooth surface failures. Real time monitoring for gear failures is important in order to predict and prevent unexpected failures which would have a negative impact on the efficiency, performance and safety of the gearbox. This paper presents experimental results on the influence of specific oil film thickness on Acoustic Emission (AE activity for operational helical gears. Variation in film thickness during operations was achieved by spraying liquid nitrogen onto the rotating gear wheel. The experimental results demonstrated a clear relationship between the root mean square (r.m.s value of the AE signal and the specific film thickness. The findings demonstrate the potential of Acoustic Emission technology to quantify lubrication regimes on operational gears.

  2. Controlling the transmission of ultrahigh frequency bulk acoustic waves in silicon by 45° mirrors. (United States)

    Wang, Shengxiang; Gao, Jiaming; Carlier, Julien; Campistron, Pierre; NDieguene, Assane; Guo, Shishang; Matar, Olivier Bou; Dorothee, Debavelaere-Callens; Nongaillard, Bertrand


    In this paper, we present a feasible microsystem in which the direction of localized ultrahigh frequency (∼1GHz) bulk acoustic wave can be controlled in a silicon wafer. Deep etching technology on the silicon wafer makes it possible to achieve high aspect ratio etching patterns which can be used to control bulk acoustic wave to transmit in the directions parallel to the surface of the silicon wafer. Passive 45° mirror planes obtained by wet chemical etching were employed to reflect the bulk acoustic wave. Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film transducers were deposited by radio frequency sputtering with a thickness of about 1μm on the other side of the wafer, which act as emitter/receptor after aligned with the mirrors. Two opponent vertical mirrors were inserted between the 45° mirrors to guide the transmission of the acoustic waves. The propagation of the bulk acoustic wave was studied with simulations and the characterization of S(21) scattering parameters, indicating that the mirrors were efficient to guide bulk acoustic waves in the silicon wafer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of magnetic quantization on ion acoustic waves ultra-relativistic dense plasma (United States)

    Javed, Asif; Rasheed, A.; Jamil, M.; Siddique, M.; Tsintsadze, N. L.


    In this paper, we have studied the influence of magnetic quantization of orbital motion of the electrons on the profile of linear and nonlinear ion-acoustic waves, which are propagating in the ultra-relativistic dense magneto quantum plasmas. We have employed both Thomas Fermi and Quantum Magneto Hydrodynamic models (along with the Poisson equation) of quantum plasmas. To investigate the large amplitude nonlinear structure of the acoustic wave, Sagdeev-Pseudo-Potential approach has been adopted. The numerical analysis of the linear dispersion relation and the nonlinear acoustic waves has been presented by drawing their graphs that highlight the effects of plasma parameters on these waves in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. It has been noticed that only supersonic ion acoustic solitary waves can be excited in the above mentioned quantum plasma even when the value of the critical Mach number is less than unity. Both width and depth of Sagdeev potential reduces on increasing the magnetic quantization parameter η. Whereas the amplitude of the ion acoustic soliton reduces on increasing η, its width appears to be directly proportional to η. The present work would be helpful to understand the excitation of nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in the dense astrophysical environments such as magnetars and in intense-laser plasma interactions.

  4. Snow Slab Failure Due to Biot-Type Acoustic Wave Propagation


    Sidler Rolf


    Even though seismic methods are among the most used geophysical methods today their application in snow has been sparse. This might be related to the fact that commonly observed wave velocity attenuation and reflection coefficients can not be well explained by the widely used elastic or visco elastic models for wave propagation. Biot's well established model of wave propagation in porous media instead is much better suited to describe acoustic wave propagation in snow. This model predicts als...

  5. Integration of thin film giant magnetoimpedance sensor and surface acoustic wave transponder

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong


    Passive and remote sensing technology has many potential applications in implantable devices, automation, or structural monitoring. In this paper, a tri-layer thin film giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor with the maximum sensitivity of 16%/Oe and GMI ratio of 44% was combined with a two-port surface acoustic wave(SAW) transponder on a common substrate using standard microfabrication technology resulting in a fully integrated sensor for passive and remote operation. The implementation of the two devices has been optimized by on-chip matching circuits. The measurement results clearly show a magnetic field response at the input port of the SAW transponder that reflects the impedance change of the GMI sensor.

  6. Temporal window system: A new approach for dynamic detection application to surface acoustic wave gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordieu, C.; Rebiere, D.; Pistre, J. [and others


    Pattern recognition techniques based on artificial neural networks are now frequently used with good results for gas sensor signal processing (this includes the detection, the identification and the quantification of gases). In the literature, data sets needed for neural networks are practically always built with steady state sensor responses. This situation prevents these techniques from being used in real time applications. Nevertheless, for example in the case of surface acoustic wave (SAW) gas sensors, because of quite long response times due to kinetic factors concerning the gas adsorption and because gases are sometimes extremely dangerous and/or toxic (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organophosphorus compounds,...), the detection speed is an essential parameter and hence must be monitored in a real time mode. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new dynamic approach and to illustrate it with SAW sensor responses.

  7. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW-Enhanced Chemical Functionalization of Gold Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Greco


    Full Text Available Surface chemical and biochemical functionalization is a fundamental process that is widely applied in many fields to add new functions, features, or capabilities to a material’s surface. Here, we demonstrate that surface acoustic waves (SAWs can enhance the chemical functionalization of gold films. This is shown by using an integrated biochip composed by a microfluidic channel coupled to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR readout system and by monitoring the adhesion of biotin-thiol on the gold SPR areas in different conditions. In the case of SAW-induced streaming, the functionalization efficiency is improved ≈ 5 times with respect to the case without SAWs. The technology here proposed can be easily applied to a wide variety of biological systems (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids and devices (e.g., sensors, devices for cell cultures.

  8. Coupling of an acoustic wave to shear motion due to viscous heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Goree, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)


    Viscous heating due to shear motion in a plasma can result in the excitation of a longitudinal acoustic wave, if the shear motion is modulated in time. The coupling mechanism is a thermal effect: time-dependent shear motion causes viscous heating, which leads to a rarefaction that can couple into a longitudinal wave, such as an acoustic wave. This coupling mechanism is demonstrated in an electrostatic three-dimensional (3D) simulation of a dusty plasma, in which a localized shear flow is initiated as a pulse, resulting in a delayed outward propagation of a longitudinal acoustic wave. This coupling effect can be profound in plasmas that exhibit localized viscous heating, such as the dusty plasma we simulated using parameters typical of the PK-4 experiment. We expect that a similar phenomenon can occur with other kinds of plasma waves.

  9. Observation of dust acoustic shock wave in a strongly coupled dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sumita K., E-mail:; Boruah, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Bailung, H., E-mail: [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati 781035 (India)


    Dust acoustic shock wave is observed in a strongly coupled laboratory dusty plasma. A supersonic flow of charged microparticles is allowed to perturb a stationary dust fluid to excite dust acoustic shock wave. The evolution process beginning with steepening of initial wave front and then formation of a stable shock structure is similar to the numerical results of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. The measured Mach number of the observed shock wave agrees with the theoretical results. Reduction of shock amplitude at large distances is also observed due to the dust neutral collision and viscosity effects. The dispersion relation and the spatial damping of a linear dust acoustic wave are also measured and compared with the relevant theory.

  10. High-frequency programmable acoustic wave device realized through ferroelectric domain engineering (United States)

    Ivry, Yachin; Wang, Nan; Durkan, Colm


    Surface acoustic wave devices are extensively used in contemporary wireless communication devices. We used atomic force microscopy to form periodic macroscopic ferroelectric domains in sol-gel deposited lead zirconate titanate, where each ferroelectric domain is composed of many crystallites, each of which contains many microscopic ferroelastic domains. We examined the electro-acoustic characteristics of the apparatus and found a resonator behavior similar to that of an equivalent surface or bulk acoustic wave device. We show that the operational frequency of the device can be tailored by altering the periodicity of the engineered domains and demonstrate high-frequency filter behavior (>8 GHz), allowing low-cost programmable high-frequency resonators.

  11. Experimental verification of theoretical equations for acoustic radiation force on compressible spherical particles in traveling waves (United States)

    Johnson, Kennita A.; Vormohr, Hannah R.; Doinikov, Alexander A.; Bouakaz, Ayache; Shields, C. Wyatt; López, Gabriel P.; Dayton, Paul A.


    Acoustophoresis uses acoustic radiation force to remotely manipulate particles suspended in a host fluid for many scientific, technological, and medical applications, such as acoustic levitation, acoustic coagulation, contrast ultrasound imaging, ultrasound-assisted drug delivery, etc. To estimate the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces, equations derived for an inviscid host fluid are commonly used. However, there are theoretical predictions that, in the case of a traveling wave, viscous effects can dramatically change the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces, which make the equations obtained for an inviscid host fluid invalid for proper estimation of acoustic radiation forces. To date, experimental verification of these predictions has not been published. Experimental measurements of viscous effects on acoustic radiation forces in a traveling wave were conducted using a confocal optical and acoustic system and values were compared with available theories. Our results show that, even in a low-viscosity fluid such as water, the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces is increased manyfold by viscous effects in comparison with what follows from the equations derived for an inviscid fluid.

  12. Analysis of the effect of a rectangular cavity resonator on acoustic wave transmission in a waveguide (United States)

    Porter, R.; Evans, D. V.


    The transmission of acoustic waves along a two-dimensional waveguide which is coupled through an opening in its wall to a rectangular cavity resonator is considered. The resonator acts as a classical band-stop filter, significantly reducing acoustic transmission across a range of frequencies. Assuming wave frequencies below the first waveguide cut-off, the solution for the reflected and transmitted wave amplitudes is formulated exactly within the framework of inviscid linear acoustics. The main aim of the paper is to develop an approximation in closed form for reflected and transmitted amplitudes when the gap in the thin wall separating the waveguide and the cavity resonator is assumed to be small. This approximation is shown to accurately capture the effect of all cavities resonances, not just the fundamental Helmholtz resonance. It is envisaged this formula (and more generally the mathematical approach adopted) could be used in the development of acoustic metamaterial devices containing resonator arrays.

  13. Ultrafast high strain rate acoustic wave measurements at high static pressure in a diamond anvil cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, M; Crowhurst, J; Reed, E; Zaug, J


    We have used sub-picosecond laser pulses to launch ultra-high strain rate ({approx} 10{sup 9} s{sup -1}) nonlinear acoustic waves into a 4:1 methanol-ethanol pressure medium which has been precompressed in a standard diamond anvil cell. Using ultrafast interferometry, we have characterized acoustic wave propagation into the pressure medium at static compression up to 24 GPa. We find that the velocity is dependent on the incident laser fluence, demonstrating a nonlinear acoustic response which may result in shock wave behavior. We compare our results with low strain, low strain-rate acoustic data. This technique provides controlled access to regions of thermodynamic phase space that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  14. Proportional monitoring of the acoustic emission in crypto-conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dostál


    Full Text Available The work is aimed at studying corrosion and fatigue properties of aluminum alloys by means of acoustic emission (AE. During material degradation are acoustic events scanned and evaluated. The main objective of the article is a description of behavior of aluminum alloys degraded in specific conditions and critical degradation stages determination. The first part of the article describes controlled degradation of the material in the crypto–conditions. The acoustic emission method is used for process analyzing. This part contains the AE signals assessment and comparing aluminium alloy to steel. Then the specimens are loaded on high-cyclic loading apparatus for fatigue life monitoring. Also, the synergy of fatigue and corrosion processes is taken into account.The aim is the description of fatigue properties for aluminum alloys that have already been corrosion-degraded. Attention is also focused on the structure of fatigue cracks. The main part of the article is aimed at corrosion degradation of aluminium alloys researched in real time by means of AE. The most important benefit of AE detection/recording is that it provides information about the process in real time. Using this measurement system is possible to observe the current status of the machines/devices and to prevent serious accidents.

  15. An Adaptive Framework for Acoustic Monitoring of Potential Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potamitis Ilyas


    Full Text Available Robust recognition of general audio events constitutes a topic of intensive research in the signal processing community. This work presents an efficient methodology for acoustic surveillance of atypical situations which can find use under different acoustic backgrounds. The primary goal is the continuous acoustic monitoring of a scene for potentially hazardous events in order to help an authorized officer to take the appropriate actions towards preventing human loss and/or property damage. A probabilistic hierarchical scheme is designed based on Gaussian mixture models and state-of-the-art sound parameters selected through extensive experimentation. A feature of the proposed system is its model adaptation loop that provides adaptability to different sound environments. We report extensive experimental results including installation in a real environment and operational detection rates for three days of function on a 24 hour basis. Moreover, we adopt a reliable testing procedure that demonstrates high detection rates as regards average recognition, miss probability, and false alarm rates.

  16. Characterization of ablated porcine bone and muscle using laser-induced acoustic wave method for tissue differentiation (United States)

    Nguendon, Hervé K.; Faivre, Neige; Meylan, Bastian; Shevchik, Sergey; Rauter, Georg; Guzman, Raphael; Cattin, Philippe C.; Wasmer, Kilian; Zam, Azhar


    A high power pulsed laser with millisecond pulse was used to interact with a bone and muscle of porcine, initiating an acoustic wave. We start to describe principle of laser ablation follows by the acoustic wave generation. Then, we present the characterization of these wave features for laser surgery applications.

  17. Acoustic-wave generation in the process of CO2-TEA-laser-radiation interaction with metal targets in air (United States)

    Apostol, Ileana; Teodorescu, G.; Serbanescu-Oasa, Anca; Dragulinescu, Dumitru; Chis, Ioan; Stoian, Razvan


    Laser radiation interaction with materials is a complex process in which creation of acoustic waves or stress waves is a part of it. As a function of the laser radiation energy and intensity incident on steel target surface ultrasound signals were registered and studied. Thermoelastic, ablation and breakdown mechanisms of generation of acoustic waves were analyzed.

  18. Aero-acoustic Measurement and Monitoring of Dynamic Pressure Fields Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative and practical measurement and monitoring system optimally defines dynamic pressure fields, including sound fields. It is based on passive acoustic...

  19. On an Acoustic Wave Equation Arising in Non-Equilibrium Gasdynamics. Classroom Notes (United States)

    Chandran, Pallath


    The sixth-order wave equation governing the propagation of one-dimensional acoustic waves in a viscous, heat conducting gaseous medium subject to relaxation effects has been considered. It has been reduced to a system of lower order equations corresponding to the finite speeds occurring in the equation, following a method due to Whitham. The lower…

  20. The first radial-mode Lorentzian Landau damping of dust acoustic space-charge waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of)


    The dispersion properties and the first radial-mode Lorentzian Landau damping of a dust acoustic space-charge wave propagating in a cylindrical waveguide dusty plasma which contains nonthermal electrons and ions are investigated by employing the normal mode analysis and the method of separation of variables. It is found that the frequency of dust acoustic space-charge wave increases as the wave number increases as well as the radius of cylindrical plasma does. However, the nonthermal property of the Lorentzian plasma is found to suppress the wave frequency of the dust acoustic space-charge wave. The Landau damping rate of the dust acoustic space-charge wave is derived in a cylindrical waveguide dusty plasma. The damping of the space-charge wave is found to be enhanced as the radius of cylindrical plasma and the nonthermal property increase. The maximum Lorentzian Landau damping rate is also found in a cylindrical waveguide dusty plasma. The variation of the wave frequency and the Landau damping rate due to the nonthermal character and geometric effects are also discussed.

  1. FDTD model of acoustic wave interaction with soft targets | Ikata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our interest has been on the character of the acoustic field inside the target and the interaction parameters which influence it. The numerical simulations suggest that for an acoustically denser target the interior field consist of alternate bands of high-(and low-) pressure, though in a narrow cylindrical target the interior is ...

  2. Amplification of surface acoustic waves by transverse electric current in piezoelectric semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulyaev, Yuri V.


    It is shown that the principal characteristic feature of the surface acoustic waves in piezoelectrics—the presence of an alternating electric field transverse to the surface, which can be of the same order of magnitude as the longitudinal field—may not only give rise to the known transverse...... acoustoelectric effect but also lead to amplification of surface acoustic waves by electron drift perpendicular to the surface. For Love waves in a piezoelectric semiconductor film on a highly conducting substrate, the amplification coefficient is found and the conditions necessary for amplification...

  3. Energy Properties of Ion Acoustic Waves in Stable and Unstable Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla; Lynov, Jens-Peter


    acoustic waves that are growing or damped in space the time average of the sum of the potential and the kinetic energy density is independent of position. Energy absorption spectra in particle velocity space are calculated; they are relatively broad and complicated functions. This shows that plasma ions......Energy exchange between potential energy and ion kinetic energy in an ion acoustic wave is considered. In order to investigate the linear Landau damping or growth, the energy is calculated by use of first‐order quantities only so that nonlinear effects are not involved. It is found that for ion...... of all velocities exchange energy with the wave....

  4. Finite element analysis of surface acoustic waves in high aspect ratio electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim


    This paper elaborates on how the finite element method is employed to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes and their interaction with optical waves in a waveguide. With a periodic model it is shown that these electrodes act as a mechanical resonator which slows...... down the SAWvelocity because of mechanical energy storage. A finite model is furthermore employed to study the acousto-optical interaction and shows that it is possible to get a bigger change in effective refractive index with these surface acoustic waves compared to using conventional interdigital...

  5. Modeling and Analysis of Lateral Propagation of Surface Acoustic Waves Including Coupling Between Different Waves. (United States)

    Zhang, Benfeng; Han, Tao; Tang, Gongbin; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya


    This paper discusses lateral propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in periodic grating structures when two types of SAWs exist simultaneously and are coupled. The thin plate model proposed by the authors is extended to include the coupling between two different SAW modes. First, lateral SAW propagation in an infinitely long periodic grating is modeled and discussed. Then, the model is applied to the Al-grating/42° YX-LiTaO3 (42-LT) substrate structure, and it is shown that the slowness curve shape changes from concave to convex with the Al grating thickness. The transverse responses are also analyzed on an infinitely long interdigital transducer on the structure, and good agreement is achieved between the present and the finite-element method analyses. Finally, SAW resonators are fabricated on the Cu grating/42-LT substrate structure, and it is experimentally verified that the slowness curve shape of the shear horizontal SAW changes with the Cu thickness.

  6. The Effect of Dust Particles on Ion Acoustic Solitary Waves in a Dusty Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Rim Choi


    Full Text Available In this paper we have examined the effect of dust charge density on nonlinear ion acoustic solitary wave which propagates obliquely with respect to the external magnetic field in a dusty plasma. For the dusty charge density below a critical value, the Sagdeev potential Ψ(n has a singular point in the region n<1, where n is the ion number density divided by its equilibrium number density. If there exists a dust charge density over the critical value, the Sagdeev potential becomes a finite function in the region n<1, which means that there may exist the rarefactive ion acoustic solitary wave. By expanding the Sagdeev potential in the small amplitude limit up to δ n4 near n=1, we find the solution of ion acoustic solitary wave. Therefore we suggest that the dust charge density plays an important role in generating the rarefactive solitary wave.

  7. A Four-Quadrant PVDF Transducer for Surface Acoustic Wave Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen


    Full Text Available In this paper, a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF piezoelectric transducer was developed to detect laser-induced surface acoustic waves in a SiO2-thin film–Si-substrate structure. In order to solve the problems related to, firstly, the position of the probe, and secondly, the fact that signals at different points cannot be detected simultaneously during the detection process, a four-quadrant surface acoustic wave PVDF transducer was designed and constructed for the purpose of detecting surface acoustic waves excited by a pulse laser line source. The experimental results of the four-quadrant piezoelectric detection in comparison with the commercial nanoindentation technology were consistent, the relative error is 0.56%, and the system eliminates the piezoelectric surface wave detection direction deviation errors, improves the accuracy of the testing system by 1.30%, achieving the acquisition at the same time at different testing positions of the sample.

  8. The viability of acoustic tomography in monitoring the circulation of Monterey Bay


    James H Miller; Rowan, Theresa M.; Ehret, Laura L.; Dees, Robert C.


    This report presents the results of a fifteen month study on the viability of acoustic tomography in monitoring the circulation of Monterey Bay, California. The basis for ocean acoustic tomography is the measurement of travel times of coded acoustic signals between the transceivers. The sound speed field and current structure can be inferred from the fluctuations in the travel times. However, the extreme bathymetry of the Monterey Submarine Canyon complicates the acoustic transmissions in the...

  9. Continuous micro-vortex-based nanoparticle manipulation via focused surface acoustic waves. (United States)

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye


    Despite increasing demand in the manipulation of nanoscale objects for next generation biological and industrial processes, there is a lack of methods for reliable separation, concentration and purification of nanoscale objects. Acoustic methods have proven their utility in contactless manipulation of microscale objects mainly relying on the acoustic radiation effect, though the influence of acoustic streaming has typically prevented manipulation at smaller length scales. In this work, however, we explicitly take advantage of the strong acoustic streaming in the vicinity of a highly focused, high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) beam emanating from a series of focused 6 μm substrate wavelength interdigital transducers patterned on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate and actuated with a 633 MHz sinusoidal signal. This streaming field serves to focus fluid streamlines such that incoming particles interact with the acoustic field similarly regardless of their initial starting positions, and results in particle displacements that would not be possible with a travelling acoustic wave force alone. This streaming-induced manipulation of nanoscale particles is maximized with the formation of micro-vortices that extend the width of the microfluidic channel even with the imposition of a lateral flow, occurring when the streaming-induced flow velocities are an order of magnitude larger than the lateral one. We make use of this acoustic streaming to demonstrate the continuous and differential focusing of 100 nm, 300 nm and 500 nm particles.

  10. Time fractional effect on ion acoustic shock waves in ion-pair plasma (United States)

    Abdelwahed, H. G.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Mahmoud, A. A.


    The nonlinear properties of ion acoustic shock waves are studied. The Burgers equation is derived and converted into the time fractional Burgers equation by Agrawal's method. Using the Adomian decomposition method, shock wave solutions of the time fractional Burgers equation are constructed. The effect of the time fractional parameter on the shock wave properties in ion-pair plasma is investigated. The results obtained may be important in investigating the broadband electrostatic shock noise in D- and F-regions of Earth's ionosphere.

  11. Influence of high frequency electric field on the dispersion of ion-acoustic waves in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turky, A.; Cercek, M.; Tavzes, R.


    The modification of the ion-acoustic wave dispersion under the action of a high frequency electric field was studied experimentally, the wave propagating along and against the plasma stream. The frequency of the field amounted to approximately half the electron plasma frequency. It was found that the phase velocity of the ion wave and the plasma drift velocity decrease as the effective high frequency field power increases.

  12. Effects of ion-atom collisions on the propagation and damping of ion-acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; D'Angelo, N.; Jensen, Vagn Orla


    Experiments are described on ion-acoustic wave propagation and damping in alkali plasmas of various degrees of ionization. An increase of the ratio Te/Ti from 1 to approximately 3-4, caused by ion-atom collisions, results in a decrease of the (Landau) damping of the waves. At high gas pressure and....../or low wave frequency a "fluid" picture adequately describes the experimental results....

  13. Volumetric nature of synchronization of the dust acoustic wave with an external modulation (United States)

    Williams, Jeremiah


    The dust acoustic wave (also known as the dust density wave) is low-frequency, longitudinal mode that propagates through the dust component of the dusty plasma system and is self-excited by the free energy from the ion streaming through the dust component. In the laboratory setting, the majority of the self excited dust acoustic waves that are observed are nonlinear, which allows for detailed studies of the nonlinear properties of this wave mode at the kinetic level. One such nonlinear process is synchronization, which is observed when the self-excited dust acoustic wave mode couples with and adjusts to an externally applied modulation. In this poster, we will present volumetric measurements of naturally occurring dust acoustic waves in an rf discharge as it becomes synchronous with an externally applied modulation in the spatial and temporal domains by applying a time-resolved Hilbert Transform to high-speed video imaging of the wave mode over a range of experimental conditions. This work is supported by US National Science Foundation through Grant No. PHY-1615420.

