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Sample records for watson method

  1. [Analysis of Conformational Features of Watson-Crick Duplex Fragments by Molecular Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics Methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltev, V I; Anisimov, V M; Sanchez, C; Deriabina, A; Gonzalez, E; Garcia, D; Rivas, F; Polteva, N A

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the important characteristic features of the Watson-Crick duplex originate from the molecular structure of its subunits. However, it still remains to elucidate what properties of each subunit are responsible for the significant characteristic features of the DNA structure. The computations of desoxydinucleoside monophosphates complexes with Na-ions using density functional theory revealed a pivotal role of DNA conformational properties of single-chain minimal fragments in the development of unique features of the Watson-Crick duplex. We found that directionality of the sugar-phosphate backbone and the preferable ranges of its torsion angles, combined with the difference between purines and pyrimidines. in ring bases, define the dependence of three-dimensional structure of the Watson-Crick duplex on nucleotide base sequence. In this work, we extended these density functional theory computations to the minimal' fragments of DNA duplex, complementary desoxydinucleoside monophosphates complexes with Na-ions. Using several computational methods and various functionals, we performed a search for energy minima of BI-conformation for complementary desoxydinucleoside monophosphates complexes with different nucleoside sequences. Two sequences are optimized using ab initio method at the MP2/6-31++G** level of theory. The analysis of torsion angles, sugar ring puckering and mutual base positions of optimized structures demonstrates that the conformational characteristic features of complementary desoxydinucleoside monophosphates complexes with Na-ions remain within BI ranges and become closer to the corresponding characteristic features of the Watson-Crick duplex crystals. Qualitatively, the main characteristic features of each studied complementary desoxydinucleoside monophosphates complex remain invariant when different computational methods are used, although the quantitative values of some conformational parameters could vary lying within the

  2. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME FOLLOWING RECONSTRUCTION FOR CHRONIC ISOLATED DORSAL DISTAL RADIOULNAR JOINT INSTABILITY BY FULKERSON-WATSON METHOD-A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhamoorthy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic isolated distal radioulnar joint instability is a relatively rare entity. Several methods of reconstruction were available to stabilize the joint and each method has some advantage over others. We proposed to assess the functional outcome following reconstruction of chronic dorsal distal radio ulnar instability using extra articular reconstruction by Fulkerson – Watson method. AIM: To assess the functional outcome following reconstruction for chronic isolated dorsal distal radio ulnar instability using Fulkerson –Watson method. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in five patients over three years from 2010 to 2013 with chronic isolated dorsal distal radio ulnar instability who were treated by Fulkerson-Watson method of reconstruction. All patients underwent MRI evaluation before surgery to assess ligament pathology and for adequacy of sigmoid notch. Arthroscopy performed in all patients. Functional outcomes were assessed using VAS score, quick-DASH score and Mayo wrist score at every 6 months follow-up. Radiological assessment done using plain x-rays at each follow up. RESULTS: Three patients required Arthroscopic debridement for TFCC. All five patients had achieved stability at distal radio ulnar joint after surgery and remained so till their last follow up. One patient had persistent pain near ulnar styloid. The average loss of motion for pronation was 10 degrees and supination was 3 degrees in reference to the normal side. All except one patient achieved ulnar grip strength of >90 % compared to normal side. The mean pre and postoperative VAS score, quick-DASH score, Mayo wrist score were 76.6 and 17.2, 37.3 and 11.3, 45 and 77 respectively. CONCLUSION: Though extra articular reconstruction for DRUJ by Fulkerson-Watson method is non-anatomical, the procedure is simple than intra articular reconstruction and gives similar functional outcome like intra articular reconstructions as shown by our results.

  3. Distributional Watson transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksma, A.; Snoo, H.S.V. de

    1974-01-01

    For all Watson transforms W in L2(R+) a triple of Hilbert space LG ⊂ L2(R+) ⊂ L'G is constructed such that W may be extended to L'G. These results allow the construction of a triple L ⊂ L2(R+) ⊂ L', where L is a Gelfand-Fréchet space. This leads to a theory of distributional Watson transforms.

  4. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd [Department of Information System, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia); Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku [Department of Computer Science, Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Gombak, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  5. Weighted Watson-Crick automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Turaev, Sherzod; Sembok, Tengku Mohd Tengku

    2014-07-01

    There are tremendous works in biotechnology especially in area of DNA molecules. The computer society is attempting to develop smaller computing devices through computational models which are based on the operations performed on the DNA molecules. A Watson-Crick automaton, a theoretical model for DNA based computation, has two reading heads, and works on double-stranded sequences of the input related by a complementarity relation similar with the Watson-Crick complementarity of DNA nucleotides. Over the time, several variants of Watson-Crick automata have been introduced and investigated. However, they cannot be used as suitable DNA based computational models for molecular stochastic processes and fuzzy processes that are related to important practical problems such as molecular parsing, gene disease detection, and food authentication. In this paper we define new variants of Watson-Crick automata, called weighted Watson-Crick automata, developing theoretical models for molecular stochastic and fuzzy processes. We define weighted Watson-Crick automata adapting weight restriction mechanisms associated with formal grammars and automata. We also study the generative capacities of weighted Watson-Crick automata, including probabilistic and fuzzy variants. We show that weighted variants of Watson-Crick automata increase their generative power.

  6. Interview with Mark Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Watson is a British comedian and novelist. His five novels to date – 'Bullet Points' (2004, 'A Light-Hearted Look At Murder' (2007, 'Eleven' (2010, 'The Knot' (2012 and 'Hotel Alpha' (2014 – explore human relationships and communities in contemporary society. His latest novel Hotel Alpha tells the story of an extraordinary hotel in London and two mysterious disappearances that raise questions no one seems willing to answer. External to the novel, readers can also discover more about the hotel and its inhabitants in one hundred extra stories that expand the world of the novel and can be found at http://www.hotelalphastories.com. In conversation here with Dr Katy Shaw, Mark offers some reflections on his writing process, the field of contemporary literature, and the vitality of the novel form in the twenty-first century.

  7. Closure properties of Watson-Crick grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.

  8. de Jean Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Schossler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer la percepción del cuidador domiciliario del anciano acerca del cuidado de sí mismo, teniendo como base teórica a Jean Watson en su Teoría del Cuidado Humano. La investigación se caracterizó por un abordaje cualitativo, de tipo exploratorio-descriptivo, el cual fue desarrollado en la Unidad de la Vila Floresta con nueve cuidadores domiciliarios de ancianos, integrantes del Programa de Atención a Domicilio. La recolección de informaciones se realizó en el período de agosto a octubre de 2006, por medio de una entrevista parcialmente estructurada. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido de Bardin y emergieron las categorías: compartir el cuidado al anciano - una posibilidad para cuidar de sí mismo; descansar, pasear, dormir, uno no tiene más ese derecho; presencia de la familia: una necesidad sentida por el cuidador domiciliar; (desequilibrio del cuerpo físico y mental, una resultante percibida en el (descuidado de sí mismo. Se concluye que el cuidador domiciliario es el principal responsable por el cuidado del anciano y que el cuidado de sí mismo se hace presente en su realidad.

  9. How the challenge of explaining learning influenced the origins and development of John B. Watson's behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, M

    2000-01-01

    Before he invented behaviorism, John B. Watson considered learning one of the most important topics in psychology. Watson conducted excellent empirical research on animal learning. He developed behaviorism in part to promote research and elevate the status of learning in psychology. Watson was much less successful in the adequacy and originality of the mechanisms he proposed to explain learning. By assimilating the method of classical conditioning and adopting Pavlov's theory of stimulus substitution, Watson linked behaviorism with a new method that could compete with both Titchener's method of introspection and Freud's methods of psychoanalysis. Watson's interest in explaining psychopathology led to the discovery of conditioned emotional responses and a behavioristic explanation for the learning of phobic behavior. Watson established learning as a central topic for basic research and application in American psychology.

  10. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, Jeopardy, to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered and rejected. The viewpoint of the essay is that of teleological behaviorism. Mental states are defined as temporally extended patterns of overt behavior. From this viewpoint (although Watson does not currently have them), essential human attributes such as consciousness, the ability to love, to feel pain, to sense, to perceive, and to imagine may all be possessed by a computer. Most crucially, a computer may possess self-control and may act altruistically. However, the computer's appearance, its ability to make specific movements, its possession of particular internal structures (e.g., whether those structures are organic or inorganic), and the presence of any nonmaterial “self,” are all incidental to its humanity. PMID:22942530

  11. Ed Watson - 1940-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Ed Watson passed away suddenly on 1 August in Geneva, he was 66. He leaves his wife and two children. Ed Watson arrived at CERN in March 1973 to work on digital electronics and CAMAC systems under Bob Dobinson, after many years at Rolls Royce in Scotland. He joined the European Muon Collaboration in 1976, where he played a major role in the design, deployment and running of its data acquisition system (DAQ) with David Botterill, Bob Dobinson, and Vicky White. The CAMAC-ROMULUS system was by far the largest and most advanced of its time, and it became a defining standard for DAQ systems for years to come. Ed was deeply involved in the detailed planning of the control rooms and the experiment cabling, as well as sharing the responsibility for the CAMAC readout system. He had a real talent for trouble shooting and played a vital part in supporting the experiment throughout its lifetime. He offered great moral support to the younger members of the collaboration and helped them a great deal with their work. The...

  12. John B. Watson's Legacy: Learning and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Frances Degen

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates John B. Watson's contributions to developmental psychology. Watson's insistence on objective methodology in psychology retains its influence, but his extreme environmentalism has been rejected. His concern with the principles of learning is reflected in the work of Hull and Skinner. (BC)

  13. A chat with James Watson

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    On 6 September, Nobel laureate James Watson paid a visit to CERN. In this interview, he shares his views with CERN's Paola Catapano.      var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-0480-kbps-512x288-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1384418', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144/CERN-MOVIE-2011-144-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4');

  14. Ed Watson 1940-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Ed Watson arrived at CERN in March 1973 to work on digital electronics and CAMAC systems under Bob Dobinson, after many years at Rolls Royce in Scotland. He joined the European Muon Collaboration in 1976, where he played a major role in the design, deployment and running of its data acquisition system (DAQ) with David Botterill, Bob Dobinson, and Vicky White. The CAMAC-ROMULUS system was by far the largest and most advanced of its time, and it became a defining standard for DAQ systems for years to come. Ed was deeply involved in the detailed planning of the control rooms and the experiment cabling, as well as sharing the responsibility for the CAMAC readout system. He had a real talent for trouble shooting and played a vital part in supporting the experiment throughout its lifetime. He offered great moral support to the younger members of the collaboration and helped them a great deal with their work. The EMC had a wonderful social life to which Ed was a major contributor - who can forget its barbecues?  In...

  15. Oncologists partner with Watson on genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A new collaboration between IBM Watson Health and more than a dozen cancer centers uses the power of cognitive computing to dramatically reduce the time it takes to analyze data from patients' DNA and identify targeted treatment options.

  16. 70+ Years of the Watson Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, I. J.

    2011-11-01

    Watson (Q. J. Math. Oxford 10:266-276, 1939) published in 1939 the evaluation of three integrals submitted to him, which had arisen from a problem in physics (van Pepye in Physica 5:465-482, 1938). Over the years these integrals have continued to occur in other aspects of physics such as random walk problems. This article reviews these integrals and generalisations over the past 70 years.

  17. Did John B. Watson Really "Found" Behaviorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John C

    2014-05-01

    Developments culminating in the nineteenth century, along with the predictable collapse of introspective psychology, meant that the rise of behavioral psychology was inevitable. In 1913, John B. Watson was an established scientist with impeccable credentials who acted as a strong and combative promoter of a natural science approach to psychology when just such an advocate was needed. He never claimed to have founded "behavior psychology" and, despite the acclaim and criticism attending his portrayal as the original behaviorist, he was more an exemplar of a movement than a founder. Many influential writers had already characterized psychology, including so-called mental activity, as behavior, offered many applications, and rejected metaphysical dualism. Among others, William Carpenter, Alexander Bain, and (early) Sigmund Freud held views compatible with twentieth-century behaviorism. Thus, though Watson was the first to argue specifically for psychology as a natural science, behaviorism in both theory and practice had clear roots long before 1913. If behaviorism really needs a "founder," Edward Thorndike might seem more deserving, because of his great influence and promotion of an objective psychology, but he was not a true behaviorist for several important reasons. Watson deserves the fame he has received, since he first made a strong case for a natural science (behaviorist) approach and, importantly, he made people pay attention to it.

  18. Graham Watson: Eesti vajab enam riigi sekkumist majandusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Watson, Graham

    2009-01-01

    18. aprillil pidasid keskerakondlased Tallinnas Euroopa Parlamendi valimiste konverentsi. Euroopa Parlamendi demokraatide ja liberaalide fraktsiooni juht Graham Watson saatis Keskerakonnale videotervituse

  19. Graham Watson: Eesti vajab enam riigi sekkumist majandusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Watson, Graham

    2009-01-01

    18. aprillil pidasid keskerakondlased Tallinnas Euroopa Parlamendi valimiste konverentsi. Euroopa Parlamendi demokraatide ja liberaalide fraktsiooni juht Graham Watson saatis Keskerakonnale videotervituse

  20. Lashley's shift from bacteriology to neuropsychology, 1910-1917, and the influence of Jennings, Watson, and Franz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, D

    1986-01-01

    From 1910 to 1917, Karl S. Lashley's research moved from bacteriology to neuropsychology through intermediate stages of zoology, comparative psychology, and the psychology of learning. This shift is examined with particular reference to Lashley's associations with John B. Watson, Shepherd I. Franz, and Herbert S. Jennings. Watson's impact was substantial, for he attracted Lashley to comparative psychology and was the source of many of his later research interests. The bridge to neuropsychological research was provided by Franz who trained Lashley in the lesion method of investigating the brain bases of learning. The influence of Jennings, Lashley's Ph.D. supervisor, was most evident in the divergence of the post-1915 interests of Lashley and Watson. Lashley's search for brain mechanisms of learning, as contrasted with Watson's concern with behavioral prediction and control, mirrored a similar earlier difference between Jennings and Jacques Loeb.

  1. Listening Assessment: The Watson-Barker Listening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kittie W.; Barker, Larry L.

    An overview of listening tests and a description of the Watson-Barker Listening Test are presented in this paper. Topics covered include the readability and validity of listening tests; listening test administration; listening test criteria; creation of the Watson-Barker Listening Test; development, validation, and proper administration of this…

  2. Tests of conjectures on multiple Watson values

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, David

    2015-01-01

    I define multiple Watson values (MWVs) as iterated integrals, on the interval $x\\in[0,1]$, of the 6 differential forms $A=d\\log(x)$, $B=-d\\log(1-x)$, $T=-d\\log(1-z_1x)$, $U=-d\\log(1-z_2x)$, $V=-d\\log(1-z_3x)$ and $W=-d\\log(1-z_4x)$, where $z_1=\\gamma^2$, $z_2=\\gamma/(1+\\gamma)$, $z_3=\\gamma^2/(1-\\gamma)$ and $z_4=\\gamma=2\\sin(\\pi/14)$ solves the cubic $(1-\\gamma^2)(1-\\gamma)=\\gamma$. Following a suggestion by Pierre Deligne, I conjecture that the dimension of the space of ${\\mathbb Z}$-linearly independent MWVs of weight $w$ is the number $D_w$ generated by $1/(1-2x-x^2-x^3)=1+\\sum_{w>0}D_w x^w$. This agrees with 6639 integer relation searches, of dimensions up to $D_5+1=85$, performed at 2000-digit precision, for $w<6$.

  3. Molecular Biologists:James Watson and Francis Crick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳

    2006-01-01

    On Feb. 28, 1953, Francis Crick walked into the Eagle pub in Cambridge, England, and, as James Watson later recalled, announced that "we had found the secret of life. " Actually, they had. That morning, Watson and Crick had figured out the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA. And that structure-a "double helix" that can "unzip" to make copies of itself-confirmed suspicions that DNA carries life ’ s hereditary information.

  4. The multiple personalities of Watson and Crick strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graur Dan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In genetics it is customary to refer to double-stranded DNA as containing a "Watson strand" and a "Crick strand." However, there seems to be no consensus in the literature on the exact meaning of these two terms, and the many usages contradict one another as well as the original definition. Here, we review the history of the terminology and suggest retaining a single sense that is currently the most useful and consistent. Proposal The Saccharomyces Genome Database defines the Watson strand as the strand which has its 5'-end at the short-arm telomere and the Crick strand as its complement. The Watson strand is always used as the reference strand in their database. Using this as the basis of our standard, we recommend that Watson and Crick strand terminology only be used in the context of genomics. When possible, the centromere or other genomic feature should be used as a reference point, dividing the chromosome into two arms of unequal lengths. Under our proposal, the Watson strand is standardized as the strand whose 5'-end is on the short arm of the chromosome, and the Crick strand as the one whose 5'-end is on the long arm. Furthermore, the Watson strand should be retained as the reference (plus strand in a genomic database. This usage not only makes the determination of Watson and Crick unambiguous, but also allows unambiguous selection of reference stands for genomics. Reviewers This article was reviewed by John M. Logsdon, Igor B. Rogozin (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky, and William Martin.

  5. An analytical and numerical study of Galton-Watson branching processes relevant to population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sa-Han

    Galton-Watson branching processes of relevance to human population dynamics are the subject of this thesis. We begin with an historical survey of the invention of the invention of this model in the middle of the 19th century, for the purpose of modelling the extinction of unusual surnames in France and Britain. We then review the principal developments and refinements of this model, and their applications to a wide variety of problems in biology and physics. Next, we discuss in detail the case where the probability generating function for a Galton-Watson branching process is a geometric series, which can be summed in closed form to yield a fractional linear generating function that can be iterated indefinitely in closed form. We then describe the matrix method of Keyfitz and Tyree, and use it to determine how large a matrix must be chosen to model accurately a Galton-Watson branching process for a very large number of generations, of the order of hundreds or even thousands. Finally, we show that any attempt to explain the recent evidence for the existence thousands of generations ago of a 'mitochondrial Eve' and a 'Y-chromosomal Adam' in terms of a the standard Galton-Watson branching process, or indeed any statistical model that assumes equality of probabilities of passing one's genes to one's descendents in later generations, is unlikely to be successful. We explain that such models take no account of the advantages that the descendents of the most successful individuals in earlier generations enjoy over their contemporaries, which must play a key role in human evolution.

  6. An Improved Scalar Costa Scheme Based on Watson Perceptual Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Kai-yue; CHEN Jian-bo; ZHOU Yi

    2008-01-01

    An improved scalar Costa scheme (SCS) was proposed by using improved Watson perceptual model to adaptively decide quantization step size and scaling factor. The improved scheme equals to embed hiding data based on an actual image. In order to withstand amplitude scaling attack, the Watson perceptual model was redefined, and the improved scheme using the new definition can insure quantization step size in decoder that is proportional to amplitude scaling attack factor. The performance of the improved scheme outperforms that of SCS with fixed quantization step size. The improved scheme combines information theory and visual model.

  7. J. B. WATSON Y LA PUBLICIDAD, LOS INICIOS DE LA PSICOLOGIA DEL CONSUMIDOR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felipe Parrado Corredor

    2013-01-01

    .... Watson is one of its main precursors. Watson taught an applied psychology course called Psychology of Advertising, introduced many companies to experimental techniques for the marketing of their products, and, aer retiring from academic...

  8. Survival Time of a Censored Supercritical Galton-Watson Process

    CERN Document Server

    Couronné, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of the survival time of a supercritical Galton-Watson process censored at a certain level. As a byproduct we obtain the asymptotics for the speed of a particular case of a particle system with branching and selection introduced by B\\'erard and Gou\\'er\\'e (2010).

  9. Hannah Bunce Watson: Patriot Printer in the American Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Susan

    Although Hannah Watson had had little printing training prior to her husband's unexpected death, she assumed his job as publisher of the "Connecticut Courant" newspaper, a vehement advocate of the patriot cause, for 16 months during the Revolutionary War. In spite of problems such as wartime printing shortages, the burning and…

  10. Jokulhlaups and sediment transport in Watson River, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A. B.; Hasholt, Bent; Knudsen, N. T.

    2013-01-01

    For 3 years, during a 4-year observation period (2007-2010), jokulhlaups were observed from a lake at the northern margin of Russells Gletscher. At a gauging station located on a bedrock sill near the outlet of Watson River into Sdr Stromfjord, discharge and sediment transport was monitored during...

  11. Bisexual Galton-Watson Branching Processes in Random Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-xia Ma

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a bisexual Galton-Watson branching process whose offspring probability distribution is controlled by a random environment process. Some results for the probability generating functions associated with the process are obtained and sufficient conditions for certain extinction and for non-certain extinction are established.

  12. Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding of unlocked nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Niels; Wengel, Jesper; Pasternak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe the synthesis of two new unlocked nucleic acid building blocks containing hypoxanthine and 2,6-diaminopurine as nucleobase moieties and their incorporation into oligonucleotides. The modified oligonucleotides were used to examine the thermodynamic properties of UNA against unmo...... unmodified oligonucleotides and the resulting thermodynamic data support that the hydrogen bonding face of UNA is Watson-Crick like....

  13. [From humanism to nihilism: dialectics on Jean Watson's caring theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Pawel J; Lavoie, Mireille

    2015-09-01

    nursing today is heir to values that have developed over many years. In addition to the values of human care, present-day nursing embraces values that shape our modern world. This dialectical study first traces the evolution of a number of the traditional values associated with human care that nursing has retained. It goes on to show how some of the values of human care have been cast aside in favour of modern--neoliberal, technocratic and bureaucratic--values which have in turn given rise to disturbing problems of instrumentalization. Watson's theory of caring proposes two ways to remedy such instrumentalization: espousing a transcendental, metaphysical mode of thought and adopting an altruistic humanism. However, many critics have questioned the theoretical consistency and very legitimacy of the theory as a means of dealing with instrumentalization. this study analyses Watson's proposals, using a Nietzschean dialectic approach to test them and to suggest possible solutions. Significant problems in terms of both consistency and relevance are brought to light, tending to refute Watson's notions. the study findings suggest that the application of Watson's theory may paradoxically perpetuate dualism and nihilism and, rather than curb their invasive impact, lead inevitably to a conversion to instrumental values. it's suggested an alternative, ethics-of-life approach based on the synthesis of our dialectics that would foster a return to, and respect for, humanity's essential nature.

  14. On Clark-Watson's tripartite model of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, A

    1997-02-01

    Clark and Watson's tripartite model of anxiety and depression symptoms is reinterpreted using their data. It is suggested that a parsimonious view of the factor loadings is a three-factor structure of "general psychological distress," "high positive affect," and "somatic anxiety."

  15. The "Watson-Barker Listening Test" for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halay, Kathryn; Roberts, Charles V.

    The high school version of the Watson-Barker Listening Test was developed in response to the need for a listening test appropriate for high school students. The test was comprised of conversations that would normally occur in either the high school setting or in the home and was developed in two different versions. The test consists of five…

  16. The Predictive Value of the Watson-Barker Listening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kooi, Daryl

    Using the Watson-Barker Listening Test Form A and Form B as pretest and posttest at the freshman level, this research attempted to determine whether the two forms of the test and the differences between pretest and posttest would be significant predictors of students' final grade point average (GPA). Each form of the test was taken by 190 students…

  17. 78 FR 17231 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Watson Pharma, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Watson Pharma, Inc. By..., Watson Pharma, Inc., 2455 Wardlow Road, Corona, California 92880-2882, made application to the Drug... Sec. 952(a) and determined that the registration of Watson Pharma, Inc., to import the basic classes...

  18. Watson-Crick pairing, the Heisenberg group and Milnor invariants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Siddhartha

    2009-07-01

    We study the secondary structure of RNA determined by Watson-Crick pairing without pseudo-knots using Milnor invariants of links. We focus on the first non-trivial invariant, which we call the Heisenberg invariant. The Heisenberg invariant, which is an integer, can be interpreted in terms of the Heisenberg group as well as in terms of lattice paths. We show that the Heisenberg invariant gives a lower bound on the number of unpaired bases in an RNA secondary structure. We also show that the Heisenberg invariant can predict allosteric structures for RNA. Namely, if the Heisenberg invariant is large, then there are widely separated local maxima (i.e., allosteric structures) for the number of Watson-Crick pairs found.

  19. Watson-Crick pairing, the Heisenberg group and Milnor invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Gadgil, Siddhartha

    2008-01-01

    We study the secondary structure of RNA determined by Watson-Crick pairing without pseudo-knots using Milnor invariants of links. We focus on the first non-trivial invariant, which we call the Heisenberg invariant. The Heisenberg invariant, which is an integer, can be interpreted in terms of the Heisenberg group as well as in terms of lattice paths. We show that the Heisenberg invariant gives a lower bound on the number of unpaired bases in an RNA secondary structure. We also show that the Heisenberg invariant can predict \\emph{allosteric structures} for RNA. Namely, if the Heisenberg invariant is large, then there are widely separated local maxima (i.e., allosteric structures) for the number of Watson-Crick pairs found.

  20. Some Econometric Results for the Blanchard-Watson Bubble Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Soren; Lange, Theis

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyse a simple bubble model suggested by Blanchard and Watson. The model is defined by y(t) =s(t)¿y(t-1)+e(t), t=1,…,n, where s(t) is an i.i.d. binary variable with p=P(s(t)=1), independent of e(t) i.i.d. with mean zero and finite variance. We take ¿>1 so...

  1. Asymptotics of nearly critical Galton-Watson processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Kevei, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the inhomogeneous Galton--Watson processes with immigration, where $\\rho_n$ the offspring means in the $n^\\textrm{th}$ generation tends to 1. We show that if the second derivatives of the offspring generating functions go to 0 rapidly enough, then the asymptotics are the same as in the INAR(1) case, treated by Gy\\"orfi et al. We also determine the limit if this assumption does not hold showing the optimality of the conditions.

  2. Watson's theorem and the $N\\Delta(1232)$ axial transition

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Nieves, J; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We present a new determination of the $N\\Delta$ axial form factors from neutrino induced pion production data. For this purpose, the model of Hernandez et al., Phys. Rev. D76, 033005 (2007) is improved by partially restoring unitarity. This is accomplished by imposing Watson's theorem on the dominant vector and axial multipoles. As a consequence, a larger $C_5^A(0)$, in good agreement with the prediction from the off-diagonal Goldberger-Treiman relation, is now obtained.

  3. Watson, Skinner y Algunas Disputas dentro del Conductismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO PELLÓN SUÁREZ DE PUGA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con motivo del primer centenario de la publicación del manifiesto conductista, se revisa brevemente la concepción de Watson (1913 sobre el aprendizaje y la conducta, y se extiende dicho análisis al conductismo de B. F. Skinner y a las disputas entre enfoques molares y moleculares en el análisis de la conducta.

  4. The multiple personalities of Watson and Crick strands

    OpenAIRE

    Graur Dan; Cartwright Reed A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In genetics it is customary to refer to double-stranded DNA as containing a "Watson strand" and a "Crick strand." However, there seems to be no consensus in the literature on the exact meaning of these two terms, and the many usages contradict one another as well as the original definition. Here, we review the history of the terminology and suggest retaining a single sense that is currently the most useful and consistent. Proposal The Saccharomyces Genome Database defines ...

  5. PCA and level set based non-rigid image registration for MRI and Paxinos-Watson atlas of rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chao; Liu, Ailing; Ding, Mingyue; Zhou, Chengping

    2007-12-01

    Image registration provides the ability to geometrically align one dataset with another. It is a basic task in a great variety of biomedical imaging applications. This paper introduced a novel three-dimensional registration method for Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) and Paxinos-Watson Atlas of rat brain. For the purpose of adapting to a large range and non-linear deformation between MRI and atlas in higher registration accuracy, based on the segmentation of rat brain, we chose the principle components analysis (PCA) automatically performing the linear registration, and then, a level set based nonlinear registration correcting some small distortions. We implemented this registration method in a rat brain 3D reconstruction and analysis system. Experiments have demonstrated that this method can be successfully applied to registering the low resolution and noise affection MRI with Paxinos-Watson Atlas of rat brain.

  6. Flouting maxim by sherlock holmes and dr. Watson in tv series Of sherlock season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Affifatusholihah

    2017-04-01

    In running daily activities, people will always meet and interact with other people, and language is a medium that is used by humans to interact with each other. In a conversation or discussion, everyone should pay attention to the four maxims in order that there are no errors in communication. However, it is not uncommon that the four rules above are breached by the speakers. This is called non-observance of the maxims, and one of a non-observance of the maxims that often occurs in is flouting maxim. The aims of this paper are to describe types of maxims that are flouted by Sherlock Holmes and dr. Watson as well as to describe how the maxims are flouted in Sherlock TV series season 1. This research used qualitative descriptive method. The researcher classifies the utterances to know what kind of maxim which are flouted, categorizes those into the category based on the Grice’s theory of Cooperative Principle, namely: maxim of quantity, quality, relation and manner. The research procedure begin by searching the script in the internet, matching the utterances in the script and in film and sorting the utterances between Sherlock Holmes and dr. Watson as well observing every word or sentence which are flouted by the main characters. The findings find that all kinds of maxims are flouted by Sherlock and dr. Watson. The result of analysis shows that the maxim flouted when the speakers say something irrelevant; something roguishness or lied to hide the truth in the form of rhetorical question; the information becomes more or too informative than what is required; and something obscurity of expression, ambiguity, or unnecessary prolixity.

  7. Scaling limit of multitype Galton-Watson trees with infinitely many types

    OpenAIRE

    de Raphelis, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a certain class of 2-type Galton-Watson trees with edge lengths. We prove that, after an adequate rescaling, the weighted height function of a forest of such trees converges in law to the reflected Brownian motion. We then use this to deduce under mild conditions an invariance principle for multitype Galton--Watson trees with a countable number of types, thus extending a result of G. Miermont on multitype Galton--Watson trees with finitely many types.

  8. Watson: A new link in the IIE iron chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Edward; Davis, Andrew; Clarke, Roy S., Jr.; Schultz, Ludolf; Weber, Hartwig W.; Clayton, Robert; Mayeda, Toshiko; Jarosewich, Eugene; Sylvester, Paul; Grossman, Lawrence

    1994-01-01

    Watson, which was found in 1972 in South Australia, contains the largest single silicate rock mass seen in any known iron meteorite. A comprehensive study has been completed on this unusual meteorite: petrography, metallography, analyses of the silicate inclusion (whole rock chemical analysis, INAA, RNAA, noble gases, and oxygen isotope analysis) and mineral compositions (by electron microprobe and ion microprobe). The whole rock has a composition of an H-chondrite minus the normal H-group metal and troilite content. The oxygen isotope composition is that of the silicates in the IIE iron meteorites and lies along an oxygen isotope fractionation line with the H-group chondrites. Trace elements in the metal confirm Watson is a new IIE iron. Whole rock Watson silicate shows an enrichment in K and P (each approximately 2X H-chondrites). The silicate inclusion has a highly equilibrated igneous (peridotite-like) texture with olivine largely poikilitic within low-Ca pyroxene: olivine (Fa20), opx (Fs17Wo3), capx (Fs9Wo14)(with very fine exsolution lamellae), antiperthite feldspar (An1-3Or5) with less than 1 micron exsolution lamellae (An1-3Or greater than 40), shocked feldspar with altered stoichiometry, minor whitlockite (also a poorly characterized interstitial phosphate-rich phase) and chromite, and only traces of metal and troilite. The individual silicate minerals have normal chondritic REE patterns, but whitlockite has a remarkable REE pattern. It is very enriched in light REE (La is 720X C1, and Lu is 90X C1, as opposed to usual chonditic values of approximately 300X and 100-150X, respectively) with a negative Eu anomaly. The enrichment of whole rock K is expressed both in an unusually high mean modal Or content of the feldspar, Or13, and in the presence of antiperthite.

  9. IBM Watson Analytics: Automating Visualization, Descriptive, and Predictive Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Robert Eugene; Snider, Dallas; Thompson, Carla; Mantravadi, Sarita

    2016-10-11

    We live in an era of explosive data generation that will continue to grow and involve all industries. One of the results of this explosion is the need for newer and more efficient data analytics procedures. Traditionally, data analytics required a substantial background in statistics and computer science. In 2015, International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) released the IBM Watson Analytics (IBMWA) software that delivered advanced statistical procedures based on the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The latest entry of Watson Analytics into the field of analytical software products provides users with enhanced functions that are not available in many existing programs. For example, Watson Analytics automatically analyzes datasets, examines data quality, and determines the optimal statistical approach. Users can request exploratory, predictive, and visual analytics. Using natural language processing (NLP), users are able to submit additional questions for analyses in a quick response format. This analytical package is available free to academic institutions (faculty and students) that plan to use the tools for noncommercial purposes. To report the features of IBMWA and discuss how this software subjectively and objectively compares to other data mining programs. The salient features of the IBMWA program were examined and compared with other common analytical platforms, using validated health datasets. Using a validated dataset, IBMWA delivered similar predictions compared with several commercial and open source data mining software applications. The visual analytics generated by IBMWA were similar to results from programs such as Microsoft Excel and Tableau Software. In addition, assistance with data preprocessing and data exploration was an inherent component of the IBMWA application. Sensitivity and specificity were not included in the IBMWA predictive analytics results, nor were odds ratios, confidence intervals, or a confusion matrix

  10. ITERATED FUNCTION SYSTEM AND GALTON-WATSON TREE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jinghu; Shieh Narn-Rueih

    2007-01-01

    Given a system {S1,…,SN} of N contractive similarities satisfying some strong separation condition, it has an invariant set K for the system. In this article, the authors construct some random measure μω supported on random subset Kω of K, μω having some "non-standard" multifractal structure, which contrasts the well-known main tool is the multifractal structures of a Galton-Watson tree, which are obtained by Liu [9], Shieh-Taylor [14], and M(o)rters-Shieh [12].

  11. Generative Power and Closure Properties of Watson-Crick Grammars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Liyana Mohamad Zulkufli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We define WK linear grammars, as an extension of WK regular grammars with linear grammar rules, and WK context-free grammars, thus investigating their computational power and closure properties. We show that WK linear grammars can generate some context-sensitive languages. Moreover, we demonstrate that the family of WK regular languages is the proper subset of the family of WK linear languages, but it is not comparable with the family of linear languages. We also establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations.

  12. "Elementary, my dear Watson". Per una falsa citazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Minella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowhere, among Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's pages concerning one of the most celebrated characters of British literature, Sherlock Holmes, is to be found the interjection: "Elementary, my dear Watson!". Exploring the creation of the London investigator as well as Holmes' first appearance in theatre, cinema and literature, this essay will help to understand why he is still so popular and why the 'non-quotation' keeps haunting the collective imagination. Despite its philological inaccuracy, the interjection has become so famous that it has been used even outside its original context.

  13. 基于粘贴系统的Watson-Crick正则文法及自动机%Watson-Crick Regular Grammars and Automata Based on Sticker System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洋; 汤建钢

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the DNA calculation of the relevant knowledge, the use of DNA language and sticker mode and sticker system structure Watson-Crick regular grammar, briefly introduced the Watson- Crick automata. DNA sticker mode is one of the main models in the DNA calculation.%通过介绍DNA计算中的相关知识,利用DNA语言和粘贴模型及粘贴系统构造watson-crick正则文法,简单介绍TWatson-Crick自动机.

