Hicks, R. E.; Southey, G. N.
The 80-item Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Form A was administered to 415 business management students in Australia as a step toward adapting the test for Australian use. The results correspond reasonably closely to the U.S. data. Analysis of group results and item statistics provided information about necessary modifications. (SLD)
Full Text Available The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Test is one of the oldest, most frequently used, multiple-choice critical-thinking tests on the market in business, government, and legal settings for purposes of hiring and promotion. I demonstrate, however, that the test has serious construct-validity issues, stemming primarily from its ambiguous, unclear, misleading, and sometimes mysterious instructions, which have remained unaltered for decades. Erroneously scored items further diminish the test’s validity. As a result, having enhanced knowledge of formal and informal logic could well result in test subjects receiving lower scores on the test. That’s not how things should work for a CT assessment test.
Sternod, Latisha; French, Brian
The Watson-Glaser™ II Critical Thinking Appraisal (Watson-Glaser II; Watson & Glaser, 2010) is a revised version of the "Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal®" (Watson & Glaser, 1994). The Watson-Glaser II introduces a simplified model of critical thinking, consisting of three subdimensions: recognize assumptions, evaluate…
Hamid Ashraf; Hanieh Garmabi; Mehri Bakhtiari Fayendari
The present study attempted to discover whether there is a significant relationship between EFL teachers' critical thinking ability and their teaching success.To this end, 113 Iranian male and female English teachers were required to fill out Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. Besides, their students were asked to answer the Characteristics of Successful EFL Teachers questionnaire. The statistical analysis of the data showed that there was a significant correlation between EFL teacher...
Vogel, Kimberly A; Geelhoed, Michael; Grice, Kimatha O; Murphy, Douglas
This study evaluated whether critical thinking ability can be improved through participation in occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) curricula. The researchers compared levels of the critical thinking skills of OT and PT students at the beginning and end of their programs to determine whether changes occurred and to examine facets of the curricula that may have caused the differences. The curricula include teaching strategies of problem-based learning modules, small group discussion and problem-solving, case studies, clinical observation, and evidence-based practice assignments, as well as teaching about critical thinking as a process in itself. Fifty OT and PT students completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal at the beginning and end of 20 mos of the academic phase of their master's degree programs. Researchers analyzed the data using a one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results showed no differences between OT and PT students on the pretest or post-test and no differences for PT students between the pretest and post-test. OT students' scores increased significantly from pretest to post-test. The influence of the timing of teaching critical thinking skills in the resulting differences between the two curricula, as well as the validity of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal is a valid measure of critical thinking changes in allied health students are discussed.
Kadhi, T.; Palasota, A.; Holley, D.; Rudley, D.
The following report gives the statistical findings of the 2009-2010 Watson-Glaser test. Data is pre-existing and was given to the Evaluator by email from the Director, Center for Legal Pedagogy. Statistical analyses were run using SPSS 17 to address the following questions: 1. What are the statistical descriptors of the Watson-Glaser results of…
Full Text Available The profession as a teacher involves experiencing a number of challenges which naturally lead to emotional tiredness and lack of reward, technically known as burnout (Colomeischi, 2015. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between burnout and critical thinking ability. To this end, a sample of 40 professors of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL filed at a number of universities in Iran was chosen. Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was employed to assess the participants' burnout level, which is specifically evaluated by measuring three subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal achievement. In addition, the measures of the participants' critical thinking skills were obtained via Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis indicated that emotional exhaustion and depersonalization strongly and negatively correlated with critical thinking ability. However, a strong and positive relationship was found between personal achievement and critical thinking skills.
This descriptive correlational study explored factors influencing job satisfaction in nursing. Relationships between educational preparation, autonomy, and critical thinking and job satisfaction were examined. A convenience sample of 140 registered nurses was drawn from medical-surgical, management, and home health nursing specialties. The nurses were asked to complete the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Relationships between variables were analyzed to determine which explained the most variance in job satisfaction. Results indicated significant positive correlations between total job satisfaction and perceived autonomy, critical thinking, educational preparation, and job satisfiers. Significant negative correlations between job dissatisfiers and total job satisfaction were also found. Understanding nursing job satisfaction through critical thinking, educational level, and autonomy is the key to staff retention. Further research focusing on increasing these satisfiers is needed.
Full Text Available The present study attempted to discover whether there is a significant relationship between EFL teachers' critical thinking ability and their teaching success.To this end, 113 Iranian male and female English teachers were required to fill out Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. Besides, their students were asked to answer the Characteristics of Successful EFL Teachers questionnaire. The statistical analysis of the data showed that there was a significant correlation between EFL teachers’ critical thinking skill and their teaching success. Besides, findings revealed that there was a significant difference between male and female teachers regarding their critical thinking skills, and that BA teachers differed from AS teachers with regard to critical thinking skills. More specifically, male BA teachers took the most advantages from critical thinking skills than others.
Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson
As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…
Peerbolte, Stacy L; Collins, Matthew Lloyd
Emergency managers must be able to think critically in order to identify and anticipate situations, solve problems, make judgements and decisions effectively and efficiently, and assume and manage risk. Heretofore, a critical thinking skills assessment of local emergency managers had yet to be conducted that tested for correlations among age, gender, education, and years in occupation. An exploratory descriptive research design, using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Short Form (WGCTA-S), was employed to determine the extent to which a sample of 54 local emergency managers demonstrated the critical thinking skills associated with the ability to assume and manage risk as compared to the critical thinking scores of a group of 4,790 peer-level managers drawn from an archival WGCTA-S database. This exploratory design suggests that the local emergency managers, surveyed in this study, had lower WGCTA-S critical thinking scores than their equivalents in the archival database with the exception of those in the high education and high experience group. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Wettstein, Richard B; Wilkins, Robert L; Gardner, Donna D; Restrepo, Ruben D
Critical thinking is an important characteristic to develop in respiratory care students. We used the short-form Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal instrument to measure critical-thinking ability in 55 senior respiratory care students in a baccalaureate respiratory care program. We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient to assess the relationships between critical-thinking score, age, and student performance on the clinical-simulation component of the national respiratory care boards examination. We used chi-square analysis to assess the association between critical-thinking score and educational background. There was no significant relationship between critical-thinking score and age, or between critical-thinking score and student performance on the clinical-simulation component. There was a significant (P = .04) positive association between a strong science-course background and critical-thinking score, which might be useful in predicting a student's ability to perform in areas where critical thinking is of paramount importance, such as clinical competencies, and to guide candidate-selection for respiratory care programs.
Ross, David; Loeffler, Kim; Schipper, Shirley; Vandermeer, Ben; Allan, G Michael
To determine whether the three commonly used measures of critical thinking correlate with academic success of medical professionals in training. The search for English-language articles (from 1980 to 2011) used Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library on Ovid, Proquest Dissertations, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, PsychINFO, and references of included articles. Studies comparing critical thinking with academic success among medical professionals were included. Two authors performed study selection independently, with disagreement resolved by consensus. Two authors independently abstracted data on study characteristics, quality, and outcomes, with disagreement resolved by a third author. Critical thinking tests studied were the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI), and Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. Correlation coefficients were pooled in meta-analysis. The search identified 557 studies: 52 met inclusion for systematic review, 41 of which were meta-analyzed. Critical thinking was positively correlated with academic success, r=0.31 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.26, 0.35), with a moderate statistical heterogeneity (I=67%). In subgroup analysis, only student type had statistical significance for correlation, although bias was likely due to low numbers for some student types. In direct comparison, using studies that employed two critical thinking tests, the CCTDI (r=0.23, 95% CI 0.15, 0.30) was significantly inferior (PCritical thinking was moderately correlated with academic success of medical professionals in training. The CCTDI was inferior to the CCTST in correlating with academic success.
Bolhassan, Norlailatulakma; Taha, Hafsah
The form of cooperative learning known as Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT) in this study favors the use of teams work and learning tools combined with student play and practice to foster students' achievement and critical thinking skills. Using this paradigm, this study incorporates Teams-Games-Tournament and Flash Cards Games Kit during an 8-weeks experimental instruction period that includes 67 Form Four students; 34 students in the experimental group and 33 in the control group. The learning design in experimental group emphasizes scaffolding, guided practices, cooperative learning, and active participation in learning. While the experimental group experienced the TGT approach, the control group encountered the conventional teaching approach of chemistry drills. An achievement chemistry test and Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) were used for the pretest and posttest. The finding indicates that TGT learning was more effective than drills in promoting chemistry performance, and the playful competiveness among students promotes students' critical thinking. In addition, TGT cooperative learning also creates an active learning environment in solving problems and discussions among students and teachers.
Chang, Mei Jen; Chang, Ying-Ju; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Chou, Fan-Hao
To examine the relationships between critical thinking ability and nursing competence in clinical nurses. There are few evidance-based data related to the relationship between critical thinking ability and nursing competence of clinical nurses. A cross-sectional and correlation research design was used. A total of 570 clinical nurses at a medical centre in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study. Two self-report questionnaires, the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) and the Nursing Competence Scale (NCS), were used to collect data. The critical thinking ability of clinical nurses was at the middle level. The highest score for the subscales of the WGCTA was 'interpretation ability' and the lowest was 'inference ability'. The nursing competence of clinical nurses was at the middle level and above. The highest score for the subscales was 'caring ability' and the lowest was 'research ability'. Critical thinking ability had a significantly positive correlation with nursing competence. Critical thinking, working years, educational levels and position/title were the significant predictors of nursing competence, accounting for 32·9% of the variance. Critical thinking ability had a significantly positive correlation with nursing competence. The critical thinking ability of clinical nurses with a master's degree was significantly better than those with a bachelor's degree or a diploma and nurses with over five working years was significantly better than those with under five years. The findings of this study can further serve as a reference for nursing education to improve nursing curricula and teaching strategies for nurse preparation. It could also be a guideline for nursing administration personnel in on-the-job training and orientation programs for nursing staff. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Feng, Rung-Chuang; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Pai, Yu-Chu
Critical thinking is essential in nursing practice. Promoting critical thinking competence in clinical nurses is an important way to improve problem solving and decision-making competence to further improve the quality of patient care. However, using an adequate tool to test nurses' critical thinking competence and disposition may provide the reference criteria for clinical nurse characterization, training planning, and resource allocation for human resource management. The purpose of this study was to measure the critical thinking competence and critical thinking disposition of clinical nurses as well as to explore the related factors of critical thinking competence. Clinical nurses from four different clinical ladders selected from one medical center were stratified randomly. All qualified subjects who submitted valid questionnaires were included in the study. A Taiwan version of the modified Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal and Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory was developed to measure the critical thinking competence and critical thinking disposition of clinical nurses. Validity was evaluated using the professional content test (content validity index = .93). Reliability was assessed with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .85. Data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows (Version 12.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Results showed that competence of interpretation was the highest critical thinking competence factor. Inference was the lowest, and reflective thinking as a critical thinking disposition was more positive. In addition, age, years of nursing experience, and experiences in other hospitals significantly influenced critical thinking competence (p critical thinking disposition scores. Clinical ladder N4 nurses had the highest scores in both competence and disposition. A significant relationship was found between critical thinking competence and disposition scores, with 29.3% of the variance in critical thinking competence potentially explained
Shaw, Ryan D.
Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…
Mitchell, Anita Witt; Batorski, Rosemary E
This study examined the effect of an online guided independent study on critical reasoning skills. Twenty-one first-semester Master of Occupational Therapy students completed an online assignment designed to facilitate application of the Occupational Performance Process Model (Fearing & Clark) and kept reflective journals. Data from the journals were analyzed in relation to the three sets of questions, question type and results of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA). This assignment appeared to be effective for enhancing awareness and use of critical reasoning skills. Differences in patterns of critical reasoning between students with high and low WGCTA scores and results of an inductive analysis of the journal entries are discussed. Future research investigating the types of feedback that effectively facilitate development of critical reasoning and whether students with high and low WGCTA scores might benefit from different types of instruction and/or feedback is recommended. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.
"Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…
This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decision-making. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169). Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15). 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34) and Strauss and Corbin (1990). The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990). The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985) and Morse (1994) related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these
Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based
Kong, Ling-Na; Qin, Bo; Zhou, Ying-qing; Mou, Shao-yu; Gao, Hui-Ming
effect sizes for subscales of the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI) and Bloom's Taxonomy favored problem-based learning, while effect sizes for all subscales of the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and most subscales of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WCGTA) were inconclusive. The results of the current meta-analysis indicate that problem-based learning might help nursing students to improve their critical thinking. More research with larger sample size and high quality in different nursing educational contexts are required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The main purpose of this study is to develop the scale for critical thinking. The Scale of Critical Thinking was applied to 200 student. In this scale, there are total 55 items, four of which are negative and 51 of which are positive. The KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) value is 0.75, the Bartlett test value is 7145.41, and the Cronbach Alpha value is 0.90.
Loni Kreis Taglieber
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of
This article discusses the tension between trust, as an expression of interpersonal commitment, and critical thinking, which includes a demand for reasons. It explores the importance of each for individual flourishing, and then seeks to establish some ways in which they intersect, drawing on ideas of authority and trustworthiness. It argues that…
Published online ahead of print: 12/16/2010) 39 Beyer, B.K. Practical Strategies for the Teaching of Thinking, Allyn and Bacon , Boston, MA, 1987, p. 32...or critical thinking as such has no part in this linkage.78 David Schum and Francis Hume discussed critical reasoning within the context of...Teaching of Thinking, Allyn and Bacon , Boston, MA, 1987, p. 211. 110 Dewey, J. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to
Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa
Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to offer a view of the assumptions that guide the practice of claiming sex differences in the brain. After the realization that much of the research and publication of neuroscientific findings assume such a difference, we found a great deal of what has been called neurosexism. As a way to overcome it and from a feminist theory with a political commitment we propose a critical approach to the neurosciences. This is understood as a reflective collaboration between disciplines that could provide a framework for overcoming prejudices in thinking and designing science.
How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…
Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice.
Bruce Dietrick Price
Full Text Available Critical Thinking basically says to be suspicious of everything, except the fad known as Critical Thinking. It is perhaps best understood as a new and watered-down version of an earlier fad called Deconstruction. That was just a fancy word for debunking. After you strip away all the high-minded rhetoric, Critical Thinking is typically used to tell students that they should not trust conventional wisdom, tradition, religion, parents, and all that irrelevant, old-fashioned stuff. Critical Thinking, somewhat surprisingly, also turns out to be highly contemptuous of facts and knowledge. The formulation in public schools goes like this: children must learn how to think, not what to think. WHAT is, of course, all the academic content and scholarly knowledge that schools used to teach.
Brand, Lance G.
The purpose of this study was three-fold: to measure the ability of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve higher order thinking skills; to evaluate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to help students be self directed learners; and to investigate the impact of the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum to improve student attitudes of the life sciences. The target population for this study was secondary students enrolled in advanced life science programs. The resulting sample (n = 71) consisted of 36 students in the case-based experimental group and 35 students in the control group. Furthermore, this study employed an experimental, pretest-posttest control group research design. The treatment consisted of two instructional strategies: case-based learning and teacher-guided learning. Analysis of covariance indicated no treatment effect on critical thinking ability or Motivation and Self-regulation of Learning. However, the Medical Explorers case-based curriculum did show a treatment effect on student attitudes toward the life sciences. These results seem to indicate that case-based curriculum has a positive impact on students' perspectives and attitudes about the study of life science as well as their interest in life science based careers. Such outcomes are also a good indicator that students enjoy and perceive the value to use of case studies in science, and because they see value in the work that they do they open up their minds to true learning and integration. Of additional interest was the observationthat on average eleventh graders showed consistently stronger gains in critical thinking, motivation and self-regulation of learning strategies, and attitudes toward the life sciences as compared to twelfth grade students. In fact, twelfth grade students showed a pre to post loss on the Watson-Glaser and the MSLQ scores while eleventh grade students showed positive gains on each of these instruments. This decline in twelfth
We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.
Changes in American education require that teachers are evaluated more often, and expectations increasingly include teaching to develop critical thinking skills. This article uses Bloom's taxonomy in describing ways physical educators can include critical thinking in their lessons, both to enhance their teaching and to meet expectations of…
Atabaki, Ali Mohammad Siahi; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.
Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term "critical thinking" (CT) is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can…
Holmes, N G; Wieman, Carl E; Bonn, D A
The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and although it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics laboratory course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the instructions had been removed, students in the experimental condition were 12 times more likely to spontaneously propose or make changes to improve their experimental methods than a control group, who performed traditional experimental activities. The students in the experimental condition were also four times more likely to identify and explain a limitation of a physical model using their data. Students in the experimental condition also showed much more sophisticated reasoning about their data. These differences between the groups were seen to persist into a subsequent course taken the following year.
Zori, Susan; Morrison, Barbara
Formal education and support is needed for nurse managers to effectively function in their role in the current health care environment. Many nurse managers assume their positions based on expertise in a clinical role with little expertise in managerial and leadership skills. Operating as a manager and leader requires ongoing development of critical thinking skills and the inclination to use those skills. Critical thinking can have a powerful influence on the decision making and problem solving that nurse managers are faced with on a daily basis. The skills that typify critical thinking include analysis, evaluation, inference, and deductive and inductive reasoning. It is intuitive that nurse managers require both the skills and the dispositions of critical thinking to be successful in this pivotal role at a time of transformation in health care. Incorporating critical thinking into education and support programs for the nurse manager is necessary to position the nurse manager for success.
B. Jean Mandernach, PhD
The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. ...
Critical thinking skills in the healthcare field are imperative when making quick-thinking decisions. This descriptive comparative study investigated to what extent completing a critical thinking course improved college students' critical thinking skills. The study further investigated whether the instructors' critical thinking skills were…
... accepted, adopted or used by students. This research project explores the reasons for this outcome and provides recommendations and techniques to enhance acceptance of critical thinking as a tool for strategic leaders...
B. Jean Mandernach
Full Text Available The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. To address this dilemma, it is essential to integrate instructional strategies and techniques that can efficiently and effectively maximize student learning and critical thinking. Modern advances in educational technology have produced a range of online tools to assist instructors in meeting this instructional goal. This review will examine the theoretical foundations of critical thinking in higher education, discuss empirically-based strategies for integrating online instructional supplements to enhance critical thinking, offer techniques for expanding instructional opportunities outside the limitations of traditional class time, and provide practical suggestions for the innovative use of critical thinking strategies via online resources.
Furedy, John J.; Furedy, Christine
A fourth year honors thesis research course in psychology at the University of Toronto uses the device of adversarial interaction to improve critical thinking. Course components, including thesis submission, research seminar, student relations, and supervision, are designed to simulate the constraints, criticism, and relationships of actual…
Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.
Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…
Ward, Terry D; Morris, Tiffany
Critical thinking is essential in the practice of the nurse generalist, today. Nursing faculty is frequently trying to identify teaching strategies in promoting critical thinking and engaging students in active learning. To close the gap between critical thinking and student success, a school in the south east United States implemented the use of the 'think like a nurse initiative" for incoming junior nursing students. Faculty collaborated to adopt the fundamental and essential nursing concepts for nursing students to support thinking like a nurse.
Lloyd, Margaret; Bahr, Nan
The literature on critical thinking in higher education is constructed around the fundamental assumption that, while regarded as essential, is neither clearly nor commonly understood. There is elsewhere evidence that academics and students have differing perceptions of what happens in university classrooms, particularly in regard to higher order…
da Silva Bastos Cerullo, Josinete Aparecida; de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da Cruz, Diná
This study identifies and analyzes nursing literature on clinical reasoning and critical thinking. A bibliographical search was performed in LILACS, SCIELO, PUBMED and CINAHL databases, followed by selection of abstracts and the reading of full texts. Through the review we verified that clinical reasoning develops from scientific and professional knowledge, is permeated by ethical decisions and nurses values and also that there are different personal and institutional strategies that might improve the critical thinking and clinical reasoning of nurses. Further research and evaluation of educational programs on clinical reasoning that integrate psychosocial responses to physiological responses of people cared by nurses is needed.
Shannon, Li-Jen; Schneider, Solomon; Bennett, Judith F.
This study examined the status of critical thinking (CT) and reasoning skills in information communication and technology (ICT) for 190 college students in a higher education system. It analyzed how the students performed in CT, reasoning, and internet copyright and ethical issues. A CT assessment was designed to analyze the CT and reasoning…
Introduction Sociology of Teaching sociology is seen as a fresh new place to explore the importance and role of critical thinking in the sociology of education has been one of the most important issues to consider.Principles of Sociology course ample opportunities for students to develop critical thinking skills and attitudes and serves as a missionary spirit, critical thinking has suggested an alternative,Areas has brought the development of critical thinking. Learn the basics of critical...
Full Text Available Teaching critical thinking skill is a central pedagogical aim in many courses. These skills, it is hoped, will be both portable (applicable in a wide range of contexts and durable (not forgotten quickly. Yet, both of these virtues are challenged by pervasive and potent cognitive biases, such as motivated reasoning, false consensus bias and hindsight bias. In this paper, I argue that a focus on the development of metacognitive skill shows promise as a means to inculcate debiasing habits in students. Such habits will help students become more critical reasoners. I close with suggestions for implementing this strategy.
Oermann, M H
Although much has been written about measurement instruments for evaluating critical thinking in nursing, this article describes clinical evaluation strategies for critical thinking. Five methods are discussed: 1) observation of students in practice; 2) questions for critical thinking, including Socratic questioning; 3) conferences; 4) problem-solving strategies; and 5) written assignments. These methods provide a means of evaluating students' critical thinking within the context of clinical practice.
Lodewyk, Ken R.
Critical thinking is essentially "better thinking." When students think critically they consider complex information from numerous sources and perspectives in order to make a reasonable judgment that they can justify. It has been associated with academic qualities such as decision-making, creativity, reasoning, problem-solving, debating,…
Miekley, Joshua P.
Critical-thinking skills help to prepare adult education students for a successful transition to college degree programs and for job advancement. Yet fostering critical thinking poses a challenge to ESL instructors. Brookfield (2012) provides a way forward for adult educators when he explains that the crux of critical thinking is to discover one's…
Robertson, William Haviland
The Critical Thinking Curriculum Model (CTCM) utilizes a multidisciplinary approach that integrates effective learning and teaching practices with computer technology. The model is designed to be flexible within a curriculum, an example for teachers to follow, where they can plug in their own critical issue. This process engages students in collaborative research that can be shared in the classroom, across the country or around the globe. The CTCM features open-ended and collaborative activities that deal with current, real world issues which leaders are attempting to solve. As implemented in the Critical Issues Forum (CIF), an educational program administered by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the CTCM encompasses the political, social/cultural, economic, and scientific realms in the context of a current global issue. In this way, students realize the importance of their schooling by applying their efforts to an endeavor that ultimately will affect their future. This study measures student attitudes toward science and technology and the changes that result from immersion in the CTCM. It also assesses the differences in student learning in science content and problem solving for students involved in the CTCM. A sample of 24 students participated in classrooms at two separate high schools in New Mexico. The evaluation results were analyzed using SPSS in a MANOVA format in order to determine the significance of the between and within-subjects effects. A comparison ANOVA was done for each two-way MANOVA to see if the comparison groups were equal. Significant findings were validated using the Scheffe test in a Post Hoc analysis. Demographic information for the sample population was recorded and tracked, including self-assessments of computer use and availability. Overall, the results indicated that the CTCM did help to increase science content understanding and problem-solving skills for students, thereby positively effecting critical thinking. No matter if the
Kahlke, Renate; Eva, Kevin
Calls for enabling 'critical thinking' are ubiquitous in health professional education. However, there is little agreement in the literature or in practice as to what this term means and efforts to generate a universal definition have found limited traction. Moreover, the variability observed might suggest that multiplicity has value that the quest for universal definitions has failed to capture. In this study, we sought to map the multiple conceptions of critical thinking in circulation in health professional education to understand the relationships and tensions between them. We used an inductive, qualitative approach to explore conceptions of critical thinking with educators from four health professions: medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and social work. Four participants from each profession participated in two individual in-depth semi-structured interviews, the latter of which induced reflection on a visual depiction of results generated from the first set of interviews. Three main conceptions of critical thinking were identified: biomedical, humanist, and social justice-oriented critical thinking. 'Biomedical critical thinking' was the dominant conception. While each conception had distinct features, the particular conceptions of critical thinking espoused by individual participants were not stable within or between interviews. Multiple conceptions of critical thinking likely offer educators the ability to express diverse beliefs about what 'good thinking' means in variable contexts. The findings suggest that any single definition of critical thinking in the health professions will be inherently contentious and, we argue, should be. Such debates, when made visible to educators and trainees, can be highly productive.
Cuypers, Stefaan E.
This article points out an internal tension, or even conflict, in the conceptual foundations of Harvey Siegel's conception of critical thinking. Siegel justifies critical thinking, or critically rational autonomy, as an educational ideal first and foremost by an appeal to the Kantian principle of respect for persons. It is made explicit that this…
Panofsky, Carolyn P.
Explores critical thinking as it has been constructed in schooling and in dominant traditions of psychological theory, presenting a dialectical view of critical thinking suggested in the social and philosophical writings of critical theorists (e.g., Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse) and supported by the sociohistorical or cultural-historical…
Thinking, including critical thinking, is indispensable to a person so that a person can base his or her decisions on solid reasoning and facts. Even so, to think critically requires more than just being critical; it requires skills and aptitude for applying the skills in practice. In addition, to become an advanced thinker, the skills need to be practiced, and for that classroom offers a natural venue. Among numerous alternatives, Bloom’s taxonomy and Paul’s model provide two applicable ...
Shin, Kyung Rim; Lee, Ja Hyung; Ha, Ju Young; Kim, Kon Hee
This paper reports an investigation into the critical thinking disposition of students enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing programme at a university in Korea. Critical thinking may be summarized as a skilled process that conceptualizes and applies information from observation, experience, reflection, inference and communication in a technical manner. It is more of a rational act used as an instrument rather than as a result. Critical thinking is a core competency in nursing and has been widely discussed in nursing education. However, the results of previous research on the effectiveness of nursing education in improving students' critical thinking have been inconsistent. A longitudinal design was used with a convenience sample of 60 nursing students; 32 students participated four times in completing a questionnaire each March from 1999 to 2002. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory was administered to measure disposition to critical thinking. There was a statistically significant improvement in critical thinking disposition score by academic year (F = 7.54, P = 0.0001). Among the subscales, open-mindedness, self-confidence, and maturity also showed a statistically significant difference by academic year (P = 0.0194, 0.0041, 0.0044). Teaching strategies to enhance critical thinking should be developed, in addition to further research on the effect of the nursing curriculum on students' critical thinking. Moreover, survey instruments could be adjusted to incorporate characteristics of the Korean culture.
Jenkins, Daniel M.; Andenoro, Anthony C.
This chapter provides the critical leadership logic model as a tool to help educators develop leadership-learning opportunities. This proactive logic model includes curricular and co-curricular educational experiences to ensure critical thinking through leadership education.
Shoemaker, Pamela J.
Describes one way of systematically teaching critical thinking skills in a journalism-mass communication program. Begins with a general discussion of critical thinking. Proceeds to the theory and structure underlying the course as it is taught at the Ohio State University School of Journalism. (RS)
This dissertation about critical thinking processes three questions. The first regards the question what critical thinking means when conceptualizing the phrase away from the dominant account in which it refers to the ability to reason well and the disposition to do so (Bailin & Siegel, 2003). A
In this paper, the author argues that the quantity, superabundance of information, easy availability, and quick access to information in cyberspace may engender critical thinking and the optimization of reasonableness. This point is different from, but presupposes, the commonplace view that critical thinking abilities, criteria, processes, and…
Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David
This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…
In this research the author defines critical thinking as the set of skills and dispositions which enable one to solve problems logically and to attempt to reflect autonomously by means of Metacognitive regulation on one's own problem-solving processes. In order to develop their critical thinking, it is important for students to be able to use this…
Bell, E A
Nurses in advanced practice require high-level critical thinking skills. Two elements of critical thinking are discovery and justification. The process of justification is focused on argumentation skills. Using the debate process to analyze, critique, and construct arguments may be an effective teaching-learning technique. Suggestions for the use of debate in graduate nursing curricula are included.
This article proposes a Confucian conception of critical thinking by focussing on the notion of judgement. It is argued that the attainment of the Confucian ideal of "li" (normative behaviours) necessitates and promotes critical thinking in at least two ways. First, the observance of "li" requires the individual to exercise…
Canziani, Bonnie; Tullar, William L.
The authors present survey results from faculty at 44 universities on the role of student consulting projects in developing business students' critical thinking. They conclude that students can improve critical thinking by engaging in guided primary and secondary research to inform their business assumptions that underpin business planning and…
Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun
wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637
Howes, Loene M.
Fostering critical thinking abilities amongst students is one component of preparing them to navigate uncertain and complex social lives and employment circumstances. One conceptualisation of critical thinking, valuable in higher education, draws from critical theory to promote social justice and redress power inequities. This study explored how…
Cisneros, Robert M
To determine whether changes occur over 1 academic year in pharmacy students' critical thinking skills and disposition to think critically. First, second, third, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) at the beginning and end of 1 academic year. One hundred thirty-seven students completed the study. No significant changes occurred over the year in total scores on either instrument. However, scores in 3 of 12 subscale scores changed significantly and several significant correlations were found. Pharmacy students' scores on 2 critical thinking instruments showed no major improvements over 1 academic year but most scores were above average. Some areas of possible weakness were identified. Additional studies comparing scores over a longer period of time (eg, admission to graduation) are needed.
Full Text Available Central to Halpern’s definition is the idea that the critical thinker must have not only the necessary analytical tools but also the inclination to use them. Implicit in this argument is the reality that as educators, we must facilitate the learning of both critical thinking skills and dispositions. Critical thinking may also involve the dialectical confrontation between two conflicting forces. The first is what we know and believe; the second is that which is different, new, or contrary to what we know or believe. Braman (1998 uses the phrase “disorienting dilemma” to describe the situation when one critically examines a well-formulated position that is directly at odds with a long held, and perhaps cherished, belief (p. 30. It is this dynamic process of exposure, exploration, and evaluation that is central to the liberal arts educator committed to the practice and to the instruction of critical thinking. However, the evaluation of differing perspectives is a necessary but not sufficient condition of critical thinking. Hatcher and Spencer (2000 address this concern in their succinct but compelling definition. They write that critical thinking “attempts to arrive at a decision or judgment only after honestly evaluating alternatives with respect to available evidence and arguments” (p.1. This definition is particularly satisfying because it refers both to a process (the honest evaluation of alternatives and to an advocacy-based result (a decision that is informed by the evidence and arguments.
上村,崇; 木原,滋哉; 宮田,健一
We have tried to introduce critical thinking into the education in Kure National College of Technology. This article deals with significance of introduction of critical thinking into education in College of Technology. We think that the ability to think critically consists of the sum of various skills of critical thinking. We built a map of critical thinking skills and taught these skills in the classes, and most students understood these skills. We will introduce critical thinking skills int...
Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun
The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research-practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n = 618). Pearson's chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Murawski, Linda M.
Critical thinking in the classroom is a common term used by educators. Critical thinking has been called "the art of thinking about thinking" (Ruggiero, V. R., 2012) with the intent to improve one's thinking. The challenge, of course, is to create learning environments that promote critical thinking both in the classroom and beyond.…
Doerr, Mark, Ed.