  14. Ionospheric acoustic and gravity wave activity above low-latitude thunderstorms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Erin Hoffmann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In this report, we study the correlation between thunderstorm activity and ionospheric gravity and acoustic waves in the low-latitude ionosphere. We use ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements from the Low Latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) and lightning measurements from the World- Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). We find that ionospheric acoustic waves show a strong diurnal pattern in summer, peaking in the pre-midnight time period. However, the peak magnitude does not correspond to thunderstorm area, and the peak time is significantly after the peak in thunderstorm activity. Wintertime acoustic wave activity has no discernable pattern in these data. The coverage area of ionospheric gravity waves in the summer was found to increase with increasing thunderstorm activity. Wintertime gravity wave activity has an observable diurnal pattern unrelated to thunderstorm activity. These findings show that while thunderstorms are not the only, or dominant source of ionospheric perturbations at low-latitudes, they do have an observable effect on gravity wave activity and could be influential in acoustic wave activity.

  15. Acoustic monitoring method and system in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) (United States)

    O'Donnell, Matthew [Ann Arbor, MI; Ye, Jing Yong [Ann Arbor, MI; Norris, Theodore B [Dexter, MI; Baker, Jr., James R.; Balogh, Lajos P [Ann Arbor, MI; Milas, Susanne M [Ann Arbor, MI; Emelianov, Stanislav Y [Ann Arbor, MI; Hollman, Kyle W [Fenton, MI


    An acoustic monitoring method and system in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) provides information which characterize material which is broken down, microbubbles in the material, and/or the microenvironment of the microbubbles. In one embodiment of the invention, femtosecond laser pulses are focused just inside the surface of a volume of aqueous solution which may include dendrimer nanocomposite (DNC) particles. A tightly focused, high frequency, single-element ultrasonic transducer is positioned such that its focus coincides axially and laterally with this laser focus. When optical breakdown occurs, a microbubble forms and a shock or pressure wave is emitted (i.e., acoustic emission). In addition to this acoustic signal, the microbubble may be actively probed with pulse-echo measurements from the same transducer. After the microbubble forms, received pulse-echo signals have an extra pulse, describing the microbubble location and providing a measure of axial microbubble size. Wavefield plots of successive recordings illustrate the generation, growth, and collapse of microbubbles due to optical breakdown. These same plots can also be used to quantify LIOB thresholds.

  16. Health monitoring of Ceramic Matrix Composites from waveform-based analysis of Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maillet Emmanuel


    Full Text Available Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs are anticipated for use in the hot section of aircraft engines. Their implementation requires the understanding of the various damage modes that are involved and their relation to life expectancy. Acoustic Emission (AE has been shown to be an efficient technique for monitoring damage evolution in CMCs. However, only a waveform-based analysis of AE can offer the possibility to validate and precisely examine the recorded AE data with a view to damage localization and identification. The present work fully integrates wave initiation, propagation and acquisition in the analysis of Acoustic Emission waveforms recorded at various sensors, therefore providing more reliable information to assess the relation between Acoustic Emission and damage modes. The procedure allows selecting AE events originating from damage, accurate determination of their location as well as the characterization of effects of propagation on the recorded waveforms. This approach was developed using AE data recorded during tensile tests on carbon/carbon composites. It was then applied to melt-infiltrated SiC/SiC composites.

  17. Nonlinear excitation of acoustic modes by large amplitude Alfv\\'en waves in a laboratory plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Dorfman, S


    The nonlinear three-wave interaction process at the heart of the parametric decay process is studied by launching counter-propagating Alfv\\'en waves from antennas placed at either end of the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). A resonance in the beat wave response produced by the two launched Alfv\\'en waves is observed and is identified as a damped ion acoustic mode based on the measured dispersion relation. Other properties of the interaction including the spatial profile of the beat mode and response amplitude are also consistent with theoretical predictions for a three-wave interaction driven by a non-linear pondermotive force.

  18. Unattended Acoustic Sensor Systems for Noise Monitoring in National Parks (United States)

    Yaremenko, Vladimir

    Detection and classification of transient acoustic signals is a difficult problem. The problem is often complicated by factors such as the variety of sources that may be encountered, the presence of strong interference and substantial variations in the acoustic environment. Furthermore, for most applications of transient detection and classification, such as speech recognition and environmental monitoring, online detection and classification of these transient events is required. This is even more crucial for applications such as environmental monitoring as it is often done at remote locations where it is unfeasible to set up a large, general-purpose processing system. Instead, some type of custom-designed system is needed which is power efficient yet able to run the necessary signal processing algorithms in near real-time. In this thesis, we describe a custom-designed environmental monitoring system (EMS) which was specifically designed for monitoring air traffic and other sources of interest in national parks. More specifically, this thesis focuses on the capabilities of the EMS and how transient detection, classification and tracking are implemented on it. The Sparse Coefficient State Tracking (SCST) transient detection and classification algorithm was implemented on the EMS board in order to detect and classify transient events. This algorithm was chosen because it was designed for this particular application and was shown to have superior performance compared to other algorithms commonly used for transient detection and classification. The SCST algorithm was implemented on an Artix 7 FPGA with parts of the algorithm running as dedicated custom logic and other parts running sequentially on a soft-core processor. In this thesis, the partitioning and pipelining of this algorithm is explained. Each of the partitions was tested independently to very their functionality with respect to the overall system. Furthermore, the entire SCST algorithm was tested in the

  19. Tools for automated acoustic monitoring within the R package monitoR (United States)

    Katz, Jonathan; Hafner, Sasha D.; Donovan, Therese


    The R package monitoR contains tools for managing an acoustic-monitoring program including survey metadata, template creation and manipulation, automated detection and results management. These tools are scalable for use with small projects as well as larger long-term projects and those with expansive spatial extents. Here, we describe typical workflow when using the tools in monitoR. Typical workflow utilizes a generic sequence of functions, with the option for either binary point matching or spectrogram cross-correlation detectors.

  20. Tools for automated acoustic monitoring within the R package monitoR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonathan; Hafner, Sasha D.; Donovan, Therese


    The R package monitoR contains tools for managing an acoustic-monitoring program including survey metadata, template creation and manipulation, automated detection and results management. These tools are scalable for use with small projects as well as larger long-term projects and those...... with expansive spatial extents. Here, we describe typical workflow when using the tools in monitoR. Typical workflow utilizes a generic sequence of functions, with the option for either binary point matching or spectrogram cross-correlation detectors....

  1. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.


    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  2. Propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a warm dusty plasma with electron inertia (United States)

    Barman, S. N.; Talukdar, A.


    The KdV equation is derived for weakly nonlinear ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized warm dusty plasma with electron inertia. It has been shown that the inclusion of electron inertia and pressure variation of the species not only significantly modifies the basic features (width and amplitude) of dust ion-acoustic solitions, but also introduces a new parametric regime for the existence of positive and negative solitons.

  3. Detection of Metallic and Electronic Radar Targets by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves (United States)


    electronic targets within the near field of an ultra-wideband radar antenna operating in the ultra-high frequency band. 15. SUBJECT TERMS radar ...ARL-TR-8076● JULY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Detection of Metallic and Electronic Radar Targets by Acoustic Modulation of...US Army Research Laboratory Detection of Metallic and Electronic Radar Targets by Acoustic Modulation of Electromagnetic Waves by Gregory

  4. Novel Acoustic Wave Microsystems for Biophysical Studies of Cells (United States)

    Senveli, Sukru Ufuk

    Single cell analysis is an important topic for understanding of diseases. In this understanding, biomechanics approach serves as an important tool as it relates and connects the mechanical properties of biological cells with diseases such as cancer. In this context, analysis methods based on ultrasonics are promising owing to their non-invasive nature and ease of use. However, there is a lack of miniature systems that provide accurate ultrasonic measurements on single cancer cells for diagnostic purposes. The platform presented in this study exploits high frequency acoustic interaction and uses direct coupling of Rayleigh type SAWs with various samples placed inside microcavities to analyze their structural properties. The samples used are aqueous glycerin solutions and polystyrene microbeads for demonstrating proper system operation, and lead up to biological cells. The microcavity is instrumental in trapping a predetermined volume of sample inside and facilitating the interaction of the surface waves with the sample in question via a resonance condition. Ultimately, the resultant SAW reaching the output transducer incurs a phase delay due to its interaction with the sample in the microcavity. The system operates in a different manner compared to similar systems as a result of multiple wave reflections in the small volume and coupling back to the piezoelectric substrate. The proposed microsystem was first analyzed using finite element methods. Liquid and solid media were modeled by considering frequency dependent characteristics. Similarly, mechanical behavior of cells with respect to different conditions is considered, and biological cells are modeled accordingly. Prototype devices were fabricated on quartz and lithium niobate in a cleanroom environment. Process steps were optimized separately for devices with microcavities. Precise fabrication, alignment, and bonding of PDMS microchannels were carried out. Soft microprobes were fabricated out of SU-8, a

  5. Computational simulation in architectural and environmental acoustics methods and applications of wave-based computation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Shinichi; Otsuru, Toru


    This book reviews a variety of methods for wave-based acoustic simulation and recent applications to architectural and environmental acoustic problems. Following an introduction providing an overview of computational simulation of sound environment, the book is in two parts: four chapters on methods and four chapters on applications. The first part explains the fundamentals and advanced techniques for three popular methods, namely, the finite-difference time-domain method, the finite element method, and the boundary element method, as well as alternative time-domain methods. The second part demonstrates various applications to room acoustics simulation, noise propagation simulation, acoustic property simulation for building components, and auralization. This book is a valuable reference that covers the state of the art in computational simulation for architectural and environmental acoustics.  

  6. Solitonic, periodic and quasiperiodic behaviors of dust ion acoustic waves in superthermal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Asit, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majitar, Rangpo, East-Sikkim (India); Chatterjee, Prasanta, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan (India)


    The solitonic, periodic, and quasiperiodic behaviors of dust ion acoustic waves in superthermal plasmas with q-nonextensive electrons are studied using the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems through direct approach. Using a Galilean transformation, model equations are transformed to a Hamiltonian system involving electrostatic potential. The existence of solitary and periodic waves is shown for the unperturbed Hamiltonian system. Analytical forms of these waves are presented depending on physical parameters q and μ. The effects of q and μ are studied on characteristics of nonlinear dust ion acoustic solitary and periodic waves. It is observed that parameters q and μ significantly influence the characteristics of nonlinear dust ion acoustic solitary and periodic structures. Considering an external periodic perturbation, the quasiperiodic behavior of the perturbed Hamiltonian system for dust ion acoustic waves is studied. It is seen that the unperturbed Hamiltonian system has the solitary and periodic wave solutions whereas the perturbed Hamiltonian system has quasiperiodic motion for same values of parameters q,μ and v. (author)

  7. Anomalous width variation of rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves in the context of auroral plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ghosh


    Full Text Available The presence of dynamic, large amplitude solitary waves in the auroral regions of space is well known. Since their velocities are of the order of the ion acoustic speed, they may well be considered as being generated from the nonlinear evolution of ion acoustic waves. However, they do not show the expected width-amplitude correlation for K-dV solitons. Recent POLAR observations have actually revealed that the low altitude rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves are associated with an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. This indicates that a weakly nonlinear theory is not appropriate to describe the solitary structures in the auroral regions. In the present work, a fully nonlinear analysis based on Sagdeev pseudopotential technique has been adopted for both parallel and oblique propagation of rarefactive solitary waves in a two electron temperature multi-ion plasma. The large amplitude solutions have consistently shown an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. The width-amplitude variation profile of obliquely propagating rarefactive solitary waves in a magnetized plasma have been compared with the recent POLAR observations. The width-amplitude variation pattern is found to fit well with the analytical results. It indicates that a fully nonlinear theory of ion acoustic solitary waves may well explain the observed anomalous width variations of large amplitude structures in the auroral region.

  8. The Behavior of Multiple Acoustic Waves in the Lakes Bottom Sediments. (United States)

    Krylov, P.; Nourgaliev, D. K.; Yasonov, P.


    Seismic studies are used for various tasks, such as the study of the bottom sediments properties, finding sunken objects, reconstruction the reservoir history, etc. Multiple acoustic waves are an enormous obstacle in obtaining full seismic record. Multiples from the bottom of a body of water (the surface of the base of water and the rock or sediment beneath it) and the air-water surface are common in lake seismic data. Multiple reflections on the seismic cross-sections are usually located on the double distance from the air/water surface. However, sometime multiple reflections from liquid deposits cannot be generated or they reflected from the deeper horizons. It is observed the phenomenon of changes in reflectance of the water/weakly consolidated sediments acoustic boundary under the influence of the acoustic wave. This phenomenon lies in the fact that after the first acoustic impact and reflection of acoustic wave for some time the reflectance of this boundary remains close to 0. This event on a cross-section can explain by the short-term changes in the properties of bottom sediments under the influence of shock? acoustic wave, with a further reduction of these properties to the next wave generation (generation period of 2 seconds). Perhaps in these deposits occurs thixotropic process. The paper presents the seismic acoustic cross-sections of Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan), Turgoyak (Russia). The work was carried out according to the Russia Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program in the field of scientific research, and partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic research (grants ð 14-05-00785, 16-35-00452).

  9. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,


    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  10. Deposition of aluminium nitride film by magnetron sputtering for diamond-based surface acoustic wave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortet, V.; Nesladek, M.; D' Haen, J.; Vanhoyland, G.; D' Olieslaeger, M. [IMO, Limburgs Universitair Centrum, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Elmazria, O.; Assouar, M.B.; Alnot, P. [LPMIA, Universite H. Poincare, Nancy I, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)


    Diamond/piezoelectric material thin film layered structures are expected to be applied to high frequency surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices because of the high acoustic wave velocity of diamond. Aluminium nitride (AlN) has been chosen as piezoelectric material because of its both high phase velocity and high resistivity. AlN thin films have been deposited by DC pulsed magnetron sputtering on Si(100) substrates. Texture and structure of the films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, cross-section and in-plane view scanning electronic microscopy observation, and atomic force microscopy. One-micron thick, smooth and (002) oriented AlN films have been successfully deposited on freestanding chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond layers. The surface acoustic wave characteristics of AlN/diamond structure were investigated. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. One-way propagation of acoustic waves through a periodic structure (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Xu, Wei; Yan, Xu; Qian, Menglu; Cheng, Qian


    One-way acoustic transmission is achieved through a brass plate with a periodic grating on the surface. Using the Schlieren imaging technique, the positive and negative propagation processes of acoustic waves through the periodic structure were experimentally observed. Simulations were performed using the finite-element method. Both the experimental and simulation results revealed a very large transmission ratio between positive and negative incidence, thus demonstrating the feasibility of using this structure as an acoustic rectifier. The results indicate that the structure has a broadband working frequency. The structure has potential applications in ultrasonic medical devices and sonochemical reactors.

  12. A multi-channel acoustics monitor for perioperative respiratory monitoring: preliminary data. (United States)

    Jafarian, Kamal; Amineslami, Majid; Hassani, Kamran; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Lahiji, Mohammad Niakan; Doyle, D John


    This study pertains to a six-channel acoustic monitoring system for use in patient monitoring during or after surgery. The base hardware consists of a USB data acquisition system, a custom-built six-channel amplification system, and a series of microphones of various designs. The software is based on the MATLAB platform with data acquisition drivers installed. The displayed information includes: time domain signals, frequency domain signals, and tools to aid in the detection of endobronchial intubation. We hypothesize that the above mentioned arrangement may be helpful to the anesthesiologist in recognizing clinical conditions like wheezing, bronchospasm, endobronchial intubation, and apnea. The study also evaluated various types of microphone designs used to transduce breath sounds. The system also features selectable band-pass filtering using MATLAB algorithms as well as a collection of recordings obtained with the system to establish what respiratory acoustic signals look like under various conditions.

  13. Anisotropic surface acoustic waves in tungsten/lithium niobate phononic crystals (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Hong; Yu, Yuan-Hai


    Phononic crystals (PnC) were known for acoustic band gaps for different acoustic waves. PnCs were already applied in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as reflective gratings based on the band gaps. In this paper, another important property of PnCs, the anisotropic propagation, was studied. PnCs made of circular tungsten films on a lithium niobate substrate were analyzed by finite element method. Dispersion curves and equal frequency contours of surface acoustic waves in PnCs of various dimensions were calculated to study the anisotropy. The non-circular equal frequency contours and negative refraction of group velocity were observed. Then PnC was applied as an acoustic lens based on the anisotropic propagation. Trajectory of SAW passing PnC lens was calculated and transmission of SAW was optimized by selecting proper layers of lens and applying tapered PnC. The result showed that PnC lens can suppress diffraction of surface waves effectively and improve the performance of SAW devices.

  14. Operational Performance Analysis of Passive Acoustic Monitoring for Killer Whales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, Shari; Fu, Tao; Ren, Huiying; Deng, Zhiqun; Sun, Yannan; Carlson, Thomas J.


    For the planned tidal turbine site in Puget Sound, WA, the main concern is to protect Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) due to their Endangered Species Act status. A passive acoustic monitoring system is proposed because the whales emit vocalizations that can be detected by a passive system. The algorithm for detection is implemented in two stages. The first stage is an energy detector designed to detect candidate signals. The second stage is a spectral classifier that is designed to reduce false alarms. The evaluation presented here of the detection algorithm incorporates behavioral models of the species of interest, environmental models of noise levels and potential false alarm sources to provide a realistic characterization of expected operational performance.

  15. Progress towards Acoustic Suspended Sediment Transport Monitoring: Fraser River, BC (United States)

    Attard, M. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Kostaschuk, R. A.


    Our ability to predict the timing and quantity of suspended sediment transport is limited because fine sand, silt and clay delivery are supply limited, requiring empirical modeling approaches of limited temporal stability. A solution is the development of continuous monitoring techniques capable of tracking sediment concentrations and grain-size. Here we examine sediment delivery from upstream sources to the lower Fraser River. The sediment budget of the lower Fraser River provides a long-term perspective of the net changes in the channels and in sediment delivery to Fraser Delta. The budget is based on historical sediment rating curves developed from data collected from 1965-1986 by the Water Survey of Canada. We explore the possibility of re-establishing the sediment-monitoring program using hydro-acoustics by evaluating the use of a 300 kHz side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), mounted just downstream of the sand-gravel transition at Mission, for continuous measurement of suspended sediment transport. Complementary field observations include conventional bottle sampling with a P-63 sampler, vertical profiles with a downward-looking 600 kHz aDcp, and 1200 kHz aDcp discharge measurements. We have successfully completed calibration of the downward-looking aDcp with the P-63 samples; the side-looking aDcp signals remain under investigation. A comparison of several methods for obtaining total sediment flux indicates that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) closely follows discharge through the freshet and peaks in total SSC and sand SSC coincide with peak measurements of discharge. Low flows are dominated by fine sediment and grain size increases with higher flows. This research assesses several techniques for obtaining sediment flux and contributes to the understanding of sediment delivery to sand-bedded portions of the river.

  16. Integrated microfluidics system using surface acoustic wave and electrowetting on dielectrics technology. (United States)

    Li, Y; Fu, Y Q; Brodie, S D; Alghane, M; Walton, A J


    This paper presents integrated microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology combining surface acoustic wave (SAW) and electro-wetting on dielectric (EWOD). This combination has been designed to provide enhanced microfluidic functionality and the integrated devices have been fabricated using a single mask lithographic process. The integrated technology uses EWOD to guide and precisely position microdroplets which can then be actuated by SAW devices for particle concentration, acoustic streaming, mixing and ejection, as well as for sensing using a shear-horizontal wave SAW device. A SAW induced force has also been employed to enhance the EWOD droplet splitting function.

  17. Different quantization mechanisms in single-electron pumps driven by surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, P.; Gloos, K.; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev


    We have studied the acoustoelectric current in single-electron pumps driven by surface acoustic waves. We have found that in certain parameter ranges two different sets of quantized steps dominate the acoustoelectric current versus gate-voltage characteristics. In some cases, both types of quanti......We have studied the acoustoelectric current in single-electron pumps driven by surface acoustic waves. We have found that in certain parameter ranges two different sets of quantized steps dominate the acoustoelectric current versus gate-voltage characteristics. In some cases, both types...

  18. Unipolar and Bipolar High-Magnetic-Field Sensors Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Resonators (United States)

    Polewczyk, V.; Dumesnil, K.; Lacour, D.; Moutaouekkil, M.; Mjahed, H.; Tiercelin, N.; Petit Watelot, S.; Mishra, H.; Dusch, Y.; Hage-Ali, S.; Elmazria, O.; Montaigne, F.; Talbi, A.; Bou Matar, O.; Hehn, M.


    While surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors have been used to measure temperature, pressure, strains, and low magnetic fields, the capability to measure bipolar fields and high fields is lacking. In this paper, we report magnetic surface acoustic wave sensors that consist of interdigital transducers made of a single magnetostrictive material, either Ni or TbFe2 , or based on exchange-biased (Co /IrMn ) multilayers. By controlling the ferromagnet magnetic properties, high-field sensors can be obtained with unipolar or bipolar responses. The issue of hysteretic response of the ferromagnetic material is especially addressed, and the control of the magnetic properties ensures the reversible behavior in the SAW response.

  19. Experimental study of nonlinear dust acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, P; Sen, A; Kaw, P K


    The excitation and propagation of finite amplitude low frequency solitary waves are investigated in an Argon plasma impregnated with kaolin dust particles. A nonlinear longitudinal dust acoustic solitary wave is excited by pulse modulating the discharge voltage with a negative potential. It is found that the velocity of the solitary wave increases and the width decreases with the increase of the modulating voltage, but the product of the solitary wave amplitude and the square of the width remains nearly constant. The experimental findings are compared with analytic soliton solutions of a model Kortweg-de Vries equation.

  20. Dynamic motions of ion acoustic waves in plasmas with superthermal electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Asit, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology (India); Chatterjee, Prasanta [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati University (India); Wong, C.S. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lampur (Malaysia)


    The dynamic motions of ion acoustic waves an unmagnetized plasma with superthermal (q-non extensive) electrons are investigated employing the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems through direct approach. Using traveling wave transformation and initial conditions, basic equations are transformed to a planar dynamical system. Using numerical computations, all possible phase portraits of the dynamical system are presented. Corresponding to homoclinic and periodic orbits of the phase portraits, two new analytical forms of solitary and periodic wave solutions are derived depending on the non extensive parameter q and speed v of the traveling wave. Considering an external periodic perturbation, the quasiperiodic and chaotic motions of ion acoustic waves are presented. Depending upon different ranges of non extensive parameter q, the effect of q is shown on quasiperiodic and chaotic motions of ion acoustic waves with fixed value of v. It is seen that the unperturbed dynamical system has the solitary and periodic wave solutions, but the perturbed dynamical system has the quasiperiodic and chaotic motions with same values of parameters q and v. (author)

  1. Surface Generated Acoustic Wave Biosensors for the Detection of Pathogens: A Review (United States)

    Rocha-Gaso, María-Isabel; March-Iborra, Carmen; Montoya-Baides, Ángel; Arnau-Vives, Antonio


    This review presents a deep insight into the Surface Generated Acoustic Wave (SGAW) technology for biosensing applications, based on more than 40 years of technological and scientific developments. In the last 20 years, SGAWs have been attracting the attention of the biochemical scientific community, due to the fact that some of these devices - Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave (SH-SAW), Surface Transverse Wave (STW), Love Wave (LW), Flexural Plate Wave (FPW), Shear Horizontal Acoustic Plate Mode (SH-APM) and Layered Guided Acoustic Plate Mode (LG-APM) - have demonstrated a high sensitivity in the detection of biorelevant molecules in liquid media. In addition, complementary efforts to improve the sensing films have been done during these years. All these developments have been made with the aim of achieving, in a future, a highly sensitive, low cost, small size, multi-channel, portable, reliable and commercially established SGAW biosensor. A setup with these features could significantly contribute to future developments in the health, food and environmental industries. The second purpose of this work is to describe the state-of-the-art of SGAW biosensors for the detection of pathogens, being this topic an issue of extremely importance for the human health. Finally, the review discuses the commercial availability, trends and future challenges of the SGAW biosensors for such applications. PMID:22346725

  2. The Ion Acoustic Solitary Waves and Double Layers in the Solar Wind Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Choi


    Full Text Available Ion acoustic solitary wave in a plasma consisting of electrons and ions with an external magnetic field is reinvestigated using the Sagdeev's potential method. Although the Sagdeev potential has a singularity for n<1, where n is the ion number density, we obtain new solitary wave solutions by expanding the Sagdeev potential up to δ n^4 near n=1. They are compressiv (rarefactive waves and shock type solitary waves. These waves can exist all together as a superposed wave which may be used to explain what would be observed in the solar wind plasma. We compared our theoretical results with the data of the Freja satellite in the study of Wu et al.(1996. Also it is shown that these solitary waves propagate with a subsonic speed.

