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Sample records for waukesha cherry-burrell w262

  1. Application of the Local Grid Refinement package to an inset model simulating the interactions of lakes, wells, and shallow groundwater, northwestern Waukesha County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Dunning, C.P.; Juckem, P.F.; Hunt, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater use from shallow, high-capacity wells is expected to increase across southeastern Wisconsin in the next decade (2010-2020), owing to residential and business growth and the need for shallow water to be blended with deeper water of lesser quality, containing, for example, excessive levels of radium. However, this increased pumping has the potential to affect surface-water features. A previously developed regional groundwater-flow model for southeastern Wisconsin was used as the starting point for a new model to characterize the hydrology of part of northwestern Waukesha County, with a particular focus on the relation between the shallow aquifer and several area lakes. An inset MODFLOW model was embedded in an updated version of the original regional model. Modifications made within the inset model domain include finer grid resolution; representation of Beaver, Pine, and North Lakes by use of the LAK3 package in MODFLOW; and representation of selected stream reaches with the SFR package. Additionally, the inset model is actively linked to the regional model by use of the recently released Local Grid Refinement package for MODFLOW-2005, which allows changes at the regional scale to propagate to the local scale and vice versa. The calibrated inset model was used to simulate the hydrologic system in the Chenequa area under various weather and pumping conditions. The simulated model results for base conditions show that groundwater is the largest inflow component for Beaver Lake (equal to 59 percent of total inflow). For Pine and North Lakes, it is still an important component (equal, respectively, to 16 and 5 percent of total inflow), but for both lakes it is less than the contribution from precipitation and surface water. Severe drought conditions (simulated in a rough way by reducing both precipitation and recharge rates for 5 years to two-thirds of base values) cause correspondingly severe reductions in lake stage and flows. The addition of a test well

  2. Orthoimagery Submission for Waukesha County, WI, USA - MIP Waukesha Portion Rock River RiskMap DFIRM Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth's surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  3. DCS Hydraulics Submission for Bark River Physical Map Revision in Waukesha County, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  4. Floodplain Mapping Submission for Bark River Physical Map Revision in Waukesha County, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  5. TERRAIN submission for Rock River Watershed Risk Map, Waukesha County Portion

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. 78 FR 37652 - Environmental Impact Statement: Kenosha, Racine, Milwaukee, Waukesha, Washington, Dodge, Fond Du...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... overweight regulations, more restrictive off- property outdoor advertising regulations, the change in route.... Input received from participating agencies, cooperating agencies, the public, the business community, trucking industry and outdoor advertising industry, throughout the project as well as at 6 public...

  7. SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

  8. Write It So They'll Read It: Popular Annual Financial Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard T.; Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    Waukesha County Technical College (Wisconsin) received the Governmental Financial Officers Association "Popular Annual Financial Reporting Award" in 1993 and became the first educational entity to do so. Popular annual financial reporting is an effective way for schools to present reader-friendly reports that stress graphics and…

  9. 78 FR 43916 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...) Ave. P, .75 mi. W. of 30th Rd., Little River, 13000580 Santa Fe Trail--Rice County Segment 3, (Santa... MISSOURI St. Charles County Link, Oliver L. and Catherine, House, 1005 Jefferson, St. Charles, 13000584 NEW... Manitowoc County Klingholz, Charles and Herriette, House, 224 Mill Rd., Manitowoc Rapids, 13000587 Waukesha...

  10. Technology Adoption in Higher Education: Overcoming Anxiety through Faculty Bootcamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Terri; Wisniewski, Mary Ann; Kuhlemeyer, Greg; Isaacs, Gerald; Krzykowski, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The reluctance to design and teach online courses in higher education is often attributed to technology anxiety in faculty. This article documents a faculty development model that has successfully helped faculty overcome this obstacle. "Bootcamps," faculty development programs held at Carroll University in Waukesha, WI, were specifically and…

  11. Groundwater-surface water relations in the Fox River watershed: insights from exploratory studies in Illinois and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory studies were conducted at sites bordering the Fox River in Waukesha, Wisconsin, during 2010 and McHenry, Illinois, during 2011–13. The objectives of the studies were to assess strategies for the study of and insights into the potential for directly connected groundwater and surface-water systems with natural groundwater discharge to streams diverted and (or) streamflow induced (captured) by nearby production-well withdrawals. Several collection efforts of about 2 weeks or less provided information and data on site geology, groundwater and surface-water levels, hydraulic gradients, water-temperature and stream-seepage patterns, and water chemistry including stables isotopes. Overview information is presented for the Waukesha study, and selected data and preliminary findings are presented for the McHenry study.

  12. Use of real-time monitoring to predict concentrations of select constituents in the Menomonee River drainage basin, Southeast Wisconsin, 2008-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Saad, David A.; Magruder, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Menomonee River drainage basin in southeast Wisconsin is undergoing changes that may affect water quality. Several rehabilitation and flood-management projects are underway, including removal of concrete channels and the construction of floodwater retention basins. The city of Waukesha may begin discharging treated wastewater into Underwood Creek, thus approximately doubling the current base-flow discharge. In addition, the headwater basins, historically dominated by agriculture and natural areas, are becoming increasingly urbanized.

  13. Modelling and Simulation of Gas Engines Using Aspen HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ekwonu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper gas engine model was developed in Aspen HYSYS V7.3 and validated with Waukesha 16V275GL+ gas engine. Fuel flexibility, fuel types and part load performance of the gas engine were investigated. The design variability revealed that the gas engine can operate on poor fuel with low lower heating value (LHV such as landfill gas, sewage gas and biogas with biogas offering potential integration with bottoming cycles when compared to natural gas. The result of the gas engine simulation gave an efficiency 40.7% and power output of 3592kW.

  14. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  15. Screening for Fabry Disease in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Documentation of a Novel Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Ana, E-mail: baptista-ana@hotmail.com; Magalhães, Pedro; Leão, Sílvia; Carvalho, Sofia; Mateus, Pedro; Moreira, Ilídio [Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Unidade de Vila Real (Portugal)

    2015-08-15

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by enzyme α-galactosidase A deficiency as a result of mutations in the GLA gene. Cardiac involvement is characterized by progressive left ventricular hypertrophy. To estimate the prevalence of Fabry disease in a population with left ventricular hypertrophy. The patients were assessed for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy defined as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 96 g/m{sup 2} for women or ≥ 116 g/m{sup 2} for men. Severe aortic stenosis and arterial hypertension with mild left ventricular hypertrophy were exclusion criteria. All patients included were assessed for enzyme α-galactosidase A activity using dry spot testing. Genetic study was performed whenever the enzyme activity was decreased. A total of 47 patients with a mean left ventricular mass index of 141.1 g/m{sup 2} (± 28.5; 99.2 to 228.5 g/m{sup 2}] were included. Most of the patients were females (51.1%). Nine (19.1%) showed decreased α-galactosidase A activity, but only one positive genetic test − [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5), a mutation not previously described in the literature. This clinical investigation was able to establish the association between the mutation and the clinical presentation. In a population of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, we documented a Fabry disease prevalence of 2.1%. This novel case was defined in the sequence of a mutation of unknown meaning in the GLA gene with further pathogenicity study. Thus, this study permitted the definition of a novel causal mutation for Fabry disease - [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5)

  16. Screening for Fabry Disease in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Documentation of a Novel Mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Ana; Magalhães, Pedro; Leão, Sílvia; Carvalho, Sofia; Mateus, Pedro; Moreira, Ilídio

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by enzyme α-galactosidase A deficiency as a result of mutations in the GLA gene. Cardiac involvement is characterized by progressive left ventricular hypertrophy. To estimate the prevalence of Fabry disease in a population with left ventricular hypertrophy. The patients were assessed for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy defined as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 96 g/m 2 for women or ≥ 116 g/m 2 for men. Severe aortic stenosis and arterial hypertension with mild left ventricular hypertrophy were exclusion criteria. All patients included were assessed for enzyme α-galactosidase A activity using dry spot testing. Genetic study was performed whenever the enzyme activity was decreased. A total of 47 patients with a mean left ventricular mass index of 141.1 g/m 2 (± 28.5; 99.2 to 228.5 g/m 2 ] were included. Most of the patients were females (51.1%). Nine (19.1%) showed decreased α-galactosidase A activity, but only one positive genetic test − [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5), a mutation not previously described in the literature. This clinical investigation was able to establish the association between the mutation and the clinical presentation. In a population of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, we documented a Fabry disease prevalence of 2.1%. This novel case was defined in the sequence of a mutation of unknown meaning in the GLA gene with further pathogenicity study. Thus, this study permitted the definition of a novel causal mutation for Fabry disease - [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5)

  17. Screening for Fabry Disease in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Documentation of a Novel Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by enzyme α-galactosidase A deficiency as a result of mutations in the GLA gene. Cardiac involvement is characterized by progressive left ventricular hypertrophy. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of Fabry disease in a population with left ventricular hypertrophy. Methods: The patients were assessed for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy defined as a left ventricular mass index ≥ 96 g/m2 for women or ≥ 116 g/m2 for men. Severe aortic stenosis and arterial hypertension with mild left ventricular hypertrophy were exclusion criteria. All patients included were assessed for enzyme α-galactosidase A activity using dry spot testing. Genetic study was performed whenever the enzyme activity was decreased. Results: A total of 47 patients with a mean left ventricular mass index of 141.1 g/m2 (± 28.5; 99.2 to 228.5 g/m2] were included. Most of the patients were females (51.1%. Nine (19.1% showed decreased α-galactosidase A activity, but only one positive genetic test − [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5, a mutation not previously described in the literature. This clinical investigation was able to establish the association between the mutation and the clinical presentation. Conclusion: In a population of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, we documented a Fabry disease prevalence of 2.1%. This novel case was defined in the sequence of a mutation of unknown meaning in the GLA gene with further pathogenicity study. Thus, this study permitted the definition of a novel causal mutation for Fabry disease - [GLA] c.785G>T; p.W262L (exon 5.