  14. [Under what conditions does G.C Watson-Crick DNA base pair acquire all four configurations characteristic for A.T Watson-Crick DNA base pair?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', O O

    2013-01-01

    At the MP2/6-311++G(2df,pd)//B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory it was established for the first time, that the Löwdin's G*.C* DNA base pair formed by the mutagenic tautomers can acquire, as the A-T Watson-Crick DNA base pair, four biologically important configurations, namely: Watson-Crick, reverse Watson-Crick, Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen. This fact demonstrates rather unexpected role of the tautomerisation of the one of the Watson-Crick DNA base pairs, in particular, via double proton transfer: exactly the G.C-->G*.C* tautomerisation allows to overcome steric hindrances for the implementation of the above mentioned configurations. Geometric, electron-topological and energetic properties of the H-bonds that stabilise the studied pairs, as well as the energetic characteristics of the latters are presented.

  15. Predicting the Mechanism and Kinetics of the Watson-Crick to Hoogsteen Base Pairing Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreede, J.; Bolhuis, P.G.; Swenson, D.W.H.

    2016-01-01

    DNA duplexes predominantly contain Watson-Crick (WC) base pairs. Yet, a non-negligible number of base pairs converts to the Hoogsteen (HG) hydrogen bonding pattern, involving a 180° rotation of the purine base relative to Watson-Crick. These WC to HG conversions alter the conformation of DNA, and

  16. Scaling limit of the recurrent biased random walk on a Galton-Watson tree

    OpenAIRE

    Aïdékon, Elie; de Raphélis, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    We show that the trace of the null recurrent biased random walk on a Galton-Watson tree properly renormalized converges to the Brownian forest. Our result extends to the setting of the random walk in random environment on a Galton-Watson tree.

  17. Preliminary Research Employing the Watson-Barker Listening Test: A Validation of the Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Charles V.

    A study was conducted to further validate the "Watson-Barker Listening Test." The subjects, 120 students enrolled in basic speech courses, completed the Receiver Apprehension Test (RAT) and the Watson-Barker Listening Test: Form A. Statistical analysis of the results revealed a significant correlation between the RAT scores and both the long term…

  18. Growth of Galton-Watson trees: immigration and lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Xiao'ou

    2010-01-01

    We study certain consistent families $(F_\\lambda)_{\\lambda\\ge 0}$ of Galton-Watson forests with lifetimes as edge lengths and/or immigrants as progenitors of the trees in $F_\\lambda$. Specifically, consistency here refers to the property that for each $\\mu\\le\\lambda$, the forest $F_\\mu$ has the same distribution as the subforest of $F_\\lambda$ spanned by the black leaves in a Bernoulli leaf colouring, where each leaf of $F_\\lambda$ is coloured in black independently with probability $\\mu/\\lambda$. The case of exponentially distributed lifetimes and no immigration was studied by Duquesne and Winkel and related to the genealogy of Markovian continuous-state branching processes. We characterise here such families in the framework of arbitrary lifetime distributions and immigration according to a renewal process, related to Sagitov's (non-Markovian) generalisation of continuous-state branching renewal processes, and similar processes with immigration.

  19. Some Econometric Results for the Blanchard-Watson Bubble Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Soren; Lange, Theis

    The purpose of the present paper is to analyse a simple bubble model suggested by Blanchard and Watson. The model is defined by y(t) =s(t)¿y(t-1)+e(t), t=1,…,n, where s(t) is an i.i.d. binary variable with p=P(s(t)=1), independent of e(t) i.i.d. with mean zero and finite variance. We take ¿>1 so...... is whether a bubble model with infinite variance can create the long swings, or persistence, which are observed in many macro variables. We say that a variable is persistent if its autoregressive coefficient ¿(n) of y(t) on y(t-1), is close to one. We show that the estimator of ¿(n) converges to ¿p...

  20. Determining the Walker exponent and developing a modified Smith-Watson-Topper parameter model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Zhiqiang; Huang, Hong Zhong; Wang, Hai Kun; Gao, Huiying; Zuo, Fang Jun [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)

    2016-03-15

    Mean stress effects significantly influence the fatigue life of components. In general, tensile mean stresses are known to reduce the fatigue life of components, whereas compressive mean stresses are known to increase it. To date, various methods that account for mean stress effects have been studied. In this research, considering the high accuracy of mean stress correction and the difficulty in obtaining the material parameter of the Walker method, a practical method is proposed to describe the material parameter of this method. The test data of various materials are then used to verify the proposed practical method. Furthermore, by applying the Walker material parameter and the Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) parameter, a modified strain-life model is developed to consider sensitivity to mean stress of materials. In addition, three sets of experimental fatigue data from super alloy GH4133, aluminum alloy 7075-T651, and carbon steel are used to estimate the accuracy of the proposed model. A comparison is also made between the SWT parameter method and the proposed strainlife model. The proposed strain-life model provides more accurate life prediction results than the SWT parameter method.

  1. The Towers Watson Approach to Improving Corporate Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Adam

    2012-06-01

    Encouraging employees to take care of their health is in the interests of everyone. Employees benefit from being healthier and happier, employers benefit from having an engaged workforce, lower absenteeism, and lower medical costs, and society as a whole benefits from using less medical resources. Employers have been trying to push healthy messages to employees for a long time and have had some good success. For example, an increased emphasis on the dangers of tobacco use in employer and government communications has helped bring about a significant decrease in smoking. However, overall population health in key risk areas (such as obesity and diabetes) continues to decline. These areas are where employers can really make a difference in health outcomes-and effective communications are critical to success. Towers Watson helps many companies educate employees about health and wellness and encourage more effective use of healthcare. The challenge is to find new and engaging ways to deliver this information so that employees take notice-and take action. After all, the amount of material employees receive on a daily basis from marketers, employers, and each other across the wide range of available media makes it extremely difficult to be heard. This is where gaming comes in-and why we think it's the tool to be incorporating into communication and engagement plans.

  2. Los cuidados enfermeros en los centros geriátricos según el modelo de Watson Nursing care adopted for use in Homes for the Elderly based on Watson model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Abades Porcel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio pretende describir y analizar los cuidados enfermeros adoptados en las instituciones geriátricas, basándose para ello en los "factores del cuidado" de la teoría de Jean Watson. El estudio se aborda desde la perspectiva teórica fenomenológica, paradigma interpretativista. Como método de generación de información se utilizará el análisis del discurso de la "Entrevista en profundidad" realizadas a las enfermeras sobre el concepto de cuidar en los centros geriátricos. Una vez finalizado el estudio podrá ser de gran utilidad para los profesionales del ámbito geriátrico, dado que permitirá conocer los problemas que surgen a la hora de adoptar el modelo de Watson en la atención geriátrica.The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the nursing care adopted for use in Homes for the Elderly, which is based on the "carative factors" as described in the Theory of Jean Watson. In order to do this, a phenomenological perspective, interpretative paradigm will be carried out. As a method for generating information, discourse analysis of in-depth interviews carried out on the nurses concerning the concept of caring in homes for the elderly will be used. Once the study has been finalised it could be extremely useful for those healthcare professionals working with the elderly, given that it will highlight problems arising when adopting Watson’s model when caring for the elderly.

  3. Evaluation of Watson-like integrals for a hyper bcc antiferromagnetic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radošević, S. M.; Pantić, M. R.; Kapor, D. V.; Pavkov-Hrvojević, M. V.; Škrinjar, M. G.

    2010-04-01

    Watson-like integrals for a d-dimensional bcc antiferromagnetic lattice, I_d (\\eta ) =\\frac{1}{\\pi ^d} \\prod _{i = 1}^d \\int _0^{\\pi } \\mathrm{d}x_i \\; \\frac{ \\eta }{\\sqrt{\\eta ^2 - \\prod \

  4. The non-Watson-Crick base pairs and their associated isostericity matrices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leontis, Neocles B; Stombaugh, Jesse; Westhof, Eric

    2002-01-01

    RNA molecules exhibit complex structures in which a large fraction of the bases engage in non-Watson-Crick base pairing, forming motifs that mediate long-range RNA-RNA interactions and create binding...

  5. Interbeing and Mindfulness: A Bridge to Understanding Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Kathleen L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains and compares Thich Naht Hanh's concept of interbeing and mindfulness and Jean Watson's theory of human caring. Describes the application of mindful practices to holistic nursing and nursing education. (Contains 12 references.) (SK)

  6. A history of the term radical behaviorism: From Watson to Skinner

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Susan M.; Morris, Edward K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the origins and evolution of the term radical behaviorism. John B. Watson's coining of behaviorism in 1913 is presented first, followed by a discussion of the uses of “radical” within psychology during these early years. When the term radical behaviorism first emerged in the early 1920s, its referent was Watson's behaviorism, most specifically his stance on consciousness. In the 1930s, B. F. Skinner described his own position with the term radical behaviorism in an unpubl...

  7. Watson's behaviorism: a comparison of the two editions (1925 and 1930).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpintero, Helio

    2004-05-01

    J.B. Watson's Behaviorism, a complete presentation of the mature psychological points of view of its author, had 2 editions, in 1925 and 1930, which presented significant differences in their texts. Although Watson maximized such variations, to the point of considering the 2nd edition as nearly a brand-new book, both suppressions and additions reveal his feelings when presenting his ideas to a general audience. Such variations are here presented through an in-depth analysis.

  8. Localization and labeling of rat brain in MR image based on Paxinos-Watson atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Cai, Chao; Ding, Mingyue; Zhou, Chengping

    2006-03-01

    Localization and labeling of function regions in brain is an important topic in experimental brain sciences because the huge amount of data collected by neuroscientists will become meaningless if we cannot give them a precise description of their locations. In this paper, we proposed a localization and labelling method of 3D MR image of rat brain based on Paxinos-Watson atlas. Our objective is to use the specific atlas to accomplish localization and labeling of specified tissue of interest (TOI) to mimic a veteran expert such that invisible or unclear anatomic function regions in the MR images of rat brain can be automatically identified and marked. We proposed a multi-step method to locate and label the TOIs from the MR image of rat brain. Firstly, pre-processing. It aims at the digitization and 3D reconstruction of the atlas and MRI of rat brain. Secondly, two-step registration. The global registration is to eliminate the big misalign and section angle offset as well as the scale between the MRI and atlas. We can choose some unambiguous and characteristic points manually, and based on these correspondences a coarse registration is obtained using affine model. The local registration is to address individual variability of rat brain that can be performed by using Snake model. Thirdly, post-processing. The goal is to locate and label the TOIs in the selected MR image of rat brain slice guided by well-registered atlas. The experiments demonstrated the feasibility of our method.

  9. IBM Watson: How Cognitive Computing Can Be Applied to Big Data Challenges in Life Sciences Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Elenee Argentinis, J D; Weber, Griff

    2016-04-01

    Life sciences researchers are under pressure to innovate faster than ever. Big data offer the promise of unlocking novel insights and accelerating breakthroughs. Ironically, although more data are available than ever, only a fraction is being integrated, understood, and analyzed. The challenge lies in harnessing volumes of data, integrating the data from hundreds of sources, and understanding their various formats. New technologies such as cognitive computing offer promise for addressing this challenge because cognitive solutions are specifically designed to integrate and analyze big datasets. Cognitive solutions can understand different types of data such as lab values in a structured database or the text of a scientific publication. Cognitive solutions are trained to understand technical, industry-specific content and use advanced reasoning, predictive modeling, and machine learning techniques to advance research faster. Watson, a cognitive computing technology, has been configured to support life sciences research. This version of Watson includes medical literature, patents, genomics, and chemical and pharmacological data that researchers would typically use in their work. Watson has also been developed with specific comprehension of scientific terminology so it can make novel connections in millions of pages of text. Watson has been applied to a few pilot studies in the areas of drug target identification and drug repurposing. The pilot results suggest that Watson can accelerate identification of novel drug candidates and novel drug targets by harnessing the potential of big data.

  10. Short-term clinical effects of modified Watson-Jones total hip arthroplasty versus modified Gibson approach%以改良Watson-Jones入路微创行全髋关节置换与改良Gibson后侧入路全髋关节置换的近期疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦庆军; 赵劲民; 陆荣斌; 李晓峰; 陆定贵

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, modified Watson-Jones total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been widely used in the world.OBJECTIVE: To compare short-term clinical effects between minimally invasive modified Watson-Jones THA and modifiedGibson THA.METHODS: Twenty-two patients accepted modified Watson-Jones method and 30 patients underwent modified Gibsonapproach.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The follow-up time was 18 months in 49 cases, 1 case lost to follow-up in modified Watson-Jonesgroup and 2 cases in modified Gibson group. The significant differences between two groups were observed in decreases ofindicators such as length of incision, volume of blood loss perioperative period, volume of blood transfusion, days at hospitalpostoperatively and ti me of operation (P < 0.05). Volume of postoperative blood loss, position of prosthesis, and hip functionalevaluation system (Harris) were not significantly different between two groups. Complications including infection, dislocation,neurovascular injury, deep vein embolism were not observed in all cases. The general results of modified Watson-Jones group arebetter than modified Gibson group according to the short term follow-up data. Minimal invasive method leads to decreases ofcomplications, loss of blood and time at hospital, good results in hip function, and early exercise is available.%背景:采用改良Watson-Jones入路的微创全髋关节置换近年来在国内外得到广泛的应用.目的:比较改良Watson-Jones入路微创全髋关节置换与改良Gibson 后侧入路全髋关节置换的近期疗效.方法:52例接受单侧髋关节置换患者,根据入院日期单双号,随机分为2组,实验组22例接受改良Watson-Jones入路微创人工全髋关节置换;对照组30例接受改良Gibson后侧入路人工全髋关节置换.结果与结论:两组患者完整随访至置换后18个月49例,实验组失访1例,对照组失访2例.实验组手术时间多于对照组(P < 0.05),实验组切口长度、术中出血量、

  11. The Multivariate Watson Distribution: Maximum-Likelihood Estimation and other Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Sra, Suvrit

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies fundamental aspects of modelling data using multivariate Watson distributions. Although these distributions are natural for modelling axially symmetric data (i.e., unit vectors where $\\pm \\x$ are equivalent), for high-dimensions using them can be difficult. Why so? Largely because for Watson distributions even basic tasks such as maximum-likelihood are numerically challenging. To tackle the numerical difficulties some approximations have been derived---but these are either grossly inaccurate in high-dimensions (\\emph{Directional Statistics}, Mardia & Jupp. 2000) or when reasonably accurate (\\emph{J. Machine Learning Research, W. & C.P., v2}, Bijral \\emph{et al.}, 2007, pp. 35--42), they lack theoretical justification. We derive new approximations to the maximum-likelihood estimates; our approximations are theoretically well-defined, numerically accurate, and easy to compute. We build on our parameter estimation and discuss mixture-modelling with Watson distributions; here we uncover...

  12. On the scaling limits of Galton Watson processes in varying environment

    CERN Document Server

    Bansaye, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Renormalized sequences of Galton Watson processes converge to Continuous State Branching Processes (CSBP), characterized by a L\\'evy triplet of two numbers and a measure. This paper investigates the case of Galton Watson processes in varying environment and provides an explicit sufficient condition for finite-dimensional convergence in terms of convergence of a characteristic triplet of measures. We recover then classical results on the convergence of Galton Watson processes and we can add exceptional environments provoking positive or negative jumps at fixed times. We also apply this result to derive new results on the Feller diffusion in varying environment and branching processes in random environment. Our approach relies on the backward differential equation satisfied by the Laplace exponent and provides results about explosion, absorption and extinction. Thus, this paper exhibits a general class of CSBP in varying environment which is characterized by a triplet of measures. This provides a first step tow...

  13. J. B. Watson y la Publicidad, los Inicios de la Psicología del Consumidor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE PARRADO CORREDOR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación del comportamiento de las personas frente a los productos y servicios se remonta a los inicios del siglo XX y J. B. Watson es uno de sus principales precursores. Watson ofreció un curso de psicología aplicada titulado Psicología de la Publicidad, introdujo en varias empresas las técnicas experimentales para el mercadeo de sus productos y, tras su retiro de la vida académica, se vinculó a la agencia de publicidad Walter Thompson, donde desarrolló campañas masivas con los mismos principios de las reacciones emocionales condicionadas. En este ensayo se expone la importancia del trabajo de Watson en la psicología de la publicidad, como precursor de los desarrollos científicos de la psicología del consumidor.

  14. A history of the term radical behaviorism: From Watson to Skinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Susan M.; Morris, Edward K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the origins and evolution of the term radical behaviorism. John B. Watson's coining of behaviorism in 1913 is presented first, followed by a discussion of the uses of “radical” within psychology during these early years. When the term radical behaviorism first emerged in the early 1920s, its referent was Watson's behaviorism, most specifically his stance on consciousness. In the 1930s, B. F. Skinner described his own position with the term radical behaviorism in an unpublished manuscript, and then in 1945 first referred in print to his views as such. Today, radical behaviorism is generally applied to Skinner's views alone. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of a similarity in Watson's and Skinner's positions on consciousness, which seems a possible historical and philosophical connection between their respective radical behaviorisms. PMID:22477958

  15. A history of the term radical behaviorism: From Watson to Skinner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S M; Morris, E K

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the origins and evolution of the term radical behaviorism. John B. Watson's coining of behaviorism in 1913 is presented first, followed by a discussion of the uses of "radical" within psychology during these early years. When the term radical behaviorism first emerged in the early 1920s, its referent was Watson's behaviorism, most specifically his stance on consciousness. In the 1930s, B. F. Skinner described his own position with the term radical behaviorism in an unpublished manuscript, and then in 1945 first referred in print to his views as such. Today, radical behaviorism is generally applied to Skinner's views alone. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of a similarity in Watson's and Skinner's positions on consciousness, which seems a possible historical and philosophical connection between their respective radical behaviorisms.

  16. J.B.Watson, a psicologia experimental e o condutismo 100 anos depois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ardila

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se neste artigo uma análise do trabalho publicado por Watson em 1913, denominado "Manifesto Behaviorista", que procurou ser o fundamento de uma psicologia baseada nas ciências naturais, na experimentação e no estudo objetivo do comportamento. Indicam-se suas origens, o contexto no qual se desenvolveu seu autor e a forma como o condutismo evoluiu e se diversificou. Destaca-se o legado de Watson, as críticas recebidas e sua avaliação histórica.

  17. J. b. watson y la publicidad, los inicios de la psicología del consumidor

    OpenAIRE

    FELIPE PARRADO CORREDOR

    2013-01-01

    La investigación del comportamiento de las personas frente a los productos y servicios se remonta a los inicios del siglo XX y J. B. Watson es uno de sus principales precursores. Watson ofreció un curso de psicología aplicada titulado Psicología de la Publicidad, introdujo en varias empresas las técnicas experimentales para el mercadeo de sus productos y, tras su retiro de la vida académica, se vinculó a la agencia de publicidad Walter Thompson, donde desarrolló campañas masivas con los mismo...

  18. J. B. Watson y la Publicidad, los Inicios de la Psicología del Consumidor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE PARRADO CORREDOR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research regarding the behavior of individuals with respect to products and services dates back to the beginning of the 20th century, and J. B. Watson is one of its main precursors. Watson taught an applied psychology course called Psychology of Advertising, introduced many companies to experimental techniques for the marketing of their products, and, after retiring from academic life, joined the Walter Thompson advertising agency, where he developed massive campaigns using the principles of conditioned emotional responses. The article highlights the importance of Watson’s work in the psychology of advertising, as a forerunner of the scientific developments of consumer psychology.

  19. Envisioning nursing in 2050 through the eyes of nurse theorists: Leininger and Watson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, F Beryl

    2007-01-01

    Madeleine Leininger and Jean Watson envision how their theoretical ideas will be expressed in the world in 2050. Leininger explains how her theory and ethnoresearch methodology have given rise to transcultural nursing and the culture care nursing paradigm and predicts that they will continue to contribute to culturally congruent care practices that promote health, healing, quality of life, and even world peace. Watson provides a vision based on an emergent perspective that emphasizes subjective dimensions related to self-knowledge, self-control, self-caring, and self-healing potential; spirit and wholeness of being/becoming; natural healing approaches; and caring, healing relationships with self and others.

  20. J. b. watson y la publicidad, los inicios de la psicología del consumidor

    OpenAIRE

    FELIPE PARRADO CORREDOR

    2013-01-01

    La investigación del comportamiento de las personas frente a los productos y servicios se remonta a los inicios del siglo XX y J. B. Watson es uno de sus principales precursores. Watson ofreció un curso de psicología aplicada titulado Psicología de la Publicidad, introdujo en varias empresas las técnicas experimentales para el mercadeo de sus productos y, tras su retiro de la vida académica, se vinculó a la agencia de publicidad Walter Thompson, donde desarrolló campañas masivas con los mismo...

  1. 改良Watson-Jones入路与改良Hardinge 入路全髋关节置换术的疗效比较%Modified Watson-Jones approach versus modified Hardinge approach for total hip arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴若; 徐耀增; 耿德春; 李荣群; 黄立新

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较改良Watson-Jones入路与改良Hardinge入路全髋关节置换术(THA)的疗效.方法 对2005年1月至2008年2月行THA治疗且获得随访的90例患者资料进行回顾性研究,其中采用改良Watson-Jones入路行微创THA(A组)44例,男20例,女24例;平均年龄(68.2±8.0)岁.病因:股骨颈骨折23例,股骨头坏死9例等.采用改良Hardinge入路行THA(B组)46例,男21例,女25例;平均年龄(69.1±9.2)岁.病因:股骨颈骨折21例,股骨头坏死6例等.手术均由同一组医生完成.临床评估包括术后3个月和末次随访时Harris髋关节功能评分及Barthel指数等,放射学评估包括髋臼外展角,记录并发症的发生情况.结果 所有患者术后获平均(50.9±10.1)个月随访.A组患者切口长度较B组短,失血量较B组少,术后3d内下床例数较B组多,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(p<0.05).两组患者髋臼外展角差异无统计学意义(P> 0.05).术后3个月A组患者Harris评分[(82.4±3.3)分]及Barthel指数(85.4±3.8)均高于B组患者[(72.3±3.7)分、77.2±5.4],差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).但末次随访时两组患者的Harris评分及Barthel指数比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组患者均末出现伤口感染、假体松动、髋关节脱位、血管神经损伤或深静脉血栓形成等并发症.结论 改良Watson-Jones入路与改良Hardinge入路均能满意应用于THA,但改良Watson-Jones入路微创THA术后前3个月内功能恢复更佳.%Objective To compare clinical results of modified Watson-Jones minimally invasive approach and modified Hardinge approach in total hip arthroplasty(THA).Methods This study reviewed 90 patients who had undergone THA from January 2005 through February 2008.The modified Watson-Jones approach was used in 44 patients(group A),20 men and 24 women,with an average age of 68.2 ±8.0 years; the modified Hardinge approach was used in 46 patients(group B),21 men and 25 women,with an average age of

  2. Coulomb interaction in multiple scattering theory. [Kerman-McManus-Thaler and Watson theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, L.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Thaler, R.M.

    1980-10-01

    The treatment of the Coulomb interaction in the multiple scattering theories of Kerman-McManus-Thaler and Watson is examined in detail. By neglecting virtual Coulomb excitations, the lowest order Coulomb term in the Watson optical potential is shown to be a convolution of the point Coulomb interaction with the distributed nuclear charge, while the equivalent Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is obtained from an averaged, single-particle Coulombic T matrix. The Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is expressed as the Watson Coulomb term plus additional Coulomb-nuclear and Coulomb-Coulomb cross terms, and the omission of the extra terms in usual Kerman-McManus-Thaler applications leads to negative infinite total reaction cross section predictions and incorrect pure Coulomb scattering limits. Approximations are presented which eliminate these anomalies. Using the two-potential formula, the full projectile-nucleus T matrix is separated into two terms, one resulting from the distributed nuclear charge and the other being a Coulomb distorted nuclear T matrix. It is shown that the error resulting from the omission of the Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb terms is effectively removed when the pure Coulomb T matrix in Kerman-McManus-Thaler is replaced by the analogous quantity in the Watson approach. Using the various approximations, theoretical angular distributions are obtained for 800 MeV p+/sup 208/Pb elastic scattering and compared with experimental data.

  3. THE ASYMPTOTIC PROPERTIES OF SUPERCRITICAL BISEXUAL GALTON-WATSON BRANCHING PROCESSES WITH IMMIGRATION OF MATING UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this article the supercritical bisexual Galton-Watson branching processes with the immigration of mating units is considered. A necessary condition for the almost sure convergence, and a sufficient condition for the L1 convergence are given for the process with the suitably normed condition.

  4. ON THE EXTINCTION OF POPULATION-SIZE-DEPENDENT BISEXUAL GALTON-WATSON PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the population-size-dependent bisexual Galton-Watson processes are considered. Under some suitable conditions on the mating functions and the offspring distribution, existence of the limit of mean growth rate per mating unit is proved. And based on the limit, a criterion to identify whether the process admits ultimate extinct with probability one is obtained.

  5. Einstein relation for biased random walk on Galton--Watson trees

    CERN Document Server

    Arous, Gerard Ben; Olla, Stefano; Zeitouni, Ofer

    2011-01-01

    We prove the Einstein relation, relating the velocity under a small perturbation to the diffusivity in equilibrium, for certain biased random walks on Galton--Watson trees. This provides the first example where the Einstein relation is proved for motion in random media with arbitrary deep traps.

  6. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  7. Finding Little Albert: A Journey to John B. Watson's Infant Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Hall P.; Levinson, Sharman; Irons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In 1920, John Watson and Rosalie Rayner claimed to have conditioned a baby boy, Albert, to fear a laboratory rat. In subsequent tests, they reported that the child's fear generalized to other furry objects. After the last testing session, Albert disappeared, creating one of the greatest mysteries in the history of psychology. This article…

  8. Finding Little Albert: A Journey to John B. Watson's Infant Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Hall P.; Levinson, Sharman; Irons, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In 1920, John Watson and Rosalie Rayner claimed to have conditioned a baby boy, Albert, to fear a laboratory rat. In subsequent tests, they reported that the child's fear generalized to other furry objects. After the last testing session, Albert disappeared, creating one of the greatest mysteries in the history of psychology. This article…

  9. 78 FR 33440 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Watson Pharma, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Watson Pharma, Inc... Pharma, Inc., 2455 Wardlow Road, Corona, California 92880-2882, made application by renewal to the Drug...

  10. 77 FR 67675 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Watson Pharma, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Watson Pharma, Inc... Pharma, Inc., 2455 Wardlow Road, Corona, California 92880-2882, made application to the Drug Enforcement...

  11. Correcting the record on Watson, Rayner, and Little Albert: Albert Barger as "psychology's lost boy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Russell A; Digdon, Nancy; Harris, Ben; Smithson, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    In 1920, John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner attempted to condition a phobia in a young infant named "Albert B." In 2009, Beck, Levinson, and Irons proposed that Little Albert, as he is now known, was actually an infant named Douglas Merritte. More recently, Fridlund, Beck, Goldie, and Irons (2012) claimed that Little Albert (Douglas) was neurologically impaired at the time of the experiment. They also alleged that Watson, in a severe breach of ethics, probably knew of Little Albert's condition when selecting him for the study and then fraudulently hid this fact in his published accounts of the case. In this article, we present the discovery of another individual, Albert Barger, who appears to match the characteristics of Little Albert better than Douglas Merritte does. We examine the evidence for Albert Barger as having been Little Albert and, where relevant, contrast it with the evidence for Douglas Merritte. As for the allegations of fraudulent activity by Watson, we offer comments at the end of this article. We also present evidence concerning whether Little Albert (Albert Barger) grew up with the fear of furry animals, as Watson and Rayner speculated he might.

  12. Meltwater chemistry and solute export from a Greenland Ice Sheet catchment, Watson River, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Jacob C; Knudsen, N. Tvis; Hasholt, Bent

    2014-01-01

    –2010 for the Watson River sector of the GrIS that drains into the fjord Kangerlussuaq. The hydrochemistry is dominated by Ca2+ and HCO3− with a relatively high molar K+/Na+ ratio of 0.6 ± 0.1, typical for meltwaters draining a gneissic lithology. Low molar Ca2+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+ ratios indicate that weathering....... However, when normalized by discharge the denudation rates are comparable to other Arctic sites. When extrapolating the results from the Watson River catchment to the entire Greenland for 2007–2010, the solute export from Greenland meltwater varied between 7.1 × 106 and 7.8 × 106 tons, whilst the major...

  13. Watson-Jones入路行人工全髋关节置换的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王裕凤

    2009-01-01

    @@ 人工关节置换是指用生物相容性与机械性能良好的金属材料制成的一种类似人体骨关节的假体,利用手术方法用人工关节来置换被损伤所破坏的关节面[1], Watson-Jones入路是经典的髋关节外侧入路切口,为目前髋关节置换术所常用.2005年1月~2008年12月,本院骨科共行人工全髋关节置换手术56例,全部采用Watson-Jones入路,护理人员对患者实施规范性系统性的护理,取得良好效果,现报道如下.

  14. On the number of vertices with a given degree in a Galton-Watson tree

    CERN Document Server

    Minami, N

    2005-01-01

    Let $Y_k(\\omega)$ ($k\\geq0$) be the number of vertices of a Galton-Watson tree $\\omega$ having $k$ children, so that $Z(\\omega):=\\sum_{k\\geq0}Y_k(\\omega)$ is the total progeny of $\\omega$. In this paper, we shall prove various statistical properties of $Z$ and $Y_k$. We first show, under a mild condition, an asymptotic expansion of $P(Z=n)$ as $n\\to\\infty$, improving the theorem of Otter (1949). Next, we show that ${\\cal Y}_k(\\omega):=\\sum_{j=0}^kY_j(\\omega)$ is the total progeny of a new Galton-Watson tree which is hidden in the original tree $\\omega$. We then proceed to study the joint probability distribution of $Z$ and $\\{Y_k\\}_k$, and show that as $n\\to\\infty$, $\\{Y_k/n\\}_k$ is asymptotically Gaussian under the conditional distribution $P(\\cdot\\vert Z=n)$.

  15. The cut-tree of large Galton-Watson trees and the Brownian CRT

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoin, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Consider the edge-deletion process in which the edges of some finite tree $T$ are removed one after the other in the uniform random order. Roughly speaking, the cut-tree then describes the genealogy of connected components appearing in this edge-deletion process. Our main result shows that after a proper rescaling, the cut-tree of a critical Galton-Watson tree with finite variance and conditioned to have size $n$, converges as $n\\to \\infty$ to a Brownian CRT in the weak sense induced by the Gromov-Prokhorov topology. This yields a multi-dimensional extension of a limit theorem due to Janson \\cite{Janson} for the number of random cuts needed to isolate the root in Galton-Watson trees conditioned by their sizes, and generalizes also a recent result \\cite{Be} obtained in the special case of Cayley trees.

  16. Visualizing Transient Watson-Crick Like Mispairs in DNA and RNA Duplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsey, Isaac J.; Petzold, Katja; Sathyamoorthy, Bharathwaj; Stein, Zachary W.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.

    2015-01-01

    Rare tautomeric and anionic nucleobases are believed to play fundamental biological roles but their prevalence and functional importance has remained elusive because they exist transiently, in low-abundance, and involve subtle movements of protons that are difficult to visualize. Using NMR relaxation dispersion, we show that wobble dG•dT and rG•rU mispairs in DNA and RNA duplexes exist in dynamic equilibrium with short-lived, low-populated Watson-Crick like mispairs that are stabilized by rare enolic or anionic bases. These mispairs can evade Watson-Crick fidelity checkpoints and form with probabilities (10−3-10−5) that strongly imply a universal role in replication and translation errors. Our results indicate that rare tautomeric and anionic bases are widespread in nucleic acids, expanding their structural and functional complexity beyond that attainable with canonical bases. PMID:25762137

  17. Utilizing the language of Jean Watson's caring theory within a computerized clinical documentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The healthcare facility described in the following article is part of an eight-hospital organization that adopted Watson's Theory of Caring as part of their nursing philosophy. According to Watson, this theory is an attempt to find and deepen the language specific to nurse caring relations and its many meanings. Yet during the implementation of the theory within the setting described, it was noted that there was no mechanism in the current documentation system for clinical nursing staff to document the patient experience using any language specific to the theory. Nursing members recognized an opportunity to develop a new context in charting during an extensive clinical documentation system upgrade. A discussion of the steps taken and the results within the clinical documentation system supporting the newly adopted caring philosophy are summarized here.

  18. O pensamento em Watson: rompendo com o legado metafísico e buscando uma referência materializante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ivan de Oliveira

    Full Text Available O trabalho de Watson sobre o pensamento foi tratado inadequadamente por muitos intérpretes, gerando uma lacuna na interpretação histórica visto que Watson exerceu ampla influência sobre a Psicologia. Nosso objetivo é sanar parte deste problema esclarecendo as principais posições de Watson sobre pensamento. Nossa hipótese é que a teoria watsoniana sobre o pensamento como hábito é uma forma de referencialização materializante influenciada pela desmetafisicização do pensamento Ocidental proveniente do Iluminismo. Admitimos que a teoria de Watson reproduziu premissas do erro de categoria cartesiano. Assumimos também que a prioritária associação entre pensamento e linguagem watsoniana denuncia influências indiretas da tradição filosófica grega clássica.

  19. Watson-Watt测向算法的FPGA设计实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何林立; 徐保根; 康文臣; 祝丽华

    2014-01-01

    Watson-Watt测向算法是一种设计实现非常简便的测向方法,使用FPGA设计实现可以接近实时处理。本文结合某装车项目介绍了Watson-Watt测向算法的原理和技术特点,对设计中采用的三通道测向系统的硬件平台组成和软件处理过程进行了简述,并且详细说明了使用FPGA实现的主要功能和FPGA设计所采用的设计工具。对设计中采用的关键技术和采用FPGA实现Watson-Watt测向处理后测向处理速度的提高进行了分析比较。

  20. Two portraits of caring: a comparison of the artists, Leininger and Watson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A

    1991-08-01

    Two nursing leaders, Madeleine Leininger and Jean Watson, have devoted their careers to studying and evolving the meaning of caring. The theme of caring as presented by each theorist was explored along with their views of the nature of nursing, use of theory development strategies, and their individual contributions to the development of nursing knowledge. Both identify nursing as a humanistic science, with the concept of caring being the central unifying domain of nursing. Consistent with their belief that the humanistic sciences require a different research methodology to study that which is uniquely human, both have utilized qualitative research methodologies in their study of care. The evolution of each theorist perspective of care reflects their own background and experiences. Each theorist, therefore, has painted a different portrait of caring, demonstrating a differing emphasis on philosophical, cultural and empirical concerns. For Leininger, caring must be placed in a cultural context since caring patterns can differ transculturally. Watson has focused on the philosophic (existential--phenomenological) and spiritual basis of caring and sees caring as the ethical and moral ideal of nursing. Both Leininger and Watson have demonstrated their artistry in their individual portraits of caring and in their contributions to the development of nursing knowledge.

  1. Comparable stability of Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick base pairs in ionic liquid choline dihydrogen phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Nakano, Miki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-08

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson-Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson-Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs was found to be comparable with that of Watson-Crick base pairs in the hydrated IL. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA triplex in the presence of choline ions revealed that the DNA triplex was stabilized because of the binding of choline ion around the third strand in the grooves. Our finding will facilitate the development of new DNA materials. Our data also indicate that triplex formation may be stabilized inside cells where choline ions and their derivatives are abundant in vivo.