  3. Acoustic Bloch Wave Propagation in a Periodic Waveguide (United States)


    matrix (Ramo, Whinnery, and Van Duzer , 1965). Given the amplitudes of the two travelling waves in a single cell, then, we can find the amplitudes of...harmonics (Ramo, Whinnery, and Van Duzer , 1965). ; is interesting to note that because the range of the sum index n in Eq. 2.53 includ negative integers...34backwar. wave structures" (Ramo, Whinnery, and Van Duzer , 1965). 2.4.3 The Convolution Representation The apparent simplicity of the Bloch wave function

  4. Extracting the Green's function of attenuating heterogeneous acoustic media from uncorrelated waves. (United States)

    Snieder, Roel


    The Green's function of acoustic or elastic wave propagation can, for loss-less media, be retrieved by correlating the wave field that is excited by random sources and is recorded at two locations. Here the generalization of this idea to attenuating acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium is addressed, and it is shown that the Green's function can be retrieved from waves that are excited throughout the volume by spatially uncorrelated injection sources with a power spectrum that is proportional to the local dissipation rate. For a finite volume, one needs both volume sources and sources at the bounding surface for the extraction of the Green's functions. For the special case of a homogeneous attenuating medium defined over a finite volume, the phase and geometrical spreading of the Green's function is correctly retrieved when the volume sources are ignored, but the attenuation is not.

  5. Propagation of flexural waves in inhomogeneous plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear acoustic black holes. (United States)

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua


    Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Asymmetric transmission of acoustic waves in a layer thickness distribution gradient structure using metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-San Chen


    Full Text Available This research presents an innovative asymmetric transmission design using alternate layers of water and metamaterial with complex mass density. The directional transmission behavior of acoustic waves is observed numerically inside the composite structure with gradient layer thickness distribution and the rectifying performance of the present design is evaluated. The layer thickness distributions with arithmetic and geometric gradients are considered and the effect of gradient thickness on asymmetric wave propagation is systematically investigated using finite element simulation. The numerical results indicate that the maximum pressure density and transmission through the proposed structure are significantly influenced by the wave propagation direction over a wide range of audible frequencies. Tailoring the thickness of the layered structure enables the manipulation of asymmetric wave propagation within the desired frequency range. In conclusion, the proposed design offers a new possibility for developing directional-dependent acoustic devices.

  7. Real-time monitoring of controllable cavitation erosion in a vessel phantom with passive acoustic mapping. (United States)

    Lu, Shukuan; Shi, Aiwei; Jing, Bowen; Du, Xuan; Wan, Mingxi


    Cavitation erosion in blood vessel plays an important role in ultrasound thrombolysis, drug delivery, and other clinical applications. The controllable superficial vessel erosion based on ultrasonic standing wave (USW) has been used to effectively prevent vessel ruptures and haemorrhages, and optical method is used to observe the experiments. But optical method can only work in transparent media. Compared with standard B-mode imaging, passive acoustic mapping (PAM) can monitor erosion in real time and has better sensitivity of cavitation detection. However, the conventionally used PAM has limitations in imaging resolution and artifacts. In this study, a unique PAM method that combined the robust Capon beamformer (RCB) with the sign coherence factor (SCF) was proposed to monitor the superficial vessel erosion in real time. The performance of the proposed method was validated by simulations. In vitro experiments showed that the lateral (axial) resolution of the proposed PAM was 2.31±0.51 (3.19±0.38) times higher than time exposure acoustics (TEA)-based PAM and 1.73±0.38 (1.76±0.48) times higher than RCB-based PAM, and the cavitation-to-artifact ratio (CAR) of the proposed PAM could be improved by 22.5±3.2dB and 7.1±1.2dB compared with TEA and RCB-based PAM. These results showed that the proposed PAM can precisely monitor the superficial vessel erosion and the erosion shift after USW modulation. This work may have the potential of developing a useful tool for precise spatial control and real-time monitoring of the superficial vessel erosion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early corrosion monitoring of prestressed concrete piles using acoustic emission (United States)

    Vélez, William; Matta, Fabio; Ziehl, Paul H.


    The depassivation and corrosion of bonded prestressing steel strands in concrete bridge members may lead to major damage or collapse before visual inspections uncover evident signs of damage, and well before the end of the design life. Recognizing corrosion in its early stage is desirable to plan and prioritize remediation strategies. The Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is a rational means to develop structural health monitoring and prognosis systems for the early detection and location of corrosion in concrete. Compelling features are the sensitivity to events related to micro- and macrodamage, non-intrusiveness, and suitability for remote and wireless applications. There is little understanding of the correlation between AE and the morphology and extent of early damage on the steel surface. In this paper, the evidence collected from prestressed concrete (PC) specimens that are exposed to salt water is discussed vis-à-vis AE data from continuous monitoring. The specimens consist of PC strips that are subjected to wet/dry salt water cycles, representing portions of bridge piles that are exposed to tidal action. Evidence collected from the specimens includes: (a) values of half-cell potential and linear polarization resistance to recognize active corrosion in its early stage; and (b) scanning electron microscopy micrographs of steel areas from two specimens that were decommissioned once the electrochemical measurements indicated a high probability of active corrosion. These results are used to evaluate the AE activity resulting from early corrosion.

  9. Propagation of surface acoustic waves in n-type GaAs films (United States)

    Wu, Chhi-Chong; Tsai, Jensan


    The effect of nonparabolicity on the amplification of surface acoustic waves in n-type GaAs films is investigated quantum mechanically in the GHz frequency region. Numerical results show that the amplification coefficient for the nonparabolic band structure is enhanced due to the nonlinear nature of the energy band in semiconductors. Moreover, the amplification coefficients in semiconductors depend on the temperature, the electronic screening effect, the frequency of sound waves, the applied electric field, and the thickness of the semiconductor film.

  10. Universal morphologies of fluid interfaces deformed by the radiation pressure of acoustic or electromagnetic waves. (United States)

    Bertin, N; Chraïbi, H; Wunenburger, R; Delville, J-P; Brasselet, E


    We unveil the generation of universal morphologies of fluid interfaces by radiation pressure regardless of the nature of the wave, whether acoustic or optical. Experimental observations reveal interface deformations endowed with steplike features that are shown to result from the interplay between the wave propagation and the shape of the interface. The results are supported by numerical simulations and a quantitative interpretation based on the waveguiding properties of the field is provided.

  11. A porosity-based Biot model for acoustic waves in snow


    Sidler, Rolf


    Phase velocities and attenuation in snow can not be explained by the widely used elastic or viscoelastic models for acoustic wave propagation. Instead, Biot's model of wave propagation in porous materials should be used. However, the application of Biot's model is complicated by the large property space of the underlying porous material. Here the properties of ice and air as well as empirical relationships are used to define the properties of snow as a function of porosity. Based on these rel...

  12. Rapid Salmonella detection using an acoustic wave device combined with the RCA isothermal DNA amplification method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonis Kordas


    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a major foodborne pathogen that causes Salmonellosis, posing a serious threat for public health and economy; thus, the development of fast and sensitive methods is of paramount importance for food quality control and safety management. In the current work, we are presenting a new approach where an isothermal amplification method is combined with an acoustic wave device for the development of a label free assay for bacteria detection. Specifically, our method utilizes a Love wave biosensor based on a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW device combined with the isothermal Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA method; various protocols were tested regarding the DNA amplification and detection, including off-chip amplification at two different temperatures (30 °C and room temperature followed by acoustic detection and on-chip amplification and detection at room temperature, with the current detection limit being as little as 100 Bacteria Cell Equivalents (BCE/sample. Our acoustic results showed that the acoustic ratio, i.e., the amplitude over phase change observed during DNA binding, provided the only sensitive means for product detection while the measurement of amplitude or phase alone could not discriminate positive from negative samples. The method's fast analysis time together with other inherent advantages i.e., portability, potential for multi-analysis, lower sample volumes and reduced power consumption, hold great promise for employing the developed assay in a Lab on Chip (LoC platform for the integrated analysis of Salmonella in food samples.

  13. Propagation of acoustic shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries and into shadow zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjouy, C., E-mail:; Ollivier, S.; Dragna, D.; Blanc-Benon, P. [Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides et d’Acoustique, UMR CNRS 5509, École Centrale de Lyon, Université de Lyon, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Marsden, O. [European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecasts, United Kingdom Shinfield (United Kingdom)


    The study of acoustic shock propagation in complex environments is of great interest for urban acoustics, but also for source localization, an underlying problematic in military applications. To give a better understanding of the phenomenon taking place during the propagation of acoustic shocks, laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations were performed to study the propagation of weak shock waves between parallel rigid boundaries, and into shadow zones created by corners. In particular, this work focuses on the study of the local interactions taking place between incident, reflected, and diffracted waves according to the geometry in both regular or irregular – also called Von Neumann – regimes of reflection. In this latter case, an irregular reflection can lead to the formation of a Mach stem that can modify the spatial distribution of the acoustic pressure. Short duration acoustic shock waves were produced by a 20 kilovolts electric spark source and a schlieren optical method was used to visualize the incident shockfront and the reflection/diffraction patterns. Experimental results are compared to numerical simulations based on the high-order finite difference solution of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.

  14. Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers (KdV–Burgers) equation and modified Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers equation are derived in strongly coupled dusty plasmas containing nonthermal ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons. It is found that solitary waves and shock waves can be produced in this medium. The effects of ...

  15. Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers (KdV–Burgers) equation and modified. Korteweg–de Vries–Burgers equation are derived in strongly coupled dusty plasmas con- taining nonthermal ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons. It is found that solitary waves and shock waves can be produced in this medium.

  16. Analysis of ray trajectories of flexural waves propagating over generalized acoustic black hole indentations (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Ji, Hongli; Qiu, Jinhao; Cheng, Li


    An Acoustic Black Hole (ABH) indentation embedded in thin-walled structures has been proved remarkably useful for broadband flexural wave focalization, in which the phase velocity of the flexural waves and the refractive index of the media undergo gradual changes from the outside towards the center of the indentation. A generalized two-dimensional ABH indentation can be defined by three geometric parameters: a power index, an extra thickness and a radius of a plateau at the indentation center. The dependence of the energy focalization on these parameters as well as the energy focalization process is of paramount importance for the understanding and design of effective ABH indentations. This work aims at investigating the energy focalization characteristics of flexural waves in such generalized ABH indentations. The calculation of the flexural ray trajectories is conducted to reveal and analyze the wave propagation features through numerical integration of the eikonal equation from the Geometric Acoustics Approximation (GAA). The theoretical results are verified by both experiment using wave visualization technique based on laser acoustic scanning method and finite element (FE) simulations. Finally, the influence of the geometric parameters on the flexural wave focalization characteristics in ABH indentations is discussed in detail.

  17. Acoustic wave and eikonal equations in a transformed metric space for various types of anisotropy. (United States)

    Noack, Marcus M; Clark, Stuart


    Acoustic waves propagating in anisotropic media are important for various applications. Even though these wave phenomena do not generally occur in nature, they can be used to approximate wave motion in various physical settings. We propose a method to derive wave equations for anisotropic wave propagation by adjusting the dispersion relation according to a selected type of anisotropy and transforming it into another metric space. The proposed method allows for the derivation of acoustic wave and eikonal equations for various types of anisotropy, and generalizes anisotropy by interpreting it as a change of the metric instead of a change of velocity with direction. The presented method reduces the scope of acoustic anisotropy to a selection of a velocity or slowness surface and a tensor that describes the transformation into a new metric space. Experiments are shown for spatially dependent ellipsoidal anisotropy in homogeneous and inhomogeneous media and sandstone, which shows vertical transverse isotropy. The results demonstrate the stability and simplicity of the solution process for certain types of anisotropy and the equivalency of the solutions.

  18. Anomalous Refraction of Acoustic Guided Waves in Solids with Geometrically Tapered Metasurfaces. (United States)

    Zhu, Hongfei; Semperlotti, Fabio


    The concept of a metasurface opens new exciting directions to engineer the refraction properties in both optical and acoustic media. Metasurfaces are typically designed by assembling arrays of subwavelength anisotropic scatterers able to mold incoming wave fronts in rather unconventional ways. The concept of a metasurface was pioneered in photonics and later extended to acoustics while its application to the propagation of elastic waves in solids is still relatively unexplored. We investigate the design of acoustic metasurfaces to control elastic guided waves in thin-walled structural elements. These engineered discontinuities enable the anomalous refraction of guided wave modes according to the generalized Snell's law. The metasurfaces are made out of locally resonant toruslike tapers enabling an accurate phase shift of the incoming wave, which ultimately affects the refraction properties. We show that anomalous refraction can be achieved on transmitted antisymmetric modes (A_{0}) either when using a symmetric (S_{0}) or antisymmetric (A_{0}) incident wave, the former clearly involving mode conversion. The same metasurface design also allows achieving structure embedded planar focal lenses and phase masks for nonparaxial propagation.

  19. Horizontal Acoustic Barriers for Protection from Seismic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available The basic idea of a seismic barrier is to protect an area occupied by a building or a group of buildings from seismic waves. Depending on nature of seismic waves that are most probable in a specific region, different kinds of seismic barriers can be suggested. Herein, we consider a kind of a seismic barrier that represents a relatively thin surface layer that prevents surface seismic waves from propagating. The ideas for these barriers are based on one Chadwick's result concerning nonpropagation condition for Rayleigh waves in a clamped half-space, and Love's theorem that describes condition of nonexistence for Love waves. The numerical simulations reveal that to be effective the length of the horizontal barriers should be comparable to the typical wavelength.

  20. Measurement of Acoustic-to-Seismic Conversion Using T-wave Signals Recorded at Ascension Island and Diego Garcia (United States)

    Pulli, J. J.; Kofford, A. S.; Newman, K. R.; Krumhansl, P. A.


    T-wave signals from sub-sea earthquakes are often recorded on coastal or island seismic stations (Linehan, 1940; Okal, 2008). The physical process of the acoustic-to-seismic conversion is poorly understood but likely depends on factors such as seafloor relief and sediment thickness at the location where the interaction occurs. Quantification of the conversion process is necessary to understand and interpret the seismic recordings, and allow for the calculation of in-water acoustic levels from these recordings where no in-water sensor recordings are available. Applications for this knowledge would include the calculation of in-water explosion yields and seismic airgun source levels. Here we present the measurement of the acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions at Ascension Island and Diego Garcia using hydroacoustic data from the International Monitoring System and broadband seismic data from the Global Seismic Network. For Ascension Island, a volcanic island formed above magmatic plumes, we used T-wave signals from earthquakes on the Central Mid-Atlantic Ridge and associated fracture zones. For Diego Garcia, an atoll of carbonate sequences and no volcanism, we used T-wave signals from earthquakes along the Sumatran Subduction Zone, the Indian Ocean Ridges, and the Chagos Arch. The methodology is based on the smoothed cross-spectra over a frequency band that is common to the acoustic and seismic recordings, typically 2-18 Hz. Preliminary results indicate that at 5 Hz the acoustic-to-seismic conversion is 2-4 times more efficient at Ascension Island than at Diego Garcia (124 nm/s/Pa vs. 51 nm/s/Pa, respectively), but nearly equal at 10 Hz (20 nm/s/Pa). At 15 Hz the conversion is more efficient at Diego Garcia (13 nm/s/Pa vs. 8 nm/s/Pa at Ascension). We also investigate the azimuthal variance of this transfer function, as well as the differences between the three components of seismic motion. As a verification of the methodology, we use the equivalent time domain

  1. Development of a standing wave apparatus for calibrating acoustic vector sensors and hydrophones. (United States)

    Lenhart, Richard D; Sagers, Jason D; Wilson, Preston S


    An apparatus was developed to calibrate acoustic hydrophones and vector sensors between 25 and 2000 Hz. A standing wave field is established inside a vertically oriented, water-filled, elastic-walled waveguide by a piston velocity source at the bottom and a pressure-release boundary condition at the air/water interface. A computer-controlled linear positioning system allows a device under test to be precisely located in the water column while the acoustic response is measured. Some of the challenges of calibrating hydrophones and vector sensors in such an apparatus are discussed, including designing the waveguide to mitigate dispersion, understanding the impact of waveguide structural resonances on the acoustic field, and developing algorithms to post-process calibration measurement data performed in a standing wave field. Data from waveguide characterization experiments and calibration measurements are presented and calibration uncertainty is reported.

  2. Interaction acoustic waves with a layered structure containing layer of bubbly liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubaidullin Damir


    Full Text Available The results of a theoretical study of the effect of a bubble layer on the propagation of acoustic waves through a thin three-layered barrier at various angles of incidence are presented. The barrier consists of a layer of gel with polydisperse air bubbles bounded by layers of polycarbonate. It is shown that the presence of polydisperse air bubbles in the gel layer significantly changes the transmission and reflection of the acoustic signal when it interacts with such an obstacle for frequencies close to the resonant frequency of natural oscillations of the bubbles. The frequency range is identified where the angle of incidence has little effect on the reflection and transmission coefficients of acoustic waves.

  3. Dependence of oscillational instabilities on the amplitude of the acoustic wave in single-axis levitators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozco-Santillán, Arturo; Ruiz-Boullosa, Ricardo; Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente


    It is well known that acoustic waves exert forces on a boundary with which they interact; these forces can be so intense that they can compensate for the weight of small objects up to a few grams. In this way, it is possible to maintain solid or liquid samples levitating in a fluid, avoiding...... the use of containers, which may be undesirable for certain applications. Moreover, small samples can be manipulated by means of acoustic waves. In this paper, we report a study on the oscillational instabilities that can appear on a levitated solid sphere in single-axis acoustic devices. A theory...... published on the topic predicts that these instabilities appear when the levitator is driven with a frequency above the resonant frequency of the empty device. The theory also shows that the instabilities can either saturate to a state with constant amplitude, or they can grow without limit until the object...

  4. High-frequency programmable acoustic wave device realized through ferroelectric domain engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivry, Yachin, E-mail:, E-mail:; Wang, Nan; Durkan, Colm, E-mail:, E-mail: [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, 11 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FF (United Kingdom)


    Surface acoustic wave devices are extensively used in contemporary wireless communication devices. We used atomic force microscopy to form periodic macroscopic ferroelectric domains in sol-gel deposited lead zirconate titanate, where each ferroelectric domain is composed of many crystallites, each of which contains many microscopic ferroelastic domains. We examined the electro-acoustic characteristics of the apparatus and found a resonator behavior similar to that of an equivalent surface or bulk acoustic wave device. We show that the operational frequency of the device can be tailored by altering the periodicity of the engineered domains and demonstrate high-frequency filter behavior (>8 GHz), allowing low-cost programmable high-frequency resonators.

  5. A Novel Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator for Filters and Sensors Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Zhang


    Full Text Available Bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonators are widely applied in filters and gravimetric sensors for physical or biochemical sensing. In this work, a new architecture of BAW resonator is demonstrated, which introduces a pair of reflection layers onto the top of a thin film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR device. The new device can be transformed between type I and type II dispersions by varying the thicknesses of the reflection layers. A computational modeling is developed to fully investigate the acoustic waves and the dispersion types of the device theoretically. The novel structure makes it feasible to fabricate both type resonators in one filter, which offers an effective alternative to improve the pass band flatness in the filter. Additionally, this new device exhibits a high quality factor (Q in the liquid, which opens a possibility for real time measurement in solutions with a superior limitation of detection (LOD in sensor applications.

  6. Time-domain imaging of gigahertz surface waves on an acoustic metamaterial (United States)

    Otsuka, Paul H.; Mezil, Sylvain; Matsuda, Osamu; Tomoda, Motonobu; Maznev, Alexei A.; Gan, Tian; Fang, Nicholas; Boechler, Nicholas; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Wright, Oliver B.


    We extend time-domain imaging in acoustic metamaterials to gigahertz frequencies. Using a sample consisting of a regular array of ∼1 μm diameter silica microspheres forming a two-dimensional triangular lattice on a substrate, we implement an ultrafast technique to probe surface acoustic wave propagation inside the metamaterial area and incident on the metamaterial from a region containing no microspheres, which reveals the acoustic metamaterial dispersion, the presence of band gaps and the acoustic transmission properties of the interface. A theoretical model of this locally resonant metamaterial based on normal and shear-rotational resonances of the spheres fits the data well. Using this model, we show analytically how the sphere elastic coupling parameters influence the gap widths.

  7. Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 80; Issue 6. Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with arbitrarily charged dust and trapped electrons. O Rahman A A Mamun. Volume 80 Issue 6 June 2013 pp ...

  8. Studies on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) dosimeter sensor for organophosphorous nerve agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.; Harteveld, J.L.N.


    As a follow-up of previous work on a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensor for nerve agents, irreversible response effects have been studied in more detail. Surface analytical studies indicated that degradation products are responsible for the effects observed. In addition it was tried to explore these

  9. Acoustic wave propagation in Ni3 R (R= Mo, Nb, Ta) compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 76; Issue 4. Acoustic wave propagation in Ni3 ( = Mo, Nb, Ta) compounds. Pramod Kumar Yadawa ... Author Affiliations. Pramod Kumar Yadawa1. Department of Applied Physics, AMITY School of Engineering and Technology, Bijwasan, New Delhi 110 061, India ...

  10. A filtered convolution method for the computation of acoustic wave fields in very large spatiotemporal domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.D.; Huijssen, J.


    The full-wave computation of transient acoustic fields with sizes in the order of 100x100x100 wavelengths by 100 periods requires a numerical method that is extremely efficient in terms of storage and computation. Iterative integral equation methods offer a good performance on these points, provided

  11. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with two-temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    acoustic waves in a dusty plasma (containing a negatively charged dust fluid, Boltzmann distributed electrons and two-temperature nonthermal ions) is investigated. The effects of two-temperature nonthermal ions on the basic properties of small but ...

  12. Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma with two-temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. By using reductive perturbation method, the nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma (containing a negatively charged dust fluid, Boltzmann distributed electrons and two-temperature nonthermal ions) is investigated. The effects of two-temperature nonthermal ions on the basic properties of ...

  13. Effect of face fracturing on shear wave coda quality factor estimated from acoustic emission events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgarume, T


    Full Text Available The dependency of the quality factor derived from S wave coda (Q(subc)) on frequency is analysed in order to understand the effect of fracturing ahead of a mining stope. Micro seismic events recorded using acoustic emission sensors in a mining...

  14. First-principle simulation of the acoustic radiation force on microparticles in ultrasonic standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Jakob Herring; Bruus, Henrik


    The recent development in the field of microparticle acoutophoresis in microsystems has led to an increased need for more accurate theoretical predections for the acoustic radiation force on a single microparticle in an ultrasonic standing wave. Increasingly detailed analytical solutions of this ...

  15. Observation of depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in partially uncoated optical fibers (United States)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji


    We observed the depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) spectrum in a highly nonlinear fiber with a partially side-stripped polymer coat. The linewidth of the GAWBS spectral line at 941 MHz was measured to be 6.4 MHz, which was 0.9 times that of a coated fiber.

  16. Two-soliton and three-soliton interactions of electron acoustic waves ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the Kortweg–de Vries (KdV) equation [2]. On the other hand, electron acoustic waves (EAWs) do exhibit soliton solutions and have been investigated in detail both theoretically and experimentally by many resear- chers [3–5]. The evolution of small-amplitude EAWs in collisionless plasma is usually. Pramana – J. Phys.