  18. Ultra Clean 1.1MW High Efficiency Natural Gas Engine Powered System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James; Lueck, Steve

    2011-08-31

    Dresser, Inc. (GE Energy, Waukesha gas engines) will develop, test, demonstrate, and commercialize a 1.1 Megawatt (MW) natural gas fueled combined heat and power reciprocating engine powered package. This package will feature a total efficiency > 75% and ultra low CARB permitting emissions. Our modular design will cover the 1 – 6 MW size range, and this scalable technology can be used in both smaller and larger engine powered CHP packages. To further advance one of the key advantages of reciprocating engines, the engine, generator and CHP package will be optimized for low initial and operating costs. Dresser, Inc. will leverage the knowledge gained in the DOE - ARES program. Dresser, Inc. will work with commercial, regulatory, and government entities to help break down barriers to wider deployment of CHP. The outcome of this project will be a commercially successful 1.1 MW CHP package with high electrical and total efficiency that will significantly reduce emissions compared to the current central power plant paradigm. Principal objectives by phases for Budget Period 1 include: • Phase 1 – market study to determine optimum system performance, target first cost, lifecycle cost, and creation of a detailed product specification. • Phase 2 – Refinement of the Waukesha CHP system design concepts, identification of critical characteristics, initial evaluation of technical solutions, and risk mitigation plans. Background

  19. US effort on HTS power transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, S., E-mail: shirish.pmehta@spx.com [Waukesha Electric Systems, 400 S. Praire Avenue, Waukesha, WI 53186 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Fault Current Limiting HTS Transformer development program plan is presented. Benefits of FCL HTS Transformers for power delivery system. Independent program review process is described. Transformer specifications, site requirement described. Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification

  20. Antibody formation in pregnant women with maternal-neonatal human platelet antigen mismatch from a hospital in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Hua Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT is a clinical syndrome that resembles hemolytic disease of the newborn, affecting the platelets only. The thrombocytopenia results from the maternal alloantibodies reacting with specific human platelet antigens (HPAs on the fetal platelets. Forty-four maternal plasma samples were screened for platelet alloantibodies using qualitative solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA commercial kit (LIFECODES Pakplus, Hologic Gen-Probe GTI Diagnostics, Waukesha, WI, USA, and both the maternal and the corresponding cord blood samples were genotyped (LIFECODES ThromboType, Hologic Gen-Probe GTI Diagnostics, Waukesha, WI, USA. HPA genotyping results correlated with the genetic frequencies in the Taiwan population. A total of 34 newborns (77.3% had partial HPA genotyping mismatches with the corresponding mothers. The most common partial mismatches between mothers and neonates in HPA genotypes were 13 (29.5% in both HPA-3b and HPA-15a, followed by 12 (27.3% in HPA-15b, and 8 (18.2% in HPA-3a. The frequencies of homozygotic mother with heterozygotic neonate were 15.9% in both HPA-3a and HPA-15b, 9.1% in HPA-15a, 6.8% in HPA-3b, and 2.3% in both HPA-2a and HPA-6a. In this study, maternal HPA antibodies were found in five samples, whereas HLA class I antibodies were found in seven maternal plasma samples from the antibody screen. The results from this study have demonstrated that HPA mismatch is not the main cause for the production of HPA alloantibodies.

  1. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor W. Wong; Tian Tian; Grant Smedley; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2004-09-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston/ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and emissions. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis, are being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston/ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrated the fundamental relationships between design parameters and friction losses. Various low-friction strategies and ring-design concepts have been explored, and engine experiments have been done on a full-scale Waukesha VGF F18 in-line 6 cylinder power generation engine rated at 370 kW at 1800 rpm. Current accomplishments include designing and testing ring-packs using a subtle top-compression-ring profile (skewed barrel design), lowering the tension of the oil-control ring, employing a negative twist to the scraper ring to control oil consumption. Initial test data indicate that piston ring-pack friction was reduced by 35% by lowering the oil-control ring tension alone, which corresponds to a 1.5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Although small in magnitude, this improvement represents a first step towards anticipated aggregate improvements from other strategies. Other ring-pack design strategies to lower friction have been identified, including reduced axial distance between the top two rings, tilted top-ring groove. Some of these configurations have been tested and some await further evaluation. Colorado State University performed the tests and Waukesha Engine Dresser, Inc. provided technical support. Key elements of the continuing work include optimizing the engine piston design, application of surface and material developments in conjunction with improved lubricant properties, system modeling and analysis, and continued technology

  2. US effort on HTS power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.

    2011-01-01

    Fault Current Limiting HTS Transformer development program plan is presented. Benefits of FCL HTS Transformers for power delivery system. Independent program review process is described. Transformer specifications, site requirement described. Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification

  3. Autoignition characterization of primary reference fuels and n-heptane/n-butanol mixtures in a constant volume combustion device and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, Marc E.

    2013-12-19

    In this study, the autoignition behavior of primary reference fuels (PRF) and blends of n-heptane/n-butanol were examined in a Waukesha Fuel Ignition Tester (FIT) and a Homogeneous Charge Compression Engine (HCCI). Fourteen different blends of iso-octane, n-heptane, and n-butanol were tested in the FIT - 28 test runs with 25 ignition measurements for each test run, totaling 350 individual tests in all. These experimental results supported previous findings that fuel blends with high alcohol content can exhibit very different ignition delay periods than similarly blended reference fuels. The experiments further showed that n-butanol blends behaved unlike PRF blends when comparing the autoignition behavior as a function of the percentage of low reactivity component. The HCCI and FIT experimental results favorably compared against single and multizone models with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms - both an existing mechanism as well as one developed during this study were used. The experimental and modeling results suggest that that the FIT instrument is a valuable tool for analysis of high pressure, low temperature chemistry, and autoignition for future fuels in advanced combustion engines. Additionally, in both the FIT and engine experiments the fraction of low temperature heat release (fLTHR) was found to correlate very well with the crank angle of maximum heat release and shows promise as a useful metric for fuel reactivity in advanced combustion applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Cycle-by-cycle exhaust temperature monitoring for detection of misfiring and combustion instability in reciprocating natural gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, D.P. [Nexum Research Corp., Kingston, ON (Canada); Bardon, M.F. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness of a cycle-by-cycle exhaust temperature monitoring system on engines operating at or near their fully rate load capacity was examined. Tests were conducted on stationary industrial natural gas engines. The study evaluated the monitoring system's ability to detect isolated single misfires, as well as combustion instability during misfire-free operations when the air/fuel ratio of the engine was adjusted to progressively lower settings. The combustion instability level of the engines was quantified by determining the relative variability of the groups of consecutive cycles. The coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure (COV of IMEP) was used to examine cyclic variability. A combustion instability index was used to quantify cyclic variability with cycle-by-cycle exhaust temperature monitoring. Two engines were tested, notably a Cummins QSK 19G turbocharged natural gas engine; and a Waukesha VHP L5790G industrial natural gas engine. The tests demonstrated that cycle-by-cycle exhaust temperature monitoring system was capable of detecting misfiring and combustion instabilities in natural gas engines. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Image quality assesment using NEMA NU 4/2008 standards in small animal PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo M.G.; Ferreira, Andréa V.; Silva, Juliana B.; Mamede, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    In Brazil, there are few micro PET in use and a quality control protocols standardization are needed to harmonize their use in the research field. Thus, the purpose of this study is to characterize the image quality performance of the micro PET scanner (Lab PET 4, GE healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI) using the NEMA NU 4/ 2008 standards and specific phantom. The NEMA image-quality (IQ) phantom consists of 3 different regions to analyze distinct characteristics: image noise (%SD), expressed as percentage SD in a uniform region (%SD), recovery coefficient (RC) and Spill-over (SOR) in air and water. The IQ phantom was filled with 18 F-FDG calibrated at the beginning of acquisition, placed in the center of the field-of-view (FOV) and measured with the typical whole body imaging protocol. The images were reconstructed with different reconstruction methods (FBP-2D; MLEM-3D and OSEM-3D); with and without high resolution (HR) when possible. The results were compared. The LabPET 4 system produces appropriate image and with performance according to the literature. The present study is an initial step to verify the NEMA NU 4/2008 use in the Brazilian scenario for further standardization. (author)