"FACTC Focus" is a publication of Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges (FACTC) with the purpose of presenting diverse views on faculty issues. Included in this issue are: (1) LOL: The Easy ROUTE TO Critical Thinking (Barbara B. Parsons); (2) Critical Thinking: We Know It When We (Don't) See It (Jared Anthony); (3) Critical…
Michael J Peeters
Full Text Available The concept of development is ubiquitous throughout higher education. Development of critical thinking, problem-solving, and clinical reasoning are noted as important outcomes in higher education, including health professions education. In this era of widening scrutiny, demonstration of this outcome within programmatic assessment is becoming increasingly important. Programmatic assessment of critical thinking is complicated because of its multiple definitions, array of theoretical frameworks, and variety of measurement instruments. Additionally, recent guidelines and standards for pharmacy education have affirmed “habits of mind,” which are not new to education and encompass analytical critical thinking. In this paper, we sought to provide: 1 an overview of various critical thinking measurement instruments with their different associated critical thinking definitions, 2 a background and framework for thinking using the Dimensions of Learning model, 3 implications and applications for assessing cognitive development (critical and complex thinking within the context of pharmacy education, and 4 specific suggestions for assessment in pharmacy education. Type: Idea Paper
Hager, Paul; Sleet, Ray; Logan, Peter; Hooper, Mal
Explains the design and evaluation of a project aimed at fostering the critical thinking abilities and dispositions of first year students at an Australian university. Most of the tasks relate to applications of chemistry and physics in everyday life. Many students revealed that their thinking skills were enhanced by their experience in attempting…
Djiwandono, Patrisius Istiarto
Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this area have begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners' mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was…
The main purpose of the research was to determine the contributions of the teachers' thinking styles to critical thinking dispositions. Hence, it is aimed to determine whether thinking styles are related to critical thinking dispositions and thinking styles measure critical thinking dispositions or not. The research was designed in relational…
Domenech, Manuel A; Watkins, Phillip
Students who enter a physical therapist (PT) entry-level program with weak critical thinking skills may not be prepared to benefit from the educational training program or successfully engage in the future as a competent healthcare provider. Therefore, assessing PT students' entry-level critical thinking skills and/or disposition toward critical thinking may be beneficial to identifying students with poor, fair, or good critical thinking ability as one of the criteria used in the admissions process into a professional program. First-year students (n=71) from the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) program at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI), and demographic survey during orientation to the DPT program. Three students were lost from the CCTST (n=68), and none lost from the CCTDI (n=71). Analysis indicated that the majority of students had a positive disposition toward critical thinking, yet the overall CCTST suggested that these students were somewhat below the national average. Also, individuals taking math and science prerequisites at the community-college level tended to have lower overall CCTST scores. The entering DPT class demonstrated moderate or middle range scores in critical thinking and disposition toward critical thinking. This result does not indicate, but might suggest, the potential for learning challenges. Assessing critical thinking skills as part of the admissions process may prove advantageous.
Caring is a difficult nursing activity that involves a complex nature of a human being in need of complex decision-making and problem solving through the critical thinking process. It is mandatory that critical thinking is facilitated in general and in nursing education particularly in order to render care in diverse multicultural patient care settings. This paper aims to describe how argumentation can be used to facilitate critical thinking in learners. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design that is contextual was used. Purposive sampling method was used to draw a sample and Miles and Huberman methodology of qualitative analysis was used to analyse data. Lincoln and Guba's strategies were employed to ensure trustworthiness, while Dhai and McQuoid-Mason's principles of ethical consideration were used. Following data analysis the findings were integrated within literature which culminated into the formulation of guidelines that can be followed when using argumentation as a methodology to facilitate critical thinking.
Guerra, Aida; Holgaard, Jette Egelund
Engineering education accreditation bodies emphasize the need for competencies beyond technical expertise. Critical thinking is one of these competencies, which is also considered as a precursor for the development of other competencies such as multidisciplinary collaboration, problem......-solving skills and lifelong learning. There is an urgent need to enhance engineering students’ critical thinking and one way to do this is to make use of active, student-centred learning approaches such as Problem Based Learning (PBL). This study aims to provide a model for understanding and enhancing critical...... thinking in a PBL environment. The development of the model takes its point of departure from a conceptual model for critical thinking that is concretized in a PBL context by including theoretical as well as empirical perspectives. The empirical study was conducted at the Faculty of Engineering and Science...
Rathakrishnan, Mohan; Ahmad, Rahayu; Suan, Choo Ling
Online discussion has become one of the important strategies for the teacher to teach the students to think critically when conveying their ideas and become more proactive and creative. In this paper, padlet online discussion communication was conducted to examine its effectiveness in enhancing critical thinking. In this study, there are two types of critical thinking: macro and micro critical thinking. A total of 70 Universiti Utara Malaysia Management Foundation Programme students involved in this experimental research design. The students in treatment class are divided to few groups. Every group uses padlet online discussion to discuss the topic given. All the group members discuss and write their ideas in padlet. Ideas that are posted in padlet will be displayed in front of the class so that the entire group in the treatment class could see the given ideas. Paul's (1993) model was used to analyze student's macro and micro critical thinking in padlet online discussion and communication. The finding shows that students who used padlet online discussion backchannel communication have greater macro and micro critical thinking level than students who do not use online discussion.
Andrea Sullivan, E
Nurse educators recognize that many nursing students have difficulty in making decisions in clinical practice. The ability to make effective, informed decisions in clinical practice requires that nursing students know and apply the processes of critical thinking. Critical thinking is a skill that develops over time and requires the conscious application of this process. There are a number of models in the nursing literature to assist students in the critical thinking process; however, these models tend to focus solely on decision making in hospital settings and are often complex to actualize. In this paper, Paul's Model of Critical Thinking is examined for its application to nursing education. I will demonstrate how the model can be used by clinical nurse educators to assist students to develop critical thinking skills in all health care settings in a way that makes critical thinking skills accessible to students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The ability to cite reasons, to justify claims and give support to arguments is seen as primary characteristics of a critical thinker. This paper discusses how the ‘Elements of Reasoning’ is employed with Socratic Questioning to develop critical thinking in the language classroom. The principles that guide the questioning are laid out clearly, just as is the response which must be backed by valid reasons, examples, and illustrations, pushing students beyond mere recall and into abstract thinking. It is based on the notion that through questioning, the process that occurs in the student’s mind creates thinking and learning.
Walters, Kerry S.
Although critical thinking has become a pedagogical industry, its endorsement by educators is uncritical. The conventional critical thinking model assumes that only logical thinking is good thinking. However, good thinking also includes rational but nonlogical cognitive functions. To ignore them is to train students in only one aspect of thinking.…
Critical thinking includes a process of reasoning in thinking as stated by some scholars. In the process, there is universal standard to follow: clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, and fairness. In language classes, critical thinking creates active classes. To bring critical thinking to classes, Bloom’s Taxonomy and critical thinking strategies can be working definition in order critical thinking to be applied to pedagogical materials in a practical way. Steps for ...
Simpson, Elaine; Courtney, Mary
The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses. Critical thinking strategies such as questioning, debate, role play and small group activity were developed and used in a professional development programme, which was trialled on a sample of Middle Eastern nurses (n = 20), to promote critical thinking skills, encourage problem solving, development of clinical judgment making and care prioritization in order to improve patient care and outcomes. Classroom learning was transformed from memorization to interaction and active participation. The intervention programme was successful in developing critical thinking skills in both the nurse educators and student nurses in this programme. This programme successfully integrated critical thinking strategies into a Middle Eastern nursing curriculum. Recommendations are as follows: (1) utilize evidence-based practice and stem questions to encourage the formulation of critical thinking questions; (2) support the needs of nurse educators for them to effectively implement teaching strategies to foster critical thinking skills; and (3) adopt creative approaches to (i) transform students into interactive participants and (ii) open students' minds and stimulate higher-level thinking and problem-solving abilities.
The ability to cite reasons, to justify claims and give support to arguments is seen as primary characteristics of a critical thinker. This paper discusses how the "Elements of Reasoning" is employed with Socratic Questioning to develop critical thinking in the language classroom. The principles that guide the questioning are laid out…
Mitchell, Shannon H; Overman, Pamela; Forrest, Jane L
Health care providers can enhance their critical thinking skills, essential to providing patient centered care, by use of motivational interviewing and evidence-based decision making techniques. The need for critical thinking skills to foster optimal patient centered care is being emphasized in educational curricula for health care professions. The theme of this paper is that evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and motivational interviewing (MI) are tools that when taught in health professions educational programs can aid in the development of critical thinking skills. This paper reviews the MI and EBDM literature for evidence regarding these patient-centered care techniques as they relate to improved oral health outcomes. Comparisons between critical thinking and EBDM skills are presented and the EBDM model and the MI technique are briefly described followed by a discussion of the research to date. The evidence suggests that EBDM and MI are valuable tools; however, further studies are needed regarding the effectiveness of EBDM and MI and the ways that health care providers can best develop critical thinking skills to facilitate improved patient care outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Bie, Hannie; Wilhelm, P.; van der Meij, Hans
Critical thinking is a vital component of 21st century skills. To assess this skill, a valid and reliable instrument is needed. This study focuses on the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment (HCTA). The HCTA was administered to university students
Cone, Catherine; Godwin, Donald; Salazar, Krista; Bond, Rucha; Thompson, Megan; Myers, Orrin
Objective. The Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) is a validated instrument to assess critical-thinking skills. The objective of this study was to determine if HSRT results improved in second-year student pharmacists after exposure to an explicit curriculum designed to develop critical-thinking skills.
Good critical thinkers possess a core set of cognitive thinking skills, and a disposition towards critical thinking. They are able to think critically to solve complex, real-world problems effectively. Although personal emotion is important in critical thinking, it is often a neglected issue. The emotional intelligence in this study concerns our…
Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.
Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…
Rowles, Joie; Morgan, Christine; Burns, Shari; Merchant, Christine
The fostering of critical thinking skills has become an expectation of faculty, especially those teaching in the health sciences. The manner in which critical thinking is defined by faculty impacts how they will address the challenge to promote critical thinking among their students. This study reports the perceptions of critical thinking held by…
Brown Basone', Lauren
Nursing students need to think critically in order to pass their nursing courses and the critical thinking portion of the national licensure exam. To improve students' critical thinking skills, a nursing program in the southern United States recently required that 4th semester students take a 1-credit critical thinking course. This study evaluated…
Burns, Shari; Mendel, Shaun; Fisher, Rodney; Cooper, Kimball; Fisher, Michael
Critical thinking is pivotal for student success in health professions education. Knowing the critical thinking ability of the learner helps educators tailor curriculum to enhance critical thinking. A quantitative comparative pilot study assessed critical thinking ability for students at two distinct points in a nurse anesthesia program…
Joanne R. Reid
Full Text Available A pedagogical treatment was developed to teach critical thinking knowledge, skills, and strategies to college students. This treatment was implemented at a Midwestern University for a three-year period. Graduates were surveyed to determine the extent to which the treatment affected their personal, academic, and professional lives. Graduates reported that they had transferred the critical thinking knowledge, skills, and strategies they had acquired, and were using it in their personal, academic, or professional lives. The graduates also reported that this transfer was extremely beneficial to them in all aspects of their personal, academic, or professional lives, leading to high levels of satisfaction in their undergraduate education.
Hager, Paul; Sleet, Ray; Logan, Peter; Hooper, Mal
This paper reports on the design and evaluation of a project aimed at fostering the critical thinking abilities and dispositions of first year students at an Australian university. Novel paper and pencil problems were designed to foster the range of critical thinking abilities identified by Ennis (1991). Most of these critical thinking tasks relate to applications of chemistry and physics in everyday life. Some of the tasks were developed from information and/or ideas obtained from critical incident interviews with scientists in private and government organisations. The first year university students were required to attempt the tasks in co-operative groups and to interact in these groups in ways aimed at fostering the dispositions of Ennis' ideal critical thinker (Ennis 1996).The project was evaluated from discussions with groups of students, from comments of tutors who observed the students working in groups and from a questionnaire. Evidence obtained from these data indicated that many students considered their thinking skills were enhanced by their experience of attempting the tasks in small co-operative groups.
Gormley, William T., Jr.
In "The Critical Advantage," noted scholar and early childhood expert William T. Gormley, Jr. takes a wide ranging look at the important role of critical thinking in preparing students for college, careers, and civic life. Drawing on research from psychology, philosophy, business, political science, neuroscience, and other disciplines,…
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Williams, Ann E.
Courses: This semester long activity can be employed in any communication classroom and is designed particularly to provide first-time graduate student instructors (GSIs) with a theory-based assessment tool. As such, the article is appropriate for graduate-level pedagogy classes. Objective: To introduce a theory-based, critical thinking activity…
Wilkin, Carla L.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how assessment design was used to enhance students' critical thinking in a subject concerned with business enterprise systems. The study shows positive results and favorable perceptions of the merit of the approach. Design/Methodology/Approach: A case study approach was used to examine how the…
Özelçi, Serap Yilmaz; Saracaloglu, A. Seda
This research aims to develop an independent scale that measures the critical thinking attitudes of classroom teacher candidates. The research was designed in a screening model. The universe of the research was composed of 384 prospective teachers who are studying in the education faculty of a university in the western part of Turkey. In the…
Ven, J.G.M. van de; Neef, R.M.
Building up a proper understanding of a large-scale incident is an important and difficult process. We envision a working environment for decision makers in crisis management situations that allows them to work with information in various ways. That will stimulate them to think critically in
This article calls for the devolution of power by large organizations to their subsidiaries or subordinate units – mainly Strategic Business Units (SBUs). It proposes more decentralized models of management and outlines a new theory taking a critical systems thinking approach. Corporations are advised to attack and ...
In this paper I offer a reading of one of Plato's later works, the "Sophist", that reveals it to be informed by principles comparable on the face of it with those that have emerged recently in the field of critical thinking. As a development of the famous Socratic method of his teacher, I argue, Plato deployed his own pedagogical method, a…
This article explains and analyzes the practical application of the Socratic method in the context of inmate education, and identifies core critical thinking elements that emerge from four transcribed Socratic discussions with prison inmates. The paper starts with a detailed examination of the stages of the Socratic method as practiced by the…
Gottschalk, Cristiane Maria Cornelia
From a Wittgensteinian point of view, my goal is to argue against the idea that teaching critical thinking should have as one of its aims the possibility of changing or adapting our deeply held beliefs. As pointed out by the Austrian philosopher in On Certainty, we have a world-picture which is neither true nor false, but above all, 'it is the…
Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to measure the success rate achieved by the alumni of Open/Distance Learning (O/DL, the Bachelor Education In-service Teachers Program (BEITP, Staya Jacana Christian University(SWCU, Salatiga in their critical thinking habit that lead to their success, and to find factors which determined their critical thinking habit. The factors concerned were student factor (learning motivation, alumni’s readiness to enter ICT community, prerequisite or teacher factor (teacher’s ability in creating and using a new instructional context. This quantitative research belongs to the causality ex-post facto research. The data source was one class of O/ DL, the BEITP, SWCUstudents, who were chosen out of four classes, as many as 32 alumni in the academic year 2015/2016. Data were screened using a self-rating scale, which consisted of 40 items tested valid and reliable, and then reduced to 5 variablas. The BEITP, SWCU Salatiga had graduated most of its alumni who owned critical thinking habit at a high rate. The critical thinking habit was affected by the instructional contexts which enabled a new situation (Model 1, alumni’s readiness to enter the ICT community (Model 2, pre-requisite, i.e., mastery of previous lecture materials (Model 3, and student’s learning motivation (Model 4 to reach 81%. The alumni’s critical thinking habit of 51.20% was determined by the teacher’s role in developing instructional contexts which made a new situation possible. This finding was useful for educational quality management for the effectiveness and productivity of higher education, which should have been focused on the teacher in developing an instructional strategy based on context, alumni readiness to enter the ICT community, prerequisite, and student’s learning motivation.
"Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…
Schaber, Patricia; Shanedling, Janet
Teaching critical thinking (CT) skills, a goal in higher education, is seldom considered in the primary design of either classroom or online courses, and is even less frequently measured in student learning. In health professional education, CT along with clinical reasoning skills is essential for the development of clinical practitioners. This study, measuring CT skill development in an online theory course, supports using a cyclical course design to build higher level processes in student thinking. Eighty-six Masters of Occupational Therapy students in four sections of an occupation-based theory course were evaluated on elements in the Paul and Elder CT Model throughout the course and surveyed for their perceptions in their ability to think critically at course completion. Results of this study demonstrated that the online theory course design contributed to improving critical thinking skills and student's perceived CT skill development as applicable to their future professional practice. In a focus group, eight students identified four effective course design features that contributed to their CT skill development: highly structured learning, timely feedback from instructor, repetition of assignments, and active engagement with the material.
Dewanto, W. K.; Agustianto, K.; Sari, B. E.
Vocational students must have practical skills in accordance with the purpose of vocational school that creating the skilled graduates according to their field. Graduates of vocational education are required not just as users, but be able to create. Thus requiring critical and creative thinking skills to assist students in generating ideas, analyzing and creating a product of value. Based on this, then this research aims to develop a system to know the level of ability to think critically and creative students, that resulted students can do self-reflection in improving the ability to think critically and creatively as a supporter of practical ability. The system testing using Naïve Bayes Correlation shown an average accuracy of 93.617% in assessing the students’ critical and creative thinking ability. By using modeling with this system will be known level of students’ critical and creative thinking ability, then the output of the system is used to determine the type of innovation in the learning process to improve the critical and creative thinking skills to support the practical skills of students as skilled vocational students.
Cone, Catherine; Godwin, Donald; Salazar, Krista; Bond, Rucha; Thompson, Megan; Myers, Orrin
Objective. The Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) is a validated instrument to assess critical-thinking skills. The objective of this study was to determine if HSRT results improved in second-year student pharmacists after exposure to an explicit curriculum designed to develop critical-thinking skills. Methods. In December 2012, the HSRT was administered to students who were in their first year of pharmacy school. Starting in August 2013, students attended a 16-week laboratory curriculum using simulation, formative feedback, and clinical reasoning to teach critical-thinking skills. Following completion of this course, the HSRT was readministered to the same cohort of students. Results. All students enrolled in the course (83) took the HSRT, and following exclusion criteria, 90% of the scores were included in the statistical analysis. Exclusion criteria included students who did not finish more than 60% of the questions or who took less than 15 minutes to complete the test. Significant changes in the HSRT occurred in overall scores and in the subdomains of deduction, evaluation, and inference after students completed the critical-thinking curriculum. Conclusions. Significant improvement in HSRT scores occurred following student immersion in an explicit critical-thinking curriculum. The HSRT was useful in detecting these changes, showing that critical-thinking skills can be learned and then assessed over a relatively short period using a standardized, validated assessment tool like the HSRT.
Godwin, Donald; Salazar, Krista; Bond, Rucha; Thompson, Megan; Myers, Orrin
Objective. The Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) is a validated instrument to assess critical-thinking skills. The objective of this study was to determine if HSRT results improved in second-year student pharmacists after exposure to an explicit curriculum designed to develop critical-thinking skills. Methods. In December 2012, the HSRT was administered to students who were in their first year of pharmacy school. Starting in August 2013, students attended a 16-week laboratory curriculum using simulation, formative feedback, and clinical reasoning to teach critical-thinking skills. Following completion of this course, the HSRT was readministered to the same cohort of students. Results. All students enrolled in the course (83) took the HSRT, and following exclusion criteria, 90% of the scores were included in the statistical analysis. Exclusion criteria included students who did not finish more than 60% of the questions or who took less than 15 minutes to complete the test. Significant changes in the HSRT occurred in overall scores and in the subdomains of deduction, evaluation, and inference after students completed the critical-thinking curriculum. Conclusions. Significant improvement in HSRT scores occurred following student immersion in an explicit critical-thinking curriculum. The HSRT was useful in detecting these changes, showing that critical-thinking skills can be learned and then assessed over a relatively short period using a standardized, validated assessment tool like the HSRT. PMID:27170812
McLaughlin, Anne Collins; McGill, Alicia Ebbitt
Critical thinking skills are often assessed via student beliefs in non-scientific ways of thinking, (e.g, pseudoscience). Courses aimed at reducing such beliefs have been studied in the STEM fields with the most successful focusing on skeptical thinking. However, critical thinking is not unique to the sciences; it is crucial in the humanities and…
Yanuarta, Lidya; Gofur, Abdul; Indriwati, Sri Endah
Critical thinking is a complex reflection process that helps individuals become more analytical in their thinking. Empower critical thinking in students need to be done so that students can resolve the problems that exist in their life and are able to apply alternative solutions to problems in a different situations. Therefore, Think Talk Write (TTW) combined Problem Based Learning (PBL) were needed to empowered the critical thinking skills so that students were able to face the challenges of...
This study investigated the change in critical thinking (CT) skills of baccalaureate nursing students who were educated using a Think-Pair-Share (TPS) or an equivalent Non-Think-Pair-Share (Non-TPS) teaching method. Critical thinking has been an essential outcome of nursing students to prepare them to provide effective and safe quality care for…
Full Text Available Good critical thinkers possess a core set of cognitive thinking skills, and a disposition towards critical thinking. They are able to think critically to solve complex, real-world problems effectively. Although personal emotion is important in critical thinking, it is often a neglected issue. The emotional intelligence in this study concerns our sensitivity to and artful handling of our own and others’ emotions. Engaging students emotionally is the key to strengthening their dispositions toward critical thinking. Hence, a study involving 338 male and female graduate students from a public university was carried out. They rated the Emotional Intelligence Scale and Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Findings suggested that emotional intelligence and critical thinking disposition were positively correlated (r=.609. Differences in terms of age, gender, and course of study also formed part of the analysis. Keywords: emotional intelligence, critical thinking disposition, graduate students
Drew, Christopher T
.... This capability can be trained by making Critical Thinking the focus of officer education. Critical Thinking is the general cognitive skill of developing the best solution when there is not a single correct answer...
Paul, Sheila A
Nurse educators are responsible for preparing nurses who critically analyze patient information and provide meaningful interventions in today's complex health care system. By using the Delphi research method, this study, utilized the specialized and experiential knowledge of Certified Nurse Educators. This original Delphi research study asked Certified Nurse Educators how to assess the critical-thinking ability of nursing students in the clinical setting. The results showed that nurse educators need time, during the clinical experience, to accurately assess each individual nursing student. This study demonstrated the need for extended student clinical time, and a variety of clinical learning assessment tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huber, Christopher R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.
Educators view critical thinking as an essential skill, yet it remains unclear how effectively it is being taught in college. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on gains in critical thinking skills and attitudinal dispositions over various time frames in college. The results suggest that both critical thinking skills and dispositions improve…
Wesp, Richard; Montgomery, Kathleen
Argues that accounts of paranormal phenomena can serve as an ideal medium in which to encourage students to develop critical-thinking skills. Describes a cooperative-learning approach used to teach critical thinking in a course on paranormal events. Reports that critical-thinking skills increased and that the course received favorable student…
Adair, Desmond; Jaeger, Martin
Critical thinking extends to all aspects of professional engineering, especially in technical development, and, since the introduction of the ABET 2000 criteria, there has been an increased emphasis in engineering education on the development of critical thinking skills. What is hoped for is that the students obtain critical thinking skills to…
Basha, Sami; Drane, Denise; Light, Gregory
Critical thinking is a key learning outcome for Palestinian students. However, there are no validated critical thinking tests in Arabic. Suitability of the US developed Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT) for use in Palestine was assessed. The test was piloted with university students in English (n = 30) and 4 questions were piloted in Arabic…
Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit
Critical thinking is a process that can be taught. It involves "evaluating the accuracy, credibility, and worth of information and lines of reasoning. Critical thinking is reflective, logical, evidence-based, and has a purposeful quality to it--that is, the learner thinks critically in order to achieve a particular goal." The authors have found…
Critical thinking is believed to be a 21 st century skill that many employers consider crucial when hiring recent graduates. However, it is debated whether critical thinking should be taught in academic foreign language courses at the tertiary level, which primarily aim to develop students’ language and communication skills. This localized, exploratory research examines Finnish university students’ self-reported critical thinking skills a...
Marin, Matias A.; de la Pava, Luisa
Critical Thinking has become an educational and social ideal. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching has not been apart from the discussion on the importance of implementing Critical Thinking into the educational process. However, research on Critical Thinking has broadly been carried out in other fields of knowledge rather than in EFL.…
Santos, Luis Fernando
This review aims to respond various questions regarding the role of Critical Thinking in Science Education from aspects concerning the importance or relevance of critical thinking in science education, the situation in the classroom and curriculum, and the conception of critical thinking and fostering in science education. This review is specially…
Khan, Shaista Irshad
Critical thinking is seen as a highly desirable way of thinking that needs to be encouraged in all areas of higher education. However, it is not easy to conceptualise critical thinking in ways that can help in its development and in its assessment. Recent policy documents in Pakistan have laid emphasis on the development of critical thinking…
Raymond, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Myrick, Florence; Strean, William B
Nurse educator's critical thinking remains unexamined as a key factor in the development of students' critical thinking. The objective of this study is to understand how nurse educators reveal their critical thinking in the clinical setting while supervising students. This study uses a single-phase triangulation mixed methods design with multiple data gathering techniques. Participants for this study are clinical nurse educators from a large Western Canadian baccalaureate nursing program who teach 2nd or 3rd year students in medical-surgical settings. Participants for this study completed a demographic survey, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI), participant observation in a clinical practice setting, and semi-structured interviews. The results from the California Critical Thinking assessments (CCTST and CCTDI) show that participants are positively inclined and have a moderate to strong ability to think critically, similar to other studies. Participants find it difficult to describe how they reveal their critical thinking in the clinical setting, yet all participants use role modeling and questioning to share their critical thinking with students. When the quantitative and qualitative results are compared, it is apparent that the confidence in reasoning subscale of the California Critical Thinking Skills Test is higher in those educators who more frequently demonstrate and voice engagement in reflective activities. Dispositions associated with critical thinking, as measured by the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, are more easily observed compared to critical thinking skills. This study is a beginning exploration of nurse educators' critical thinking-in-action. Our mixed methods approach uncovers a valuable approach to understanding the complexity of nurse educators' critical thinking. Further study is needed to uncover how nurse educators' can specifically enact
I respond to Kamhi's (2011) conclusion in his article "Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice" that rational or critical thinking is an essential complement to evidence-based practice (EBP). I expand on Kamhi's conclusion and briefly describe what clinicians might need to know to think critically within an EBP profession. Specifically, I suggest how critical thinking is relevant to EBP, broadly summarize the relevant skills, indicate the importance of thinking dispositions, and outline the various ways our thinking can go wrong. I finish the commentary by suggesting that critical thinking skills should be considered a required outcome of our professional training programs.
Zulfaneti; Edriati, S.; Mukhni
This study aims to determine the development of students’ critical thinking skills through the implementation of critical thinking instruments in Calculus lectures. The instruments consist of observation sheets, critical thinking test, self-assessment, peer assessment and portfolio. The research was a qualitative research; with the participants were 53 first-year students who take Integral Calculus in Mathematics Education Department STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat representing high-ability students, medium and low. The data in this study were collected by tests, interviews, observations and field notes. Data were analyzed descriptively; data reduction, data presentation, and conclusions. For testing the validity of data, it was used credibility test data by increasing persistence and triangulation. The results showed that in high-level students there is a change of ability from Critical enough to be Very Critical, in the students with moderate and low ability there is a change of ability from Uncritical to Critical. So it can be concluded that the assessment instruments have a good contribution and can improve the ability of critical thinking.
Chen, Shu-Yueh; Chang, Hsing-Chi; Pai, Hsiang-Chu
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of caring behaviours on critical thinking and to examine whether self-reflection mediates the effect of caring on critical thinking. We also tested whether caring behaviours moderated the relationship between self-reflection and critical thinking. For this descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional study, we recruited 293 fifth-year nursing students from a junior college in southern Taiwan. Data were collected in 2014 on critical thinking, caring behaviours and self-reflection with insight using the Taiwan Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, a Chinese version of the Caring Assessment Report Evaluation Q-sort, and a Chinese version of the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, respectively. Relationships among variables were analysed by structural equation modelling, with the partial least squares method and Sobel test. The results showed that caring behaviours significantly positively affected critical thinking (β = 0.56, t = 12.37, p critical thinking (β = 0.34, t = 6.48, p critical thinking. Caring behaviours did not, however, moderate the relationship between self-reflection (β = 0.001, t = 0.021, p > 0.05) and critical thinking. Caring behaviours directly affect self-reflection with insight and critical thinking. In addition, caring behaviours also indirectly affect critical thinking through self-reflection and insight. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Blondy, Laurie C
Nursing faculty members strive to teach students to think critically. It has long been assumed that nursing faculty members are good at critical thinking because they are expected to teach these skills to students, but this assumption has not been well supported empirically. Faculty members question their ability to think critically and are unsure of their skills. The purpose of this study was to address this assumption by measuring nursing faculty members' critical thinking skills and compare the faculty mean score to that of a student norming group, and to the mean scores of other nursing faculty studies. Findings can be used to increase nursing faculty members' understanding of their critical thinking skills, prompt discussion about critical thinking skills, and to help faculty members address concerns and uncertainty about the concept of critical thinking. This study also helps establish an empirical basis for future research.
Cotton, John; Scarlise, Randall
The ``scientific method'' is not just for scientists! Combined with critical thinking, the scientific method can enable students to distinguish credible sources of information from nonsense and become intelligent consumers of information. Professors John Cotton and Randall Scalise illustrate these principles using a series of examples and demonstrations that is enlightening, educational, and entertaining. This lecture/demonstration features highlights from their course (whose unofficial title is ``debunking pseudoscience'' ) which enables students to detect pseudoscience in its many guises: paranormal phenomena, free-energy devices, alternative medicine, and many others.
To demonstrate use of critical thinking in the diagnostic process in order to achieve accuracy of nursing diagnoses. The 7 cognitive skills and 10 habits of mind identified as important for nursing in a Delphi study by Scheffer and Rubenfeld are applied to the diagnostic process using a published case study of a woman with heart failure. Taking into account all data from the case study and using the concepts of critical thinking, two high-accuracy nursing diagnoses were selected to guide nursing interventions. Because the specific types of critical thinking needed for accurate diagnosing are not known, nurses should develop all 17 of the cognitive skills and habits of mind so these thinking abilities are available when needed. The 17 critical thinking concepts should be combined with domain knowledge, e.g., nursing diagnoses, to think about thinking, which will improve critical thinking processes.
Wallace, Elise D.; Jefferson, Renee N.
Critical thinking skills are required to successfully navigate the overwhelming amount of information sources available today. To address the challenge of developing critical thinking skills, this empirical study examines the effectiveness of exercises in developing thinking skills in college freshmen students. The workbook exercises were designed…
Radeloff, Cheryl L.; Bergman, Barbara J.
Women's studies and feminist curricula have been lauded for the development and application of critical thinking skills for social and political change in its students (Fisher; Kellner and Share; Mayberry). Critical thinking can be defined as the ability to identify and challenge assumptions, to search for alternative ways of thinking, and to…
Full Text Available Critical thinking defined as the ability to think about your own thinking with a more analytical perspective, has long been an important side of education history. Recently there has been much attention devoted to this concept, particularly in the domain of language education. The present study is a review of the literature and previous studies done on the issue of critical thinking. In the first section an introduction to the study is presented. In the next section, the definitions of the notion of critical thinking from different scholars are put forth. In the third part, we discussed the features and characteristics of a real critical thinker. In the fourth part, the idea of teachability of critical thinking is discussed. It is tried to present some strategies which can enhance critical thinking in students.