  2. When a clear strong voice was needed: A retrospective review of Watson's (1924/1930) behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John C; García-Penagos, Andrés

    2014-07-25

    Despite the attention given John B. Watson during the century since he introduced behaviorism, there remain questions about what he really contributed. He is still appropriately criticized for his arrogant self-promotion and especially for his perceived emphasis on a simple S-R reflexology. However, we argue that the former was necessary at the time and that criticism of Watson on the second count only diverts attention from the genuine contributions that he did make. In support of these contentions we examine several aspects of his contributions that warrant clarification, namely, his promotion of applied comparative psychology, his views on the nature of mind, his originality, criticism from and respect afforded by contemporaries, his relation to recent interest in "the embodiment of mind," his treatment of thinking, and his appreciation of Freud's work. We organize our discussion around specific chapters of the two editions of Behaviorism, but in support of our arguments we include publications of Watson that are less well known. Those works develop some important points that are only briefly treated in both editions of Behaviorism. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Evaluation of Watson-like Integrals for Hyper bcc Antiferromagnetic Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Radosevic, S M; Kapor, D V; Pavkov-Hrvojevic, M V; Skrinjar, M G

    2010-01-01

    Watson-like integrals for a d-dimensional bcc antiferromagnetic lattice I_d(\\eta) and J_d(\\eta) and another two similar integrals are evaluated in an exact way in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions. A simple formula connecting Id and Jd+1 is given along with the differential equations for I_d(\\eta) and J_d(\\eta). An application of I_d and J_d in the theory of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet is discussed, together with possible generalizations to non-integer values of d. Corresponding integrals for sc lattices are also briefly reviewed.

  4. Teoria do cuidado transpessoal de jean watson no cuidado domiciliar de enfermagem a crianca: uma reflexao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Meireles Gomes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um ensaio reflexivo sobre o potencial de utilização da Teoria do Cuidado Transpessoal de Jean Watson, na realização do cuidado domiciliar de enfermagem direcionado à criança, desenvolvido à luz dos 10 elementos do Processo Clinical Caritas. Este referencial teórico permite desenvolver a transpessoalidade no cuidado domiciliar da criança, momento em que o enfermeiro precisa desenvolver autoconhecimento, ter suporte teórico-filosófico e valer-se deste conhecimento, a fim de ultrapassar o paradigma da objetividade e do biologicismo.

  5. PAC learning using Nadaraya-Watson estimator based on orthonormal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Hongzhu [Fort Valley State College, GA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics; Rao, N.S.V.; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Regression or function classes of Euclidean type with compact support and certain smoothness properties are shown to be PAC learnable by the Nadaraya-Watson estimator based on complete orthonormal systems. While requiring more smoothness properties than typical PAC formulations, this estimator is computationally efficient, easy to implement, and known to perform well in a number of practical applications. The sample sizes necessary for PAC learning of regressions or functions under sup norm cost are derived for a general orthonormal system. The result covers the widely used estimators based on Haar wavelets, trignometric functions, and Daubechies wavelets.

  6. Creating value in pharma through M&A : the case of Watson Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Zweiphenning, Sebastian Marinus

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the motives for mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the pharmaceutical sector and whether these M&A’s create value. In order to give an industry perspective and let the reader experience the situation wherein managers of pharmaceutical companies operate, a case-study on Watson Pharmaceuticals is done. It provides a detailed perspective into the company’s M&A rationale. Through the literature review as well as the case-study the changes in the pharmaceutical industry are desc...

  7. El relato de la experiencia depresiva: Aplicando los factores cuidativos de Jean Watson The expression of the depressive experience: the application of Jean Watson caring factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Ferré-Grau

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available La elevada frecuencia de personas con trastornos depresivos en todos los niveles de atención y la complejidad de los cuidados, conlleva la necesidad, para la enfermera, de desarrollar nuevas habilidades y competencias en el abordaje integral de los pacientes y su familia. Para la comprensión de una persona con depresión es útil una mirada etnográfica que nos permita conocer la expresión subjetiva de la vivencia de la enfermedad. Un marco adecuado de referencia para ayudar en el cuidado de estos procesos es la teoría de Jean Watson sobre la Filosofía y Ciencia de los Cuidados Humanos, que a través de sus diez factores cuidativos enmarca el rol de la enfermera en "cómo tener cuidado de...". Este artículo trata de analizar, a través de los factores cuidativos de Watson, las vivencias subjetivas relacionadas con la transformación del cuerpo y la mente de las personas con depresión: el sufrimiento y el dolor, la autoimagen y el reconocimiento, la falta de energía, la pérdida de la esperanza. Se concluye que no es posible controlar el cuerpo sin controlar la mente y para ello nos puede ayudar el análisis subjetivo de la experiencia y la aplicación de los factores cuidativos.The high frequency of people with depressive disorders in Primary Health Care as well as in Hospital and the complexity of care, carry for nurses the need to develop new skills and competences to deal with complete care of patiens and families. To understand a person suffering depressive disorders may be useful an ethnographic look that let us know the subjective expression of the experience of being ill. An appropriate framework to help care is Jean Watson’s Philosophy and Science of Human Caring, trough 10 caring factors that frame the nursing role "to take care of…". This paper tries to analyze the subjective experience related to body and mind changes: suffering and pain, self-image and acceptance, lack of energy, loss of hope… in patients with

  8. Genetic drift in populations governed by a Galton-Watson branching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Conrad J; Simon, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    Most population genetics studies have their origins in a Wright-Fisher or some closely related fixed-population model in which each individual randomly chooses its ancestor. Populations which vary in size with time are typically modelled via a coalescent derived from Wright-Fisher, but use a nonlinear time-scaling driven by a deterministically imposed population growth. An alternate, arguably more realistic approach, and one which we take here, is to allow the population size to vary stochastically via a Galton-Watson branching process. We study genetic drift in a population consisting of a number of distinct allele types in which each allele type evolves as an independent Galton-Watson branching process. We find the dynamics of the population is determined by a single parameter κ0=(2m0/σ(2))logλ, where m0 is the initial population size, λ is the mean number of offspring per individual; and σ(2) is the variance of the number of offspring. For 0≲κ0≪1, the dynamics are close to those of Wright-Fisher, with the added property that the population is prone to extinction. For κ0≫1 allele frequencies and ancestral lineages are stable and individual alleles do not fix throughout the population. The existence of a rapid changeover regime at κ0≈1 enables estimates to be made, together with confidence intervals, of the time and population size of the era of mitochondrial Eve.

  9. Central limit theorem for biased random walk on multi-type Galton-Watson trees

    CERN Document Server

    Dembo, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Let T be a rooted multi-type Galton-Watson (MGW) tree of finitely many types with at least one offspring at each vertex, and an offspring distribution with exponential tails. The lambda-biased random walk (X_t, t>=0) on T is the nearest-neighbor random walk which, when at a vertex v with d(v) offspring, moves closer to the root with probability lambda/(lambda+d(v)), and to each of the offspring with probability 1/(lambda+d(v)). This walk is recurrent for lambda >= rho and transient for 0 <= lambda < rho, with rho the Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue for the (assumed) irreducible matrix of expected offspring numbers. We prove the following quenched CLT for the critical value lambda = rho: for almost every T, the process |X_{floor(nt)}|/sqrt{n} converges in law as n tends to infinity to a deterministic positive multiple of a reflected Brownian motion. Following the approach of Peres and Zeitouni (2008) for Galton-Watson trees, our proof is based on a new explicit description of a reversing measure for the walk...

  10. Assistência em Enfermagem e Jean Watson: Uma reflexão sobre a empatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maria Savieto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Relacionar a empatia com a Teoria do Cuidado Humano, de Jean Watson, no contexto atual da Enfermagem. Métodos: Trata-se de um ensaio teórico-reflexivo que propõe uma discussão acerca da empatia e sua relação com a Teoria do Cuidado Humano, de Jean Watson, na prática contemporânea da Enfermagem. Resultado: É apresentado o processo Clinical Caritas e cada elemento de cuidado que o compõe visando propor e discutir as conexões com a empatia na assistência em Enfermagem. Torna-se imperioso aliar aspectos técnicos e humanísticos na oferta do cuidado de Enfermagem, além de resgatar a valorização da abordagem da empatia na formação de profissionais da saúde, bem como na continuidade dos estudos após a graduação. Conclusão: Entende-se que essa reflexão pode contribuir para a reorganização de ideias e conceitos sobre aprimoramentos essenciais que se mostram necessários à prática atual da Enfermagem, além de reforçar seu crescimento enquanto ciência.

  11. The extension of a DNA double helix by an additional Watson-Crick base pair on the same backbone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, P.; Sharma, P. K.; Madsen, Charlotte S.

    2013-01-01

    Additional base pair: The DNA duplex can be extended with an additional Watson-Crick base pair on the same backbone by the use of double-headed nucleotides. These also work as compressed dinucleotides and form two base pairs with cognate nucleobases on the opposite strand.......Additional base pair: The DNA duplex can be extended with an additional Watson-Crick base pair on the same backbone by the use of double-headed nucleotides. These also work as compressed dinucleotides and form two base pairs with cognate nucleobases on the opposite strand....

  12. The circumstances of the missing biographer or why Watson didn't narrate these four Sherlock Holmes stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, R M

    1982-06-01

    The author provides arguments to explain why four of Arthur Conan Doyle's sixty stories about Sherlock Holmes were not narrated by Dr. Watson. The arguments relate to logical demands of the plot in the cases of the two stories told by an unidentified narrator. The two told by Holmes seem to demand Watson's absence because the final elucidation requires skill in cutaneous diagnosis; the presence of a medical man would have, or should have, relieved the dramatic tension of the mystery too soon. The Sherlock Holmes stories can provide delightful diversion as well as serve constantly to enhance our appreciation for highly alert and careful physical examination.

  13. On the calculation of line strengths, oscillator strengths and lifetimes for very large principal quantum numbers in hydrogenic atoms and ions by the McLean-Watson formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    As a sequel to an earlier study (Hey 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 125701), we consider further the application of the line strength formula derived by Watson (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 L291) to transitions arising from states of very high principal quantum number in hydrogenic atoms and ions (Rydberg-Rydberg transitions, n > 1000). It is shown how apparent difficulties associated with the use of recurrence relations, derived (Hey 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641) by the ladder operator technique of Infeld and Hull (1951 Rev. Mod. Phys. 23 21), may be eliminated by a very simple numerical device, whereby this method may readily be applied up to n ≈ 10 000. Beyond this range, programming of the method may entail greater care and complexity. The use of the numerically efficient McLean-Watson formula for such cases is again illustrated by the determination of radiative lifetimes and comparison of present results with those from an asymptotic formula. The question of the influence on the results of the omission or inclusion of fine structure is considered by comparison with calculations based on the standard Condon-Shortley line strength formula. Interest in this work on the radial matrix elements for large n and n‧ is related to measurements of radio recombination lines from tenuous space plasmas, e.g. Stepkin et al (2007 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374 852), Bell et al (2011 Astrophys. Space Sci. 333 377), to the calculation of electron impact broadening parameters for such spectra (Watson 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1889) and comparison with other theoretical methods (Peach 2014 Adv. Space Res. in press), to the modelling of physical processes in H II regions (Roshi et al 2012 Astrophys. J. 749 49), and the evaluation bound-bound transitions from states of high n during primordial cosmological recombination (Grin and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 083005, Ali-Haïmoud and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 82 063521, Ali

  14. Structure of Stacked Dimers of N-Methylated Watson–Crick Adenine–Thymine Base Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Suhai

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The structure of two isomeric stacked dimers of Watson-Crick 9-methyladenine-1-methylthymine pairs was fully optimized using an approximate density functional theory (DFT method augmented with an empirical dispersion interaction. The results of the calculations reveal that head-to-tail (AT-TA and head-to-head (AT-AT dimers possess a significantly different geometry. The structure of both complexes is stabilized by vertical CH…O and C-H…N hydrogen bonds with the participation of the hydrogen atoms of the methyl groups. The energy of hydrogen bonding and stacking interactions was additionally calculated using the MP2/6-31G*(0.25 method. Differences in the mutual arrangement of the base pairs in two isomeric dimers lead to significant changes of intra and interstrand stacking interaction energies.

  15. The Thurgood Marshall School of Law Empirical Findings: A Report of the Watson-Glaser for the 2009-2010 Test Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhi, T.; Palasota, A.; Holley, D.; Rudley, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following report gives the statistical findings of the 2009-2010 Watson-Glaser test. Data is pre-existing and was given to the Evaluator by email from the Director, Center for Legal Pedagogy. Statistical analyses were run using SPSS 17 to address the following questions: 1. What are the statistical descriptors of the Watson-Glaser results of…

  16. End of the Line? Paul Watson and the Future of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Joseph Nagtzaam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically examines the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (‘SSCS’ and the legal challenges they are currently facing to continue its self-appointed role to protect oceanic life through direct action.  In Part One, the article examines the history of this radical environmental group and; the role performed by its charismatic leader Paul Watson; it’s organisational structure and its strategies and tactics; its governing philosophy and its attitudes to violence.  Part Two provides a history of the various direct actions carried out by the group; it further examines the organisation’s ongoing confrontations with the Japanese whaling fleet; documents the current legal travails the group and its leader are experiencing; and lastly asks what impact these issues will have on the group’s viability as a direct action group going forward.

  17. Limit theorems for Markov processes indexed by continuous time Galton-Watson trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bansaye, Vincent; Marsalle, Laurence; Tran, Viet Chi

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of a particle system whose genealogy is given by a supercritical continuous time Galton-Watson tree. The particles move independently according to a Markov process and when a branching event occurs, the offspring locations depend on the position of the mother and the number of offspring. We prove a law of large numbers for the empirical measure of individuals alive at time $t$. This relies on a probabilistic interpretation of its intensity by mean of an auxiliary process. This latter has the same generator as the Markov process along the branches plus additional branching events, associated with jumps of accelerated rate and biased distribution. This comes from the fact that choosing an individual uniformly at time $t$ favors lineages with more branching events and larger offspring number. The central limit theorem is considered on a special case. Several examples are developed, including applications to splitting diffusions, cellular aging, branching L\\'evy processes and ancestral line...

  18. Galton-Watson分支过程的谱半径%SPECTRAL RADIUSES OF THE GALTON-WATSON BRANCHING PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐群芳; 赵敏智; 应坚刚

    2006-01-01

    The spectral radiuses of Galton-Watson branching processes which describes the speed of the process escaping from any state are calculated.Under the condition of irreducibility,it is show that this is equal to the spectral radius of Jacobi matrix of its generating function.

  19. A single Watson-Crick G x C base pair in water: aqueous hydrogen bonds in hydrophobic cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Tomohisa; Fujita, Makoto

    2010-05-26

    Hydrogen bond (H-bond) formation in water has been a challenging task because water molecules are constant competitors. In biological systems, however, stable H-bonds are formed by shielding the H-bonding sites from the competing water molecules within hydrophobic pockets. Inspired by the nature's elaborated way, we found that even mononucleotides (G and C) can form the minimal G x C Watson-Crick pair in water by simply providing a synthetic cavity that efficiently shields the Watson-Crick H-bonding sites. The minimal Watson-Crick structure in water was elucidated by NMR study and firmly characterized by crystallographic analysis. The crystal structure also displays that, within the cavity, coencapsulated anions and solvents efficiently mediate the minimal G x C Watson-Crick pair formation. Furthermore, the competition experiments with the other nucleobases clearly revealed the evident selectivity for the G x C base pairing in water. These results show the fact that a H-bonded nucleobase pair was effectively induced and stabilized in the local environment of an artificial hydrophobic cavity.

  20. Higher order structural effects stabilizing the reverse Watson-Crick Guanine-Cytosine base pair in functional RNAs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chawla, Mohit; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The G:C reverse Watson-Crick (W:W trans) base pair, also known as Levitt base pair in the context of tRNAs, is a structurally and functionally important base pair that contributes to tertiary interactions joining distant domains...

  1. Comparison of bioimpedance spectroscopy and the Watson formula for measuring body volume in patients on peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martínez Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: There are significant differences in the V of PD Unit patients when obtained by Watson formula or by BIS. A difference between the measurements is associated with the presence of DM, HTN, hypoalbuminaemia, obesity, malnutrition, inflammation, E/I ratio ≥1 and the absence of residual diuresis.

  2. Racial Identification and Audience in "Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry" and "The Watsons Go to Birmingham--1963"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jani L.

    2010-01-01

    Multiethnic children's literature addresses multiple audiences, providing different reading experiences and benefits for each. Using critical race theory as an interpretive tool, this article examines how two African American historical fiction novels, Mildred Taylor's "Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry" and Christopher Paul Curtis's "The Watsons Go to…

  3. First a hero of science and now a martyr to science: the James Watson Affair - political correctness crushes free scientific communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 James D. Watson, perhaps the most famous living scientist, was forced to retire from his position and retreat from public life in the face of international mass media condemnation following remarks concerning genetically-caused racial differences in intelligence. Watson was punished for stating forthright views on topics that elite opinion has determined should be discussed only with elaborate caution, frequent disclaimers, and solemn deference to the currently-prevailing pieties. James Watson has always struck many people as brash; however this blunt, truth-telling quality was intrinsic to his role in one of the greatest scientific discoveries. Much more importantly than 'good manners', Watson has consistently exemplified the cardinal scientific virtue: he speaks what he understands to be the truth without regard for the opinion of others. The most chilling aspect of the Watson Affair was the way in which so many influential members of the scientific research community joined the media condemnation directed against Watson. Perhaps the most egregious betrayal of science was an article by editorialists of the premier UK scientific journal Nature. Instead of defending the freedom of discourse in pursuit of scientific truth, Nature instead blamed Watson for being 'crass' and lacking 'sensitivity' in discussing human genetic differences. But if asked to choose between the 'sensitive' editors of Nature or the 'crass' genius of James D. Watson, all serious scientists must take the side of Watson. Because when a premier researcher such as Watson is hounded from office by a vicious, arbitrary and untruthful mob; all lesser scientists are made vulnerable to analogous treatment at the whim of the media. A zealous and coercive brand of 'political correctness' is now making the biological truth of human genetic differences intolerably difficult to discover and discuss in US and UK. This needs to change. My hope is that truth will prevail over political correctness and

  4. Proton tunneling in the A∙T Watson-Crick DNA base pair: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2015-01-01

    The results and conclusions reached by Godbeer et al. in their recent work, that proton tunneling in the A∙T(WC) Watson-Crick (WC) DNA base pair occurs according to the Löwdin's (L) model, but with a small (~10(-9)) probability were critically analyzed. Here, it was shown that this finding overestimates the possibility of the proton tunneling at the A∙T(WC)↔A*∙T*(L) tautomerization, because this process cannot be implemented as a chemical reaction. Furthermore, it was outlined those biologically important nucleobase mispairs (A∙A*↔A*∙A, G∙G*↔G*∙G, T∙T*↔T*∙T, C∙C*↔C*∙C, H∙H*↔H*∙H (H - hypoxanthine)) - the players in the field of the spontaneous point mutagenesis - where the tunneling of protons is expected and for which the application of the model proposed by Godbeer et al. can be productive.

  5. Laparoscopic Watson Fundoplication Is Effective and Durable in Children with Gastrooesophageal Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Dunckley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GOR affects 2–8% of children over 3 years of age and is associated with significant morbidity. The disorder is particularly critical in neurologically impaired children, who have a high risk of aspiration. Traditionally, the surgical antireflux procedure of choice has been Nissen’s operation. However, this technique has a significant incidence of mechanical complications and has a reoperation rate of approximately 7%, leading to the development of alternative approaches. Watson’s technique of partial anterior fundoplication has been shown to achieve long-lasting reflux control in adults with few mechanical complications, but there is limited data in the paediatric population. We present here short- and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic Watson fundoplication in a series of 76 children and infants, 34% of whom had a degree of neurological impairment including severe cerebral palsy and hypoxic brain injury. The overall complication rate was 27.6%, of which only 1 was classified as major. To date, we have not recorded any incidences of perforation and no revisions. In our experience, Watson’s laparoscopic partial fundoplication can be performed with minimal complications and with durable results, not least in neurologically compromised children, making it a viable alternative to the Nissen procedure in paediatric surgery.

  6. Applications of the Galton-Watson process to human DNA evolution and demography

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, A G M

    2005-01-01

    We show that the problem of existence of a mitochondrial Eve can be understood as an application of the Galton--Watson process and presents interesting analogies with critical phenomena in Statistical Mechanics. In the approximation of small survival probability, and assuming limited progeny, we are able to find for a genealogic tree the maximum and minimum survival probabilities over all probability distributions for the number of children per woman constrained to a given mean. As a consequence, we can relate existence of a mitochondrial Eve to quantitative demographic data of early mankind. In particular, we show that a mitochondrial Eve may exist even in an exponentially growing population, provided that the mean number of children per woman $\\overline N$ is constrained to a small range depending on the probability $p$ that a child is a female. Assuming that the value $p \\approx 0.488$ valid nowadays has remained fixed for thousands of generations, the range where a mitochondrial Eve occurs with sizeable p...

  7. Case of the missing fingerprints or Dr. Watson's cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longair, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The cosmological problem has four main areas of uncertainty -the origin of isotropy of the universe, the origin of the fluctuations from which galaxies form, the explanation of why we live in a matter universe rather than one composed of equal amounts of matter and antimatter and why the Universe seems to be within a factor of 10 of the critical, flat universe. These cannot be explained satisfactorily within the Hot Big Bang theory after a millisecond or so. The solutions are presumed, therefore, to lie in the very early universe when it was less than about a millisecond old. The clues which lead to this conclusion are set out in terms of a detective story with Sherlock Holmes explaining the facts about the universe to Dr Watson. Holmes first explains the size of the universe in terms of distances and sizes of stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters. Evidence from pictures of the universe at different temperatures, (X-ray pictures, gamma-ray pictures, far infra-red pictures and pictures at radio and millimetre wavelengths) is presented. Holmes then starts to build up a realistic model of the universe using two of the facts collected (the isotropy of the universe and the expansion of the universe), one assumption (the cosmological principle) and one theory of gravity (General Relativity). However the universe which emerges does not solve the four problems mentioned. Quasars, which provide information (illustrated) from earlier epochs of the universe may, therefore, help to solve the problems. (U.K.).

  8. Characterization of the trans Watson-Crick GU base pair located in the catalytic core of the antigenomic HDV ribozyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lévesque

    Full Text Available The HDV ribozyme's folding pathway is, by far, the most complex folding pathway elucidated to date for a small ribozyme. It includes 6 different steps that have been shown to occur before the chemical cleavage. It is likely that other steps remain to be discovered. One of the most critical of these unknown steps is the formation of the trans Watson-Crick GU base pair within loop III. The U(23 and G(28 nucleotides that form this base pair are perfectly conserved in all natural variants of the HDV ribozyme, and therefore are considered as being part of the signature of HDV-like ribozymes. Both the formation and the transformation of this base pair have been studied mainly by crystal structure and by molecular dynamic simulations. In order to obtain physical support for the formation of this base pair in solution, a set of experiments, including direct mutagenesis, the site-specific substitution of chemical groups, kinetic studies, chemical probing and magnesium-induced cleavage, were performed with the specific goal of characterizing this trans Watson-Crick GU base pair in an antigenomic HDV ribozyme. Both U(23 and G(28 can be substituted for nucleotides that likely preserve some of the H-bond interactions present before and after the cleavage step. The formation of the more stable trans Watson-Crick base pair is shown to be a post-cleavage event, while a possibly weaker trans Watson-Crick/Hoogsteen interaction seems to form before the cleavage step. The formation of this unusually stable post-cleavage base pair may act as a driving force on the chemical cleavage by favouring the formation of a more stable ground state of the product-ribozyme complex. To our knowledge, this represents the first demonstration of a potential stabilising role of a post-cleavage conformational switch event in a ribozyme-catalyzed reaction.

  9. The Effect of Nonzero Autocorrelation Coefficients on the Distributions of Durbin-Watson Test Estimator: Three Autoregressive Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yu LEE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the nonzero autocorrelation coefficients on the sampling distributions of the Durbin-Watson test estimator in three time-series models that have different variance-covariance matrix assumption, separately. We show that the expected values and variances of the Durbin-Watson test estimator are slightly different, but the skewed and kurtosis coefficients are considerably different among three models. The shapes of four coefficients are similar between the Durbin-Watson model and our benchmark model, but are not the same with the autoregressive model cut by one-lagged period. Second, the large sample case shows that the three models have the same expected values, however, the autoregressive model cut by one-lagged period explores different shapes of variance, skewed and kurtosis coefficients from the other two models. This implies that the large samples lead to the same expected values, 2(1 – ρ0, whatever the variance-covariance matrix of the errors is assumed. Finally, comparing with the two sample cases, the shape of each coefficient is almost the same, moreover, the autocorrelation coefficients are negatively related with expected values, are inverted-U related with variances, are cubic related with skewed coefficients, and are U related with kurtosis coefficients.

  10. Performance characterization of Watson Ahumada motion detector using random dot rotary motion stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Jain

    Full Text Available The performance of Watson & Ahumada's model of human visual motion sensing is compared against human psychophysical performance. The stimulus consists of random dots undergoing rotary motion, displayed in a circular annulus. The model matches psychophysical observer performance with respect to most parameters. It is able to replicate some key psychophysical findings such as invariance of observer performance to dot density in the display, and decrease of observer performance with frame duration of the display.Associated with the concept of rotary motion is the notion of a center about which rotation occurs. One might think that for accurate estimation of rotary motion in the display, this center must be accurately known. A simple vector analysis reveals that this need not be the case. Numerical simulations confirm this result, and may explain the position invariance of MST(d cells. Position invariance is the experimental finding that rotary motion sensitive cells are insensitive to where in their receptive field rotation occurs.When all the dots in the display are randomly drawn from a uniform distribution, illusory rotary motion is perceived. This case was investigated by Rose & Blake previously, who termed the illusory rotary motion the omega effect. Two important experimental findings are reported concerning this effect. First, although the display of random dots evokes perception of rotary motion, the direction of motion perceived does not depend on what dot pattern is shown. Second, the time interval between spontaneous flips in perceived direction is lognormally distributed (mode approximately 2 s. These findings suggest the omega effect fits in the category of a typical bistable illusion, and therefore the processes that give rise to this illusion may be the same processes that underlie much of other bistable phenomenon.

  11. Modified Watson-Jones approach with locking compression paediatric hip plate for femoral neck fractures in children%改良Watson-Jones入路联合小儿髋部锁定加压接骨板治疗股骨颈骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 楼跃; 唐凯; 张志群; 林刚; 孙祥水; 刘飞; 倪磊; 鞠黎

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the methods and curative effect of modified Watson-Jones approach with locking compression paediatric hip plate(LCP-PHP) for femoral neck fractures in children.Methods From January 2012 to August 2014,11 children including 6 male and 5 female with femoral neck fractures(5 lefts,6 rights) underwent operation of modified Watson-Jones approach with LCP-PHP in Nanjing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University.The average age at injury was 7.8 years old.All the children received preoperative X-ray and postoperative X-ray regularly.Neck stem angles of preoperative health side,neck stem angles of the sick side 3 days after surgery and the last follow-up were measured,and the loss of neck stem angles,delayed union,nonunion,osteonecrosis,premature physeal closure were evaluated by using X-ray.Meanwhile,hip function of the last follow-up was evaluated by Harris score.Results All the patients were postoperatively followed up for 13-44 months with an average of 26 months.The neck stem angles of preoperative health side 134.70° ± 3.58°,postoperative sick side in 3 days 134.60°±3.46° and the last follow-up 133.50°±3.25°,and there was no statistical difference (F=3.63,P>0.05).The loss of neck stem angles,delayed union,nonunion,and premature physeal closure did not occur.Osteonecrosis(Ratliff type Ⅰ) occurred in 1 child.Harris score was very good in 9 cases(82.0%) and good in 2 cases (18.0%).Conclusions The modified Watson-Jones approach with LCP-PHP for unsuccessful closed reduction femur neck fractures in children can clearly show the fracture,with internal fixation stability and less complications.%目的 探讨改良Watson-Jones入路联合小儿髋部锁定加压接骨板(LCP-PHP)治疗股骨颈骨折的方法及疗效.方法 2012年1月至2014年8月南京医科大学附属南京儿童医院采用改良Watson-Jones入路联合LCP-PHP治疗11例闭合复位失败的股骨颈骨折患儿,其中男6例,女5

  12. Porfiria aguda intermitente: valor do teste de Watson e Schwartz para o diagnóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lamartine de Assis

    1957-03-01

    (técnica de Watson e Schwartz.

  13. A caracterização de John B. Watson como behaviorista metodológico na literatura brasileira: possíveis fontes de controle The characterization of John B. Watson as a methodological behaviorist in Brazilian literature: possible control sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Angelo Strapasson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vincular o nome de John B. Watson ao Behaviorismo Metodológico e ao dualismo tem sido uma prática frequente e indiscriminada na literatura brasileira de psicologia. Este trabalho pretende identificar possíveis fontes de controle para essa vinculação. Constatou-se que a disseminação da ideia de que Watson é dualista ou behaviorista metodológico pode estar relacionada (A à relutância de Watson em definir seus compromissos ontológicos em seus primeiros textos, (B ao estilo de escrita de B. F. Skinner que critica o Behaviorismo Metodológico sem explicitar quem seriam os behavioristas metodológicos e (C à influência do texto de Matos (1997a. Sugere-se que um retorno aos textos originais de Watson é necessário para a adequada caracterização de sua obra e compreensão da história do movimento behaviorista.Linking the name of John B. Watson to Methodological Behaviorism or to dualism has been a common and indiscriminate practice in the Brazilian literature of psychology. This paper aims to identify possible sources of control for this binding. It was found that the spread of the idea of Watson being a dualistic or a methodological behaviorist may be related to (A Watson's reluctance to define his ontological commitments in his early writings, (B the writing style of B. F. Skinner, who criticized the Methodological Behaviorism without specifying who are the methodological behaviorists, and (C the influence of Matos' (1997a text. It is suggested that a return to the original texts of Watson is necessary for the proper characterization of his work and an understanding of the history of the behaviorist movement.

  14. Spatial, Hysteretic, and Adaptive Host-Guest Chemistry in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Watson-Crick Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Li, Mian; Lin, Xiao-Rong; Chen, Wei; Chen, Guang-Hui; Huang, Xiao-Chun; Li, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Biological and artificial molecules and assemblies capable of supramolecular recognition, especially those with nucleobase pairing, usually rely on autonomous or collective binding to function. Advanced site-specific recognition takes advantage of cooperative spatial effects, as in local folding in protein-DNA binding. Herein, we report a new nucleobase-tagged metal-organic framework (MOF), namely ZnBTCA (BTC=benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyl, A=adenine), in which the exposed Watson-Crick faces of adenine residues are immobilized periodically on the interior crystalline surface. Systematic control experiments demonstrated the cooperation of the open Watson-Crick sites and spatial effects within the nanopores, and thermodynamic and kinetic studies revealed a hysteretic host-guest interaction attributed to mild chemisorption. We further exploited this behavior for adenine-thymine binding within the constrained pores, and a globally adaptive response of the MOF host was observed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. RNAHelix: computational modeling of nucleic acid structures with Watson-Crick and non-canonical base pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Halder, Sukanya; Basu, Sankar; Mukherjee, Debasish; Kumar, Prasun; Bansal, Manju

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive analyses of structural features of non-canonical base pairs within a nucleic acid double helix are limited by the availability of a small number of three dimensional structures. Therefore, a procedure for model building of double helices containing any given nucleotide sequence and base pairing information, either canonical or non-canonical, is seriously needed. Here we describe a program RNAHelix, which is an updated version of our widely used software, NUCGEN. The program can regenerate duplexes using the dinucleotide step and base pair orientation parameters for a given double helical DNA or RNA sequence with defined Watson-Crick or non-Watson-Crick base pairs. The original structure and the corresponding regenerated structure of double helices were found to be very close, as indicated by the small RMSD values between positions of the corresponding atoms. Structures of several usual and unusual double helices have been regenerated and compared with their original structures in terms of base pair RMSD, torsion angles and electrostatic potentials and very high agreements have been noted. RNAHelix can also be used to generate a structure with a sequence completely different from an experimentally determined one or to introduce single to multiple mutation, but with the same set of parameters and hence can also be an important tool in homology modeling and study of mutation induced structural changes.

  16. "Creo que probablemente voy a conseguir mucho más de este contacto que usted": la correspondencia Meyer-Watson (1909-1934)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Ortiz, Gabriel; Sánchez González, Natividad

    2006-01-01

    Adolf Meyer y John B. Watson son dos figuras importantes de la psiquiatría y la psicología estadounidenses del siglo XX, respectivamente. Aunque ambos tienen sus raíces intelectuales en el funcionalismo, defendieron dos puntos de vista diferentes acerca de lo que era la psicología como ciencia y como profesión: la psicobiología y el conductismo. Para analizar la confrontación Meyer-Watson, en este trabajo estudiaremos la correspondencia que ambos mantuvieron entre 1909 y 1934 y que se encuent...

  17. Automatic Determination of the Need for Intravenous Contrast in Musculoskeletal MRI Examinations Using IBM Watson's Natural Language Processing Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Hari; Mesterhazy, Joseph; Laguna, Benjamin; Vu, Thienkhai; Sohn, Jae Ho

    2017-09-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocoling can be time- and resource-intensive, and protocols can often be suboptimal dependent upon the expertise or preferences of the protocoling radiologist. Providing a best-practice recommendation for an MRI protocol has the potential to improve efficiency and decrease the likelihood of a suboptimal or erroneous study. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a machine learning-based natural language classifier that can automatically assign the use of intravenous contrast for musculoskeletal MRI protocols based upon the free-text clinical indication of the study, thereby improving efficiency of the protocoling radiologist and potentially decreasing errors. We utilized a deep learning-based natural language classification system from IBM Watson, a question-answering supercomputer that gained fame after challenging the best human players on Jeopardy! in 2011. We compared this solution to a series of traditional machine learning-based natural language processing techniques that utilize a term-document frequency matrix. Each classifier was trained with 1240 MRI protocols plus their respective clinical indications and validated with a test set of 280. Ground truth of contrast assignment was obtained from the clinical record. For evaluation of inter-reader agreement, a blinded second reader radiologist analyzed all cases and determined contrast assignment based on only the free-text clinical indication. In the test set, Watson demonstrated overall accuracy of 83.2% when compared to the original protocol. This was similar to the overall accuracy of 80.2% achieved by an ensemble of eight traditional machine learning algorithms based on a term-document matrix. When compared to the second reader's contrast assignment, Watson achieved 88.6% agreement. When evaluating only the subset of cases where the original protocol and second reader were concordant (n = 251), agreement climbed further to 90.0%. The classifier was

  18. [An experience in applying Watson's theory in caring for an enterovirus-infected child and his primary caregiver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shu-Hui; Wu, Li-Min

    2004-06-01

    Enterovirus is commonly seen in children. Its morbidity and mortality rate is about 18% (Department of Health, the Executive Yuan, 2003). This paper documents the use of Watson's theory in the care of a child aged two years and seven months and his primary caregiver. During the nursing process, the application of care and concern for the child and primary caregiver provided confidence, comfort, and relief of fear and anxiety caused by hospitalization, enabling the patient, during his time in hospital, to make physical and psychological progress. The caregiver was also able to gain an understanding of how to care for a child with enterovirus, which diminished some of the pressure caused by his admission to hospital and placed him and his family at the center of the nursing care.

  19. The relationship of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal to sex and four selected personality measures for a sample of Dutch first-year psychology students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Christiaans, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    In reaction to an earlier publication by A. Simon and L. O. Ward (see record 1975-26421-001) on the 1952 version of the Watson-Glaser (W-G) Critical Thinking Appraisal, the present study examined the relationship of the 1964 forms of the same instrument to 4 selected noncognitive measures for a samp

  20. Assessing the Watson-Barker Listening Test (WBLT)-Form C in Measuring Listening Comprehension of Post-Secondary Hispanic-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Debra L.; Keaton, Shaughan; Cook, John; Fitch-Hauser, Margaret; Powers, William G.