  6. Image quality assesment using NEMA NU 4/2008 standards in small animal PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo M.G.; Ferreira, Andréa V.; Silva, Juliana B.; Mamede, Marcelo, E-mail: rodrigo.gontijo@cdtn.br, E-mail: rodrigogadelhagontijo1@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In Brazil, there are few micro PET in use and a quality control protocols standardization are needed to harmonize their use in the research field. Thus, the purpose of this study is to characterize the image quality performance of the micro PET scanner (Lab PET 4, GE healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI) using the NEMA NU 4/ 2008 standards and specific phantom. The NEMA image-quality (IQ) phantom consists of 3 different regions to analyze distinct characteristics: image noise (%SD), expressed as percentage SD in a uniform region (%SD), recovery coefficient (RC) and Spill-over (SOR) in air and water. The IQ phantom was filled with {sup 18}F-FDG calibrated at the beginning of acquisition, placed in the center of the field-of-view (FOV) and measured with the typical whole body imaging protocol. The images were reconstructed with different reconstruction methods (FBP-2D; MLEM-3D and OSEM-3D); with and without high resolution (HR) when possible. The results were compared. The LabPET 4 system produces appropriate image and with performance according to the literature. The present study is an initial step to verify the NEMA NU 4/2008 use in the Brazilian scenario for further standardization. (author)

  7. Prospective Study of Functional Bone Marrow-Sparing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Pelvic Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yun; Bydder, Mark; Yashar, Catheryn M.; Rose, Brent S.; Cornell, Mariel; Hoh, Carl K.; Lawson, Joshua D.; Einck, John; Saenz, Cheryl; Fanta, Paul; Mundt, Arno J.; Bydder, Graeme M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can reduce radiation dose to functional bone marrow (BM) in patients with pelvic malignancies (phase IA) and estimate the clinical feasibility and acute toxicity associated with this technique (phase IB). Methods and Materials: We enrolled 31 subjects (19 with gynecologic cancer and 12 with anal cancer) in an institutional review board-approved prospective trial (6 in the pilot study, 10 in phase IA, and 15 in phase IB). The mean age was 52 years; 8 of 31 patients (26%) were men. Twenty-one subjects completed 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) simulation and magnetic resonance imaging by use of quantitative IDEAL (IDEAL IQ; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). The PET/CT and IDEAL IQ were registered, and BM subvolumes were segmented above the mean standardized uptake value and below the mean fat fraction within the pelvis and lumbar spine; their intersection was designated as functional BM for IMRT planning. Functional BM-sparing vs total BM-sparing IMRT plans were compared in 12 subjects; 10 were treated with functional BM-sparing pelvic IMRT per protocol. Results: In gynecologic cancer patients, the mean functional BM V 10 (volume receiving ≥10 Gy) and V 20 (volume receiving ≥20 Gy) were 85% vs 94% (P 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT and IDEAL IQ. The efficacy of BM-sparing IMRT is being tested in a phase II trial.

  8. Limiting CT radiation dose in children with craniosynostosis: phantom study using model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasalainen, Touko; Lampinen, Anniina [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Palmu, Kirsi [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); School of Science, Aalto University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Helsinki (Finland); Reijonen, Vappu; Kortesniemi, Mika [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 340, Helsinki (Finland); Leikola, Junnu [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki (Finland); Kivisaari, Riku [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-09-15

    Medical professionals need to exercise particular caution when developing CT scanning protocols for children who require multiple CT studies, such as those with craniosynostosis. To evaluate the utility of ultra-low-dose CT protocols with model-based iterative reconstruction techniques for craniosynostosis imaging. We scanned two pediatric anthropomorphic phantoms with a 64-slice CT scanner using different low-dose protocols for craniosynostosis. We measured organ doses in the head region with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters. Numerical simulations served to estimate organ and effective doses. We objectively and subjectively evaluated the quality of images produced by adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) 30%, ASiR 50% and Veo (all by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). Image noise and contrast were determined for different tissues. Mean organ dose with the newborn phantom was decreased up to 83% compared to the routine protocol when using ultra-low-dose scanning settings. Similarly, for the 5-year phantom the greatest radiation dose reduction was 88%. The numerical simulations supported the findings with MOSFET measurements. The image quality remained adequate with Veo reconstruction, even at the lowest dose level. Craniosynostosis CT with model-based iterative reconstruction could be performed with a 20-μSv effective dose, corresponding to the radiation exposure of plain skull radiography, without compromising required image quality. (orig.)

  9. Special report. Update on EAS (electronic article surveillance) systems: protecting against patient wandering, infant abduction, property theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Concern about wandering patients and infant abduction on the part of hospitals has sparked renewed interest in Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) systems. Such systems had their origins in department stores and libraries where they are almost universally used. They also have applications in hospitals for preventing the theft of supplies and equipment. A number of companies provide EAS products for the health care field. How do you select the system that is best for your needs? "Talk to users. Pick out a number of profit and non-profit hospitals to get their views," advises Ted Algaier, vice president, marketing and sales, Innovative Control Systems, Inc., Waukesha, WI. "Examine the history of the company or vendor to determine if it understands the health care market and find out if the product really works." In this report, we'll review a number of EAS systems currently on the market, and present information on how they work, how effective they are, and costs involved. Also included are comments from users who have installed such systems.

  10. Application of computational fluid dynamics to closed-loop bioreactors: I. Characterization and simulation of fluid-flow pattern and oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Helen X; Daigger, Glen T; Strom, Peter F

    2007-06-01

    A full-scale, closed-loop bioreactor (Orbal oxidation ditch, Envirex brand technologies, Siemens, Waukesha, Wisconsin), previously examined for simultaneous biological nutrient removal (SBNR), was further evaluated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A CFD model was developed first by imparting the known momentum (calculated by tank fluid velocity and mass flowrate) to the fluid at the aeration disc region. Oxygen source (aeration) and sink (consumption) terms were introduced, and statistical analysis was applied to the CFD simulation results. The CFD model was validated with field data obtained from a test tank and a full-scale tank. The results indicated that CFD could predict the mixing pattern in closed-loop bioreactors. This enables visualization of the flow pattern, both with regard to flow velocity and dissolved-oxygen-distribution profiles. The velocity and oxygen-distribution gradients suggested that the flow patterns produced by directional aeration in closed-loop bioreactors created a heterogeneous environment that can result in dissolved oxygen variations throughout the bioreactor. Distinct anaerobic zones on a macroenvironment scale were not observed, but it is clear that, when flow passed around curves, a secondary spiral flow was generated. This second current, along with the main recirculation flow, could create alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions vertically and horizontally, which would allow SBNR to occur. Reliable SBNR performance in Orbal oxidation ditches may be a result, at least in part, of such a spatially varying environment.

  11. Development and application of a groundwater/surface-water flow model using MODFLOW-NWT for the Upper Fox River Basin, southeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Fienen, M.N.; Kennedy, J.L.; Buchwald, C.A.; Greenwood, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Fox River is a 199-mile-long tributary to the Illinois River within the Mississippi River Basin in the states of Wisconsin and Illinois. For the purposes of this study the Upper Fox River Basin is defined as the topographic basin that extends from the upstream boundary of the Fox River Basin to a large wetland complex in south-central Waukesha County called the Vernon Marsh. The objectives for the study are to (1) develop a baseline study of groundwater conditions and groundwater/surface-water interactions in the shallow aquifer system of the Upper Fox River Basin, (2) develop a tool for evaluating possible alternative water-supply options for communities in Waukesha County, and (3) contribute to the methodology of groundwater-flow modeling by applying the recently published U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW-NWT computer code, (a Newton formulation of MODFLOW-2005 intended for solving difficulties involving drying and rewetting nonlinearities of the unconfined groundwater-flow equation) to overcome computational problems connected with fine-scaled simulation of shallow aquifer systems by means of thin model layers. To simulate groundwater conditions, a MODFLOW grid is constructed with thin layers and small cell dimensions (125 feet per side). This nonlinear unconfined problem incorporates the streamflow/lake (SFR/LAK) packages to represent groundwater/surface-water interactions, which yields an unstable solution sensitive to initial conditions when solved using the Picard-based preconditioned-gradient (PCG2) solver. A particular problem is the presence of many isolated wet water-table cells over dry cells, causing the simulated water table to assume unrealistically high values. Attempts to work around the problem by converting to confined conditions or converting active to inactive cells introduce unacceptable bias. Application of MODFLOW-NWT overcomes numerical problem by smoothing the transition from wet to dry cells and keeps all cells active. The simulation is