  17. Planar dust-acoustic waves in electron–positron–ion–dust plasmas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 19, 2014 ... Abstract. Propagation of small but finite nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves are investigated in a planar unmagnetized dusty plasma, which consists of electrons, positrons, ions and negatively charged dust particles with different sizes and masses. A Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation is obtained by ...

  18. Propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma with non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: kalyan MS received 30 April 2005; revised 18 April 2007; accepted 1 May 2007. Abstract. For an unmagnetised collisionless plasma .... constant. We further assume that the phase velocity of the ion-acoustic wave is low compared to the electron thermal velocity. The charge neutrality in the state.

  19. Modeling nonlinear acoustic waves in media with inhomogeneities in the coefficient of nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demi, L.; Verweij, M.D.; Van Dongen, K.W.A.


    The refraction and scattering of nonlinear acoustic waves play an important role in the realistic application of medical ultrasound. One cause of these effects is the tissue dependence of the nonlinear medium behavior. A method that is able to model those effects is essential for the design of

  20. Planar dust-acoustic waves in electron–positron–ion–dust plasmas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 84; Issue 1 ... Propagation of small but finite nonlinear dust-acoustic solitary waves are investigated in a planar unmagnetized dusty plasma, which consists of electrons, ... School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong, 643000, China ...

  1. Acoustic model of micro-pressure wave emission from a high-speed train tunnel (United States)

    Miyachi, T.


    The micro-pressure wave (MPW) radiated from a tunnel portal can, if audible, cause serious problems around tunnel portals in high-speed railways. This has created a need to develop an acoustic model that considers the topography around a radiation portal in order to predict MPWs more accurately and allow for higher speed railways in the future. An acoustic model of MPWs based on linear acoustic theory is developed in this study. First, the directivity of sound sources and the acoustical effect of topography are investigated using a train launcher facility around a portal on infinitely flat ground and with an infinite vertical baffle plate. The validity of linear acoustic theory is then discussed through a comparison of numerical results obtained using the finite difference method (FDM) and experimental results. Finally, an acoustic model is derived that considers sound sources up to the second order and Green's function to represent the directivity and effect of topography, respectively. The results predicted by this acoustic model are shown to be in good agreement with both numerical and experimental results.

  2. Lamb wave structural health monitoring using frequency-wavenumber analysis (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu


    Lamb waves have shown great potential for structural health monitoring (SHM) in plate-like structures. Their attractive features include sensitivity to a variety of damage types and the capability of traveling relatively long distance. However, Lamb waves are dispersive and multimodal. Moreover, the propagating Lamb waves may include incident, reflected and converted waves. Various wave modes make the interpretation of Lamb wave signal very difficult. This paper presents studies on Lamb wave propagation using frequency-wavenumber analysis. By using two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FT), the time-space wavefield can be transformed into frequency-wavenumber domain, where various wave modes and waves propagating in different directions can be clearly discerned. By a frequency-wavenumber filtering strategy, the desired wave modes or wave propagation at certain direction can be extracted and further utilized for the purpose of SHM. The frequency-wavenumber analysis and its applications to Lamb wave SHM are illustrated through two experimental investigations. One is Lamb wave propagation in a plate half immersed in water and the other is Lamb wave mode decomposition by using two-dimensional frequency-wavenumber filtering strategy. Lamb waves are excited by piezoelectric wafer sensor and measured by scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Various wave modes were visualized and successfully decomposed.

  3. Modeling of Acoustic Pressure Waves in Level-Dependent Earplugs (United States)


    of these boundary conditions were applied using user-defined functions ( UDFs ), which are user-written C- code that allows direct access to the FLUENT...ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED c. THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UL 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 32 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ...of interest in auditory acoustics (4). The commercial CFD code FLUENT (5) was used in this study. FLUENT is a general-purpose CFD package that

  4. Diffraction of acoustic wave through a slit with a finitethickness (United States)

    Burova, Marina; Andreeva, Andreana; Burov, Julian


    The acoustic field, transmitted through parallelepiped from fused silica (immersed in water) is registered, which parallelepiped acts the part of slit with a finite thickness. It is shown, that the finite thickness leads to a change of the acoustic wavelength and the distance up to a registration plane. The distance increases, if the acoustic velocity in the material is higher than that in water, independently of actual distance between the slit and data plane. It is shown, if the slit with finite thickness is placed, the Fresnel zone may be changed in comparison with that observed at the diffraction through infinite thin slit at the same distance (up to a registration plane) for given wavelength. Program module is created by MatLab program for simulation of the diffraction field trough an infinite slit. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical ones, obtained from the simulation. The simulation results shown, that at diffraction trough a slit with finite thickness, the registration distance of the far-field diffraction increases, i.e. the Fraunhofer zone may be drawn forward. The image of the object may be obtained in this case directly by inverse Fourier transformation from the registered data in the Fraunhofer zone.

  5. The Influence of Trapped Particles on the Parametric Decay Instability of Near-Acoustic Waves (United States)

    Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Driscoll, C. F.


    We present quantitative measurements of a decay instability to lower frequencies of near-acoustic waves. These experiments are conducted on pure ion plasmas confined in a cylindrical Penning-Malmberg trap. The axisymmetric, standing plasma waves have near-acoustic dispersion, discretized by the axial wave number kz =mz(π /Lp) . The nonlinear coupling rates are measured between large amplitude mz = 2 (pump) waves and small amplitude mz = 1 (daughter) waves, which have a small frequency detuning Δω = 2ω1 -ω2 . Classical 3-wave parametric coupling rates are proportional to pump wave amplitude as Γ (δn2 /n0) , with oscillatory energy exchange for Γ Δω / 2 . Experiments on cold plasmas agree quantitatively for oscillatory energy exchange, and agree within a factor-of-two for decay instability rates. However, nascent theory suggest that this latter agreement is merely fortuitous, and that the instability mechanism is trapped particles. Experiments at higher temperatures show that trapped particles reduce the instability threshold below classical 3-wave theory predictions. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1414570, and DOE Grants DE-SC0002451 and DE-SC0008693. M. Affolter is supported by the DOE FES Postdoctoral Research Program administered by ORISE for the DOE. ORISE is managed by ORAU under DOE Contract Number DE-SC0014664.

  6. Enhancing the sensitivity of three-axis detectable surface acoustic wave gyroscope by using a floating thin piezoelectric membrane (United States)

    Lee, Munhwan; Lee, Keekeun


    A new type of surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscope was developed on a floating thin piezoelectric membrane to enhance sensitivity and reliability by removing a bulk noise effect and by importing a higher amplitude of SAW. The developed device constitutes a two-port SAW resonator with a metallic dot array between two interdigital transducers (IDTs), and a one-port SAW delay line. The bulk silicon was completely etched away, leaving only a thin piezoelectric membrane with a thickness of one wavelength. A voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) was connected to a SAW resonator to activate the SAW resonator, while the SAW delay line was connected to the oscilloscope to monitor any variations caused by the Coriolis force. When the device was rotated, a secondary wave was generated, changing the amplitude of the SAW delay line. The highest sensitivity was observed in a device with a full acoustic wavelength thickness of the membrane because most of the acoustic field is confined within an acoustic wavelength thickness from the top surface; moreover, the thin-membrane-based gyroscope eliminates the bulk noise effect flowing along the bulk substrate. The obtained sensitivity and linearity of the SAW gyroscope were ˜27.5 µV deg-1 s-1 and ˜4.3%, respectively. Superior directivity was observed. The device surface was vacuum-sealed using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) bonding to eliminate environmental interference. A three-axis detectable gyroscope was also implemented by placing three gyrosensors with the same configuration at right angles to each other on a printed circuit board.

  7. A new mechanism for observation of THz acoustic waves: coherent THz radiation emission (United States)

    Reed, Evan J.; Armstrong, Michael R.; Kim, Ki-Yong; Glownia, James M.; Howard, William M.; Piner, Edwin L.; Roberts, John C.


    Our simulations and experiments demonstrate a new physical mechanism for detecting acoustic waves of THz frequencies. We find that strain waves of THz frequencies can coherently generate radiation when they propagate past an interface between materials with different piezoelectric coefficients. By considering AlN/GaN heterostructures, we show that the radiation is of detectable amplitude and contains sufficient information to determine the time-dependence of the strain wave with potentially sub-picosecond, nearly atomic time and space resolution. This mechanism is distinct from optical approaches to strain wave measurement. We demonstrate this phenomenon within the context of high amplitude THz frequency strain waves that spontaneously form at the front of shock waves in GaN crystals. We also show how the mechanism can be utilized to determine the layer thicknesses in thin film GaN/AlN heterostructures.

  8. A Novel Particulate Matter 2.5 Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuling Liu


    Full Text Available Design, fabrication and experiments of a miniature particulate matter (PM 2.5 sensor based on the surface acoustic wave (SAW technology were proposed. The sensor contains a virtual impactor (VI for particle separation, a thermophoretic precipitator (TP for PM2.5 capture and a SAW sensor chip for PM2.5 mass detection. The separation performance of the VI was evaluated by using the finite element method (FEM model and the PM2.5 deposition characteristic in the TP was obtained by analyzing the thermophoretic theory. Employing the coupling-of-modes (COM model, a low loss and high-quality SAW resonator was designed. By virtue of the micro electro mechanical system (MEMS technology and semiconductor technology, the SAW based PM2.5 sensor detecting probe was fabricated. Then, combining a dual-port SAW oscillator and an air sampler, the experimental platform was set up. Exposing the PM2.5 sensor to the polystyrene latex (PSL particles in a chamber, the sensor performance was evaluated. The results show that by detecting the PSL particles with a certain diameter of 2 μm, the response of the SAW based PM2.5 sensor is linear, and in accordance with the response of the light scattering based PM2.5 monitor. The developed SAW based PM2.5 sensor has great potential for the application of airborne particle detection.

  9. A surface acoustic wave passive and wireless sensor for magnetic fields, temperature, and humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong


    In this paper, we report an integrated single-chip surface acoustic wave sensor with the capability of measuring magnetic field, temperature, and humidity. The sensor is fabricated using a thermally sensitive LiNbO3 substrate, a humidity sensitive hydrogel coating, and a magnetic field sensitive impedance load. The sensor response to individually and simultaneously changing magnetic field, temperature and humidity is characterized by connecting a network analyzer directly to the sensor. Analytical models for each measurand are derived and used to compensate noise due to cross sensitivities. The results show that all three measurands can be monitored in parallel with sensitivities of 75 ppm/°C, 0.13 dB/%R.H. (at 50%R.H.), 0.18 dB/Oe and resolutions of 0.1 °C, 0.4%R.H., 1 Oe for temperature, humidity and magnetic field, respectively. A passive wireless measurement is also conducted on a current line using, which shows the sensors capability to measure both temperature and current signals simultaneously.

  10. Acoustotaxis -in vitro stimulation in a wound healing assay employing surface acoustic waves. (United States)

    Stamp, M E M; Brugger, M S; Wixforth, A; Westerhausen, C


    A novel, ultrasound based approach for the dynamic stimulation and promotion of tissue healing processes employing surface acoustic waves (SAW) on a chip is presented for the example of osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells. In our investigations, we directly irradiate cells with SAW on a SiO2 covered piezoelectric LiNbO3 substrate. Observing the temporal evolution of cell growth and migration and comparing non-irradiated to irradiated areas on the chip, we find that the SAW-treated cells exhibit a significantly increased migration as compared to the control samples. Apart from quantifying our experimental findings on the cell migration stimulation, we also demonstrate the full bio compatibility and bio functionality of our SAW technique by using LDH assays. We safely exclude parasitic side effects such as a SAW related increased substrate temperature or nutrient flow by thoroughly monitoring the temperature and the flow field using infrared microscopy and micro particle image velocimetry. Our results show that the SAW induced dynamic mechanical and electrical stimulation obviously directly promotes the cell growth. We conclude that this stimulation method offers a powerful platform for future medical treatment, e.g. being implemented as a implantable biochip with wireless extra-corporal power supply to treat deeper tissue.

  11. A method for crack sizing using Laser Doppler Vibrometer measurements of Surface Acoustic Waves. (United States)

    Longo, Roberto; Vanlanduit, Steve; Vanherzeele, Joris; Guillaume, Patrick


    The goal of non-destructive testing (NDT) is to determine the position and size of structural defects, in order to measure the quality and evaluate the safety of building materials. Most NDT techniques are rather complex, however, requiring specialized knowledge. In this article, we introduce an experimental method for crack detection that uses Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) and optical measurements. The method is tested on a steel beam engraved with slots of known depth. A simple model to determine the cracks size is also proposed. At the end of the article, we describe a possible application: fatigue crack sizing on a damaged slat track. This technique represents a first step toward a better understanding of the crack growth, especially in its early stages (preferably when the cracks can still be repaired) and when it is possible to assume a linear propagation of the crack front. The ultimate goal of this research program is to develop a useful method of monitoring aircraft components during fatigue testing.

  12. P Wave and S Wave Acoustic Velocities of Partial Molten Peridotite at Mantle P-T and MHz Frequencies (United States)

    Weidner, D. J.; Li, L.; Whitaker, M. L.; Triplett, R.


    The speed that acoustic waves travel in a partially molten peridotite are crucial parameters to detect not only the presence of melt in the Earth's deep interior, but also understand many issues about the structure and dynamics of the mantle. Technical challenges have hindered such measurements in the laboratory. Here we report the experimental results on the ultrasonic acoustic wave velocities in a partial molten peridotite using multi-anvil high pressure apparatus located at beamline BM6 Advance Photon Source. We use the newly installed ultrasonic equipment using the pulse-echo-overlap method coupled with D-DIA device. X-ray radiography is used to measure sample length at high P-T. The X-ray diffraction spectrum is used to determine the pressure and sample conditions. Precise measurements of P and S wave velocities are obtained at 60 and 35 MHz respectively and are nearly simultaneous. We use a double reflector method to enable measurement of elastic wave velocities of cold-pressed polycrystalline sample which is sintered in situ at high P-T. Experiments were carried out up to 3 GPa and 1500 oC. Our preliminary results indicate that the KLB1 peridotite sample experienced a few percent decrease of both p and s wave velocities as partial melting occurs. The data define a small decrease in the bulk modulus as well as the shear modulus upon melting. This implies that dynamic melting is a significant process at megahertz frequencies.

  13. Nonlocal analysis of the excitation of the geodesic acoustic mode by drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.; Chakrabarti, N.


    The geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are typically observed in the edge region of toroidal plasmas. Drift waves have been identified as a possible cause of excitation of GAMs by a resonant three wave parametric process. A nonlocal theory of excitation of these modes in inhomogeneous plasmas typical...... of the edge region of tokamaks is presented in this paper. The continuum GAM modes with coupling to the drift waves can create discrete "global" unstable eigenmodes localized in the edge "pedestal" region of the plasma. Multiple resonantly driven unstable radial eigenmodes can coexist on the edge pedestal....

  14. Acoustic Emissions (AE) Electrical Systems' Health Monitoring Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acoustic Emissions (AE) are associated with physical events, such as thermal activity, dielectric breakdown, discharge inception, as well as crack nucleation and...

  15. Prediction and near-field observation of skull-guided acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Héctor; Razansky, Daniel


    Ultrasound waves propagating in water or soft biological tissue are strongly reflected when encountering the skull, which limits the use of ultrasound-based techniques in transcranial imaging and therapeutic applications. Current knowledge on the acoustic properties of the cranial bone is restricted to far-field observations, leaving its near-field properties unexplored. We report on the existence of skull-guided acoustic waves, which was herein confirmed by near-field measurements of optoacoustically-induced responses in ex-vivo murine skulls immersed in water. Dispersion of the guided waves was found to reasonably agree with the prediction of a multilayered flat plate model. It is generally anticipated that our findings may facilitate and broaden the application of ultrasound-mediated techniques in brain diagnostics and therapy.

  16. Measurements of Finite Dust Temperature Effects in the Dispersion Relation of the Dust Acoustic Wave (United States)

    Snipes, Erica; Williams, Jeremiah


    A dusty plasma is a four-component system composed of ions, electrons, neutral particles and charged microparticles. The presence of these charged microparticles gives rise to new plasma wave modes, including the dust acoustic wave. Recent measurements [1, 2] of the dispersion relationship for the dust acoustic wave in a glow discharge have shown that finite temperature effects are observed at higher values of neutral pressure. Other work [3] has shown that these effects are not observed at lower values of neutral pressure. We present the results of ongoing work examining finite temperature effects in the dispersion relation as a function of neutral pressure. [4pt] [1] E. Thomas, Jr., R. Fisher, and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Plasmas 14, 123701 (2007). [0pt] [2] J. D. Williams, E. Thomas Jr., and L. Marcus, Phys. Plasmas 15, 043704 (2008). [0pt] [3] T. Trottenberg, D. Block, and A. Piel, Phys. Plasmas 13, 042105 (2006).

  17. Acoustic waves in the atmosphere and ground generated by volcanic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Mie; Lyons, John; Oikawa, Jun; Takeo, Minoru [Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Instituto Geofisico, Escuela Politecnica Nacional, Ladron de Guevara E11-253, Aptdo 2759, Quito (Ecuador); Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)


    This paper reports an interesting sequence of harmonic tremor observed in the 2011 eruption of Shinmoe-dake volcano, southern Japan. The main eruptive activity started with ashcloud forming explosive eruptions, followed by lava effusion. Harmonic tremor was transmitted into the ground and observed as seismic waves at the last stage of the effusive eruption. The tremor observed at this stage had unclear and fluctuating harmonic modes. In the atmosphere, on the other hand, many impulsive acoustic waves indicating small surface explosions were observed. When the effusion stopped and the erupted lava began explosive degassing, harmonic tremor started to be transmitted also to the atmosphere and observed as acoustic waves. Then the harmonic modes became clearer and more stable. This sequence of harmonic tremor is interpreted as a process in which volcanic degassing generates an open connection between the volcanic conduit and the atmosphere. In order to test this hypothesis, a laboratory experiment was performed and the essential features were successfully reproduced.

  18. Characterization of acoustic wave propagation in a concrete member after fire exposure (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Hung; Huang, Chin-Ting


    The acoustic wave propagation in a concrete member with embedded reinforcing bars was analyzed. Fire exposure was applied to two batches of concrete specimens prior to acoustic wave characterization. The fire duration and maximum temperature were simulated for experimental studies using a custom-built electric oven. A standard ultrasonic pulse velocity testing system for concrete was used to provide the through-transmission wave propagation. Multiple peaks were found in the frequency domain based on the fast Fourier transform of the waveform. This could be due to cracks induced by the incompatibility of thermal deformation of the constituents of concrete. Further study showed bond deterioration between reinforcing bars and concrete would also contribute to the variation in frequency content of the recorded waveform.

  19. Comparison of artificial absorbing boundaries for acoustic wave equation modelling (United States)

    Gao, Yingjie; Song, Hanjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing


    Absorbing boundary conditions are necessary in numerical simulation for reducing the artificial reflections from model boundaries. In this paper, we overview the most important and typical absorbing boundary conditions developed throughout history. We first derive the wave equations of similar methods in unified forms; then, we compare their absorbing performance via theoretical analyses and numerical experiments. The Higdon boundary condition is shown to be the best one among the three main absorbing boundary conditions that are based on a one-way wave equation. The Clayton and Engquist boundary is a special case of the Higdon boundary but has difficulty in dealing with the corner points in implementaion. The Reynolds boundary does not have this problem but its absorbing performance is the poorest among these three methods. The sponge boundary has difficulties in determining the optimal parameters in advance and too many layers are required to achieve a good enough absorbing performance. The hybrid absorbing boundary condition (hybrid ABC) has a better absorbing performance than the Higdon boundary does; however, it is still less efficient for absorbing nearly grazing waves since it is based on the one-way wave equation. In contrast, the perfectly matched layer (PML) can perform much better using a few layers. For example, the 10-layer PML would perform well for absorbing most reflected waves except the nearly grazing incident waves. The 20-layer PML is suggested for most practical applications. For nearly grazing incident waves, convolutional PML shows superiority over the PML when the source is close to the boundary for large-scale models. The Higdon boundary and hybrid ABC are preferred when the computational cost is high and high-level absorbing performance is not required, such as migration and migration velocity analyses, since they are not as sensitive to the amplitude errors as the full waveform inversion.

  20. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring (United States)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.


    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  1. Alfvén wave amplification as a result of nonlinear interaction with a magnetoacoustic wave in an acoustically active conducting medium (United States)

    Zavershinsky, D. I.; Molevich, N. E.


    It is shown that Alfvén waves propagating parallel and antiparallel to a magnetic field can be generated and amplified in an acoustically active heat-releasing ionized medium. The amplification is due to parametric energy pumping from the unstable magnetoacoustic waves to the Alfvén waves.

  2. Miniature acoustic wave lysis system and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branch, Darren W.; Vreeland, Erika Cooley; Smith, Gennifer Tanabe


    The present invention relates to an acoustic lysis system including a disposable cartridge that can be reversibly coupled to a platform having a small, high-frequency piezoelectric transducer array. In particular, the system releases viable DNA, RNA, and proteins from human or bacterial cells, without chemicals or additional processing, to enable high-speed sample preparation for clinical point-of-care medical diagnostics and use with nano/microfluidic cartridges. Also described herein are methods of making and using the system of the invention.

  3. Magneto-acoustic ceramics for parametric sound wave phase conjugators (United States)

    Brysev; Pernod; Preobrazhensky


    The paper reflects the recent experimental results on the elaboration and study of active materials for magneto-acoustic phase conjugators (MAPCs). The results of complex measurements of MAPC parameters are demonstrated on typical samples of NiFe2O4 magnetostrictive ceramics. The mechanism of strong dispersion of gain increments and output power of MAPCs is studied and explained by dispersion of critical values of the parametric modulation depth of sound velocity. A maximum output power 240 W at frequency 5 MHz is obtained for active element MAPC with critical current Ic = 9 A and electrical Q-factor equal to 80.

  4. Coupling a Surface Acoustic Wave to an Electron Spin in Diamond via a Dark State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Andrew Golter


    Full Text Available The emerging field of quantum acoustics explores interactions between acoustic waves and artificial atoms and their applications in quantum information processing. In this experimental study, we demonstrate the coupling between a surface acoustic wave (SAW and an electron spin in diamond by taking advantage of the strong strain coupling of the excited states of a nitrogen vacancy center while avoiding the short lifetime of these states. The SAW-spin coupling takes place through a Λ-type three-level system where two ground spin states couple to a common excited state through a phonon-assisted as well as a direct dipole optical transition. Both coherent population trapping and optically driven spin transitions have been realized. The coherent population trapping demonstrates the coupling between a SAW and an electron spin coherence through a dark state. The optically driven spin transitions, which resemble the sideband transitions in a trapped-ion system, can enable the quantum control of both spin and mechanical degrees of freedom and potentially a trapped-ion-like solid-state system for applications in quantum computing. These results establish an experimental platform for spin-based quantum acoustics, bridging the gap between spintronics and quantum acoustics.

  5. Coupling a Surface Acoustic Wave to an Electron Spin in Diamond via a Dark State (United States)

    Golter, D. Andrew; Oo, Thein; Amezcua, Mayra; Lekavicius, Ignas; Stewart, Kevin A.; Wang, Hailin


    The emerging field of quantum acoustics explores interactions between acoustic waves and artificial atoms and their applications in quantum information processing. In this experimental study, we demonstrate the coupling between a surface acoustic wave (SAW) and an electron spin in diamond by taking advantage of the strong strain coupling of the excited states of a nitrogen vacancy center while avoiding the short lifetime of these states. The SAW-spin coupling takes place through a Λ -type three-level system where two ground spin states couple to a common excited state through a phonon-assisted as well as a direct dipole optical transition. Both coherent population trapping and optically driven spin transitions have been realized. The coherent population trapping demonstrates the coupling between a SAW and an electron spin coherence through a dark state. The optically driven spin transitions, which resemble the sideband transitions in a trapped-ion system, can enable the quantum control of both spin and mechanical degrees of freedom and potentially a trapped-ion-like solid-state system for applications in quantum computing. These results establish an experimental platform for spin-based quantum acoustics, bridging the gap between spintronics and quantum acoustics.