    2014-01-01

    The Watson-Barker Listening Test (WBLT) is one of the most popular measures of listening comprehension. However, participants in studies utilizing this scale have been almost exclusively Anglo-American. At the same time, previous research questions the psychometric properties of the test. This study addressed both of these issues by testing the…

  1. Wobble↔Watson-Crick tautomeric transitions in the homo-purine DNA mismatches: a key to the intimate mechanisms of the spontaneous transversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic capability of the homo-purine DNA base mispairs to perform wobble↔Watson-Crick/Topal-Fresco tautomeric transitions via the sequential intrapair double proton transfer was discovered for the first time using QM (MP2/DFT) and QTAIM methodologies that are crucial for understanding the microstructural mechanisms of the spontaneous transversions.

  2. Theoretical and Practical Approaches to Teaching Listening: Using the Watson-Barker Listening Test To Validate Levels of Learning in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Willis M.

    A study investigated whether listening effectiveness could be improved by completing a college listening class. Volunteer subjects, 14 males and 14 females enrolled in a 3-hour, 16-week college listening course for undergraduate or graduate students at a medium-sized midwestern university, were given the video version of the Watson-Barker…

  3. How many tautomerization pathways connect Watson-Crick-like G*·T DNA base mispair and wobble mismatches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have theoretically demonstrated the intrinsic ability of the wobble G·T(w)/G*·T*(w)/G·T(w1)/G·T(w2) and Watson-Crick-like G*·T(WC) DNA base mispairs to interconvert into each other via the DPT tautomerization. We have established that among all these transitions, only one single G·T(w) ↔ G*·T(WC) pathway is eligible from a biological perspective. It involves short-lived intermediate - the G·T*(WC) base mispair - and is governed by the planar, highly stable, and zwitterionic [Formula: see text] transition state stabilized by the participation of the unique pattern of the five intermolecular O6(+)H⋯O4(-), O6(+)H⋯N3(-), N1(+)H⋯N3(-), N1(+)H⋯O2(-), and N2(+)H⋯O2(-) H-bonds. This non-dissociative G·T(w) ↔ G*·T(WC) tautomerization occurs without opening of the pair: Bases within mispair remain connected by 14 different patterns of the specific intermolecular interactions that successively change each other along the IRC. Novel kinetically controlled mechanism of the thermodynamically non-equilibrium spontaneous point GT/TG incorporation errors has been suggested. The mutagenic effect of the analogues of the nucleotide bases, in particular 5-bromouracil, can be attributed to the decreasing of the barrier of the acquisition by the wobble pair containing these compounds of the enzymatically competent Watson-Crick's geometry via the intrapair mutagenic tautomerization directly in the essentially hydrophobic recognition pocket of the replication DNA-polymerase machinery. Proposed approaches are able to explain experimental data, namely growth of the rate of the spontaneous point incorporation errors during DNA biosynthesis with increasing temperature.

  4. 改良Watson-Jones入路微创治疗髋关节后脱位合并Pipkin Ⅰ、Ⅱ型股骨头骨折%Modified Watson-Jones approach in minimally invasive surgery for posterior hip-joint dislocation accompanying Pipkin Ⅰ and Ⅱ femoral head fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 张鹤令; 李钊炜; 曹志强; 郭启发

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨改良Watson-Jones入路在髋关节后脱位合并Pipkin Ⅰ、Ⅱ型股骨头骨折微创治疗中的应用.方法 7例髋关节后脱位合并Pipkin Ⅰ、Ⅱ型股骨头骨折患者,Pipkin Ⅰ型1例、Ⅱ型6例,全部采用改良Watson-Jones入路切开复位钛质空心螺钉内固定治疗.结果 按照Harris评分:90-96分,平均92.5分.结论 改良Watson-Jones入路是治疗髋关节后脱位合并Pipkin Ⅰ、Ⅱ型股骨头骨折的理想手术入路.

  5. La mirada de Watson, Parse y Benner para el análisis complejo y la buena práctica The glance of Watson, Pair and Benner for the complex analysis and the good practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagrario Acebedo-Urdiales

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de encontrar el significado y orden del quehacer enfermero por encima de especialidades, culturas, tareas, funciones o competencias, hace necesario llevar a la práctica teorías y conceptos de análisis que se puedan insertar en cada situación, como fundamento que guía la buena práctica enfermera. Los modelos y filosofías enfermeras nos dan elementos de reflexión, nos siembran la duda respecto a la práctica, nos dan elementos de investigación y cuando los integramos o nos reconocemos en ellos, además de flexibilizar la interpretación y el cuidado persona-situación, colocan a la enfermería dentro de su marco más maduro consistente con el modelo de Nithingale actualizado. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo plantear lo que para nosotras son los elementos básicos de las filosofías y teorías de Watson, Parse y Benner, que nos permiten el análisis complejo de las situaciones de cuidados y la comprensión del juicio clínico, que emerge de la práctica como acontecimiento real. El paradigma de la complejidad nos lleva a prácticas responsables, a estar no en objetivos, sino en procesos, no en partes o en todos sino en individuos que son a la vez sujeto-objeto.The need to find the meaning of nursing activity independently of specialties, cultures, tasks, functions or competences, leads us to the usage of theories and concepts of analysis than can be applied in each situation, as a guide for the right nursing activity. Nursing philosophies and models provide us elements of reflection, creating doubts in relation to the practice, and once they are assumed, we recognize ourselves on them, helping us to the interpretation of the person-situation caring, carrying nursing to its matures side, validating Nigthingale's model. This work has the aim of implanting the basic elements of Watson, Parse and Benner's theories in order to analyze situations of caring and understand the clinical judgment emerging from the practice. The

  6. CRM分析--以屈臣氏为例%CRM Analysis:a Case Study of Watsons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凤; 王云梓

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of enterprises are paying attention to strengthen customer relationship management (CRM). Watsons' great success in the mainland China market is attributed to its successful use of CRM. Watsons group development groups of loyal cus-tomers by exact and proper positioning of target markets, creating a friendly shopping environment, providing individualized services, and maintaining long-term relationship with member customers. The experience proves that the application of CRM help attracts more cus-tomers and promotes their loyalty in terms of locating customer groups with CRM data analysis, cooperating with suppliers to offer product redemption and private brand products, popularizing through multiple channels, and long-term discount of some goods.%加强客户关系管理正在被越来越多的企业所重视。屈臣氏大陆市场获得的巨大成功,就在于其对CRM的成功运用。屈臣氏集团通过准确、合理定位的目标市场群体,创造良好的购物环境,强调个性化的服务,长期保持和会员客户的关系,培养出了忠实的客户群。实践证明,CRM的实施,使用CRM数据分析技术锁定目标客户群;采用经典换购方式与供应商合作,提供换购产品和自由品牌产品;使用多通道宣传模式,采用部分商品长期打折的策略,吸引并提高了客户忠诚度。CRM是屈臣氏经久不衰的重要环节,也是其他零售业需要深入思考和学习重要内容。

  7. Deep molecular divergence and exceptional morphological stasis in dwarf cannibal snails Nata sensu lato Watson, 1934 (Rhytididae) of southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussalli, Adnan; Herbert, David G

    2016-02-01

    The genus Nata Watson, 1934 is a southern African endemic belonging to the Gondwanan family of carnivorous snails, Rhytididae. We present a molecular phylogeny of the genus based on two mitochondrial (16S and COI) and two nuclear genes (ITS2 and 28S RNA), and complement this with an appraisal of morphological characters relating to both the shell and soft parts. We identify four reciprocally monophyletic lineages for which valid names are already available, plus two undescribed species restricted to the Albany Thicket Biome. We show that Nata sensu lato may not be monophyletic. Rather there exist two deep lineages within Nata s.l., one lineage potentially sister to a clade dominated by the Australian and New Zealand radiation, and the other occupying a basal position within Rhytididae. Accordingly we recommend a revision recognising two genera, namely Nata s.s. and Natella respectively. Despite deep molecular divergences within Nata s.s., phenotypic evolution has been remarkably conserved, and contrasts greatly with that exhibited across other major lineages within the Rhytididae.

  8. Light-emitting self-assembled peptide nucleic acids exhibit both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Or; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Levy-Sakin, Michal; Grunwald, Assaf; Liebes-Peer, Yael; Bachar, Mor; Buzhansky, Ludmila; Mossou, Estelle; Forsyth, V. Trevor; Schwartz, Tal; Ebenstein, Yuval; Frolow, Felix; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Patolsky, Fernando; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-05-01

    The two main branches of bionanotechnology involve the self-assembly of either peptides or DNA. Peptide scaffolds offer chemical versatility, architectural flexibility and structural complexity, but they lack the precise base pairing and molecular recognition available with nucleic acid assemblies. Here, inspired by the ability of aromatic dipeptides to form ordered nanostructures with unique physical properties, we explore the assembly of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), which are short DNA mimics that have an amide backbone. All 16 combinations of the very short di-PNA building blocks were synthesized and assayed for their ability to self-associate. Only three guanine-containing di-PNAs—CG, GC and GG—could form ordered assemblies, as observed by electron microscopy, and these di-PNAs efficiently assembled into discrete architectures within a few minutes. The X-ray crystal structure of the GC di-PNA showed the occurrence of both stacking interactions and Watson-Crick base pairing. The assemblies were also found to exhibit optical properties including voltage-dependent electroluminescence and wide-range excitation-dependent fluorescence in the visible region.

  9. Free energy landscape and transition pathways from Watson-Crick to Hoogsteen base pairing in free duplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changwon; Kim, Eunae; Pak, Youngshang

    2015-09-18

    Houghton (HG) base pairing plays a central role in the DNA binding of proteins and small ligands. Probing detailed transition mechanism from Watson-Crick (WC) to HG base pair (bp) formation in duplex DNAs is of fundamental importance in terms of revealing intrinsic functions of double helical DNAs beyond their sequence determined functions. We investigated a free energy landscape of a free B-DNA with an adenosine-thymine (A-T) rich sequence to probe its conformational transition pathways from WC to HG base pairing. The free energy landscape was computed with a state-of-art two-dimensional umbrella molecular dynamics simulation at the all-atom level. The present simulation showed that in an isolated duplex DNA, the spontaneous transition from WC to HG bp takes place via multiple pathways. Notably, base flipping into the major and minor grooves was found to play an important role in forming these multiple transition pathways. This finding suggests that naked B-DNA under normal conditions has an inherent ability to form HG bps via spontaneous base opening events.

  10. Higher order structural effects stabilizing the reverse watson-crick guanine-cytosine base pair in functional RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2013-10-10

    The G:C reverse Watson-Crick (W:W trans) base pair, also known as Levitt base pair in the context of tRNAs, is a structurally and functionally important base pair that contributes to tertiary interactions joining distant domains in functional RNA molecules and also participates in metabolite binding in riboswitches. We previously indicated that the isolated G:C W:W trans base pair is a rather unstable geometry, and that dicationic metal binding to the Guanine base or posttranscriptional modification of the Guanine can increase its stability. Herein, we extend our survey and report on other H-bonding interactions that can increase the stability of this base pair. To this aim, we performed a bioinformatics search of the PDB to locate all the occurencies of G:C trans base pairs. Interestingly, 66% of the G:C trans base pairs in the PDB are engaged in additional H-bonding interactions with other bases, the RNA backbone or structured water molecules. High level quantum mechanical calculations on a data set of representative crystal structures were performed to shed light on the structural stability and energetics of the various crystallographic motifs. This analysis was extended to the binding of the preQ1 metabolite to a preQ1-II riboswitch. 2013 The Author(s).

  11. Effects of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) W. Watson essential oil on the growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Billerbeck, V G; Roques, C G; Bessière, J M; Fonvieille, J L; Dargent, R

    2001-01-01

    The growth inhibitory effect of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) W. Watson var. nurdus essential oil on Aspergillus niger (Van Tieghem) mycelium was determined on agar medium. The mycelium growth was completely inhibited at 800 mg/L. This concentration was found to be lethal under the test conditions. Essential oil at 400 mg/L caused growth inhibition of 80% after 4 days of incubation, and a delay in conidiation of 4 days compared with the control. Microscopic observations were carried out to determine the ultrastructural modifications of A. niger hyphae after treatment with C. nardus essential oil. The main change observed by transmission electron microscopy concerned the hyphal diameter and the hyphal wall, which appeared markedly thinner. These modifications in cytological structure might be caused by the interference of the essential oil with the enzymes responsible for wall synthesis which disturb normal growth. Moreover, the essential oil caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. The findings thus indicate the possibility of exploiting Cymbopogon nardus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegrading and storage-contaminating fungi.

  12. [Quantum-chemical investigation of tautomerization ways of Watson-Crick DNA base pair guanine-cytosine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', O O; Hovorun, D M

    2010-01-01

    A novel physico-chemical mechanism of the Watson-Crick DNA base pair Gua.Cyt tautomerization Gua.Cyt*Gua.CytGua*.Cyt (mutagenic tautomers of bases are marked by asterisks) have been revealed and realized in a pathway of single proton transfer through two mutual isoenergetic transition states with Gibbs free energy of activation 30.4 and 30.6 kcal/mol and they are ion pairs stabilized by three (N2H...N3, N1H...N4- and O6+H...N4-) and five (N2H...O2, N1H...O2, N1H...N3, O6+H...N4- and 06+H...N4-) H-bonds accordingly. Stable base pairs Gua-Cyt* and Gua*.Cyt which dissociate comparably easy into monomers have acceptable relative Gibbs energies--12.9 and 14.3 kcal/mol--for the explanation of the nature of the spontaneous transitions of DNA replication. Results are obtained at the MP2/6-311++G(2df,pd)//B3LYP/6-31 1++G(d,p) level of theory in vacuum approach.

  13. Watson-Crick Base Pairing, Electronic and Photophysical Properties of Triazole Modified Adenine Analogues: A Computational Study

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Shubhajit

    2015-09-17

    We employ first-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) to elucidate structural, electronic and optical properties of a few recently reported triazole adenine nucleobase analogues. The results are compared against the findings obtained for both natural adenine nucleobase and available experimental data. The optical absorption of these adenine analogues are calculated both in gas-phase and in solvent (methanol) using Polarized Continuum Model (PCM). We find that all the analogues show a red-shifted absorption profile as compared to adenine. Our simulated emission spectra in solvent compare fairly well with experimentally observed results. We investigate base paring ability of these adenine analogues with thymine. The calculations on the intrinsic stability of these base pairs ascertain that all the adenine analogues form the hydrogen bonded Watson-Crick base pair with similar H-bonding energy as obtained for natural adenine-thymine base pair. In our study, we provide a microscopic origin of the low-energy absorption and emission peaks, observed experimentally.

  14. Interviewing Alessandra Piovesana, the Managing Director of Nuance-Watson%奇货策略--访Nuance-Watson董事总经理彭慧珊女士

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 在见到彭慧珊女士本人之前,一直以为拥有一个地道中文名字的她,应该是一位土生土长的香港人.其实彭女士原籍意大利,其职业生涯也从那里开始,1999年她加入Nuance-Watson,担任董事总经理一职至今.

  15. UK Institute of Physics (IOP) President Sir Gareth Roberts (right) at CERN on 9 July with (right to left) IOP council vice-president and distinguished physicist Peter Kalmus, CERN engineer Tim Watson and IOP director of science Peter Cooper

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    UK Institute of Physics (IOP) President Sir Gareth Roberts (right) at CERN on 9 July with (right to left) IOP council vice-president and distinguished physicist Peter Kalmus, CERN engineer Tim Watson and IOP director of science Peter Cooper

  16. 护肤品小品牌与屈臣氏的营销策略%Marketing strategies of small skin care brand and Watsons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于扬利

    2012-01-01

    Watsons is the biggest scale chain store of health beauty products in China.Watsons developed very fast in China.The competition,negotiation and compromise between the self-owned,small brand and strong Watsons store were related.The small brand manufacturers can also be larger and stronger as long as they are capable of understanding the consumer's mentality,personality,curiosity and hobby along with proper marketing strategy.%屈臣氏是中国最大规模的保健及美容产品零售连锁店,在中国发展迅速。论述了自创护肤品小品牌与屈臣氏这个强势卖场之间的竞争、谈判和妥协。化妆品小厂家只要抓住消费群体的个性、爱好、新鲜以及掌握市场营销策略也能够做大做强。

  17. Final Report on Contract N00014-85-C-0078 (IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    by moving an air-spaced electrical pulses obtained by photoconductively shorting a retroreflector with a computer-controlled stepping motor, charged...radiation dam - FIG. 2. Carrier lifetime vs ion-implantation dose. Lifetimes are derived age. At doses above a critical dose of3 10" cm-2 the mea- from...this analysis, we have come to the conclusion that, for the by moving an air-spaced retroreflector with a computer- so-called "sliding-contact" method of

  18. The practice of nurses caring for families of pediatric inpatients in light of Jean Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Rodrigues dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To know the facilities and the difficulties of nurses in caring practice of hospitalized children’s families in the light of Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. Method It was used the descriptive qualitative approach. The data collection was conducted in three stages: presentation of theoretical content; engagement with families in the light of Watson’s theory; and semi-structured interview with 12 pediatric nurses. The interviews were analysed using inductive thematic analysis, being possible to form three themes: Recognizing a framework for care; Considering the institutional context; and Challenges in family’s relationship. Results The theory favored reflections about self, about the institutions and about nurses’ relationship with the family of the child, normalized by a consciousness toward caring attitudes. Conclusion In this process, it is imperative that nurses recognize the philosophical-theoretical foundations of care to attend the child’s family in hospital.

  19. How Mg(2+) ion and water network affect the stability and structure of non-Watson-Crick base pairs in E. coli loop E of 5S rRNA: a molecular dynamics and reference interaction site model (RISM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Sudhanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2017-08-01

    The non-Watson-Crick (non-WC) base pairs of Escherichia coli loop E of 5S rRNA are stabilized by Mg(2+) ions through water-mediated interaction. It is important to know the synergic role of Mg(2+) and the water network surrounding Mg(2+) in stabilizing the non-WC base pairs of RNA. For this purpose, free energy change of the system is calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation as Mg(2+) is pulled from RNA, which causes disturbance of the water network. It was found that Mg(2+) remains hexahydrated unless it is close to or far from RNA. In the pentahydrated form, Mg(2+) interacts directly with RNA. Water network has been identified by two complimentary methods; MD followed by a density-based clustering algorithm and three-dimensional-reference interaction site model. These two methods gave similar results. Identification of water network around Mg(2+) and non-WC base pairs gives a clue to the strong effect of water network on the stability of this RNA. Based on sequence analysis of all Eubacteria 5s rRNA, we propose that hexahydrated Mg(2+) is an integral part of this RNA and geometry of base pairs surrounding it adjust to accommodate the [Formula: see text]. Overall the findings from this work can help in understanding the basis of the complex structure and stability of RNA with non-WC base pairs.

  20. [The Watson-Crick model of the DNA doublehelix. The history of the discovery and the role of the protein paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Rudolf

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning, the two fundamental papers by Watson and Crick published in 1953 are presented. Subsequently, the main phases of protein and nucleic acids research, starting in the middle of the 19th century, are shortly reviewed. It is outlined, how the 'protein-paradigm' was gradually developed and ultimately became widely accepted. It is then described how Caspersson in 1936 newly raised the question what the chemical nature of genes was: proteins or nucleic acids ? In the main part of this report six lines of research are reviewed, the results of which led to the demise of the 'protein paradigm', the creation of the Watson-Crick model of the DNA and the elaboration of the mechanism of DNA replication: (a) mutation experiments with UV and determination of the UV action spectrum, (b) determination of the chemical identity of the transforming agent in bacteria, (c) detailed chemical analysis of the DNA of different organisms, (d) molecular investigation of the infection of bacteria by bacteriophages, (e) X-ray analysis of DNA fibers, (f) model building and theoretical treatment of all data obtained. In this article, the factors promoting and inhibiting scientific progress in this field are described (and, above all, the relations between scientists with fixated concepts). The results from these lines of research led to the recognition of the decisive role of nucleic acids as the carriers of genetic information and, in this way, formally established the 'nucleic acid paradigm'. Finally the question is discussed why Watson and Crick found the right solution for the DNA structure (and not one of their competitors).

  1. Appraising to the effect on the theory of human nature care of Jean Watson in rehabilitation of dope%人性照护理论对吸毒者的康复效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉梅; 胡勤玲; 李遵清

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of the theory of human nature care of Jean Watson of rehabili-tation on drug abuser.Methods 60 case of drug abusers were divided into study group and control group by ran-dom.Study group was given the human care nursing for 2 months.And the effects were evaluated by SAS,SDS,SCL-90.After they left hospital,they were visited and urintested,at the end of two week,one month and two month.Results The scores of these scales were no different before study,but the different were significant after 2 months and the relapse rate of study group was lower than the control group.Conclusion Using the theory of human nature care of Jean Watson directed the rehabilitation nursing work on drug abuse,It was use of rehabilita-tion on drug abuser.It was use of preventing to drug again and keeping the personal integrity.%目的 探讨华生人性照护理论对吸毒者的康复效果.方法 60例吸毒者随机分为观察组和对照组(各30例),两组均按常规管教,对照组进行一般(支持性)心理护理,观察组实施为期2个月的人性照护管教措施.采用焦虑自评量表、抑郁自评量表、症状自评量表作为评价工具,出院后,分别于2 w、1个月和2个月进行随访和尿检.结果 干预2个月后,观察组各量表评分明显低于对照组,两组比较有显著性差异(P<0.01),在其后的随访中观察组复吸率明显低于对照组,差别亦具有显著性意义(P<0.05).结论 华生人性照护理论在吸毒者中的康复应用,不但能利于吸毒者的康复,而且能强化吸毒者的戒毒心理,对预防复吸有一定的积极意义.

  2. The nature of the transition mismatches with Watson-Crick architecture: the G*·T or G·T* DNA base mispair or both? A QM/QTAIM perspective for the biological problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first accurate investigation of the tautomerization of the biologically important guanine*·thymine (G*·T) DNA base mispair with Watson-Crick geometry, involving the enol mutagenic tautomer of the G and the keto tautomer of the T, into the G·T* mispair (∆G = .99 kcal mol(-1), population = 15.8% obtained at the MP2 level of quantum-mechanical theory in the continuum with ε = 4), formed by the keto tautomer of the G and the enol mutagenic tautomer of the T base, using DFT and MP2 methods in vacuum and in the weakly polar medium (ε = 4), characteristic for the hydrophobic interfaces of specific protein-nucleic acid interactions. We were first able to show that the G*·T↔G·T* tautomerization occurs through the asynchronous concerted double proton transfer along two antiparallel O6H···O4 and N1···HN3 H-bonds and is assisted by the third N2H···O2 H-bond, that exists along the entire reaction pathway. The obtained results indicate that the G·T* base mispair is stable from the thermodynamic point of view complex, while it is dynamically unstable structure in vacuum and dynamically stable structure in the continuum with ε = 4 with lifetime of 6.4·10(-12) s, that, on the one side, makes it possible to develop all six low-frequency intermolecular vibrations, but, on the other side, it is by three orders less than the time (several ns) required for the replication machinery to forcibly dissociate a base pair into the monomers during DNA replication. One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that the short-lived G·T* base mispair, which electronic interaction energy between the bases (-23.76 kcal mol(-1)) exceeds the analogical value for the G·C Watson-Crick nucleobase pair (-20.38 kcal mol(-1)), "escapes from the hands" of the DNA replication machinery by fast transforming into the G*·T mismatch playing an indirect role of its supplier during the DNA replication. So

  3. [Elementary, my dear Watson].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimar, Yossi

    2003-11-01

    Sherlock Holmes, the greatest detective who never lived, draws a great amount of influence from the medical world. Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes creator and the author of his many adventures, was a physician, before devoting himself to writing. Doyle was fascinated with the incredible abilities of his legendary teacher, Dr. Joseph Bell, to draw conclusions based on apparently minor unimportant details. At a later stage, Doyle admitted that Sherlock Holmes' character was based upon Joseph Bell way of practicing medicine. Sherlock Holmes' adventures are paved with medical descriptions of various illnesses. This article reviews the connection between the author, the detective and the medical world.

  4. 关于Galton-Watson过程的一些新结果%Some New Results for the Galton-Watson Precess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世霞

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,some limit properties of Galton-Watson process are studied and the estimate of the rate of convergence of q-fn(s) is investigated,the representati of lim n→∞ q-fn(s)/γn is also obtained.%考虑了Galton-Watson过程的一些极限性质,得到了q-fn(s)收敛率的估计,并给出了lim n→∞ q-fn(s)/γn的具体表达式.

  5. 8 May 2014 - W. Watson-Wright, Assistant Director General and Executive Secretary UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Assistant Director-General for the Natural Sciences Sector ad interim visiting the CMS cavern with CMS Collaboration Deputy Spkokesperson K. Borras. Adviser to the Director-General, in charge of Relations with International Organisations M. Bona present throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    Ms Wendy Watson-Wright Assistant Director General and Executive Secretary UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Assistant Director-General for the Natural Sciences Sector ad interim UNESCO

  6. Non-Watson Crick base pairs might stabilize RNA structural motifs in ribozymes – A comparative study of group-I intron structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandrasekhar; R Malathi

    2003-09-01

    In recent decades studies on RNA structure and function have gained significance due to discoveries on diversified functions of RNA. A common element for RNA secondary structure formed by series of non-Watson/Watson Crick base pairs, internal loops and pseudoknots have been the highlighting feature of recent structural determination of RNAs. The recent crystal structure of group-I introns has demonstrated that these might constitute RNA structural motifs in ribozymes, playing a crucial role in their enzymatic activity. To understand the functional significance of these non-canonical base pairs in catalytic RNA, we analysed the sequences of group-I introns from nuclear genes. The results suggest that they might form the building blocks of folded RNA motifs which are crucial to the catalytic activity of the ribozyme. The conservation of these, as observed from divergent organisms, argues for the presence of non-canonical base pairs as an important requisite for the structure and enzymatic property of ribozymes by enabling them to carry out functions such as replication, polymerase activity etc. in primordial conditions in the absence of proteins.

  7. 采用改良Watson-Jones术式重建外侧副韧带治疗慢性踝关节不稳的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建华; 佟颖彪; 桑园田

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨改良Watson-Jones术式重建外侧副韧带治疗慢性踝关节不稳的临床疗效.方法 21例慢性踝关节不稳患者采用改良Watson-Jones术式行外侧副韧带重建术治疗.结果 术后随访2~3年,踝关节功能按Good评分标准:1级14例,2级4例,3级2例,4级1例.结论 采用改良Watson-Jones术式行外侧副韧带重建术能较好地恢复踝关节的稳定性.

  8. El cuidado humano en la formación del estudiante de enfermería según la teoría de Jean Watson, Chiclayo, Perú 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación se basó en los conceptos de enfermería (Potter, 2003), en el cuidado humano de Jean Watson, en la formación para el cuidado (Watson, 2008); tuvo como objetivo describir y analizar el cuidado humano en la formación del estudiante de enfermería, según la teoría de Jean Watson. El abordaje metodológico fue de tipo cualitativo, con método de estudio de caso; la investigación se desarrolló en la Escuela de Enfermería de la Universidad Católica Santo Toribio de Mogrovejo, ...

  9. Using grounded theory as a method for rigorously reviewing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, J.; Furtmueller, E.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers guidance to conducting a rigorous literature review. We present this in the form of a five-stage process in which we use Grounded Theory as a method. We first probe the guidelines explicated by Webster and Watson, and then we show the added value of Grounded Theory for rigorously a

  10. A note on asymptotic behavior of Galton-Watson branching processes in random environments%关于随机环境中的Galton-Watson分枝过程渐近性质的一个注记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汉兴; 赵飞; 卢金余

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate Galton-Watson branching processes in random environments. In the case where the environmental process is a Markov chain which is positive recurrent or has a transition matrix Q (θ,α) such that supθ Q (θ,α)> 0 for some α, we prove that the model has the asymptotic behavior being similar to that of Galton-Watson branching processes. In other case where the environments are non-stationary independent, the sufficient conditions are obtained for certain extinction and uncertain extinction for the model.

  11. Aplicação da Teoria do Cuidado Transpessoal de Jean Watson: uma década de produção brasileira Aplicación de la Teoría del Cuidado Transpersonal de Jean Watson: una década de producción brasileña Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring: a decade of Brazilian publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Favero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão sistemática objetivou descrever e analisar a aplicação da Teoria do Cuidado Transpessoal de Jean Watson nas pesquisas divulgadas em publicações de Enfermagem brasileiras dos últimos dez anos. O levantamento bibliográfico abrangeu 34 produções científicas selecionadas nas bases de dados eletrônicas MEDLINE (MEDLARS [Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System] On-line, LILACS (Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, BDENF (Base de dados de Enfermagem e SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library On-line, que após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão estabelecidos, compuseram a amostra do estudo. Os resultados apontaram que a Região Sul concentra 61,8% das produções referidas ao tema de estudo, que ela pode ser aplicada nos níveis de atenção primária, secundária e terciária e que 64,7% das produções utilizam os fatores de cuidado propostos por Jean Watson em 1979. Emerge a necessidade de aprimoramento das pesquisas acerca da transformação ocorrida na Teoria do Cuidado Transpessoal, com abordagem do Processo Clinical Caritas, porém como são escassos os estudos referentes a esta temática, dificultam sua utilização prática.Esta revisión sistemática tuvo como objetivo describir y analizar la aplicación de la Teoría del Cuidado Transpersonal de Jean Watson en las investigaciones divulgadas en publicaciones de Enfermería brasileñas de los últimos diez años. El levantamiento bibliográfico abarcó 34 producciones seleccionadas en las bases de datos electrónicas MEDLINE (MEDLARS [Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System] On-line, LILACS (Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, BDENF (Base de datos de Enfermería y SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library On-line, que después de la aplicación de los criterios de inclusión establecidos, compusieron la muestra del estudio. Los resultados señalaron que la región Sur concentra el 61,8% de las

  12. El consuelo de María: una enseñanza de cuidado desde la teoría de Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Andrea Ramírez Perdomo

    Full Text Available Objetivo: presentar una experiencia de cuidado enmarcada en el referente teórico de la Filosofía y teoría del Cuidado transpersonal de Watson, que retroalimenta la práctica desde el contexto del arte y la ciencia humana. Metodología: estudio de caso en el cual se describen la experiencia de cuidado que surge de la práctica con los pacientes en su ámbito de desempeño, originados en la relación enfermera-paciente, el paciente, la enfermera y el contexto en el cual se desarrolla. Conclusiones: valida las situaciones de la práctica, determina la utilidad de los supuestos teóricos que fundamentan el quehacer profesional y dan valor al cuidado humano.

  13. Can tautomerization of the A·T Watson-Crick base pair via double proton transfer provoke point mutations during DNA replication? A comprehensive QM and QTAIM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets, Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-01-01

    Trying to answer the question posed in the title, we have carried out a detailed theoretical investigation of the biologically important mechanism of the tautomerization of the A·T Watson-Crick DNA base pair, information that is hard to establish experimentally. By combining theoretical investigations at the MP2 and density functional theory levels of QM theory with quantum theory of atoms in molecules analysis, the tautomerization of the A·T Watson-Crick base pair by the double proton transfer (DPT) was comprehensively studied in vacuo and in the continuum with a low dielectric constant (ϵ = 4) corresponding to a hydrophobic interfaces of protein-nucleic acid interactions. Based on the sweeps of the electron-topological, geometric, and energetic parameters, which describe the course of the tautomerization along its intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC), it was proved that the A·T → A(∗)·T(∗) tautomerization through the DPT is a concerted (i.e. the pathway without an intermediate) and asynchronous (i.e. protons move with a time gap) process. The limiting stage of this phenomenon is the final PT along the N6H⋯O4 hydrogen bond (H-bond). The continuum with ϵ = 4 does not affect qualitatively the course of the tautomerization reaction: similar to that observed in vacuo, it proceeds via a concerted asynchronous process with the same structure of the transition state (TS). For the first time, the nine key points along the IRC of the A·T base pair tautomerization, which could be considered as electron-topological "fingerprints" of a concerted asynchronous process of the tautomerization via the DPT, have been identified and fully characterized. These nine key points have been used to define the reactant, TS, and product regions of the DPT in the A·T base pair. Considering the energy dependence of each of the three H-bonds, which stabilize the Watson-Crick and Löwdin's base pairs, along the IRC of the tautomerization, it was found that all these H

  14. Can an excess electron localize on a purine moiety in the adenine-thymine Watson-Crick base pair? A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkiewicz, Kamil; Harańczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Rak, Janusz

    The electron affinity and the propensity to electron-induced proton transfer (PT) of hydrogen-bonded complexes between the Watson-Crick adenine-thymine pair (AT) and simple organic acid (HX), attached to adenine in the Hoogsteen-type configuration, were studied at the B3LYP/6-31+G** level. Although the carboxyl group is deprotonated at physiological pH, its neutral form, COOH, resembles the peptide bond or the amide fragment in the side chain of asparagine (Asn) or glutamine (Gln). Thus, these complexes mimic the interaction between the DNA environment (e.g., proteins) and nucleobase pairs incorporated in the biopolymer. Electron attachment is thermodynamically feasible and adiabatic electron affinities range from 0.41 to 1.28 eV, while the vertical detachment energies of the resulting anions span the range of 0.39-2.88 eV. Low-energy activation barriers separate the anionic minima: aHX(AT) from the more stable single-PT anionic geometry, aHX(AT)-SPT, and aHX(AT)-SPT from the double-PT anionic geometry, aHX(AT)-DPT. Interaction between the adenine of the Watson-Crick AT base pair with an acidic proton donor probably counterbalances the larger EA of isolated thymine, as SOMO is almost evenly delocalized over both types of nucleic bases in the aHX(AT) anions. Moreover, as a result of PT the excess electron localizes entirely on adenine. Thus, in DNA interacting with its physiological environment, damage induced by low-energy electrons could begin, contrary to the current view, with the formation of purine anions, which are not formed in isolated DNA because of the greater stability of anionic pyrimidines.0

  15. Watermarking Algorithm about Videos Based on Watson Model%基于Watson模型的视频数字水印算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海霞

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposed a new watermarking algorithm about videos based on Watson Model.First,we pick up some key frames of the videos and copy them as duplications.Second,we transform frames and their copies from RGB into YCrCB color space.Then,we embed watermark into the mid frequency band of the key frames and copies after suitable DCT operation.At last,we replace frames and copies into the formal video together.%在Watson视觉模型计算的启发下设计出了视频数字水印算法。首先提取视频中若干关键帧图像并复制出副本,并将这些图像由RGB空间转换成YCrCb空间,对Y亮度空间灰度值分块进行DCT变换;其次,根据Watson视觉模型中的JND值,控制频率系数的修改阈值,选择中频系数嵌入水印;最后,将关键帧连同副本一起插入原视频中,设计出了基于Watson模型的视频数字水印算法。

  16. High-Resolution Crystal Structure of a Silver(I)-RNA Hybrid Duplex Containing Watson-Crick-like C-Silver(I)-C Metallo-Base Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Jiro; Tada, Yoshinari; Dairaku, Takenori; Saneyoshi, Hisao; Okamoto, Itaru; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Ono, Akira

    2015-11-02

    Metallo-base pairs have been extensively studied for applications in nucleic acid-based nanodevices and genetic code expansion. Metallo-base pairs composed of natural nucleobases are attractive because nanodevices containing natural metallo-base pairs can be easily prepared from commercially available sources. Previously, we have reported a crystal structure of a DNA duplex containing T-Hg(II)-T base pairs. Herein, we have determined a high-resolution crystal structure of the second natural metallo-base pair between pyrimidine bases C-Ag(I)-C formed in an RNA duplex. One Ag(I) occupies the center between two cytosines and forms a C-Ag(I)-C base pair through N3-Ag(I)-N3 linear coordination. The C-Ag(I)-C base pair formation does not disturb the standard A-form conformation of RNA. Since the C-Ag(I)-C base pair is structurally similar to the canonical Watson-Crick base pairs, it can be a useful building block for structure-based design and fabrication of nucleic acid-based nanodevices.