Kowalczyk, Nina; Hackworth, Ruth; Case-Smith, Jane
To identify the perceived level of competence in teaching and assessing critical thinking skills and the difficulties facing radiologic science program directors in implementing student-centered teaching methods. A total of 692 program directors received an invitation to complete an electronic survey soliciting information regarding the importance of critical thinking skills, their confidence in applying teaching methods and assessing student performance, and perceived obstacles. Statistical analysis included descriptive data, correlation coefficients, and ANOVA. Responses were received from 317 participants indicating program directors perceive critical thinking to be an essential element in the education of the student; however, they identified several areas for improvement. A high correlation was identified between the program directors' perceived level of skill and their confidence in critical thinking, and between their perceived level of skill and ability to assess the students' critical thinking. Key barriers to implementing critical thinking teaching strategies were identified. Program directors value the importance of implementing critical thinking teaching methods and perceive a need for professional development in critical thinking educational methods. Regardless of the type of educational institution in which the academic program is located, the level of education held by the program director was a significant factor regarding perceived confidence in the ability to model critical thinking skills and the ability to assess student critical thinking skills.
Full Text Available Introduction: Critical Thinking Disposition indicates individual’s inclination to Critical Thinking, which is one of the domains of personality. Individual characteristics are important and influential factors in the growth and development of students’ Critical Thinking. One of these influential characteristics might be self-esteem, thus this study was to determine the correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem in medical students. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 289 medical students were selected through stratified random sampling method in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire containing 3 parts: demographic data, California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and Cooper-Smith Self-Esteem Inventory. The results were analyzed by SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA, Chi-Square and Fisher exact test. Results: Results showed that 98.6% (285 of students had deficiency, 1.4% (4 ambivalence and nobody had positive critical thinking disposition. There was a significantly negative correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem (r=-0.462, P<0.001. Also, there was no a significant relationship between two groups of low self-esteem , high self-esteem , negative and ambivalent Critical Thinking Disposition. Conclusion: It seems that Critical Thinking Disposition, like other psychological variables, is influenced by social factors and social environment plays a role in promoting or undermining it. So, similar studies are recommended to investigate the factors affecting Critical Thinking in medical students.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
This review aimed to explore how critical thinking is perceived in previous studies of nursing education, and analyse the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking mentioned in these studies. Systematic review. This review was based on the following five databases: The British Nursing Index, Ovid Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus. After the screening process and evaluation through using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, 17 studies were identified that met the inclusion and quality criteria. The studies were read through several times and analysed through thematic synthesis. A total of three themes were developed. The first theme, components for critical thinkers, suggests the abilities and attitudes that critical thinkers should have. The other two themes, influential factors of critical thinking in nursing education, and strategies to promote critical thinking, describe the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking. The 17 studies illustrated that the definition and concept of critical thinking may change from time to time, and hence there is a need to clarify educators' perspective towards critical thinking. There is also a need to evaluate the efficacy of the new strategies mentioned in several selected studies, such as art-based, questioning, cross-cultural nursing experience, and preceptorship. With a better understanding of critical thinking in nursing education, educators and nursing faculty are able to develop better strategies in enhancing critical thinking development in nursing students, in turn preparing them for future clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gustavo Henrique Dionisio
Full Text Available This paper intends to discuss the relationship between psychoanalysis and aesthetic thinking under the prism of the “unbinding” theory – earlier conceived by the psychoanalyst Andre Green –, linking it to some theories proposed by Hal Foster, art historian and art critic, where we can find the lacanian “real” as the linking concept. One could say, in this linkage made here, that both authors are dealing, in a very particular way, with a question that refers to the theory of the real (as it was conceived by Jacques Lacan, even in the case of Green it is not referred directly; Green’s theory, however, seems to discuss some kind of a regredience that could be linked to the death drive. Accessing the psychoanalytical dispositive, and using it as it is appropriated to the (art object to be interpreted, Foster, for example, advances in both the field of aesthetic reflection and in the more specific field of psychoanalysis. It should be noted that Foster’s reflection refers strictly to the post-pop images, observed mainly in the 1990’s photography. Thus, I think that this intersection between aesthetics and psychoanalysis might allow us to shed some light on a new art reading possibility towards a “non-applied” psychoanalytical paradigm, which, in my opinion, seems to be an appropriate way to understand some of the contemporary art production.
Shin, Hyunsook; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Hyojin
The lack of reliable and valid evaluation tools targeting Korean nursing students' critical thinking (CT) abilities has been reported as one of the barriers to instructing and evaluating students in undergraduate programs. Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition (YCTD) instrument was developed for Korean nursing students, but few studies have assessed its validity. This study aimed to validate the YCTD. Specifically, the YCTD was assessed to identify its cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement invariance. This was a validation study in which a cross-sectional and longitudinal (prenursing and postnursing practicum) survey was used to validate the YCTD using 345 nursing students at three universities in Seoul, Korea. The participants' CT abilities were assessed using the YCTD before and after completing an established pediatric nursing practicum. The validity of the YCTD was estimated and then group invariance test using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to confirm the measurement compatibility of multigroups. A test of the seven-factor model showed that the YCTD demonstrated good construct validity. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis findings for the measurement invariance suggested that this model structure demonstrated strong invariance between groups (i.e., configural, factor loading, and intercept combined) but weak invariance within a group (i.e., configural and factor loading combined). In general, traditional methods for assessing instrument validity have been less than thorough. In this study, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis using cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement data allowed validation of the YCTD. This study concluded that the YCTD can be used for evaluating Korean nursing students' CT abilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Shaw, Cassandra S.; Holmes, Karen E.
A wealth of research is available regarding supplemental instruction; however, a dearth exists regarding online supplemental instruction and critical thinking. This case study explored what was assumed to be known of critical thinking and investigated the extent to which critical thought was promoted within a university's online supplemental…
Gibbons, Jill; Gray, Mel
The paper examines the role of critical thinking in an experience-based model of social work education. Within this model, the development of a critical approach to our own understanding of, as well as to existing knowledge about, the world is fundamental for students and educators alike. Critical thinking is defined as more than a rational,…
Simin Sharif; Azizollah Arbabisarjou; Nasrin Mahmoudi
Critical thinking is defined as a basic skill for nurses which leads to the best performance based on the best existing evidence. Although acquisition of this skill is highly emphasized, still there is no single definition for it. considering importance of critical thinking in performing nursing clinical care, current study was conducted aiming at investigating critical thinking progressive trend among nursing students in a nine-year period using library approach. Methods: This sy...
The purpose of this paper is to present some approaches to teaching critical thinking to college students for developing their Japanese academic writing skills. By examining the literature of critical thinking and writing, this paper shows the following. (1)How philosophy faculty can teach critical thinking skills to their own students the way they can improve their skills necessary for writing argumentative essays. (2)By what class and curriculum students' academic writing skills can be fost...
In Critical Condition: Replacing Critical Thinking with Creativity, Patrick Finn expands upon his 2011 TEDx Talk, ‘Loving Communication’, to suggest that critical thinking implies disapproval and unnecessary judgement originating from a particular mode of Classical thought. Jodie Matthews argues that Finn’s discussion is dependent upon a crudely drawn straw man and neglects to consider thinking critically as a necessary corollary, rather than antithesis, to thinking creatively.
Aizikovitsh-Udi, Einav; Clarke, David; Kuntze, Sebastian
Even though statistical thinking and critical thinking appear to have strong links from a theoretical point of view, empirical research into the intersections and potential interrelatedness of these aspects of competence is scarce. Our research suggests that thinking skills in both areas may be interdependent. Given this interconnection, it should…
Sanchez, Bernice; Lewis, Katie D.
Teacher Preparation Programs must work towards not only preparing preservice teachers to have knowledge of classroom pedagogy but also must expand preservice teachers understanding of content knowledge as well as to develop higher-order thinking which includes thinking critically. This mixed methods study examined how writing shapes thinking and…
The present study assessed the associations among higher-order thinking skills (reflective thinking, critical thinking) and self-monitoring that contribute to academic achievement among university students. The sample consisted of 196 Iranian university students (mean age = 22.05, SD = 3.06; 112 females; 75 males) who were administered three…
Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework: A literature review. ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 4 (2007) > ... critical clinical decisions and also make astute clinical judgment that are logical to solve health related problems.
Clarke, David J.; Holt, Janet
A learning module for nursing attempts to prepare nurses to understand philosophical inquiry and develop critical thinking skills. Teaching strategies used included exercises involving verbal disagreement and ambiguity and critical examination of publications. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)
Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert
This study developed an interview-based critical spatial thinking oral test and used the test to investigate the effects of Geographic Information System (GIS) learning on three components of critical spatial thinking: evaluating data reliability, exercising spatial reasoning, and assessing problem-solving validity. Thirty-two students at a large…
Wass, Rob; Harland, Tony; Mercer, Alison
This paper explores student experiences of learning to think critically. Twenty-six zoology undergraduates took part in the study for three years of their degree at the University of Otago, New Zealand. Vygotsky's developmental model of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provided a framework as we examined how critical thinking was developed.…
Matthews, Marsha Little
Creativity is the central source of meaning for humans and is inseparable from critical thinking. Creativity and critical thinking are required in the fields of communication, public relations, and advertising. Most college students know the "rules" of the "game" of schooling, but for the majority, creativity has been all but extinguished by the…
Englehardt, Cathy Willis; Hauser, Brenda Bennett
This paper describes the chess program for elementary school students in the Daviess County School District, Kentucky. The Critical Thinking committee of the school system's Graduation 2010 initiative explored various ways to promote critical thinking in the classroom and arrived at a program to put chess boards in the classrooms and to encourage…
Stepanovich, Paul L.
Professors in management and business are encouraged to incorporate critical thinking as an objective in their courses. "The Lobster Tale" provides an opportunity to engage students in various levels of critical thinking, ranging from a relatively superficial reading to an examination of the deeper, often hidden issues. Using the foundations of…
Samson, Patricia L.
In a meta-analytic review of critical thinking in social work education, findings revealed variability in research designs, methods, and subsequent findings. The 10 studies reviewed assessed different components of critical thinking and highlighted different potential moderator variables. Although there are significant limitations to all the…
The essential function of critical thinking in education is obvious by many studies done in this field. The main purpose of this article is to find the relationship between critical thinking levels of Iranian EFL learners and their performance on different modes of writing. The sample of the study selected among those who studying English at the…
Farrar, Francisca Cisneros; Suggs, Leslie
Students struggle with the mastery of critical thinking skills which are essential to their academic success. University faculty are challenged to create teaching strategies to help students build critical thinking skills. Nursing faculty at Austin Peay State University in Clarksville, Tennessee looked to research and technology for ways to…
Notgarnie, Howard M.
The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…
Gay, Keegan D.; Terry, Bryan; Lamm, Alexa J.
Diversity in learning options can increase efficacy of volunteer development systems. The University of Florida Critical Thinking Inventory (UFCTI) is designed to explicate an individual's critical thinking style based upon a continuum from Seeking Information to Engagement. Static and interpretive materials are best used with individuals of a…
Gerber, Sue; Scott, Logan
Gaming is purported to hold promise for education, in part, because it is thought to develop 21st century skills such as critical thinking. To date, there has been a dearth of generalisable research investigating the relationship between gaming and critical thinking. Results of a survey of 121 adults found that gamers and non-gamers do not differ…
Acharya, Kamal Prasad
This article examines the socio-cultural activities that have direct and indirect impacts on critical thinking practices in primary science classrooms and what kinds of teachers' activities help to foster the development of critical thinking practices in children. Meanwhile, the constructivist and the socio-cultural theoretical dimensions have…
This study investigated the critical thinking dispositions of pre-service teachers in terms of various variables. The study included 1106 participants and used the survey model and the Turkish version (CCTDI-T) of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). The reliability of the scale for this study was found to be 0.82. The…
Wallace, Elise D.; Jefferson, Renee N.
To address the challenge of developing critical thinking skills in college students, this empirical study examines the effectiveness of cognitive exercises in developing those skills. The study uses Critical Thinking: Building the Basics by Walter, Knudsvig, and Smith (2003). This workbook is specifically designed to exercise and develop critical…
Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd
This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…
Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa
This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…
Su, Hui Fang Huang; Ricci, Frederick A.; Mnatsakanian, Mamikon
A teacher that emphasizes reasoning, logic and validity gives their students access to mathematics as an effective way of practicing critical thinking. All students have the ability to enhance and expand their critical thinking when learning mathematics. Students can develop this ability when confronting mathematical problems, identifying possible…
León, Federico R.
This article deals with the concept of reflective thought or critical thinking from its initial formulation as an intellectual attitude to its current articulation as a third level of cognitive processing. Issues dealt with include critical thinking as a goal, as a cognitive process, as a part of dual cognitive processes, as a measurable…
Secondly, a significant correlation was found between political knowledge and critical thinking abilities in a political context. This implied that critical thinking ability varied directly with the amount of knowledge of the subject required by the problem. Thirdly, the results of the research indicated that gender and environment ...
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Dolan, Teresa A.; Courts, Frank J.; Mitchell, Gail S.
Used qualitative research methods to assess the frequency and nature of teaching critical thinking skills in the University of Florida College of Dentistry predoctoral student clinics. Observation of 13 faculty and 44 students in six clinics found critical thinking skills were infrequently taught and teacher-dominated instruction predominated.…
Kumar.R, Renjith; James, Rajani
The study aims to identify the critical level thinking of students in higher education. It is focused to evaluate the level of critical thinking variables among the students in Nizwa College of Technology and to determine whether these variables are influenced by gender and department. The data for the research is collected from 281 diploma…
Buffington, Melanie L.
Teaching critical thinking skills is often endorsed as a means to help students develop their abilities to navigate the complex world in which people live and, in addition, as a way to help students succeed in school. Over the past few years, this author explored the idea of teaching critical thinking using the World Wide Web (WWW). She began…
Hanford, George H.
Education is the best hope for peace and progress in the world, and because education is best given and received when infused with critical thinking, critical thinking can save the world. Some of the most serious problems facing humankind are overpopulation and famine. The problems of ethnicity, colonialism, and religion further complicate matters…
Developing critical thinking is an important factor in education. In this study, the author defines critical thinking as the set of skills and dispositions which enable one to solve problems logically and to attempt to reflect autonomously by means of metacognitive regulation of one's own problem-solving processes. To identify the validity and…
Boonjeam, Waraporn; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sri-ampai, Anan
The objectives of this research were: 1) to study the elements and indicators of primary school teachers' critical thinking, 2) to study current situation, desirable situation, development technique, and need for developing the primary school teachers' critical thinking, 3) to develop the program for developing the primary school teachers'…
Among the challenges faced by educators in promoting critical thinking is that of cultural compatibility. Using Singapore as an illustrative case study, this paper explores the cultural challenges and recommended strategies for the teaching of critical thinking in schools. The research for this study is based on a theoretical framework that…
Saglam, Aycan Çiçek; Çankaya, Ibrahim; Üçer, Hakan; Çetin, Muhammet
The concepts of information literacy and critical thinking are two important concepts of today's information and technology age closely related to each other and sometimes used interchangeably. The purpose of the current study is to explore the relationship between the secondary school teachers' critical thinking disposition and information…
The results of study showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between Mentoring and Critical thinking disposition among faculty members. The findings showed that 67% of variance of critical thinking disposition was defined by predictive variables. The faculty members evaluated themselves in all mentoring ...
Saiz, Carlos; Rivas, Silvia F.
The objective of this research is to ascertain whether new instructional techniques can improve critical thinking. To achieve this goal, two different instruction techniques (ARDESOS--group 1--and DIAPROVE--group 2--) were studied and a pre-post assessment of critical thinking in various dimensions such as argumentation, inductive reasoning,…
Poirier, Gayle; Hocker, Susan
Discussion of critical thinking skills focuses on the academic library's role in teaching critical thinking skills based on experiences with a library resources course at Louisiana State University. Teaching techniques are discussed, sample lessons are described, and evaluation of students' research papers and student retention of skills are…
Su, Hui Fang Huang " Ricci, Frederick A; Mnatsakanian, Mamikon
A teacher that emphasizes reasoning, logic and validity gives their students access to mathematics as an effective way of practicing critical thinking. All students have the ability to enhance and expand their critical thinking when learning mathematics. Students can develop this ability when confronting mathematical problems, identifying possible solutions and evaluating and justifying their reasons for the results, thereby allowing students to become confident critical thinkers. Critical th...
Tanaka, Yuko; Kusumi, Takashi
The present study examined when people decide to choose an expression that is based on critical thinking, and how situational and individual variables affect such a decision process. Given a conversation scenario including overgeneralization with two friends, participants decided whether to follow the conversation by a critical-thinking expression or not. The authors controlled purpose and topic as situational variables, and measured critical-thinking ability, critical-thinking disposition, and self-monitoring as individual variables. We conducted an experiment in which the situational variables were counterbalanced in a within-subject design with 60 university students. The results of logistic regression analysis showed differences within individuals in the decision process whether to choose a critical-thinking expression, and that some situational factors and some subscales of the individual measurements were related to the differences.
Pevneva, Inna; Gavrishina, Olga; Smirnova, Anna; Rozhneva, Elena; Yakimova, Nataliya
The article is devoted to consideration of the critical thinking formation in course of foreign language teaching within the education for sustainable development as a crucial skill of perspective employee and a future leader of Russian employment market. The necessity to include the component of problem education and critical thinking methodology in course of the foreign language class is justified along with analysis of the basic principles of critical thinking and certain strategies that can be implied in class. This model targets communicative language competences of students as well as critical thinking due to interconnection of various types of cognitive activities in class. The role in personality development of the students is considered along with the formation and enhancing of critical thinking skills within the modern personality-oriented approach.
Cascio, Ted V.
This study assesses the effectiveness of critical thinking drills (CTDs), a repetitious classroom activity designed to improve methodological and statistical thinking in relation to psychological claims embedded in popular press articles. In each of four separate CTDs, students critically analyzed a brief article reporting a recent psychological…
Bellaera, Lauren; Debney, Lauren; Baker, Sara T.
Subject comprehension and critical thinking are both key goals of higher education. However, while the former is, on the whole, successfully cultivated in undergraduate students, the latter is not. Few empirical studies have investigated the relationship between subject comprehension and critical thinking. In the present article we suggest that…
Chang, Yulin; Li, Bei-Di; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chiu, Fa-Chung
The relationship lying between critical thinking and creative thinking is opposite or complementary, results of previous relevant researches have not yet concluded. However, most of researches put the effort to compare the respective effect of the thinking methods, either the teaching of creative thinking or that of critical thinking. Less of them…
Castle, Alan [University of Portsmouth, Centre for Radiography Education, St George' s Building, Portsmouth PO1 2HY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Purpose: Enabling students to develop critical thinking skills is one of the key aims of higher education and in preparing student radiographers for the future, there are increasing demands on educators to teach critical thinking skills to facilitate reflective, evidence-based practice and inter-professional working. The aim of the paper is to attempt to compare students' self-perception of their critical thinking skills to their actual written assessment performance. Methods: Students were asked to self-report how they thought the course had developed their critical thinking skills and the outcomes of this exercise were compared to the scores of previous assessments that required the demonstration of these skills. Results: The results suggest that whilst students report having developed critical thinking skills during the course, the results of their written assessments requiring the demonstration of these skills all had a mean score of less than 60% which indicates (in terms of the university's grade criteria guidelines) 'little attempt to use critical discussion in their work.' Discussion: Thirteen components of critical thinking are proposed, together with ways in which they could be incorporated into a radiographic curriculum. Conclusions: It is suggested that educators may need to review the constructive alignment of their curricula and re-assess their teaching and assessment strategies in order to effectively develop students' critical thinking skills.
Purpose: Enabling students to develop critical thinking skills is one of the key aims of higher education and in preparing student radiographers for the future, there are increasing demands on educators to teach critical thinking skills to facilitate reflective, evidence-based practice and inter-professional working. The aim of the paper is to attempt to compare students' self-perception of their critical thinking skills to their actual written assessment performance. Methods: Students were asked to self-report how they thought the course had developed their critical thinking skills and the outcomes of this exercise were compared to the scores of previous assessments that required the demonstration of these skills. Results: The results suggest that whilst students report having developed critical thinking skills during the course, the results of their written assessments requiring the demonstration of these skills all had a mean score of less than 60% which indicates (in terms of the university's grade criteria guidelines) 'little attempt to use critical discussion in their work.' Discussion: Thirteen components of critical thinking are proposed, together with ways in which they could be incorporated into a radiographic curriculum. Conclusions: It is suggested that educators may need to review the constructive alignment of their curricula and re-assess their teaching and assessment strategies in order to effectively develop students' critical thinking skills
Raquel Medina Plana
Full Text Available The intention of this work is to do the mapping of the many problems that critical thinking (CT is confronted with in the inside of law schools, taking these in their institutional role as well as tangible manifestations of legal culture. I address the significance of CT, reflecting on its philosophical origins and its possibility in our time, a time that is marked by a crisis of paradigms. We will move from theory to a more pragmatic approach based on skills, only to find different sets of difficulties. Today’s higher education institutional learning tradition is characterised by the conception and implementation of reforms which, in turn, are dominated by notions of business and commercial ethics, that are adding up to the positivist predominance that is still reigning upon legal education. Este trabajo pretende realizar una descripción de los numerosos problemas con que se encuentra el pensamiento crítico (PC dentro de las escuelas de derecho, entendidas desde su papel institucional pero también como manifestaciones tangibles de la cultura legal. Se destaca la importancia del PC, reflexionando sobre sus orígenes filosóficos y su posibilidad en el momento actual, marcado por una crisis de paradigmas. Después de realizar un análisis teórico, se va a pasar a realizar un enfoque más pragmático basado en habilidades, sólo para encontrar diferentes tipos de dificultades. La tradición actual de la educación superior institucional se caracteriza por la concepción e implementación de reformas que, en cambio, están dominadas por nociones de ética empresarial y comercial, que se suman al predominio positivista que sigue reinando en la educación jurídica. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2115429
Zori, Susan; Kohn, Nina; Gallo, Kathleen; Friedman, M Isabel
Critical thinking is essential to nursing practice. This study examined differences in the critical thinking dispositions of registered nurses (RNs) in a nursing fellowship program. Control and experimental groups were used to compare differences in scores on the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) of RNs at three points during a fellowship program: baseline, week 7, and month 5. The control group consisted of RNs who received no education in critical thinking. The experimental group received education in critical thinking using simulated scenarios and reflective journaling. CCTDI scores examined with analysis of variance showed no significant difference within groups over time or between groups. The baseline scores of the experimental group were slightly higher than those of the control group. Chi-square analysis of demographic variables between the two groups showed no significant differences. Critical thinking dispositions are a combination of attitudes, values, and beliefs that make up one's personality based on life experience. Lack of statistical significance using a quantitative approach did not capture the development of the critical thinking dispositions of participants. A secondary qualitative analysis of journal entries is being conducted. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Sulasih; Suparmi, A.; Sarwanto
Critical thinking ability is an important part of educational goals. It has higher complex processes, such as analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflection. This study is aimed to know the critical thinking ability of students in learning static fluids of senior high school students. This research uses the descriptive method which its instruments based on the indicator of critical thinking ability developed according to Ennis. The population of this research is XIth grade science class Public Senior High School, SMA N 1, Sambungmacan, Sragen, Central Java. The static fluid teaching material is delivered using Problem Based Learning Model through class experiment. The results of this study shows that the average student of XIth science class have high critical thinking skills, particularly in the ability of providing simple explanation, build basic skill, and provide advanced explanation, but they do not have high enough in ability of drawing conclusion and strategic and tactical components of critical thinking ability in the study of static fluid teaching material. The average of students critical thinking ability is 72.94, with 27,94% of students are in a low category and 72,22% of students in the high category of critical thinking ability.
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper develops four related claims: 1. Critical thinking should focus more on decision making, 2. the heuristics and bias literature developed by cognitive psychologists and behavioral economists provides many insights into human irrationality which can be useful in critical thinking instruction, 3. unfortunately the “rational choice” norms used by behavioral economists to identify “biased” decision making narrowly equate rational decision making with the efficient pursuit of individual satisfaction; deviations from these norms should not be treated as an irrational bias, 4. a richer, procedural theory of rational decision making should be the basis for critical thinking instruction in decision making.
Rogal, Sonya M; Young, Jeanne
Critical care nurses process vast amounts of information and require well developed critical-thinking skills to make clinical decisions. Using a pretest posttest design, the critical-thinking skills of 31 postgraduate nurses were evaluated using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). For the total group, mean critical-thinking scores improved slightly over time. The CCTST revealed a mean pretest score of 18.5 and a mean posttest score of 19.7, both of which were higher than the established norms for the test. Overall, no significant difference was observed between pretest and posttest. However, statistical significance was observed posttest for nurses whose critical-thinking scores improved (p critical-thinking skills during the course of their study.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the level of critical thinking skills adapted from The Cornell Critical Thinking Test Level X (CCTTX by Ennis and Milan (1985 among final year diploma students from the Faculty of Business Management, UiTM Melaka taking the course of Office Administration and Introduction to Critical Thinking. This paper aims to encourage students to become critical thinkers and to provide lecturers with the best approach to develop students’ critical thinking skills at tertiary level. Findings have shown that their critical thinking ability ranged from low to moderate level. Thus, strategies of teaching and learning which stresses on student-centered learning must be adopted to stimulate student’s thinking by encouraging critical and creative thinking and the construction of new knowledge. 61 students taking Diploma in Office Management and Technology were chosen as samples of this study. The data was collected through observation and classroom based activities namely debates, discussions, article analysis, problem-solving situations and case studies.
Setiawan, A.; Malik, A.; Suhandi, A.; Permanasari, A.
This research was based on the need for improving critical and creative thinking skills of student in the 21 -st century. In this research, we have implemented HOT-Lab model for topic of force. The model was characterized by problem solving and higher order thinking development through real laboratory activities. This research used a quasy experiment method with pre-test post-test control group design. Samples of this research were 60 students of Physics Education Program of Teacher Educatuon Institution in Bandung. The samples were divided into 2 classes, experiment class (HOT-lab model) and control class (verification lab model). Research instruments were essay tests for creative and critical thinking skills measurements. The results revealed that both the models have improved student’s creative and critical thinking skills. However, the improvement of the experiment class was significantly higher than that of the control class, as indicated by the average of normalized gains (N-gain) for critical thinking skills of 60.18 and 29.30 and for creative thinking skills of 70.71 and 29.40, respectively for the experimental class and the control class. In addition, there is no significant correlation between the improvement of critical thinking skills and creative thinking skills in both the classes.
Choo, Lay Hiok; Jewell, Paul D.
This paper examines similarities between the goals of Aikido, a martial art, and critical thinking and argues that Aikido promotes the development of thinking in its training and practice. It applies these ideas to the gifted education curriculum. First the paper introduces characteristics of Aikido, Aikido movement and techniques. It equates…
Jan 24, 2012 ... educators as vital skills required for mastery of school subjects. However, it is observed ... thinking, communication competence and its importance for effective teaching and learning; teachers must learn to think critically and must ..... students should engage in a formal/informal discussion/debate activity on ...
Vieira, Rui Marques; Tenreiro-Vieira, Celina
Scientific literacy (SL) and critical thinking (CT) are key components of science education aiming to prepare students to think and to function as responsible citizens in a world increasingly affected by science and technology (S&T). Therefore, students should be given opportunities in their science classes to be engaged in learning…
In this article, the author argues first, that critical-thinking skills do exist independent of disciplinary thinking skills and are not compromised by interaction effects with the major; and second, that standardized tests (e.g., the Collegiate Learning Assessment, or CLA, which is his example throughout the article) are the best way to measure…
The conjunction of three events has encouraged me to devote significant time to thinking about the pedagogical framework in my introductory courses. The three events were: doing a workshop addressing the Advanced Placement restructuring of the Physics B course with a stronger focus on critical thinking, finding out that "The Physics…
Gould, J. Christine; Schoonover, Patricia F.
Creative and critical thinking have been identified by Isaksen, Dorval, and Treffinger (2000) as the ability to "perceive gaps, challenges, or concerns; think of many varied or unusual possibilities; or elaborate and extend alternatives," as well as make meaningful connections that include analyzing, evaluating, and developing options.…
EDGARD B. CORNACHIONE JR.
Full Text Available Sistemas educacionales alrededor del mundo evalúan el desempeño académico de alumnos con base en habilidades de lectura y redacción, con evidencias sobre el papel esencial del raciocinio crítico. Para apurar la educación en la área de negocios es necesa-rio un mejor entendimiento sobre el raciocinio crítico de los alumnos, así como sobre sus habilidades de comunicación. Esta pesquisa se centró en la evaluación de habilidades de lectura, redacción y raciocinio crítico de alumnos de contabilidad utilizando instrumentos validados: (a Cuestionario de Estrategias Motivadoras para Aprendizaje (Motivated Stra-tegies sea Learning Questionnaire, MSLQ, (b Prueba Escrita de Raciocinio Crítico de Ennis-Weir (Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test, EW-CTET, y (c Indicador Flesch de Facilidad de Lectura (Flesch Reading Ease, en Inglés y versión adaptada para el Portu-gués. Los participantes escribieron una pequeña redacción que fue evaluada en térmi-nos de calidad de escritura y raciocinio crítico con base en el EW-CTET. Los resultados trajeron indicaciones de buena calidad de escritura y evidencia de niveles elevados de raciocinio crítico. Diferencias significativas (por ejemplo, género, maternidad/paternidad, nivel de estudios, y nivel en el programa no fueron observadas en las métricas sobre niveles de facilidad de lectura de los productos escritos generados por los participantes. Elementos para el esmero de desempeño de los participantes alineados con sus habi-lidades de raciocinio crítico son discutidos juntamente con ponderación profunda sobre comportamiento de educadores como agentes de cambio en este escenario. Se sugiere que diferencias culturales sobre raciocinio crítico observadas en este estudio relaciona-das con la percepción de autoridad sean examinadas en futuras averiguaciones.
Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred
This experiment investigated the impact of critical thinking dispositions and instructions on economics students' performance on reasoning skills. Participants (. N=. 183) were exposed to one of four conditions: critical thinking instruction, critical thinking instruction with self-explanation
Developing critical thinking skills is a key aim of higher education and is important in preparing student radiographers for their future careers in clinical practice. The aim of this paper was to attempt to devise and assess six key components of critical thinking appropriate for radiographic practice. Each of the six components was divided into three dimensions and a Critical Thinking Skills Scoring Chart (CTSSC) devised to assess students' written performance against each dimension. Scores revealed that approximately 30% of students were rated as good and approximately 10% of students were rated as poor in each component, although there was some variability between different dimensions. It is suggested that educators need to encourage and support students to develop their critical thinking skills by reviewing their curriculum to clearly define specific skills and ensure that they are appropriately taught and assessed
Freeman, Jared T; Serfaty, Daniel
...: team critical thinking. The framework will be used to understand how team members critique and refine team performance, develop measures of performance, and eventually to create training and decision aids that support...
Bittencourt, Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias; Crossetti, Maria da Graça Oliveira
The aim of this study was to identify the critical thinking skills utilized in the nursing diagnosis process. This was an exploratory descriptive study conducted with seven nursing students on the application of a clinical case to identify critical thinking skills, as well as their justifications in the nursing diagnosis process. Content analysis was performed to evaluate descriptive data. Six participants reported that analysis, scientific and technical knowledge and logical reasoning skills are important in identifying priority nursing diagnoses; clinical experience was cited by five participants, knowledge about the patient and application of standards were mentioned by three participants; Furthermore, discernment and contextual perspective were skills noted by two participants. Based on these results, the use of critical thinking skills related to the steps of the nursing diagnosis process was observed. Therefore, that the application of this process may constitute a strategy that enables the development of critical thinking skills.