  12. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems: Experimental assessment of noise performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ke; Tang, Jie [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To reduce radiation dose in CT imaging, the statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) method has been introduced for clinical use. Based on the principle of MBIR and its nonlinear nature, the noise performance of MBIR is expected to be different from that of the well-understood filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction method. The purpose of this work is to experimentally assess the unique noise characteristics of MBIR using a state-of-the-art clinical CT system. Methods: Three physical phantoms, including a water cylinder and two pediatric head phantoms, were scanned in axial scanning mode using a 64-slice CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) at seven different mAs levels (5, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300). At each mAs level, each phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 times to generate an image ensemble for noise analysis. Both the FBP method with a standard kernel and the MBIR method (Veo{sup ®}, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for CT image reconstruction. Three-dimensional (3D) noise power spectrum (NPS), two-dimensional (2D) NPS, and zero-dimensional NPS (noise variance) were assessed both globally and locally. Noise magnitude, noise spatial correlation, noise spatial uniformity and their dose dependence were examined for the two reconstruction methods. Results: (1) At each dose level and at each frequency, the magnitude of the NPS of MBIR was smaller than that of FBP. (2) While the shape of the NPS of FBP was dose-independent, the shape of the NPS of MBIR was strongly dose-dependent; lower dose lead to a “redder” NPS with a lower mean frequency value. (3) The noise standard deviation (σ) of MBIR and dose were found to be related through a power law of σ ∝ (dose){sup −β} with the component β ≈ 0.25, which violated the classical σ ∝ (dose){sup −0.5} power law in FBP. (4) With MBIR, noise reduction was most prominent for thin image slices. (5) MBIR lead to better noise spatial

  13. Emissions characteristics of higher alcohol/gasoline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, M.; Martin, D.W.; Carder, D.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols and gasoline (UTG96) blends. While lower alcohols (methanol and ethanol) have been used in blends with gasoline, very little work has been done or reported on higher alcohols (propanol, butanol and pentanol). Comparisons of emissions and fuel characteristics between higher alcohol/gasoline blends and neat gasoline were made to determine the advantages and disadvantages of blending higher alcohols with gasoline. All tests were conducted on a single-cylinder Waukesha Cooperative Fuel Research engine operating at steady state conditions and stoichiometric air-fuel (A/F) ratio. Emissions test were conducted at the optimum spark timing-knock limiting compression ratio combination for the particular blend being tested. The cycle emission [mass per unit time (g/h)] of CO, CO 2 and organic matter hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE) from the higher alcohol/gasoline blends were very similar to those from neat gasoline. Cycle emissions of NO x from the blends were higher than those from neat gasoline. However, for all the emissions species considered, the brake specific emissions (g/kW h) were significantly lower for the higher alcohol/gasoline blends than for neat gasoline. This was because the blends had greater resistance to knock and allowed higher compression ratios, which increased engine power output. The contribution of alcohols and aldehydes to the overall OMHCE emissions was found to be minimal. Cycle fuel consumption (g/h) of higher alcohol/gasoline blends was slightly higher than with neat gasoline due to the lower stoichiometric A/F ratios required by the blends. However, the brake specific fuel consumption (g/kW h) for the blends was significantly lower than that for neat gasoline. (Author)

  14. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensakovic, William F.; O'Dell, M.C.; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA"2 by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image processing

  15. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensakovic, William F.; O' Dell, M.C.; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura [Florida Hospital, Imaging Administration, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA{sup 2} by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image

  16. Characterization of metals emitted from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J; Lough, Glynis C; Shafer, Martin M; Christensen, William F; Arndt, Michael F; DeMinter, Jeffrey T; Park, June-Soo

    2006-03-01

    A systematic approach was used to quantify the metals present in particulate matter emissions associated with on-road motor vehicles. Consistent sampling and chemical analysis techniques were used to determine the chemical composition of particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10*) and particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), including analysis of trace metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Four sources of metals were analyzed in emissions associated with motor vehicles: tailpipe emissions from gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles, brake wear, tire wear, and resuspended road dust. Profiles for these sources were used in a chemical mass balance (CMB) model to quantify their relative contributions to the metal emissions measured in roadway tunnel tests in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Roadway tunnel measurements were supplemented by parallel measurements of atmospheric particulate matter and associated metals at three urban locations: Milwaukee and Waukesha, Wisconsin, and Denver, Colorado. Ambient aerosol samples were collected every sixth day for one year and analyzed by the same chemical analysis techniques used for the source samples. The two Wisconsin sites were studied to assess the spatial differences, within one urban airshed, of trace metals present in atmospheric particulate matter. The measurements were evaluated to help understand source and seasonal trends in atmospheric concentrations of trace metals. ICP-MS methods have not been widely used in analyses of ambient aerosols for metals despite demonstrated advantages over traditional techniques. In a preliminary study, ICP-MS techniques were used to assess the leachability of trace metals present in atmospheric particulate matter samples and motor vehicle source samples in a synthetic lung fluid.

  17. Accuracy of computer-calculated and manual QRS duration assessments: Clinical implications to select candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pooter, Jan; El Haddad, Milad; Stroobandt, Roland; De Buyzere, Marc; Timmermans, Frank

    2017-06-01

    QRS duration (QRSD) plays a key role in the field of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Computer-calculated QRSD assessments are widely used, however inter-manufacturer differences have not been investigated in CRT candidates. QRSD was assessed in 377 digitally stored ECGs: 139 narrow QRS, 140 LBBB and 98 ventricular paced ECGs. Manual QRSD was measured as global QRSD, using digital calipers, by two independent observers. Computer-calculated QRSD was assessed by Marquette 12SL (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, USA) and SEMA3 (Schiller, Baar, Switzerland). Inter-manufacturer differences of computer-calculated QRSD assessments vary among different QRS morphologies: narrow QRSD: 4 [2-9] ms (median [IQR]), p=0.010; LBBB QRSD: 7 [2-10] ms, p=0.003 and paced QRSD: 13 [6-18] ms, p=0.007. Interobserver differences of manual QRSD assessments measured: narrow QRSD: 4 [2-6] ms, p=non-significant; LBBB QRSD: 6 [3-12] ms, p=0.006; paced QRSD: 8 [4-18] ms, p=0.001. In LBBB ECGs, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were comparable for inter-manufacturer and interobserver agreement (ICC 0.830 versus 0.837). When assessing paced QRSD, manual measurements showed higher ICC compared to inter-manufacturer agreement (ICC 0.902 versus 0.776). Using guideline cutoffs of 130ms, up to 15% of the LBBB ECGs would be misclassified as <130ms or ≥130ms by at least one method. Using a cutoff of 150ms, this number increases to 33% of ECGs being misclassified. However, by combining LBBB-morphology and QRSD, the number of misclassified ECGs can be decreased by half. Inter-manufacturer differences in computer-calculated QRSD assessments are significant and may compromise adequate selection of individual CRT candidates when using QRSD as sole parameter. Paced QRSD should preferentially be assessed by manual QRSD measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of CT image texture using deep learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sandeep; Fan, Jiahua; Chevalier, David

    2018-03-01

    For CT imaging, reduction of radiation dose while improving or maintaining image quality (IQ) is currently a very active research and development topic. Iterative Reconstruction (IR) approaches have been suggested to be able to offer better IQ to dose ratio compared to the conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) reconstruction. However, it has been widely reported that often CT image texture from IR is different compared to that from FBP. Researchers have proposed different figure of metrics to quantitate the texture from different reconstruction methods. But there is still a lack of practical and robust method in the field for texture description. This work applied deep learning method for CT image texture study. Multiple dose scans of a 20cm diameter cylindrical water phantom was performed on Revolution CT scanner (GE Healthcare, Waukesha) and the images were reconstructed with FBP and four different IR reconstruction settings. The training images generated were randomly allotted (80:20) to a training and validation set. An independent test set of 256-512 images/class were collected with the same scan and reconstruction settings. Multiple deep learning (DL) networks with Convolution, RELU activation, max-pooling, fully-connected, global average pooling and softmax activation layers were investigated. Impact of different image patch size for training was investigated. Original pixel data as well as normalized image data were evaluated. DL models were reliably able to classify CT image texture with accuracy up to 99%. Results show that the deep learning techniques suggest that CT IR techniques may help lower the radiation dose compared to FBP.