  17. 基于Bowyer-Watson三角网生成算法的研究%Algorithm research to generate triangulation network based on Bowyer-Watson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 黎应飞

    2013-01-01

    TIN(Triangulated Irregular Network) has better performance on shaping terrain. The generation algorithm has been great concerned. This paper has discussed the data structure design of triangulation, and designed and implemented the algorithm based on Bowyer-Watson idea that is an incremental insertion algorithm. This paper analyzes why the algorithms may arise the phenomenon of cross during the experiment, and gives the improved idea. The improved algorithm has been used to visualize the terrain modeling, to obtain good results, for the research triangulation has some value.%不规则三角网(Triangulated Irregular Network,TIN)在表示地形的形态方面具有较好的表现,其生成算法一直备受关注.讨论了三角网的数据结构的设计,采用逐点插入算法中的Bowyer-Watson算法思想为研究重点,设计并实现了该算法,对算法实验过程中可能出现的交叉现象进行分析,给出算法的改进.该改进算法已用于地形的可视化建模中,获得了较好的效果,对于三角剖分的相关研究具有一定的价值.

  18. Presenting a new kinetic model for methanol to light olefins reactions over a hierarchical SAPO-34 catalyst using the Langmuir–Hinshelwood–Hougen–Watson mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javad Azarhoosh, Mohammad; Halladj, Rouein; Askari, Sima

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a new kinetic model for methanol to light olefins (MTO) reactions over a hierarchical SAPO-34 catalyst using the Langmuir–Hinshelwood–Hougen–Watson (LHHW) mechanism was presented and the kinetic parameters was obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) and genetic programming (GP). Several kinetic models for the MTO reactions have been presented. However, due to the complexity of the reactions, most reactions are considered lumped and elementary, which cannot be deemed a completely accurate kinetic model of the process. Therefore, in this study, the LHHW mechanism is presented as kinetic models of MTO reactions. Because of the non-linearity of the kinetic models and existence of many local optimal points, evolutionary algorithms (GA and GP) are used in this study to estimate the kinetic parameters in the rate equations. Via the simultaneous connection of the code related to modelling the reactor and the GA and GP codes in the MATLAB R2013a software, optimization of the kinetic models parameters was performed such that the least difference between the results from the kinetic models and experiential results was obtained and the best kinetic parameters of MTO process reactions were achieved. A comparison of the results from the model with experiential results showed that the present model possesses good accuracy.

  19. Presenting a new kinetic model for methanol to light olefins reactions over a hierarchical SAPO-34 catalyst using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarhoosh, Mohammad Javad; Halladj, Rouein; Askari, Sima

    2017-10-25

    In this study, a new kinetic model for methanol to light olefins (MTO) reactions over a hierarchical SAPO-34 catalyst using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) mechanism was presented and the kinetic parameters was obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) and genetic programming (GP). Several kinetic models for the MTO reactions have been presented. However, due to the complexity of the reactions, most reactions are considered lumped and elementary, which cannot be deemed a completely accurate kinetic model of the process. Therefore, in this study, the LHHW mechanism is presented as kinetic models of MTO reactions. Because of the non-linearity of the kinetic models and existence of many local optimal points, evolutionary algorithms (GA and GP) are used in this study to estimate the kinetic parameters in the rate equations. Via the simultaneous connection of the code related to modelling the reactor and the GA and GP codes in the MATLAB R2013a software, optimization of the kinetic models parameters was performed such that the least difference between the results from the kinetic models and experiential results was obtained and the best kinetic parameters of MTO process reactions were achieved. A comparison of the results from the model with experiential results showed that the present model possesses good accuracy.

  20. Comparación entre bioimpedancia espectroscópica y fórmula de Watson para medición de volumen corporal en pacientes en diálisis peritoneal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martínez Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Conclusiones: Existen diferencias en el V de los pacientes de una unidad de DP según sea calculado por fórmula de Watson o por BIS. La presencia de hipertensión, diabetes, hipoalbuminemia, obesidad, malnutrición, inflamación, E/I ratio ≥1 y la ausencia de diuresis residual se asocia con la aparición de estas diferencias.

  1. How Healthcare Can Refocus on Its Super-Customers (Patients, n =1) and Customers (Doctors and Nurses) by Leveraging Lessons from Amazon, Uber, and Watson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Evelyne; Özdemir, Vural; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-06-01

    Healthcare is transforming with data-intensive omics technologies and Big Data. The "revolution" has already happened in technology, but the bottlenecks have shifted to the social domain: Who can be empowered by Big Data? Who are the users and customers? In this review and innovation field analysis, we introduce the idea of a "super-customer" versus "customer" and relate both to 21st century healthcare. A "super-customer" in healthcare is the patient, sample size of n = 1, while "customers" are the providers of healthcare (e.g., doctors and nurses). The super-customers have been patients, enabled by unprecedented social practices, such as the ability to track one's physical activities, personal genomics, patient advocacy for greater autonomy, and self-governance, to name but a few. In contrast, the originally intended customers-providers, doctors, and nurses-have relatively lagged behind. With patients as super-customers, there are valuable lessons to be learned from industry examples, such as Amazon and Uber. To offer superior quality service, healthcare organizations have to refocus on the needs, pains, and aspirations of their super-customers by enabling the customers. We propose a strategic solution to this end: the PPT-DAM (People-Process-Technology empowered by Data, Analytics, and Metrics) approach. When applied together with the classic Experiment-Execute-Evaluate iterative methodology, we suggest PPT-DAM is an extremely powerful approach to deliver quality health services to super-customers and customers. As an example, we describe the PPT-DAM implementation by the Benchmarking Improvement Program at the Seattle Children's Hospital. Finally, we forecast that cognitive systems in general and IBM Watson in particular, if properly implemented, can bring transformative and sustainable capabilities in healthcare far beyond the current ones.

  2. Atención de Enfermería brindada a jóvenes en dos centros de salud comparado con la Teoría de Watson

    OpenAIRE

    Pichardo Meza, María Alejandra; Zúñiga Rodríguez, María Catalina

    2012-01-01

    Elobjetivo de este artículo es presentar los resultados de un estudio   comparado entre la teoría de Jean Watson y  la atención que brinda la enfermera o el enfermero a los adultos jóvenes en la Clínica de Control del Dolor y Cuidado Paliativo y en el Servicio de Onco-hematología del Hospital Max Peralta en Cartago. Se trata de una investigación mixta de tipo paralelo con triangulación concurrente. Las poblaciones de estudio estuvieron conformadas por 26 personas adultas jóvenes (con pr...

  3. 随机环境中的两性Galton-Watson分枝过程的极限行为%The Limit Behavior for the Bisexual Galton-Watson Branching Processes in Random Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世霞; 李晋枝

    2011-01-01

    考虑了后代概率分布受一个独立同分布环境过程所控制的两性Galton-Watson分枝过程,得到了有关过程渐进增长的若干结果.%A bisexual Galton-Watson branching process is considered,where the offspring probability distribution is controlled by an independent and identically environment process.Some results for the asymptotic growth associated with the process are obtained.

  4. Research on the Reliabilities and Validities of Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal and California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory%WGCTA和CCTDI量表的信度及效度测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀丽; 沈宁

    2004-01-01

    Watson-Glaser critical thinking appraisal(Watson-Glaser批判性思维测试量表,WGCTA量表)和California critical thinking disposition inventory(加利福尼亚批判性思维气质问卷,CCTDI量表)翻译成中文,对国内4所护理学院的160名本科生进行测试,检验其信度和效度.结果分半信度WGCTA量表为0.54,CCTDI量表为0.76;同质性信度WGCTA量表为0.70,CCTDI量表为0.75;结构效度各因子变异量<7.0%(结果不甚理想);两个量表的实证效度较理想.提示两个量表经过修改可成为应用于国内的正式量表.

  5. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  6. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZrO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization method in aqueous electrolyte containing (NH42SO4 and NH4F. The morphology and structure of nanotube arrays were characterized through scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectra analysis. The zirconia nanotube arrays were used as catalyst in esterification reaction. The effects of calcination temperature and electrolyte concentration on catalytic esterification activity have been investigated in detail. Experiments indicate that nanotube arrays have highest catalytic activity when the concentration of (NH42SO4 is 1 mol/L, the concentration of NH4F is 1 wt%, and the calcination temperature is 400°C. Esterification reaction yield of as much as 97% could be obtained under optimal conditions.

  7. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gnatov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently repair and recovery vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting things are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Basics of magnetic-pulse attraction, both ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic thin-walled sheet metal, are explored. Inductor system calculation models of magnetic-pulse straightening tools are presented. Final analytical expressions for excited efforts calculation in the tools under consideration are introduced. According to the obtained analytical expressions, numerical evaluations of excited forces were executed. The volumetric epures of the attractive force radial distributions for different types of inductors were built. The practical testing of magnetic-pulse straightening with research tools is given. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic-pulse straightening of car body panels.

  8. The physicochemical essence of the purine·pyrimidine transition mismatches with Watson-Crick geometry in DNA: A·C* versa A*·C. A QM and QTAIM atomistic understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2015-01-01

    It was established for the first time by DFT and MP2 quantum-mechanical (QM) methods either in vacuum, so in the continuum with a low dielectric constant (ε = 4), typical for hydrophobic interfaces of specific protein-nucleic acid interactions, that the repertoire for the tautomerisation of the biologically important adenine · cytosine* (A · C*) mismatched DNA base pair, formed by the amino tautomer of the A and the imino mutagenic tautomer of the C, into the A*·C base mispair (∆G = 2.72 kcal mol(-1) obtained at the MP2 level of QM theory in the continuum with ε = 4), formed by the imino mutagenic tautomer of the A and the amino tautomer of the C, proceeds via the asynchronous concerted double proton transfer along two antiparallel H-bonds through the transition state (TSA · C* ↔ A* · C). The limiting stage of the A · C* → A* · C tautomerisation is the final proton transfer along the intermolecular N6H · · · N4 H-bond. It was found that the A · C*/A* · C DNA base mispairs with Watson-Crick geometry are associated by the N6H · · · N4/N4H · · · N6, N3H · · · N1/N1H · · · N3 and C2H · · · O2 H-bonds, respectively, while the TSA · C*↔ A* · C is joined by the N6-H-N4 covalent bridge and the N1H · · · N3 and C2H · · · O2 H-bonds. It was revealed that the A · C* ↔ A* · C tautomerisation is assisted by the true C2H · · · O2 H-bond, that in contrast to the two others conventional H-bonds exists along the entire intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) range herewith becoming stronger at the transition from vacuum to the continuum with ε = 4. To better understand the behavior of the intermolecular H-bonds and base mispairs along the IRC of the A · C* ↔ A* · C tautomerisation, the profiles of their electron-topological, energetical, geometrical, polar and charge characteristics are reported in this study. It was established based on the profiles of the H-bond energies that all three H-bonds are cooperative, mutually

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of an N(2)-guanine DNA adduct derived from the potent tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: intercalation from the minor groove with ruptured Watson-Crick base pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yijin; Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Lin, Chin H; Cai, Yuqin; Rodriguez, Fabian A; Sayer, Jane M; Jerina, Donald M; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2012-12-04

    The most potent tumorigen identified among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is the nonplanar fjord region dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). It is metabolically activated in vivo through the widely studied diol epoxide (DE) pathway to form covalent adducts with DNA bases, predominantly guanine and adenine. The (+)-11S,12R,13R,14S DE enantiomer forms adducts via its C14 position with the exocyclic amino group of guanine. Here, we present the first nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of a DB[a,l]P-derived adduct, the 14R-(+)-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG (DB[a,l]P-dG) lesion in double-stranded DNA. In contrast to the stereochemically identical benzo[a]pyrene-derived N(2)-dG adduct (B[a]P-dG) in which the B[a]P rings reside in the B-DNA minor groove on the 3'-side of the modifed deoxyguanosine, in the DB[a,l]P-derived adduct the DB[a,l]P rings intercalate into the duplex on the 3'-side of the modified base from the sterically crowded minor groove. Watson-Crick base pairing of the modified guanine with the partner cytosine is broken, but these bases retain some stacking with the bulky DB[a,l]P ring system. This new theme in PAH DE-DNA adduct conformation differs from (1) the classical intercalation motif in which Watson-Crick base pairing is intact at the lesion site and (2) the base-displaced intercalation motif in which the damaged base and its partner are extruded from the helix. The structural considerations that lead to the intercalated conformation of the DB[a,l]P-dG lesion in contrast to the minor groove alignment of the B[a]P-dG adduct, and the implications of the DB[a,l]P-dG conformational motif for the recognition of such DNA lesions by the human nucleotide excision repair apparatus, are discussed.

  10. The Asymptotic Behaviour of the Extinction Probabibity in Bisexual Galton-Watson Branching Processes with Independent and Identically Distributed Random Environments%独立同分布随机环境中两性Galton-Watson分支过程灭绝概率的渐近行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽华; 雷思林; 卢准炜; 刘桂芬

    2011-01-01

    本文研究了独立同分布随机环境中的两性Galton-Watson分支过程,在上临界情形下,当k充分大时,qk≤ck.%In bisexual Galton-Watson branching process with independent and identically distributed random environments, it is shown that under certain conditions there exists 0 for sufficiently large k.

  11. Why the tautomerization of the G·C Watson-Crick base pair via the DPT does not cause point mutations during DNA replication? QM and QTAIM comprehensive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-01-01

    The ground-state tautomerization of the G·C Watson-Crick base pair by the double proton transfer (DPT) was comprehensively studied in vacuo and in the continuum with a low dielectric constant (ϵ = 4), corresponding to a hydrophobic interface of protein-nucleic acid interactions, using DFT and MP2 levels of quantum-mechanical (QM) theory and quantum theory "Atoms in molecules" (QTAIM). Based on the sweeps of the electron-topological, geometric, polar, and energetic parameters, which describe the course of the G·C ↔ G*·C* tautomerization (mutagenic tautomers of the G and C bases are marked with an asterisk) through the DPT along the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC), it was proved that it is, strictly speaking, a concerted asynchronous process both at the DFT and MP2 levels of theory, in which protons move with a small time gap in vacuum, while this time delay noticeably increases in the continuum with ϵ = 4. It was demonstrated using the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) that the continuum with ϵ = 4 does not qualitatively affect the course of the tautomerization reaction. The DPT in the G·C Watson-Crick base pair occurs without any intermediates both in vacuum and in the continuum with ϵ = 4 at the DFT/MP2 levels of theory. The nine key points along the IRC of the G·C base pair tautomerization, which could be considered as electron-topological "fingerprints" of a concerted asynchronous process of the tautomerization via the DPT, have been identified and fully characterized. These key points have been used to define the reactant, transition state, and product regions of the DPT reaction in the G·C base pair. Analysis of the energetic characteristics of the H-bonds allows us to arrive at a definite conclusion that the middle N1H⋯N3/N3H⋯N1 and the lower N2H⋯O2/N2H⋯O2 parallel H-bonds in the G·C/G*·C* base pairs, respectively, are anticooperative, that is, the strengthening of the middle H-bond is accompanied

  12. It's Elementary, er, Basic, Dr. Watson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) has stated that "the overall achievement goal for American students is performance that qualifies at the Proficient level or higher" (Loomis & Bourke, 2001, p. 2). The Institute for Educational Sciences of the U.S. Department of Education went even further, "The Proficient level…

  13. Aplikasi Galton Watson Branching Process dalam Parasitologi

    OpenAIRE

    Sunusi, Nurtiti

    2005-01-01

    Penyakit malaria merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang masih perlu diperhitungkan dalam pengelolaan kesehatan di Negara-negara tropik termasuk Indonesia. Di Indonesia, ditemukan 4 spesies parasit pada manusia, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, dan Plasmodium ovale. Di antara ke empat plasmodium tersebut, Plasmodium falciparum mempunyai siklus hidup terpendek di dalam sel hati dan menyerang semua bentuk eritrosit, sehingga perkembangbiakan di dalam darah cepat...

  14. "Doktor Watson minu õuel!" / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2002-01-01

    Äsjalahkunud näitlejat Vitali Solominit (1941-2002) meenutab Juuliku villa elanik Leo Orav. Siin filmis režissöör Igor Maslennikov paar episoodi "Baskerville'de koerast" vene Sherlock Holmes'i seriaalist. Vitali Solomin mängis doktor Watsonit. Ka teistest selle seriaali võttepaikadest Eestis

  15. Two-Party Watson-Crick Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutrib, Martin; Malcher, Andreas

    We investigate synchronous systems consisting of two finite automata running in opposite directions on a shared read-only input. The automata communicate by sending messages. The communication is quantitatively measured by the number of messages sent during a computation. It is shown that even the weakest non-trivial devices in question, that is, systems that are allowed to communicate constantly often only, accept non-context-free languages. We investigate the computational capacity of the devices in question and prove a strict four-level hierarchy depending on the number of messages sent. The strictness of the hierarchy is shown by means of Kolmogorov complexity. For systems with unlimited communication several properties are known to be undecidable. A question is to what extent communication has to be reduced in order to regain decidability. Here, we derive that the problems remain non-semidecidable even if the communication is reduced to a limit close to the logarithm of the length of the input. Furthermore, we show that the border between decidability and undecidability is crossed when the communication is reduced to be constant. In this case only semilinear languages can be accepted.

  16. "Doktor Watson minu õuel!" / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2002-01-01

    Äsjalahkunud näitlejat Vitali Solominit (1941-2002) meenutab Juuliku villa elanik Leo Orav. Siin filmis režissöör Igor Maslennikov paar episoodi "Baskerville'de koerast" vene Sherlock Holmes'i seriaalist. Vitali Solomin mängis doktor Watsonit. Ka teistest selle seriaali võttepaikadest Eestis

  17. An easy method for diagnosing macro-aspartate aminotransferase: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beşer, Omer Faruk; Laçinel, Sibel; Gülcü, Didem; Kutlu, Tufan; Cullu Çokuğraş, Fügen; Erkan, Tülay

    2014-10-01

    Macro-aspartate transaminase (macro-AST) must be considered when the aspartate transaminase (AST) level is chronically high without any liver, cardiac, or muscle disease. Many specialized laboratory techniques have been recommended for diagnosing macro-AST, including the polyethylene glycol immune precipitate technique, which is simple. This study presents a considerably easier method based on the studies of Davidson and Watson and Castiella et al. Our method is based on the decrease in the plasma AST level after storage of the macroenzyme at 2-8 °C for 5 days, and has the advantages of low cost, reliability, and practicality at any health center. In our eight cases of macro-AST, the AST activity at day 6 had decreased by more than 50% from day 1. This method is practical for primary healthcare facilities because of its easy application and accurate results, and obviated the need for unnecessary tests after diagnosis.

  18. Methods Development for an Unenclosed Mesoscale Iron Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Coley, R. -r. Barber, S. Lindley. A. J. Watson, K. Van Scoy, C. S. Law, M. i. Liddicoat , R. Ling. T. Stanton, J. Stockel, C. Collins, A. Anderson, R...Vol. 371, No. 6493, p 145-148, 1994. Watson, A., C. S. Law, K. A. Van Scoy, F. J. Millero, W. Yao, G. E. Friederich, M. 1. Liddicoat , R. H. Wanninkhof... Liddicoat . The In Situ Phytoplankton Response to Natural and Experimental Iron Enrichment. 1994. Iron Speciation and its Biological Availability in

  19. Computer‐Assisted Library Instruction and Face‐to‐Face Library Instruction Prove Equally Effective for Teaching Basic Library Skills in Academic Libraries. A review of: Zhang, Li, Watson, Erin M. and Banfield, Laura. ʺThe Efficacy of Computer‐Assisted Instruction Versus Face‐to‐Face Instruction in Academic Libraries: A Systematic Review.ʺ The Journal of Academic Librarianship 33.4 (July 2007: 478‐484.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Walker

    2008-03-01

    , and case studies, with a sample size greater than one and with pre‐ and post‐test measurements;study participants had to be academic library patrons; the study needed to compare CAI and face‐to‐face instruction; and both the students’ information skills and reactions to the instruction had to be measured. This left 40 unique studies, which were then retrieved in full text. Next, studies were selected to meet the inclusion criteria further using the QUOROM format, a reporting structure used for improving the quality of reports of meta‐analyses of randomised trials (Moher et al 1896‐1900. Evaluation of methodological quality was then done using a dual method: authors Watson and Zhang assessed the studies independently, each using the “Checklist for Study Quality” developed by Downs and Black (Downs and Black 377‐384, adapted slightly to remove non‐relevant questions. After analysis, when additional information was needed, original study authors werecontacted. Finally, ten studies were included in the analysis.The instruction sessions covered many topics, such as catalog use, reading citations, awareness of library services and collections, basic searching of bibliographic databases, and more. But all could qualify as basic, rather than advanced, library instruction. All studies did pre‐ and posttests of students’ skills – some immediatelyafter instruction, and others with a time lapse of up to six weeks. Most authors created their own tests, though one adapted an existing scale. Individual performance improvement was not studied in many cases due to privacy concerns.Main Results ‐ Nine of the ten studies found CAI and face‐to‐face instruction equally effective; the tenth study found face to‐face instruction more effective. The students’ reaction to instruction methods varied – some students felt more satisfied with face‐to‐face instruction and felt that they learned better, while other studies found that students receiving CAI

  20. Using a pruned basis, a non-product quadrature grid, and the exact Watson normal-coordinate kinetic energy operator to solve the vibrational Schrödinger equation for C2H4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we propose and test a method for computing numerically exact vibrational energy levels of a molecule with six atoms. We use a pruned product basis, a non-product quadrature, the Lanczos algorithm, and the exact normal-coordinate kinetic energy operator (KEO) with the πtμπ term. The Lanczos algorithm is applied to a Hamiltonian with a KEO for which μ is evaluated at equilibrium. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors obtained from this calculation are used as a basis to obtain the final energy levels. The quadrature scheme is designed, so that integrals for the most important terms in the potential will be exact. The procedure is tested on C2H4. All 12 coordinates are treated explicitly. We need only ˜1.52 × 108 quadrature points. A product Gauss grid with which one could calculate the same energy levels has at least 5.67 × 1013 points.

  1. Pt(Ⅱ), Pd(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) Complexes Binding to the N(7) Position of Guanine: Influence on the Guanine and Watson-crick GC Base Pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章志强; 周立新; 和芹; 赵亚英

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive ab initio calculations were performed on the coordination of Pt(II), Pd(II) and Ni(II) adducts to the N(7) of guanine and guanine-cytosine (GC) base pair at the DFT level. The fully optimized geometries of the metal complexes were obtained and the stabilization energies of the interaction between metal adducts and nucleobase were calculated with B3LYP method by using 6-31* basis set for the light atom. While the effective core potential (ECP) is used for metal cation. The results show that both cispalladium and cisnickel cause similar geometric changes of the base pair as cisplatin. For the coordination of metal adducts to guanine, platinum adduct possesses the highest stabilization energy; but the interaction between metal-guanine and cytosine for nickel is larger than that for platinum and palladium. It is worthy to note that hydrolysis effect can also cause significant changes in H-bonds.

  2. Manufacturing Methods and Technology. Project Execution Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    CUMBUSTIUN AIR FUlk THE KLTENE FURNACE WAS PRJVEN. FINAL RPT BEING PRINTED. 5 8C 4281 A6 UNLULLED PRODUCER GAS FOR KETENE MANUFACTURE EQUIP *AS INSTALLED...Wil Watson Cdr, Naval Sea Systems Command, Attn: Mr. T. Draschil, Code SEA-05R23 . Cdr, Naval Weapons Ctr, Attn: Code 36404 Air Force: Cdr, Air

  3. Shape recognition of acoustic scatterers using the singularity expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pei; Wu, Jiu Hui

    2017-03-01

    Acoustic target recognition for two-dimensional (2D) acoustic scatterers is investigated using the singularity expansion method (SEM). Based on the Watson transformation series of the scattering field, the SEM poles can be calculated and their physical interpretation given, along with the exact normal mode for any acoustic scattering problem. Typical oscillatory phenomena appear as a series of damped sinusoidal signals in the time domain and as a standing-wave distribution in the space. These external oscillation modes are associated with the SEM poles. We note that the positions of these poles in the complex frequency plane are uniquely determined by the shape and flexible characteristics of the target regardless of the waveforms and positions of the incident signals. We then infer that SEM poles can be used as the characteristic parameters for target shape recognition. The relationship between the positions of SEM poles and the geometrical characters of 2D scatterers has been established not only for cylinders but also for other general 2D scatterers. The new method and the related calculation results provide an effective way to perform shape recognition using an acoustic scattering field, with potential applications in non-destructive testing and acoustic imaging.

  4. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  5. Discourses of Indiscipline: An Informal Hobbesian Riposte to Cate Watson

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Classroom battles are real and not a metaphor. Warfare is a historical and present fact of human life. Life really is a battle and conflict inevitable; injuries to the psyche are just as real as those to the body. Schools cannot step outside society. It is not Foucault but Thomas Hobbes who offers the most perceptive insight into human behaviour…

  6. Kate Watson on Reynold Humphries’ Hollywood’s Blacklists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reynold Humphries. Hollywood’s Blacklists: A Political and Cultural History. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008. Reynold Humphries’ Hollywood’s Blacklists provides a comprehensive examination of the historical and political ramifications of the blacklisting process and of Communism in the motion picture industry. His section on ‘The Background’ initially sets up just this, making the debate and dispute accessible even to those not au fait with such knowledge. This section is informat...

  7. Garri Potter povzroslel! / Daniel Radcliffe, Emma Watson ; interv. Stass Tõrkin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Radcliffe, Daniel, 1989-

    2005-01-01

    Peaosatäitja järjekorras neljandas Potteri ekraniseeringus "Harry Potter ja tulepeeker" endast, oma tegelaskuju arengust. Samas ka lühiintervjuu näitlejanna Emma Watsoniga. Režissöör Mike Newell : Suurbritannia-USA 2005

  8. Luminosity, My Dear Watson, Luminosity!-Or, Are Those Bloodstains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Barbara A.; Golestaneh, Kamran; Samson, Helene

    1999-01-01

    This version of the luminol demonstration illustrates the use of the luminol reaction as a presumptive test for bloodstains. The procedures developed for the demonstration are based on those used by forensic scientists. The high sensitivity of this test can be shown, since blood diluted 1:150 will cause visible luminescence in a darkened room. False-positive results are given by stains of solutions of the transition metal ions, Fe3+, Cu2+, and Co2+. This latter part of the demonstration illustrates the importance of confirmatory tests in qualitative chemical analyses. A two-reservoir spray bottle was constructed and used in this demonstration. This demonstration requires relatively small amounts of materials and therefore significantly reduces the amount of hazardous waste generated.

  9. Discourses of Indiscipline: An Informal Hobbesian Riposte to Cate Watson

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Classroom battles are real and not a metaphor. Warfare is a historical and present fact of human life. Life really is a battle and conflict inevitable; injuries to the psyche are just as real as those to the body. Schools cannot step outside society. It is not Foucault but Thomas Hobbes who offers the most perceptive insight into human behaviour…

  10. Watson, Skinner y Algunas Disputas dentro del Conductismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO PELLÓN SUÁREZ DE PUGA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the first centennial of the publication of the behaviorist manifesto, this article conducts a brief review of Watson’s (1913 conception of learning and behavior, and extends that analysis to B. F. Skinner’s behaviorism and to the debates among molar and molecular approaches to behavior analysis.

  11. "Elementar, Meu Caro Watson": Jô Soares Reinvents the Classics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Detective fiction--with its roots primarily in Europe and the United States--was slow to catch on in Brazil, where national authors did not attempt more than small forays into the genre for most of the twentieth century. This was due in large part to the particularities of Brazilian society, in which law enforcement agencies, rife with corruption,…

  12. Garri Potter povzroslel! / Daniel Radcliffe, Emma Watson ; interv. Stass Tõrkin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Radcliffe, Daniel, 1989-

    2005-01-01

    Peaosatäitja järjekorras neljandas Potteri ekraniseeringus "Harry Potter ja tulepeeker" endast, oma tegelaskuju arengust. Samas ka lühiintervjuu näitlejanna Emma Watsoniga. Režissöör Mike Newell : Suurbritannia-USA 2005

  13. Virus Structure: From Crick and Watson to a New Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    We conjecture that certain patterns (scars), theoretically and numerically predicted to be formed by electrons arranged on a sphere to minimize the repulsive Coulomb potential (the Thomson problem) and experimentally found in spherical crystals formed by self-assembled polystyrene beads (an instance of the generalized Thomson problem), could be relevant to extend the classic Caspar and Klug construction for icosahedrally-shaped virus capsids. The main idea is that scars could be produced at an intermediate stage of the assembly of the virus capsids and the release of the bending energy present in scars into stretching energy could allow for a variety of non-spherical capsids' shapes. The conjecture can be tested in experiments on the assembly of artificial protein-cages where these scars should appear.

  14. Watson, Skinner y Algunas Disputas dentro del Conductismo

    OpenAIRE

    RICARDO PELLÓN SUÁREZ DE PUGA

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the first centennial of the publication of the behaviorist manifesto, this article conducts a brief review of Watson’s (1913) conception of learning and behavior, and extends that analysis to B. F. Skinner’s behaviorism and to the debates among molar and molecular approaches to behavior analysis.

  15. Watson and Siri: The Rise of the BI Smart Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2015-03-01

    Over the past few years, the industry has seen significant evolution in the area of human computer interaction. The era of the smart machines is upon us, with automation taking on a more advanced role than ever before, permeating into areas that have traditionally only been fulfilled by human beings. This movement has the potential of fundamentally altering the way that business intelligence is executed across the industry and the role that business intelligence has in all aspects of decision making.

  16. A new computational method for the detection of horizontal gene transfer events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the increase in the amounts of available genomic data has made it easier to appreciate the extent by which organisms increase their genetic diversity through horizontally transferred genetic material. Such transfers have the potential to give rise to extremely dynamic genomes where a significant proportion of their coding DNA has been contributed by external sources. Because of the impact of these horizontal transfers on the ecological and pathogenic character of the recipient organisms, methods are continuously sought that are able to computationally determine which of the genes of a given genome are products of transfer events. In this paper, we introduce and discuss a novel computational method for identifying horizontal transfers that relies on a gene's nucleotide composition and obviates the need for knowledge of codon boundaries. In addition to being applicable to individual genes, the method can be easily extended to the case of clusters of horizontally transferred genes. With the help of an extensive and carefully designed set of experiments on 123 archaeal and bacterial genomes, we demonstrate that the new method exhibits significant improvement in sensitivity when compared to previously published approaches. In fact, it achieves an average relative improvement across genomes of between 11 and 41% compared to the Codon Adaptation Index method in distinguishing native from foreign genes. Our method's horizontal gene transfer predictions for 123 microbial genomes are available online at http://cbcsrv.watson.ibm.com/HGT/.

  17. Perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2008-01-01

    1. Introduction 1 2. Straightforward Expansions and Sources of Nonuniformity 23 3. The Method of Strained Coordinates 56 4. The Methods of Matched and Composite Asymptotic Expansions 110 5. Variation of Parameters and Methods of Averaging 159 6. The Method of Multiple Scales 228 7. Asymptotic Solutions of Linear Equations 308 References and Author Index 387 Subject Index 417

  18. Vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorin, A.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.

  19. Mining Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  20. Projection Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    1999-01-01

    When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...... methods as a way of handling these special problems. It is assumed that we have methods for solving normal ODE systems and index-1 systems....

  1. Computing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, I S

    1965-01-01

    Computing Methods, Volume 2 is a five-chapter text that presents the numerical methods of solving sets of several mathematical equations. This volume includes computation sets of linear algebraic equations, high degree equations and transcendental equations, numerical methods of finding eigenvalues, and approximate methods of solving ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations and integral equations.The book is intended as a text-book for students in mechanical mathematical and physics-mathematical faculties specializing in computer mathematics and persons interested in the

  2. Method 59

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, G.

    1994-01-01

    OCDE/GD(94)41. Er supplerende rapport til rapport: The OECD Workshop on Methods for Monitoring Organisms in the Environment, Ottawa 14-17 September 1992. Environment Monograph 90.......OCDE/GD(94)41. Er supplerende rapport til rapport: The OECD Workshop on Methods for Monitoring Organisms in the Environment, Ottawa 14-17 September 1992. Environment Monograph 90....

  3. Method Mixins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2005-01-01

    , where traditional invocation is optimized for as-is reuse of existing behavior. Tight coupling reduces flexibility, and traditional invocation tightly couples transfer of information and transfer of control. Method mixins decouple these two kinds of transfer, thereby opening the doors for new kinds......The world of programming has been conquered by the procedure call mechanism, including object-oriented method invocation which is a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior...

  4. Method Mixins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2002-01-01

    invocation is optimized for as-is reuse of existing behavior. Tight coupling reduces flexibility, and traditional invocation tightly couples transfer of information and transfer of control. Method mixins decouple these two kinds of transfer, thereby opening the doors for new kinds of abstraction and reuse......The procedure call mechanism has conquered the world of programming, with object-oriented method invocation being a procedure call in context of an object. This paper presents an alternative, method mixin invocations, that is optimized for flexible creation of composite behavior, where traditional...

  5. Dosimetry methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, A.; Kovacs, A.;

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application.......Chemical and physical radiation dosimetry methods, used for the measurement of absorbed dose mainly during the practical use of ionizing radiation, are discussed with respect to their characteristics and fields of application....

  6. Ensemble Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Matteo; Valentini, Giorgio

    2012-03-01

    Ensemble methods are statistical and computational learning procedures reminiscent of the human social learning behavior of seeking several opinions before making any crucial decision. The idea of combining the opinions of different "experts" to obtain an overall “ensemble” decision is rooted in our culture at least from the classical age of ancient Greece, and it has been formalized during the Enlightenment with the Condorcet Jury Theorem[45]), which proved that the judgment of a committee is superior to those of individuals, provided the individuals have reasonable competence. Ensembles are sets of learning machines that combine in some way their decisions, or their learning algorithms, or different views of data, or other specific characteristics to obtain more reliable and more accurate predictions in supervised and unsupervised learning problems [48,116]. A simple example is represented by the majority vote ensemble, by which the decisions of different learning machines are combined, and the class that receives the majority of “votes” (i.e., the class predicted by the majority of the learning machines) is the class predicted by the overall ensemble [158]. In the literature, a plethora of terms other than ensembles has been used, such as fusion, combination, aggregation, and committee, to indicate sets of learning machines that work together to solve a machine learning problem [19,40,56,66,99,108,123], but in this chapter we maintain the term ensemble in its widest meaning, in order to include the whole range of combination methods. Nowadays, ensemble methods represent one of the main current research lines in machine learning [48,116], and the interest of the research community on ensemble methods is witnessed by conferences and workshops specifically devoted to ensembles, first of all the multiple classifier systems (MCS) conference organized by Roli, Kittler, Windeatt, and other researchers of this area [14,62,85,149,173]. Several theories have been

  7. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Szulc, Stefan

    1965-01-01

    Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then

  8. Sieve methods

    CERN Document Server

    Halberstam, Heine

    2011-01-01

    Derived from the techniques of analytic number theory, sieve theory employs methods from mathematical analysis to solve number-theoretical problems. This text by a noted pair of experts is regarded as the definitive work on the subject. It formulates the general sieve problem, explores the theoretical background, and illustrates significant applications.""For years to come, Sieve Methods will be vital to those seeking to work in the subject, and also to those seeking to make applications,"" noted prominent mathematician Hugh Montgomery in his review of this volume for the Bulletin of the Ameri

  9. Spectral Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Jie; Wang, Li-Lian

    2011-01-01

    Along with finite differences and finite elements, spectral methods are one of the three main methodologies for solving partial differential equations on computers. This book provides a detailed presentation of basic spectral algorithms, as well as a systematical presentation of basic convergence theory and error analysis for spectral methods. Readers of this book will be exposed to a unified framework for designing and analyzing spectral algorithms for a variety of problems, including in particular high-order differential equations and problems in unbounded domains. The book contains a large

  10. Statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf J; Wilson, William J

    2010-01-01

    Statistical Methods, 3e provides students with a working introduction to statistical methods offering a wide range of applications that emphasize the quantitative skills useful across many academic disciplines. This text takes a classic approach emphasizing concepts and techniques for working out problems and intepreting results. The book includes research projects, real-world case studies, numerous examples and data exercises organized by level of difficulty. This text requires that a student be familiar with algebra. New to this edition: NEW expansion of exercises a

  11. A method to evaluate genome-wide methylation in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiling Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of DNA from archival formalin and paraffin embedded (FFPE tissue for genetic and epigenetic analyses may be problematic, since the DNA is often degraded and only limited amounts may be available. Thus, it is currently not known whether genome-wide methylation can be reliably assessed in DNA from archival FFPE tissue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ovarian tissues, which were obtained and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded in either 1999 or 2011, were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E.Epithelial cells were captured by laser micro dissection, and their DNA subjected to whole genomic bisulfite conversion, whole genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification, and purification. Sequencing and software analyses were performed to identify the extent of genomic methylation. We observed that 31.7% of sequence reads from the DNA in the 1999 archival FFPE tissue, and 70.6% of the reads from the 2011 sample, could be matched with the genome. Methylation rates of CpG on the Watson and Crick strands were 32.2% and 45.5%, respectively, in the 1999 sample, and 65.1% and 42.7% in the 2011 sample. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed an efficient method that allows DNA methylation to be assessed in archival FFPE tissue samples.