Orique, Sabrina B; McCarthy, Mary Ann
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between critical thinking and the use of concept mapping (CM) and problem-based learning (PBL) during care plan development. A quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design was conducted using a convenience sample (n = 49) of first-semester undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. Critical thinking was measured using the Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. Data analysis consisted of a repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc mean comparison tests using the Bonferroni method. Findings indicated that mean critical thinking at phase 4 (CM and PBL) was significantly higher, compared with phase 1 (baseline), phase 2 (PBL), and phase 3 (CM [p < 0.001]). The results support the utilization of nontraditional instructional (CM and PBL) methodologies in undergraduate nursing curricula. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
pupils' critical thinking in science achievement in Imo State. To achieve ... such scientific attitudes such as persistence, objectivity, ... abilities out of the learners right from the primary school. ... effectively conceptualizing generalized methods.
Johnson, David Kenneth
The critical thinker is one who is, according to Harvey Siegel, "appropriately moved by reasons." This characterization of critical thinking combines a "reason assessment" component (the principled assessment of reasons and their ability to warrant beliefs, claims and actions) and a "critical attitude" component (the…
Tallent, Rebecca J.; Barnes, Justin J.
Critical thinking skills are crucial in the public relations profession, but teaching these skills to the Millennial Generation is vastly different from previous generations. How can a professor get past No Child Left Behind's dependence on test review guides and "everybody wins" in getting students to think for themselves? Using the…
Wentworth, Diane Keyser; Whitmarsh, Lona
Teaching the general psychology course provides instructors with the opportunity to invite students to explore the dynamics of behavior and mental processes through the lens of theory and research. Three innovative writing assignments were developed to teach students to think like a psychologist, operationalized as enhancing critical thinking,…
Incikabi, Lutfi; Tuna, Abdulkadir; Biber, Abdullah Cagri
This study aimed to investigate the existence of the relationship between mathematics teacher candidates' critical thinking skills and their logical thinking dispositions in terms of the variables of grade level in college, high school type, and gender. The current study utilized relational survey model and included a total of 99 mathematics…
The aim of this study was to evaluate and determine the critical thinking and reflective thinking skills of science teacher candidates. The study was performed with the participation of 30 teacher candidates enrolled in the science teaching department of a university in Turkey. Scales administered during the study included the California Critical…
The paper will present the relation between students’ beliefs and their behaviours observed in the process of learning critical thinking skills. In the first place some consideration concerning the fundamental epistemological concepts used in the research and about the particular critical thinking skills are to be sketched. Then the testing- learning procedure will be shortly summarized. Thirdly the evaluation of beliefs, their relations with knowledge and the associated behaviors are present...
Beistle, Kimberly S; Palmer, Louann Bierlein
This qualitative study explores the perceptions of dental hygiene faculty regarding issues surrounding critical thinking skills integration within their associate degree dental hygiene programs. Twenty faculty participated in the study, as drawn from 11 accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs in one Midwest state. Multiple sources of data were collected, including email questionnaires, individual follow-up phone interviews and artifacts. Interpretive analysis was conducted. Data analysis revealed that faculty generally understood critical thinking, but interpretations varied. Most do not use varied teaching strategies to promote critical thinking skills, and focus on one particular strategy--that of case studies. The participants identified the need for allied health-focused faculty development opportunities, and noted that calibration of instruction was needed. Despite challenges, faculty felt responsible for teaching critical thinking skills, and identified the need for time to build critical thinking skills into the curriculum. This study was conducted in response to the American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation's challenge for dental hygiene educators to comprehend their own knowledge on the concept of critical thinking related to research-based pedagogical approaches to teaching and learning. Findings revealed a strong desire among the dental hygiene faculty in this study to incorporate critical thinking into their work. They want to do what they believe is the right thing, but their actual knowledge of the definitional and application theories about critical thinking is still in the early stages of development. Regular and targeted faculty development opportunities are needed. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
Although the development of critical thinking and the development of creativity are major areas in nursing programme, little has been explored about learners' perspectives towards these two concepts, especially in Chinese contexts. This study aimed to reveal nursing learners' perspectives on creativity and critical thinking. Qualitative data collection methods were adopted, namely group interviews and concept map drawings. The process of data collection was conducted in private rooms at a University. 36 nursing students from two problem-based learning classes were recruited in two groups for the study. After data collection, content analysis with axial coding approach was conducted to explore the narrative themes, to summarise the main ideas, and to make valid inferences from the connections among critical thinking, creativity, and other exogenous variables. Based on the findings, six major themes were identified: "revisiting the meanings of critical thinking"; "critical thinking and knowledge: partners or rivals?"; "is critical thinking criticising?"; "revising the meanings of creativity"; "creativity and experience: partners or rivals?"; and "should creativity be practical?". This study showed that learners had diverse perspectives towards critical thinking and creativity, and their debate on these two domains provided implications on nursing education, since the voices of learners are crucial in teaching. By closing the gap between learners and educators, this study offered some insights on nursing education in the new curriculum, in particular to co-construct nursing knowledge which is student-driven, and to consider students' voices towards understanding and applying creativity and critical thinking in nursing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Concepts of critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and clinical judgment are often used interchangeably. However, they are not one and the same, and understanding subtle difference among them is important. Following a review of the literature for definitions and uses of the terms, the author provides a summary focused on similarities and differences in the processes of critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and clinical judgment and notes suggested methods of measuring each.
Mary Shriner, MLS
Full Text Available An overwhelming number of books and full-text articles on various databases are available that suggest ways to teach critical thinking. Most educators agree that this skill is becoming increasingly important as classes become more diversified and the curriculum becomes more global. An institution’s library is an often-overlooked faculty development resource; this article offers relevant articles on critical thinking from the many databases available through Park University's McAfee Memorial Library.
Federico R. León
Full Text Available This article deals with the concept of reflective thought or critical thinking from its initial formulation as an intellectual attitude to its current articulation as a third level of cognitive processing. Issues dealt with include critical thinking as a goal, as a cognitive process, as a part of dual cognitive processes, as a measurable disposition, as a measurable ability and as an educational task.
BY Uys; SM Meyer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-rela...
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Schneider-Mitchell, Gail; Graff, Randy
Practical and effective faculty development programs are vital to individual and institutional success. However, there is little evidence that program outcomes result in instructional changes. The purpose of this study was to determine if and how faculty development would enhance participants' use of critical thinking skills in instruction. Seven faculty members from the University of Florida College of Dentistry and one faculty member from another health science college participated in six weekly two-hour faculty development sessions in spring 2007 that focused on enhancing critical thinking skills in instruction. Kaufman's and Rachal's principles of andragogy (adult learning) were used to design the sessions. Participants used learning journals to respond to four instructor-assigned prompts and provided one presentation to peers. With the use of qualitative methods, eight themes emerged across the learning journals: teaching goals, critical thinking, awareness of learners, planned instructional change, teaching efficacy, self-doubt, external challenges, and changes made. Five of eight participants incorporated critical thinking skills into their presentations at a mean level of 2.4 or higher on a 5-point scale using Paul and Elder's behavioral definition of critical thinking skills. Faculty development opportunities that cause participants to reason through learning journals, peer presentations, and group discussion demonstrated the incorporation of critical thinking concepts in 63 percent of this cohort group's presentations, suggesting that if evidence-based pedagogies are followed, instructional changes can result from faculty development.
Systems Thinking, Critical Realism and Philosophy: A Confluence of Ideas seeks to re-address the whole question of philosophy and systems thinking for the twenty first century and provide a new work that would be of value to both systems and philosophy. This is a highly opportune time when different fields - critical realism, philosophy of science and systems thinking - are all developing around the same set of concepts and yet not realizing it. This book will be of interest to the academic systems community worldwide and due to it's interdisciplinary coverage, it will also
Full Text Available Due to the fact that critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential components of educational and social lives of individuals, this present study which investigate critical thinking and problem solving skills of undergraduate students of nursing was planned. This is a descriptive study. The study population consisted of undergraduate nursing students of a university during the 2011-2012 academic year. Any specific sampling method was not determined and only the voluntary students was enrolled in the study . Several participants were excluded due to incomplete questionnaires, and eventually a total of 231 nursing students were included in the final sampling. Socio Demographic Features Data Form and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Problem Solving Inventory were used for data collection. The mean age of 231 subjects (148 girls, 83 boys was 21.34. The mean score of critical thinking was 255.71 for the first-grade, 255.57 for the second-grade, 264.73 for the third-grade, and 256.468 for the forth-grade students. The mean score of critical thinking was determined as 257.41 for the sample, which can be considered as an average value. Although there are mean score differences of critical thinking between the classes , they were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. With regard to the mean score of problem solving, the first-grade students had 92.86, the second-grade students had 94. 29, the third-grade students had 87.00, and the forth-grade students had 92.87. The mean score of problem solving was determined as 92.450 for the sample. Although there are differences between the classes in terms of mean scores of problem solving, it was not found statistically significant (p> 0.05. In this study, statistically significant correlation could not be identified between age and critical thinking skills of the subjects (p>0.05. However, a negative correlation was identified at low levels between critical thinking skills and
Full Text Available This article presents more or less independent reasons why analytical and critical thinking skills should be essential part of public relations. Generally, it is considered that the analytical and critical thinking skills are part of public relations, as well as creative thinking, but they should be considered separately and given the codes of ethics of the profession used as initial criteria. For the purpose of the study, in this article is presented the result of the survey in which determine importance of using analytical and critical thinking skills in the implementation of PR projects. The second aim in the survey was to identify the target audience and how they react to the placed information.
Chao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Chang; Clark, Mary Jo; Tan, Jung-Ying
Critical thinking is an essential skill in the nursing process. Although several studies have evaluated the critical thinking skills of nurses, there is limited information related to the indicators of critical thinking or evaluation of critical thinking in the context of the nursing process. This study investigated the potential indicators of critical thinking and the attributes of critical thinkers in clinical nursing practice. Knowledge of these indicators can aid the development of tools to assess nursing students' critical thinking skills. The study was conducted between September 2009 and August 2010. In phase 1, a literature review and four focus groups were conducted to identify the indicators of critical thinking in the context of nursing and the attributes of critical thinkers. In phase 2, 30 nursing professionals participated in a modified Delphi research survey to establish consensus and the appropriateness of each indicator and attribute identified in phase 1. We identified 37 indicators of critical thinking and 10 attributes of critical thinkers. The indicators were categorized into five subscales within the context of the nursing process toreflect nursing clinical practice: assessment, 16 indicators of ability to apply professional knowledge and skills to analyze and interpret patient problems; diagnosis, five indicators of ability to propose preliminary suppositions; planning, five indicators of ability to develop problem-solving strategies; implementation, five indicators of ability to implement planning; and evaluation, six indicators of ability to self-assess and reflect. The study operationalized critical thinking into a practical indicator suitable for nursing contexts in which critical thinking is required for clinical problem solving. Identified indicators and attributes can assist clinical instructors to evaluate student critical thought skills and development-related teaching strategies.
Astuti Muh. Amin; Romi Adiansyah
Critical thinking emerges when learners attempt to use their background knowledge to construct meaning through interpreting, analyzing, and manipulating information in responding to a problem or a question that requires more than a single correct answer. Two factors that affect the improvement of the students’ critical thinking skills are lecturers’ activities and students’ activities. This study was a descriptive quantitative study which aimed to investigate (1) how lecturers perceive the de...
Pieter van Veuren
Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to explore the concept of thinking skills in three different contexts, i.e. Formal Logic, Informal Logic and Critical Thinking. The essay traces some contemporary historical connections between these approaches and illustrates differences and overlap between them by referring to the content pages of textbooks which are representative of the different approaches. In evaluating the historical developments sketched in the essay, the conclusion is reached that the open and pragmatic way in which Critical Thinking handles the topic of thinking skills has advantages for interdisciplinary contact and cooperation. However, this pragmatic approach also has a possible downside: the concept of thinking skills can become so vague as to be of no use.
Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad
Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite fo...
Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.
This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…
Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Fischer, Ronald; Ward, Colleen
Critical thinking is deemed as an ideal in academic settings, but cultural differences in critical thinking performance between Asian and Western students have been reported in the international education literature. We examined explanations for the observed differences in critical thinking between Asian and New Zealand (NZ) European students, and…
This column addresses the importance of developing critical thinking to meet the demands of 21st-century literacies and participatory democracy. The author argues for a critical approach to digital literacies that explores the sociological nature of literacy practices. Students examine examples of new literacies and analyze how ideologies are…
Zhao, Cairan; Pandian, Ambigapathy; Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar
In English as first language contexts, clear requirement for critical thinking (CT) has been listed in teaching guidelines and assessment criteria in higher education. At present, fostering language learners to be critical thinkers is valued in English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching as well; yet how to achieve the objective remains a…
Tan, Cheng Lee; Ng, Lee Luan
Critical thinking has increasingly been seen as one of the important attributes where human capital is concerned and in line with this recognition, the tertiary educational institutions worldwide are putting more effort into designing courses that produce university leavers who are critical thinkers. This study aims to investigate the critical…
Petrini, Marcia, A; Kawashima, Asako
A comparison of crirical thinking skills of baccalaureate nursing students in Japan, Chine and Samoa was conducted to measure and compare the critical thinking abilities of nursing students based on the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory
Full Text Available This paper examines how the discussion tool is used to promote critical thinking in an online environment at Marshall University. The significance of critical thinking in higher education has been brought to attention at both national and local levels. The paper studies the use of discussions as an approach to promote critical thinking in a number of English as a Second Language (ESL courses offered by Marshall University's Graduate School of Education and Professional Development (GSEPD program. At the end of the semester, a qualitative survey was developed to identify the effectiveness of such discussions, and the opportunities for improvement. The survey was sent to all students in these three classes. These students were all full time teachers in Elementary and Secondary schools in West Virginia. Out of 21 students, 15 of them have responded to the three questions asked in the survey. Almost all the respondents have found discussion helpful in enhancing learning and critical thinking. Most students support the involvement of an online instructor in the online discussion, and faculty members involved in these discussions function as helpers in the development of critical thinking skills.
Zuriguel Pérez, Esperanza; Lluch Canut, Maria Teresa; Falcó Pegueroles, Anna; Puig Llobet, Montserrat; Moreno Arroyo, Carmen; Roldán Merino, Juan
This article seeks to analyse the current state of scientific knowledge concerning critical thinking in nursing. The methodology used consisted of a scoping review of the main scientific databases using an applied search strategy. A total of 1518 studies published from January 1999 to June 2013 were identified, of which 90 met the inclusion criteria. The main conclusion drawn is that critical thinking in nursing is experiencing a growing interest in the study of both its concepts and its dimensions, as well as in the development of training strategies to further its development among both students and professionals. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that critical thinking has been investigated principally in the university setting, independent of conceptual models, with a variety of instruments used for its measurement. We recommend (i) the investigation of critical thinking among working professionals, (ii) the designing of evaluative instruments linked to conceptual models and (iii) the identification of strategies to promote critical thinking in the context of providing nursing care. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Kershisnik, Elizabeth Irene
The purpose of this dissertation was to examine collaboration and student's critical thinking and cognitive achievement within online chemistry courses. This quantitative study focused on the apparent lack of research relating collaboration and critical thinking in online science courses. Collaboration was determined using the small group collaboration model coding scheme, which examined student postings in asynchronous discussion forums for quantity, equality, and shareness. Critical thinking was measured using the chemistry concept reasoning test, the online self-diagnostic test, and also asynchronous student homework discussion postings that were coded using the community of inquiry cognitive presence indicators. Finally cognitive achievement was determined using quiz scores and the student's final grade. Even though no significant findings were revealed in this exploratory quasi-experimental study, this research did add to the educational technology knowledge base since very few studies have investigated the chemistry discipline in an online environment. Continued research in this area is vital to understanding how critical thinking progresses, how it can be assessed, and what factors in the classroom, be it virtual or face-to-face, have the greatest effect on critical thinking.
Full Text Available The multicultural world has made intercultural teaching necessary. It should focus on students’ ability to comprehend quickly and accurately, and then act appropriately and effectively in a culturally complex environment in order to achieve the desired goal. Intercultural competence is important for successful communication across cultures, and so is critical thinking since the two, if they are not “parallel” (Bennett, 2013, at least overlap (Deardorff, 2009. This article tries to shed light on the linkage between intercultural and critical thinking skills and reports on the findings of research done on whether and to what extent EFL textbooks used in Polish schools contribute to fostering critical thinking skills in students. The study analyzed the cultural content of 20 coursebooks to check whether they go beyond merely depicting the target culture, or various foreign cultures, and involve students in practicing critical thinking, that is, prompt them to explore intercultural encounters and processes, and scrutinize how diverse cultures influence their own understanding of reality. The research revealed an insignificant and limited capacity of the textbooks to develop students’ critical thinking.
Full Text Available Critical thinking skills should be owned by students. Therefore, schools should be responsible to develop and evaluate critical thinking skills through teaching and learning process in schools. This study aims to identify the effects of mathematical learning modules based on problem-based learning to critical thinking skills at secondary school students in District of Bone. Assessment of critical thinking skills in mathematical problem solving non-routine includes three parts; the identification and interpretation of information, information analysis, and evaluate of evidence and arguments. This study involved a total of 68 students grade 12 science state secondary school (SMAN in Bone District of South Sulawesi, Indonesia in academic year 2014-2015. The sample consists of 38 students in the city and 30 rural students. The design of the study was quasi experimental one group pretest-posttest. The data was analysed using the inferential t-test with SPSS 20.0 for windows. The study found that there are effects of the use of mathematical learning module based PBL to enhance the ability of critical thinking skills in mathematics students in all three components, namely, identifying and interpreting information, information analysis, and evaluate of evidence and argument.
Rochmad; Agoestanto, A.; Kharis, M.
Critical and creative thinking give important role in learning matematics for mathematics education students. This research to explored the characteristic of critical and creative thinking of students of mathematics study program in mathematics department. Critical thinking and creative thinking can be illustrated as two sides of a coin, which one is associated to the other. In elementary linear algebra courses, however, critical thinking can be seen as a foundation to build students’ creative thinking.
Bosch, K. van den; Helsdingen, A.S.
Expert military commanders construct an initial but comprehensive interpretation of complex or unfamiliar tactical situations (story). They subsequently adjust and refine this story by evaluating available information, by searching for consistency, and by critically testing underlying assumptions.
Evens, Marie; Verburgh, An; Elen, Jan
Critical thinking is an important goal in higher education. Students are expected to grow in critical thinking during their higher education programme. The present study investigates the development of critical thinking in 1134 bachelor students in Flanders, Belgium. The study followed a mixed longitudinal design. Students' critical thinking was…
Ojewole, Foluso O.
The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the critical thinking dispositions of undergraduate nursing students and nursing faculty in Southwestern Nigeria. Critical thinking dispositions are required for critical thinking skills. People who have critical thinking disposition exhibit seven traits: truth-seeking,…
Porter, Rebecca Jean
Critical thinking is a required curricular outcome for nursing education; however, the literature shows a gap related to valid and reliable tools to measure critical thinking specific to nursing and relating that critical thinking measurement to meaningful outcomes. This study examined critical thinking scores, as measured by Assessment…
students to use critical thinking skills . The case method teaches students to evaluate ambiguous situations, make difficult choices, develop...effectiveness of critical thinking training in the DAU courses with critical thinking skills in the curriculum; • observations of students ...their observations of students ’ use of critical thinking skills . Figure 27 summarizes data on instructor comments on observed “
Hidayat, D.; Nurlaelah, E.; Dahlan, J. A.
The ability of mathematical creative and critical thinking are two abilities that need to be developed in the learning of mathematics. Therefore, efforts need to be made in the design of learning that is capable of developing both capabilities. The purpose of this research is to examine the mathematical creative and critical thinking ability of students who get rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT) approach and students who get expository approach. This research was quasi experiment with control group pretest-posttest design. The population were all of students grade 11th in one of the senior high school in Bandung. The result showed that: the achievement of mathematical creative and critical thinking abilities of student who obtain RMT is better than students who obtain expository approach. The use of Psychological tools and mediation with criteria of intentionality, reciprocity, and mediated of meaning on RMT helps students in developing condition in critical and creative processes. This achievement contributes to the development of integrated learning design on students’ critical and creative thinking processes.
Ross, David; Schipper, Shirley; Westbury, Chris; Linh Banh, Hoan; Loeffler, Kim; Allan, G Michael; Ross, Shelley
Our objective was to determine the relationship between critical thinking skills and objective measures of academic success in a family medicine residency program. This prospective observational cohort study was set in a large Canadian family medicine residency program. Intervention was the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), administered at three points in residency: upon entry, at mid-point, and at graduation. Results from the CCTST, Canadian Residency Matching Service file, and interview scores were compared to other measures of academic performance (Medical Colleges Admission Test [MCAT] and College of Family Physicians of Canada [CCFP] certification examination results). For participants (n=60), significant positive correlations were found between critical thinking skills and performance on tests of knowledge. For the MCAT, CCTST scores correlated positively with full scores (n=24, r=0.57) as well as with each section score (verbal reasoning: r=0.59; physical sciences: r=0.64; biological sciences: r=0.54). For CCFP examination, CCTST correlated reliably with both sections (n=49, orals: r=0.34; short answer: r=0.47). Additionally, CCTST was a better predictor of performance on the CCFP exam than was the interview score at selection into the residency program (Fisher's r-to-z test, z=2.25). Success on a critical thinking skills exam was found to predict success on family medicine certification examinations. Given that critical thinking skills appear to be stable throughout residency training, including an assessment of critical thinking in the selection process may help identify applicants more likely to be successful on final certification exam.
Eriksson, S. C.; Wang, P.; Sim, T. B.; Goh, E.; Ng, H. K.
Sketching is a valuable field technique to support a person's observation, recording, interpretation and communication of important features in both natural and human-made landscapes. The Singapore geography syllabus employs an inquiry approach and encourages sketching as a fundamental geographical skill. Sketching allows the learner to connect with the world through a personal and kinesthetic experience. The Earth Observatory of Singapore collaborates with the Singapore Geography Teachers' Association, Urban Sketchers, and National Institute of Education professional development to give teachers both basic sketching skills and the opportunity to develop those skills in a scaffolded environment. In Singapore, geography and geology skills overlap in content area of coastal processes, climate change, and plate tectonics with its associated natural hazards such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunami. Both disciplines are interested in how people live on the Earth. Likewise, basic skills such as observing, classifying, measuring, and communicating cut across disciplines of social and natural sciences in order to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information about the world. Hence, sketching, commonly considered an art skill, is used to further scientific thinking. This somewhat unique collaboration to develop sketching in teachers is based on the long tradition of sketches in geological field work, the newly popular urban sketching community, and professional development by a professional organization and the Singapore National Institute of Education. Workshops provide technique as well as opportunities for sketching with experts in different areas relevant to the geography curriculum.
Noone, Chris; Bunting, Brendan; Hogan, Michael J.
Mindfulness originated in the Buddhist tradition as a way of cultivating clarity of thought. Despite the fact that this behaviour is best captured using critical thinking assessments, no studies have examined the effects of mindfulness on critical thinking or the mechanisms underlying any such possible relationship. Even so, mindfulness has been suggested as being beneficial for critical thinking in higher education. Critical thinking is recognised as an important higher-order cognitive proce...
Full Text Available Reading-to-write, a term taken from language testing studies, puts great emphasis on a student-centered learning atmosphere, on the situational context and cooperative learning, on an authentic learning environment, on making use of various information resources, and on the process of the individuals’ meaning construction and critical thinking. The application of this model in class will shed lights on College English teaching in China, providing the English teachers with a new perception of language teaching: Reading and writing can be integrated to elicit more authentic language use, and skill training and critical thinking are not two separate stages.
Sumarni, W.; Supardi, K. I.; Widiarti, N.
Assessment instruments that is commonly used in the school generally have not been orientated on critical thinking skills. The purpose of this research is to develop assessment instruments to measure critical thinking skills, to test validity, reliability, and practicality. This type of research is Research and Development. There are two stages on the preface step, which are field study and literacy study. On the development steps, there some parts, which are 1) instrument construction, 2) expert validity, 3) limited scale tryout and 4) narrow scale try-out. The developed assessment instrument are analysis essay and problem solving. Instruments were declared valid, reliable and practical.
León, Federico R.
This article deals with the concept of reflective thought or critical thinking from its initial formulation as an intellectual attitude to its current articulation as a third level of cognitive processing. Issues dealt with include critical thinking as a goal, as a cognitive process, as a part of dual cognitive processes, as a measurable disposition, as a measurable ability and as an educational task. Este artículo aborda el concepto de pensamiento reflexivo o crítico desde su formulación ...
Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.
The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…
Wagner, Elissa A
This article reports the outcomes of a kinesthetic learning strategy used during a cardiac lecture to engage students and to improve the use of classroom-acquired knowledge in today's challenging clinical settings. Nurse educators are constantly faced with finding new ways to engage students, stimulate critical thinking, and improve clinical application in a rapidly changing and complex health care system. Educators who deviate from the traditional pedagogy of didactic, content-driven teaching to a concept-based, student-centered approach using active and kinesthetic learning activities can enhance engagement and improve clinical problem solving, communication skills, and critical thinking to provide graduates with the tools necessary to be successful. The goals of this learning activity were to decrease the well-known classroom-clinical gap by enhancing engagement, providing deeper understanding of cardiac function and disorders, enhancing critical thinking, and improving clinical application. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Human communication is of a persuasive character, since the perspective to determine the difference between fact and opinion differ according to sociological and cultural backgrounds. Media sets the ground for building stereotypes by imposing the ideas to the recipients. It makes media a tool for persuasive communication thus producing the effects of what a vaccine injection might do to a human body. As language is one of the most used tools in media, this stealthy persuasion operates on a subtle "antigens" infiltrated in the context of the media text. "Mind vaccinating" recipients by media eventually can lead to stereotyped perceptions and produce prejudice. In this metaphor vaccine antigens offer a persuasive perspective on reality immune to other perspectives but that one that is imposed by media. If a recipient in the communication process understands the threat then the persuasive effects are lessened as is explained in inoculation theory. If the threat is candy wrapped in media content, as is done so by the demand of market and recipients themselves (and imposed by politics and corporation interest, then the threat is no longer understood as a threat by the recipient. The immune system is vaccinated and protected from the disease of free thinking. The disease represents a reality that is not shape shifted by someone else. Shape shifted reality is distributed through the vaccines. Media being the vaccine makes it a powerful tool in the persuasive strategy for shape shifting the reality based on framed and reframed facts and opinions of the majority in democratized media. Media is consciously or unconsciously shape shifting the reality, which makes it a tool of persuasion.
Critical information is needed to inform radiation science educators regarding successful critical thinking educational strategies. From an evidence-based research perspective, systematic reviews are identified as the most current and highest level of evidence. Analysis at this high level is crucial in analyzing those teaching methods most appropriate to the development of critical thinking skills. To conduct a systematic literature review to identify teaching methods that demonstrate a positive effect on the development of students' critical thinking skills and to identify how these teaching strategies can best translate to radiologic science educational programs. A comprehensive literature search was conducted resulting in an assessment of 59 full reports. Nineteen of the 59 reports met inclusion criteria and were reviewed based on the level of evidence presented. Inclusion criteria included studies conducted in the past 10 years on sample sizes of 20 or more individuals demonstrating use of specific teaching interventions for 5 to 36 months in postsecondary health-related educational programs. The majority of the research focused on problem-based learning (PBL) requiring standardized small-group activities. Six of the 19 studies focused on PBL and demonstrated significant differences in student critical thinking scores. PBL, as described in the nursing literature, is an effective teaching method that should be used in radiation science education. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
Kane, Danielle; Otto, Kristin
We argue that the literature on critical thinking in sociology has conflated two different skill sets: critical sociological thinking and higher-level thinking. To begin to examine how sociologists weigh and cultivate these skill sets, we interviewed 20 sociology instructors and conducted a content analysis of 26 assignments. We found that while…
Iván Alfonso Pinedo Cantillo
Full Text Available Human progress in general and personal development of students are indisputably linked to rigorous reflection processes, but a reflection that in education we qualify as critical and intentional. Educating with critical awareness is to educate to construct humanity through a specific intellectual orientation that makes us more free and authentic. In this context, we find critical thinking as a privileged pedagogical tool that seeks to promote the autonomy of thought and the implementation of new processes of humanization, understood as the continuous process that seeks to potentiate each and every human dimension. Thus, intentional reflection, critical thinking and humanization processes in the classroom are a pedagogical triangle that can power the noble task of educating citizens in the twenty-first century.
Browne, M. Neil
Metaphorically, the head and the heart represent different decision-making strategies. The disjunction between these two cultures is both sharp and unnecessary. The conflict between rationality and emotion is much broader than the tension between critical thinking and values analysis, but the assumptions responsible for the mutual awkwardness of…
Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.
Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…
Noraini Ahmad Shukri
Full Text Available Many ESL instructors are generally in agreement with the belief that it is essential that students should be assisted in developing critical thinking skills while being engaged in their language learning process especially those learning the target language at higher level (Stern, 1985; Dickinson, 1991; McKay, 2001; Terry, 2007; Van, 2009; Odenwald, 2010. As it enables language learners to engage in a more purposeful and self-regulatory in judgment, helping them in their evaluation of the arguments of others and of their own, coming to well-reasoned resolutions to any complex problems and to be able to resolve conflicts encountered in their daily lives. Critical thinking requires them to be actively involved in their own learning process as they attempt to individually understand and apply the information they are exposed to during the classroom interaction (Landsberger, 1999; Tung & Chang, 2009. The many advantageous and feasibility of teaching instruction that incorporates the study of literature in the ESL classroom which suggests that literature texts, if correctly chosen and instructed, can prove to be beneficial to ESL students’ overall level of literacy and critical thinking skills. Numerous empirical researches also asserted that literary texts that are authentic, enjoyable, and motivating would naturally increase both their knowledge of the target language patterns and cultural awareness. Keywords: Critical thinking, ESL classroom, literature, literary text
Powley, Edward H.; Taylor, Scott N.
Management schools must be prepared to aid leaders and managers to succeed in uncertain environments. We offer two approaches, each designed for critical thinking skill development, to teach graduate management students about leading in and through potential disruption to organizational life. First, we present a personalized case method that…
Interpersonal contact between the lecturers and students improves the development of critical thinking skills. The process is hampered by the geographical distance between the lecturers and the students in the case of distance education and learning. In many cases distance learning is, however, the only option.
Describes an assignment in a business-communication class in which student teams construct portfolios with articles from "The Wall Street Journal," explaining and clearly expressing how these articles relate to class concepts. Argues that the assignment encourages critical-thinking skills, focuses on writing skills, and develops an…
Anit Pranita Devi
Full Text Available This study investigates how cooperative learning facilitates students in learning critical thinking in reading and to find out the benefits and challenges during the implementation of cooperative learning in one vocational school in Cimahi. A case study is utilized by using instruments of classroom observations, questionnaires, semi structured interview and students’ written tests. The findings show that the implementation of cooperative learning facilitates students develop their critical thinking and enhance critical thinking dispositions in reading. Three features which contribute to the development of students’ critical thinking in reading are: the encouragement of student-student interaction; the provision of group purposes; and the provision of stimulus to the students’ development of thought and ideas. The aforementioned features promote benefits which involved higher motivation and involvement, increased opportunity for language use, and developed interpersonal relationship. Nevertheless, these benefits are constrained by the availability of time, students’ English proficiency, and students’ contribution to the groupwork. It is recommended that further researchers conduct the similar study in a longer period to make sure that the key elements of cooperative learning are well-structured.