  6. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Acoustic Waves Near Active Regions (United States)

    Monsue, Teresa; Pesnell, Dean; Hill, Frank


    Active region areas on the Sun are abundant with a variety of waves that are both acoustically helioseismic and magnetohydrodynamic in nature. The occurrence of a solar flare can disrupt these waves, through MHD mode-mixing or scattering by the excitation of these waves. We take a multi-wavelength observational approach to understand the source of theses waves by studying active regions where flaring activity occurs. Our approach is to search for signals within a time series of images using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm, by producing multi-frequency power map movies. We study active regions both spatially and temporally and correlate this method over multiple wavelengths using data from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. By surveying the active regions on multiple wavelengths we are able to observe the behavior of these waves within the Solar atmosphere, from the photosphere up through the corona. We are able to detect enhancements of power around active regions, which could be acoustic power halos and of an MHD-wave propagating outward by the flaring event. We are in the initial stages of this study understanding the behaviors of these waves and could one day contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for their formation; that has not yet been explained.

  7. Phase control of electromagnetically induced acoustic wave transparency in a diamond nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelou, Sofia, E-mail:


    Highlights: • A high-Q single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonator embedded with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers is studied. • A Δ-type coupling configuration is formed. • The spin states of the ground state triplet of the NV centers interact with a strain field and two microwave fields. • The absorption and dispersion properties of the acoustic wave field are controlled by the use of the relative phase of the fields. • Phase-dependent acoustic wave absorption, transparency, and gain are obtained. • “Slow sound” and negative group velocities are also possible. - Abstract: We consider a high-Q single-crystal diamond nanomechanical resonator embedded with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. We study the interaction of the transitions of the spin states of the ground state triplet of the NV centers with a strain field and two microwave fields in a Δ-type coupling configuration. We use the relative phase of the fields for the control of the absorption and dispersion properties of the acoustic wave field. Specifically, we show that by changing the relative phase of the fields, the acoustic field may exhibit absorption, transparency, gain and very interesting dispersive properties.

  8. Topology optimization applied to room acoustic problems and surface acoustic wave devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    and O. Sigmund, “Systematic design of photonic crystal structures using topology optimization: low-loss waveguide bends”, Applied Physics Letters, 84(12), 2022-2024 (2004) [3] M. B. Dühring, “Topology optimization for acoustic problems”, IUTAM Symposium on Topological Design Optimization of Structures......The work of this PhD-project is concerned with the method of topology optimization1, which has been developed and used since the late eighties to optimize the material distribution of structures in order to minimize static compliance. Since then it has successfully been applied to a range...... of engineering fields such as mechanism design, fluid problems and photonic and phononic band-gap materials and structures [1,2]. In this project topology optimization is first applied to control acoustic properties in a room [3]. It is shown how the squared sound pressure amplitude in a certain part of a room...

  9. Quantitative acoustic emission monitoring of fatigue cracks in fracture critical steel bridges. (United States)


    The objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility to employ quantitative acoustic : emission (AE) techniques for monitoring of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in steel : bridge members. Three A36 compact tension steel specimens w...

  10. Time Reversal Acoustic Structural Health Monitoring Using Array of Embedded Sensors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) structural health monitoring with an embedded sensor array represents a new approach to in-situ nondestructive evaluation of air-space...

  11. Spatiotemporal monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy with passive acoustic mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jensen, Carl R; Ritchie, Robert W; Gyöngy, Miklós; Collin, James R T; Leslie, Tom; Coussios, Constantin-C


    To demonstrate feasibility of monitoring high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment with passive acoustic mapping of broadband and harmonic emissions reconstructed from filtered-channel radiofrequency data in ex vivo bovine tissue...

  12. Acoustic streaming in a microfluidic channel with a reflector: Case of a standing wave generated by two counterpropagating leaky surface waves. (United States)

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe


    A theory is developed for the modeling of acoustic streaming in a microfluidic channel confined between an elastic solid wall and a rigid reflector. A situation is studied where the acoustic streaming is produced by two leaky surface waves that propagate towards each other in the solid wall and thus form a combined standing wave in the fluid. Full analytical solutions are found for both the linear acoustic field and the field of the acoustic streaming. A dispersion equation is derived that allows one to calculate the wave speed in the system under study. The obtained solutions are used to consider particular numerical examples and to reveal the structure of the acoustic streaming. It is shown that two systems of vortices are established along the boundaries of the microfluidic channel.

  13. Experimental observation of blood erythrocyte structure in the field of standing surface acoustic waves (United States)

    Makalkin, D. I.; Korshak, B. A.; Brysev, A. P.


    The paper presents experimental results of observing the structurization effect for one of the formed elements of blood—erythrocytes—in the field of standing surface acoustic waves. Characteristic images of the striated structures formed by erythrocytes on the surface of lithium niobate as result of ultrasound action have been obtained. The results on the ultrasound structurization of erythrocytes in a blood sample and of calcium carbonate particles in an aqueous colloid solution have been comparatively analyzed. It has been noted that the achieved effect agrees qualitatively with the theoretical model of the behavior of colloid particle ensembles in an acoustic field developed by O.V. Rudenko et al.

  14. Wavemaker theories for acoustic-gravity waves over a finite depth

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Miao


    Acoustic-gravity waves (hereafter AGWs) in ocean have received much interest recently, mainly with respect to early detection of tsunamis as they travel at near the speed of sound in water which makes them ideal candidates for early detection of tsunamis. While the generation mechanisms of AGWs have been studied from the perspective of vertical oscillations of seafloor and triad wave-wave interaction, in the current study we are interested in their generation by wave-structure interaction with possible implication to the energy sector. Here, we develop two wavemaker theories to analyze different wave modes generated by impermeable (the classic Havelock's theory) and porous (porous wavemaker theory) plates in weakly compressible fluids. Slight modification has been made to the porous theory so that, unlike the previous theory, the new solution depends on the geometry of the plate. The expressions for three different types of plates (piston, flap, delta-function) are introduced. Analytical solutions are also de...

  15. Theory of reflection reflection and transmission of electromagnetic, particle and acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lekner, John


    This book deals with the reflection of electromagnetic and particle waves by interfaces. The interfaces can be sharp or diffuse. The topics of the book contain absorption, inverse problems, anisotropy, pulses and finite beams, rough surfaces, matrix methods, numerical methods,  reflection of particle waves and neutron reflection. Exact general results are presented, followed by long wave reflection, variational theory, reflection amplitude equations of the Riccati type, and reflection of short waves. The Second Edition of the Theory of Reflection is an updated and much enlarged revision of the 1987 monograph. There are new chapters on periodically stratified media, ellipsometry, chiral media, neutron reflection and reflection of acoustic waves. The chapter on anisotropy is much extended, with a complete treatment of the reflection and transmission properties of arbitrarily oriented uniaxial crystals. The book gives a systematic and unified treatment reflection and transmission of electromagnetic and particle...

  16. Radiative transfer of acoustic waves in continuous complex media: Beyond the Helmholtz equation

    CERN Document Server

    Baydoun, Ibrahim; Pierrat, Romain; Derode, Arnaud


    Heterogeneity can be accounted for by a random potential in the wave equation. For acoustic waves in a fluid with fluctuations of both density and compressibility (as well as for electromagnetic waves in a medium with fluctuation of both permittivity and permeability) the random potential entails a scalar and an operator contribution. For simplicity, the latter is usually overlooked in multiple scattering theory: whatever the type of waves, this simplification amounts to considering the Helmholtz equation with a sound speed $c$ depending on position $\\mathbf{r}$. In this work, a radiative transfer equation is derived from the wave equation, in order to study energy transport through a multiple scattering medium. In particular, the influence of the operator term on various transport parameters is studied, based on the diagrammatic approach of multiple scattering. Analytical results are obtained for fundamental quantities of transport theory such as the transport mean-free path $\\ell^*$, scattering phase functi...

  17. Nonlinear interaction between acoustic gravity waves in a rotating atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Axelsson


    Full Text Available The influence of the Earth's rotation on the resonant interaction of atmospheric waves is investigated. The explicit expressions for the coupling coefficients are presented. They are derived by means of two different techniques; first, by a direct expansion derivation from a set of reduced equations, and second, by a Hamiltonian method.

  18. Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten


    A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...

  19. Latest Trends in Acoustic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo


    Full Text Available Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency over a wide spectrum that extends from infrasound (<20 Hz up to ultrasound (in the GHz–band, together with a number of different propagating modes, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves, surface waves, plate modes, etc., allow acoustic tools to be successfully applied to the characterization of gaseous, solid and liquid environments. The purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the research trends in acoustic wave sensing through some cases that are representative of specific applications in different sensing fields.

  20. Auralization of concert hall acoustics using finite difference time domain methods and wave field synthesis (United States)

    Hochgraf, Kelsey

    Auralization methods have been used for a long time to simulate the acoustics of a concert hall for different seat positions. The goal of this thesis was to apply the concept of auralization to a larger audience area that the listener could walk through to compare differences in acoustics for a wide range of seat positions. For this purpose, the acoustics of Rensselaer's Experimental Media and Performing Arts Center (EMPAC) Concert Hall were simulated to create signals for a 136 channel wave field synthesis (WFS) system located at Rensselaer's Collaborative Research Augmented Immersive Virtual Environment (CRAIVE) Laboratory. By allowing multiple people to dynamically experience the concert hall's acoustics at the same time, this research gained perspective on what is important for achieving objective accuracy and subjective plausibility in an auralization. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation on a three-dimensional face-centered cubic grid, combined at a crossover frequency of 800 Hz with a CATT-Acoustic(TM) simulation, was found to have a reverberation time, direct to reverberant sound energy ratio, and early reflection pattern that more closely matched measured data from the hall compared to a CATT-Acoustic(TM) simulation and other hybrid simulations. In the CRAIVE lab, nine experienced listeners found all hybrid auralizations (with varying source location, grid resolution, crossover frequency, and number of loudspeakers) to be more perceptually plausible than the CATT-Acoustic(TM) auralization. The FDTD simulation required two days to compute, while the CATT-Acoustic(TM) simulation required three separate TUCT(TM) computations, each taking four hours, to accommodate the large number of receivers. Given the perceptual advantages realized with WFS for auralization of a large, inhomogeneous sound field, it is recommended that hybrid simulations be used in the future to achieve more accurate and plausible auralizations. Predictions are made for a

  1. Acoustic Pressure Waves in Vibrating 3-D Laminated Beam-Plate Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Osheku


    Full Text Available The effect of structural vibration on the propagation of acoustic pressure waves through a cantilevered 3-D laminated beam-plate enclosure is investigated analytically. For this problem, a set of well-posed partial differential equations governing the vibroacoustic wave interaction phenomenon are formulated and matched for the various vibrating boundary surfaces. By employing integral transforms, a closed form analytical expression is computed suitable for vibroacoustic modeling, design analysis, and general aerospace defensive applications. The closed-form expression takes the form of a kernel of polynomials for acoustic pressure waves showing the influence of linear interface pressure variation across the axes of vibrating boundary surfaces. Simulated results demonstrate how the mode shapes and the associated natural frequencies can be easily computed. It is shown in this paper that acoustic pressure waves propagation are dynamically stable through laminated enclosures with progressive decrement in interfacial pressure distribution under the influence of high excitation frequencies irrespective of whether the induced flow is subsonic, sonic , supersonic, or hypersonic. Hence, in practice, dynamic stability of hypersonic aircrafts or jet airplanes can be further enhanced by replacing their noise transmission systems with laminated enclosures.

  2. Measuring energy flux of magneto-acoustic wave in the magnetic elements by using IRIS (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Hansteen, Viggo; Pereira, Tiago; Leenaarts, Jorritt; Carlsson, Mats

    NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) has opened a new window to explore the chromospheric/coronal waves that potentially energize the solar atmosphere. By using an imaging spectrograph covering the Si IV and Mg II h&k lines as well as a slit-jaw imager centered at Si IV and Mg II k onboard IRIS, we can determine the nature of propagating magneto-acoustic waves just below and in the transition region. In this study, we compute the vertically emergent intensity of the Si IV and Mg II h&k lines from a time series of snapshots of a magnetic element in a two-dimensional Radiative MHD simulation from the Bifrost code. We investigate the synthetic line profiles to detect the slow magneto-acoustic body wave (slow mode) which becomes a slow shock at the lower chromosphere in the magnetic element. We find that the Doppler shift of the line core gives the velocity amplitude of the longitudinal magneto-acoustic body wave. The contribution function of the line core indicates that the formation of Mg II h&k lines is associated with the propagating shocks and therefore the time evolution of the line core intensity represents the propagating shocks projected on the optical surface. We will report on measurement of the energy flux of slow modes in the magnetic elements by using IRIS observations.

  3. Prediction and near-field observation of skull-guided acoustic waves (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Razansky, Daniel


    Ultrasound waves propagating in water or soft biological tissue are strongly reflected when encountering the skull, which limits the use of ultrasound-based techniques in transcranial imaging and therapeutic applications. Current knowledge on the acoustic properties of the cranial bone is restricted to far-field observations, leaving its near-field unexplored. We report on the existence of skull-guided acoustic waves, which was herein confirmed by near-field measurements of optoacoustically-induced responses in ex-vivo murine skulls immersed in water. Dispersion of the guided waves was found to reasonably agree with the prediction of a multilayered flat plate model. We observed a skull-guided wave propagation over a lateral distance of at least 3 mm, with a half-decay length in the direction perpendicular to the skull ranging from 35 to 300 μm at 6 and 0.5 MHz, respectively. Propagation losses are mostly attributed to the heterogenous acoustic properties of the skull. It is generally anticipated that our findings may facilitate and broaden the application of ultrasound-mediated techniques in brain diagnostics and therapy.

  4. Ionospheric Responses to Nonlinear Acoustic Waves Generated by Natural Hazard Events (United States)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.


    Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) fluctuations following large-magnitude earthquakes and resulting tsunamis, e.g. Tohoku in 2011, have been noted in many recent investigations [e.g., Galvan et al., Radio Science, 47(4), 2012]. Earthquakes impact the atmosphere through vertical displacements of the Earth's crust or ocean surfaces producing, as one effect, low-frequency acoustic waves. These waves can achieve significant amplitudes during propagation through the rarefied upper atmosphere, and are capable of driving sizable ionospheric electron density (TEC) fluctuations and electrical currents. Earthquake-generated acoustic waves are readily identifiable in GPS observations as 0.1-2 TECU, 3-5 mHz, oscillations, which are delayed from the quake occurrence by roughly the sound travel time between the ground and ionosphere. In some extreme cases, the onset of acoustic oscillations is concurrent with a persistent, sharp decrease in TEC (~5 TECU) above the epicenter [e.g., Kakinami et al., GRL, 39(13), 2012]. Ionospheric responses to large amplitude acoustic waves are investigated using a coupled atmosphere-ionosphere model [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013]. Of particular interest are effects of acoustic wave amplitude and nonlinearity on ionospheric responses, including production of detectable TEC oscillations and longer-lived responses like TEC depletions. The atmospheric dynamics model solves a Navier-Stokes' system of equations and incorporates generation of acoustic waves through acceleration source terms at ground-level. The ionospheric model solves a fluid system of equations for each of the major ionospheric species, and includes an electrostatic description of dynamo currents. The coupled model enables direct computation of observable quantities, such as vertical TEC and magnetic field fluctuations. Here we construct simulation case studies for realistic earthquake events and compare results against published TEC and magnetic field data. This

  5. Effects of acoustic waves on stick-slip in granular media and implications for earthquakes (United States)

    Johnson, P.A.; Savage, H.; Knuth, M.; Gomberg, J.; Marone, Chris


    It remains unknown how the small strains induced by seismic waves can trigger earthquakes at large distances, in some cases thousands of kilometres from the triggering earthquake, with failure often occurring long after the waves have passed. Earthquake nucleation is usually observed to take place at depths of 10-20 km, and so static overburden should be large enough to inhibit triggering by seismic-wave stress perturbations. To understand the physics of dynamic triggering better, as well as the influence of dynamic stressing on earthquake recurrence, we have conducted laboratory studies of stick-slip in granular media with and without applied acoustic vibration. Glass beads were used to simulate granular fault zone material, sheared under constant normal stress, and subject to transient or continuous perturbation by acoustic waves. Here we show that small-magnitude failure events, corresponding to triggered aftershocks, occur when applied sound-wave amplitudes exceed several microstrain. These events are frequently delayed or occur as part of a cascade of small events. Vibrations also cause large slip events to be disrupted in time relative to those without wave perturbation. The effects are observed for many large-event cycles after vibrations cease, indicating a strain memory in the granular material. Dynamic stressing of tectonic faults may play a similar role in determining the complexity of earthquake recurrence. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. VII - Non-grey, non-LTE H(-) models (United States)

    Schmitz, F.; Ulmschneider, P.; Kalkofen, W.


    The propagation and shock formation of radiatively damped acoustic waves in the solar chromosphere are studied under the assumption that H(-) is the only absorber; the opacity is non-grey. Deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) are permitted. The results of numerical simulations show the depth dependence of the heating by the acoustic waves to be insensitive to the mean state of the atmosphere. After the waves have developed into shocks, their energy flux decays exponentially with a constant damping length of about 1.4 times the pressure scale height, independent of initial flux and wave period. Departures from LTE have a strong influence on the mean temperature structure in dynamical chromosphere models; this is even more pronounced in models with reduced particle density - simulating conditions in magnetic flux tubes - which show significantly increased temperatures in response to mechanical heating. When the energy dissipation of the waves is sufficiently large to dissociate most of the H(-) ions, a strong temperature rise is found that is reminiscent of the temperature structure in the transition zone between chromosphere and corona; the energy flux remaining in the waves then drives mass motions.

  7. Effects of acoustic waves on stick-slip in granular media and implications for earthquakes. (United States)

    Johnson, Paul A; Savage, Heather; Knuth, Matt; Gomberg, Joan; Marone, Chris


    It remains unknown how the small strains induced by seismic waves can trigger earthquakes at large distances, in some cases thousands of kilometres from the triggering earthquake, with failure often occurring long after the waves have passed. Earthquake nucleation is usually observed to take place at depths of 10-20 km, and so static overburden should be large enough to inhibit triggering by seismic-wave stress perturbations. To understand the physics of dynamic triggering better, as well as the influence of dynamic stressing on earthquake recurrence, we have conducted laboratory studies of stick-slip in granular media with and without applied acoustic vibration. Glass beads were used to simulate granular fault zone material, sheared under constant normal stress, and subject to transient or continuous perturbation by acoustic waves. Here we show that small-magnitude failure events, corresponding to triggered aftershocks, occur when applied sound-wave amplitudes exceed several microstrain. These events are frequently delayed or occur as part of a cascade of small events. Vibrations also cause large slip events to be disrupted in time relative to those without wave perturbation. The effects are observed for many large-event cycles after vibrations cease, indicating a strain memory in the granular material. Dynamic stressing of tectonic faults may play a similar role in determining the complexity of earthquake recurrence.

  8. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    substantially 100 W. In this way, a high sound intensity and power are obtained that efficiently enhances a gas-phase reaction in the plasma, which enhances the plasma process, e.g. enabling more efficient ozone or hydrogen generation using plasma in relation to reaction speed and/or obtained concentration......This invention relates to enhancing a gas-phase reaction in a plasma comprising: creating plasma (104) by at least one plasma source (106), and wherein that the method further comprises: generating ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) having a predetermined amount...... of acoustic energy by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power gas-jet acoustic wave generator (101), where said ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said plasma (104) so that at least a part of said predetermined amount of acoustic energy...

  9. Monitoring of Global Acoustic Transmissions: Signal Processing and Preliminary Data Analysis (United States)


    signal level and 6.39x10- I volts2/Hz for the noise value. These values can be converted to acoustic power levels of 19 dB rel ipPa for the signal and...46.4 dB rel ipPa for the noise, as discussed below. Transmission loss over the mean acoustic path would then be about 213 dB - 19 dB = 194 dB. b. Signal...sensitivity of the hydrophones (-170 Db rel IpPa or 3.162 x 108 pPa/V). Acoustic power is the pressure force times the velocity of the pressure wave

  10. Non-Invasive Acoustic-Based Monitoring of Heavy Water and Uranium Process Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lakis, Rollin Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Beedle, Christopher Craig [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Davis, Eric Sean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This presentation includes slides on Project Goals; Heavy Water Production Monitoring: A New Challenge for the IAEA; Noninvasive Measurements in SFAI Cell; Large Scatter in Literature Values; Large Scatter in Literature Values; Highest Precision Sound Speed Data Available: New Standard in H/D; ~400 pts of data; Noninvasive Measurements in SFAI Cell; New funding from NA241 SGTech; Uranium Solution Monitoring: Inspired by IAEA Challenge in Kazakhstan; Non-Invasive Acoustic-Based Monitoring of Uranium in Solutions; Non-Invasive Acoustic-Based Monitoring of Uranium in Solutions; and finally a summary.

  11. Nonlinear Scattering of Acoustic Waves by Vibrating Obstacles. (United States)


    completely neglected, the waveform becomes a triangular wave at a propagation distance equal to the discontinuity distance (see the discussion of this...the farfield (nearfield) is defined to be distances greater (lesser) than the distance to the last maximum in the on-axis diffraction pattern. This last...frequently referred to as the region in which Fraunhofer (Fresnel) diffractlion effects occur. 106 2. Electrical filtering problems due to experimental

  12. Passive models of viscothermal wave propagation in acoustic tubes. (United States)

    Bilbao, Stefan; Harrison, Reginald; Kergomard, Jean; Lombard, Bruno; Vergez, Christophe


    A continued fraction expansion to the immittances defining viscothermal wave propagation in a cylindrical tube has been presented recently in this journal, intended as a starting point for time domain numerical method design. Though the approximation has the great benefit of passivity, or positive realness under truncation, its convergence is slow leading to approximations of high order in practice. Other passive structures, when combined with optimisation methods, can lead to good accuracy over a wide frequency range, and for relatively low order.

  13. Electron acoustic solitary waves with non-thermal distribution of electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Singh


    Full Text Available Electron-acoustic solitary waves are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of non-thermally distributed electrons, fluid cold electrons and ions. The Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique is used to carry out the analysis. The presence of non-thermal electrons modifies the parametric region where electron acoustic solitons can exist. For parameters representative of auroral zone field lines, the electron acoustic solitons do not exist when either α > 0.225 or Tc/Th > 0.142, where α is the fractional non-thermal electron density, and Tc (Th represents the temperature of cold (hot electrons. Further, for these parameters, the simple model predicts negatively charged potential structures. Inclusion of an electron beam in the model may provide the positive potential solitary structures.

  14. The frequency and damping of ion acoustic waves in collisional and collisionless two-species plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R L; Valeo, E J


    The dispersion properties of ion acoustic waves (IAW) are sensitive to the strength of ion-ion collisions in multi-species plasma in which the different species usually have differing charge-to-mass ratios. The modification of the frequency and damping of the fast and slow acoustic modes in a plasma composed of light (low Z) and heavy (high Z) ions is considered. In the fluid limit where the light ion scattering mean free path, {lambda}{sub th} is smaller than the acoustic wavelength, {lambda} = 2{pi}/k, the interspecies friction and heat flow carried by the light ions scattering from the heavy ions causes the damping. In the collisionless limit, k{lambda}{sub lh} >> 1, Landau damping by the light ions provides the dissipation. In the intermediate regime when k{lambda}{sub lh} {approx} 1, the damping is at least as large as the sum of the collisional and Landau damping.

  15. The Frequency and Damping of Ion Acoustic Waves in Collisional and Collisionless Two-species Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Berger; E.J. Valeo


    The dispersion properties of ion acoustic waves (IAW) are sensitive to the strength of ion-ion collisions in multi-species plasma in which the different species usually have differing charge-to-mass ratios. The modification of the frequency and damping of the fast and slow acoustic modes in a plasma composed of light (low Z) and heavy (high Z) ions is considered. In the fluid limit where the light ion scattering mean free path, {lambda}{sub th} is smaller than the acoustic wavelength, {lambda} = 2{pi}/k, the interspecies friction and heat flow carried by the light ions scattering from the heavy ions causes the damping. In the collisionless limit, k{lambda}{sub th} >> 1, Landau damping by the light ions provides the dissipation. In the intermediate regime when k{lambda}{sub th} {approx} 1, the damping is at least as large as the sum of the collisional and Landau damping.