  19. High-resolution, time-resolved MRA provides superior definition of lower-extremity arterial segments compared to 2D time-of-flight imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, F J; Du, J; Suleiman, S A; Dieter, R; Tefera, G; Pillai, K R; Korosec, F R; Mistretta, C A; Grist, T M

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate a novel time-resolved contrast-enhanced (CE) projection reconstruction (PR) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) method for identifying potential bypass graft target vessels in patients with Class II-IV peripheral vascular disease. Twenty patients (M:F = 15:5, mean age = 58 years, range = 48-83 years), were recruited from routine MRA referrals. All imaging was performed on a 1.5 T MRI system with fast gradients (Signa LX; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI). Images were acquired with a novel technique that combined undersampled PR with a time-resolved acquisition to yield an MRA method with high temporal and spatial resolution. The method is called PR hyper time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (PR-hyperTRICKS). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to compare two-dimensional (2D) time-of-flight (TOF) and PR-hyperTRICKS in 13 arterial segments per lower extremity. Statistical analysis was performed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Fifteen percent (77/517) of the vessels were scored as missing or nondiagnostic with 2D TOF, but were scored as diagnostic with PR-hyperTRICKS. Image quality was superior with PR-hyperTRICKS vs. 2D TOF (on a four-point scale, mean rank = 3.3 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.9 +/- 1.2, P < 0.0001). PR-hyperTRICKS produced images with high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and high spatial and temporal resolution. 2D TOF images were of inferior quality due to moderate spatial resolution, inferior CNR, greater flow-related artifacts, and absence of temporal resolution. PR-hyperTRICKS provides superior preoperative assessment of lower limb ischemia compared to 2D TOF.

  20. Technique development of 3D dynamic CS-EPSI for hyperpolarized 13 C pyruvate MR molecular imaging of human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Larson, Peder E Z; Gordon, Jeremy W; Bok, Robert A; Ferrone, Marcus; van Criekinge, Mark; Carvajal, Lucas; Cao, Peng; Pauly, John M; Kerr, Adam B; Park, Ilwoo; Slater, James B; Nelson, Sarah J; Munster, Pamela N; Aggarwal, Rahul; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2018-03-25

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new 3D dynamic carbon-13 compressed sensing echoplanar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) MR sequence and test it in phantoms, animal models, and then in prostate cancer patients to image the metabolic conversion of hyperpolarized [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate with whole gland coverage at high spatial and temporal resolution. A 3D dynamic compressed sensing (CS)-EPSI sequence with spectral-spatial excitation was designed to meet the required spatial coverage, time and spatial resolution, and RF limitations of the 3T MR scanner for its clinical translation for prostate cancer patient imaging. After phantom testing, animal studies were performed in rats and transgenic mice with prostate cancers. For patient studies, a GE SPINlab polarizer (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) was used to produce hyperpolarized sterile GMP [1- 13 C]pyruvate. 3D dynamic 13 C CS-EPSI data were acquired starting 5 s after injection throughout the gland with a spatial resolution of 0.5 cm 3 , 18 time frames, 2-s temporal resolution, and 36 s total acquisition time. Through preclinical testing, the 3D CS-EPSI sequence developed in this project was shown to provide the desired spectral, temporal, and spatial 5D HP 13 C MR data. In human studies, the 3D dynamic HP CS-EPSI approach provided first-ever simultaneously volumetric and dynamic images of the LDH-catalyzed conversion of [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate in a biopsy-proven prostate cancer patient with full gland coverage. The results demonstrate the feasibility to characterize prostate cancer metabolism in animals, and now patients using this new 3D dynamic HP MR technique to measure k PL , the kinetic rate constant of [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate conversion. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. INFLUENCE OF HOMOCYSTEINE AND VERTEBRAL FRACTURES ON PREVALENT ABDOMINAL AORTIC CALCIFICATION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN - A MULTICENTRIC CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad GHOZLANI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main of this study was to examine the relationship between plasma homocysteine (Hcy, asymptomatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA and prevalent abdominal aortic calcification (AAC in Moroccan postmenopausal women. The study cohort consisted of 188 consecutive postmenopausal women with no prior known diagnosis of osteoporosis or taking medication interfering with bone metabolism. Mean age, weight, height, body mass index and plasma homocysteine were determined. Lateral VFA images and scans of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were obtained using a Lunar Prodigy Vision densitometer (GE Healthcare Inc., Waukesha, WI. VFs were defined using a combination of Genant’s semiquantitative approach and morphometry. VFA images were also scored for prevalent AAC using a validated 24 point scale. Fifty-eight (30.9% patients had densitometric osteoporosis. VFs were identified using VFA in 76 (40.4% patients: 61 women had grade 1 VFs and 15 had grade 2 or 3 VFs. One hundred twenty nine women (68.6% did not have any detectable AAC, whereas the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic burden defined as AAC score of 5 or higher, was 13.8%. A significant positive correlation between AAC score and homocysteine was observed. Women with extended AAC, were older, had a lower weight, BMI and BMD, higher homocysteine levels and more prevalent VFs than women without extended AAC. Multiple regression analysis showed that the presence of extended AAC was significantly associated with Age and grade 2/3 VFs and not independently associated with homocysteine levels.This study did not confirm that homocysteine is important determinant of extended AAC in postmenopausal women. However, this significant atherosclerotic marker is independently associated with VFs regardless of age. 

  2. Renal oxygen content is increased in healthy subjects after angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The association between renal hypoxia and the development of renal injury is well established. However, no adequate method currently exists to non-invasively measure functional changes in renal oxygenation in normal and injured patients. METHOD: R2* quantification was performed using renal blood oxygen level-dependent properties. Five healthy normotensive women (50±5.3 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a 1.5T Signa Excite HDx scanner (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI. A multiple fast gradient-echo sequence was used to acquire R2*/T2* images (sixteen echoes from 2.1 ms/slice to 49.6 ms/slice in a single breath hold per location. The images were post-processed to generate R2* maps for quantification. Data were recorded before and at 30 minutes after the oral administration of an angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril, 25 mg. The results were compared using an ANOVA for repeated measurements (mean + standard deviation followed by the Tukey test. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01545479. RESULTS: A significant difference (p<0.001 in renal oxygenation (R2* was observed in the cortex and medulla before and after captopril administration: right kidney, cortex = 11.08 ± 0.56ms, medulla = 17.21 ± 1.47ms and cortex = 10.30 ± 0.44ms, medulla = 16.06 ± 1.74ms, respectively; and left kidney, cortex= 11.79 ± 1.85ms, medulla = 17.03 ± 0.88ms and cortex = 10.89 ± 0.91ms, medulla = 16.43 ± 1.49ms, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This result suggests that the technique efficiently measured alterations in renal blood oxygenation after angiotensin II-converting enzyme inhibition and that it may provide a new strategy for identifying the early stages of renal disease and perhaps new therapeutic targets.

  3. Image quality and dose differences caused by vendor-specific image processing of neonatal radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensakovic, William F; O'Dell, M Cody; Letter, Haley; Kohler, Nathan; Rop, Baiywo; Cook, Jane; Logsdon, Gregory; Varich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Image processing plays an important role in optimizing image quality and radiation dose in projection radiography. Unfortunately commercial algorithms are black boxes that are often left at or near vendor default settings rather than being optimized. We hypothesize that different commercial image-processing systems, when left at or near default settings, create significant differences in image quality. We further hypothesize that image-quality differences can be exploited to produce images of equivalent quality but lower radiation dose. We used a portable radiography system to acquire images on a neonatal chest phantom and recorded the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK). We applied two image-processing systems (Optima XR220amx, by GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI; and MUSICA(2) by Agfa HealthCare, Mortsel, Belgium) to the images. Seven observers (attending pediatric radiologists and radiology residents) independently assessed image quality using two methods: rating and matching. Image-quality ratings were independently assessed by each observer on a 10-point scale. Matching consisted of each observer matching GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images with equivalent image quality. A total of 210 rating tasks and 42 matching tasks were performed and effective dose was estimated. Median Agfa-processed image-quality ratings were higher than GE-processed ratings. Non-diagnostic ratings were seen over a wider range of doses for GE-processed images than for Agfa-processed images. During matching tasks, observers matched image quality between GE-processed images and Agfa-processed images acquired at a lower effective dose (11 ± 9 μSv; P < 0.0001). Image-processing methods significantly impact perceived image quality. These image-quality differences can be exploited to alter protocols and produce images of equivalent image quality but lower doses. Those purchasing projection radiography systems or third-party image-processing software should be aware that image

  4. SU-G-IeP2-12: The Effect of Iterative Reconstruction and CT Tube Voltage On Hounsfield Unit Values of Iodinated Contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, K; Greene-Donnelly, K; Vallabhaneni, D; Scalzetti, E [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of changing iterative reconstruction strength and tube voltage on Hounsfield Unit (HU) values of varying concentrations of Iodinated contrast medium in a phantom. Method: Iodinated contrast (Omnipaque 300, GE Healthcare, Princeton NJ) was diluted with distilled water to concentrations of 0.6, 0.9, 1.8, 3.6, 7.2, and 10.8 mg/mL of Iodine. The solutions were scanned in a patient equivalent water phantom on two MDCT scanners: VCT 64 slice (GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI) and an Aquilion One 320 slice scanner (Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin CA). The phantom was scanned at 80, 100, 120, 140 kV using 400, 255, 180, and 130 mAs, respectively, for the VCT scanner, and 80, 100, 120, and 135 kV using 400, 250, 200, and 150 mAs, respectively, on the Aquilion One. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm (VCT) and 0.5 mm (Aquilion One). The VCT images were reconstructed using Advanced Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) at 6 different strengths: 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%. Aquilion One images were reconstructed using Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction (AIDR) at 4 strengths: no AIDR, Weak AIDR, Standard AIDR, and Strong AIDR. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the images to measure the HU values and standard deviations of the diluted contrast. Second order polynomials were used to fit the HU values as a function of Iodine concentration. Results: For both scanners, there was no significant effect of changing the iterative reconstruction strength. The polynomial fits yielded goodness-of-fit (R2) values averaging 0.997. Conclusion: Changing the strength of the iterative reconstruction has no significant effect on the HU values of Iodinated contrast in a tissue-equivalent phantom. Fit values of HU vs Iodine concentration are useful in quantitative imaging protocols such as the determination of cardiac output from time-density curves in the main pulmonary artery.