Quinn, Courtney; Burbach, Mark E.; Matkin, Gina S.; Flores, Kevin
Future decision makers in natural resource fields will be required to make judgments on issues that lack clear solutions and with information complicated by ethical challenges. Therefore, natural resource, environmental, and agricultural professionals must possess the ability to think critically about the consequences of policy, economic systems,…
Critical thinking and communication competence are recognized by educators as vital skills required for mastery of school subjects. However, it is observed that these two skills are underdeveloped in students. In order, to fill this void, this paper aims at constructing a framework that would be employed by teachers in ...
Lin, Lin; Widdall, Chris; Ward, Laurie
In this article, the authors describe how integrating interactive mobile tools into elementary pedagogy can generate enthusiasm and critical thinking among students as they learn about the world. The activities described took place over the course of six one-hour periods spanning six days. These activities address three major social studies…
Chan, Zenobia C Y
Critical thinking is the ability to raise discriminating questions in an attempt to search for better ideas, a deeper understanding and better solutions relating to a given issue. This systematic review provides a summary of efforts that have been made to enhance and assess critical thinking in medical education. Nine databases [Ovid MEDLINE(R), AMED, Academic Search Premier, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science, JSTOR, SCOPUS and PsycINFO] were searched to identify journal articles published from the start of each database to October 2012. A total of 41 articles published from 1981 to 2012 were categorised into two main themes: (i) evaluation of current education on critical thinking and (ii) development of new strategies about critical thinking. Under each theme, the teaching strategies, assessment tools, uses of multimedia and stakeholders were analysed. While a majority of studies developed teaching strategies and multimedia tools, a further examination of their quality and variety could yield some insights. The articles on assessment placed a greater focus on learning outcomes than on learning processes. It is expected that more research will be conducted on teacher development and students' voices.
As radiographers continue to extend their role and take on more procedures associated traditionally with radiologists, it is essential that their critical thinking abilities keep pace with the new practical skills they are learning. This is particularly important in ultrasound where student sonographers must master a number of new skills including the technical dexterity required to perform a scan, the ability to form and discard hypotheses when trying to interpret the image, and the communication of their findings as a written report. Interpreting the image and producing an accurate, appropriate report involves the higher level cognitive processes of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In other words, the student sonographer must be able to think critically to become a successful practitioner. This paper attempts to define and discuss critical thinking, and considers a range of simple strategies that the clinical teacher of ultrasound can employ to help develop critical thinking skills in their students. These methods are appropriate for use not only by clinical teachers of ultrasound but for all teachers and mentors wishing to improve reasoning skills in their pupils
Geissler, Gary L.; Edison, Steve W.; Wayland, Jane P.
Business professors continue to face the challenge of truly preparing their students for the workplace. College students often lack skills that are valued by employers, such as critical thinking, creativity, communication, conflict resolution, and teamwork skills. Traditional classroom methods, such as lectures, may fail to produce adequate…
Brem, Sarah K.; Boyes, Andrea J.
Complements guidelines addressing the mechanics of online searching by considering how treating searching as exercises in critical thinking can improve the use of online resources. Discusses metacognition, hypothesis testing, and argumentation, with illustrative examples and links to tools that facilitate the searching process. (SLD)
Brodin, Eva M.
Critical and creative thinking constitute important learning outcomes at doctoral level across the world. While the literature on doctoral education illuminates this matter through the lens of experienced senior researchers, the doctoral students' own perspective is missing. Based upon interviews with 14 doctoral students from four disciplines at…
Egbert, Maria; Maxim, Hiram
in Business German, the Priifung Wirtschaftsdmtsch Intmnational [International Business German Examination] (PWD) and the Zertijikat I)mtschfur den Bmuf [German Cer- tificate for Professional Purposes] (ZDfB), test only students' information retrieval skills and fail to assess their critical thinking...
Research has been conducted on the role and importance of visualisation in many fields, including psychology, but very little has been done to extend its role to mathematics education in particular. Furthermore, much research has been done on the importance of critical thinking. However, to date not much has been done ...
Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; van de Ven, Josine G.M.
In this study, we describe how to use innovative techniques to improve the decision-making process in crisis response organizations. The focus was on building situation awareness of a crisis and overcoming pitfalls such as tunnel vision and information bias through using critical thinking. We
This paper seeks to ascertain the influence of teachers' pattern of instruction and location on pupils' critical thinking in science achievement in Imo State. To achieve this objective, two hypotheses were formulated. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A total of ninety (90) teachers and one thousand ...
Sumarna, N.; Wahyudin; Herman, T.
Some research findings on critical thinking skills of prospective elementary teachers, showed a response that is not optimal. On the other hand, critical thinking skills will lead a student in the process of analysis, evaluation and synthesis in solving a mathematical problem. This study attempts to perform an alternative solution with a focus on mathematics learning conditions that is held in the lecture room through mathematical investigation approach. This research method was Quasi-Experimental design with pre-test post-test design. Data analysis using a mixed method with Embedded design. Subjects were regular students enrolled in 2014 at the study program of education of primary school teachers. The number of research subjects were 111 students consisting of 56 students in the experimental group and 55 students in the control group. The results of the study showed that (1) there is a significant difference in the improvement of critical thinking ability of students who receive learning through mathematical investigation approach when compared with students studying through expository approach, and (2) there is no interaction effect between prior knowledge of mathematics and learning factors (mathematical investigation and expository) to increase of critical thinking skills of students.
Sziarto, Kristin M.; McCarthy, Linda; Padilla, Nicholas L.
Using a stakeholder debate based on a real-world case of regional construction--that of Turkey's application to join the European Union--improved students' critical thinking in an introductory world regional geography course. Such courses are a staple offering among US geography departments, and often the only exposure of non-majors to geographic…
Ahuna, Kelly H.; Tinnesz, Christine Gray; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol
In the late 1980s a large northeastern university implemented a critical thinking course for undergraduate students. Combining insights from cognitive psychology and philosophy, this class was designed to give students concrete strategies to promote self-regulated learning and ensure academic success. The analyses in this study are based on…
Tyne, Sheila L.
The health care field has become increasingly more complex, requiring new nurses to be prepared upon graduation to respond to a variety of complex situations. Unfortunately, many graduates from associate degree nursing (ADN) programs are not able to think critically upon entering the work force. This presents a major problem for the nurse and for…
Loes, Chad; Pascarella, Ernest; Umbach, Paul
This study analyzed data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education to estimate the unique effects of exposure to classroom diversity and involvement in interactional diversity on growth in critical thinking skills during the first year of college. Net of important confounding influences, neither classroom nor interactional diversity…
Cain, Holly Reed; Giraud, Vivana; Stedman, Nicole L. P.; Adams, Brittany L.
The objective of this research was to identify Facione's six critical thinking skills using graduate students blogs as a reflection tool in the context of leadership using structured and unstructured blogs. The skills researched were (a) Interpretation, (b) Analysis, (c) Evaluation, (d) Inference, (e) Explanation, and (f) Self-Regulation (Facione,…
Dwyer, Christopher P.; Boswell, Amy; Elliott, Mark A.
Although critical thinking (CT) skills are usually considered as domain general (Gabbenesch, 2006; Halpern, 2003), CT ability may benefit from expertise knowledge and skill. The current study examined both general CT ability and CT ability related to business scenarios for individuals (a) expert in business, (b) novice in business, and (c) with no…
Sparks, Sarah D.
After five years of providing critical reviews of education-related reports by nonacademic think tanks, education professors Alex Molnar and Kevin G. Welner hope to expand their own reach with a new, broader research center. The new National Education Policy Center, based at Welner's academic home, the University of Colorado at Boulder, will…
Background: Developing the critical thinking skills of student radiographers is imperative in ... Peer review under responsibility of Johannesburg University. .... the need to teach such skills, and to guide facilitators carefully ..... doctor. In the current study participants could identify the problem but were unable to propose ...
Crane, Beverley; Markowitz, Nancy Lourie
Presents a model that uses online searching to teach critical thinking skills in elementary and secondary education based on Bloom's taxonomy. Three levels of activity are described: analyzing a search statement; defining and clarifying a problem; and focusing an information need. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)
Swafford, Melinda; Rafferty, Elizabeth
Family and consumer sciences (FCS) is an interdisciplinary study of the relationships between humans and their social, natural, and built environments. Critical thinking has been a vital part of the profession since its beginning. Ellen Swallow Richards founded the discipline in 1899 on the premise of improving quality of life for individuals,…
Vernier, Matthieu; Cárcamo, Luis; Scheihing, Eliana
Strengthening critical thinking abilities of citizens in the face of news published on the web represents a key challenge for education. Young citizens appear to be vulnerable in the face of poor quality news or those containing non-explicit ideologies. In the field of data science, computational and statistical techniques have been developed to…
Uys, B Y; Meyer, S M
The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators' perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts 'critical thinking' and 'facilitation' were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.
Dyck, Bruno; Walker, Kent; Starke, Frederick A.; Uggerslev, Krista
The authors explore the effect on students' critical thinking of teaching only one approach to management versus teaching two approaches to management. Results from a quasiexperiment--which included a survey, interviews, and case analysis--suggest that compared with students who are taught only a conventional approach to management (which…
Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova
Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process.
Tiruneh, Dawit Tibebu; De Cock, Mieke; Weldeslassie, Ataklti G.; Elen, Jan; Janssen, Rianne
Although the development of critical thinking (CT) is a major goal of science education, adequate emphasis has not been given to the measurement of CT skills in specific science domains such as physics. Recognizing that adequately assessing CT implies the assessment of both domain-specific and domain-general CT skills, this study reports on the…
Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad
Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.
Whitney, Eli M; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Walton, Joanne N
Critical thinking is a key element of complex problem-solving and professional behavior. An ideal critical thinking measurement instrument would be able to accurately predict which dental students are predisposed to and capable of thinking critically and applying such thinking skills to clinical situations. The aims of this study were to describe critical thinking disposition and skills in dental students at the beginning and end of their first year, examine cohort and gender effects, and compare their critical thinking test scores to their first-year grades. Volunteers from three student cohorts at the University of British Columbia were tested using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills instruments at the beginning and end of their first year. Based on the preliminary findings, one cohort was retested at graduation when their final-year grades and clinical advisor rankings were compared to their critical thinking test scores. The results showed that students who entered dental school with higher critical thinking scores tended to complete their first year with higher critical thinking scores, achieve higher grades, and show greater disposition to think critically at the start of the program. Students who demonstrated an ability to think critically and had a disposition to do so at the start of the program were also likely to demonstrate those same attributes at the completion of their training. High critical thinking scores were associated with success in both didactic and clinical settings in dental school.
Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad
Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885
Mogk, D. W.; Geissman, J. W.
There is a compelling need to develop the geoscience workforce of the future to address the "grand challenges" that face humanity. This workforce must have a strong understanding of Earth history, processes and materials and be able to communicate effectively and responsibly to inform public policy and personal and societal actions, particularly with regard to geohazards and natural resources. Curricula to train future geoscientists must be designed to help students develop critical thinking skills across the curriculum, from introductory to senior capstone courses. Students will be challenged in their pre-professional training as geoscientists as they encounter an incomplete geologic record, ambiguity and uncertainty in observed and experimental results, temporal reasoning ("deep time", frequency, recurrence intervals), spatial reasoning (from microns to mountains), and complex system behavior. Four instructional approaches can be combined to address these challenges and help students develop critical thinking skills: 1) Geoethics and ethical decision making includes review and integration of the context/facts of the situation, stakeholders, decision-makers, and possible alternative actions and expected outcomes; 2) The affective domain which encompasses factors such as student motivation to learn, curiosity, fear, attitudes, perceptions, social barriers and values; 3) Metacognition which encourages students to be aware about their own thinking processes, and to develop self-monitoring and self-regulating behaviors; and 4) Systems thinking which requires integrative thinking about the interactions between physical, chemical, biological and human processes, feedback mechanisms and emergent phenomena. Guided inquiry and scaffolded exercises can be used to present increasingly complex situations that require a thorough understanding of geologic principles and processes as applied to issues of societal concern. These approaches are not "owned" by any single course or
Grussendorf, Jeannie; Rogol, Natalie C.
In a pre/post quasi-experimental study assessing the impact of a specific curriculum on critical thinking, the authors employed a critical thinking curriculum in two sections of a U.S. foreign policy class. The authors found that the interactive and scaffolded critical thinking curriculum yielded statistically significant critical thinking…
Ashraf Haji Maibodi
Full Text Available This experimental study examined the effect of critical thinking skills on reading English novels and its influence on EFL learners reading proficiency. For the purpose of this study participants in addition to their text book read and received instructions on the unabridged short novels for one semester. Sixty Iranian EFL junior undergraduates participated in this study and were randomly divided to two groups of thirty each. To test the hypothesis, two independent t-tests were conducted to see the difference between the two groups. The results of the study showed that students in group A were more critically oriented than their counterparts in group B. The pedagogical implication of this study suggests that direct instruction in critical thinking has an impact on EFL learners’ reading proficiency. This article is intended to help teachers who are interested in developing and encouraging critical thinking in their language classrooms. EFL learners need to learn how to establish realistic goals, monitor their own learning and reflect and challenge their own attitudes so that they may get closer to the idea of being good language learners. The findings of this study revealed that there was a significant improvement in students’ attitudes, confidence, and interest especially, in their novel-reading ability.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts ‘critical thinking’ and ‘facilitation’ were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.
Carter, Amanda G; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary
develop and test a tool designed for use by academics to evaluate pre-registration midwifery students' critical thinking skills in reflective writing. a descriptive cohort design was used. a random sample (n = 100) of archived student reflective writings based on a clinical event or experience during 2014 and 2015. a staged model for tool development was used to develop a fifteen item scale involving item generation; mapping of draft items to critical thinking concepts and expert review to test content validity; inter-rater reliability testing; pilot testing of the tool on 100 reflective writings; and psychometric testing. Item scores were analysed for mean, range and standard deviation. Internal reliability, content and construct validity were assessed. expert review of the tool revealed a high content validity index score of 0.98. Using two independent raters to establish inter-rater reliability, good absolute agreement of 72% was achieved with a Kappa coefficient K = 0.43 (pcritical thinking in reflective writing. Validation with large diverse samples is warranted. reflective practice is a key learning and teaching strategy in undergraduate Bachelor of Midwifery programmes and essential for safe, competent practice. There is the potential to enhance critical thinking development by assessingreflective writing with the CACTiM (reflection) tool to provide formative and summative feedback to students and inform teaching strategies. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper examines to explore how study by using model of Problem Based Learning ( PBL). Basically, this discussion is focussed at model of PBL as an effort in developing cognitive ability, especially critical thinking.Critical thinking including ability think high level (higher order of thinking) representing one of the component in issue intellegence of 21 st century ( Issue of The 21st literacy century). Development of ability of critical thinking in study of science of vital importance b...
Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their le...
Critical thinking, viewed as rational and analytic thinking, is crucial for participation in a knowledge economy and society. This article provides a brief presentation of the importance of teaching critical thinking in a knowledge economy; suggests a conceptual model for teaching thinking; examines research on the historical role of teachers in…
Han, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Kim, Mae-Ja; Hong, Kyung-Ja; Park, Sungae; Yun, Soon-Nyoung; Song, Misoon; Jung, Yoenyi; Kim, Haewon; Kim, Dong-Oak Debbie; Choi, Heejung; Kim, Kyungae
The purpose of the paper is to discover the patterns and processes of decision-making in clinical nursing practice. A set of think-aloud data from five critical care nurses during 40 to 50 minutes of caregiving in intensive care units were obtained and analyzed by applying the procedures recommended by Ericsson and Simon for protocol analysis. Four thinking processes before acting were identified to constitute various sorts of thoughts in which the nurses were engaged during patient care: reviewing, validation, consideration, rationalization, and action. In addition, three patterns of sequential streaming of thinking (short, intermediate, long) were identified to reveal various ways the nurses dealt with clinical situations involving nursing tasks and responsibilities. This study specifies the initial categories of thoughts for each of the processes and various patterns with which these processes are sequentially combined, providing insights into the ways nurses think about problems and address their concerns. The findings suggest that the thinking in clinical practice involves more than focused decision-making and reasoning, and needs to be examined from a broader perspective.
Full Text Available Critical Thinking Skills (CTs are among the 21st century learning skills, and schools are expected to equip the students with these skills. Turkey has been restructuring the educational system in order to improve the quality of education which enables students to acquire such learning skills as critical and creative thinking, problem solving, and collaboration. The present study based on the perspectives of young adolescent EFL learners presents findings on the students’ awareness of CTs, and whether or not they apply them to a given task, and if there is any conflict between knowledge and application of CTs. The findings showed that the students, despite their quiet well awareness, did not effectively apply CTs. The problems they encountered were assumed to be resulted from lacking in metacognitive knowledge.
Full Text Available The paper will present the relation between students’ beliefs and their behaviours observed in the process of learning critical thinking skills. In the first place some consideration concerning the fundamental epistemological concepts used in the research and about the particular critical thinking skills are to be sketched. Then the testing- learning procedure will be shortly summarized. Thirdly the evaluation of beliefs, their relations with knowledge and the associated behaviors are presented. The results of the periodic testing procedures that were taking place according to the established methodology are to be discussed. Finally, some general considerations concerning the relations between beliefs, behaviors and knowledge that have emerged in the process of learning are going to be presented.
Crossetti, Maria da Graça Oliveira; Bittencourt, Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias; Lima, Ana Amélia Antunes; de Góes, Marta Georgina Oliveira; Saurin, Gislaine
The objective of this study was to analyze the structural elements of critical thinking (CT) of nurses in the clinical decision-making process. This exploratory, qualitative study was conducted with 20 emergency care nurses in three hospitals in southern Brazil. Data were collected from April to June 2009, and a validated clinical case was applied from which nurses listed health problems, prescribed care and listed the structural elements of CT. Content analysis resulted in categories used to determine priority structural elements of CT, namely theoretical foundations and practical relationship to clinical decision making; technical and scientific knowledge and clinical experience, thought processes and clinical decision making: clinical reasoning and basis for clinical judgments of nurses: patient assessment and ethics. It was concluded that thinking critically is a skill that enables implementation of a secure and effective nursing care process.
Maria da Graça Oliveira Crossetti
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the structural elements of critical thinking (CT of nurses in the clinical decision-making process. This exploratory, qualitative study was conducted with 20 emergency care nurses in three hospitals in southern Brazil. Data were collected from April to June 2009, and a validated clinical case was applied from which nurses listed health problems, prescribed care and listed the structural elements of CT. Content analysis resulted in categories used to determine priority structural elements of CT, namely theoretical foundations and practical relationship to clinical decision making; technical and scientific knowledge and clinical experience, thought processes and clinical decision making: clinical reasoning and basis for clinical judgments of nurses: patient assessment and ethics. It was concluded that thinking critically is a skill that enables implementation of a secure and effective nursing care process.
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of whether computer mediated communication (CMC can develop critical thinking in language classrooms. The research was conducted at a university branch campus in Malaysia over a period of 12 weeks. It involved three groups of learners in which each group was exposed to different discussion modes. The first group was exposed to a CMC discussion mode, the second group was exposed to a mixed mode of CMC and face-to-face (F2F discussions and the third group had only the face-to-face mode of discussion. The critical thinking development in these three conditions was evaluated based on the content analysis method used by Newman, Johnson, Cochrane and Webb (1995. This research reports the findings which hopefully will give some insight to other teaching practitioners who are interested in incorporating IT in their classrooms
Full Text Available Critical thinking is vital for graduates in facing the dynamic life in order to strengthen their analysis ability and providing alternative solution towards the current problem. It is essential that units, courses, and material teach the critical thinking process have to provide an opportunity for students to excoriate certain problem and present the harmonious flow of thinking. Hoax news, the trending issue in a society as the reading materials, has abundance aspect to be criticized by students. Moreover, it has its own authenticity to be brought into a critical reading class as authentic materials which was not broadly discussed yet. This study aimed at paving the ways to improve the students’ critical thinking skills through reading hoax news. It is conducted to investigate the usage of hoax news in teaching critical reading for undergraduate students as well as particularize how far hoax news can enhance studenst’ critical thinking. This study employed classroom action research design. The subject of the study was the 31 students joining the critical reading class. The data were gotten from observation, document analysis and test. The essay test was the instrument used to assess the students’ critical thinking which later adopted the model of the Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric (HCTSR. The result of the study showed that using of hoax news significantly improve the students’ critical thinking followed by the development of interpretation, analysis and identification ability. The number students posed strong thinking increased from 6.45% to 72,2%. Using critical thinking can promote students’ high order thinking since it drives students to consider the fact and fake which demanding the high analysis and deep interpretation toward the presented text. Keywords: Critical thinking, hoax news, teaching materials. INDONESIAN ABSTRACT Berpikir kritis merupakan hal yang penting dalam mengahadapi hidup yang dinamis untuk
These are damning charges that warrant a response within critical thinking frameworks. We suggest that the broader critical thinking literature, primarily that found within contexts of critical pedagogy and dispositional schools, can and should be harnessed within the critical thinking literature to bridge the gap between classical and feminist thinkers. We highlight several methods by which philosophy can retain the functionality of critical thinking while mitigating the obstacles presented by feminist critics and highlight how the adoption of such methods not only improves critical thinking, but is also beneficial to philosophy, philosophers and feminists alike.
Shin, Sujin; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Sungeun
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a revised version of the clinical critical thinking skills test (CCTS) and to subsequently validate its performance. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of the CCTS. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 284 college students in June 2011. Thirty items were analyzed using item response theory and test reliability was assessed. Test-retest reliability was measured using the results of 20 nursing college and graduate school stud...
emotional rebuttal. Conversely, people cannot make good rational decisions without at least a twinge of emotion attached to the decision . 2) Our minds... decision they make . If emotions overwhelm reason, then decisions should be postponed.27 Service biases are one of the strongest emotional bias. Any...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE How Critical Thinking Shapes the Military Decision Making Process 5a. CONTRACT
Helsdingen, A.S.; Bosch, K. van den; Gog, T. van; Merriënboer, J.J.G. van
Objective : Two field studies assessed the effects of critical thinking instruction on training and transfer of a complex decision-making skill. Background : Critical thinking instruction is based on studies of how experienced decision makers approach complex problems. Method : Participants
Raymond, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Myrick, Florence; Strean, William B
The role of nurse educators in the development of students' critical thinking has been overlooked despite the emphasized need for effective teaching methods. An integrative review was performed to examine both quantitative and qualitative research published from 2000 to 2015 related to nurse educators' critical thinking. Many barriers and facilitators existing on individual, interpersonal, and contextual levels affected nurse educators' critical thinking. Various tools have been used to measure nurse educators' critical thinking. This review also highlighted the continued lack of a consensus definition of critical thinking and the limited presence of conceptual models to guide the use of critical thinking in nursing education. Continued examination of nurse educators' critical thinking is needed, given the limited number of studies that have been completed. Much needs to be explored further, including conceptualizations of critical thinking and confirmation of emerging themes identified in this review. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(11):648-654.]. © 2017 Raymond, Profetto-McGrath, Myrick, et al.
Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R
This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.
Constructivist pedagogies cannot achieve their critical thinking ambitions. Constructivism, and constructivist epistemological presuppositions, actively thwarts the critical thinking process. Using Wittgenstein's private language argument, this paper argues that corrective mechanisms--the ability to correct a student's propositions and cognitions…
McMullen, Maureen A; McMullen, William F
Although critical thinking in undergraduate nursing education has been explored in depth, little is known about the critical thinking skills of graduate nursing students. Prior research on change in critical thinking scores is based primarily on pretest and posttest assessments that provide minimal information about change. This study used individual growth modeling to investigate how critical thinking skills change during a 2-year graduate nurse program. Scores from the evaluation, inference, and analysis subscales of the California Critical Thinking Skills Test comprised the empirical growth record. Change in the three critical thinking skills was more dynamic than that reported in previous studies. Patterns of change differed by critical thinking skill and in relation to students' initial critical thinking skill levels at program entry.
Rowe, Matthew P.; Gillespie, B. Marcus; Harris, Kevin R.; Koether, Steven D.; Shannon, Li-Jen Y.; Rose, Lori A.
Recent studies question the effectiveness of a traditional university curriculum in helping students improve their critical thinking and scientific literacy. We developed an introductory, general education (gen ed) science course to overcome both deficiencies. The course, titled Foundations of Science, differs from most gen ed science offerings in that it is interdisciplinary; emphasizes the nature of science along with, rather than primarily, the findings of science; incorporates case studies, such as the vaccine-autism controversy; teaches the basics of argumentation and logical fallacies; contrasts science with pseudoscience; and addresses psychological factors that might otherwise lead students to reject scientific ideas they find uncomfortable. Using a pretest versus posttest design, we show that students who completed the experimental course significantly improved their critical-thinking skills and were more willing to engage scientific theories the general public finds controversial (e.g., evolution), while students who completed a traditional gen ed science course did not. Our results demonstrate that a gen ed science course emphasizing the process and application of science rather than just scientific facts can lead to improved critical thinking and scientific literacy. PMID:26231561
You, So Young; Kim, Nam Cho
To develop a Critical Thinking Skill Test for Nursing Students. The construct concepts were drawn from a literature review and in-depth interviews with hospital nurses and surveys were conducted among students (n=607) from nursing colleges. The data were collected from September 13 to November 23, 2012 and analyzed using the SAS program, 9.2 version. The KR 20 coefficient for reliability, difficulty index, discrimination index, item-total correlation and known group technique for validity were performed. Four domains and 27 skills were identified and 35 multiple choice items were developed. Thirty multiple choice items which had scores higher than .80 on the content validity index were selected for the pre test. From the analysis of the pre test data, a modified 30 items were selected for the main test. In the main test, the KR 20 coefficient was .70 and Corrected Item-Total Correlations range was .11-.38. There was a statistically significant difference between two academic systems (p=.001). The developed instrument is the first critical thinking skill test reflecting nursing perspectives in hospital settings and is expected to be utilized as a tool which contributes to improvement of the critical thinking ability of nursing students.
A collection of chapters devoted to various dimensions of how new media interact with diverse conceptions of critical thinking and various traditional understandings of the relationship between critical thinking and faith traditions and claims.......A collection of chapters devoted to various dimensions of how new media interact with diverse conceptions of critical thinking and various traditional understandings of the relationship between critical thinking and faith traditions and claims....
Andreou, Christos; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios
Critical thinking is a desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Learning styles reflect habitual behaviors which determine distinct preferences within learning situations. Evidence suggests that critical thinking could evolve through learning processes. Variances in critical thinking achievement by nursing students might therefore be influenced by individual learning preferences. The concepts "learning styles" and "critical thinking" have been independently examined in the nursing literature. No reviews were found however exploring their association in nursing education. To identify the potential relationships between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. Systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were utilized without geographical and time publishing filters. Hand-searching journals and scanning references from retrieved studies were also performed. Databases were searched for descriptive correlational studies which considered the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. The authors independently progressed three stage screening. Retrieved articles were reviewed at title, abstract and full text levels according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were quality appraised using a rating tool for descriptive studies. Six studies were finally included. Findings were grouped under four key themes: predominant learning styles, critical thinking scoring, critical thinking evolution across academic progress and learning styles-critical thinking correlations. Learning styles' diversities, weak critical thinking and inconsistent evolution through academic progress were revealed across studies. Critical thinking differed significantly between learning styles. Commonly accepted models in nursing education were lacking in both learning styles and critical thinking. Within studies
Michael J Peeters
Full Text Available Objective: The investigators aimed to summarize prior studies of critical thinking development among pharmacy students, using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST, Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT, and Defining Issues Test (DIT. Methods: Independently, two investigators (KLZ, MJP systematically searched available literature using PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsychInfo, as well as pharmacy education conference abstracts in American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Their search terms were ‘pharmacy’, and [‘critical thinking’, ‘HSRT’, ‘CCTST’, and ‘DIT’]. Studies included were those that investigated pharmacy students, used one of the tests (CCTST, HSRT, DIT, and used a longitudinal design with test administration at two or more time-points for the same subjects (i.e., development. On review, the CCTST and HSRT seem more foundational to analytical/critical thinking, while the DIT appears to measure moral/complex thinking. Summarizing used meta-analysis with Cohen’s d and random-effects modelling. Results: Five studies involved thinking development with 10 separate cohorts for meta-analysis (8 cohorts for CCTST, 2 for DIT, and 0 for HSRT. At 5 institutions, 407 and 1148 students were included (CCTST and DIT, respectively. For the CCTST, the overall effect was 0.33 (0.19-0.47 95%CI with some heterogeneity among study cohorts (I2=52%. For the DIT, the overall effect was -0.23 (-0.83-0.37 95%CI with considerable heterogeneity between study cohorts (I2=95%. For the CCTST and DIT, some studies showed effect-sizes greater than 0.5. Meta-analysis of the HSRT could not be conducted (i.e., 0 studies found. Implications: While measuring different aspects of “critical thinking”, the CCTST and DIT showed responsiveness to change and appear to be promising measures of cognitive development. These tests should be used in further well-designed research studies that explore strategies for improving cognitive
This study investigated the relationship between disposition (people’s consistent motivation) toward critical thinking (CT) and worrying. In spite of its connection to psychopathology, worry is thought to represent an effort at problem-solving. Moreover, worry has been found to be underpinned by cognitive development, leading us to predict a positive relationship between worry and CT disposition. On the other hand, cognitive behavioral therapy, which involves techniques similar to CT, has been shown to be effective in reducing worrying, suggesting that increasing CT disposition decreases worrying. This study attempted to reconcile these seemingly contrasting predictions about the relationship between CT disposition and worrying by using multiple mediator analysis. A model was proposed wherein the mediators, responsibility to continue thinking and detached awareness of negative thinking, were related to two opposing predictions. The former is thought to lead to enhanced worrying and the latter to reduced worrying, with both positively related to CT disposition. A questionnaire study with university students (N = 760) revealed that CT disposition enhanced worrying by obliging people to continue thinking about a problem, but that it also reduced worrying by enhancing the detached and objective awareness of their negative thoughts. This study thus demonstrated the dual effects of CT disposition on worrying through different mediators. Thus, when enhancing CT disposition, it is important for educators to be aware of possible disadvantages apart from its worry-reducing effect. Future studies should therefore examine the underlying mechanisms of these two effects of CT disposition. PMID:24278160
Liu, Ou Lydia; Mao, Liyang; Frankel, Lois; Xu, Jun
Critical thinking is a learning outcome highly valued by higher education institutions and the workforce. The Educational Testing Service (ETS) has designed a next generation assessment, the HEIghten™ critical thinking assessment, to measure students' critical thinking skills in analytical and synthetic dimensions. This paper introduces the…
Wagley, Spencer A.
Educators at all levels are expected to provide instruction that promotes critical thinking, but faculty are hindered by time constraints, expertise, and the attitude that critical thinking is taught and learned automatically. From Socrates to Dewey to Bloom to Facione, a firm foundation has been set for critical thinking pedagogies. This study…
The purpose of this research was to examine the effectiveness of the dialectical journal as a tool for teaching critical thinking skills, and to assess middle school teachers' perception of critical thinking. Two groups of middle school students were split into one control and one experimental group. Both groups took a critical thinking test…
Developing students' critical-thinking skills has recently received attention at all levels of education. This article proposes the use of concept-mapping tools to improve students' critical-thinking skills. The article introduces a Web-based concept-mapping tool--Popplet--and demonstrates its application for teaching critical-thinking skills in…
Stephenson, N. S.; Sadler-McKnight, N. P.