  16. Autonomous hydrophone array for long-term acoustic monitoring in the open ocean (United States)

    D'Eu, J.-F.; Brachet, C.; Goslin, J.; Royer, J.-Y.; Ammann, J.


    We are developing an array of new autonomous hydrophones, benefiting from a long-lasting collaboration with the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA and Oregon state University). The hydrophones are deployed on a mooring line anchored to the seafloor by an expendable anchor weight. The length of the line is adjusted so that the sensor (and buoy) lies in the middle of the SOFAR channel at about 1000m depth for mid-latitudes (depending on the speed-of-sound profile). The buoy at depth keeps the line under tension and prevents wave-motion noise from the sensor. The instrument continuously samples and records the acoustic signals at 240Hz for seismic studies, or 480Hz (or more) for marine mammal studies. The SOFAR channel acts as an acoustic wave-guide in the ocean so that acoustic waves can propagate with little attenuation over long distances. Autonomous hydrophones allow the detection and localization of the low-magnitude (Mw>2.5) seismic activity along oceanic ridges and in deformed intraplate areas, which remains generally undetected or poorly localized by land-based seismic networks. An array of hydrophones can monitor a much wider area (more than 1000 km across) than ocean-bottom seismometers, which suffer from the rapid attenuation of seismic waves in the crust and upper mantle. Arrays of autonomous hydrophones thus succeed in detecting and locating 30 to 50 times more earthquakes than those listed in the catalogs from land-based seismograph stations. Data are buffered on flash cards and then regularly stored on hard disks or on solid-state drives (e.g. 20Gb of data per year at 240Hz sampling rate). We use 24-bit sigma-delta converters with programmable gain amplifiers. As timing is a key issue for an accurate localisation of the seismic events, instruments are synchronized with GPS time and have a low-power, highly stable calibrated clock (10-8 drift). All electronics and batteries (Li or alcaline) are placed in titanium pressure cases for long

  17. Remote acoustic monitoring of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) reveals seasonal and diel variations in acoustic behavior. (United States)

    Matthews, Leanna P; McCordic, Jessica A; Parks, Susan E


    Remote acoustic monitoring is a non-invasive tool that can be used to study the distribution, behavior, and habitat use of sound-producing species. The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is an endangered baleen whale species that produces a variety of stereotyped acoustic signals. One of these signals, the "gunshot" sound, has only been recorded from adult male North Atlantic right whales and is thought to function for reproduction, either as reproductive advertisement for females or as an agonistic signal toward other males. This study uses remote acoustic monitoring to analyze the presence of gunshots over a two-year period at two sites on the Scotian Shelf to determine if there is evidence that North Atlantic right whales may use these locations for breeding activities. Seasonal analyses at both locations indicate that gunshot sound production is highly seasonal, with an increase in the autumn. One site, Roseway West, had significantly more gunshot sounds overall and exhibited a clear diel trend in production of these signals at night. The other site, Emerald South, also showed a seasonal increase in gunshot production during the autumn, but did not show any significant diel trend. This difference in gunshot signal production at the two sites indicates variation either in the number or the behavior of whales at each location. The timing of the observed seasonal increase in gunshot sound production is consistent with the current understanding of the right whale breeding season, and our results demonstrate that detection of gunshots with remote acoustic monitoring can be a reliable way to track shifts in distribution and changes in acoustic behavior including possible mating activities.

  18. Remote Acoustic Monitoring of North Atlantic Right Whales (Eubalaena glacialis) Reveals Seasonal and Diel Variations in Acoustic Behavior (United States)

    Matthews, Leanna P.; McCordic, Jessica A.; Parks, Susan E.


    Remote acoustic monitoring is a non-invasive tool that can be used to study the distribution, behavior, and habitat use of sound-producing species. The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) is an endangered baleen whale species that produces a variety of stereotyped acoustic signals. One of these signals, the “gunshot” sound, has only been recorded from adult male North Atlantic right whales and is thought to function for reproduction, either as reproductive advertisement for females or as an agonistic signal toward other males. This study uses remote acoustic monitoring to analyze the presence of gunshots over a two-year period at two sites on the Scotian Shelf to determine if there is evidence that North Atlantic right whales may use these locations for breeding activities. Seasonal analyses at both locations indicate that gunshot sound production is highly seasonal, with an increase in the autumn. One site, Roseway West, had significantly more gunshot sounds overall and exhibited a clear diel trend in production of these signals at night. The other site, Emerald South, also showed a seasonal increase in gunshot production during the autumn, but did not show any significant diel trend. This difference in gunshot signal production at the two sites indicates variation either in the number or the behavior of whales at each location. The timing of the observed seasonal increase in gunshot sound production is consistent with the current understanding of the right whale breeding season, and our results demonstrate that detection of gunshots with remote acoustic monitoring can be a reliable way to track shifts in distribution and changes in acoustic behavior including possible mating activities. PMID:24646524

  19. Numerical study of the collar wave characteristics and the effects of grooves in acoustic logging while drilling (United States)

    Yang, Yufeng; Guan, Wei; Hu, Hengshan; Xu, Minqiang


    Large-amplitude collar wave covering formation signals is still a tough problem in acoustic logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurements. In this study, we investigate the propagation and energy radiation characteristics of the monopole collar wave and the effects of grooves on reducing the interference to formation waves by finite-difference calculations. We found that the collar wave radiates significant energy into the formation by comparing the waveforms between a collar within an infinite fluid, and the acoustic LWD in different formations with either an intact or a truncated collar. The collar wave recorded on the outer surface of the collar consists of the outward-radiated energy direct from the collar (direct collar wave) and that reflected back from the borehole wall (reflected collar wave). All these indicate that the significant effects of the borehole-formation structure on collar wave were underestimated in previous studies. From the simulations of acoustic LWD with a grooved collar, we found that grooves broaden the frequency region of low collar-wave excitation and attenuate most of the energy of the interference waves by multireflections. However, grooves extend the duration of the collar wave and convert part of the collar-wave energy originally kept in the collar into long-duration Stoneley wave. Interior grooves are preferable to exterior ones because both the low-frequency and the high-frequency parts of the collar wave can be reduced and the converted inner Stoneley wave is relatively difficult to be recorded on the outer surface of the collar. Deeper grooves weaken the collar wave more greatly, but they result in larger converted Stoneley wave especially for the exterior ones. The interference waves, not only the direct collar wave but also the reflected collar wave and the converted Stoneley waves, should be overall considered for tool design.

  20. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument : Acoustical Monitoring 2010 (United States)


    During the summer of 2010 (July - August), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument (SUCR) at a site deployed for approximately 30 days. The baseline data collected during this period will help pa...

  1. Acoustic detection and monitoring for transportation infrastructure security. (United States)


    Acoustical methods have been extensively used to locate, identify, and track objects underwater. Some of these applications include detecting and tracking submarines, marine mammal detection and identification, detection of mines and ship wrecks and ...

  2. Casa Grande Ruins National Monument acoustical monitoring 2010 (United States)


    During September 2010, The Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Casa Grande National Monument (CAGR), at one site for 28 days. The baseline data collected during this period will help park managers and planners estimate the effects of f...

  3. Acoustic monitoring of terrorist intrusion in a drinking water network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Sheldon-Robert, M.K.; Vloerbergh, I.N.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.


    In collaboration with Kiwa Water Research, TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) has investigated the possibilities to detect and classify aberrant sounds in water networks, using acoustic sensors. Amongst the sources of such sounds are pumps, drills, mechanical impacts,

  4. Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment. Acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haycox, Jon; Pettitt, Will; Young, R. Paul [Applied Seismology Consultants Ltd., Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)


    This report describes the results from acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic monitoring of the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE) at SKB's Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), Sweden. The APSE is being undertaken to demonstrate the current capability to predict spalling in a fractured rock mass using numerical modelling techniques, and to demonstrate the effect of backfill and confining pressure on the propagation of micro-cracks in rock adjacent to deposition holes within a repository. An ultrasonic acquisition system has provided acoustic emission and ultrasonic survey monitoring throughout the various phases of the experiment. Results from the entire data set are provided with this document so that they can be effectively compared to several numerical modelling studies, and to mechanical and thermal measurements conducted around the pillar volume, in an 'integrated analysis' performed by SKB staff. This document provides an in-depth summary of the AE and ultrasonic survey results for future reference. The pillar has been produced by excavating two 1.8 m diameter deposition holes 1 m apart. These were bored in 0.8 m steps using a Tunnel Boring Machine specially adapted for vertical drilling. The first deposition hole was drilled in December 2003. Preceding this a period of background monitoring was performed so as to obtain a datum for the results. The hole was then confined to 0.7 MPa internal over pressure using a specially designed water-filled bladder. The second deposition hole was excavated in March 2004. Heating of the pillar was performed over a two month period between ending in July 2004, when the confined deposition hole was slowly depressurised. Immediately after depressurisation the pillar was allowed to cool with cessation of monitoring occurring a month later. A total of 36,676 AE triggers were recorded over the reporting period between 13th October 2003 and 14th July 2004. Of these 15,198 have produced AE locations. The AE data set

  5. A Comment on Interaction of Lower Hybrid Waves with the Current-Driven Ion-Acoustic Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    Majeski et al. (1984) have investigated the interaction between the current-driven 'ion-acoustic' instability and high frequency lower hybrid waves. The 'ion-acoustic' instability was excited by drawing an electron current through the plasma column of a single-ended Q-machine by means...

  6. Validation of simulations of an underwater acoustic communication channel characterized by wind-generated surface waves and bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Ainlie, M.A.; Gerdes, F.; Schäfke, A.; Özkan Sertlekc, H.


    This paper shows that it is possible to simulate realistic shallow-water acoustic communication channels using available acoustic propagation models. Key factor is the incorporation of realistic time-dependent sea surface conditions, including both waves and bubbles due to wind.

  7. Effects of aspect ratio on the mode couplings of thin-film bulk acoustic wave resonators (United States)

    Li, Nian; Qian, Zhenghua; Yang, Jiashi


    We studied mode couplings in thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators of a piezoelectric film on a dielectric layer operating with the fundamental thickness-extensional mode. A system of plate equations derived in our previous paper was used which includes the couplings to the unwanted in-plane extension, flexure, fundamental and second-order thickness shear modes. It was shown that the couplings depend strongly on the plate length/thickness ratio. For a relatively clean operating mode with weak couplings to unwanted modes, a series of discrete values of the plate length/thickness ratio should be avoided and these values were determined in the present paper. The results can be of great significance to the design and optimization of film bulk acoustic wave resonators.

  8. Rapid calculation of acoustic fields from arbitrary continuous-wave sources. (United States)

    Treeby, Bradley E; Budisky, Jakub; Wise, Elliott S; Jaros, Jiri; Cox, B T


    A Green's function solution is derived for calculating the acoustic field generated by phased array transducers of arbitrary shape when driven by a single frequency continuous wave excitation with spatially varying amplitude and phase. The solution is based on the Green's function for the homogeneous wave equation expressed in the spatial frequency domain or k-space. The temporal convolution integral is solved analytically, and the remaining integrals are expressed in the form of the spatial Fourier transform. This allows the acoustic pressure for all spatial positions to be calculated in a single step using two fast Fourier transforms. The model is demonstrated through several numerical examples, including single element rectangular and spherically focused bowl transducers, and multi-element linear and hemispherical arrays.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann approach for hydro-acoustic waves generated by tsunamigenic sea bottom displacement (United States)

    Prestininzi, P.; Abdolali, A.; Montessori, A.; Kirby, J. T.; La Rocca, Michele


    Tsunami waves are generated by sea bottom failures, landslides and faults. The concurrent generation of hydro-acoustic waves (HAW), which travel much faster than the tsunami, has received much attention, motivated by their possible exploitation as precursors of tsunamis. This feature makes the detection of HAW particularly well-suited for building an early-warning system. Accuracy and efficiency of the modeling approaches for HAW thus play a pivotal role in the design of such systems. Here, we present a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for the generation and propagation of HAW resulting from tsunamigenic ground motions and verify it against commonly employed modeling solutions. LBM is well known for providing fast and accurate solutions to both hydrodynamics and acoustics problems, thus it naturally becomes a candidate as a comprehensive computational tool for modeling generation and propagation of HAW.

  10. Laser photoacoustic technique for ultrasonic surface acoustic wave velocity evaluation on porcelain (United States)

    Qian, K.; Tu, S. J.; Gao, L.; Xu, J.; Li, S. D.; Yu, W. C.; Liao, H. H.


    A laser photoacoustic technique has been developed to evaluate the surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity of porcelain. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm was focused by a cylindrical lens to initiate broadband SAW impulses, which were detected by an optical fiber interferometer with high spatial resolution. Multiple near-field surface acoustic waves were observed on the sample surface at various locations along the axis perpendicular to the laser line source as the detector moved away from the source in the same increments. The frequency spectrum and dispersion curves were obtained by operating on the recorded waveforms with cross-correlation and FFT. The SAW phase velocities of the porcelain of the same source are similar while they are different from those of different sources. The marked differences of Rayleigh phase velocities in our experiment suggest that this technique has the potential for porcelain identification.

  11. Spin dynamics in (110) GaAs quantum wells under surface acoustic waves (United States)

    Couto, Odilon D. D., Jr.; Hey, R.; Santos, P. V.


    Long spin transport lengths (>60μm) independent of temperature up to approximately 80 K are demonstrated in (110) GaAs quantum wells using surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Study of the dynamics of spins aligned along the [110] direction shows that, in addition to the intrinsic absence of the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin-relaxation mechanism [Sov. Phys. Semicond.20, 110 (1986)], the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism [Sov. Phys. JETP 42, 705 (1976)] is also suppressed due to the type-II carrier confinement imposed by the SAW piezoelectric potential. Experimental evidence is provided for suppression of the spin relaxation via motional narrowing effects induced by the mesoscopic carrier confinement in narrow stripes along the SAW wave front, thus demonstrating the tuning of the spin-relaxation rates with the acoustic power.

  12. Surface acoustic wave regulated single photon emission from a coupled quantum dot-nanocavity system

    CERN Document Server

    Weiß, Matthias; Reichert, Thorsten; Finley, Jonathan J; Wixforth, Achim; Kaniber, Michael; Krenner, Hubert J


    A coupled quantum dot--nanocavity system in the weak coupling regime of cavity quantumelectrodynamics is dynamically tuned in and out of resonance by the coherent elastic field of a $f_{\\rm SAW}\\simeq800\\,\\mathrm{MHz}$ surface acoustic wave. When the system is brought to resonance by the sound wave, light-matter interaction is strongly increased by the Purcell effect. This leads to a precisely timed single photon emission as confirmed by the second order photon correlation function $g^{(2)}$. All relevant frequencies of our experiment are faithfully identified in the Fourier transform of $g^{(2)}$, demonstrating high fidelity regulation of the stream of single photons emitted by the system. The implemented scheme can be directly extended to strongly coupled systems and acoustically drives non-adiabatic entangling quantum gates based on Landau-Zener transitions.

  13. Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Qing Huo, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States)


    Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.

  14. Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain (United States)

    Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei; Liu, Na; Liu, Qing Huo


    Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.

  15. Acoustic Ecology and Remote Acoustic Monitoring of a Minke Whale Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedamke, Jason


    Sound is the most effective means of communication in the ocean. A uniquely inquisitive minke whale population on the northern Great Barrier Reef presents an unprecedented research opportunity to study minke acoustics...

  16. Tunable arrayed waveguide grating driven by surface acoustic waves (United States)

    Crespo-Poveda, Antonio; Hernández-Mínguez, Alberto; Biermann, Klaus; Tahraoui, Abbes; Gargallo, Bernardo; Muñoz, Pascual; Santos, Paulo V.; Cantarero, Andrés.; de Lima, Maurício M.


    We present a design approach for compact reconfigurable phased-array wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) devices with N access waveguides (WGs) based on multimode interference (MMI) couplers. The proposed devices comprise two MMI couplers which are employed as power splitters and combiners, respectively, linked by an array of N single-mode WGs. First, passive devices are explored. Taking advantage of the transfer phases between the access ports of the MMI couplers, we derive very simple phase relations between the arms that provide wavelength dispersion at the output plane of the devices. When the effective refractive index of the WGs is modulated with the proper relative optical phase difference, each wavelength component can switch paths between the preset output channel and the remaining output WGs. Moreover, very simple phase relations between the modulated WGs that enable the reconfiguration of the output channel distribution when the appropriated coupling lengths of the MMI couplers are chosen are also derived. In this way, a very compact expression to calculate the channel assignment of the devices as a function of the applied phase shift is derived for the general case of N access WGs. Finally, the experimental results corresponding to an acoustically driven phased-array WDM device with five access WGs fabricated on (Al,Ga)As are shown.

  17. Investigation of Ion Acoustic Wave Instabilities Near Positive Electrodes (United States)

    Hood, Ryan; Chu, Feng; Baalrud, Scott; Merlino, Robert; Skiff, Fred


    Electron sheaths occur when an electrode is biased above the plasma potential, most often during the electron saturation portion of a Langmuir probe trace. Through the presheath, electrons are accelerated to velocities exceeding the electron thermal speed at the sheath edge, while ions do not develop any appreciable flow. PIC simulations have shown that ion acoustic instabilities are excited by the differential flow between ions and electrons in the presheath region of a low temperature plasma. We present the first experimental measurements investigating these instabilities using Laser-Induced Fluorescence diagnostics in a multidipole argon plasma. The plasma dispersion relation is measured from the power spectra of the imaged LIF signal and compared to the simulation results. In addition, optical pumping is measured using time-resolved LIF measurements and fit to a model in order to determine the diffusion rate, which may be enhanced due to the instability. This research was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences at the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94SL85000.

  18. Scattering of Evanescent Acoustic Waves by Regular and Irregular Objects (United States)


    simulated bottom. This system of liquids is more suitable for long-term indoor use than the vegetable-oil/ glycerin system used in related studies by a...published [ 18,19]. X. Reference List for the Main Report [1] C. F. Osterhoudt, Ph. D. Thesis (in preparation). [2] P. L. Marston, Annual Report for...evanescent waves incident on targets in a simulated sediment," to be presented at the December 2006 ASA meeting. [9] C. F. Osterhoudt, Ph.D. thesis in

  19. Tuning Acoustic Wave Properties by Mechanical Resonators on a Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    Vibrations generated by high aspects ratio electrodes are studied by the finite element method. It is found that the modes are combined of a surface wave and vibration in the electrodes. For increasing aspect ratio most of the mechanical energy is confined to the electrodes which act as mechanical...... resonators and slow down the velocity. It is furthermore found that the group delay can be increased compared to conventional thin electrodes. These results are interesting for filters and resonators as well as for delay lines....

  20. A Possible Generalization of Acoustic Wave Equation Using the Concept of Perturbed Derivative Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana


    Full Text Available The standard version of acoustic wave equation is modified using the concept of the generalized Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative. Some properties of the generalized Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative approximation are presented. Some theorems are generalized. The modified equation is approximately solved by using the variational iteration method and the Green function technique. The numerical simulation of solution of the modified equation gives a better prediction than the standard one.

  1. Qubit-Assisted Transduction for a Detection of Surface Acoustic Waves near the Quantum Limit (United States)

    Noguchi, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Rekishu; Tabuchi, Yutaka; Nakamura, Yasunobu


    We demonstrate ultrasensitive measurement of fluctuations in a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) resonator using a hybrid quantum system consisting of the SAW resonator, a microwave (MW) resonator, and a superconducting qubit. The nonlinearity of the driven qubit induces parametric coupling, which up-converts the excitation in the SAW resonator to that in the MW resonator. Thermal fluctuations of the SAW resonator near the quantum limit are observed in the noise spectroscopy in the MW domain.

  2. Experimental Study of Dust Acoustic Waves in the Strongly Correlated Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, P; Sen, A


    Low frequency dust acoustic waves (DAW) were excited in a laboratory argon dusty plasma by modulating the discharge voltage with a low frequency AC signal. Metallic graphite particles were used as dust grains and a digital FFT technique was used to obtain dispersion characteristics. The experimental dispersion relation shows the reduction of phase velocity and a regime where $\\partial \\omega/\\partial k < 0$. A comparison is made with existing theoretical model.

  3. Photonic integrated single-sideband modulator / frequency shifter based on surface acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    Optical frequency shifters are essential components of many systems. In this paper, a compact integrated optical frequency shifter is designed making use of the combination of surface acoustic waves and Mach-Zehnder interferometers. It has a very simple operation setup and can be fabricated...... in standard semiconductor materials. The performance of the device is analyzed in detail, and by using multi-branch interferometers, the sensitivity of the device to fabrication tolerances can be drastically reduced....

  4. Observation of self-excited dust acoustic wave in dusty plasma with nanometer size dust grains (United States)

    Deka, Tonuj; Boruah, A.; Sharma, S. K.; Bailung, H.


    Dusty plasma with a nanometer size dust grain is produced by externally injecting carbon nanopowder into a radio frequency discharge argon plasma. A self-excited dust acoustic wave with a characteristic frequency of ˜100 Hz is observed in the dust cloud. The average dust charge is estimated from the Orbital Motion Limited theory using experimentally measured parameters. The measured wave parameters are used to determine dusty plasma parameters such as dust density and average inter particle distance. The screening parameter and the coupling strength of the dusty plasma indicate that the system is very close to the strongly coupled state.

  5. Design of Passive Acoustic Wave Shaping Devices and Their Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    We discuss a topology optimization based approach for designing passive acoustic wave shaping devices and demonstrate its application to; directional sound emission [1], sound focusing and wave splitting. Optimized devices, numerical and experimental results are presented and benchmarked against...... by the Helmholtz equation. An exterior 2D model domain is used and an array of point sources is considered as sound emitters. The optimization goal is to identify a distribution of solid material in a design sub-domain which produces a desired spatial sound feld pattern across a frequency band of interest...

  6. Experimental observation of strong coupling effects on the dispersion of dust acoustic waves in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, P; Sen, A; Kaw, P K


    The dispersion properties of low frequency dust acoustic waves in the strong coupling regime are investigated experimentally in an argon plasma embedded with a mixture of kaolin and $MnO_2$ dust particles. The neutral pressure is varied over a wide range to change the collisional properties of the dusty plasma. In the low collisional regime the turnover of the dispersion curve at higher wave numbers and the resultant region of $\\partial\\omega/\\partial k < 0$ are identified as signatures of dust-dust correlations. In the high collisional regime dust neutral collisions produce a similar effect and prevent an unambiguous identification of strong coupling effects.

  7. Ion sound and dust acoustic waves at finite size of plasma particles

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Pavel A


    We consider influence of finite size of ions on properties of classic plasmas. We focus our attention on the ion sound for electron-ion plasmas. We also consider dusty plasmas, where we account finite size of ions and particles of dust and consider the dispersion of dust acoustic waves. Finite size of particles affects classical plasma properties. Finite size of particles gives considerable contribution for small wave lengths, which is area of appearing of quantum effects. Consequently, it is very important to consider finite size of ions in quantum plasmas as well.

  8. Surface acoustic waves propagating over a rotating piezoelectric half-space. (United States)

    Fang, H; Yang, J; Jiang, Q


    Surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating over a piezoelectric half-space rotating at a constant angular rate about a fixed axis are analyzed using the linear theory of piezoelectricity, including Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Rotation sensitivity, the rotation induced change of wave speed, is studied. The dependence of the rotation sensitivity on the orientation of the rotation axis and the orientation of the material is examined. Numerical results for polarized ceramics PZT-5H are presented to show the detailed characteristics of the rotation sensitivity. The implications of the numerical results are discussed for different applications.

  9. Calculation of an axial temperature distribution using the reflection coefficient of an acoustic wave. (United States)

    Červenka, Milan; Bednařík, Michal


    This work verifies the idea that in principle it is possible to reconstruct axial temperature distribution of fluid employing reflection or transmission of acoustic waves. It is assumed that the fluid is dissipationless and its density and speed of sound vary along the wave propagation direction because of the fluid temperature distribution. A numerical algorithm is proposed allowing for calculation of the temperature distribution on the basis of known frequency characteristics of reflection coefficient modulus. Functionality of the algorithm is illustrated on a few examples, its properties are discussed.