  12. Digital Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.

    2013-01-01

    In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals wi

  13. Characterization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Methods discussed in this compilation of notes and diagrams are Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and other surface analysis techniques (auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and scanning tunnelling microscopy). A comparative evaluation of different techniques is performed. In-vacuo and in-situ analyses are described.

  14. Radiofluorination method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A method of conducting radiofluorination of a substrate, comprising the steps of: (a) contacting an aqueous solution of [18F] fluoride with a polymer supported phosphazene base for sufficient time for trapping of [18F] fluoride on the polymer supported phosphazene base; and (b) contacting...

  15. Contraceptive Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Charlie W; Martin, Tonya S

    2017-02-01

    The prevention of pregnancy remains an important part of the practice of medicine. Contraception can occur at a number of points in the basic reproductive biological process and through a number of contraceptive product options. Pharmacists are health care providers appropriately positioned to assist patients in suitable contraceptive product selection based on their personal situations and lifestyles. This article provides an overview of available products for prevention of pregnancy and associated risks and benefits. Contraceptive products are categorized by their hormonal content and method of action. Hormonal options include oral contraceptive pills, contraceptive patch, implants, injection, intravaginal, and intrauterine devices. Barrier products prevent pregnancy by creating a physical obstacle to the successful fertilization of an egg by sperm. All products and methods are associated with benefits and potential complications that must be considered as patients, and health care providers select the most satisfactory option.

  16. Numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlquist, Germund

    2003-01-01

    ""Substantial, detailed and rigorous . . . readers for whom the book is intended are admirably served."" - MathSciNet (Mathematical Reviews on the Web), American Mathematical Society.Practical text strikes fine balance between students' requirements for theoretical treatment and needs of practitioners, with best methods for large- and small-scale computing. Prerequisites are minimal (calculus, linear algebra, and preferably some acquaintance with computer programming). Text includes many worked examples, problems, and an extensive bibliography.

  17. Species origin of genomic factors in Nicotiana nudicaulis Watson controlling hybrid lethality in interspecific hybrids between N. nudicaulis Watson and N. tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuo Liu

    Full Text Available Hybrid lethality is expressed at 28°C in the cross Nicotiana nudicaulis × N. tabacum. The S subgenome of N. tabacum has been identified as controlling this hybrid lethality. To clarify the responsible genomic factor(s of N. nudicaulis, we crossed N. trigonophylla (paternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis with N. tabacum, because hybrids between N. sylvestris (maternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis and N. tabacum are viable when grown in a greenhouse. In the cross N. trigonophylla×N. tabacum, approximately 50% of hybrids were vitrified, 20% were viable, and 20% were nonviable at 28°C. To reveal which subgenome of N. tabacum was responsible for these phenotypes, we crossed N. trigonophylla with two progenitors of N. tabacum, N. sylvestris (SS and N. tomentosiformis (TT. In the cross N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla, we confirmed that over half of hybrids of N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla were vitrified, and none of the hybrids of N. trigonophylla × N. tomentosiformis were. The results imply that the S subgenome, encoding a gene or genes inducing hybrid lethality in the cross between N. nudicaulis and N. tabacum, has one or more genomic factors that induce vitrification. Furthermore, in vitrified hybrids of N. trigonophylla × N. tabacum and N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla, we found that nuclear fragmentation, which progresses during expression of hybrid lethality, was accompanied by vitrification. This observation suggests that vitrification has a relationship to hybrid lethality. Based on these results, we speculate that when N. nudicaulis was formed approximately 5 million years ago, several causative genomic factors determining phenotypes of hybrid seedlings were inherited from N. trigonophylla. Subsequently, genome downsizing and various recombination-based processes took place. Some of the causative genomic factors were lost and some became genomic factor(s controlling hybrid lethality in extant N. nudicaulis.

  18. Species origin of genomic factors in Nicotiana nudicaulis Watson controlling hybrid lethality in interspecific hybrids between N. nudicaulis Watson and N. tabacum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongshuo; Marubashi, Wataru

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid lethality is expressed at 28°C in the cross Nicotiana nudicaulis × N. tabacum. The S subgenome of N. tabacum has been identified as controlling this hybrid lethality. To clarify the responsible genomic factor(s) of N. nudicaulis, we crossed N. trigonophylla (paternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis) with N. tabacum, because hybrids between N. sylvestris (maternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis) and N. tabacum are viable when grown in a greenhouse. In the cross N. trigonophylla×N. tabacum, approximately 50% of hybrids were vitrified, 20% were viable, and 20% were nonviable at 28°C. To reveal which subgenome of N. tabacum was responsible for these phenotypes, we crossed N. trigonophylla with two progenitors of N. tabacum, N. sylvestris (SS) and N. tomentosiformis (TT). In the cross N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla, we confirmed that over half of hybrids of N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla were vitrified, and none of the hybrids of N. trigonophylla × N. tomentosiformis were. The results imply that the S subgenome, encoding a gene or genes inducing hybrid lethality in the cross between N. nudicaulis and N. tabacum, has one or more genomic factors that induce vitrification. Furthermore, in vitrified hybrids of N. trigonophylla × N. tabacum and N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla, we found that nuclear fragmentation, which progresses during expression of hybrid lethality, was accompanied by vitrification. This observation suggests that vitrification has a relationship to hybrid lethality. Based on these results, we speculate that when N. nudicaulis was formed approximately 5 million years ago, several causative genomic factors determining phenotypes of hybrid seedlings were inherited from N. trigonophylla. Subsequently, genome downsizing and various recombination-based processes took place. Some of the causative genomic factors were lost and some became genomic factor(s) controlling hybrid lethality in extant N. nudicaulis.

  19. A sensitive, support-vector-machine method for the detection of horizontal gene transfers in viral, archaeal and bacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Rigoutsos, Isidore

    2005-01-01

    In earlier work, we introduced and discussed a generalized computational framework for identifying horizontal transfers. This framework relied on a gene's nucleotide composition, obviated the need for knowledge of codon boundaries and database searches, and was shown to perform very well across a wide range of archaeal and bacterial genomes when compared with previously published approaches, such as Codon Adaptation Index and C + G content. Nonetheless, two considerations remained outstanding: we wanted to further increase the sensitivity of detecting horizontal transfers and also to be able to apply the method to increasingly smaller genomes. In the discussion that follows, we present such a method, Wn-SVM, and show that it exhibits a very significant improvement in sensitivity compared with earlier approaches. Wn-SVM uses a one-class support-vector machine and can learn using rather small training sets. This property makes Wn-SVM particularly suitable for studying small-size genomes, similar to those of viruses, as well as the typically larger archaeal and bacterial genomes. We show experimentally that the new method results in a superior performance across a wide range of organisms and that it improves even upon our own earlier method by an average of 10% across all examined genomes. As a small-genome case study, we analyze the genome of the human cytomegalovirus and demonstrate that Wn-SVM correctly identifies regions that are known to be conserved and prototypical of all beta-herpesvirinae, regions that are known to have been acquired horizontally from the human host and, finally, regions that had not up to now been suspected to be horizontally transferred. Atypical region predictions for many eukaryotic viruses, including the alpha-, beta- and gamma-herpesvirinae, and 123 archaeal and bacterial genomes, have been made available online at http://cbcsrv.watson.ibm.com/HGT_SVM/.

  20. HuMiTar: A sequence-based method for prediction of human microRNA targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ke

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRs are small noncoding RNAs that bind to complementary/partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes to regulate protein production of the target transcript and to induce mRNA degradation or mRNA cleavage. The ability to perform accurate, high-throughput identification of physiologically active miR targets would enable functional characterization of individual miRs. Current target prediction methods include traditional approaches that are based on specific base-pairing rules in the miR's seed region and implementation of cross-species conservation of the target site, and machine learning (ML methods that explore patterns that contrast true and false miR-mRNA duplexes. However, in the case of the traditional methods research shows that some seed region matches that are conserved are false positives and that some of the experimentally validated target sites are not conserved. Results We present HuMiTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of miRs, which is based on a scoring function that considers base-pairing for both seed and non-seed positions for human miR-mRNA duplexes. Our design shows that certain non-seed miR nucleotides, such as 14, 18, 13, 11, and 17, are characterized by a strong bias towards formation of Watson-Crick pairing. We contrasted HuMiTar with several representative competing methods on two sets of human miR targets and a set of ten glioblastoma oncogenes. Comparison with the two best performing traditional methods, PicTar and TargetScanS, and a representative ML method that considers the non-seed positions, NBmiRTar, shows that HuMiTar predictions include majority of the predictions of the other three methods. At the same time, the proposed method is also capable of finding more true positive targets as a trade-off for an increased number of predictions. Genome-wide predictions show that the proposed method is characterized by 1.99 signal

  1. Development and testing of improved statistical wind power forecasting methods.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V.; Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, J. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

    2011-12-06

    (with spatial and/or temporal dependence). Statistical approaches to uncertainty forecasting basically consist of estimating the uncertainty based on observed forecasting errors. Quantile regression (QR) is currently a commonly used approach in uncertainty forecasting. In Chapter 3, we propose new statistical approaches to the uncertainty estimation problem by employing kernel density forecast (KDF) methods. We use two estimators in both offline and time-adaptive modes, namely, the Nadaraya-Watson (NW) and Quantilecopula (QC) estimators. We conduct detailed tests of the new approaches using QR as a benchmark. One of the major issues in wind power generation are sudden and large changes of wind power output over a short period of time, namely ramping events. In Chapter 4, we perform a comparative study of existing definitions and methodologies for ramp forecasting. We also introduce a new probabilistic method for ramp event detection. The method starts with a stochastic algorithm that generates wind power scenarios, which are passed through a high-pass filter for ramp detection and estimation of the likelihood of ramp events to happen. The report is organized as follows: Chapter 2 presents the results of the application of ITL training criteria to deterministic WPF; Chapter 3 reports the study on probabilistic WPF, including new contributions to wind power uncertainty forecasting; Chapter 4 presents a new method to predict and visualize ramp events, comparing it with state-of-the-art methodologies; Chapter 5 briefly summarizes the main findings and contributions of this report.

  2. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  3. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  4. 用标准影响世界--访ASHRAE主席Tom Watson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩敏; 李嵩

    2013-01-01

      2013年中国制冷展期间,拥有来自132个国家的约54000名会员的美国采暖、制冷和空调工程师学会ASHRAE主席,Tom Watson参加了由联合国环境规划署(UNEP)、中国制冷空调工业协会(CRAA)联合举办的臭氧气候工业圆桌会议。我们也借助此机会,对Watson进行了采访交流。与平时听Watson演讲不太一样,近距离的接触后,感觉其非常平易近人,与他的交谈也在非常轻松的氛围中展开。

  5. Tunnel conductance of Watson-Crick nucleoside-base pairs from telegraph noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Shuai; He Jin; Lin Lisha; Zhang Peiming; Liang Feng; Huang Shuo; Lindsay, Stuart [Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Young, Michael [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)], E-mail: Stuart.Lindsay@asu.edu

    2009-05-06

    The use of tunneling signals to sequence DNA is presently hampered by the small tunnel conductance of a junction spanning an entire DNA molecule. The design of a readout system that uses a shorter tunneling path requires knowledge of the absolute conductance across base pairs. We have exploited the stochastic switching of hydrogen-bonded DNA base-nucleoside pairs trapped in a tunnel junction to determine the conductance of individual molecular pairs. This conductance is found to be sensitive to the geometry of the junction, but a subset of the data appears to come from unstrained molecular pairs. The conductances determined from these pairs are within a factor of two of the predictions of density functional calculations. The experimental data reproduces the counterintuitive theoretical prediction that guanine-deoxycytidine pairs (3 H-bonds) have a smaller conductance than adenine-thymine pairs (2 H-bonds). A bimodal distribution of switching lifetimes shows that both H-bonds and molecule-metal contacts break.

  6. Finding Superman & Global Competitiveness: A Conversation with Arthur Levine & Watson Scott Swail. Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Arthur; Swail, Watson Scott

    2014-01-01

    On March 21 2013, the "Educational Policy Institute" held the first day of the EPI Forum on Education & the Economy in Orlando, Florida. The Forum was designed to discuss critical issues related to the nexus of education and the workforce. This document presents the transcribed session that featured two of the authors of the Teachers…

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AAVSO International Variable Star Index VSX (Watson+, 2006-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C.; Henden, A. A.; Price, A.

    2017-03-01

    This file contains Galactic stars known or suspected to be variable. It lists all stars that have an entry in the AAVSO International Variable Star Index (VSX; http://www.aavso.org/vsx). The database consisted initially of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS) and the New Catalogue of Suspected Variables (NSV) and was then supplemented with a large number of variable star catalogues, as well as individual variable star discoveries or variables found in the literature. Effort has also been invested to update the entries with the latest information regarding position, type and period and to remove duplicates. The VSX database is being continually updated and maintained. For historical reasons some objects outside of the Galaxy have been included. (3 data files).

  8. 78 FR 64016 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Watson Pharma, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... compliance with state and local laws; and a review of the company's background and history. Therefore... (9150) II The company plans to import the listed controlled substances for analytical testing and... ensure that the company's registration is consistent with the public interest. The investigation has...

  9. Nursing care provided to young people in two health centers compared with Watson Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Pichardo Meza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article has as objective to present the analysis of the care given by the nursing personnel to the young adult population in the Clinic of Pain Control and Palliative Care and in the Onco-hematology Service of the Max Peralta Hospital, related to Jean Watson’s theoretical proposal. The study corresponds to a joint research of parallel type with concurrent triangulation. The study populations were made up by twenty-six young adult people (who face morbid process health or chronic pain condition and four nursing professionals who worked in the Clinic of Pain Control and Palliative Care and in the Onco-hematology Service of the Max Peralta Hospital. A self-executed questionnaire and a semi-structured interview were used to collect the information, which was analyzed using the “SPSS” program and the qualitative categories, respectively. Results: The ten elements of the “Human Care Theory” can be included in the care given by the nursing personnel to the young adult population who faces morbid process health or chronic pain condition. The nursing care mainly focuses on the young adult population quality of life throughout education and pain management. The young adult population perceives a warm, pleasant and human nursing care. Conclusion: Nursing personnel put into practice elements of the Jean Watson’s theoretical proposal even when they do not know it.

  10. For an ethics of promising, or: a few kind words about James Watson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortun, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This essay questions some of the limits that both science studies and bioethics have assumed in their engagements with technoscience, and genomics in particular. It argues that these disciplines have privileged an "ethics of suspicion" regarding technoscience, and argues that this is ill-suited to promissory sciences such as genomics. The essay begins to develop elements of an "ethics of friendship" toward genomics, using examples from toxicogenomics and behavioral genetics, to suggest what an ethics of promising might involve.

  11. Scott's Lake Site/Santee Indian Mound/Fort Watson Human Remains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a generic dataset collected on human remains and funerary objects during Scott's Lake Site Excavation. Excavated by Dr. Leland G. Ferguson of SCIAA in 1973,...

  12. Contaminants in fish and birds of Watson Lake, Arizona 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A wood treatment facility located on Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe land near Prescott, Arizona released pentachlorophenol (PCP), arsenic, and chromium into the...

  13. [Sherlock Holmes, Watson and cocaine. A literary contribution to the history of drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouassier, E

    1994-01-01

    From 1887 to 1927, Conan Doyle devoted fifty-six short stories and four novels to the extraordinary investigations of Sherlock Holmes. Special passages from these works, gathered here in the form of long extracts, evoke the passion of the celebrated detective for cocaine and constitute rather generally an original sort of evidence on the emergence of drug addicts in Europe at the end of the 19th century.

  14. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, ...

  15. The clinical method and the scientific method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arteaga Herrera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the chapter dedicated to the scientific method and the clinical method in the authors’ Handbook “Teaching of Clinics”. Philosophycal principles of the scientific method and its stages are presented as well as the clinical method as a scientific one and its stages. A relationship between the clinical method and the medical record is established, the role of technology in the clinical method is stated and the most frequent mistakes when applying it in clinical practice are provided. Finally, the teaching of the clinical method and the appropriate settings to do it are discussed.

  16. An Inexact Halley's Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An inexact Halley's method-Halley-PCG(preconditioned conjugate gradient) method is proposed for solving the systems of linear equations for improved Halley method either by Cholesky factorization exactly or by preconditioned conjugate gradient method approximately. The convergence result is given and the efficiency of the method compared to the improved Halley's method is shown.

  17. Meshless Methods Coupled with Other Numerical Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.T.GU; G.R.LIU

    2005-01-01

    Meshless or mesh-free (or shorten as MFree) methods have been proposed and achieved remarkable progress over the past few years. The idea of combining MFree methods with other existing numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM), is naturally of great interest in many practical applications. However, the shape functions used in some MFree methods do not have the Kronecker delta function property. In order to satisfy the combined conditions of displacement compatibility, two numerical techniques, using the hybrid displacement shape function and the modified variational form, are developed and discussed in this paper. In the first technique, the original MFree shape functions are modified to the hybrid forms that possess the Kronecker delta function property. In the second technique, the displacement compatibility is satisfied via a modified variational form based on the Lagrange multiplier method. Formulations of several coupled methods are presented. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present coupling methods.

  18. From Method to Post Method: A Panacea!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masouleh, Nima Shakouri

    2012-01-01

    The foundation of language teaching has undergone many changes. The rise and fall of language teaching methods depends upon a variety of factors extrinsic to a method itself and often reflects the influence of profit-seekers and promoters, as well as the forces of the intellectual marketplace. There was always a source of contention among people…

  19. The Multidimensional WKB Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Stephen K.; Noid, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a new method for determining the eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation when the potential energy function does not have a simple form. Describes the mathematical methods and provides an application. Lists limitations to the method. (MVL)

  20. ANALYSIS OF MULTISCALE METHODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-nan E; Ping-bing Ming

    2004-01-01

    The heterogeneous multiscale method gives a general framework for the analysis of multiscale methods. In this paper, we demonstrate this by applying this framework to two canonical problems: The elliptic problem with multiscale coefficients and the quasicontinuum method.

  1. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...

  2. Simplifications of CQC method and CCQC method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ruifang; Zhou Xiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The response-spectrum mode superposition method is widely used for seismic response analyses of linear systems. In using this method, the complete quadratic combination (CQC) is adopted for classically damped linear systems and the complex complete quadratic combination (CCQC) formula is adopted for non-classically damped linear systems.However, in both cases, the calculation of seismic response analyses is very time consuming. In this paper, the variation of the modal correlation coefficients of displacement, velocity and displacement-velocity with frequency and damping ratios of two modes of interest are studied, Moreover, the calculation errors generated by using CQC and square-root-of-the-sum-of-the-squares (SRSS) methods (or CCQC and CSRSS methods) for different damping combinations are compared. In these analyses,some boundary lines for classically and non-classically damped systems are plotted to distinguish the allowed minimum frequency ratio at given geometric mean of the damping ratios of both modes if their relativity is neglected. Furthermore,the simplified method, which is a special mode quadratic combination method considering only relativity of adjacent modes in CQC method and named simplified CQC or partial quadratic combination (PQC) method for classically damped linear system, is proposed to improve computational efficiency, and the criterion for determination of how many correlated modes should be adopted is proposed. Similarly, the simplified CCQC or complex partial quadratic combination (CPQC) method for the non-classically damped linear system and the corresponding criterion are also deduced. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the applicability, computational accuracy and efficiency of the PQC and CPQC methods.

  3. Simulations using meshfree methods

    CERN Document Server

    P, Kirana Kumara

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, attempt is made to solve a few problems using the Polynomial Point Collocation Method (PPCM), the Radial Point Collocation Method (RPCM), Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), and the Finite Point Method (FPM). A few observations on the accuracy of these methods are recorded. All the simulations in this paper are three dimensional linear elastostatic simulations, without accounting for body forces.

  4. Numerical Methods for Multilattices

    CERN Document Server

    Abdulle, Assyr; Shapeev, Alexander V

    2011-01-01

    Among the efficient numerical methods based on atomistic models, the quasicontinuum (QC) method has attracted growing interest in recent years. The QC method was first developed for crystalline materials with Bravais lattice and was later extended to multilattices (Tadmor et al, 1999). Another existing numerical approach to modeling multilattices is homogenization. In the present paper we review the existing numerical methods for multilattices and propose another concurrent macro-to-micro method in the homogenization framework. We give a unified mathematical formulation of the new and the existing methods and show their equivalence. We then consider extensions of the proposed method to time-dependent problems and to random materials.

  5. Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes–LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.

  6. Advanced differential quadrature methods

    CERN Document Server

    Zong, Zhi

    2009-01-01

    Modern Tools to Perform Numerical DifferentiationThe original direct differential quadrature (DQ) method has been known to fail for problems with strong nonlinearity and material discontinuity as well as for problems involving singularity, irregularity, and multiple scales. But now researchers in applied mathematics, computational mechanics, and engineering have developed a range of innovative DQ-based methods to overcome these shortcomings. Advanced Differential Quadrature Methods explores new DQ methods and uses these methods to solve problems beyond the capabilities of the direct DQ method.After a basic introduction to the direct DQ method, the book presents a number of DQ methods, including complex DQ, triangular DQ, multi-scale DQ, variable order DQ, multi-domain DQ, and localized DQ. It also provides a mathematical compendium that summarizes Gauss elimination, the Runge-Kutta method, complex analysis, and more. The final chapter contains three codes written in the FORTRAN language, enabling readers to q...

  7. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation......This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  8. Quality Control Analytical Methods: Method Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Mark G; Williams, LaVonn A

    2016-01-01

    To properly determine the accuracy of a pharmaceutical product or compounded preparation, tests must be designed specifically for that evaluation. The procedures selected must be verified through a process referred to as method validation, an integral part of any good analytical practice. The results from a method validation procedure can be used to judge the quality, reliability, and consistency of analytical results. The purpose of this article is to deliver the message of the importance of validation of a pharmaceutical product or compounded preparation and to briefly discuss the results of a lack of such validation. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  9. Applied Bayesian Hierarchical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Congdon, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods facilitate the analysis of complex models and data structures. Emphasizing data applications, alternative modeling specifications, and computer implementation, this book provides a practical overview of methods for Bayesian analysis of hierarchical models.

  10. Dissolution Methods Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  11. Dissolution Methods Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  12. Simulated floating zone method

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Ryo; Kato, Yasuyuki; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides the simulated floating zone (SFZ) method that is an efficient simulation technique to obtain thermal equilibrium states, especially useful when domain formation prevents the system from reaching a spatially-uniform stable state. In the SFZ method, the system is heated up locally, and the heated region is steadily shifted, similar to the floating zone method for growing a single crystal with less lattice defect and impurity in experiments. We demonstrate that the SFZ method...

  13. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  14. Geobacteraceae strains and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R.; Nevin, Kelly P.; Yi, Hana

    2015-07-07

    Embodiments of the present invention provide a method of producing genetically modified strains of electricigenic microbes that are specifically adapted for the production of electrical current in microbial fuel cells, as well as strains produced by such methods and fuel cells using such strains. In preferred embodiments, the present invention provides genetically modified strains of Geobacter sulfurreducens and methods of using such strains.

  15. Numerical methods using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Numerical Methods with MATLAB provides a highly-practical reference work to assist anyone working with numerical methods. A wide range of techniques are introduced, their merits discussed and fully working MATLAB code samples supplied to demonstrate how they can be coded and applied. Numerical methods have wide applicability across many scientific, mathematical, and engineering disciplines and are most often employed in situations where working out an exact answer to the problem by another method is impractical. Numerical Methods with MATLAB presents each topic in a concise and readable

  16. The Generalized Sturmian Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2011-01-01

    generations of researchers were left to work out how to achieve this ambitious goal for molecular systems of ever-increasing size. This book focuses on non-mainstream methods to solve the molecular electronic Schrödinger equation. Each method is based on a set of core ideas and this volume aims to explain...... these ideas clearly so that they become more accessible. By bringing together these non-standard methods, the book intends to inspire graduate students, postdoctoral researchers and academics to think of novel approaches. Is there a method out there that we have not thought of yet? Can we design a new method...

  17. Mimetic discretization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Jose E

    2013-01-01

    To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and

  18. Methods for assessing geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The accepted systematics of geodiversity assessment methods will be presented in three categories: qualitative, quantitative and qualitative-quantitative. Qualitative methods are usually descriptive methods that are suited to nominal and ordinal data. Quantitative methods use a different set of parameters and indicators to determine the characteristics of geodiversity in the area being researched. Qualitative-quantitative methods are a good combination of the collection of quantitative data (i.e. digital) and cause-effect data (i.e. relational and explanatory). It seems that at the current stage of the development of geodiversity research methods, qualitative-quantitative methods are the most advanced and best assess the geodiversity of the study area. Their particular advantage is the integration of data from different sources and with different substantive content. Among the distinguishing features of the quantitative and qualitative-quantitative methods for assessing geodiversity are their wide use within geographic information systems, both at the stage of data collection and data integration, as well as numerical processing and their presentation. The unresolved problem for these methods, however, is the possibility of their validation. It seems that currently the best method of validation is direct filed confrontation. Looking to the next few years, the development of qualitative-quantitative methods connected with cognitive issues should be expected, oriented towards ontology and the Semantic Web.

  19. Design Methods in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2010-01-01

    The paper challenges the dominant and widespread view that a good design method will guarantee a systematic approach as well as certain results. First, it explores the substantial differences between on the one hand the conception of methods implied in Pahl & Beitz’s widely recognized text book...... subject to change; The goals of methods are less stable than assumed. The paper finally suggests that ethnomethodology and similar approaches direct our attention to the fact that method use is always a situated and socially interactive affair. It is crucial to attend to these dimensions of method use...... on engineering design, and on the other hand the understanding of method use, which has emerged from micro-sociological studies of practice (ethnomethodology). Second, it reviews a number of case studies conducted by engineering students, who were instructed to investigate the actual use of design methods...

  20. Consensus theoretic classification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benediktsson, Jon A.; Swain, Philip H.

    1992-01-01

    Consensus theory is adopted as a means of classifying geographic data from multiple sources. The foundations and usefulness of different consensus theoretic methods are discussed in conjunction with pattern recognition. Weight selections for different data sources are considered and modeling of non-Gaussian data is investigated. The application of consensus theory in pattern recognition is tested on two data sets: 1) multisource remote sensing and geographic data and 2) very-high-dimensional remote sensing data. The results obtained using consensus theoretic methods are found to compare favorably with those obtained using well-known pattern recognition methods. The consensus theoretic methods can be applied in cases where the Gaussian maximum likelihood method cannot. Also, the consensus theoretic methods are computationally less demanding than the Gaussian maximum likelihood method and provide a means for weighting data sources differently.

  1. Methods of Software Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Gurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problem of software verification (SW. Methods of software verification designed to check the software for compliance with the stated requirements such as correctness, system security and system adaptability to small changes in the environment, portability and compatibility, etc. These are various methods both by the operation process and by the way of achieving result. The article describes the static and dynamic methods of software verification and paid attention to the method of symbolic execution. In its review of static analysis are discussed and described the deductive method, and methods for testing the model. A relevant issue of the pros and cons of a particular method is emphasized. The article considers classification of test techniques for each method. In this paper we present and analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of the static analysis of dependencies, as well as their views, which can reduce the number of false positives in situations where the current state of the program combines two or more states obtained both in different paths of execution and in working with multiple object values. Dependences connect various types of software objects: single variables, the elements of composite variables (structure fields, array elements, the size of the heap areas, the length of lines, the number of initialized array elements in the verification code using static methods. The article pays attention to the identification of dependencies within the framework of the abstract interpretation, as well as gives an overview and analysis of the inference tools.Methods of dynamic analysis such as testing, monitoring and profiling are presented and analyzed. Also some kinds of tools are considered which can be applied to the software when using the methods of dynamic analysis. Based on the work a conclusion is drawn, which describes the most relevant problems of analysis techniques, methods of their solutions and

  2. Performative Schizoid Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    A performative schizoid method is developed as a method contribution to performance as research. The method is inspired by contemporary research in the human and social sciences urging experimentation and researcher engagement with creative and artistic practice. In the article, the method...... is presented and an example is provided of a first exploratory engagement with it. The method is used in a specific project Becoming Iris, making inquiry into arts-based knowledge creation during a three month visiting scholarship at a small, independent visual art academy. Using the performative schizoid...... method in Becoming Iris results in four audio-visual and performance-based productions, centered on an emergent theme of the scholartist as a bird in borrowed feathers. Interestingly, the moral lesson of the fable about the vain jackdaw, who dresses in borrowed peacock feathers and becomes a castout...

  3. Exoplanet Detection Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews various methods of detecting planetary companions to stars from an observational perspective, focusing on radial velocities, astrometry, direct imaging, transits, and gravitational microlensing. For each method, this chapter first derives or summarizes the basic observable phenomena that are used to infer the ex- istence of planetary companions, as well as the physical properties of the planets and host stars that can be derived from the measurement of these signals. This chapter then outlines the general experimental requirements to robustly detect the signals us- ing each method, by comparing their magnitude to the typical sources of measurement uncertainty. This chapter goes on to compare the various methods to each other by outlining the regions of planet and host star parameter space where each method is most sensitive, stressing the complementarity of the ensemble of the methods at our disposal. Finally, there is a brief review of the history of the young exoplanet field, from the f...

  4. Phenomenographic Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem ÇEKMEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenography, an approach to educational research, emerged from the studies carried out by Ference Marton and his colleagues at the University of Göteborg, Sweden, in the early 1970s. Phenomenography is the empirical study of the different ways in which people experience, perceive, apprehend, understand, conceptualize various phenomena in the world around them. Not only this method has been used much in educational researches in Turkey, but also the books about research methods do not provide detailed information about this method in details. This study explains the aim, characteristics, historical background and how to ensure the generalization, validity and reliability of phenomenographic research outcomes, besides mentions to the studies in which phenomenographic research method was used. In addition, the differences and similarities between this method and methods similar to phenomenology are explained.

  5. The Schwinger Variational Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.

    1995-01-01

    Variational methods have proven invaluable in theoretical physics and chemistry, both for bound state problems and for the study of collision phenomena. For collisional problems they can be grouped into two types: those based on the Schroedinger equation and those based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. The application of the Schwinger variational (SV) method to e-molecule collisions and photoionization has been reviewed previously. The present chapter discusses the implementation of the SV method as applied to e-molecule collisions.

  6. Applied iterative methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hageman, Louis A

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text examines the practical use of iterative methods in solving large, sparse systems of linear algebraic equations and in resolving multidimensional boundary-value problems. Assuming minimal mathematical background, it profiles the relative merits of several general iterative procedures. Topics include polynomial acceleration of basic iterative methods, Chebyshev and conjugate gradient acceleration procedures applicable to partitioning the linear system into a "red/black" block form, adaptive computational algorithms for the successive overrelaxation (SOR) method, and comp

  7. Well testing: interpretation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdarot, G. [Elf Aquitaine, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    1998-12-31

    This book presents the different methods to use for interpreting well tests: conventional methods, type curves, derivative, according to the type of reservoir limits (faults, channels, secant faults, constant pressure limits, closed reservoir) and the well configuration (partial penetration, inclined, fractured, horizontal or injection well). It indicates the method to be used in the case of more complex reservoirs (fissured reservoirs, two-layered reservoirs), interference tests or pulse tests and when fluid produced is gas or polyphasic. (authors) 60 refs.

  8. Well testing: interpretation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdarot, G. (Elf Aquitaine, 92 - Courbevoie (France))

    1998-01-01

    This book presents the different methods to use for interpreting well tests: conventional methods, type curves, derivative, according to the type of reservoir limits (faults, channels, secant faults, constant pressure limits, closed reservoir) and the well configuration (partial penetration, inclined, fractured, horizontal or injection well). It indicates the method to be used in the case of more complex reservoirs (fissured reservoirs, two-layered reservoirs), interference tests or pulse tests and when fluid produced is gas or polyphasic. (authors) 60 refs.

  9. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  10. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  11. Methods of inventory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, C; Mackowiak, J

    1985-01-01

    Various methods for controlling inventory are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The open-to-buy (OTB) budget method limits purchases to a specific amount of funds available for purchasing pharmaceuticals during a specified period. The emphasis of the OTB method is financial control of the pharmacy inventory. Although it is useful in monitoring and adjusting the dollar value of the inventory, it should be combined with other methods for a total inventory control system. The primary emphasis of the short-list method is to provide accurate and timely inventory information to the person responsible for order placement. The short list identifies the items that are in short supply. It is the most common feedback and control mechanism in use, but it is best suited for settings where duplicate or reserve stock is maintained and monitored by more rigorous methods. The main objective of the minimum and maximum method is to determine when and how much to order of each item. It also provides limited dollar control. The major disadvantage of this method is the time it requires to establish the minimum and maximum levels and to update them regularly to reflect changes in demand. The stock record card method is used to record information on the movement of goods in and out of the storage area. Stock cards can also be used to monitor inventory levels and facilitate order initiation. It is probably the optimum method to be used alone. The most effective system of inventory control is one employing a combination of these methods tailored to meet the institution's needs and available resources.

  12. Methods for data classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, George; Lilburn, Timothy G.

    2011-10-11

    The present invention provides methods for classifying data and uncovering and correcting annotation errors. In particular, the present invention provides a self-organizing, self-correcting algorithm for use in classifying data. Additionally, the present invention provides a method for classifying biological taxa.

  13. DISCOURSE ON METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOUCHER, JOHN G.

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT BEFORE PRESENT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS CAN BE DISCUSSED INTELLIGENTLY, THE RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS WHICH HAS INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE METHODS MUST BE CONSIDERED. MANY FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS WERE BEGINNING TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH THE AUDIOLINGUAL APPROACH WHEN NOAM CHOMSKY, IN HIS 1966…

  14. Noise-Measuring Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....

  15. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  16. Soybean allergen detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  17. The Method of Archimedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grande, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the method that Archimedes utilized to calculate the volumes of spheres and other solids. The method found the volume of a sphere by comparing the mass of parallel slices of a sphere and a cone with that of a cylinder of known mass. (MDH)

  18. Research Methods in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  19. METHOD FOR MAKING CHEESE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for making Cheddar type and Continental type cheese with an adjunct culture comprising a Lactobacillus helveticus strain.......The present invention relates to a method for making Cheddar type and Continental type cheese with an adjunct culture comprising a Lactobacillus helveticus strain....