The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) laboratory approach is a teaching and learning tool which combines writing, inquiry, collaboration and reflection, and provides scaffolding for the development of critical thinking skills. In this study, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was used to measure the critical thinking skills of…
Muhlisin, Ahmad; Susilo, Herawati; Amin, Mohamad; Rohman, Fatchur
The purposes of this study were to: 1) Examine the effect of RMS learning model towards critical thinking skills. 2) Examine the effect of different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. 3) Examine the effect of the interaction between RMS learning model and different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. The research…
Kunsch, David W.; Schnarr, Karin; van Tyle, Russell
Complex business problems require enhanced critical thinking skills. In a dedicated, in-person critical thinking class, argument mapping techniques were used in conjunction with business and nonbusiness case studies to build the critical thinking skills of a group of master of business administration students. Results demonstrated that the…
This paper examined the use of critical thinking and creativity in teacher education in Nigeria. It observed that the deficit in critical and creative thinking should be of concern to stakeholders in education. The paper examined the concepts of critical thinking and creativity, which were depicted as useful in teacher education ...
Critical thinking has drawn great concern from researchers in America and western world since 1980s. Chinese researchers have come to realize the fundamental function of critical thinking for innovation. However, it does not take effect to cultivate students' critical thinking in English classroom. English classroom activities are generally…
Sundararajan, NarayanKripa; Adesope, Olusola; Cavagnetto, Andy
To develop and nurture critical thinking, students must have opportunities to observe and practice critical thinking in the classroom. In this parallel mixed method classroom study, we investigate the role of collaborative concept mapping in the development of kindergarten learners' critical thinking skills of analysis and interpretation over a…
McDonald, Scott Douglas
Aim/Purpose: Students face many challenges improving their soft skills such as critical thinking. This paper offers one possible solution to this problem. Background: This paper considers one method of enhancing critical thinking through a problem-solving game called the Coffee Shop. Problem-solving is a key component to critical thinking, and…
Simon, Thomas C.
Although critical thinking skills are important for all citizens participating in a democratic society, many community college students appear to lack these skills. This study addressed the apparent lack of research relating critical thinking instruction to campus climate. Critical thinking theory and Moos's organizational climate theory served as…
This paper is an investigation of understandings of critical thinking from two teaching perspectives: academic staff and tutors. It explores critical thinking as situated within an assessment task in introductory macroeconomics. This study found that while the two academic staff conceptualized critical thinking as a set of concrete cognitive…
This paper presents one method for educating for critical thinking in Higher Education. It elaborates Richard Paul's method of Socratic questioning to show how students can learn to be critical thinkers. This method combines and uses the wider pedagogical and critical thinking literature in a new way: it emphasises a thinking-encouraging approach…
Nur Aisyah Isti; Arief Agoestanto; Ary Woro Kurniasih
The purpose of this research was described critical thinking stage of students grade VIII in setting PBL and scaffolding to solve mathematics problems. Critical thinking stage consists of clarification, assesment, inference, and strategy/tactics. The subject were teo students in the level of capacity to think critical (uncritical, less critical, quite critical, and critical). So that this research subject was 8 students in VIII A One State Junior High School of Temanggung. The result showed a...
Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.; Cornell, Caitlyn Nicole; Griffith, Lindsay; Hancock, Julie; Egbert, Brandi
Chemistry students appear to bring significantly higher critical-thinking skill to their nonmajors course than do biology students. Knowing student preconceptions and thinking ability is essential to learning growth and effective teaching. Of the factors investigated, ethnicity and high school physics had the largest impact on critical-thinking…
construing CT as applied logic and reasoning, by far the most common theme emerging from the literature, has come under criticism from “ feminists , critical...discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. 1. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist ...Daycare and Aggression 10 27 27 Girls’ Sports Program Effectiveness 6 20 20 Hormone Replacement Therapy 11 22 22 Leading Questions and Memory 12
Nurismawati, R.; Sanjaya, Y.; Rusyati, L.
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between students’ critical thinking skill and students’ logical thinking skill of Junior High School students in Tasikmalaya city. The respondent consists of 168 students from eighth grade at three public schools in Tasikmalaya City. Science Virtual Test and Test of Logical Thinking were used in this research study. Science virtual test instrument consist of 26 questions with 5 different topics. IBM SPSS 23.00 program was used for analysis of the data. By the findings; students’ critical thinking skill has significant differences in elements of generating purpose, embodying point of view, utilizing concept and making implication and consequence. By Post Hoc LSD Test, from those four elements, there are significant differences between concrete - transitional groups and transitional – concrete groups. There is positive and weak correlation between students’ critical thinking and students’ logical thinking attainment.
Full Text Available Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their learning. Similarly, critical thinking is highly valuable for the study of literature as it explicitly asked for learners’ beliefs, perceptions, and judgments in order to remove the ambiguity of thought. Perfection of thought can be achieved with the use of critical thinking skills while training of mind needs interaction between literary text and the reader as literature has the capacity to achieve mental traits specified to critical thinking. Accordingly, this report presents a relationship between critical thinking skills and English literature study along with reader response theory techniques considering that without the use of critical thinking skills and reader response theory, study of literature is haphazard hence for the application of reader response theory, literary text is inevitable. In essence, I aim to highlight the effectiveness of critical thinking skills for the study of literature while emphasizing the significance of reader response theory which is also inevitable for the study of literature and for the use of critical thinking skills.
Von Colln-Appling, Christina; Giuliano, Danielle
In research literature, the concept of critical thinking has been widely utilized in nursing education. However, critical thinking has been defined and evaluated using a variety of methods. This paper presents a concept analysis to define and clarify the concept of critical thinking to provide a deeper understanding of how critical thinking can be incorporated into nursing education through the use of simulation exercises. A theoretical definition and sample cases were developed to illuminate the concept as well as a discussion of the antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents of critical thinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kanbay, Yalçın; Okanlı, Ayşe
The aim of this study is to examine the effect of critical thinking education on nursing students' problem-solving skills. This study was conducted with 93 nursing students, 49 in the control group and 44 in the education group. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and the Problem-solving Inventory were administered to them before and after 12 weeks of critical thinking education. The education group's mean critical thinking score was 253.61 on the pretest and 268.72 on the posttest. This increase was statistically significant (p skills of education group increased significantly (p critical thinking education improves problem-solving skills.
Rowe, Matthew P; Gillespie, B Marcus; Harris, Kevin R; Koether, Steven D; Shannon, Li-Jen Y; Rose, Lori A
Recent studies question the effectiveness of a traditional university curriculum in helping students improve their critical thinking and scientific literacy. We developed an introductory, general education (gen ed) science course to overcome both deficiencies. The course, titled Foundations of Science, differs from most gen ed science offerings in that it is interdisciplinary; emphasizes the nature of science along with, rather than primarily, the findings of science; incorporates case studies, such as the vaccine-autism controversy; teaches the basics of argumentation and logical fallacies; contrasts science with pseudoscience; and addresses psychological factors that might otherwise lead students to reject scientific ideas they find uncomfortable. Using a pretest versus posttest design, we show that students who completed the experimental course significantly improved their critical-thinking skills and were more willing to engage scientific theories the general public finds controversial (e.g., evolution), while students who completed a traditional gen ed science course did not. Our results demonstrate that a gen ed science course emphasizing the process and application of science rather than just scientific facts can lead to improved critical thinking and scientific literacy. © 2015 M. P. Rowe, B. M. Gillespie, et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Garwood, Janet K; Ahmed, Azza H; McComb, Sara A
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of using concept maps as a teaching and learning strategy on students' critical thinking abilities and examine students' perceptions toward concept maps utilizing the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Researchers have found that almost two thirds of nurse graduates do not have adequate critical thinking skills for a beginner nurse. Critical thinking skills are required for safe practice and mandated by accrediting organizations. Nursing educators should consider teaching and learning strategies that promote the development of critical thinking skills. A literature review was conducted using "concept maps, nursing education, and critical thinking" as the combined search terms. Inclusion criteria were studies that measured the effects of concept mapping on critical thinking in nursing students. Seventeen articles were identified. Concept maps may be useful tools to promote critical thinking in nursing education and for applying theory to practice.
Gorton, Karen L; Hayes, Janice
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a relationship between critical thinking skills and clinical judgment in nurse practitioner students. The study used a convenience, nonprobability sampling technique, engaging participants from across the United States. Correlational analysis demonstrated no statistically significant relationship between critical thinking skills and examination-style questions, critical thinking skills and scores on the evaluation and reevaluation of consequences subscale of the Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale, and critical thinking skills and the preceptor evaluation tool. The study found no statistically significant relationships between critical thinking skills and clinical judgment. Educators and practitioners could consider further research in these areas to gain insight into how critical thinking is and could be measured, to gain insight into the clinical decision making skills of nurse practitioner students, and to gain insight into the development and measurement of critical thinking skills in advanced practice educational programs. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Zhang, Huan; Lambert, Vickie
Although considerable information exists regarding the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of nursing students from Western countries, limited comparable information exists within China. The purposes of this study were to assess the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students and to identify the relationships among the learning styles, critical thinking dispositions, and demographics. The sample consisted of 100 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students enrolled at two universities. The data were obtained through a Demographic Data Questionnaire, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the Index of Learning Styles. The primary learning style dimensions were found to be reflective, sensing, visual, and global, while the critically thinking abilities was found to be weak. A number of positive and negative correlations were found among the demographics, learning styles, and critical thinking dispositions. These findings suggest further examination on how to increase nursing students' critical thinking skills based upon their preferred learning styles.
Samy A. Azer
Full Text Available Portfolios have been used in the medical curriculum to evaluate difficult-to-assess areas such as students' attitudes, professionalism and teamwork. However, their use early in a problem-based learning (PBL course to foster deep learning and enhance students' self-directed learning has not been adequately studied. The aims of this paper are to: (1 understand the uses of portfolios and the rationale for using reflection in the early years of a PBL curriculum; (2 discuss how to introduce portfolios and encourage students' critical thinking skills, not just reflection; and (3 provide students with tips that could enhance their skills in constructing good portfolios.
Blum, Cynthia A
The purpose of this pilot interventional study was to examine relationships between adjunctive podcast viewing and nursing students' critical thinking (CT) abilities. Participants were last semester/preceptorship nursing students. The intervention group was given unrestricted access to a CT podcast. There was no statistical significance between Health Sciences Reasoning Test pretest and posttest scores, the number of times the podcast was viewed, and specific demographic factors. The results suggest that CT podcast viewing did not improve CT abilities. However, Likert scale results indicated students liked this method of learning. Demographic factors and sample size were limited, and further research is recommended.
Full Text Available There are empirical grounds to doubt the effectiveness of a common and intuitive approach to teaching debiasing strategies in critical thinking courses. We summarize some of the grounds before suggesting a broader taxonomy of debiasing strategies. This four-level taxonomy enables a useful diagnosis of biasing factors and situations, and illuminates more strategies for more effective bias mitigation located in the shaping of situational factors and reasoning infrastructure. The question, we contend, then becomes how best to teach the construction and use of such infrastructures.
Ronald A. Styron, Jr.
Full Text Available In numerous studies relative to collaboration and critical thinking, an instructional strategy called Team- Based Learning has proven to be an effective approach to teaching and learning. Team-Based Learning utilizes a specific sequence of individual work, group work and immediate feedback to create a motivational framework in which students increasingly hold each other accountable for coming to class prepared and contributing to discussion. Using an action research conceptual model diffusion of innovation theory, the process of P-20 quality enhancement using Team-Based Learning is examined.
Ruthman, Jacklyn; Jackson, Janet; Cluskey, Maureen; Flannigan, Peggy; Folse, Victoria N; Bunten, Jo
Clinical journaling is used as an integrated teaching methodology throughout the practicum component of a baccalaureate nursing curriculum. Two disciplines, Nursing and English, collaborated to develop clinical journaling guidelines to provide a consistent framework for student learning and evaluation in a variety of clinical settings. Students complete a weekly log for each clinical rotation. They identify learning goals, analyze events and relate them to nursing practice, use critical thinking to connect theory and practice, and reflect on the experience.A collegiate standard of writing is used. As the student advances through the program, a pattern of accomplishments and a cumulative integration of skills is evidenced to provide consistent standards for student evaluation.
Simulated learning experiences using high-fidelity human patient simulators (HPS) are increasingly being integrated into baccalaureate nursing programs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine relationships among learning style, critical thinking disposition, critical thinking, and clinical judgment during high-fidelity human patient…
Danczak, S. M.; Thompson, C. D.; Overton, T. L.
Good critical thinking is important to the development of students and a valued skill in commercial markets and wider society. There has been much discussion regarding the definition of critical thinking and how it is best taught in higher education. This discussion has generally occurred between philosophers, cognitive psychologists and education…
Burke, Brian L.; Sears, Sharon R.; Kraus, Sue; Roberts-Cady, Sarah
This study compared changes in psychology and philosophy classes in two distinct components of critical thinking (CT): general skills and personal beliefs. Participants were 128 undergraduates enrolled in CT in psychology, other psychology courses, or philosophy courses. CT and philosophy students significantly reduced beliefs in paranormal…
Danvers, Emily Clair
Critical thinking is often understood as a set of tangible, transferrable and measurable skills and competencies. Yet, it is also an intensely affective experience that is complex, contingent and contextualised. Using interview, focus group and observation data conducted with 15 first-year undergraduate social science students at a UK…
Kabeel, Abeer Refaat; Eisa, Sahar Abd El-Mohsen Mosa
Background: Part of the 21st century skills is critical thinking and learning approaches of students. A part of that resurgence can be attributable to several studies on critical thinking, logic, and thinking skills. Health care professionals are challenged by the complexities of the health care environment. The practice of nursing requires…
deNoyelles, Aimee; Reyes-Foster, Beatriz
Being actively engaged in a task is often associated with critical thinking. Cultivating critical thinking skills, such as purposefully reflecting and analyzing one's own thinking, is a major goal of higher education. However, there is a challenge in providing college students opportunities to clearly demonstrate these skills in online courses.…
Studies on critical thinking (CT) in education have been of paramount importance in recent decades to help individuals develop skills such as analyzing, synthesizing, higher-order thinking, and assessing. In line with such studies, this study aims to examine aspects of critical thinking dispositions of Turkish adult learners of English in a…
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between critical thinking and metacognition. The sample of study consists of 390 university students who were enrolled in different programs at Sakarya University, in Turkey. In this study, the Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Metacognitive Thinking Scale were used. The relationships…
Stedman, Nicole L. P.; Andenoro, Anthony C.
Engaging students emotionally is the key to strengthening their dispositions toward critical thinking. Elder (1997) contends that it is critical thinking which leads us to a rational and reasonable emotional life. The link between thinking and emotions is essential in leadership education. With this in mind, the researchers sought to examine the…
Hayes, Margaret M; Chatterjee, Souvik; Schwartzstein, Richard M
Critical thinking, the capacity to be deliberate about thinking, is increasingly the focus of undergraduate medical education, but is not commonly addressed in graduate medical education. Without critical thinking, physicians, and particularly residents, are prone to cognitive errors, which can lead to diagnostic errors, especially in a high-stakes environment such as the intensive care unit. Although challenging, critical thinking skills can be taught. At this time, there is a paucity of data to support an educational gold standard for teaching critical thinking, but we believe that five strategies, routed in cognitive theory and our personal teaching experiences, provide an effective framework to teach critical thinking in the intensive care unit. The five strategies are: make the thinking process explicit by helping learners understand that the brain uses two cognitive processes: type 1, an intuitive pattern-recognizing process, and type 2, an analytic process; discuss cognitive biases, such as premature closure, and teach residents to minimize biases by expressing uncertainty and keeping differentials broad; model and teach inductive reasoning by utilizing concept and mechanism maps and explicitly teach how this reasoning differs from the more commonly used hypothetico-deductive reasoning; use questions to stimulate critical thinking: "how" or "why" questions can be used to coach trainees and to uncover their thought processes; and assess and provide feedback on learner's critical thinking. We believe these five strategies provide practical approaches for teaching critical thinking in the intensive care unit.
Full Text Available In traditional analytic philosophy, critical thinking is defined along Cartesian lines as rational and linear reasoning preclusive of intuitions, emotions and lived experience. According to Michael Gilbert, this view – which he calls the Natural Light Theory (NLT – fails because it arbitrarily excludes standard feminist forms of argumentation and neglects the essentially social nature of argumentation. In this paper, I argue that while Gilbert’s criticism is correct for argumentation in general, NLT fails in a distinctive and particularly problematic manner in moral argumentation contexts. This is because NLT calls for disputants to adopt an impartial attitude, which overlooks the fact that moral disputants qua moral agents are necessarily partial to their own values and interests. Adopting the impartial perspective would therefore alienate them from their values and interests, causing a kind of “moral schizophrenia.” Finally, I urge a re-valuation of epistemic virtue in argumentation.
This paper critically examines the contemporary educational discourse on critical thinking as one of the primary aims of education, its modernist defence and its postmodernist criticism, so as to explore a new way of conceptualizing critical thinking for moral education. What is at stake in this task is finding a plausible answer to the question…
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a revised version of the clinical critical thinking skills test (CCTS and to subsequently validate its performance. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of the CCTS. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 284 college students in June 2011. Thirty items were analyzed using item response theory and test reliability was assessed. Test-retest reliability was measured using the results of 20 nursing college and graduate school students in July 2013. The content validity of the revised items was analyzed by calculating the degree of agreement between instrument developer intention in item development and the judgments of six experts. To analyze response process validity, qualitative data related to the response processes of nine nursing college students obtained through cognitive interviews were analyzed. Results: Out of initial 30 items, 11 items were excluded after the analysis of difficulty and discrimination parameter. When the 19 items of the revised version of the CCTS were analyzed, levels of item difficulty were found to be relatively low and levels of discrimination were found to be appropriate or high. The degree of agreement between item developer intention and expert judgments equaled or exceeded 50%. Conclusion: From above results, evidence of the response process validity was demonstrated, indicating that subjects respondeds as intended by the test developer. The revised 19-item CCTS was found to have sufficient reliability and validity and will therefore represents a more convenient measurement of critical thinking ability.
Shin, Sujin; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Sungeun
The purpose of this study was to develop a revised version of the clinical critical thinking skills test (CCTS) and to subsequently validate its performance. This study is a secondary analysis of the CCTS. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 284 college students in June 2011. Thirty items were analyzed using item response theory and test reliability was assessed. Test-retest reliability was measured using the results of 20 nursing college and graduate school students in July 2013. The content validity of the revised items was analyzed by calculating the degree of agreement between instrument developer intention in item development and the judgments of six experts. To analyze response process validity, qualitative data related to the response processes of nine nursing college students obtained through cognitive interviews were analyzed. Out of initial 30 items, 11 items were excluded after the analysis of difficulty and discrimination parameter. When the 19 items of the revised version of the CCTS were analyzed, levels of item difficulty were found to be relatively low and levels of discrimination were found to be appropriate or high. The degree of agreement between item developer intention and expert judgments equaled or exceeded 50%. From above results, evidence of the response process validity was demonstrated, indicating that subjects respondeds as intended by the test developer. The revised 19-item CCTS was found to have sufficient reliability and validity and will therefore represents a more convenient measurement of critical thinking ability.
Bittner, Nancy Phoenix; Gravlin, Gayle
The aim of this study was to understand how nurses use critical thinking to delegate nursing care. Nurses must synthesize large amounts of information and think through complex and often emergent clinical situations when making critical decisions about patient care, including delegation. A qualitative, descriptive study was used in this article. Before delegating, nurses reported considering patient condition, competency, experience, and workload of unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP). Nurses expected UAP to report significant findings and have higher level knowledge, including assessment and prioritizing skills. Successful delegation was dependent on the relationship between the RN and the UAP, communication, system support, and nursing leadership. Nurses reported frequent instances of missed or omitted routine care. Findings from this project provide insight into factors that influence delegation effectiveness. These can guide CNOs and frontline nurse leaders to focus on implementing strategies to mitigate the consequence of missed care. Ineffective delegation of basic nursing care can result in poor patient outcomes, potentially impacting quality measures, satisfaction, and reimbursement for the institution.
A’am Rifaldi Khunaifi
Full Text Available This study is directed to find out whether teaching critical thinking affects the writing ability of argumentative essay. This research employed quasi experimental design as it was intended to measure the effects of the strategy on the students’ ability in writing argumentative essay. The samples of the study were the students of class A and B enrolled in the seventh semester of the English Education Department of State Islamic College of Palangka Raya. To collect the data needed, it was used test as the instrument; it was Academic Writing for IELTS Test. The data were processed and analyzed by using SPSS 19.0 statistic technique of independent t-test and paired-sample t-test, and the analized data were concluded. From the result of the test, the independent t-test calculation in posttest scores in both groups shows that the significance value is higher than level of significance (0.194 > 0.05. It indicates that there is no significant difference between experimental and control groups. Moreover, the paired t-test calculation shows the result of paired sample test (0.000 < 0.05 in which there is a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores in experimental group after having treatments. Keywords: critical thinking, writing ability, argumentative essay
Full Text Available An action research study was conducted among 24 Form 4 level Malaysian students, aged 16. The duration of the study was five months and constituted 16 one-hour literature lessons (short stories from the secondary level Malaysian English Language Upper Secondary Level school syllabus. This paper describes my experience as a teacher-as-researcher to assist students to respond to teacher questions through Paul’s (1993 model of Socratic Questioning which claims to develop students’ critical thinking. Data was collected through researcher’s field notes, students’ writing tasks and student interviews which were analysed after each cycle of the action research study. Changes and adaptations were consequently made based on the data collected and upon teacher reflection to improve practice. The results of this study indicate that repeated practice of Socratic Questioning had a positive effect on student responses and writing tasks. Some of the factors affecting students’ performance included students’ language proficiency, weak reading ability and students’ anxiety towards the questioning method. These issues had to be addressed and dealt with, before Socratic Questioning could be properly implemented in the classroom. Keywords: Socratic questioning, teacher questioning, critical thinking, action research
Leda Maria Braga Tomitch
Full Text Available What else is there besides multiple choice exercises, questions or true-false statements? What kind of readers do we EFL/ESL teachers, want to develop? Fortunately, there are alternative possibilities for designing reading activities which, besides being more interesting and fun for the students than the traditional tasks, can help develop more active and critical readers. A search in EFL/ESL reading textbooks has revealed that the most frequently encountered types of reading activities are comprehension questions, multiple-choice exercises, and true-false statements (Tomitch, in press a. These tasks have been used throughout the history of language teaching, and one must agree that they have their merits. However, there are reasons why they should not be used as the only source of activity in the classroom. What else is there besides multiple choice exercises, questions or true-false statements? What kind of readers do we EFL/ESL teachers, want to develop? Fortunately, there are alternative possibilities for designing reading activities which, besides being more interesting and fun for the students than the traditional tasks, can help develop more active and critical readers. A search in EFL/ESL reading textbooks has revealed that the most frequently encountered types of reading activities are comprehension questions, multiple-choice exercises, and true-false statements (Tomitch, in press a. These tasks have been used throughout the history of language teaching, and one must agree that they have their merits. However, there are reasons why they should not be used as the only source of activity in the classroom.
Ludin, Salizar Mohamed
A critical thinker may not necessarily be a good decision-maker, but critical care nurses are expected to utilise outstanding critical thinking skills in making complex clinical judgements. Studies have shown that critical care nurses' decisions focus mainly on doing rather than reflecting. To date, the link between critical care nurses' critical thinking and decision-making has not been examined closely in Malaysia. To understand whether critical care nurses' critical thinking disposition affects their clinical decision-making skills. This was a cross-sectional study in which Malay and English translations of the Short Form-Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory-Chinese Version (SF-CTDI-CV) and the Clinical Decision-making Nursing Scale (CDMNS) were used to collect data from 113 nurses working in seven critical care units of a tertiary hospital on the east coast of Malaysia. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling in October 2015. Critical care nurses perceived both their critical thinking disposition and decision-making skills to be high, with a total score of 71.5 and a mean of 48.55 for the SF-CTDI-CV, and a total score of 161 and a mean of 119.77 for the CDMNS. One-way ANOVA test results showed that while age, gender, ethnicity, education level and working experience factors significantly impacted critical thinking (pnurses' critical thinking and clinical decision-making (r=0.637, p=0.001). While this small-scale study has shown a relationship exists between critical care nurses' critical thinking disposition and clinical decision-making in one hospital, further investigation using the same measurement tools is needed into this relationship in diverse clinical contexts and with greater numbers of participants. Critical care nurses' perceived high level of critical thinking and decision-making also needs further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zygmont, Dolores M; Schaefer, Karen Moore
The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine the critical thinking skills of nurse faculty and to examine the relationship between epistemological position and critical thinking. Most participants reported having no education on critical thinking. Data were collected using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the Learning Environment Preferences (LEP). Findings from the CCTST indicated that faculty varied considerably in their ability to think critically; LEP findings suggested that participants had not reached the intellectual level needed for critical thinking. In addition, 12 faculty participated in one-hour telephone interviews in which they described experiences in which students demonstrated critical thinking. Despite a lack of clarity on the definition of critical thinking, faculty described clinical examples where students engaged in analysis, inference, and evaluation. Based on these findings, it is recommended that faculty transfer their ability to engage students in critical thinking in the clinical setting to the classroom setting. Benchmarks can be established based on the ability of faculty to engage in critical thinking.
Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Eng, Cheng-Joo; Ko, Hui-Ling
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between caring behavior and the disposition toward critical thinking of nursing students in clinical practice. A structural equation model was used to test the hypothesized relationship between caring behavior and critical thinking skills. Caring is the core of nursing practice, and the disposition toward critical thinking is needed for competent nursing care. In a fast-paced and complex environment, however, "caring" may be lost. Because nursing students will become professional nurses, it is essential to explore their caring behaviors and critical thinking skills and to understand how to improve their critical thinking skills based on their caring behavior. A cross-sectional study was used, with convenience sampling of students who were participating in associate degree nursing programs at 3 colleges of nursing. The following instruments were used: critical thinking disposition inventory Chinese version and caring behaviors scale. The study found that individuals with a higher frequency of caring behaviors had a higher score on critical thinking about nursing practice (β = .44, t = 5.14, P critical thinking. The findings of this study revealed the importance of caring behavior and its relationship with the disposition toward critical thinking. Thus, it is recommended that nursing education should emphasize a curriculum related to caring behavior to improve the disposition toward critical thinking of nursing students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nair, Girija G; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg
Nurses must be talented critical thinkers to cope with the challenges related to the ever-changing health care system, population trends, and extended role expectations. Several countries now recognize critical thinking skills (CTS) as an expected outcome of nursing education programs. Critical thinking has been defined in multiple ways by philosophers, critical thinking experts, and educators. Nursing experts conceptualize critical thinking as a process involving cognitive and affective domains of reasoning. Nurse educators are often challenged with teaching and measuring CTS because of their latent nature and the lack of a uniform definition of the concept. In this review of the critical thinking literature, we examine various definitions, identify a set of constructs that define critical thinking, and suggest a conceptual framework on which to base a self-assessment scale for measuring CTS. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Whittington, A. G.
Ability to think critically is a key ingredient to the scientific mindset. Students who take science courses may or may not be predisposed to critical thinking - the ability to evaluate information analytically. Regardless of their initial stages, students can significantly improve their critical thinking through learning and practicing their reasoning skills, critical assessments, conducting and reflecting on observations and experiments, building their questioning and communication skills, and through the use of other techniques. While, there are several of teaching methods that may help to improve critical thinking, there are only a few assessment instruments that can help in evaluating the efficacy of these methods. Critical thinking skills and improvement in those skills are notoriously difficult to measure. Assessments that are based on multiple-choice questions demonstrate students’ final decisions but not their thinking processes. In addition, during the course of studies students may develop subject-based critical thinking while not being able to extend the skills to the general critical thinking. As such, we wanted to design and conduct a study on efficacy of several teaching methods in which we would learn how students’ improve their thinking processes within a science discipline as well as in everyday life situations. We conducted a study among 20 astronomy, physics and geology majors-- both graduate and undergraduate students-- enrolled in our Solar System Science course (mostly seniors and early graduate students) at the University of Missouri. We used the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay test to assess students’ general critical thinking and, in addition, we implemented our own subject-based critical thinking assessment. Here, we present the results of this study and share our experience on designing a subject-based critical thinking assessment instrument.
The problem-based learning (PBL) approach was implemented as a treatment for higher education visual arts students over one semester to examine its effect on the creative thinking and critical thinking disposition of these students. PBL had a significant effect on creative thinking, but critical thinking disposition was affected to a lesser…
Kuntze, Sebastian; Aizikovitsh-Udi, Einav; Clarke, David
Stimulating thinking related to mathematical content is the focus of many tasks in the mathematics classroom. Beyond such content-related thinking, promoting forms of higher order thinking is among the goals of mathematics instruction as well. So-called hybrid tasks focus on combining both goals: they aim at fostering mathematical thinking and…
Huang, Grace C; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M
Critical thinking is central to the function of health care professionals. However, this topic is not explicitly taught or assessed within current programs, yet the need is greater than ever, in an era of information explosion, spiraling health care costs, and increased understanding about metacognition. To address the importance of teaching critical thinking in health professions education, the Shapiro Institute for Education and Research and the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation jointly sponsored the Millennium Conference 2011 on Critical Thinking. Teams of physician and nurse educators were selected through an application process. Attendees proposed strategies for integrating principles of critical thinking more explicitly into health professions curricula. Working in interprofessional, multi-institutional groups, participants tackled questions about teaching, assessment, and faculty development. Deliberations were summarized into consensus statements. Educational leaders participated in a structured dialogue about the enhancement of critical thinking in health professions education and recommend strategies to teach critical thinking.
Naber, Jessica L; Hall, Joanne; Schadler, Craig Matthew
This study sought to identify characteristics of clinically situated critical thinking in nursing students' reflections, originally part of a study guided by Richard Paul's model of critical thinking. Nurses are expected to apply critical thinking in all practice situations to improve health outcomes, including patient safety and satisfaction. In a previous study, Paul's model of critical thinking was used to develop questions for reflective writing assignments. Within that study, 30 nursing students completed six open-ended narratives of nurse-patient clinical encounters during an 8-week period. Improvements were seen in critical thinking scores after the intervention. This article reports the qualitative analysis of the content of six open-ended narratives. Six overarching themes were identified and combined into a tentative conceptual model. Faculty's understanding of the characteristics of critical thinking in the context of clinical education will help them to teach and evaluate students' progress and competencies for future practice.
Du, Xiangyun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU....... Total CT score was higher in PBL students (n=170) than non-PBL students (n=83) (304.7±36.8 vs. 279.2±39.4, p ...). There was no significant difference in terms of gender on the total CT score, though minor differences were seen in subscales favoring female PBL students. PBL students had higher CCS scores than non-PBL students, but not significantly (112.8±20.6 vs. 107.3±16.5; p=0.11). There was no significant correlation between CCS...