  10. Electron acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma with nonthermal electrons and an electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. V., E-mail:; Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai (India); University of the Western Cape, Belville (South Africa); Devanandhan, S., E-mail: [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai (India); Bharuthram, R., E-mail: [University of the Western Cape, Belville (South Africa)


    A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the obliquely propagating electron acoustic solitary waves having nonthermal hot electrons, cold and beam electrons, and ions in a magnetized plasma. We have employed reductive perturbation theory to derive the Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation describing the nonlinear evolution of these waves. The two-dimensional plane wave solution of KdV-ZK equation is analyzed to study the effects of nonthermal and beam electrons on the characteristics of the solitons. Theoretical results predict negative potential solitary structures. We emphasize that the inclusion of finite temperature effects reduces the soliton amplitudes and the width of the solitons increases by an increase in the obliquity of the wave propagation. The numerical analysis is presented for the parameters corresponding to the observations of “burst a” event by Viking satellite on the auroral field lines.

  11. Experimental observation of electron-acoustic wave propagation in laboratory plasma (United States)

    Chowdhury, Satyajit; Biswas, Subir; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Pal, Rabindranath


    In the field of fundamental plasma waves, the direct observation of electron-acoustic wave (EAW) propagation in laboratory plasmas remains a challenging problem, mainly because of heavy damping. In the Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental device, the wave is observed and seen to propagate with the phase velocity ˜ 1.8 times the electron thermal velocity. A small amount of cold, drifting electrons, with the moderate bulk to cold temperature ratio ( ≈ 2 - 3), is present in the device. It plays a crucial role in reducing the damping. Our calculation reveals that the drift relaxes the stringent condition on the temperature ratio for wave destabilization. Growth rate becomes positive above a certain drift velocity even if the temperature ratio is moderate. The observed phase velocity agrees well with the theoretical estimate. Experimental realization of the mode may open up a new avenue in the EAW research.

  12. Two-dimensional cylindrical ion-acoustic solitary and rogue waves in ultrarelativistic plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ata-ur-Rahman [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics at QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics at QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Mushtaq, A. [National Centre for Physics at QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan)


    The propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary and rogue waves is investigated in a two-dimensional ultrarelativistic degenerate warm dense plasma. By using the reductive perturbation technique, the cylindrical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation is derived, which can be further transformed into a Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation. The latter admits a solitary wave solution. However, when the frequency of the carrier wave is much smaller than the ion plasma frequency, the KdV equation can be transferred to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable modified IA wavepackets. The propagation characteristics of the IA solitary and rogue waves are strongly influenced by the variation of different plasma parameters in an ultrarelativistic degenerate dense plasma. The present results might be helpful to understand the nonlinear electrostatic excitations in astrophysical degenerate dense plasmas.

  13. Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Gurbatov, S N; Saichev, A I


    "Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media: General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics” is devoted completely to nonlinear structures. The general theory is given here in parallel with mathematical models. Many concrete examples illustrate the general analysis of Part I. Part II is devoted to applications to nonlinear acoustics, including specific nonlinear models and exact solutions, physical mechanisms of nonlinearity, sawtooth-shaped wave propagation, self-action phenomena, nonlinear resonances and engineering application (medicine, nondestructive testing, geophysics, etc.). This book is designed for graduate and postgraduate students studying the theory of nonlinear waves of various physical nature. It may also be useful as a handbook for engineers and researchers who encounter the necessity of taking nonlinear wave effects into account of their work. Dr. Gurbatov S.N. is the head of Department, and Vice Rector for Research of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Dr. Rudenko O.V. is...

  14. Measurement of Elastic Properties of Tissue by Shear Wave Propagation Generated by Acoustic Radiation Force (United States)

    Tabaru, Marie; Azuma, Takashi; Hashiba, Kunio


    Acoustic radiation force (ARF) imaging has been developed as a novel elastography technology to diagnose hepatic disease and breast cancer. The accuracy of shear wave speed estimation, which is one of the applications of ARF elastography, is studied. The Young's moduli of pig liver and foie gras samples estimated from the shear wave speed were compared with those measured the static Young's modulus measurement. The difference in the two methods was 8%. Distance attenuation characteristics of the shear wave were also studied using finite element method (FEM) analysis. We found that the differences in the axial and lateral beam widths in pressure and ARF are 16 and 9% at F-number=0.9. We studied the relationship between two branch points in distance attenuation characteristics and the shape of ARF. We found that the maximum measurable length to estimate shear wave speed for one ARF excitation was 8 mm.

  15. Control of single photon emitters in semiconductor nanowires by surface acoustic waves (United States)

    Lazić, S.; Hernández-Mínguez, A.; Santos, P. V.


    We report on an experimental study into the effects of surface acoustic waves on the optical emission of dot-in-a-nanowire heterostructures in III-V material systems. Under direct optical excitation, the excitonic energy levels in III-nitride dot-in-a-nanowire heterostructures oscillate at the acoustic frequency, producing a characteristic splitting of the emission lines in the time-integrated photoluminescence spectra. This acoustically induced periodic tuning of the excitonic transition energies is combined with spectral detection filtering and employed as a tool to regulate the temporal output of anti-bunched photons emitted from these nanowire quantum dots. In addition, the acoustic transport of electrons and holes along a III-arsenide nanowire injects the electric charges into an ensemble of quantum dot-like recombination centers that are spatially separated from the optical excitation area. The acoustic population and depopulation mechanism determines the number of carrier recombination events taking place simultaneously in the ensemble, thus allowing control of the anti-bunching degree of the emitted photons. The results presented are relevant for the dynamic control of single photon emission in III-V semiconductor heterostructures.

  16. Effect of particle-particle interactions on the acoustic radiation force in an ultrasonic standing wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipkens, Bart, E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering, Western New England University, Springfield, Massachusetts, 01119 (United States); Ilinskii, Yurii A., E-mail:; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A., E-mail: [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78713–8029 (United States)


    Ultrasonic standing waves are widely used for separation applications. In MEMS applications, a half wavelength standing wave field is generated perpendicular to a laminar flow. The acoustic radiation force exerted on the particle drives the particle to the center of the MEMS channel, where concentrated particles are harvested. In macro-scale applications, the ultrasonic standing wave spans multiple wavelengths. Examples of such applications are oil/water emulsion splitting [1], and blood/lipid separation [2]. In macro-scale applications, particles are typically trapped in the standing wave, resulting in clumping or coalescence of particles/droplets. Subsequent gravitational settling results in separation of the secondary phase. An often used expression for the radiation force on a particle is that derived by Gorkov [3]. The assumptions are that the particle size is small relative to the wavelength, and therefore, only monopole and dipole scattering contributions are used to calculate the radiation force. This framework seems satisfactory for MEMS scale applications where each particle is treated separately by the standing wave, and concentrations are typically low. In macro-scale applications, particle concentration is high, and particle clumping or droplet coalescence results in particle sizes not necessarily small relative to the wavelength. Ilinskii et al. developed a framework for calculation of the acoustic radiation force valid for any size particle [4]. However, this model does not take into account particle to particle effects, which can become important as particle concentration increases. It is known that an acoustic radiation force on a particle or a droplet is determined by the local field. An acoustic radiation force expression is developed that includes the effect of particle to particle interaction. The case of two neighboring particles is considered. The approach is based on sound scattering by the particles. The acoustic field at the location of

  17. Bifurcation analysis for ion acoustic waves in a strongly coupled plasma including trapped electrons (United States)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Atteya, A.


    The nonlinear ion acoustic wave propagation in a strongly coupled plasma composed of ions and trapped electrons has been investigated. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive a modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (mKdV-Burgers) equation. To solve this equation in case of dissipative system, the tangent hyperbolic method is used, and a shock wave solution is obtained. Numerical investigations show that, the ion acoustic waves are significantly modified by the effect of polarization force, the trapped electrons and the viscosity coefficients. Applying the bifurcation theory to the dynamical system of the derived mKdV-Burgers equation, the phase portraits of the traveling wave solutions of both of dissipative and non-dissipative systems are analyzed. The present results could be helpful for a better understanding of the waves nonlinear propagation in a strongly coupled plasma, which can be produced by photoionizing laser-cooled and trapped electrons [1], and also in neutron stars or white dwarfs interior.

  18. Wave field characterization for non-destructive assessment of elastic properties using laser-acoustic sources in fluids and eye related tissues (United States)

    Windisch, T.; Schubert, F.; Köhler, B.; Spörl, E.


    The age-related changes in the visco-elastic properties of the human lens are discussed with respect to presbyopia for a long time. All known measurement techniques are based on extracted lenses or are damaging the tissue. Hence, in vivo studies of lens hardness are not possible at the moment. To close this gap in lens diagnostics this project deals with an approach for a non-contact laser-acoustic characterization technique. Laser-generated wave fronts are reflected by the tissue interfaces and are also affected by the visco-elastic properties of the lens tissue. After propagating through the eye, these waves are recorded as corneal vibrations by laser vibrometry. A systematic analysis of amplitude and phase of these signals and the wave generation process shall give information about the interface locations and the tissues viscoelastic properties. Our recent studies on extracted porcine eyes proved that laser-acoustic sources can be systematically used for non-contacting generation and recording of ultrasound inside the human eye. Furthermore, a specific numerical model provides important contributions to the understanding of the complex wave propagation process. Measurements of the acoustic sources support this approach. Future investigations are scheduled to answer the question, whether this novel technique can be directly used during a laser surgery for monitoring purposes and if a purely diagnostic approach, e.g. by excitation in the aqueous humor, is also possible. In both cases, this technique offers a promising approach for non-contact ultrasound based eye diagnostics.

  19. Plasma Heating During the Parametric Excitation of Acoustic Waves in Coronal Magnetic Loops (United States)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Kislyakova, K. G.

    When studying microwave emission of active regions on the Sun, an effect of parametric resonance between 5-min velocity oscillations in the solar photosphere and sound oscillations of coronal magnetic loops modulating the microwave emission has been discovered for the first time. The effect shows itself as simultaneous excitation in coronal magnetic loop oscillations with periods 5, 10, and 3 min, which correspond to the pumping frequency, subharmonic, and the first upper frequency of parametric resonance. The parametric resonance can serve as an effective channel of transporting the energy of photospheric oscillations into the upper layers of the solar atmosphere. The energy of acoustic waves excited in a coronal magnetic loop, rate of dissipation of acoustic waves, and rate of heating of the coronal plasma are determined. The maximum temperature predicted for the apex of the loop is calculated as a function of velocity of photospheric oscillations, length of the loop, and electric current in the loop. It is shown that the mechanism proposed can explain the origin of quasi-stationary X-ray loops with temperatures of 3-6 MK. The lengths of these loops are resonant for acoustic waves excited by the 5-min photospheric oscillations. The use of the proposed mechanism to explain heating of the X-ray loops expected to be on stars of late spectral types is discussed.

  20. Directional Acoustic Wave Manipulation by a Porpoise via Multiphase Forehead Structure (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Song, Zhongchang; Wang, Xianyan; Cao, Wenwu; Au, Whitlow W. L.


    Porpoises are small-toothed whales, and they can produce directional acoustic waves to detect and track prey with high resolution and a wide field of view. Their sound-source sizes are rather small in comparison with the wavelength so that beam control should be difficult according to textbook sonar theories. Here, we demonstrate that the multiphase material structure in a porpoise's forehead is the key to manipulating the directional acoustic field. Computed tomography (CT) derives the multiphase (bone-air-tissue) complex, tissue experiments obtain the density and sound-velocity multiphase gradient distributions, and acoustic fields and beam formation are numerically simulated. The results suggest the control of wave propagations and sound-beam formations is realized by cooperation of the whole forehead's tissues and structures. The melon size significantly impacts the side lobes of the beam and slightly influences the main beams, while the orientation of the vestibular sac mainly adjusts the main beams. By compressing the forehead complex, the sound beam can be expanded for near view. The porpoise's biosonar allows effective wave manipulations for its omnidirectional sound source, which can help the future development of miniaturized biomimetic projectors in underwater sonar, medical ultrasonography, and other ultrasonic imaging applications.

  1. Detection of Volatile Organics Using a Surface Acoustic Wave Array System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A chemical sensing system based on arrays of surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay lines has been developed for identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The individual SAW chemical sensors consist of interdigital transducers patterned on the surface of an ST-cut quartz substrate to launch and detect the acoustic waves and a thin film coating in the SAW propagation path to perturb the acoustic wave velocity and attenuation during analyte sorption. A diverse set of material coatings gives the sensor arrays a degree of chemical sensitivity and selectivity. Materials examined for sensor application include the alkanethiol-based self-assembled monolayer, plasma-processed films, custom-synthesized conventional polymers, dendrimeric polymers, molecular recognition materials, electroplated metal thin films, and porous metal oxides. All of these materials target a specific chemical fi.mctionality and the enhancement of accessible film surface area. Since no one coating provides absolute analyte specificity, the array responses are further analyzed using a visual-empirical region-of-influence (VERI) pattern recognition algorithm. The chemical sensing system consists of a seven-element SAW array with accompanying drive and control electronics, sensor signal acquisition electronics, environmental vapor sampling hardware, and a notebook computer. Based on data gathered for individual sensor responses, greater than 93%-accurate identification can be achieved for any single analyte from a group of 17 VOCs and water.

  2. The quality of our drinking water: aluminium determination with an acoustic wave sensor. (United States)

    Veríssimo, Marta I S; Gomes, M Teresa S R


    A new methodology based on an inexpensive aluminium acoustic wave sensor is presented. Although the aluminium sensor has already been reported, and the composition of the selective membrane is known, the low detection limits required for the analysis of drinking water, demanded the inclusion of a preconcentration stage, as well as an optimization of the sensor. The necessary coating amount was established, as well as the best preconcentration protocol, in terms of oxidation of organic matter and aluminium elution from the Chelex-100. The methodology developed with the acoustic wave sensor allowed aluminium quantitation above 0.07 mg L(-1). Several water samples from Portugal were analysed using the acoustic wave sensor, as well as by UV-vis spectrophotometry. Results obtained with both methodologies were not statistically different (alpha=0.05), both in terms of accuracy and precision. This new methodology proved to be adequate for aluminium quantitation in drinking water and showed to be faster and less reagent consuming than the UV spectrophotometric methodology.

  3. Acoustic Wave Monitoring of Biofilm Development in Porous Media (United States)

    Biofilm development in porous media can result in significant changes to the hydrogeological properties of subsurface systems with implications for fluid flow and contaminant transport. As such, a number of numerical models and simulations have been developed in an attempt to qua...

  4. A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-enhanced grating-coupling phase-interrogation surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microfluidic biosensor. (United States)

    Sonato, A; Agostini, M; Ruffato, G; Gazzola, E; Liuni, D; Greco, G; Travagliati, M; Cecchini, M; Romanato, F


    A surface acoustic wave (SAW)-enhanced, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microfluidic biosensor in which SAW-induced mixing and phase-interrogation grating-coupling SPR are combined in a single lithium niobate lab-on-a-chip is demonstrated. Thiol-polyethylene glycol adsorption and avidin/biotin binding kinetics were monitored by exploiting the high sensitivity of grating-coupling SPR under azimuthal control. A time saturation binding kinetics reduction of 82% and 24% for polyethylene and avidin adsorption was obtained, respectively, due to the fluid mixing enhancement by means of the SAW-generated chaotic advection. These results represent the first implementation of a nanostructured SAW-SPR microfluidic biochip capable of significantly improving the molecule binding kinetics on a single, portable device. In addition, the biochip here proposed is suitable for a great variety of biosensing applications.

  5. Acoustic backscattering and radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane progressive waves. (United States)

    Mitri, F G


    This work proposes a formal analytical theory using the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates, to calculate the acoustic backscattering form function as well as the radiation force-per-length on an infinitely long elliptical (non-circular) cylinder in plane progressive waves. The major (or minor) semi-axis of the ellipse coincides with the direction of the incident waves. The scattering coefficients for the rigid elliptical cylinder are determined by imposing the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface and solving a resulting system of linear equations by matrix inversion. The present method, which utilizes standard cylindrical (Bessel and Hankel) wave functions, presents an advantage over the solution for the scattering that is ordinarily expressed in a basis of elliptical Mathieu functions (which are generally non-orthogonal). Furthermore, an integral equation showing the direct connection of the radiation force function with the square of the scattering form function in the far-field from the scatterer (applicable for plane waves only), is noted and discussed. An important application of this integral equation is the adequate evaluation of the radiation force function from a bistatic measurement (i.e., in the polar plane) of the far-field scattering from any 2D object of arbitrary shape. Numerical predictions are evaluated for the acoustic backscattering form function and the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density, and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb, without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation, acousto-fluidics and particle dynamics applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Three dimensional full-wave nonlinear acoustic simulations: Applications to ultrasound imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinton, Gianmarco [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina - North Carolina State University, 348 Taylor Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA (United States)


    Characterization of acoustic waves that propagate nonlinearly in an inhomogeneous medium has significant applications to diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. The generation of an ultrasound image of human tissue is based on the complex physics of acoustic wave propagation: diffraction, reflection, scattering, frequency dependent attenuation, and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of wave propagation is used to the advantage of diagnostic scanners that use the harmonic components of the ultrasonic signal to improve the resolution and penetration of clinical scanners. One approach to simulating ultrasound images is to make approximations that can reduce the physics to systems that have a low computational cost. Here a maximalist approach is taken and the full three dimensional wave physics is simulated with finite differences. This paper demonstrates how finite difference simulations for the nonlinear acoustic wave equation can be used to generate physically realistic two and three dimensional ultrasound images anywhere in the body. A specific intercostal liver imaging scenario for two cases: with the ribs in place, and with the ribs removed. This configuration provides an imaging scenario that cannot be performed in vivo but that can test the influence of the ribs on image quality. Several imaging properties are studied, in particular the beamplots, the spatial coherence at the transducer surface, the distributed phase aberration, and the lesion detectability for imaging at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The results indicate, counterintuitively, that at the fundamental frequency the beamplot improves due to the apodization effect of the ribs but at the same time there is more degradation from reverberation clutter. At the harmonic frequency there is significantly less improvement in the beamplot and also significantly less degradation from reverberation. It is shown that even though simulating the full propagation physics is computationally challenging it

  7. Existence domain of the compressive ion acoustic super solitary wave in a two electron temperature warm multi-ion plasma (United States)

    Steffy, S. V.; Ghosh, S. S.


    The transition of an ion acoustic solitary wave into a "supersoliton," or a super solitary wave have been explored in a two electron temperature warm multi-ion plasma using the Sagdeev pseudopotential technique. It is generally believed that the ion acoustic solitary wave can be transformed to a super solitary wave only through a double layer. The present work shows that the transition route of an ion acoustic solitary wave to a super solitary wave is not unique. Depending on the electron temperature ratio, a regular solitary wave may transform to a super solitary wave either via the double layer, or through an extra-nonlinear solitary structure whose morphology differs from that of a regular one. These extra-nonlinear structures are associated with a fluctuation of the charge separation within the potential profile and are named as "variable solitary waves." Depending on these analyses, the upper and lower bounds of a super solitary wave have been deciphered and its existence domain has been delineated in the parametric space. It reveals that super solitary waves are a subset of a more generalized class of extra-nonlinear solitary structures called variable solitary waves.

  8. Condition monitoring of industrial infrastructures using distributed fibre optic acoustic sensors (United States)

    Hicke, Konstantin; Hussels, Maria-Teresa; Eisermann, René; Chruscicki, Sebastian; Krebber, Katerina


    Distributed fibre optic acoustic sensing (DAS) can serve as an excellent tool for real-time condition monitoring of a variety of industrial and civil infrastructures. In this paper, we portray a subset of our current research activities investigating the usability of DAS based on coherent optical time-domain reflectometry (C-OTDR) for innovative and demanding condition monitoring applications. Specifically, our application-oriented research presented here aims at acoustic and vibrational condition monitoring of pipelines and piping systems, of rollers in industrial heavy-duty conveyor belt systems and of extensive submarine power cable installations, respectively.

  9. On the use of horizontal acoustic doppler profilers for continuous bed shear stress monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Sassi, M.G.


    Continuous monitoring of bed shear stress in large river systems may serve to better estimate alluvial sediment transport to the coastal ocean. Here we explore the possibility of using a horizontally deployed acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to monitor bed shear stress, applying a prescribed

  10. An effective sensor for tool wear monitoring in face milling: Acoustic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Acoustic Emission (AE) has been widely used for monitoring man- ufacturing processes particularly those involving metal cutting. Monitoring the condition of the cutting tool in the machining process is very important since tool condition will affect the part size, quality and an unexpected tool failure may dam- age the ...

  11. Acoustic isolation of a monopole logging while drilling tool by combining natural stopbands of pipe extensional waves (United States)

    Su, Yuan-Da; Tang, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Song; Zhuang, Chun-Xi


    For extensional wave propagation along a cylindrical pipe, there exists a natural stopband in the frequency range between the first and second modes. This study explores the feasibility and practicality of building a drill collar acoustic extensional-wave isolator by combining the stopbands of pipes of different thicknesses. Numerical modelling shows that this is indeed possible and a stopband of designated width can be obtained using an optimization procedure. Laboratory measurement on an optimized design further verified this concept. The result provides a viable approach for the acoustic isolation design of a logging while drilling acoustic tool.

  12. Remote Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Metal Ware and Welded Joints (United States)

    Kapranov, Boris I.; Sutorikhin, Vladimir A.


    An unusual phenomenon was revealed in the metal-ultrasound interaction. Microwave sensor generates surface electric conductivity oscillations from exposure to elastic ultrasonic vibrations on regions of defects embracing micro-defects termed as “crack mouth.” They are known as the region of “acoustic activity,” method of Acoustic Emission (AE) method. It was established that the high phase-modulation coefficient of reflected field generates intentional Doppler radar signal with the following parameters: amplitude-1–5 nm, 6–30 dB adjusted to 70- 180 mm. This phenomenon is termed as “Gorbunov effect,” which is applied as a remote non-destructive testing method replacing ultrasonic flaw detection and acoustic emission methods.

  13. Report on Non-invasive acoustic monitoring of D2O concentration Oct 31 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lakis, Rollin Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Beedle, Christopher Craig [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Davis, Eric Sean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    There is an urgent need for real-time monitoring of the hydrogen /deuterium ratio (H/D) for heavy water production monitoring. Based upon published literature, sound speed is sensitive to the deuterium content of heavy water and can be measured using existing acoustic methods to determine the deuterium concentration in heavy water solutions. We plan to adapt existing non-invasive acoustic techniques (Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry and Gaussian-pulse acoustic technique) for the purpose of quantifying H/D ratios in solution. A successful demonstration will provide an easily implemented, low cost, and non-invasive method for remote and unattended H/D ratio measurements with a resolution of less than 0.2% vol.

  14. Computational study on full-wave inversion based on the acoustic wave-equation; Onkyoha hado hoteishiki full wave inversion no model keisan ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The effect of initial models on full-wave inversion (FWI) analysis based on acoustic wave-equation was studied for elastic wave tomography of underground structures. At present, travel time inversion using initial motion travel time is generally used, and inverse analysis is conducted using the concept `ray,` assuming very high wave frequency. Although this method can derive stable solutions relatively unaffected by initial model, it uses only the data of initial motion travel time. FWI calculates theoretical waveform at each receiver using all of observed waveforms as data by wave equation modeling where 2-D underground structure is calculated by difference calculus under the assumption that wave propagation is described by wave equation of P wave. Although it is a weak point that FWI is easily affected by noises in an initial model and data, it is featured by high resolution of solutions. This method offers very excellent convergence as a proper initial model is used, resulting in sufficient performance, however, it is strongly affected by initial model. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Spectral mass gauging of unsettled liquid with acoustic waves (United States)

    Feller, Jeffrey; Kashani, Ali; Khasin, Michael; Muratov, Cyrill; Osipov, Viatcheslav; Sharma, Surendra


    Propellant mass gauging is one of the key technologies required to enable the next step in NASA’s space exploration program. At present, there is no reliable method to accurately measure the amount of unsettled liquid propellant in a large-scale propellant tank in micro- or zero gravity. Recently we proposed a new approach to use sound waves to probe the resonance frequencies of the two-phase liquid-gas mixture and take advantage of the mathematical properties of the high frequency spectral asymptotics to determine the volume fraction of the tank filled with liquid. We report the current progress in exploring the feasibility of this approach in the case of large propellant tanks, both experimental and theoretical. Excitation and detection procedures using solenoids for excitation and both hydrophones and accelerometers for detection have been developed. A 3% uncertainty for mass-gauging was demonstrated for a 200-liter tank partially filled with liquid for various unsettled configurations, such as tilts and artificial ullages.