  20. Improved nonlinear prediction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

    2014-06-01

    The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

  1. Data center cooling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Dang, Hien P.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-08-11

    A method aspect for removing heat from a data center may use liquid coolant cooled without vapor compression refrigeration on a liquid cooled information technology equipment rack. The method may also include regulating liquid coolant flow to the data center through a range of liquid coolant flow values with a controller-apparatus based upon information technology equipment temperature threshold of the data center.

  2. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q

  3. Research Methods in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  4. METHODS OF MAGNETOTELLURIC ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetotelluric prospecting is a method of geophysical exploration that makes use of the fluctuations in the natural electric and magnetic fields...function of the conductivity structure of the earth’s substrata. This report describes some new methods for analyzing and interpreting magnetotelluric

  5. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and 267 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 2nd edition: • Illustrates the high-resolution methods for ultrashort-living protei...

  6. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  7. Fast Distributed Gradient Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jakovetic, Dusan; Moura, Jose M F

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes new fast distributed optimization gradient methods and proves convergence to the exact solution at rate O(\\log k/k), much faster than existing distributed optimization (sub)gradient methods with convergence O(1/\\sqrt{k}), while incurring practically no additional communication nor computation cost overhead per iteration. We achieve this for convex (with at least one strongly convex,) coercive, three times differentiable and with Lipschitz continuous first derivative (private) cost functions. Our work recovers for distributed optimization similar convergence rate gains obtained by centralized Nesterov gradient and fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) methods over ordinary centralized gradient methods. We also present a constant step size distributed fast gradient algorithm for composite non-differentiable costs. A simulation illustrates the effectiveness of our distributed methods.

  8. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette;

    2008-01-01

    research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development......The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...

  9. Engaging with mobile methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2014-01-01

    This chapter showcases how mobile methods are more than calibrated techniques awaiting application by tourism researchers, but productive in the enactment of the mobile (Law and Urry, 2004). Drawing upon recent findings deriving from a PhD course on mobility and mobile methods it reveals...... the conceptual ambiguousness of the term ‘mobile methods’. In order to explore this ambiguousness the chapter provides a number of examples deriving from tourism research, to explore how mobile methods are always entangled in ideologies, predispositions, conventions and practice-realities. Accordingly......, the engagements with methods are acknowledged to be always political and contextual, reminding us to avoid essentialist discussions regarding research methods. Finally, the chapter draws on recent fieldwork to extend developments in mobilities-oriented tourism research, by employing auto-ethnography to call...

  10. Methods for age estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sümeyra Demirkıran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concept of age estimation plays an important role on both civil law and regulation of criminal behaviors. In forensic medicine, age estimation is practiced for individual requests as well for request of the court. In this study it is aimed to compile the methods of age estimation and to make recommendations for the solution of the problems encountered. In radiological method the epiphyseal lines of the bones and views of the teeth are used. In order to estimate the age by comparing bone radiographs; Greulich-Pyle Atlas (GPA, Tanner-Whitehouse Atlas (TWA and “Adli Tıpta Yaş Tayini (ATYT” books are used. Bone age is found to be 2 years older averagely than chronologic age, especially in puberty, according to the forensic age estimations described in the ATYT book. For the age estimation with teeth, Demirjian method is used. In time different methods are developed by modifying Demirjian method. However no accurate method was found. Histopathological studies are done on bone marrow cellularity and dermis cells. No correlation was found between histopathoogical findings and choronologic age. Important ethical and legal issues are brought with current age estimation methods especially in teenage period. Therefore it is required to prepare atlases of bone age compatible with our society by collecting the findings of the studies in Turkey. Another recommendation could be to pay attention to the courts of age raising trials of teenage women and give special emphasis on birth and population records

  11. Fretting fatigue characteristics of fiber metal laminates analyzed by using strain energy density method%用应变能密度法分析纤维金属层板的微动疲劳特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    平学成; 朱增辉; 吴卫星; 李烽

    2016-01-01

    为研究纤维金属层板的微动疲劳特性,首先,基于三维坐标系下的临界平面法求解了纤维金属层板铝层临界平面上的应力和应变分量,并进一步求解了 Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT)和 I 型 Nita-Ogatta-Kuwabara (NOK)应变能密度参数;然后,建立了应变能密度参数-微动疲劳寿命关系式,并通过实验数据得到了寿命预测公式中的待定参数;最后,采用I型NOK应变能密度准则分析了铝层厚度、纤维层厚度、各层相对厚度和桥足圆角半径等对微动疲劳损伤位置和寿命的影响,并为纤维金属层板抗微动疲劳设计提出了一些合理化建议。结果表明:增加铝层厚度可以延长微动疲劳寿命,但增加纤维层厚度和桥足圆角半径不会改善微动疲劳特性。提出的方法可为分析纤维金属层板铆接和螺栓连接中的微动疲劳问题提供理论依据。%In order to study the fretting fatigue characteristics of fiber metal laminates,stress and strain compo-nents on critical plane of aluminum layer for the fiber metal laminates were solved firstly based on critical plane method in three-dimensional coordinate system,and Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT)as well as Mode I Nita-Ogatta-Kuwabara (NOK)strain energy density parameters were solved further.Then,the relational expression of strain energy density parameter-fretting fatigue life was established,and the undetermined parameters in life prediction ex-pression were obtained through experiment data.Finally,the effects of aluminum layer thickness,fiber layer thick-ness,relative thickness of each layer and the round radius of bridge feet on fretting fatigue damage position and life were analyzed using Mode I NOK strain energy density criteria,and some rationalization advices were proposed for fretting fatigue resistance design of fiber metal laminates.The results show that by increasing the aluminium layer thickness,the fretting fatigue life can be improved

  12. STATISTICAL METHODS IN HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have given a critical analysis of statistical models and methods for processing text information in historical records to establish the times when there were certain events, ie, to build science-based chronology. There are three main kinds of sources of knowledge of ancient history: ancient texts, the remains of material culture and traditions. The specific date of the extracted by archaeologists objects in most cases can not be found. The group of Academician A.T. Fomenko has developed and applied new statistical methods for analysis of historical texts (Chronicle, based on the intensive use of computer technology. Two major scientific results were: the majority of historical records that we know now, are duplicated (in particular, chronicles, describing the so-called "Ancient Rome" and "Middle Ages", talking about the same events; the known historical chronicles tell us about real events, separated from the present time for not more than 1000 years. It was found that chronicles describing the history of "ancient times" and "Middle Ages" and the chronicle of Chinese history and the history of various European countries do not talk about different, but about the same events. We have the attempt of a new dating of historical events and restoring the true history of human society based on new data. From the standpoint of statistical methods of historical records and images of their fragments – they are special cases of non-numeric objects of nature. Therefore, developed by the group of A.T. Fomenko computer-statistical methods are the part of non-numerical statistics. We have considered some methods of statistical analysis of chronicles applied by the group of A.T. Fomenko: correlation method of maximums; dynasties method; the method of attenuation frequency; questionnaire method codes. New chronology allows us to understand much of the battle of ideas in modern science and mass consciousness. It becomes clear the root cause of cautious

  13. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...... description of this momentum flow. The Prescribed Velocity Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points close to the opening and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  14. Methods in mummy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as minima......Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well...... as minimally-destructive chemical, physical and biological methods for, e.g., stable isotopes, trace metals and DNA....

  15. Modern diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mittemeijer, E J

    2013-01-01

    The role of diffraction methods for the solid-state sciences has been pivotal to determining the (micro)structure of a material. Particularly, the expanding activities in materials science have led to the development of new methods for analysis by diffraction. This book offers an authoritative overview of the new developments in the field of analysis of matter by (in particular X-ray, electron and neutron) diffraction. It is composed of chapters written by leading experts on 'modern diffraction methods'. The focus in the various chapters of this book is on the current forefront of research on

  16. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Jayaraman, Arul

    2009-01-01

    This volume provides a detailed look at the two main aspects of systems biology: the design of sophisticated experimental methods and the development of complex models to analyze the data. Focusing on methods that are being used to solve current problems in biomedical science and engineering, this comprehensive, richly illustrated resource shows you how to design of state-of-the art methods for analyzing biological systems, implement experimental approaches for investigating cellular behavior in health and disease, use algorithms and modeling techniques for quantitatively describing biomedical

  17. Montessori Method and ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Drigas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article bridges the gap between the Montessori Method and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in contemporary education. It reviews recent research works which recall the Montessori philosophy, principles and didactical tools applying to today’s computers and supporting technologies in children’s learning process. This article reviews how important the stimulation of human senses in the learning process is, as well as the development of Montessori materials using the body and the hand in particular, all according to the Montessori Method along with recent researches over ICTs. Montessori Method within information society age acquires new perspectives, new functionality and new efficacy.

  18. Numerical methods using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Lindfield, George

    2012-01-01

    Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use

  19. Methods of flash sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.

  20. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature......The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...

  1. Generalized subspace correction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolm, P. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Arbenz, P.; Gander, W. [Eidgenoessiche Technische Hochschule, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    A fundamental problem in scientific computing is the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Often these systems arise from the discretization of differential equations by finite difference, finite volume or finite element methods. Iterative methods exploiting these sparse structures have proven to be very effective on conventional computers for a wide area of applications. Due to the rapid development and increasing demand for the large computing powers of parallel computers, it has become important to design iterative methods specialized for these new architectures.

  2. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve better prediction accuracy than any of the individual models could on their own. The basic goal when designing an ensemble is the same as when establishing a committee of people: each member of the committee should be as competent as possible, but the members should be complementary to one another. If the members are not complementary, Le., if they always agree, then the committee is unnecessary---any one member is sufficient. If the members are complementary, then when one or a few members make an error, the probability is high that the remaining members can correct this error. Research in ensemble methods has largely revolved around designing ensembles consisting of competent yet complementary models.

  3. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

    2004-04-09

    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  4. Methods for cellobiosan utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linger, Jeffrey; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2017-07-11

    Disclosed herein are enzymes useful for the degradation of cellobiosan in materials such a pyrolysis oils. Methods of degrading cellobiosan using enzymes or organisms expressing the same are also disclosed.

  5. Compressive Spectral Renormalization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a novel numerical scheme for finding the sparse self-localized states of a nonlinear system of equations with missing spectral data is introduced. As in the Petviashivili's and the spectral renormalization method, the governing equation is transformed into Fourier domain, but the iterations are performed for far fewer number of spectral components (M) than classical versions of the these methods with higher number of spectral components (N). After the converge criteria is achieved for M components, N component signal is reconstructed from M components by using the l1 minimization technique of the compressive sampling. This method can be named as compressive spectral renormalization (CSRM) method. The main advantage of the CSRM is that, it is capable of finding the sparse self-localized states of the evolution equation(s) with many spectral data missing.

  6. Iii. Sleep assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon that could be understood and assessed at many levels. Sleep could be described at the behavioral level (relative lack of movements and awareness and responsiveness) and at the brain level (based on EEG activity). Sleep could be characterized by its duration, by its distribution during the 24-hr day period, and by its quality (e.g., consolidated versus fragmented). Different methods have been developed to assess various aspects of sleep. This chapter covers the most established and common methods used to assess sleep in infants and children. These methods include polysomnography, videosomnography, actigraphy, direct observations, sleep diaries, and questionnaires. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are highlighted.

  7. Stochastic optimization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Marti, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    Optimization problems arising in practice involve random parameters. For the computation of robust optimal solutions, i.e., optimal solutions being insensitive with respect to random parameter variations, deterministic substitute problems are needed. Based on the distribution of the random data, and using decision theoretical concepts, optimization problems under stochastic uncertainty are converted into deterministic substitute problems. Due to the occurring probabilities and expectations, approximative solution techniques must be applied. Deterministic and stochastic approximation methods and their analytical properties are provided: Taylor expansion, regression and response surface methods, probability inequalities, First Order Reliability Methods, convex approximation/deterministic descent directions/efficient points, stochastic approximation methods, differentiation of probability and mean value functions. Convergence results of the resulting iterative solution procedures are given.

  8. Methods for euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Byer, Owen; Smeltzer, Deirdre L

    2010-01-01

    Euclidean plane geometry is one of the oldest and most beautiful topics in mathematics. Instead of carefully building geometries from axiom sets, this book uses a wealth of methods to solve problems in Euclidean geometry. Many of these methods arose where existing techniques proved inadequate. In several cases, the new ideas used in solving specific problems later developed into independent areas of mathematics. This book is primarily a geometry textbook, but studying geometry in this way will also develop students' appreciation of the subject and of mathematics as a whole. For instance, despite the fact that the analytic method has been part of mathematics for four centuries, it is rarely a tool a student considers using when faced with a geometry problem. Methods for Euclidean Geometry explores the application of a broad range of mathematical topics to the solution of Euclidean problems.

  9. Methods in Modern Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Nölting, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating recent dramatic advances, this textbook presents a fresh and timely introduction to modern biophysical methods. An array of new, faster and higher-power biophysical methods now enables scientists to examine the mysteries of life at a molecular level. This innovative text surveys and explains the ten key biophysical methods, including those related to biophysical nanotechnology, scanning probe microscopy, X-ray crystallography, ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, proteomics, and protein folding and structure. Incorporating much information previously unavailable in tutorial form, Nölting employs worked examples and about 270 illustrations to fully detail the techniques and their underlying mechanisms. Methods in Modern Biophysics is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, postdocs, researchers, lecturers, and professors in biophysics, biochemistry and related fields. Special features in the 3rd edition: Introduces rapid partial protein ladder sequencing - an important...

  10. Concrete compositions and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua

    2015-06-23

    Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.

  11. Monte Carlo methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bardenet, R.

    2012-01-01

    ISBN:978-2-7598-1032-1; International audience; Bayesian inference often requires integrating some function with respect to a posterior distribution. Monte Carlo methods are sampling algorithms that allow to compute these integrals numerically when they are not analytically tractable. We review here the basic principles and the most common Monte Carlo algorithms, among which rejection sampling, importance sampling and Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) methods. We give intuition on the theoretic...

  12. Business forecasting methods

    OpenAIRE

    Skribans, V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper comprises three parts: description of the forecasting conception, classification of forecasting methods, and the general forecasting model. The first part deals with the definition of business forecasting, the second classifies and deals in more detail with the most frequently practiced forecasting methods and comes up with recommendations how to apply them in specific situations. The third part present the analysis of newly established forecasting model.

  13. Bidirectional beam propagation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarski, P.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1988-05-01

    A bidirectional extension of the beam propagation method (BPM) to optical waveguides with a longitudinal discontinuity is presented. The algorithm is verified by computing a reflection of the TE(0) mode from a semiconductor laser facet. The bidirectional BPM is applicable to other configurations such as totally reflecting waveguide mirrors, an abruption transition in a waveguide, or a waveguide with many discontinuities generating multiple reflections. The method can also be adapted to TM polarization.

  14. Method of treating depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Fritz

    2013-04-09

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  15. Method of treating depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Fritz [East Patchogue, NY

    2012-01-24

    Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

  16. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  17. Methods for polymer synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Simoneau, Christopher A.; Keefe, William D.; Conuel, Jeff R.

    2016-12-06

    The present invention provides methods for reducing induction periods in epoxide-CO.sub.2 copolymerizations. In certain embodiments, the methods include the step of contacting an epoxide with CO.sub.2 in the presence of two catalysts: an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst. In another aspect, the invention provides catalyst compositions comprising a mixture of an epoxide hydrolysis catalyst and an epoxide CO.sub.2 copolymerization catalyst.

  18. Modern Methods in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Pavlína

    2007-01-01

    Traditional marketing methods are losing their effectiveness and credibility. It has been worse and worse to communicate with customers, and marketers are therefore looking for new techniques and way how to appeal buyers. They turn to the use of modern marketing methods, which typical features are possibility of accurate targeting and low costs, and, also, the fact that they are still not considered being a classic promotion. In the theoretical part of the diploma thesis the alternative marke...

  19. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  20. [Unproven methods in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallut, O; Guex, P; Barrelet, L

    1984-09-08

    As in some other chronic diseases (rheumatism, multiple sclerosis, etc.), unproven methods of diagnosis and treatment have long been current in cancer. Since 1960 the American Cancer Society has published an abundant literature on these "unproven methods", which serves as a basis for a historical review: some substances (Krebiozen, Laetrile) have enjoyed tremendous if shortlived success. The present trend is back to nature and "mild medicine". The proponents of this so-called natural medicine are often disciples of a pseudoscientific religion using irrational arguments. Direct attacks on these erroneous theories and their public refutation fail to convince the adepts, who trust in these methods and are not amenable to a scientific approach. Study of their psychological motivations reveals that in fact they seek something more reassuring than plain medical explanation which is aware of its limits. They feel reassured by theories which often bear some resemblance to the old popular medicine. To protect patients against these dangerous methods and all the disillusionment they entail, the Swiss Society of Oncology and the Swiss Cancer League have decided to gather information and draw up a descriptive list of the commonest unproven methods in Switzerland (our File No. 2, "Total anti-cancer cure", is given as an example). The files are published in French, German and English and are available to physicians, nursing teams, and also patients who wish to have more objective information on these methods.

  1. Multicriteria identification sets method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenev, G. K.

    2016-11-01

    A multicriteria identification and prediction method for mathematical models of simulation type in the case of several identification criteria (error functions) is proposed. The necessity of the multicriteria formulation arises, for example, when one needs to take into account errors of completely different origins (not reducible to a single characteristic) or when there is no information on the class of noise in the data to be analyzed. An identification sets method is described based on the approximation and visualization of the multidimensional graph of the identification error function and sets of suboptimal parameters. This method allows for additional advantages of the multicriteria approach, namely, the construction and visual analysis of the frontier and the effective identification set (frontier and the Pareto set for identification criteria), various representations of the sets of Pareto effective and subeffective parameter combinations, and the corresponding predictive trajectory tubes. The approximation is based on the deep holes method, which yields metric ɛ-coverings with nearly optimal properties, and on multiphase approximation methods for the Edgeworth-Pareto hull. The visualization relies on the approach of interactive decision maps. With the use of the multicriteria method, multiple-choice solutions of identification and prediction problems can be produced and justified by analyzing the stability of the optimal solution not only with respect to the parameters (robustness with respect to data) but also with respect to the chosen set of identification criteria (robustness with respect to the given collection of functionals).

  2. [Barrier methods of contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, A; Edelman, D A

    1982-01-01

    Vaginal methods of contraception were the earliest types used and some references to them date back to antiquity. Most of the vaginal contraceptive agents identified by the ancient Greeks, Indians, Japanese, and Chinese have been found in modern laboratory tests to have spermicidal properties, but it is doubtful that the methods were fully reliable or were used by many people. During the 19th century the condom, vaginal spermicides, and diaphragm became available. The development of nonoxynol-9 and other nonirritating but effective spermicidal agents improved vaginal contraceptives greatly by the 1950s, but starting in the 1960s newer methods began to replace the vaginal methods. Interest in barrier methods has been reawakened somewhat by concern about the health effects of hormonal methods. At present all barrier methods leave something to be desired. Failure rates of 3-30% for barrier methods in general have been estimated, but the higher rates are believed due to incorrect or inconsistent use. Theoretical failure rates of condoms and diaphragms have been estimated at 3/100 women-years, but in actual use failure rates may reach 15 for condoms and 13 for diaphragms used with spermicides. Use-effectiveness rates are greatly influenced by motivation. For a variety of reasons, the acceptability of barrier methods is low, especially in developing countries. New developments in spermicidal agents include sperm inhibitors, which impede the fertilizing capacity of sperm rather than attempting a spermicidal effect; a number of such agents have been studied and have proven more effective in animal tests than conventional spermicides. Neosampoon, a new spermicidal foam, has attracted an increasing number of users, especially in developing countries. A new condom, made of thin polymers and containing a standard dose of nonoxynol-9, has been designed to dissolve in the vaginal fluid. Further studies are needed of its acceptability, efficacy, and side effects before it becomes

  3. The ICARE Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Luke

    2010-01-01

    The ICARE method is a flexible, widely applicable method for systems engineers to solve problems and resolve issues in a complete and comprehensive manner. The method can be tailored by diverse users for direct application to their function (e.g. system integrators, design engineers, technical discipline leads, analysts, etc.). The clever acronym, ICARE, instills the attitude of accountability, safety, technical rigor and engagement in the problem resolution: Identify, Communicate, Assess, Report, Execute (ICARE). This method was developed through observation of Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Engineering and Integration (PSE&I) office personnel approach in an attempt to succinctly describe the actions of an effective systems engineer. Additionally it evolved from an effort to make a broadly-defined checklist for a PSE&I worker to perform their responsibilities in an iterative and recursive manner. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Systems Engineering Handbook states, engineering of NASA systems requires a systematic and disciplined set of processes that are applied recursively and iteratively for the design, development, operation, maintenance, and closeout of systems throughout the life cycle of the programs and projects. ICARE is a method that can be applied within the boundaries and requirements of NASA s systems engineering set of processes to provide an elevated sense of duty and responsibility to crew and vehicle safety. The importance of a disciplined set of processes and a safety-conscious mindset increases with the complexity of the system. Moreover, the larger the system and the larger the workforce, the more important it is to encourage the usage of the ICARE method as widely as possible. According to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, elements of a system can include people, hardware, software, facilities, policies and documents; all things required to produce system-level results, qualities, properties, characteristics

  4. VALUATION METHODS- LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorisz Talas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a theoretical overview of the often used valuation methods with the help of which the value of a firm or its equity is calculated. Many experts (including Aswath Damodaran, Guochang Zhang and CA Hozefa Natalwala classify the methods. The basic models are based on discounted cash flows. The main method uses the free cash flow for valuation, but there are some newer methods that reveal and correct the weaknesses of the traditional models. The valuation of flexibility of management can be conducted mainly with real options. This paper briefly describes the essence of the Dividend Discount Model, the Free Cash Flow Model, the benefit from using real options and the Residual Income Model. There are a few words about the Adjusted Present Value approach as well. Different models uses different premises, and an overall truth is that if the required premises are real and correct, the value will be appropriately accurate. Another important condition is that experts, analysts should choose between the models on the basis of the purpose of valuation. Thus there are no good or bad methods, only methods that fit different goals and aims. The main task is to define exactly the purpose, then to find the most appropriate valuation technique. All the methods originates from the premise that the value of an asset is the present value of its future cash flows. According to the different points of view of different techniques the resulted values can be also differed from each other. Valuation models and techniques should be adapted to the rapidly changing world, but the basic statements remain the same. On the other hand there is a need for more accurate models in order to help investors get as many information as they could. Today information is one of the most important resources and financial models should keep up with this trend.

  5. Molecular methods for biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Ferrera, Isabel

    2014-08-30

    This chapter deals with both classical and modern molecular methods that can be useful for the identification of microorganisms, elucidation and comparison of microbial communities, and investigation of their diversity and functions. The most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples; these are discussed in the first part. The second part provides an overview over DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing methods. Protocols and analysis software as well as potential pitfalls associated with application of these methods are discussed. Community fingerprinting analyses that can be used to compare multiple microbial communities are discussed in the third part. This part focuses on Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and Automated rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) methods. In addition, classical and next-generation metagenomics methods are presented. These are limited to bacterial artificial chromosome and Fosmid libraries and Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing, as these methods are currently the most frequently used in research. Isolation of nucleic acids: This chapter discusses, the most important and critical steps necessary for all molecular methods is DNA isolation from microbial communities and environmental samples. Nucleic acid isolation methods generally include three steps: cell lysis, removal of unwanted substances, and a final step of DNA purification and recovery. The first critical step is the cell lysis, which can be achieved by enzymatic or mechanical procedures. Removal of proteins, polysaccharides and other unwanted substances is likewise important to avoid their interference in subsequent analyses. Phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol is commonly used to recover DNA, since it separates nucleic acids into an aqueous phase and precipitates proteins and

  6. New oligosaccharyltransferase assay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Daisuke; Yamada, Masaki; Igura, Mayumi; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi

    2007-11-01

    We developed a new in vitro assay for oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. The asparagine residues reside in the sequon, Asn-X-Thr/Ser, where X can be any amino acid residue except Pro. We demonstrate the potency of our assay using the OST from yeast. In our method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to separate the glycopeptide products from the peptide substrates. The substrate peptide is fluorescently labeled and the formation of glycopeptides is analyzed by fluorescence gel imaging. Two in vitro OST assay methods are now widely used, but both the methods depend on previous knowledge of the oligosaccharide moiety: One method uses lectin binding as the separation mechanism and the other method uses biosynthetically or chemoenzymatically synthesized lipid-linked oligosaccharides as donors. N-linked protein glycosylation is found in all three domains of life, but little is known about the N-glycosylation in Archaea. Thus, our new assay, which does not require a priori knowledge of the oligosaccharides, will be useful in such cases. Indeed, we have detected the OST activity in the membrane fraction from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus.

  7. Methods for Neutron Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1961-01-09

    The appropriate theories and the general philosophy of methods of measurement and treatment of data neutron spectrometry are discussed. Methods of analysis of results for liquids using the Van Hove formulation, and for crystals using the Born-von Karman theory, are reviewed. The most useful of the available methods of measurement are considered to be the crystal spectrometer methods and the pulsed monoenergetic beam/time-of-flight method. Pulsed-beam spectrometers have the advantage of higher counting rates than crystal spectrometers, especially in view of the fact that simultaneous measurements in several counters at different angles of scattering are possible in pulsed-beam spectrometers. The crystal spectrometer permits several valuable new types of specialized experiments to be performed, especially energy distribution measurements at constant momentum transfer. The Chalk River triple-axis crystal-spectrometer is discussed, with reference to its use in making the specialized experiments. The Chalk River rotating crystal (pulsed-beam) spectrometer is described, and a comparison of this type instrument with other pulsed-beam spectrometers is made. A partial outline of the theory of operation of rotating-crystal spectrometers is presented. The use of quartz-crystal filters for fast neutron elimination and for order elimination is discussed. (auth)

  8. The lod score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  9. Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    , respectively. The paper thus takes on aesthetics and the social in a manner closely related to a core argument of STS - namely that the scientific fact, and the social processes of constructing, distributing, and using that fact, are co-constructed (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1993). The paper thus contributes......, it is an important ambition of this paper to go into a methodological discussion of how "that which effectively happens" can be approached. To this end, the paper will combine Hennion's term of the "mediator" with John Laws methodological term of "method assemblages". Method assemblages is a suggested as a way...... of handling multiple, fluid realities with multiple, fluid methods. Empirically, the paper works with mediation in fashion - that is efforts the active shaping of relations between producer and consumer through communication, marketing and PR. Fashion mediation is by no means simple, but organise complex...

  10. Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2010; Ray H. Gavin (Ed; Springer Protocols methods in molecular biology, vol. 586 Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 390; €95.44; ISBN: 978-1-60761-375-6Ray H. Gavin, from the Brooklyn College of The City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY, USA, wrote a few line as preface of this book. This is quite understandable: there is not a great need of words when there are facts that sustain and favour the dissemination of a cultural product. This is the case of the second edition of Cytoskeleton - Methods and Protocols, which appears just ten years after the first edition...

  11. Geostatistical Methods in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adéla Volfová

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Geostatistics is a scientific field which provides methods for processing spatial data.  In our project, geostatistics is used as a tool for describing spatial continuity and making predictions of some natural phenomena. An open source statistical project called R is used for all calculations. Listeners will be provided with a brief introduction to R and its geostatistical packages and basic principles of kriging and cokriging methods. Heavy mathematical background is omitted due to its complexity. In the second part of the presentation, several examples are shown of how to make a prediction in the whole area of interest where observations were made in just a few points. Results of these methods are compared.

  12. Robust iterative methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadd, Y.

    1994-12-31

    In spite of the tremendous progress achieved in recent years in the general area of iterative solution techniques, there are still a few obstacles to the acceptance of iterative methods in a number of applications. These applications give rise to very indefinite or highly ill-conditioned non Hermitian matrices. Trying to solve these systems with the simple-minded standard preconditioned Krylov subspace methods can be a frustrating experience. With the mathematical and physical models becoming more sophisticated, the typical linear systems which we encounter today are far more difficult to solve than those of just a few years ago. This trend is likely to accentuate. This workshop will discuss (1) these applications and the types of problems that they give rise to; and (2) recent progress in solving these problems with iterative methods. The workshop will end with a hopefully stimulating panel discussion with the speakers.

  13. Energy methods in dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Khanh Chau

    2012-01-01

    The above examples should make clear the necessity of understanding the mechanism of vibrations and waves in order to control them in an optimal way. However vibrations and waves are governed by differential equations which require, as a rule, rather complicated mathematical methods for their analysis. The aim of this textbook is to help students acquire both a good grasp of the first principles from which the governing equations can be derived, and the adequate mathematical methods for their solving. Its distinctive features, as seen from the title, lie in the systematic and intensive use of Hamilton's variational principle and its generalizations for deriving the governing equations of conservative and dissipative mechanical systems, and also in providing the direct variational-asymptotic analysis, whenever available, of the energy and dissipation for the solution of these equations. It will be demonstrated that many well-known methods in dynamics like those of Lindstedt-Poincare, Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky, Ko...

  14. Energy methods in dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Khanh Chau

    2014-01-01

    Energy Methods in Dynamics is a textbook based on the lectures given by the first author at Ruhr University Bochum, Germany. Its aim is to help students acquire both a good grasp of the first principles from which the governing equations can be derived, and the adequate mathematical methods for their solving. Its distinctive features, as seen from the title, lie in the systematic and intensive use of Hamilton's variational principle and its generalizations for deriving the governing equations of conservative and dissipative mechanical systems, and also in providing the direct variational-asymptotic analysis, whenever available, of the energy and dissipation for the solution of these equations. It demonstrates that many well-known methods in dynamics like those of Lindstedt-Poincare, Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky, Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM), Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB),  and Whitham are derivable from this variational-asymptotic analysis.   This second edition includes the solutions to all exercises as w...

  15. Sampling system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2017-03-07

    In one embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for supporting a tubing bundle during installation or removal. The apparatus includes a clamp for securing the tubing bundle to an external wireline. In various examples, the clamp is external to the tubing bundle or integral with the tubing bundle. According to one method, a tubing bundle and wireline are deployed together and the tubing bundle periodically secured to the wireline using a clamp. In another embodiment, the present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit. In a specific example, one or more clamps are used to connect the first and/or second conduits to an external wireline.

  16. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2017-01-01

    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  17. Method of treating wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.A.; Lasater, R.M.

    1966-11-22

    Chemical compositions and methods are provided for treating underground formations to render their surfaces water-repellent or preferentially oil-wettable. Previous methods have provided only temporary water-repellency because they do not actually act chemically with the reservoir rock. This improvement is obtained by using a treating agent which does not form a precipitate upon hydrolysis with water, such as a liquid organo-halogen- silane or its ester. A water-soluble anhydrous solvent which is nonreactive with the silane is used as a carrier. This method may be used for treating non-oil-bearing aquifers for increasing the flow rate of water, such as in water supply wells, or in water input rate, such as in water disposal wells. (10 claims)

  18. Methods for RNA Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe

    of the transcriptome, 5’ end capture of RNA is combined with next-generation sequencing for high-throughput quantitative assessment of transcription start sites by two different methods. The methods presented here allow for functional investigation of coding as well as noncoding RNA and contribute to future......While increasing evidence appoints diverse types of RNA as key players in the regulatory networks underlying cellular differentiation and metabolism, the potential functions of thousands of conserved RNA structures encoded in mammalian genomes remain to be determined. Since the functions of most...... RNAs rely on interactions with proteins, the establishment of protein-binding profiles is essential for the characterization of RNAs. Aiming to facilitate RNA analysis, this thesis introduces proteomics- as well as transcriptomics-based methods for the functional characterization of RNA. First, RNA...

  19. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... statebased on an idealized mechanical model to be adapted to the original limit state by the model correction factor. Reliable approximations are obtained by iterative use of gradient information on the original limit state function analogously to previous response surface approaches. However, the strength...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  20. Splines and variational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Prenter, P M

    2008-01-01

    One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension

  1. Nonparametric statistical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Myles; Chicken, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition"This book should be an essential part of the personal library of every practicing statistician."-Technometrics  Thoroughly revised and updated, the new edition of Nonparametric Statistical Methods includes additional modern topics and procedures, more practical data sets, and new problems from real-life situations. The book continues to emphasize the importance of nonparametric methods as a significant branch of modern statistics and equips readers with the conceptual and technical skills necessary to select and apply the appropriate procedures for any given sit

  2. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  3. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  4. Tautomerism methods and theories

    CERN Document Server

    Antonov, Liudmil

    2013-01-01

    Covering the gap between basic textbooks and over-specialized scientific publications, this is the first reference available to describe this interdisciplinary topic for PhD students and scientists starting in the field. The result is an introductory description providing suitable practical examples of the basic methods used to study tautomeric processes, as well as the theories describing the tautomerism and proton transfer phenomena. It also includes different spectroscopic methods for examining tautomerism, such as UV-VIs, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR spectrosc

  5. Unorthodox theoretical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedd, Sean [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The use of the ReaxFF force field to correlate with NMR mobilities of amine catalytic substituents on a mesoporous silica nanosphere surface is considered. The interfacing of the ReaxFF force field within the Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM) method, in order to replicate earlier SIMOMM published data and to compare with the ReaxFF data, is discussed. The development of a new correlation consistent Composite Approach (ccCA) is presented, which incorporates the completely renormalized coupled cluster method with singles, doubles and non-iterative triples corrections towards the determination of heats of formations and reaction pathways which contain biradical species.

  6. Exploring Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, William L

    2012-01-01

    Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble

  7. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...

  8. Methods of visualizing graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, James J.

    2008-12-23

    Methods for visualizing a graph by automatically drawing elements of the graph as labels are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises receiving node information and edge information from an input device and/or communication interface, constructing a graph layout based at least in part on that information, wherein the edges are automatically drawn as labels, and displaying the graph on a display device according to the graph layout. In some embodiments, the nodes are automatically drawn as labels instead of, or in addition to, the label-edges.

  9. Methods of Multivariate Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rencher, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit

  10. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  11. Apoptosis - Methods and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis - Methods and ProtocolsSecond edition, 2009; Peter Erhardt and Ambrus Toth (Eds; Springer Protocols - Methods in molecular biology, vol. 559; Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA; Pages: 400; €88.35; ISBN: 978-1-60327-016-8The editors rightly begin the preface telling us that: “The ability to detect and quantify apoptosis, to understand its biochemistry and to identify its regulatory genes and proteins is crucial to biomedical research”. Nowadays this is a grounding concept of biology and medicine. What is particularly remarkable...

  12. Practical methods of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, R

    2013-01-01

    Fully describes optimization methods that are currently most valuable in solving real-life problems. Since optimization has applications in almost every branch of science and technology, the text emphasizes their practical aspects in conjunction with the heuristics useful in making them perform more reliably and efficiently. To this end, it presents comparative numerical studies to give readers a feel for possibile applications and to illustrate the problems in assessing evidence. Also provides theoretical background which provides insights into how methods are derived. This edition offers rev

  13. Essential numerical computer methods

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface

  14. Analogue computing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Welbourne, D

    1965-01-01

    Analogue Computing Methods presents the field of analogue computation and simulation in a compact and convenient form, providing an outline of models and analogues that have been produced to solve physical problems for the engineer and how to use and program the electronic analogue computer. This book consists of six chapters. The first chapter provides an introduction to analogue computation and discusses certain mathematical techniques. The electronic equipment of an analogue computer is covered in Chapter 2, while its use to solve simple problems, including the method of scaling is elaborat

  15. Making Methods Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1980-01-01

    Methodological paradigms in evaluation research are discussed. This article is a response to the attacks on paradigmatic perspectives made by Reichardt and Cook in the opening chapter of their edited book, "Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Evaluation Research." (Author/GK)

  16. communication method and apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a non-lingual communication method and apparatus, wherein a physical or physiological signal consciously created by a first subject (1) is detected and converted into a transmitted output signal presented to a second subject (7) in order to communicate information...