Hsu, Hsiu-Ying; Chang, Shu-Chen; Chang, Ai-Ling; Chen, Shiah-Lian
Critical thinking disposition (CTD) is crucial for nurse practitioners who face complex patient care scenarios. This study explored the CTD of nurse practitioners and related factors. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive design. A purposive sample was recruited from a medical center and its hospital branches in central Taiwan. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 210 nurse practitioners. The participants obtained the highest average score on systematicity and analyticity. CTD had a significant positive correlation with fundamental knowledge readiness, professional knowledge readiness, and confidence in making clinical decisions. Professional knowledge readiness, education level, and on-the-job training predicted the score of the participants on overall CTD. On-the-job training and education level may influence the CTD of nurse practitioners. Providing formal or on-the-job continuing education training to nurse practitioners may help enhance their CTD. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(9):425-430. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Peter H. Harasym
Full Text Available Health care is fallible and prone to diagnostic and management errors. The major categories of diagnostic errors include: (1 no-fault errors—the disease is present but not detected; (2 system errors—a diagnosis is delayed or missed because of the imperfection in the health care system; and (3 cognitive errors—a misdiagnosis from faulty data collection or interpretation, flawed reasoning, or incomplete knowledge. Approximately one third of patient problems are mismanaged because of diagnostic errors. Part of the solution lies in improving the diagnostic skills and critical thinking abilities of physicians as they progress through medical school and residency training. However, this task is challenging since both medical problem-solving and the learning environments are complex and not easily understood. There are many interacting variables including the motivation of the medical student (e.g. deep versus surface learning, the acquisition and evolution of declarative and conditional knowledge (e.g. reduced, dispersed, elaborated, scheme, and scripted, problem-solving strategies (e.g. procedural knowledge—guessing, hypothetical deductive, scheme inductive, and pattern recognition, curricular models (e.g. apprenticeship, discipline-based, body system-based, case-based, clinical presentation-based, teaching strategies (e.g. teaching general to specific or specific to general, the presented learning opportunities (PBL versus scheme inductive PBL, and the nature of the learning environment (e.g. modeling critical thinking and expert problem-solving. This paper elaborates on how novices differ from experts and how novices can be educated in a manner that enhances their level of expertise and diagnostic abilities as they progress through several years of medical training.
Gordon, Joanne M.
Nurse educators (n=201) identified their concept of critical thinking and agreement with nonnurse experts (a Delphi panel of academic scholars) on critical thinking items. They agreed on skills and dispositions, but nurse educators were more likely to consider research, problem solving, decision making, and planning as critical thinking…
Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve
This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…
Full Text Available Mindfulness originated in the Buddhist tradition as a way of cultivating clarity of thought. Despite the fact that this behaviour is best captured using critical thinking assessments, no studies have examined the effects of mindfulness on critical thinking or the mechanisms underlying any such possible relationship. Even so, mindfulness has been suggested as being beneficial for critical thinking in higher education. Critical thinking is recognised as an important higher-order cognitive process which involves the ability to analyse and evaluate evidence and arguments. Such non-automatic, reflective responses generally require the engagement of executive functioning which includes updating, inhibition and shifting of representations in working memory. Based on research showing that mindfulness enhances aspects of executive functioning and certain higher-order cognitive processes, we hypothesised that individuals higher in facets of dispositional mindfulness would demonstrate greater critical thinking performance, and that this relationship would be mediated by executive functioning. Cross-sectional assessment of these constructs in a sample of 178 university students was achieved using the observing and non-reactivity sub-scales of the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, a battery of executive functioning tasks and the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment. Our hypotheses were tested by constructing a multiple meditation model which was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling. Evidence was found for inhibition mediating the relationships between both observing and non-reactivity and critical thinking in different ways. Indirect-only (or full mediation was demonstrated for the relationship between observing, inhibition and critical thinking. Competitive mediation was demonstrated for the relationship between non-reactivity, inhibition and critical thinking. This suggests additional mediators of the relationship between non-reactivity and
Scott D McDonald
Aim/Purpose: Students face many challenges improving their soft skills such as critical thinking. This paper offers one possible solution to this problem. Background: This paper considers one method of enhancing critical thinking through a problem-solving game called the Coffee Shop. Problem-solving is a key component to critical thinking, and game-playing is one method of enhancing this through an interactive teaching method. Methodology: Three classes of Vietnamese high school stude...
Adams, M H; Whitlow, J F; Stover, L M; Johnson, K W
Critical thinking, an outcome criterion of the National League for Nursing and the Council of Baccalaureate and Higher Degree Programs, is an abstract skill difficult to measure. The authors provide a comprehensive review of four instruments designed to measure critical thinking and summarize research in which the tools were used. Analysis of this information will empower nursing faculty members to select a critical-thinking instrument that is individualized to the needs of their respective nursing programs.
nurul, didin; zahra anasha, zara
Critical mathematic thinking ability is very important to solve daily problems. But in reality, junior high school students' critical mathematic thinking ability is still low. Ability measurement such as measurement of critical mathematic thinking ability cannot be measured through multiple choices test. In that case, an essay test in which graded scoring is used as scoring technique more suitable than multiple choices test. The result of the essay test will be analyzed to describe...
Critical thinking, while highly valued as an ability of health care providers, remains a skill that many educators find difficult to teach. This review provides an analysis examining why current methods of teaching critical thinking to health care students (primarily medical and pharmacy students) often fail and describes a premise and potential utility of the Socratic method as a tool to teach critical thinking in health care education. PMID:25258449
Oyler, Douglas R; Romanelli, Frank
Critical thinking, while highly valued as an ability of health care providers, remains a skill that many educators find difficult to teach. This review provides an analysis examining why current methods of teaching critical thinking to health care students (primarily medical and pharmacy students) often fail and describes a premise and potential utility of the Socratic method as a tool to teach critical thinking in health care education.
Baldwin, Dolly Angela Serreno
There has been little research which shows that students use critical thinking skills when they write. The use of journal writing has been studied for a variety of purposes, but little evidence exists that journal writing can enhance critical thinking skills. The writing assignments presented in this study were designed to enhance the critical thinking skills of college students enrolled in a reading methods course at a small college in southern West Virginia. Case studies were used to descri...
Broome, Jeffrey; Pereira, Adriane; Anderson, Tom
Recent educational initiatives have emphasised the importance of fostering critical thinking skills in today's students in order to provide strategies for becoming successful problem solvers throughout life. Other scholars advocate the use of critical thinking skills on the grounds that such tools can be used effectively when considering social…
Osman, Sharifah; Mohammad, Shahrin; Abu, Mohd Salleh
Mathematics and engineering are inexorably and significantly linked and essentially required in analyzing and accessing thought to make good judgment when dealing in complex and varied engineering problems. A study in the current engineering education curriculum to explore how the critical thinking and mathematical thinking relates to one another, is therefore timely crucial. Unfortunately, there is not much information available explicating about the link. This paper aims to report findings of a critical review as well as to provide brief description of an on-going research aimed to investigate the dispositions of critical thinking and the relationship and integration between critical thinking and mathematical thinking during the execution of civil engineering tasks. The first part of the paper reports an in-depth review on these matters based on rather limited resources. The review showed a considerable form of congruency between these two perspectives of thinking, with some prevalent trends of engineering workplace tasks, problems and challenges. The second part describes an on-going research to be conducted by the researcher to investigate rigorously the relationship and integration between these two types of thinking within the perspective of civil engineering tasks. A reasonably close non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews will be executed for the pilot and main stages of the study. The data will be analyzed using constant comparative analysis in which the grounded theory methodology will be adopted. The findings will serve as a useful grounding for constructing a substantive theory revealing the integral relationship between critical thinking and mathematical thinking in the real civil engineering practice context. The substantive theory, from an angle of view, is expected to contribute some additional useful information to the engineering program outcomes and engineering education instructions, aligns with the expectations of
Kim, Dong Hee; Moon, Seongmi; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Young-Ju; Lee, Sunhee
The development of critical thinking dispositions has become an important issue in nursing education in Korea. Nursing colleges in Korea have developed teaching strategies and curricula that focus on developing critical thinking dispositions. It is an imperative step that evaluates the changing pattern and development of students' critical thinking dispositions. This study identified critical thinking dispositions of Korean nursing students according to academic level and satisfaction with nursing. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 1074 students in four colleges who completed the self-reported Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Descriptive and univariate general linear model analyses were performed. The critical thinking disposition score increased according to academic level until junior year, after which it decreased in the senior year. Nursing students who were satisfied with nursing reported higher levels of critical thinking than those who were not satisfied or who responded neutrally. The critical thinking scores of nursing students not satisfied with nursing dropped greatly in the senior year. These results suggest the importance of targeting the development of curriculum and teaching methods for seniors and students who have a lower level of satisfaction with nursing to increase their critical thinking dispositions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raymond, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Myrick, Florence; Strean, William B
Critical thinking is an important indicator of student learning and is an essential outcome of baccalaureate nursing education. The role of nurse educators in the development of students' critical thinking has been overlooked despite the importance of their actions to facilitate critical thinking in nursing education. We used a constructivist grounded theory approach within a larger mixed methods triangulation study to explore how nurse educators revealed their critical thinking in practice. From the grounded theory approach, a model emerged from our research, outlining the important aspects of nurse educators' critical thinking and how it is revealed in the clinical setting. The important categories of this model include: a) fostering the student-educator relationship; b) role modeling critical thinking; c) mobilizing and operationalizing resources; as well as d) balancing factors that impact nurse educators' critical thinking. Our findings inform what is known about nurse educators' critical thinking and how it can be implemented in nurse educators' teaching practice. Given our findings, we offer recommendations for future nursing education practice and research, including the need to apply our findings in additional settings and further develop nurse educators' awareness of their own critical thinking. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mansooreh Tajvidi, PhD
Conclusion: Critical thinking is a logical, situational, purposive, and outcome-oriented thinking process. It is an acquired and evolving ability which develops individually. Such thinking process could lead to the professional accountability, personal development, God's consent, conscience appeasement, and personality development.
Bassett, Molly H.
In this essay, I explore an exam format that pairs multiple-choice questions with required rationales. In a space adjacent to each multiple-choice question, students explain why or how they arrived at the answer they selected. This exercise builds the critical thinking skill known as metacognition, thinking about thinking, into an exam that also…
Mun, Mi Suk
The development of students' critical thinking abilities is one of the greatest challenges facing contemporary nursing educators. Nursing educators should know about what kind of contents or situations need critical thinking. The research was undertaken to identify the critical thinking contexts that nursing students confront in psychiatric clinical practices. Students were asked to document their everyday experience. The narratives were analysed and interpreted from the philosophical notion of hermeneutics. Four themes emerged as critical thinking contexts: anxiety, conflict, hyper-awareness, dilemmas. Writing narratives appear to provide opportunities for reflection in addition to facilitating critical thinking and communicative skills in students. Also, for the instructor, students' clinical narratives could provide insight to understand how students are thinking and to share student's personal difficulties.
Phan, Huy P
This article presents a theoretically grounded model of critical thinking and self-regulation in the context of teaching and learning. Critical thinking, deriving from an educational psychology perspective is a complex process of reflection that helps individuals become more analytical in their thinking and professional development. My conceptualisation in this discussion paper argues that both theoretical orientations (critical thinking and self-regulation) operate in a dynamic interactive system of teaching and learning. My argument, based on existing research evidence, suggests two important points: (i) critical thinking acts as another cognitive strategy of self-regulation that learners use in their learning, and (ii) critical thinking may be a product of various antecedents such as different self-regulatory strategies.
Quitadamo, Ian J; Faiola, Celia L; Johnson, James E; Kurtz, Martha J
National stakeholders are becoming increasingly concerned about the inability of college graduates to think critically. Research shows that, while both faculty and students deem critical thinking essential, only a small fraction of graduates can demonstrate the thinking skills necessary for academic and professional success. Many faculty are considering nontraditional teaching methods that incorporate undergraduate research because they more closely align with the process of doing investigative science. This study compared a research-focused teaching method called community-based inquiry (CBI) with traditional lecture/laboratory in general education biology to discover which method would elicit greater gains in critical thinking. Results showed significant critical-thinking gains in the CBI group but decreases in a traditional group and a mixed CBI/traditional group. Prior critical-thinking skill, instructor, and ethnicity also significantly influenced critical-thinking gains, with nearly all ethnicities in the CBI group outperforming peers in both the mixed and traditional groups. Females, who showed decreased critical thinking in traditional courses relative to males, outperformed their male counterparts in CBI courses. Through the results of this study, it is hoped that faculty who value both research and critical thinking will consider using the CBI method.
Sulaiman, Tajularipin; a/l Kuppusamy, Suresh Kumar; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Rahim, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul
This study aims to assess the level of critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among the Special Education Integration Programme (SEIP) teachers in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The level of critical thinking dispositions and teaching efficacy in the SEIP were compared based on teaching experience and gender. The study also examined the relationship between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy at SEIP. The research adopted a quantitative survey approach. A total of 190 primary school teachers from the SEIP in Negeri Sembilan were selected using proportional sampling method. The instrument used in this study comprised of three sections; demography, critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis. Analysis shows that the respondents have a moderate level of critical thinking disposition (M = 2.99, S.D = 0.160) and teaching efficacy (M = 3.01 S.D. = 0.128) was at a high level. For teaching experience, the analysis showed that thinking disposition of novice teachers (mean = 2.52, SD = .503) are significantly higher than experienced teachers (mean = 2.35, SD = .481, t = 2.244, p critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy. Findings also indicated that there is a significant positive moderate relationship (r = .477) between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among SEIP teachers. This study suggests that critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy play an important role to enhance the performance of SEIP teachers.
Shoop, Barry L.
A desirable goal of engineering education is to teach students how to be creative and innovative. However, the speed of technological innovation and the continual expansion of disciplinary knowledge leave little time in the curriculum for students to formally study innovation. At West Point we have developed a novel upper-division undergraduate course that develops the critical thinking, creativity and innovation of undergraduate science and engineering students. This course is structured as a deliberate interactive engagement between students and faculty that employs the Socratic method to develop an understanding of disruptive and innovative technologies and a historical context of how social, cultural, and religious factors impact the acceptance or rejection of technological innovation. The course begins by developing the background understanding of what disruptive technology is and a historical context about successes and failures of social, cultural, and religious acceptance of technological innovation. To develop this framework, students read The Innovator's Dilemma by Clayton M. Christensen, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn, The Discoverers by Daniel J. Boorstin, and The Two Cultures by C.P. Snow. For each class meeting, students survey current scientific and technical literature and come prepared to discuss current events related to technological innovation. Each student researches potential disruptive technologies and prepares a compelling argument of why the specific technologies are disruptive so they can defend their choice and rationale. During course meetings students discuss the readings and specific technologies found during their independent research. As part of this research, each student has the opportunity to interview forward thinking technology leaders in their respective fields of interest. In this paper we will describe the course and highlight the results from teaching this course over the past five years.
Huang, Lei; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yao, Yuhong; Shan, Chang; Wang, Haojie; Zhu, Mengyi; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Zhao, Xudong
Critical thinking is an essential ability for medical students. However, the relationship between parental rearing styles and medical students' critical thinking disposition has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether parental rearing styles were significant predictors of critical thinking disposition among Chinese medical students. 1,075 medical students from the first year to the fifth year attending one of three medical schools in China were recruited via multistage stratified cluster sampling. The Chinese Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory(CTDI-CV) and The Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) questionnaire were applied to collect data and to conduct descriptive analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. The critical thinking disposition average mean score was 287.44 with 632 participants (58.79%) demonstrating positive critical thinking disposition. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the rearing styles of fathers, including "overprotection", "emotional warmth and understanding", "rejection" and "over-interference" were significant predictors of medical students' critical thinking disposition that explained 79.0% of the variance in critical thinking ability. Rearing styles of mothers including "emotional warmth and understanding", "punishing" and "rejection" were also found to be significant predictors, and explained 77.0% of the variance. Meaningful association has been evidenced between parental rearing styles and Chinese medical students' critical thinking disposition. Parental rearing styles should be considered as one of the many potential determinant factors that contribute to the cultivation of medical students' critical thinking capability. Positive parental rearing styles should be encouraged in the cultivation of children's critical thinking skills.
The daily routine requires complex thinking processes of nurses, but clinical decision making and critical thinking are underestimated in nursing. A great demand for educational measures in clinical judgement related with the diagnostic process was found in nurses. The German literature hardly describes nursing diagnoses as clinical judgements about human reactions on health problems / life processes. Critical thinking is described as an intellectual, disciplined process of active conceptualisation, application and synthesis of information. It is gained through observation, experience, reflection and communication and leads thinking and action. Critical thinking influences the aspects of clinical decision making a) diagnostic judgement, b) therapeutic reasoning and c) ethical decision making. Human reactions are complex processes and in their course, human behavior is interpreted in the focus of health. Therefore, more attention should be given to the nursing diagnostic process. This article presents the theoretical framework of the paper "Clinical decision making: Fostering critical thinking in the nursing diagnostic process through case studies".
Hung, Tsui-Mei; Tang, Lee-Chun; Ko, Chen-Ju
Critical thinking has been regarded as one of the most important elements for nurses to improve quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to use problem-based learning (PBL) as a method in a continuing education program to evaluate nurses' critical thinking skills. A quasiexperimental study design was carried out. The "Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory" in Chinese was used for data collection. The results indicated significant improvement after PBL continuous education, notably in the dimensions of systematic analysis and curiosity. Content analysis extracted four themes: (a) changes in linear thinking required, (b) logical and systematic thinking required performance improved, (3) integration of prior knowledge and clinical application, and (4) brainstorming learning strategy. The study supports PBL as a continuing education strategy for mental health nurses, and that systematic analysis and curiosity effectively facilitate the development of critical thinking.
Cole, S. B.
Critical thinking skills are among the primary learning outcomes of undergraduate education, but they are rarely explicitly taught. Here I present a two-fold study aimed at analyzing undergraduate students' critical thinking and information literacy skills, and explicitly teaching these skills, in an introductory Planetary Science course. The purpose of the research was to examine the students' information-filtering skills and to develop a short series of peer-learning workshops that would enhance these skills in both the students' coursework and their everyday lives. The 4 workshops are designed to be easily adaptable to any college course, with little impact on the instructor's workload. They make use of material related to the course's content, enabling the instructor to complement a pre-existing syllabus while explicitly teaching students skills essential to their academic and non-academic lives. In order to gain an understanding of undergraduates' existing information-filtering skills, I examined the material that they consider to be appropriate sources for a college paper. I analyzed the Essay 1 bibliographies of a writing-based introductory Planetary Science course for non-majors. The 22 essays cited 135 (non-unique) references, only half of which were deemed suitable by their instructors. I divided the sources into several categories and classified them as recommended, recommended with caution, and unsuitable for this course. The unsuitable sources ranged from peer-reviewed journal articles, which these novice students were not equipped to properly interpret, to websites that cannot be relied upon for scientific information (e.g., factoidz.com, answersingenesis.org). The workshops aim to improve the students' information-filtering skills by sequentially teaching them to evaluate search engine results, identify claims made on websites and in news articles, evaluate the evidence presented, and identify specific correlation/causation fallacies in news articles
Moattari, Marzieh; Soleimani, Sara; Moghaddam, Neda Jamali; Mehbodi, Farkhondeh
Background: Enhancing nursing students’ critical thinking is a challenge faced by nurse educators. This study aimed at determining the effect of clinical concept mapping on discipline-based critical thinking of nursing students. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental post-test only design, a convenient sample of 4th year nursing students (N = 32) participated. They were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group participated in a 1-day workshop on clinical concept mapping. They were also assigned to use at least two clinical concepts mapping during their clinical practice. Post-test was done using a specially designed package consisting of vignettes for measurement of 17 dimensions of critical thinking in nursing under two categories of cognitive critical thinking skills and habits of mind. They were required to write about how they would use a designated critical thinking skills or habits of mind to accomplish the nursing actions. The students’ responses were evaluated based on identification of critical thinking, justification, and quality of the student's response. The mean score of both groups was compared by Mann-Whitney test using SPSS version 16.5. Results: The results of the study revealed a significant difference between the two groups’ critical thinking regarding identification, justification, and quality of responses, and overall critical thinking scores, cognitive thinking skills, and habits of mind. The two groups also differed significantly from each other in 11 out of 17 dimensions of critical thinking. Conclusion: Clinical concept mapping is a valuable strategy for improvement of critical thinking of nursing students. However, further studies are recommended to generalize this result to nursing students in their earlier stage of education. PMID:24554963
Moattari, Marzieh; Soleimani, Sara; Moghaddam, Neda Jamali; Mehbodi, Farkhondeh
Enhancing nursing students' critical thinking is a challenge faced by nurse educators. This study aimed at determining the effect of clinical concept mapping on discipline-based critical thinking of nursing students. In this quasi-experimental post-test only design, a convenient sample of 4(th) year nursing students (N = 32) participated. They were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group participated in a 1-day workshop on clinical concept mapping. They were also assigned to use at least two clinical concepts mapping during their clinical practice. Post-test was done using a specially designed package consisting of vignettes for measurement of 17 dimensions of critical thinking in nursing under two categories of cognitive critical thinking skills and habits of mind. They were required to write about how they would use a designated critical thinking skills or habits of mind to accomplish the nursing actions. The students' responses were evaluated based on identification of critical thinking, justification, and quality of the student's response. The mean score of both groups was compared by Mann-Whitney test using SPSS version 16.5. The results of the study revealed a significant difference between the two groups' critical thinking regarding identification, justification, and quality of responses, and overall critical thinking scores, cognitive thinking skills, and habits of mind. The two groups also differed significantly from each other in 11 out of 17 dimensions of critical thinking. Clinical concept mapping is a valuable strategy for improvement of critical thinking of nursing students. However, further studies are recommended to generalize this result to nursing students in their earlier stage of education.
This study aims to develop the interactive e-book multimedia model to improve the students' critical thinking ability (KBK). Critical thinking is very important to develop because it provides a high level of reasoning thinking that provides permanent experience to students through conscious and controlled decision making in a rational, reflective, responsible manner with the optimization of potential. Flash-based e-book media is capable of interactively loading videos, pictures, practice ques...
Schipke, Rae Carrington
This article discusses how cooperative learning as a socioinstructional approach, relates to both socially-based emerging technologies (i.e. Web 2.0) and to critical thinking with respect to co-cognition. It begins with a discussion of the importance of connecting cooperative learning, Web 2.0, and critical thinking. This is followed by the need…
Roksa, Josipa; Trolian, Teniell L.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Kilgo, Cindy A.; Blaich, Charles; Wise, Kathleen S.
While racial inequalities in college entry and completion are well documented, much less is known about racial disparities in the development of general collegiate skills, such as critical thinking. Using data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, we find substantial inequality in the development of critical thinking skills…
Julia J Snyder
Full Text Available This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.
Miele, David B.; Wigfield, Allan
The authors examine two kinds of factors that affect students' motivation to engage in critical-analytic thinking. The first, which includes ability beliefs, achievement values, and achievement goal orientations, influences the "quantitative" relation between motivation and critical-analytic thinking; that is, whether students are…
Kaddoura, Mahmoud A.
In today's technologically advanced healthcare world, nursing students should be active learners and think critically to provide safe patient care. A strategy that promotes students' active learning is case-based learning (CBL). The purpose of this study was to examine critical thinking (CT) abilities of nursing students from two different…
This study describes the cross-cultural applicability of a multidimensional inventory of students' evaluation of critical thinking dispositions (California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory). The goal was to assess the cross-cultural psychometric equivalency of the CCTDI through testing measurement invariance across American and Turkish…
Teaching students to think critically is one of the major goals of higher education. Many educators at the college level recognize this and expect students to demonstrate critical thinking early in their college experience, however for some students, a lack of preparation for these expectations poses an immediate and substantial challenge during…
Karabulut, Ülkü S.
Problem Statement: Teaching a student critical-thinking skills has always been an important mission of social studies education. Over the years, literature and scholarly interest in critical-thinking in social studies have grown sporadically. Nevertheless, growing interest in the literature and commitment among the scholars did not ensure…
Florence, D. Christopher
The development of critical thinking skills among learners is a common educational goal across graduate theological schools. The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of some of the primary historical influences of the critical thinking movement in higher education in the United States and the movement's impact on graduate…
Quitadamo, Ian J; Kurtz, Martha J
Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing has long been perceived as a way to improve critical thinking. In the current study, the researchers compared critical thinking performance of students who experienced a laboratory writing treatment with those who experienced traditional quiz-based laboratory in a general education biology course. The effects of writing were determined within the context of multiple covariables. Results indicated that the writing group significantly improved critical thinking skills whereas the non-writing group did not. Specifically, analysis and inference skills increased significantly in the writing group but not the non-writing group. Writing students also showed greater gains in evaluation skills; however, these were not significant. In addition to writing, prior critical thinking skill and instructor significantly affected critical thinking performance, whereas other covariables such as gender, ethnicity, and age were not significant. With improved critical thinking skill, general education biology students will be better prepared to solve problems as engaged and productive citizens.
Evens, Marie; Verburgh, An; Elen, Jan
Critical thinking helps students to confront a multitude of challenges they will face in their careers and personal lives. It is therefore an important task of higher education to promote students' critical thinking. However, students do not enter higher education with a blank page. Background characteristics of students are important in…
Ahern, A.; O'Connor, T.; McRuairc, G.; McNamara, M.; O'Donnell, D.
Critical thinking is a graduate attribute that many courses, including engineering courses, claim to produce in students. As a graduate attribute it is seen by academics as a particularly desirable outcome of student learning and is said by researchers to be a defining characteristic of university education. However, how critical thinking is…
Romeo, Elizabeth M
The concept of critical thinking has been influential in several disciplines. Both education and nursing in general have been attempting to define, teach, and measure this concept for decades. Nurse educators realize that critical thinking is the cornerstone of the objectives and goals for nursing students. The purpose of this article is to review and analyze quantitative research findings relevant to the measurement of critical thinking abilities and skills in undergraduate nursing students and the usefulness of critical thinking as a predictor of National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) performance. The specific issues that this integrative review examined include assessment and analysis of the theoretical and operational definitions of critical thinking, theoretical frameworks used to guide the studies, instruments used to evaluate critical thinking skills and abilities, and the role of critical thinking as a predictor of NCLEX-RN outcomes. A list of key assumptions related to critical thinking was formulated. The limitations and gaps in the literature were identified, as well as the types of future research needed in this arena. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Blue, Jennifer; Taylor, Beverley; Yarrison-Rice, Jan
Enhancing critical thinking skills for undergraduate students is important across the curriculum and between disciplines. We report on a method of improving critical thinking skills, which was studied through an Ethics and Science First-Year Seminar course. We used full cycle assessment over a three-year period to assess students' development and…
Al-Kindi, Naeema Saleh; AL-Mekhlafi, Abdo Mohammed
The purpose of the current study is to investigate post-basic English teachers' practice of critical thinking skills and the challenges they face while teaching skills in EFL classrooms. Three research questions were investigated to achieve this purpose: 1--To what extent do EFL teachers use classroom behaviors that nurture critical thinking at…
Nippold, Marilyn A.; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W.; Cramond, Paige M.; Kirk, Cecilia; Hayward-Mayhew, Christine; MacKinnon, Melanie
Purpose: This study was designed primarily to determine if a critical-thinking task involving fables would elicit greater syntactic complexity than a conversational task in adolescents. Another purpose was to determine how well adolescents understand critical-thinking questions about fables. Method: Forty adolescents (N = 20 boys and 20 girls;…
Yacoubian, Hagop A.
In this article, I introduce a framework for guiding future citizens to think critically about nature of science (NOS) and "with" NOS as they engage in socioscientific decision making. The framework, referred to as the critical thinking--nature of science (CT-NOS) framework, explicates and targets both NOS as a learning objective and NOS…
Perry, Dustin K.; Retallick, Michael S.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
Due to an ever changing world where technology seemingly provides endless answers, today's higher education students must master a new skill set reflecting an emphasis on critical thinking, problem solving, and communications. The purpose of this study was to establish a departmental benchmark for critical thinking abilities of students majoring…
Helsdingen, Anne; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen
Helsdingen, A. S., Van Gog, T., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2009). Critical thinking instruction and contextual interference to increase cognitive flexibility in complex judgment. Paper presented at the Joint meeting of the Scientific Network on "Developing critical and flexible thinking" and the
Heinrich, William F.; Habron, Geoffrey B.; Johnson, Heather L.; Goralnik, Lissy
Today's complex societal problems require both critical thinking and an engaged citizenry. Current practices in higher education, such as service learning, suggest that experiential learning can serve as a vehicle to encourage students to become engaged citizens. However, critical thinking is not necessarily a part of every experiential learning…
Walter, Christel; Walter, Paul
The study explores the influences of critical thinking and interests on students' performance at school. The tested students attended German grammar schools ("Gymnasien"). Separate regression analyses showed the expected moderate positive influences of critical thinking and interests on school performance. But analyzed simultaneously,…
Ku, Kelly Y. L.; Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai; Lai, Eva C. M.
Critical thinking is a unifying goal of modern education. While past research has mostly examined the efficacy of a single instructional approach to teaching critical thinking, recent literature has begun discussing mixed teaching approaches. The present study examines three modes of instruction, featuring the direct instruction approach and the…
Saudi scholars have been agitating for education reforms to incorporate critical thinking in education programs. This paper is a qualitative case study undertaken at King Abdul Aziz University and Arab Open University and examines students' perception of learning critical thinking in secondary pre-service teacher education programs in Saudi…
Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred
Acquisition of critical thinking skills is considered an important goal in higher education, but it is still unclear which specific instructional techniques are effective for fostering it. The main aim of this study was to unravel the impact of critical thinking instructions, practice, and self-explanation prompts during practice, on students'…
A component in the study of critical thinking which needs to be addressed is informal reasoning fallacy. It is a type of mental trickery which is able to self-deceive undergraduates and public at large. In order to practice good critical thinking, one has to detect and get rid of these fallacies. However, students have to be disposed in detecting…
The implementation of genre theory in the business communication classroom could lead to the cultivation of critical thinking skills in students. The lack of a common definition of critical thinking skills across academia and the workplace creates a difficult end goal to pursue; therefore, teachers should consider explicitly teaching to the…
Duncan, Dennis W.; Birdsong, Victoria; Fuhrman, Nicholas; Borron, Abigail
At perhaps all levels of education, strong leadership skills are often equated with the ability to engage in critical thinking, and effective oral and written communication. The purpose of this study was to identify the self-perceived expansion of animal health interns' leadership, critical thinking and communication competencies using the…
Soodmand Afshar, Hassan; Movassagh, Hossein; Radi Arbabi, Hassan
This study investigated the relationship between critical thinking and the writing ability of Iranian EFL learners, and the interrelationship among the subskills of the two constructs. Furthermore, it aimed at finding which skills of critical thinking predicted the participants' writing ability. To this end, 104 students majoring in English…
Sendag, Serkan; Erol, Osman; Sezgin, Sezan; Dulkadir, Nihal
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between preservice teachers' Web 2.0 competencies and their critical thinking disposition (CTD). The study employed an associational research design using California Critical Thinking Disposition-Inventory (CCTD-I) and a Web 2.0 competency questionnaire including items related to Web 2.0…
Snyder, Julia J.; Wiles, Jason R.
This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders’ critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders’ perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders’ critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311
Adult learning, critical thinking, and decision-making are fields that receive attention individually, although they are interspersed with elements of each other's theories and philosophies. In addressing adult learning precepts, it is essential to include critical thinking and decision-making. One without the other creates weakness; all must be…
Mason Heinrichs, Kim R.
Universities claim that improved critical thinking ability is an educational outcome for their graduates, but they seldom create a path for students to achieve that outcome. In this practitioner action research study, the author created a job aid, entitled "Critical Thinking as a Differentiator for Distinguished Performance," to help…
Repo, Saara; Lehtinen, Taina; Rusanen, Erja; Hyytinen, Heidi
The focus of this study is on Open University students' entry-level critical thinking skills. The research questions were: how are students' age, and level and discipline of previous education related to critical thinking skills; is the level and discipline of previous education connected to the accuracy of students' self-evaluation of their…
Moeti, Bakadzi; Mgawi, Rabson Killion; Moalosi, Waitshega Tefo Smitta
Critical thinking is recognised as an influential attribute to achieve quality learning and teaching in higher education institutions world over. This interpretive research study explored the critical thinking among PGDE students at the University of Botswana. The aim of the study was to identify factors contributing to the application of critical…
Jensen, Roger D., Jr.