  16. Last call: Passive acoustic monitoring shows continued rapid decline of critically endangered vaquita. (United States)

    Thomas, Len; Jaramillo-Legorreta, Armando; Cardenas-Hinojosa, Gustavo; Nieto-Garcia, Edwyna; Rojas-Bracho, Lorenzo; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Moore, Jeffrey; Taylor, Barbara; Barlow, Jay; Tregenza, Nicholas


    The vaquita is a critically endangered species of porpoise. It produces echolocation clicks, making it a good candidate for passive acoustic monitoring. A systematic grid of sensors has been deployed for 3 months annually since 2011; results from 2016 are reported here. Statistical models (to compensate for non-uniform data loss) show an overall decline in the acoustic detection rate between 2015 and 2016 of 49% (95% credible interval 82% decline to 8% increase), and total decline between 2011 and 2016 of over 90%. Assuming the acoustic detection rate is proportional to population size, approximately 30 vaquita (95% credible interval 8-96) remained in November 2016.

  17. Electron-acoustic rogue waves in a plasma with Tribeche–Tsallis–Cairns distributed electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriche, Abderrzak [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Plasma Physics Group (PPG), University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B. P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Tribeche, Mouloud, E-mail: [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory (TPL), Plasma Physics Group (PPG), University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B. P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Algerian Academy of Sciences and Technologies, Algiers (Algeria)


    The problem of electron-acoustic (EA) rogue waves in a plasma consisting of fluid cold electrons, nonthermal nonextensive electrons and stationary ions, is addressed. A standard multiple scale method has been carried out to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger-like equation. The coefficients of dispersion and nonlinearity depend on the nonextensive and nonthermal parameters. The EA wave stability is analyzed. Interestingly, it is found that the wave number threshold, above which the EA wave modulational instability (MI) sets in, increases as the nonextensive parameter increases. As the nonthermal character of the electrons increases, the MI occurs at large wavelength. Moreover, it is shown that as the nonextensive parameter increases, the EA rogue wave pulse grows while its width is narrowed. The amplitude of the EA rogue wave decreases with an increase of the number of energetic electrons. In the absence of nonthermal electrons, the nonextensive effects are more perceptible and more noticeable. In view of the crucial importance of rogue waves, our results can contribute to the understanding of localized electrostatic envelope excitations and underlying physical processes, that may occur in space as well as in laboratory plasmas.

  18. Experimental Investigation on Acoustic Control Droplet Transfer in Ultrasonic-Wave-Assisted Gas Metal Arc Welding (United States)

    Weifeng, Xie; Chenglei, Fan; Chunli, Yang; Sanbao, Lin


    Ultrasonic-wave-assisted gas metal arc welding (U-GMAW) is a new, advanced arc welding method that uses an ultrasonic wave emitted from an ultrasonic radiator above the arc. However, it remains unclear how the ultrasonic wave affects the metal droplet, hindering further application of U-GMAW. In this paper, an improved U-GMAW system was used and its superiority was experimentally demonstrated. Then a series of experiments were designed and performed to study how the ultrasonic wave affects droplet transfer, including droplet size, velocity, and motion trajectory. The behavior of droplet transfer was observed in high-speed images. The droplet transfer is closely related to the distribution of the acoustic field, determined by the ultrasonic current. Moreover, by analyzing the variably accelerated motion of the droplet, the acoustic control of the droplet transfer was intuitively demonstrated. Finally, U-GMAW was successfully used in vertical-up and overhead welding experiments, showing that U-GMAW is promising for use in welding in all positions.

  19. The Propagation of Tsunami Generated Acoustic-Gravity Waves in the Atmosphere (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Llewellyn Smith, S.; Rottman, J.; Broutman, D.; Minster, J. B. H.


    Tsunami-generated acoustic-gravity waves propagate in the atmosphere up to the ionosphere, where they have been observed to have an impact on the total electron content (TEC). We simulate the propagation of 2D&3D linearized acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere by Fourier transforming in the horizontal and solving the vertical structure with a tsunami-perturbed lower boundary and an upper radiation boundary conditions. Starting from the algorithm of Broutman (2013) and the atmospheric profile of the 2004 Sumatra Tsunami, we add compressibility to the atmosphere and extend the calculation to three dimensions. Compressibility is an important feature of the real atmosphere, and we investigate its effect on wave propagation. We obtain the vertical wavenumber as a function of buoyancy frequency, density scale height, sound speed, and background wind velocity. Results show that wind shear and compressibility have a significant impact on wave transmission and reflection. We also investigate the 3D problem to allow variations in the bottom boundary condition and in the background wind profiles. Results are quite similar to the 2D case.

  20. Excitation of monochromatic and stable electron acoustic wave by two counter-propagating laser beams (United States)

    Xiao, C. Z.; Liu, Z. J.; Zheng, C. Y.; He, X. T.


    The undamped electron acoustic wave is a newly-observed nonlinear electrostatic plasma wave and has potential applications in ion acceleration, laser amplification and diagnostics due to its unique frequency range. We propose to make the first attempt to excite a monochromatic and stable electron acoustic wave (EAW) by two counter-propagating laser beams. The matching conditions relevant to laser frequencies, plasma density, and electron thermal velocity are derived and the harmonic effects of the EAW are excluded. Single-beam instabilities, including stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering, on the excitation process are quantified by an interaction quantity, η =γ {τ }B, where γ is the growth rate of each instability and {τ }B is the characteristic time of the undamped EAW. The smaller the interaction quantity, the more successfully the monochromatic and stable EAW can be excited. Using one-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, we excite EAW wave trains which are amplitude tunable, have a duration of thousands of laser periods, and are monochromatic and stable, by carefully controlling the parameters under the above conditions.

  1. Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure and Multimodal Brain Monitoring. (United States)

    Dias, Celeste; Maia, Isabel; Cerejo, Antonio; Smielewski, Peter; Paiva, José-Artur; Czosnyka, Marek


    The aim of this study was to describe multimodal brain monitoring characteristics during plateau waves of intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with head injury, using ICM+ software for continuous recording. Plateau waves consist of an abrupt elevation of ICP above 40 mmHg for 5-20 min. This is a prospective observational study of patients with head injury who were admitted to a neurocritical care unit and who developed plateau waves. We analyzed 59 plateau waves that occurred in 8 of 18 patients (44 %). At the top of plateau waves arterial blood pressure remained almost constant, but cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and cerebral oximetry decreased. After plateau waves, patients with a previously better autoregulation status developed hyperemia, demonstrated by an increase in cerebral blood flow and brain oxygenation. Pressure and oxygen cerebrovascular reactivity indexes (pressure reactivity index and ORxshort) increased significantly during the plateau wave as a sign of disruption of autoregulation. Bedside multimodal brain monitoring is important to characterize increases in ICP and give differential diagnoses of plateau waves, as management of this phenomenon differs from that of regular ICP.

  2. Cylindrical vector beam generation in fiber with mode selectivity and wavelength tunability over broadband by acoustic flexural wave. (United States)

    Zhang, Wending; Huang, Ligang; Wei, Keyan; Li, Peng; Jiang, Biqiang; Mao, Dong; Gao, Feng; Mei, Ting; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhao, Jianlin


    Theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration are presented for the generation of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs) via mode conversion in fiber from HE11 mode to TM01 and TE01 modes, which have radial and azimuthal polarizations, respectively. Intermodal coupling is caused by an acoustic flexural wave applied on the fiber, whereas polarization control is necessary for the mode conversion, i.e. HE11x→TM01 and HE11y→TE01 for acoustic vibration along the x-axis. The frequency of the RF driving signal for actuating the acoustic wave is determined by the phase matching condition that the period of acoustic wave equals the beatlength of two coupled modes. With phase matching condition tunability, this approach can be used to generate different types of CVBs at the same wavelength over a broadband. Experimental demonstration was done in the visible and communication bands.

  3. Ultrasonic guided wave mechanics for composite material structural health monitoring (United States)

    Gao, Huidong

    The ultrasonic guided wave based method is very promising for structural health monitoring of aging and modern aircraft. An understanding of wave mechanics becomes very critical for exploring the potential of this technology. However, the guided wave mechanics in complex structures, especially composite materials, are very challenging due to the nature of multi-layer, anisotropic, and viscoelastic behavior. The purpose of this thesis is to overcome the challenges and potentially take advantage of the complex wave mechanics for advanced sensor design and signal analysis. Guided wave mechanics is studied in three aspects, namely wave propagation, excitation, and damage sensing. A 16 layer quasi-isotropic composite with a [(0/45/90/-45)s]2 lay up sequence is used in our study. First, a hybrid semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) and global matrix method (GMM) is used to simulate guided wave propagation in composites. Fast and accurate simulation is achieved by using SAFE for dispersion curve generation and GMM for wave structure calculation. Secondly, the normal mode expansion (NME) technique is used for the first time to study the wave excitation characteristics in laminated composites. A clear and simple definition of wave excitability is put forward as a result of NME analysis. Source influence for guided wave excitation is plotted as amplitude on a frequency and phase velocity spectrum. This spectrum also provides a guideline for transducer design in guided wave excitation. The ultrasonic guided wave excitation characteristics in viscoelastic media are also studied for the first time using a modified normal mode expansion technique. Thirdly, a simple physically based feature is developed to estimate the guided wave sensitivity to damage in composites. Finally, a fuzzy logic decision program is developed to perform mode selection through a quantitative evaluation of the wave propagation, excitation and sensitivity features. Numerical simulation algorithms are

  4. Design aspects of acoustic sensor networks for environmental noise monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.


    An increase in public awareness of noise pollution and the impact of noise on human health has led to the need for enhanced insight in complex noise situations. This insight is commonly obtained either by brief measurements or by evaluation of a simplified acoustic model. Both of these approaches

  5. Lathe stability charts via acoustic emission monitoring | Keraita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Signal parameters characterizing acoustic emission (AE) detected during metal cutting have been theoretically correlated in a simple manner, to the work material properties, cutting conditions, and tool geometry. During chatter, the cutting conditions and the tool geometry change considerably. Self-exited chatter, an ...

  6. Acoustic emission monitoring of crack formation during alkali silica\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Tomáš; Přikryl, R.; Šachlová, Š.; Kuchařová, A.


    Roč. 220, MAR 30 (2017), s. 175-182 ISSN 0013-7952 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/12/0915 Keywords : Alkali-silica reaction * accelerated expansion test * ultrasonic sounding * acoustic emission * backscattered electron imaging Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.569, year: 2016

  7. Visco-acoustic wave-equation traveltime inversion and its sensitivity to attenuation errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han


    A visco-acoustic wave-equation traveltime inversion method is presented that inverts for the shallow subsurface velocity distribution. Similar to the classical wave equation traveltime inversion, this method finds the velocity model that minimizes the squared sum of the traveltime residuals. Even though, wave-equation traveltime inversion can partly avoid the cycle skipping problem, a good initial velocity model is required for the inversion to converge to a reasonable tomogram with different attenuation profiles. When Q model is far away from the real model, the final tomogram is very sensitive to the starting velocity model. Nevertheless, a minor or moderate perturbation of the Q model from the true one does not strongly affect the inversion if the low wavenumber information of the initial velocity model is mostly correct. These claims are validated with numerical tests on both the synthetic and field data sets.

  8. Propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Saberian, E; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M


    Propagation of large amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) in a fully relativistic plasma consisting of cold ions and ultrarelativistic hot electrons and positrons is investigated using the Sagdeev's pseudopotential method in a relativistic hydrodynamics model. Effects of streaming speed of plasma fluid, thermal energy, positron density and positron temperature on large amplitude IASWs are studied by analysis of the pseudopotential structure. It is found that in regions that the streaming speed of plasma fluid is larger than that of solitary wave, by increasing the streaming speed of plasma fluid the depth and width of potential well increases and resulting in narrower solitons with larger amplitude. This behavior is opposite for the case where the streaming speed of plasma fluid is smaller than that of solitary wave. On the other hand, increase of the thermal energy results in wider solitons with smaller amplitude, because the depth and width of potential well decreases in that case. Additionally, th...

  9. Landau damping of the dust-acoustic surface waves in a Lorentzian dusty plasma slab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States)


    Landau damping of a dust-acoustic surface wave propagating at the interfaces of generalized Lorentzian dusty plasma slab bounded by a vacuum is kinetically derived as the surface wave displays the symmetric and the anti-symmetric mode in a plasma slab. In the limiting case of small scaled wave number, we have found that Landau damping is enhanced as the slab thickness is increased. In particular, the damping of anti-symmetric mode is much stronger for a Lorentzian plasma than for a Maxwellian plasma. We have also found that the damping is more affected by superthermal particles in a Lorentzian plasma than by a Maxwellian plasma for both of the symmetric and the anti-symmetric cases. The variations of Landau damping with various parameters are also discussed.

  10. Dust ion acoustic freak waves in a plasma with two temperature electrons featuring Tsallis distribution (United States)

    Chahal, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Manpreet; Shalini; Saini, N. S.


    We present an investigation for the nonlinear dust ion acoustic wave modulation in a plasma composed of charged dust grains, two temperature (cold and hot) nonextensive electrons and ions. For this purpose, the multiscale reductive perturbation technique is used to obtain a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The critical wave number, which indicates where the modulational instability sets in, has been determined precisely for various regimes. The influence of plasma background nonextensivity on the growth rate of modulational instability is discussed. The modulated wavepackets in the form of either bright or dark type envelope solitons may exist. Formation of rogue waves from bright envelope solitons is also discussed. The investigation indicates that the structural characteristics of these envelope excitations (width, amplitude) are significantly affected by nonextensivity, dust concentration, cold electron-ion density ratio and temperature ratio.

  11. Symmetry and transformation of waves in optics and acoustics of crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Khatkevich, Anatol G


    It is show that in group representation by non-traditionally determining by the Maxwell equations, instead of wave, linear differential operator of momentous type from the common point of view the transformation of electromagnetic and ultrasonic radiation as well as the formation of caustics generation of solitons in crystals is represented. It is established that forming operator structural constants determine bias current with the connected charge and group velocity and also optical and acoustic axes of a crystal, which characterize its wave properties, moreover crystals are classified on common electromagnetic base. It is discovered that at change of crystal symmetry and representation of different wave process the problems also take place, which are similar to others spheres of physics and are constructed on the same aximatical base.

  12. PIC simulation of compressive and rarefactive dust ion-acoustic solitary waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhong-Zheng; Zhang, Heng; Hong, Xue-Ren; Gao, Dong-Ning; Zhang, Jie; Duan, Wen-Shan, E-mail: [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU & IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang, Lei, E-mail: [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU & IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)


    The nonlinear propagations of dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisionless four-component unmagnetized dusty plasma system containing nonextensive electrons, inertial negative ions, Maxwellian positive ions, and negatively charged static dust grains have been investigated by the particle-in-cell method. By comparing the simulation results with those obtained from the traditional reductive perturbation method, it is observed that the rarefactive KdV solitons propagate stably at a low amplitude, and when the amplitude is increased, the prime wave form evolves and then gradually breaks into several small amplitude solitary waves near the tail of soliton structure. The compressive KdV solitons propagate unstably and oscillation arises near the tail of soliton structure. The finite amplitude rarefactive and compressive Gardner solitons seem to propagate stably.

  13. Numerical simulations of three-dimensional nonlinear acoustic waves in bubbly liquids. (United States)

    Vanhille, Christian; Campos-Pozuelo, Cleofé


    This paper presents three-dimensional simulations of nonlinear propagation of ultrasonic waves through bubbly liquids, which represent the continuity of our previous works included in the numerical tool SNOW-BL. The behavior of three-dimensional nonlinear acoustic waves in bubbly liquids is analyzed by means of numerical predictions. Nonlinearity, attenuation, and dispersion due to the presence of bubbles in the liquid are taken into account. The numerical solution to the differential problem is obtained by means of a finite-difference scheme. The simulations we present here consider a homogeneous distribution of bubbles in the liquid. Results compare high and low-amplitude waves to detect the nonlinear effects of the bubbles. Results are shown for radiation and enclosure problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Paracousti-UQ: A Stochastic 3-D Acoustic Wave Propagation Algorithm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Leiph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Acoustic full waveform algorithms, such as Paracousti, provide deterministic solutions in complex, 3-D variable environments. In reality, environmental and source characteristics are often only known in a statistical sense. Thus, to fully characterize the expected sound levels within an environment, this uncertainty in environmental and source factors should be incorporated into the acoustic simulations. Performing Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is one method of assessing this uncertainty, but it can quickly become computationally intractable for realistic problems. An alternative method, using the technique of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE), allows computation of the statistical properties of output signals at a fraction of the computational cost of MC. Paracousti-UQ solves the SPDE system of 3-D acoustic wave propagation equations and provides estimates of the uncertainty of the output simulated wave field (e.g., amplitudes, waveforms) based on estimated probability distributions of the input medium and source parameters. This report describes the derivation of the stochastic partial differential equations, their implementation, and comparison of Paracousti-UQ results with MC simulations using simple models.

  15. Coupling of electrostatic ion cyclotron and ion acoustic waves in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreeraj, T., E-mail: [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); Singh, S. V., E-mail:; Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, Capetown (South Africa)


    The coupling of electrostatic ion cyclotron and ion acoustic waves is examined in three component magnetized plasma consisting of electrons, protons, and alpha particles. In the theoretical model relevant to solar wind plasma, electrons are assumed to be superthermal with kappa distribution and protons as well as alpha particles follow the fluid dynamical equations. A general linear dispersion relation is derived for such a plasma system which is analyzed both analytically and numerically. For parallel propagation, electrostatic ion cyclotron (proton and helium cyclotron) and ion acoustic (slow and fast) modes are decoupled. For oblique propagation, coupling between the cyclotron and acoustic modes occurs. Furthermore, when the angle of propagation is increased, the separation between acoustic and cyclotron modes increases which is an indication of weaker coupling at large angle of propagation. For perpendicular propagation, only cyclotron modes are observed. The effect of various parameters such as number density and temperature of alpha particles and superthermality on dispersion characteristics is examined in details. The coupling between various modes occurs for small values of wavenumber.

  16. Finite-Difference Modeling of Acoustic and Gravity Wave Propagation in Mars Atmosphere: Application to Infrasounds Emitted by Meteor Impacts (United States)

    Garcia, Raphael F.; Brissaud, Quentin; Rolland, Lucie; Martin, Roland; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Spiga, Aymeric; Lognonné, Philippe; Banerdt, Bruce


    The propagation of acoustic and gravity waves in planetary atmospheres is strongly dependent on both wind conditions and attenuation properties. This study presents a finite-difference modeling tool tailored for acoustic-gravity wave applications that takes into account the effect of background winds, attenuation phenomena (including relaxation effects specific to carbon dioxide atmospheres) and wave amplification by exponential density decrease with height. The simulation tool is implemented in 2D Cartesian coordinates and first validated by comparison with analytical solutions for benchmark problems. It is then applied to surface explosions simulating meteor impacts on Mars in various Martian atmospheric conditions inferred from global climate models. The acoustic wave travel times are validated by comparison with 2D ray tracing in a windy atmosphere. Our simulations predict that acoustic waves generated by impacts can refract back to the surface on wind ducts at high altitude. In addition, due to the strong nighttime near-surface temperature gradient on Mars, the acoustic waves are trapped in a waveguide close to the surface, which allows a night-side detection of impacts at large distances in Mars plains. Such theoretical predictions are directly applicable to future measurements by the INSIGHT NASA Discovery mission.

  17. Nonlinear ion-acoustic structures in a nonextensive electron–positron–ion–dust plasma: Modulational instability and rogue waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shimin, E-mail: [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Research Group MAC, Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Amsterdam, 1098XG (Netherlands); Mei, Liquan, E-mail: [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Center for Computational Geosciences, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Sun, Anbang [Research Group MAC, Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Amsterdam, 1098XG (Netherlands)


    The nonlinear propagation of planar and nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized electron–positron–ion–dust plasma with two-electron temperature distributions is investigated in the context of the nonextensive statistics. Using the reductive perturbation method, a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived for the potential wave amplitude. The effects of plasma parameters on the modulational instability of ion-acoustic waves are discussed in detail for planar as well as for cylindrical and spherical geometries. In addition, for the planar case, we analyze how the plasma parameters influence the nonlinear structures of the first- and second-order ion-acoustic rogue waves within the modulational instability region. The present results may be helpful in providing a good fit between the theoretical analysis and real applications in future spatial observations and laboratory plasma experiments. -- Highlights: ► Modulational instability of ion-acoustic waves in a new plasma model is discussed. ► Tsallis’s statistics is considered in the model. ► The second-order ion-acoustic rogue wave is studied for the first time.

  18. A Catheter-Based Acoustic Interrogation Device for Monitoring Motility Dynamics of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu


    Full Text Available This paper presents novel minimally-invasive, catheter-based acoustic interrogation device for monitoring motility dynamics of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES. A micro-oscillator actively emitting sound wave at 16 kHz is located at one side of the LES, and a miniature microphone is located at the other side of the sphincter to capture the sound generated from the oscillator. Thus, the dynamics of the opening and closing of the LES can be quantitatively assessed. In this paper, experiments are conducted utilizing an LES motility dynamics simulator. The sound strength is captured by the microphone and is correlated to the level of LES opening and closing controlled by the simulator. Measurements from the simulator model show statistically significant (p < 0.05 Pearson correlation coefficients (0.905 on the average in quiet environment and 0.736 on the average in noisy environment, D.O.F. = 9. Measuring the level of LES opening and closing has the potential to become a valuable diagnostic technique for understanding LES dysfunction and the disorders associated with it.

  19. First in-situ passive acoustic monitoring for marine mammals during operation of a tidal turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinka, Chloe Elizabeth; Gillespie, Douglas; MacAulay, Jamie

    The development of marine renewables has raised concerns regarding impacts on marine wildlife, including collision risk. Here, we examine three months of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) data collected at Tidal Energy Ltd.’s DeltaStream turbine deployment, in Ramsey Sound, Wales, UK. The PAM...... on animal presence and movement close to the turbine. This is the first time a tidal turbine has been equipped with such a PAM monitoring system, and is the first description of how marine mammals behave around an operational tidal turbine. The environmental monitoring methods presented here could be scaled...... in porpoise acoustic detection, with tidal cycle state (flood / ebb), time of day, low frequency noise levels and moon phase best explaining the acoustic presence of porpoise. There was a limited sample of turbine operation, meaning that there was insufficient data to understand the effect of turbine rotation...

  20. 3D Ultrasonic Wave Simulations for Structural Health Monitoring (United States)

    Campbell, Leckey Cara A/; Miler, Corey A.; Hinders, Mark K.


    Structural health monitoring (SHM) for the detection of damage in aerospace materials is an important area of research at NASA. Ultrasonic guided Lamb waves are a promising SHM damage detection technique since the waves can propagate long distances. For complicated flaw geometries experimental signals can be difficult to interpret. High performance computing can now handle full 3-dimensional (3D) simulations of elastic wave propagation in materials. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate ultrasound scattering from flaws in materials. EFIT results have been compared to experimental data and the simulations provide unique insight into details of the wave behavior. This type of insight is useful for developing optimized experimental SHM techniques. 3D EFIT can also be expanded to model wave propagation and scattering in anisotropic composite materials.