  5. LOW-ENGINE-FRICTION TECHNOLOGY FOR ADVANCED NATURAL-GAS RECIPROCATING ENGINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; Luke Moughon; Rosalind Takata; Jeffrey Jocsak

    2006-03-31

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis is being followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. To date, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been developed and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. This represents a substantial (30-40%) reduction of the ringpack friction alone. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. Further improvements via piston, lubricant, and surface designs offer additional opportunities. Tests of low-friction lubricants are in progress and preliminary results are very promising. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Piston friction studies indicate that a flatter piston with a more flexible skirt, together with optimizing the waviness and film thickness on the piston skirt offer significant friction reduction. Combined with low-friction ring-pack, material and lubricant parameters, a total power cylinder friction

  6. Assessment of the dose reduction potential of a model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm using a task-based performance metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Richard, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Different computed tomography (CT) reconstruction techniques offer different image quality attributes of resolution and noise, challenging the ability to compare their dose reduction potential against each other. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the task-based imaging performance of CT systems to enable the assessment of the dose performance of a model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) to that of an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and a filtered back projection (FBP) technique. Methods: The ACR CT phantom (model 464) was imaged across a wide range of mA setting on a 64-slice CT scanner (GE Discovery CT750 HD, Waukesha, WI). Based on previous work, the resolution was evaluated in terms of a task-based modulation transfer function (MTF) using a circular-edge technique and images from the contrast inserts located in the ACR phantom. Noise performance was assessed in terms of the noise-power spectrum (NPS) measured from the uniform section of the phantom. The task-based MTF and NPS were combined with a task function to yield a task-based estimate of imaging performance, the detectability index (d′). The detectability index was computed as a function of dose for two imaging tasks corresponding to the detection of a relatively small and a relatively large feature (1.5 and 25 mm, respectively). The performance of MBIR in terms of the d′ was compared with that of ASIR and FBP to assess its dose reduction potential. Results: Results indicated that MBIR exhibits a variability spatial resolution with respect to object contrast and noise while significantly reducing image noise. The NPS measurements for MBIR indicated a noise texture with a low-pass quality compared to the typical midpass noise found in FBP-based CT images. At comparable dose, the d′ for MBIR was higher than those of FBP and ASIR by at least 61% and 19% for the small feature and the large feature tasks, respectively. Compared to FBP and ASIR, MBIR

  7. Assessment of noise reduction potential and image quality improvement of a new generation adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR-V) in chest CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui; Yu, Nan; Jia, Yongjun; Yu, Yong; Duan, Haifeng; Han, Dong; Ma, Guangming; Ren, Chenglong; He, Taiping

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the image quality improvement and noise reduction in routine dose, non-enhanced chest CT imaging by using a new generation adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR-V) in comparison with ASIR algorithm. 30 patients who underwent routine dose, non-enhanced chest CT using GE Discovery CT750HU (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were included. The scan parameters included tube voltage of 120 kVp, automatic tube current modulation to obtain a noise index of 14HU, rotation speed of 0.6 s, pitch of 1.375:1 and slice thickness of 5 mm. After scanning, all scans were reconstructed with the recommended level of 40%ASIR for comparison purpose and different percentages of ASIR-V from 10% to 100% in a 10% increment. The CT attenuation values and SD of the subcutaneous fat, back muscle and descending aorta were measured at the level of tracheal carina of all reconstructed images. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated with SD representing image noise. The subjective image quality was independently evaluated by two experienced radiologists. For all ASIR-V images, the objective image noise (SD) of fat, muscle and aorta decreased and SNR increased along with increasing ASIR-V percentage. The SD of 30% ASIR-V to 100% ASIR-V was significantly lower than that of 40% ASIR (p ASIR-V reconstructions had good diagnostic acceptability. However, the 50% ASIR-V to 70% ASIR-V series showed significantly superior visibility of small structures when compared with the 40% ASIR and ASIR-V of other percentages (p ASIR-V was the best series of all ASIR-V images, with a highest subjective image quality. The image sharpness was significantly decreased in images reconstructed by 80% ASIR-V and higher. In routine dose, non-enhanced chest CT, ASIR-V shows greater potential in reducing image noise and artefacts and maintaining image sharpness when compared to the recommended level of 40%ASIR algorithm. Combining both the objective and subjective evaluation of images, non

  8. Assessment of the dose reduction potential of a model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm using a task-based performance metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samei, Ehsan, E-mail: samei@duke.edu [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Departments of Radiology, Physics, Biomedical Engineering, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Richard, Samuel [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Different computed tomography (CT) reconstruction techniques offer different image quality attributes of resolution and noise, challenging the ability to compare their dose reduction potential against each other. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the task-based imaging performance of CT systems to enable the assessment of the dose performance of a model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) to that of an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and a filtered back projection (FBP) technique. Methods: The ACR CT phantom (model 464) was imaged across a wide range of mA setting on a 64-slice CT scanner (GE Discovery CT750 HD, Waukesha, WI). Based on previous work, the resolution was evaluated in terms of a task-based modulation transfer function (MTF) using a circular-edge technique and images from the contrast inserts located in the ACR phantom. Noise performance was assessed in terms of the noise-power spectrum (NPS) measured from the uniform section of the phantom. The task-based MTF and NPS were combined with a task function to yield a task-based estimate of imaging performance, the detectability index (d′). The detectability index was computed as a function of dose for two imaging tasks corresponding to the detection of a relatively small and a relatively large feature (1.5 and 25 mm, respectively). The performance of MBIR in terms of the d′ was compared with that of ASIR and FBP to assess its dose reduction potential. Results: Results indicated that MBIR exhibits a variability spatial resolution with respect to object contrast and noise while significantly reducing image noise. The NPS measurements for MBIR indicated a noise texture with a low-pass quality compared to the typical midpass noise found in FBP-based CT images. At comparable dose, the d′ for MBIR was higher than those of FBP and ASIR by at least 61% and 19% for the small feature and the large feature tasks, respectively. Compared to FBP and ASIR, MBIR

  9. Quantitative comparison of noise texture across CT scanners from different manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Justin B.; Christianson, Olav; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively compare noise texture across computed tomography (CT) scanners from different manufacturers using the noise power spectrum (NPS). Methods: The American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom (Gammex 464, Gammex, Inc., Middleton, WI) was imaged on two scanners: Discovery CT 750HD (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI), and SOMATOM Definition Flash (Siemens Healthcare, Germany), using a consistent acquisition protocol (120 kVp, 0.625/0.6 mm slice thickness, 250 mAs, and 22 cm field of view). Images were reconstructed using filtered backprojection and a wide selection of reconstruction kernels. For each image set, the 2D NPS were estimated from the uniform section of the phantom. The 2D spectra were normalized by their integral value, radially averaged, and filtered by the human visual response function. A systematic kernel-by-kernel comparison across manufacturers was performed by computing the root mean square difference (RMSD) and the peak frequency difference (PFD) between the NPS from different kernels. GE and Siemens kernels were compared and kernel pairs that minimized the RMSD and |PFD| were identified. Results: The RMSD (|PFD|) values between the NPS of GE and Siemens kernels varied from 0.01 mm 2 (0.002 mm −1 ) to 0.29 mm 2 (0.74 mm −1 ). The GE kernels “Soft,”“Standard,”“Chest,” and “Lung” closely matched the Siemens kernels “B35f,”“B43f,”“B41f,” and “B80f” (RMSD 2 , |PFD| −1 , respectively). The GE “Bone,”“Bone+,” and “Edge” kernels all matched most closely with Siemens “B75f” kernel but with sizeable RMSD and |PFD| values up to 0.18 mm 2 and 0.41 mm −1 , respectively. These sizeable RMSD and |PFD| values corresponded to visually perceivable differences in the noise texture of the images. Conclusions: It is possible to use the NPS to quantitatively compare noise texture across CT systems. The degree to which similar texture across scanners could be achieved varies and is