Critical thinking skills are an important topic of the United States' education system. This study examines the literature on critical thinking skills and defines them. The study also explores one specific teaching and assessment strategy known as the Socratic Method. The five-week research study used the Socratic Method for developing critical…
Carrithers, David; Ling, Teresa; Bean, John C.
This article investigates the critical thinking difficulties of finance majors when asked to address ill-structured finance problems. The authors build on previous research in which they asked students to analyze an ill-structured investment problem and recommend a course of action. The results revealed numerous critical thinking weaknesses,…
Iman, Jaya Nur
The research was aimed to find out whether or not using debate significantly improved the students' critical thinking and speaking skill achievements and how much debate contributed to each aspect of critical thinking and speaking skill. A quasi-experimental study of non-equivalent pretest- posttest control group design was used in this research.…
Errington, Alison; Bubna-Litic, David
Critical thinking is widely regarded as a crucial capability for competent management and also for any leadership role in society. In this article, we ask, "How do textbooks play a role in the weakness of many management graduates' critical thinking skills?" Management teachers can find plentiful advice about best teaching practices, yet…
Maina, Michael P.; Maina, Julie Schlegel; Hunt, Kevin
Often students have a difficult time when asked to use critical thinking skills to solve a problem. Perhaps students have a difficult time adjusting because teachers frequently tell them exactly what to do and how to do it. When asked to use critical thinking skills, students may suddenly become confused and discouraged because the teacher no…
Ralston, Patricia A.; Bays, Cathy L.
Faculty in a large, urban school of engineering designed a longitudinal study to assess the critical thinking skills of undergraduate students as they progressed through the engineering program. The Paul-Elder critical thinking framework was used to design course assignments and develop a holistic assessment rubric. The curriculum was re-designed…
Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred
Acquisition of critical thinking skills is considered an important goal in higher education, but it is still unclear which specific instructional techniques are effective for fostering it. The main aim of this study was to unravel the impact of critical thinking instructions, practice, and
Milner, Marleen; Wolfer, Terry
This article discusses the vital importance of developing critical thinking skills in social work students and explores the use of case-based instruction as a means of fostering those skills. The challenges inherent in the teaching and assessment of critical thinking are addressed. The history and theoretical underpinnings for the use of decision…
Haynes, Ada; Lisic, Elizabeth; Goltz, Michele; Stein, Barry; Harris, Kevin
This research examines how the use of the CAT (Critical thinking Assessment Test) and involvement in CAT-Apps (CAT Applications within the discipline) training can serve as an important part of a faculty development model that assists faculty in the assessment of students' critical thinking skills and in the development of these skills within…
In this era of information and economic globalization, developing critical thinking skills in college students has been set as a primary goal and learning outcome in higher education. Teaching critical thinking, however, is a great challenge to most EFL teachers. This article, therefore, attempts to examine the nature and teachability of critical…
Niu, Lian; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Garvan, Cyndi W.
Promoting students' critical thinking skills is an important task of higher education. Colleges and universities have designed various instructional interventions to enhance students' critical thinking skills. Empirical studies have yielded inconsistent results in terms of the effects of such interventions. This meta-analysis presents a synthesis…
Brown, F. William; Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka
The authors examine the dimensions and determinants of critical thinking skills, as measured by the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, among graduating senior students enrolled in an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited undergraduate business program. Utilizing explanatory variables, a methodology for predicting…
Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…
Athari, Zeinab-Sadat; Sharif, Sayyed-Mostafa; Nasr, Ahmad Reza; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi
Critical thinking is an important outcome criterion of higher education in any discipline. Medical and paramedical students always encounter with many new problems in clinical settings and medicinal laboratory, and critical thinking is an essential skill in obtaining a better approach for problem solving. We performed a pre-and post-test to evaluate the change of critical thinking skills in medical sciences students who enrolled in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Iran during the academic years 2008-2010. In a longitudinal design study, the critical thinking skills were compared in medical sciences students in two sequential semesters using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test. The test is divided into two parts (parts 1 and 2), including 17 items in each part. Based on proportional stratified sampling, a groups of students (group 1, n=159) were selected from the university population, who enrolled in medicine, pharmacy, nursing, and rehabilitation colleges. The students in group 1 were asked to complete the part 1 of the test (phase I). After one semester, another group (group 2, n=138) from the same population was randomly selected, and they were asked to complete the part two (phase II). The students' demographic data also were recorded. The California critical thinking skills test was translated and it validity and reliability were approved before. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in the demographic data. The students critical thinking scores in phase II significantly reduced in comparison with phase 1 (pstudents' critical thinking.
Problem solving is an indispensable part of engineering. Improving critical thinking dispositions for solving engineering problems is one of the objectives of engineering education. In this sense, knowing critical thinking and problem solving skills of engineering students is of importance for engineering education. This study aims to determine…
The task of developing vocational nursing students' critical thinking abilities is one of the greatest challenges facing nurse educators today. Licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) must be trained to think critically in order to provide safe patient care. Due to the expanded role and functions in the LVN's scope of practice, LVNs are making more…
Kopzhassarova, Umit; Akbayeva, Gulden; Eskazinova, Zhanar; Belgibayeva, Gulbarshyn; Tazhikeyeva, Akerke
The article focuses on the problem of developing students' critical thinking skills, which help them become independent learners. Analysis of research works of educators and scholars enable the authors to reveal qualities, necessary for students to enhance their critical thinking skills and become independent learners. Different points of view on…
Fuad, Nur Miftahul; Zubaidah, Siti; Mahanal, Susriyati; Suarsini, Endang
The aims of this study were (1) to find out the differences in critical thinking skills among students who were given three different learning models: differentiated science inquiry combined with mind map, differentiated science inquiry model, and conventional model, (2) to find out the differences of critical thinking skills among male and female…
Bayuningsih, A. S.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.
Critical thinking ability of mathematics students affected by the student’s ability in solving a specific problem. This research aims to determine the level of critical thinking (LCT) students in solving problems of geometry regarding self-regulated learning (SRL) students. This is a qualitative descriptive study with the purpose to analyze the level of Junior High School student’s critical thinking in the Regency of Banyumas. The subject is taken one student from each category SRL (high, medium and low). Data collection is given problem-solving tests to find out the level of critical thinking student, questionnaire, interview and documentation. The result of the research shows that student with SRL high is at the level of critical thinking 2, then a student with SRL medium is at the level of critical thinking 1 and student with SRL low is at the level of critical thinking 0. So students with SRL high, medium or low can solve math problems based on the critical thinking level of each student.
Shannon, Li-Jen; Bennett, Judith
A majority of incoming college freshmen and sophomores have not applied their critical thinking skills as part of their learning process. This paper investigates how students acquire their critical thinking skills while facing the copyright, fair use, and internet security challenges in this contemporary digital society. The findings show that 90…
Nur Aisyah Isti
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was described critical thinking stage of students grade VIII in setting PBL and scaffolding to solve mathematics problems. Critical thinking stage consists of clarification, assesment, inference, and strategy/tactics. The subject were teo students in the level of capacity to think critical (uncritical, less critical, quite critical, and critical. So that this research subject was 8 students in VIII A One State Junior High School of Temanggung. The result showed a description (1 critical thinking stage of students in setting PBL, in clarification the higher level of capacity to think critical students, students can identification information from question fully, can identificatio problem became detailed, and can explored the relationship among the information; (2 a strategy of scaffolding were given by critical thinking stage and TKBK, in assesment, scaffolding had given was given hint/key classically; and (3 transformation characteristic of the critical thinking stage of students after given scaffolding, it because of habituation in setting PBL and scaffolding.
Fero, Laura J; Witsberger, Catherine M; Wesmiller, Susan W; Zullo, Thomas G; Hoffman, Leslie A
This paper is a report of a study to identify critical thinking learning needs of new and experienced nurses. Concern for patient safety has grown worldwide as high rates of error and injury continue to be reported. In order to improve patient safety, nurses must be able to recognize changes in patient condition, perform independent nursing interventions, anticipate orders and prioritize. In 2004-2006, a consecutive sample of 2144 newly hired nurses in a university-affiliated healthcare system completed the Performance Based Development System Assessment consisting of 10 videotaped vignettes depicting change in patient status. Results were reported as meeting or not meeting expectations. For nurses not meeting expectations, learning needs were identified in one of six subcategories. Overall, 74.9% met assessment expectations. Learning needs identified for nurses not meeting expectations included initiating independent nursing interventions (97.2%), differentiation of urgency (67%), reporting essential clinical data (65.4%), anticipating relevant medical orders (62.8%), providing relevant rationale to support decisions (62.6%) and problem recognition (57.1%). Controlling for level of preparation, associate (P=0.007) and baccalaureate (Por=10 years experience (P=0.046). Patient safety may be compromised if a nurse cannot provide clinically competent care. Assessments such as the Performance Based Development System can provide information about learning needs and facilitate individualized orientation targeted to increase performance level.
Simpson, Vicki; McComb, Sara A; Kirkpatrick, Jane M
Safety, quality improvement, and a systems perspective are vital for nurses to provide quality evidence-based care. Responding to the call to prepare nurses with these perspectives, one school of nursing used a clinical scholar approach, enhanced by systems engineering to more intentionally develop the ability to clinically reason and apply evidence-based practice. A two-group, repeated-measures control trial was used to determine the effects of systems engineering content and support on nursing students' clinical judgment and critical thinking skills. Findings indicated this approach had a positive effects on student's clinical judgment and clinical reasoning skills. This approach helped students view health care issues from a broader perspective and use evidence to guide solution development, enhancing the focus on evidence-based practice, and quality improvement. Intentional integration of an evidence-based, systems perspective by nursing faculty supports development of nurses who can function safely and effectively in the current health care system. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(11):679-682.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Although academic skills, conceptualised as writing and critical thinking, are a vital part of university studies, research indicates that many students leave without having mastered these skills effectively. This research also reflects on nursing students. Nursing could also be said to be hampered by a number of complex educational challenges that are likely to impact on the academic socialisation process in general. These challenges include being a relatively 'young' academic discipline, the 'theory-practice' divide, a knowledge bed lying on a complex intersection of two 'antithetical sciences' and, at least in the Scandinavian countries, an increasing number of nurse educators with a PhD in nursing science but with limited time to develop their own teaching skills. In combination, these challenges have the potential to act as stumbling blocks, both from a teaching and learning perspective. I would suggest that a departure in teaching from theoretical educational models, such as Lea and Street's 'academic literacies model,' including skills, socialisation and academic literacy models simultaneously, could be one of several ways forward to create a learning environment that takes these issues into account. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Puspita, I.; Kaniawati, I.; Suwarma, I. R.
This study aimed to know the critical thinking skills profil of senior high school students. This research using a descriptive study to analysis student test results of critical thinking skill of 40 students XI grade in one of the senior high school in Bogor District. The method used is survey research with sample determined by purposive sampling technique. The instrument used is test of critical thinking skill by 5 indicators on static fluid topics. Questions consist of 11 set. It is has been developed by researcher and validated by experts. The results showed students critical thinking skills are still low. Is almost every indicator of critical thinking skills only reaches less than 30%. 28% for elementary clarification, 10% for the basic for decisions/basic support, 6% for inference, 6% for advanced clarification, 4% for strategies and tactics.
Full Text Available Critical thinking skill is the priority in the goals of education. In this case, the critical thinking has the higher process, such as analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflecting which enables the individual to make the reasonable assessment both in the classroom and in the daily life. This research is aimed to determine the students’ critical thinking skill in learning Chemistry at senior high school. This research used descriptive method in which the instruments were developed based on the indicators of critical thinking skill. The population of this research was 100 students of tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade from senior high schools in Surakarta which was chosen using cluster random sampling technique. The result of the research shows that the students of tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade have adequate critical thinking skills.
Full Text Available This paper describes a research project focused on identifying student-teachers’ critical thinking performance levels in scientific reasoning and, secondly, on analyzing the reliability level of the Critical Thinking Tasks test (CTT. As part of the methodology, a non-probabilistic sample of 129 teacher education students from different majors at Bio-Bio University was considered, and the Critical Thinking Task test was applied to collect data. The data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, reliability measures and mean score differences. The data showed that the instrument is reliable (α=0,79; there is also a relatively low performance in the global test and its dimensions; and there are differences between the different teacher education programs. It is concluded that the instrument is reliable, and findings support the idea that knowledge-based areas influence critical thinking. Finally, it is necessary to strengthen specific sub-skills to enhance critical thinking as a contribution for scientific reasoning.
Goodrich, Amy; Wagner-Johnston, Nina; Delibovi, Dana
Multiple treatment options, combined with disease heterogeneity, have created nursing challenges in the management of adverse events (AEs) during antilymphoma therapy. Testing has revealed that less than half of participating nurses correctly graded peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia related to antilymphoma regimens. This article identifies nursing challenges in the management of AEs associated with therapy for lymphomas and describes how strategies in critical thinking can help meet those challenges. A comprehensive literature search in oncology nursing, nursing education, and critical thinking was conducted; participant responses to pre- and post-tests at nursing education programs were evaluated; and a roundtable meeting of authors was convened. Oncology nurses can cultivate critical thinking skills, practice thinking critically in relation to team members and patients, leverage information from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, and manage workflow to allow more opportunity for critical thinking.
Yuliati, L.; Fauziah, R.; Hidayat, A.
This study aims to determine students’ critical thinking skills in authentic problem based learning, especially on geometric optics. The study was conducted at the vocational school. The study used a quantitative descriptive method with the open question to measure critical thinking skills. The indicators of critical thinking skills measured in this study are: formulating problems, providing simple answers, applying formulas and procedures, analyzing information, making conclusions, and synthesizing ideas. The results showed that there was a positive change in students’ critical thinking skills with the average value of N-Gain test is 0.59 and effect size test is 3.73. The critical thinking skills of students need to be trained more intensively using authentic problems in daily life.
Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to investigate the effect of computer games on student’ critical thinking disposition and educational achievement. The research method was descriptive, and its type was casual-comparative. The sample included 270 female high school students in Andimeshk town selected by multistage cluster method. Ricketts questionnaire was used to test critical thinking and the researcher made questionnaires were used to test computer games. T-test and one-way ANOVA were employed to analysis of the data. The findings of the study showed that playing computer games has no significant effect on critical thinking, however, there were a significant effect of playing computer games on students’ educational achievement (P<0/05. Furthermore, the results showed that the type of computer game has no significant effect on students’ disposition to critical thinking and their educational achievement. Keywords: Computer games, disposition to critical thinking, educational achievement, secondary students
Fero, Laura J.; O’Donnell, John M.; Zullo, Thomas G.; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Kitutu, Julius; Samosky, Joseph T.; Hoffman, Leslie A.
Aim This paper is a report of an examination of the relationship between metrics of critical thinking skills and performance in simulated clinical scenarios. Background Paper and pencil assessments are commonly used to assess critical thinking but may not reflect simulated performance. Methods In 2007, a convenience sample of 36 nursing students participated in measurement of critical thinking skills and simulation-based performance using videotaped vignettes, high-fidelity human simulation, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills Test. Simulation- based performance was rated as ‘meeting’ or ‘not meeting’ overall expectations. Test scores were categorized as strong, average, or weak. Results Most (75·0%) students did not meet overall performance expectations using videotaped vignettes or high-fidelity human simulation; most difficulty related to problem recognition and reporting findings to the physician. There was no difference between overall performance based on method of assessment (P = 0·277). More students met subcategory expectations for initiating nursing interventions (P ≤ 0·001) using high-fidelity human simulation. The relationship between video-taped vignette performance and critical thinking disposition or skills scores was not statistically significant, except for problem recognition and overall critical thinking skills scores (Cramer’s V = 0·444, P = 0·029). There was a statistically significant relationship between overall high-fidelity human simulation performance and overall critical thinking disposition scores (Cramer’s V = 0·413, P = 0·047). Conclusion Students’ performance reflected difficulty meeting expectations in simulated clinical scenarios. High-fidelity human simulation performance appeared to approximate scores on metrics of critical thinking best. Further research is needed to determine if simulation-based performance correlates with critical thinking skills
Fero, Laura J; O'Donnell, John M; Zullo, Thomas G; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Kitutu, Julius; Samosky, Joseph T; Hoffman, Leslie A
This paper is a report of an examination of the relationship between metrics of critical thinking skills and performance in simulated clinical scenarios. Paper and pencil assessments are commonly used to assess critical thinking but may not reflect simulated performance. In 2007, a convenience sample of 36 nursing students participated in measurement of critical thinking skills and simulation-based performance using videotaped vignettes, high-fidelity human simulation, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills Test. Simulation-based performance was rated as 'meeting' or 'not meeting' overall expectations. Test scores were categorized as strong, average, or weak. Most (75.0%) students did not meet overall performance expectations using videotaped vignettes or high-fidelity human simulation; most difficulty related to problem recognition and reporting findings to the physician. There was no difference between overall performance based on method of assessment (P = 0.277). More students met subcategory expectations for initiating nursing interventions (P ≤ 0.001) using high-fidelity human simulation. The relationship between videotaped vignette performance and critical thinking disposition or skills scores was not statistically significant, except for problem recognition and overall critical thinking skills scores (Cramer's V = 0.444, P = 0.029). There was a statistically significant relationship between overall high-fidelity human simulation performance and overall critical thinking disposition scores (Cramer's V = 0.413, P = 0.047). Students' performance reflected difficulty meeting expectations in simulated clinical scenarios. High-fidelity human simulation performance appeared to approximate scores on metrics of critical thinking best. Further research is needed to determine if simulation-based performance correlates with critical thinking skills in the clinical setting. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced
Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Kleisiaris, Christos F; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Kakou, Katerina; Kourkouta, Lambrini
Critical thinking is defined as the mental process of actively and skillfully perception, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of collected information through observation, experience and communication that leads to a decision for action. In nursing education there is frequent reference to critical thinking and to the significance that it has in daily clinical nursing practice. Nursing clinical instructors know that students face difficulties in making decisions related to clinical practice. The main critical thinking skills in which nursing students should be exercised during their studies are critical analysis, introductory and concluding justification, valid conclusion, distinguish of facts and opinions, evaluation the credibility of information sources, clarification of concepts and recognition of conditions. Specific behaviors are essentials for enhancing critical thinking. Nursing students in order to learn and apply critical thinking should develop independence of thought, fairness, perspicacity in personal and social level, humility, spiritual courage, integrity, perseverance, self-confidence, interest for research and curiosity. Critical thinking is an essential process for the safe, efficient and skillful nursing practice. The nursing education programs should adopt attitudes that promote critical thinking and mobilize the skills of critical reasoning.
GHAZIVAKILI, ZOHRE; NOROUZI NIA, ROOHANGIZ; PANAHI, FARIDE; KARIMI, MEHRDAD; GHOLSORKHI, HAYEDE; AHMADI, ZARRIN
Introduction: The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of pcritical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (pcritical thinking had significant difference between different learning styles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the learning styles, critical thinking and academic performance are significantly associated
Kyung-Ja Han, RN, PhD
Conclusion: This study specifies the initial categories of thoughts for each of the processes and various patterns with which these processes are sequentially combined, providing insights into the ways nurses think about problems and address their concerns. The findings suggest that the thinking in clinical practice involves more than focused decision-making and reasoning, and needs to be examined from a broader perspective.
Buerdsell, Sherri Lynn
As an institution of higher education and as a Hispanic-serving institution, New Mexico State University has a responsibility to its students to provide the skills and experiences necessary for each and every student to become a responsible, reflective citizen, capable of making informed decisions. Postsecondary science has traditionally been taught through lectures. Traditional lecture classes simply do not meet the needs of diverse groups of students in the modern multicultural student body like New Mexico State University's. However, the implementation of nontraditional pedagogy without evaluation of the results is useless as a step to reform; it is necessary to evaluate the results of in situ nontraditional pedagogy to determine its worth. The purpose of this research is to analyze the development and change in students' critical thinking skills, and critical thinking dispositions in single semester in an introductory Environmental Science course. This study utilized a mixed methods approach. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory were administered in the beginning and at the end of the semester. The pretest was used to provide a baseline for each participant against which the posttest score was compared. In addition, student interviews, field notes, and a survey provided qualitative data, which generated themes regarding the development of student critical thinking in this course. The results indicated there were no significant differences in the critical thinking test scores. However, qualitative analysis indicated that students experienced significant changes in critical thinking. Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis pertaining to the amount of influence on student learning. These themes are active thinking and learning, dialogue, and professor's influence. Due to the conflict between the quantitative and the qualitative results, it is suggested that the critical thinking tests
Shinnick, Mary Ann; Woo, Mary A
Human patient simulation (HPS) is becoming a popular teaching method in nursing education globally and is believed to enhance both knowledge and critical thinking. While there is evidence that HPS improves knowledge, there is no objective nursing data to support HPS impact on critical thinking. Therefore, we studied knowledge and critical thinking before and after HPS in prelicensure nursing students and attempted to identify the predictors of higher critical thinking scores. Using a one-group, quasi-experimental, pre-test post-test design, 154 prelicensure nursing students (age 25.7± 6.7; gender=87.7% female) from 3 schools were studied at the same point in their curriculum using a high-fidelity simulation. Pre- and post-HPS assessments of knowledge, critical thinking, and self-efficacy were done as well as assessments for demographics and learning style. There was a mean improvement in knowledge scores of 6.5 points (Pcritical thinking scores. A logistic regression with 10 covariates revealed three variables to be predictors of higher critical thinking scores: greater "age" (P=0.01), baseline "knowledge" (P=0.04) and a low self-efficacy score ("not at all confident") in "baseline self-efficacy in managing a patient's fluid levels" (P=.05). This study reveals that gains in knowledge with HPS do not equate to changes in critical thinking. It does expose the variables of older age, higher baseline knowledge and low self-efficacy in "managing a patient's fluid levels" as being predictive of higher critical thinking ability. Further study is warranted to determine the effect of repeated or sequential simulations (dosing) and timing after the HPS experience on critical thinking gains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asuman Aypek Arslan
Full Text Available Critical thinking is an organized process aiming at obtaining knowledge in an original way, comparing, using and evaluating it. Critical thinking is a power triggering the knowledge production process and is the energy of knowledge. Science cannot be improved with the verification and repetition of what is known. It is only improved through questioning, emerging new information and new views. One of the high level needs of man in Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy is the realization of oneself. Individuals being able to realize themselves can decide what is true, what is wrong with their free wills. The most important task of education and the education of visual arts is to train creative and productive individuals being able to think all-round, learn how to learn, solve problems, respectful to humans, tolerant, having improved communication skills. It is of great importance to improve critical thinking skills at students in making them attain it. In making them attain these behaviours, it is of vital importance to improve critical thinking skills at students. In the current study, it was aimed to determine critical thinking levels of the candidates of visual arts and to determine whether the tendency of critical thinking differed in terms of gender. The data of the study was gathered through California Critical Thinking Tendency Scale. At the end of the study, it was found that candidate teachers of visual arts had tendency at medium level in general critical thinking. It was also found that the critical thinking tendencies of the candidate teachers of visual arts did not differ in terms of gender.
Phillip A. Towndrow
Full Text Available Abstract This article considers a way of enacting critical thinking in the school curriculum. An alternative to adopting a formal framework of critical thinking which may not be exhaustive or include desirable components, involves working towards the generation of wisdom—defined as the quality of having the experience, knowledge and insight to think and act aptly in a specific context for a particular purpose—as a way for learners to make meanings that potentially have personal and social significance. The article uses a real-world example to illustrate how critical thinking can be driven by inquiry and underpinned by explanation to demonstrate practical knowledge and understanding in specific circumstances. Keywords: wisdom, critical thinking, curriculum, instruction, task design, classroom practice
In this post-structural feminist analysis, I review recent literature focusing on critical pedagogy to analyse the ways teachers are discursively produced within the sampled literature to ask: who does critical pedagogy think you are? Additionally, I extend earlier post-structural feminist critiques of critical pedagogy and underlying assumptions…
Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N; Collins, Laura J
Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001) between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001) in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student motivation and
Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N.; Collins, Laura J.
Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001) between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001) in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student motivation and
Jeanne Ting Chowning
Full Text Available Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001 between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001 in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student
Shipman, H. L.; Jordan, J. J.
The relationship between science and religion is, according to the public debate, rather stormy. It doesn't have to be this way. Since 1998, an astronomer (Shipman) and a philosopher (Jordan) have team-taught a course with a more constructive approach. This course has a recognized role in the University's General Education program and in the philosophy major. As overall course goals, we hope that our students will be able to: - exhibit critical thinking skills in being able to tell the difference between good arguments and bad arguments in this area - recognize that the relationship between science and religion is not necessarily an antagonistic one. We accomplish these goals by focusing the course on four major issues, namely: - Does Big Bang Cosmology leave room for a Creator? - Can a rational person believe in miracle reports? - In the light of modern science, what does it mean to be human? - Can a theist, someone who believes in God, rationally accept the scientific theory of biological evolution? We have evidence in the course to evaluate student progress towards our goals. Student responses to a pre- and post-testing methodology, where they responded to the same assignment at the beginning and at the end of the course, were classified as seeing the relationship between science and religion as confrontational, distinct, convergent, or transitional between distinct and convergent. Preliminary analysis of the student responses shows a significant shift away from a confrontational position and towards a more convergent position. The development of this course was supported by the John Templeton Foundation's Science and Religion course program. H.L.S.'s scholarly work integrating science research and science education research is supported by the National Science Foundation's Distinguished Teaching Scholars Program. DUE-0306557),
Hunter, Sharyn; Pitt, Victoria; Croce, Nic; Roche, Jan
This study investigated the critical thinking skills among undergraduate nursing students in Australia to obtain a profile and determine demographic predictors of critical thinking. There is universal agreement that being a critical thinker is an outcome requirement for many accreditation and registering nursing bodies. Most studies provide descriptive statistical information about critical thinking skills while some have studied the changes in critical thinking after an intervention. Limited research about factors that predict critical thinking skills is available. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using convenience sampling. Two hundred and sixty-nine students were recruited across three years of an undergraduate programme in 2009. Most students' age ranged from under 20 to 34 years (58%), 87% were female, 91% were Australian and 23% of first and second year students had nursing associated experience external to the university. Data about critical thinking skills were collected via the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT). Linear regression analysis investigated the predictors of nursing students' critical thinking skills. The students in third year had a profile of critical thinking skills comparable with HSRT norms. Year of study predicted higher critical thinking scores for all domains (p<0.001) except the subscale, analysis. Nationality predicted higher scores for total CT skill scores (p<0.001) and subscales, inductive (p=0.001) and deductive reasoning (p=0.001). Nursing associated experience predicted higher scores for the subscale, analysis (p<0.001). Age and gender were not predictive. However, these demographic predictors only accounted for a small variance obtained for the domains of CT skills. An understanding of factors that predict nursing students' CT skills is required. Despite this study finding a number of significant predictors of nursing students' CT skills, there are others yet to be understood. Future research is recommended
Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Salsali, Mahvash
Given the wide disagreement over the definition of critical thinking in different disciplines, defining and standardizing the concept according to the discipline of nursing is essential. Moreover, there is limited scientific evidence regarding critical thinking in the context of nursing in Iran. The aim of this study was to analyze and clarify the concept of critical thinking in nursing education in Iran. We employed the hybrid model to define the concept of critical thinking. The hybrid model has three interconnected phases--the theoretical phase, the fieldwork phase, and the final analytic phase. In the theoretical phase, we searched the online scientific databases (such as Elsevier, Wiley, CINAHL, Proquest, Ovid, and Springer as well as Iranian databases such as SID, Magiran, and Iranmedex). In the fieldwork phase, a purposive sample of 17 nursing faculties, PhD students, clinical instructors, and clinical nurses was recruited. Participants were interviewed by using an interview guide. In the analytical phase we compared the data from the theoretical and the fieldwork phases. The concept of critical thinking had many different antecedents, attributes, and consequences. Antecedents, attributes, and consequences of critical thinking concept identified in the theoretical phase were in some ways different and in some way similar to antecedents, attributes, and consequences identified in the fieldwork phase. Finally critical thinking in nursing education in Iran was clarified. Critical thinking is a logical, situational, purposive, and outcome-oriented thinking process. It is an acquired and evolving ability which develops individually. Such thinking process could lead to the professional accountability, personal development, God's consent, conscience appeasement, and personality development. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Papp, Klara K; Huang, Grace C; Lauzon Clabo, Laurie M; Delva, Dianne; Fischer, Melissa; Konopasek, Lyuba; Schwartzstein, Richard M; Gusic, Maryellen
Critical thinking is essential to a health professional's competence to assess, diagnose, and care for patients. Defined as the ability to apply higher-order cognitive skills (conceptualization, analysis, evaluation) and the disposition to be deliberate about thinking (being open-minded or intellectually honest) that lead to action that is logical and appropriate, critical thinking represents a "meta-competency" that transcends other knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors required in health care professions. Despite its importance, the developmental stages of critical thinking have not been delineated for nurses and physicians. As part of a task force of educators who considered different developmental stage theories, the authors have iteratively refined and proposed milestones in critical thinking. The attributes associated with unreflective, beginning, practicing, advanced, accomplished, and challenged critical thinkers are conceived as independent of an individual's level of training. Depending on circumstances and environmental factors, even the most experienced clinician may demonstrate attributes associated with a challenged thinker. The authors use the illustrative case of a patient with abdominal pain to demonstrate how critical thinking may manifest in learners at different stages of development, analyzing how the learner at each stage applies information obtained in the patient interaction to arrive at a differential diagnosis and plan for evaluation. The authors share important considerations and provide this work as a foundation for the development of effective approaches to teaching and promoting critical thinking and to establishing expectations for learners in this essential meta-competency.
Buur, Jennifer L; Schmidt, Peggy; Smylie, Dean; Irizarry, Kris; Crocker, Carlos; Tyler, John; Barr, Margaret
With medical education transitioning from knowledge-based curricula to competency-based curricula, critical thinking skills have emerged as a major competency. While there are validated external instruments for assessing critical thinking, many educators have created their own custom assessments of critical thinking. However, the face validity of these assessments has not been challenged. The purpose of this study was to compare results from a custom assessment of critical thinking with the results from a validated external instrument of critical thinking. Students from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Western University of Health Sciences were administered a custom assessment of critical thinking (ACT) examination and the externally validated instrument, California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), in the spring of 2011. Total scores and sub-scores from each exam were analyzed for significant correlations using Pearson correlation coefficients. Significant correlations between ACT Blooms 2 and deductive reasoning and total ACT score and deductive reasoning were demonstrated with correlation coefficients of 0.24 and 0.22, respectively. No other statistically significant correlations were found. The lack of significant correlation between the two examinations illustrates the need in medical education to externally validate internal custom assessments. Ultimately, the development and validation of custom assessments of non-knowledge-based competencies will produce higher quality medical professionals.
Unita S. Zuliani Nasution
Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyze the different between physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model and direct instruction model, the different of physic resolving problem ability between the students that have critical thinking ability upper the average and the students that have critical thinking ability under the average, and the interaction of problem based learning model toward critical thinking ability and students’ physic resolving problem ability. This research was quasy experimental research that use critical thinking ability tests and physic resolving problem ability tests as the instruments. Result of the research showed that the students’ physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model was better than by using direct instruction model, students’ physic resolving problem ability and critical thinking ability upper the average showed better different and result than students’ critical thinking ability under the average, besides there was an interaction between problem based learning model and critical thinking ability in improving students’ physic resolving problem ability.