  10. Advanced pulse oximeter signal processing technology compared to simple averaging. II. Effect on frequency of alarms in the postanesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheineck-Leyssius, A T; Kalkman, C J

    1999-05-01

    To determine the effect of a new pulse oximeter (Nellcor Symphony N-3000, Pleasanton, CA) with signal processing technique (Oxismart) on the incidence of false alarms in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Prospective study. Nonuniversity hospital. 603 consecutive ASA physical status I, II, and III patients recovering from general or regional anesthesia in the PACU. We compared the number of alarms produced by a recently developed "third"-generation pulse oximeter (Nellcor Symphony N-3000) with Oxismart signal processing technique and a conventional pulse oximeter (Criticare 504, Waukesha, WI). Patients were randomly assigned to either a Nellcor pulse oximeter or a Criticare with the signal averaging time set at either 12 or 21 seconds. For each patient the number of false (artifact) alarms was counted. The Nellcor generated one false alarm in 199 patients and 36 (in 31 patients) "loss of pulse" alarms. The conventional pulse oximeter with the averaging time set at 12 seconds generated a total of 32 false alarms in 17 of 197 patients [compared with the Nellcor, relative risk (RR) 0.06, confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.25] and a total of 172 "loss of pulse" alarms in 79 patients (RR 0.39, CI 0.28 to 0.55). The conventional pulse oximeter with the averaging time set at 21 seconds generated 12 false alarms in 11 of 207 patients (compared with the Nellcor, RR 0.09, CI 0.02 to 0.48) and a total of 204 "loss of pulse" alarms in 81 patients (RR 0.40, CI 0.28 to 0.56). The lower incidence of false alarms of the conventional pulse oximeter with the longest averaging time compared with the shorter averaging time did not reach statistical significance (false alarms RR 0.62, CI 0.3 to 1.27; "loss of pulse" alarms RR 0.98, CI 0.77 to 1.3). To date, this is the first report of a pulse oximeter that produced almost no false alarms in the PACU.

  11. Estimation of the two-dimensional presampled modulation transfer function of digital radiography devices using one-dimensional test objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Jered R.; Dobbins, James T. III

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The modulation transfer function (MTF) of medical imaging devices is commonly reported in the form of orthogonal one-dimensional (1D) measurements made near the vertical and horizontal axes with a slit or edge test device. A more complete description is found by measuring the two-dimensional (2D) MTF. Some 2D test devices have been proposed, but there are some issues associated with their use: (1) they are not generally available; (2) they may require many images; (3) the results may have diminished accuracy; and (4) their implementation may be particularly cumbersome. This current work proposes the application of commonly available 1D test devices for practical and accurate estimation of the 2D presampled MTF of digital imaging systems. Methods: Theory was developed and applied to ensure adequate fine sampling of the system line spread function for 1D test devices at orientations other than approximately vertical and horizontal. Methods were also derived and tested for slit nonuniformity correction at arbitrary angle. Techniques were validated with experimental measurements at ten angles using an edge test object and three angles using a slit test device on an indirect-detection flat-panel system [GE Revolution XQ/i (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI)]. The 2D MTF was estimated through a simple surface fit with interpolation based on Delaunay triangulation of the 1D edge-based MTF measurements. Validation by synthesis was also performed with simulated images from a hypothetical direct-detection flat-panel device. Results: The 2D MTF derived from physical measurements yielded an average relative precision error of 0.26% for frequencies below the cutoff (2.5 mm −1 ) and approximate circular symmetry at frequencies below 4 mm −1 . While slit analysis generally agreed with the results of edge analysis, the two showed subtle differences at frequencies above 4 mm −1 . Slit measurement near 45° revealed radial asymmetry in the MTF resulting from the square

  12. Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucy, Harrison

    Standards, which call for induction periods of at least three hours and six hours, respectively. Derived Cetane Number testing was conducted using a Waukesha FIT following the ASTM D7170 Method. Tests were conducted with synthetic algal oil blends manufactured from various sources to match the fatty acid compositions of several algae strains subjected to varying removal amounts of roughly 0 -- 100 percent LC-PUFA. In addition, tests were also conducted with real algal methyl esters produced from multiple sources. The bis-allylic position equivalent (BAPE) was calculated for each fuel sample to quantify the level of unsaturation. The induction period was then plotted as a function of BAPE, which showed that the oxidative stability varied exponentially with the amount of LC-PUFA. The results suggest that removal of 45 -- 65 percent of the LC-PUFA from Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters would be sufficient for meeting existing ASTM specifications for oxidative stability and 75 -- 85 percent removal would be needed to meet the EN specification. The oxidative stability additive tert-butylhydroquinone (THBQ) was found to increase Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters' oxidative stability to ASTM and EN specifications at only 0.03 percent and 0.06 percent additions by mass, respectively, when no LC-PUFA was removed. The ignition quality tests showed that the Derived Cetane Number varied linearly with BAPE and the algae formulations were found to pass the ASTM cetane specification of 47 only if all the LC-PUFA were removed.

  13. The effects of a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, and amino acids during three weeks of high-intensity exercise on aerobic and anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Abbie E; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-02-15

    A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design study was used to examine the effects of a pre-workout supplement combined with three weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic and anaerobic running performance, training volume, and body composition. Twenty-four moderately-trained recreational athletes (mean +/- SD age = 21.1 +/- 1.9 yrs; stature = 172.2 +/- 8.7 cm; body mass = 66.2 +/- 11.8 kg, VO2max = 3.21 +/- 0.85 l.min-1, percent body fat = 19.0 +/- 7.1%) were assigned to either the active supplement (GT, n = 13) or placebo (PL, n = 11) group. The active supplement (Game Time(R), Corr-Jensen Laboratories Inc., Aurora, CO) was 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of a proprietary blend including whey protein, cordyceps sinensis, creatine, citrulline, ginseng, and caffeine. The PL was also 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of only maltodextrin, natural and artificial flavors and colors. Thirty minutes prior to all testing and training sessions, participants consumed their respective supplements mixed with 8-10 oz of water. Both groups participated in a three-week HIIT program three days per week, and testing was conducted before and after the training. Cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) was assessed using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics TrueOne(R) 2400 Metabolic Measurement System, Sandy, UT) during graded exercise tests on a treadmill (Woodway, Pro Series, Waukesha, WI). Also, four high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of the treadmill velocity recorded during VO2max, and the distances achieved were plotted over the times-to-exhaustion. Linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) and y-intercepts (anaerobic running capacity, ARC) of these relationships to assess aerobic and anaerobic performances, respectively. Training volumes were tracked by summing the distances achieved during each training session for each subject. Percent body fat (%BF) and lean

  14. Low-Engine-Friction Technology for Advanced Natural-Gas Reciprocating Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor Wong; Tian Tian; G. Smedley; L. Moughon; Rosalind Takata; J. Jocsak

    2006-11-30

    This program aims at improving the efficiency of advanced natural-gas reciprocating engines (ANGRE) by reducing piston and piston ring assembly friction without major adverse effects on engine performance, such as increased oil consumption and wear. An iterative process of simulation, experimentation and analysis has been followed towards achieving the goal of demonstrating a complete optimized low-friction engine system. In this program, a detailed set of piston and piston-ring dynamic and friction models have been adapted and applied that illustrate the fundamental relationships among mechanical, surface/material and lubricant design parameters and friction losses. Demonstration of low-friction ring-pack designs in the Waukesha VGF 18GL engine confirmed ring-pack friction reduction of 30-40%, which translates to total engine FEMP (friction mean effective pressure) reduction of 7-10% from the baseline configuration without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. The study on surface textures, including roughness characteristics, cross hatch patterns, dimples and grooves have shown that even relatively small-scale changes can have a large effect on ring/liner friction, in some cases reducing FMEP by as much as 30% from a smooth surface case. The measured FMEP reductions were in good agreement with the model predictions. The combined analysis of lubricant and surface design indicates that low-viscosity lubricants can be very effective in reducing friction, subject to component wear for extremely thin oils, which can be mitigated with further lubricant formulation and/or engineered surfaces. Hence a combined approach of lubricant design and appropriate wear reduction offers improved potential for minimum engine friction loss. Testing of low-friction lubricants showed that total engine FMEP reduced by up to {approx}16.5% from the commercial reference oil without significantly increasing oil consumption or blow-by flow. Piston friction studies

  15. The effects of a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, and amino acids during three weeks of high-intensity exercise on aerobic and anaerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall Kristina L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel design study was used to examine the effects of a pre-workout supplement combined with three weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on aerobic and anaerobic running performance, training volume, and body composition. Methods Twenty-four moderately-trained recreational athletes (mean ± SD age = 21.1 ± 1.9 yrs; stature = 172.2 ± 8.7 cm; body mass = 66.2 ± 11.8 kg, VO2max = 3.21 ± 0.85 l·min-1, percent body fat = 19.0 ± 7.1% were assigned to either the active supplement (GT, n = 13 or placebo (PL, n = 11 group. The active supplement (Game Time®, Corr-Jensen Laboratories Inc., Aurora, CO was 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of a proprietary blend including whey protein, cordyceps sinensis, creatine, citrulline, ginseng, and caffeine. The PL was also 18 g of powder, 40 kcals, and consisted of only maltodextrin, natural and artificial flavors and colors. Thirty minutes prior to all testing and training sessions, participants consumed their respective supplements mixed with 8-10 oz of water. Both groups participated in a three-week HIIT program three days per week, and testing was conducted before and after the training. Cardiovascular fitness (VO2max was assessed using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics TrueOne® 2400 Metabolic Measurement System, Sandy, UT during graded exercise tests on a treadmill (Woodway, Pro Series, Waukesha, WI. Also, four high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of the treadmill velocity recorded during VO2max, and the distances achieved were plotted over the times-to-exhaustion. Linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV and y-intercepts (anaerobic running capacity, ARC of these relationships to assess aerobic and anaerobic performances, respectively. Training volumes were tracked by summing the distances achieved during each training session for each subject

  16. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems. Part II. Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) methods have been introduced to clinical CT systems and are being used in some clinical diagnostic applications. The purpose of this paper is to experimentally assess the unique spatial resolution characteristics of this nonlinear reconstruction method and identify its potential impact on the detectabilities and the associated radiation dose levels for specific imaging tasks. Methods: The thoracic section of a pediatric phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 or 100 times using a 64-slice clinical CT scanner at four different dose levels [CTDI{sub vol} =4, 8, 12, 16 (mGy)]. Both filtered backprojection (FBP) and MBIR (Veo{sup ®}, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for image reconstruction and results were compared with one another. Eight test objects in the phantom with contrast levels ranging from 13 to 1710 HU were used to assess spatial resolution. The axial spatial resolution was quantified with the point spread function (PSF), while the z resolution was quantified with the slice sensitivity profile. Both were measured locally on the test objects and in the image domain. The dependence of spatial resolution on contrast and dose levels was studied. The study also features a systematic investigation of the potential trade-off between spatial resolution and locally defined noise and their joint impact on the overall image quality, which was quantified by the image domain-based channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) detectability index d′. Results: (1) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR depends on both radiation dose level and image contrast level, whereas it is supposedly independent of these two factors in FBP. The axial spatial resolution of MBIR always improved with an increasing radiation dose level and/or contrast level. (2) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR became equivalent to that of FBP at some transitional contrast level, above which MBIR demonstrated superior spatial resolution than

  17. Third version of vendor-specific model-based iterativereconstruction (Veo 3.0): evaluation of CT image quality in the abdomen using new noise reduction presets and varied slice optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesmanich, Morgan E; Jensen, Corey T; Enriquez, Jose L; Wagner-Bartak, Nicolaus A; Liu, Xinming; Le, Ott; Wei, Wei; Chandler, Adam G; Tamm, Eric P

    2017-08-01

    To qualitatively and quantitatively compare abdominal CT images reconstructed with a newversion of model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo 3.0; GE Healthcare Waukesha, WI) utilizing varied presetsof resolution preference, noise reduction and slice optimization. This retrospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board and was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant. The raw datafrom 30 consecutive patients who had undergone CT abdomen scanning were used to reconstructfour clinical presets of 3.75mm axial images using Veo 3.0: 5% resolution preference (RP05n), 5%noise reduction (NR05) and 40% noise reduction (NR40) with new 3.75mm "sliceoptimization," as well as one set using RP05 with conventional 0.625mm "slice optimization" (RP05c). The images were reviewed by two independent readers in a blinded, randomized manner using a 5-point Likert scale as well as a 5-point comparative scale. Multiple two-dimensional circular regions of interest were defined for noise and contrast-to-noise ratio measurements. Line profiles were drawn across the 7 lp cm -1 bar pattern of the Catphan 600 phantom for evaluation of spatial resolution. The NR05 image set was ranked as the best series in overall image quality (mean difference inrank 0.48, 95% CI [0.081-0.88], p = 0.01) and with specific reference to liver evaluation (meandifference 0.46, 95% CI [0.030-0.89], p = 0.03), when compared with the secondbest series ineach category. RP05n was ranked as the best for bone evaluation. NR40 was ranked assignificantly inferior across all assessed categories. Although the NR05 and RP05c image setshad nearly the same contrast-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution, NR05 was generally preferred. Image noise and spatial resolution increased along a spectrum with RP05n the highest and NR40the lowest. Compared to RP05n, the average noise was 21.01% lower for NR05, 26.88%lower for RP05c and 50.86% lower for NR40. Veo 3.0 clinical presets allow for

  18. Quantitative evaluation of knee cartilage and meniscus destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using T1ρ and T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang Hong; Wang, Zhi; Guo, Li; Liu, Xiu Chan; Zhang, Yu Wei; Zhang, Ze Wei; Ma, Xin Long

    2017-11-01

    To calculate T1ρ and T2 values of articular cartilage and menisci in knee joints of patients with RA, and compare the values between RA patients and healthy volunteers, to gain insight into the pathogenesis of cartilage and meniscus degradation in patients with RA. Nine patients with RA and knee joints symptoms were enrolled in the study, twenty healthy volunteers without knee joint diseases were included as controls. Sagittal fat-saturated T1ρ and T2 mapping images were obtained on a 3T MR scanner (GE750, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI), using a dedicated 8-channel knee coil. In the T1rho mapping sequence, the amplitude of the spin-lock pulse was 500Hz, spin lock durations=10/20/30/50ms. In the T2 mapping sequence,TR/TE were 1794/6.5, 13.4, 27, 40.7ms. Both sequences were performed with the following parameters: flip angle (FA)=90°, matrix: 320×256, FOV: 16×16cm 2 , slice thickness: 3mm, bandwidth: 62.5kHZ, and a total scan time of 5:11min. T1ρ- and T2-mapping images were used for the segmentation of the articular cartilage of the patella, femoral trochlea, medial and lateral femoral condyle, medial and lateral tibial plateau. These images were also used for the segmentation of the anterior and posterior horns of the medial and lateral menisci with livewire semi-automatic segmentation algorithm of MATLAB. A Mann-Whitney U test was performed to compare the T1ρ and T2 values of the above mentioned regions between the two groups. T1ρ (Z=-3.913 to -2.121, P=0.000-0.034) and T2 (Z=-3.866 to -2.216, P=0.000-0.026) values of knee cartilage in patients with RA were higher than that in healthy volunteers, except the cartilage of the patella (T1ρ: Z=-1.273, P=0.203,T2: Z=-0.236, P=0.814) and lateral tibial plateau (T1ρ:Z=-1.037, P=0.317). The T1ρ (Z=-1.462 to 0.572, P=0.095-0.908) and T2 (Z=-1.461 to 0.278, P=0.153-0.764) values of medial and lateral menisci showed no difference between the two groups. Patients with RA exhibit diffuse knee cartilage destruction in

  19. Parking lot runoff quality and treatment efficiencies of a hydrodynamic-settling device in Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwatich, Judy A.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrodynamic-settling device was installed in 2004 to treat stormwater runoff from a roof and parking lot located at the Water Utility Administration Building in Madison, Wis. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the City of Madison, cities in the Waukesha Permit Group, Hydro International, Earth Tech, Inc., National Sanitation Foundation International, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, monitored the device from November 2005 through September 2006 to evaluate it as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification Program. Twenty-three runoff events monitored for flow volume and water quality at the device's inlet and outlet were used to calculate the percentage of pollutant reduction for the device. The geometric mean concentrations of suspended sediment (SS), "adjusted" total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved phosphorus (DP), total recoverable zinc (TZn), and total recoverable copper (TCu) measured at the inlet were 107 mg/L (milligrams per liter), 92 mg/L, 0.17 mg/L, 0.05 mg/L, 38 μg/L (micrograms per liter), and 12 μg/L, respectively, and these concentrations are in the range of values observed in stormwater runoff from other parking lots in Wisconsin and Michigan. Efficiency of the settling device was calculated using the efficiency ratio and summation of loads (SOL) methods. Using the efficiency ratio method, the device reduced concentrations of SS, and DP, by 19, and 15, percent, respectively. Using the efficiency ratio method, the device increased "adjusted" TSS and TZn concentrations by 5 and 19, respectively. Bypass occurred for 3 of the 23 runoff events used in this assessment, and the bypass flow and water-quality concentrations were used to determine the efficiency of the bypass system. Concentrations of SS, "adjusted" TSS, and DP were reduced for the system by 18, 5, and 18, respectively; however, TZn increased by 5

  20. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work