  17. METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K.

    1960-05-10

    A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.

  18. Ferrari's Method and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoen, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Some tips that combine knowledge of mathematics history and technology for adapting Ferrar's method to factor quintics with a TI-83 graphing calculator are presented. A demonstration on the use of the root finder and regression capabilities of the graphing calculator are presented, so that the tips can be easily adapted for any graphing calculator…

  19. The Mnemonic Keyword Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Available experimental evidence is reviewed concerning the keyword method, a two-stage procedure for remembering materials having an associative component. The review examines subjects' memory for definitions, given vocabulary words; subjects' learning of other aspects of vocabulary, given definitions; group-administered keyword studies; and…

  20. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  1. Analysis of numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Isaacson, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.

  2. The Method of "Currere."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, William Frederick

    In this presentation the author paints a conceptual portrait of his evolving relationships to his formal studies and thereby describes a method by which educators can reconceptualize the meaning of curriculum. By taking oneself and one's existential experience as a data source and using the psychoanalytical technique of free association, one can…

  3. Universal Image Steganalytic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Banoci

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we introduce a new universal steganalytic method in JPEG file format that is detecting well-known and also newly developed steganographic methods. The steganalytic model is trained by MHF-DZ steganographic algorithm previously designed by the same authors. The calibration technique with the Feature Based Steganalysis (FBS was employed in order to identify statistical changes caused by embedding a secret data into original image. The steganalyzer concept utilizes Support Vector Machine (SVM classification for training a model that is later used by the same steganalyzer in order to identify between a clean (cover and steganographic image. The aim of the paper was to analyze the variety in accuracy of detection results (ACR while detecting testing steganographic algorithms as F5, Outguess, Model Based Steganography without deblocking, JP Hide and Seek which represent the generally used steganographic tools. The comparison of four feature vectors with different lengths FBS (22, FBS (66 FBS(274 and FBS(285 shows promising results of proposed universal steganalytic method comparing to binary methods.

  4. Methods Evolved by Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Montessori's idea of the child's nature and the teacher's perceptiveness begins with amazing simplicity, and when she speaks of "methods evolved," she is unveiling a methodological system for observation. She begins with the early childhood explosion into writing, which is a familiar child phenomenon that Montessori has written about…

  5. Method card design dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.

    2013-01-01

    . The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...

  6. Statistical methods in astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Long, James P.; de Souza, Rafael S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a review of data types and statistical methods often encountered in astronomy. The aim is to provide an introduction to statistical applications in astronomy for statisticians and computer scientists. We highlight the complex, often hierarchical, nature of many astronomy inference problems and advocate for cross-disciplinary collaborations to address these challenges.

  7. Methods of materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi

    2016-01-01

    , and the method of participant observation is suggested as a viable approach to achieve this end. An empirical example of how authority is produced in a parent-teacher conference, not only through language but also through material objects and embodied being, is then presented. The article concludes by suggesting...

  8. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  9. Ergonomics research methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  10. A method for sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for sintering, comprising in the following order the steps of: providing a body in the green state or in the pre-sintered state on a support; providing a load on at least one spacer on the support such that the load is located above said body in the green...

  11. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  12. Truth and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Reed Way

    1995-01-01

    Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary…

  13. Software specification methods

    CERN Document Server

    Habrias, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This title provides a clear overview of the main methods, and has a practical focus that allows the reader to apply their knowledge to real-life situations. The following are just some of the techniques covered: UML, Z, TLA+, SAZ, B, OMT, VHDL, Estelle, SDL and LOTOS.

  14. Progress in variational methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The International Conference on Variational Methods (ICVAM) was held from May 20th to 26th in 2007 at the Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin, China. Twenty eight invited speakers from ten countries and areas worldwide gave their lectures at the conference.

  15. Heart imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, H. Dale; Gribble, R. Parks; Busse, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  16. Quality of regularization methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, J.

    1998-01-01

    The solution of ill-posed problems is non-trivial in the sense that frequently applied methods like least-squares fail. The ill-posedness of the problem is refiected by very small changes in the input data which may result in very large changes in the output data. Hence, some sort of stabilization

  17. Methods of materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi

    2016-01-01

    , and the method of participant observation is suggested as a viable approach to achieve this end. An empirical example of how authority is produced in a parent-teacher conference, not only through language but also through material objects and embodied being, is then presented. The article concludes by suggesting...

  18. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. ... limiting calories) usually isn’t enough to cause weight loss. But exercise plays an important part in helping ...

  19. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  20. Sampling system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, David L.; Lyles, Brad F.; Purcell, Richard G.; Hershey, Ronald Lee

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure provides an apparatus and method for coupling conduit segments together. A first pump obtains a sample and transmits it through a first conduit to a reservoir accessible by a second pump. The second pump further conducts the sample from the reservoir through a second conduit.

  1. Photothermal methods in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C.

    2000-10-01

    Photothermal imaging and spectroscopy are being applied to a variety of medical problems for diagnosis and therapy. This paper reviews some aspects of this field including the opportunities presented by non-optical sources and by use of detection methods targeted to the application.

  2. Quality of regularization methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, J.

    1998-01-01

    The solution of ill-posed problems is non-trivial in the sense that frequently applied methods like least-squares fail. The ill-posedness of the problem is refiected by very small changes in the input data which may result in very large changes in the output data. Hence, some sort of stabilization o

  3. Project execution methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John C Pfeiffer

    2004-01-01

      In the design/build (D/B) method of implementing plant construction projects, the owner contracts with the engineer/contractor or contractor/engineer company or team-depending upon who takes the lead in the project to develop...

  4. The Effective Equation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

    In this chapter we present a general method of constructing the effective equation which describes the behavior of small-amplitude solutions for a nonlinear PDE in finite volume, provided that the linear part of the equation is a hamiltonian system with a pure imaginary discrete spectrum. The effective equation is obtained by retaining only the resonant terms of the nonlinearity (which may be hamiltonian, or may be not); the assertion that it describes the limiting behavior of small-amplitude solutions is a rigorous mathematical theorem. In particular, the method applies to the three- and four-wave systems. We demonstrate that different possible types of energy transport are covered by this method, depending on whether the set of resonances splits into finite clusters (this happens, e.g. in case of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation), or is connected (this happens, e.g. in the case of the NLS equation if the space-dimension is at least two). For equations of the first type the energy transition to high frequencies does not hold, while for equations of the second type it may take place. Our method applies to various weakly nonlinear wave systems, appearing in plasma, meteorology and oceanography.

  5. Teaching Materials and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologist, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains abstracts of presented papers which deal with teaching materials and methods in physiology. Includes papers on preconceptual notions in physiology, somatosensory activity recorded in the dorsal root ganglion of the bull frog, and the use of the Apple Macintosh microcomputer in teaching human anatomy and physiology. (TW)

  6. Convergence of Arnoldi method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevanlinna, O. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    This note summarizes some results on (a monitored version of) the Arnoldi method in Hilbert spaces. The interest in working in infinite dimensional spaces comes partly from the fact that only then can one have meaningful asymptotical statements (which hopefully give some light to the convergence of Arnoldi in large dimensional problems with iteration indices far less than the dimension).

  7. Photovoltaic device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  8. Water-budget methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  9. Exploring in Durbin-Watson Autocorrelation Test%Durbin-Watson自相关检验应用问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明; 王永瑜

    2014-01-01

    通过对Durbin-Watson自相关检验方法的阐述,进一步讨论这类检验方法在应用时先设条件存在的原因,并由此引出另一些不被注意的先设条件,随后对Durbin-Watson检验中的临界值和判别区间问题进行探讨,给出临界上限取值大于2情形下的检验方法并结合案例进行分析.

  10. 77 FR 64515 - Watson Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Actavis Inc., Actavis Pharma Holding 4 ehf., and Actavis S.a.r.l...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... include any sensitive personal information, like anyone's Social Security number, date of birth, driver's...., and Actavis S. .r.l. (together, ``Actavis'') that is designed to remedy the anticompetitive effects in.... Extended release rivastigmine film is the generic equivalent of Exelon, a patch used to treat Alzheimer's...

  11. Exploratory Archeology at the Scott's Lake Site (38CR1) Santee Indian Mound - Ft. Watson Summer 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a published report that contains a review of the Institute of Archeology and Anthropology's work relating to the Scott's Lake Site. Exploratory archeological...

  12. Acoustical Scattering from an Elastic Sphere in Water: Surface Wave Glory, Resonances, and the Sommerfeld-Watson Transformation for Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    append-I , b) gsaig the resu.ls used to generate figure 7±;. 2a and Fourier transformacion techniques, Eick±.ng obcained the "backse.ac.•erng response...range from 30 to 100. The only other significant changes in apparatus from Ref. I are the use of a digital signal averager (described in Ref. 2) and a...Fig. 1). The procedure used to test the model was to average the echo received at any angle y over 256 bursts using the digital scope. Then the

  13. Breaking pseudo-twofold symmetry in the poliovirus 3'-UTR Y-stem by restoring Watson-Crick base pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoll, G.J.; Tessari, M.; Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Melchers, W.J.G.; Heus, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The previously described NMR structure of a 5'-CU-3'/5'-UU-3' motif, which is highly conserved within the 3'-UTR Y-stem of poliovirus-like enteroviruses, revealed striking regularities of the local helix geometry, thus retaining the pseudo-twofold symmetry of the RNA helix. A mutant virus with both

  14. Breaking pseudo-twofold symmetry in the poliovirus 3'-UTR Y-stem by restoring Watson-Crick base pairs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoll, G.J.; Tessari, M.; Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Melchers, W.J.G.; Heus, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The previously described NMR structure of a 5'-CU-3'/5'-UU-3' motif, which is highly conserved within the 3'-UTR Y-stem of poliovirus-like enteroviruses, revealed striking regularities of the local helix geometry, thus retaining the pseudo-twofold symmetry of the RNA helix. A mutant virus with both

  15. Holmes and Watson or Sherlock and John : a homoerotic reading of Conan Doyle's characters in BBC's "Sherlock"

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the BBC series Sherlock from the point of view of Gender Studies, and specifically within the theories of Queer Studies. The paper starts by analyzing some scenes in the short stories by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and exposes the theory which then is applied to the television series. It ultimately argues that, although the homoerotic reading works fairly well on the episodes, there are limits that neither the screenwriters nor the audience wants to surpass, and those limits ar...

  16. Effect and Accumulation of Lanthanum on the Growth and Physiological Activities of Cymbopogon Flexuosus (Nees Ex Steud.W.Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradhana Basu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rare earth elements are a set of seventeen chemical elements which involve the lanthanide series from Lanthanum (La, Tolutetium (Lu, Scandium (Sc, and Yttrium (Y in the periodic table. Even if Rare Earth Elements are used widely in industry and agriculture in China as well as India for a long time, there has been increasing interest in the application of REEs to plants in recent years. In this paper, we discussed the effect of REE on growth and physiological activities of the plant. By compilation and investigation of these data, we found that REEs have promoting impact at certain concentration. An increase in Chlorophyll, enzymes and protein content further indicated the stimulating effect of La on physiological activities of the selected plants. Depending on the results of this preliminary investigation we can say that a new REE hyperaccumulator, Cymbopogon flexuosus (Lemon grass, was discovered which could accumulate Lanthanum is 20.725 mg g-1 and 25.625 mg g-1 dry mass in root and shoot part respectively under natural growth conditions. Advanced research should be invested regarding the impacts of REEs on yields of cultivated plants.

  17. Noncanonical structures and their thermodynamics of DNA and RNA under molecular crowding: beyond the Watson-Crick double helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    How does molecular crowding affect the stability of nucleic acid structures inside cells? Water is the major solvent component in living cells, and the properties of water in the highly crowded media inside cells differ from that in buffered solution. As it is difficult to measure the thermodynamic behavior of nucleic acids in cells directly and quantitatively, we recently developed a cell-mimicking system using cosolutes as crowding reagents. The influences of molecular crowding on the structures and thermodynamics of various nucleic acid sequences have been reported. In this chapter, we discuss how the structures and thermodynamic properties of nucleic acids differ under various conditions such as highly crowded environments, compartment environments, and in the presence of ionic liquids, and the major determinants of the crowding effects on nucleic acids are discussed. The effects of molecular crowding on the activities of ribozymes and riboswitches on noncanonical structures of DNA- and RNA-like quadruplexes that play important roles in transcription and translation are also described.

  18. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  19. Investigation of the bioequivalence of montelukast chewable tablets after a single oral administration using a validated LC-MS/MS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid AN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdel Naser Zaid,1 Murad N Abualhasan,1 David G Watson,2 Ayman Mousa,3 Nadia Ghazal,4 Rana Bustami5 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine; 2Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK; 3R&D Department, Avalon Pharma (Middle East Pharmaceutical Industries Co. Ltd., Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4Naratech Pharmaceutical Consultancy, 5Pharmaceutical Research Unit, Amman, Jordan Background: Montelukast (MT is a leukotriene D4 antagonist. It is an effective and safe medicine for the prophylaxis and treatment of chronic asthma. It is also used to prevent acute exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and as a symptomatic relief of seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial allergic rhinitis.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence (BE of two drug products: generic MT 5 mg chewable tablets versus the branded drug Singulair® pediatric 5 mg chewable tablets among Mediterranean volunteers.Methods: An open-label, randomized two-period crossover BE design was conducted in 32 healthy male volunteers with a 9-day washout period between doses and under fasting conditions. The drug concentrations in plasma were quantified by using a newly developed and fully validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a non-compartmental model. The ratio for generic/branded tablets using geometric least squares means was calculated for both the MT products.Results: The relationship between concentration and peak area ratio was found to be linear within the range 6.098–365.855 ng/mL. The correlation coefficient (R2 was always greater than 0.99 during the course of the validation. Statistical comparison of the main pharmacokinetic parameters showed no significant difference between the generic and branded products. The point estimates (ratios of

  20. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Dormolen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  1. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  2. Mitosis Methods & Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis Methods & Protocols Andrew D. McAinsh (Edt Humana press, Totowa, New Jersey (USA Series: Springer Protocols Methods in Molecular Biology, Volume 545, 2009 ISBN: 978-1-60327-992-5   It is quite clear from the contents of this book that the remarkably fascinating phenomenon of mitosis (that captured, and still is capturing, the attention of entire generations of scientists is still open to research. This is mainly due to our lack of knowledge of so many multifaced events of this extraordinarly complex process. The reader giving a glace through the Contents and Contributors sections is speechless: All of the first-class models (i.e., budding yeast, Caenorabditis, Drosophila, Xenopus and Human are presented..... 

  3. Method card design dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.

    2013-01-01

    . The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design.......There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers...

  4. Jet vortex methods

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, Darryl D

    2015-01-01

    Vortex blob methods are typically characterized by a regularization length scale, below which the the dynamics are trivial for isolated blobs. In this article we will find that the dynamics need not be trivial if one is willing to consider distributional derivatives of Dirac delta functionals as valid vorticity distributions. More specifically, a new singular vortex theory is presented for regularised Euler fluid equations of ideal incompressible flow in the plane. We determine the conditions under which such regularised Euler fluid equations may admit vorticity singularities which are stronger than delta functions, e.g., derivatives of delta functions. We also characterise the Hamiltonian dynamics of the higher-order singular vortices. Applications to the design of numerical meth- ods similar to vortex blob methods are also discussed. Such findings shed light onto the rich dynamics which occur below the regularization length scale and enlighten our perspective on the multiscale aspects of regularized fluid m...

  5. The Montessori Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen Haskins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Maria Montessori provided the world with a powerful philosophy and practice for the advancement of humanity: change how we educate children and we change the world. She understood two things very clearly: One, that we can build a better world, a more just and peaceful place, when we educate for the realization of the individual and collective human potential; and two, that the only way to create an educational system that will that will serve this end is to scrap the current system entirely and replace it with a completely new system. She gave us a system through which to accomplish that goal: The Montessori Method. The following is a personal and professional account of the Montessori Method of educating children.

  6. in the DSMC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong-Zhi Chen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Plücker coordinates representation is used to formulate the ruled surface and the molecular path for pumping speed performance evaluation of a molecular vacuum pump. The ruled surface represented by the Pliicker coordinates is used to develop a criterion for when gas molecules hit the pump surface wall. The criterion is applied to analyze the flow rate of a new developed vacuum pump in transition regimes by using the DSMC (Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. When a molecule flies in a neutral electrical field its path is a straight line. If the molecular path and the generators of a ruled surface are both represented by the Pliicker coordinates, the position of the molecular hit on the wall can be verified by the reciprocal condition of the lines. The Plücker coordinates representation is quite convenient in the DSMC method for this three-dimensional molecular flow simulation.

  7. Anthropological methods in ethnopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkin, N L

    1993-03-01

    This paper reviews anthropological methods in ethnopharmacology to advance a critical and biobehavioral perspective for the construction of primary data in the light of indigenous paradigms of health and therapeutics. The unique contributions of anthropology are the conceptual and practical tools that allow one to develop the ethnography of plant use in sufficient depth to correlate with laboratory and clinical investigations of plant constituents and activities. This serves an ethnopharmacology that links bioscientific research to traditional empirical knowledge. Specific methods discussed include: key respondents, participant observation, focus groups, structured and unstructured interviews, survey instruments and questionnaires, lexical and semantic studies, and discourse and content analysis. The accommodation of rapid ethnographic techniques for ethnopharmacologic research is described, and several problem orientations based on assessments of efficacy are offered.

  8. INNOVATIVE SALES METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana L. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies operating in a global economy that is constantly changing and developming, especially during the financial crisis and political instability. It is necessary to adapt and develop sales methods in such environment. For large companies who base their activity on sales it has become a necessity to learn different types of sales approaches because their knowledge enables them to grow the number of customers and therefore the sales and the turnover. This paper aims to exame the most effective sales methods used on the highly sensitive economic and social environment – the insurance market. In the field of insurances, the sales process is even more important because sellers need to sell an intangible product that may materialize in the future, but there is no certainty.

  9. Dynamic encryption method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of transmitting a data set using encryption, wherein the method comprises the steps of: selecting a first encryption technique, wherein said first encryption technique comprises a first encryption algorithm for encrypting plain data into cipher data, and a first decryption...... algorithm for on provision of a specific key, decrypting cipher data and reproduce plain data; encrypting the first data package comprising plain data, using a first encryption program implementing the first encryption algorithm of said first encryption technique, creating a first encrypted data package...... comprising cipher data; obtaining a first decryption program; and transmitting said first decryption program and said first encrypted data package to a receiver, wherein the first decryption, upon provision of the specific key and the first encrypted data package, will decrypt the cipher data in the first...

  10. by Lifting Line Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Dumitrescu

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The vortex model of propellers is modified and applied to the high-speed horizontal axis turbines. The turbine blades are replaced by lifting lines and trailing vortices which shed along the blade span. The model is not a free wake model, but it is still a nonlinear one which should be solved iteratively. In addition to the regular case where the trailing vortices are constrained to distribute along a helical surface, another version, where each trailing vortex sheding from the blade grows as a free helical vortex line, is also included. Performance parameters are calculated by application of the Biot-Savart law along with the Kutta-Joukowski theorem. Predictions are, shown to compare favorably with existing numerical data from more involved free wake methods, but require less computational effort. Thereby, the present method may be a very useful tool for calculating the aerodynamic loads on horizontal-axis wind turbine blades.

  11. THE ACTION RESEARCH METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GEORGIEVSKI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The effort in this work to elaborate an action research method as a central research problem considering the recent contemporary sociological and educa­tional literature. The author begins with the statement that the method is a complex notion, composed of three main components: approach to the research problem, data gathering procedures and data analysis procedures. This point of view is further applied and elaborated in the author's text, emphasizing the action research characteristics: interruption with the positive tradition in social research and the divided of the objective and subjective, application of the qualitative data. The sub­stantial difference between the action research in regard with the other kinds of research, is not only in getting to new knowledge's, but also in problem solving or a change in the situation in a concrete social context.

  12. Nanoscale waveguiding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Jean; Lin, Lih Y

    2007-05-01

    While 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD) arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  13. Methods for forming particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  14. Methods for forming particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Zhang, Fengyan; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin

    2016-06-21

    Single source precursors or pre-copolymers of single source precursors are subjected to microwave radiation to form particles of a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Such particles may be formed in a wurtzite phase and may be converted to a chalcopyrite phase by, for example, exposure to heat. The particles in the wurtzite phase may have a substantially hexagonal shape that enables stacking into ordered layers. The particles in the wurtzite phase may be mixed with particles in the chalcopyrite phase (i.e., chalcopyrite nanoparticles) that may fill voids within the ordered layers of the particles in the wurtzite phase thus produce films with good coverage. In some embodiments, the methods are used to form layers of semiconductor materials comprising a I-III-VI.sub.2 material. Devices such as, for example, thin-film solar cells may be fabricated using such methods.

  15. The random projection method

    CERN Document Server

    Vempala, Santosh S

    2005-01-01

    Random projection is a simple geometric technique for reducing the dimensionality of a set of points in Euclidean space while preserving pairwise distances approximately. The technique plays a key role in several breakthrough developments in the field of algorithms. In other cases, it provides elegant alternative proofs. The book begins with an elementary description of the technique and its basic properties. Then it develops the method in the context of applications, which are divided into three groups. The first group consists of combinatorial optimization problems such as maxcut, graph coloring, minimum multicut, graph bandwidth and VLSI layout. Presented in this context is the theory of Euclidean embeddings of graphs. The next group is machine learning problems, specifically, learning intersections of halfspaces and learning large margin hypotheses. The projection method is further refined for the latter application. The last set consists of problems inspired by information retrieval, namely, nearest neig...

  16. Glycoconjugates and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn C. (Albany, CA); Yarema, Kevin J. (Albany, CA); Mahal; Lara K. (Berkeley, CA)

    2008-04-01

    Methods for making the functionalized glycoconjugates include (a) contacting a cell with a first monosaccharide, and (b) incubating the cell under conditions whereby the cell (i) internalizes the first monosaccharide, (ii) biochemically processes the first monosaccharide into a second saccharide, (iii) conjugates the saccharide to a carrier to form a glycoconjugate, and (iv) extracellularly expresses the glycoconjugate to form an extracellular glycoconjugate comprising a selectively reactive functional group. Methods for forming products at a cell further comprise contacting the functional group of the extracellularly expressed glycoconjugate with an agent which selectively reacts with the functional group to form a product. Subject compositions include cyto-compatible monosaccharides comprising a nitrogen or ether linked functional group selectively reactive at a cell surface and compositions and cells comprising such saccharides.

  17. Statistical Methods for Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Feigelson, Eric D

    2012-01-01

    This review outlines concepts of mathematical statistics, elements of probability theory, hypothesis tests and point estimation for use in the analysis of modern astronomical data. Least squares, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference are treated. Resampling methods, particularly the bootstrap, provide valuable procedures when distributions functions of statistics are not known. Several approaches to model selection and good- ness of fit are considered. Applied statistics relevant to astronomical research are briefly discussed: nonparametric methods for use when little is known about the behavior of the astronomical populations or processes; data smoothing with kernel density estimation and nonparametric regression; unsupervised clustering and supervised classification procedures for multivariate problems; survival analysis for astronomical datasets with nondetections; time- and frequency-domain times series analysis for light curves; and spatial statistics to interpret the spati...

  18. MIXED METHOD RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed Method Research adalah metode penelitian yang diaplikasikan bila peneliti memiliki pertanyaan yang perlu diuji dari segi outcomes dan prosesnya, serta menyangkut kombinasi antara metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif dalam satu penelitian. Karena berfokus pada outcomes dan proses, maka desain MMR biasa digunakan dalam penelitian evaluasi program. Namun sekarang, MMR sudah sering digunakan untuk ilmu-ilmu sosial, seperti: konseling, psikologi social manajemen, dan pengorganisasian perilaku.

  19. MIXED METHOD RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2012-01-01

    Mixed Method Research adalah metode penelitian yang diaplikasikan bila peneliti memiliki pertanyaan yang perlu diuji dari segi outcomes dan prosesnya, serta menyangkut kombinasi antara metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif dalam satu penelitian. Karena berfokus pada outcomes dan proses, maka desain MMR biasa digunakan dalam penelitian evaluasi program. Namun sekarang, MMR sudah sering digunakan untuk ilmu-ilmu sosial, seperti: konseling, psikologi social manajemen, dan pengorganisasian perilaku.

  20. Method for scavenging mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  1. Statokinesigram normalization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, José Magalhães

    2017-02-01

    Stabilometry is a technique that aims to study the body sway of human subjects, employing a force platform. The signal obtained from this technique refers to the position of the foot base ground-reaction vector, known as the center of pressure (CoP). The parameters calculated from the signal are used to quantify the displacement of the CoP over time; there is a large variability, both between and within subjects, which prevents the definition of normative values. The intersubject variability is related to differences between subjects in terms of their anthropometry, in conjunction with their muscle activation patterns (biomechanics); and the intrasubject variability can be caused by a learning effect or fatigue. Age and foot placement on the platform are also known to influence variability. Normalization is the main method used to decrease this variability and to bring distributions of adjusted values into alignment. In 1996, O'Malley proposed three normalization techniques to eliminate the effect of age and anthropometric factors from temporal-distance parameters of gait. These techniques were adopted to normalize the stabilometric signal by some authors. This paper proposes a new method of normalization of stabilometric signals to be applied in balance studies. The method was applied to a data set collected in a previous study, and the results of normalized and nonnormalized signals were compared. The results showed that the new method, if used in a well-designed experiment, can eliminate undesirable correlations between the analyzed parameters and the subjects' characteristics and show only the experimental conditions' effects.

  2. Comments on PDF methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.-Y.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.

  3. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  4. Polymer compositions and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Willkomm, Wayne R.

    2016-09-27

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane foams, thermoplastics and elastomers derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure: ##STR00001## In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive foam and elastomer compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  5. Nearshore Pipeline Installation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    179. 5. Aldridge, R. G., and Bomba , J. G., "Deep Water Pipelines - Interdependence of Design and Construction", ASCE Paper. 6. American Society Civil...October 13, 1967. 24. Bomba , J. G. and Seeds, K. J., "Pipelining in 600 feet of water .... A Case Study of Washington Natural Gas Company’s Puget Sound...Crossing", Offshore Technology Conference, paper OTC 1188, 1970. 25. Bomba , J., "Submarine Pipe Construction Methods", Petroleum Engineer, Vol. 32

  6. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rege, Kaushal

    2009-01-01

    Filling a critical gap in the current literature, this new resource presents practical, step-by-step methods to help you synthesize, characterize, biofunctionalize and apply the nanomaterial that is most suitable for handling a given nanoscale bioengineering problem. Written and presented by leading scientists and engineers in their respective fields, the authors offer a clear and detailed understanding of how to carry out nanoparticle functionalization with biomolecules (including enzymes), nanoparticle analysis and characterization, in vitro evaluation of nanoparticles using different cell l

  7. Method of infusion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  8. Method for detecting biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Qisheng; Liu, Jun

    2008-08-12

    A method for detecting and measuring the concentration of biomolecules in solution, utilizing a conducting electrode in contact with a solution containing target biomolecules, with a film with controllable pore size distribution characteristics applied to at least one surface of the conducting electrode. The film is functionalized with probe molecules that chemically interact with the target biomolecules at the film surface, blocking indicator molecules present in solution from diffusing from the solution to the electrode, thereby changing the electrochemical response of the electrode

  9. Method for scavenging mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2010-07-13

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  10. Method of producing imines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  11. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zahn, Jeffrey D

    2009-01-01

    This unique volume presents leading-edge microfluidics methods used to handle, manipulate, and analyze cells, particles, and biological components (e.g., proteins and DNA) for microdiagnostics. The authors offer clear and detailed guidance on microfabrication techniques utilized to create microfluidic devices and on-chip flow control and mixing Microsystems, protein and DNA handling devices for electrophoretic and isoelectric separations in microchromatography columns, microfluidic manipulations of droplets via electrowetting and particles via dielectrophoresis for separations and chemical rea

  12. Chromosome doubling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  13. Montessori Method and ICTs

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Drigas; Eugenia Gkeka

    2016-01-01

    This article bridges the gap between the Montessori Method and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in contemporary education. It reviews recent research works which recall the Montessori philosophy, principles and didactical tools applying to today’s computers and supporting technologies in children’s learning process. This article reviews how important the stimulation of human senses in the learning process is, as well as the development of Montessori materials using the body a...

  14. Geometrical method of decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, C.

    2012-12-01

    The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances) the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E→, B→, and P→, which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of) transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When used iteratively, the decoupling

  15. Electron cryomicroscopy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, V M

    2001-10-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy methods comprise a rapidly expanding field providing insights into the structure and function of biological macromolecules and their supramolecular assemblies. The 3.8 A resolution structure of the membrane protein aquaporin, a view of the herpesvirus capsid at 8.5 A and the 10 A resolution structure of the spliceosomal U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex are three outstanding examples emphasizing the versatility of this technique.

  16. Method for making nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou; Wu, Huimeng

    2013-06-04

    A method of making a nanostructure by preparing a face centered cubic-ordered metal nanoparticle film from metal nanoparticles, such as gold and silver nanoparticles, exerting a hydrostatic pressure upon the film at pressures of several gigapascals, followed by applying a non-hydrostatic stress perpendicularly at a pressure greater than approximately 10 GPA to form an array of nanowires with individual nanowires having a relatively uniform length, average diameter and density.

  17. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks, "Bering" sports several new technological enhancements and advanced instruments under development at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The autonomous on-board orbit determination method is part...

  18. Methods of celestial mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brouwer, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Methods of Celestial Mechanics provides a comprehensive background of celestial mechanics for practical applications. Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that is devoted to the motions of celestial bodies. This book is composed of 17 chapters, and begins with the concept of elliptic motion and its expansion. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other aspects of celestial mechanics, including gravity, numerical integration of orbit, stellar aberration, lunar theory, and celestial coordinates. Considerable chapters explore the principles and application of various mathematical metho

  19. ARK methods: some recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Nicolette

    2005-03-01

    Almost Runge-Kutta methods are a sub-class of the family of methods known as general linear methods, used for solving ordinary differential equations. They combine many of the favourable properties of traditional Runge-Kutta methods with some additional advantages. We will introduce these methods, concentrating on methods of order four, and present some recent results.

  20. Multigrid methods III

    CERN Document Server

    Trottenberg, U; Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings contain a selection of papers presented at the Third European Conference on Multigrid Methods which was held in Bonn on October 1-4, 1990. Following conferences in 1981 and 1985, a platform for the presentation of new Multigrid results was provided for a third time. Multigrid methods no longer have problems being accepted by numerical analysts and users of numerical methods; on the contrary, they have been further developed in such a successful way that they have penetrated a variety of new fields of application. The high number of 154 participants from 18 countries and 76 presented papers show the need to continue the series of the European Multigrid Conferences. The papers of this volume give a survey on the current Multigrid situation; in particular, they correspond to those fields where new developments can be observed. For example, se­ veral papers study the appropriate treatment of time dependent problems. Improvements can also be noticed in the Multigrid approach for semiconductor eq...

  1. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  2. Validation of analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Rius, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we shall discuss the concept of method validation, describe the various elements and explain its close relationship with fitness for purpose. Method validation is based on the assumption that a series of requirements are fulfilled and we shall explain how these requirements are selected, the way in which evidence is supplied and what work has to be carried out in the laboratory. The basic principles of method validation and the different ways to validate a methodology, by inter-laboratory comparison or performing an in-house validation, are also described.En este artículo se discute el concepto de validación del método, se describen los elementos que la componen y se explica la fuerte relación entre la validación y las características de ajuste. El método de validación se basa en el cumplimiento de una serie de requerimientos, se explica como seleccionar esos requerimientos, la forma en que se suministran evidencias, y que trabajo se debe llevar a cabo en el laboratorio. También se describen, los principios básicos del método de validación y los diferentes caminos para validar una metodología, tanto en la comparación entre laboratorios o como cuando se lleva a cabo una validación dentro del laboratorio.

  3. Generalized Agile Estimation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Bahlerao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agile cost estimation process always possesses research prospects due to lack of algorithmic approaches for estimating cost, size and duration. Existing algorithmic approach i.e. Constructive Agile Estimation Algorithm (CAEA is an iterative estimation method that incorporates various vital factors affecting the estimates of the project. This method has lots of advantages but at the same time has some limitations also. These limitations may due to some factors such as number of vital factors and uncertainty involved in agile projects etc. However, a generalized agile estimation may generate realistic estimates and eliminates the need of experts. In this paper, we have proposed iterative Generalized Estimation Method (GEM and presented algorithm based on it for agile with case studies. GEM  based algorithm various project domain classes and vital factors with prioritization level. Further, it incorporates uncertainty factor to quantify the risk of project for estimating cost, size and duration. It also provides flexibility to project managers for deciding on number of vital factors, uncertainty level and project domains thereby maintaining the agility.

  4. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e.

  5. The data embedding method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

  6. Data embedding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Maxwell T., II; Bradley, Jonathan N.; Handel, Theodore G.

    1996-01-01

    Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in MicrosoftTM bitmap (BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed `steganography.' Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or `lossy' compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is derived from the original host data by an analysis algorithm.

  7. ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .

  8. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  9. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  10. Calcium measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rightly stressed by prof. Wolfgang Walz in the Preface to the series Neuromethods series, the “careful application of methods is probably the most important step in the process of scientific inquiry”. Thus, I strongly suggest to all those interested in calcium signaling and especially to the new-comers in the hot topic of neuroscience (which has so much space even in science-society debate for its implications in legal issues and in the judge-decision process to take profit from this so well edited book. I am saying this since prof. Verkhratsky and prof. Petersen......

  11. Methods of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reiss, Howard

    1997-01-01

    Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of ""constraints"" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. It will be especially useful as an auxiliary text to be used along with any standard treatment.Unlike some texts, Methods of Thermodynamics does not use statistical m

  12. Geometrical method of decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E[over →], B[over →], and P[over →], which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When

  13. Method of joining ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henager, Jr., Charles H.; Brimhall, John L.

    2000-01-01

    According to the method of the present invention, joining a first bi-element carbide to a second bi-element carbide, has the steps of: (a) forming a bond agent containing a metal carbide and silicon; (b) placing the bond agent between the first and second bi-element carbides to form a pre-assembly; and (c) pressing and heating the pre-assembly in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature effective to induce a displacement reaction creating a metal silicon phase bonding the first and second bi-element carbides.

  14. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  15. Electrical estimating methods

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2014-01-01

    Simplify the estimating process with the latest data, materials, and practices Electrical Estimating Methods, Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide to estimating electrical costs, with data provided by leading construction database RS Means. The book covers the materials and processes encountered by the modern contractor, and provides all the information professionals need to make the most precise estimate. The fourth edition has been updated to reflect the changing materials, techniques, and practices in the field, and provides the most recent Means cost data available. The complexity of el

  16. Introduction to Numerical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonover, Joseph A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-14

    These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

  17. Epitope prediction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karosiene, Edita

    on machine learning techniques. Several MHC class I binding prediction algorithms have been developed and due to their high accuracy they are used by many immunologists to facilitate the conventional experimental process of epitope discovery. However, the accuracy of these methods depends on data defining...... the NetMHCIIpan-3.0 predictor based on artificial neural networks, which is capable of giving binding affinities to any human MHC class II molecule. Chapter 4 of this thesis gives an overview of bioinformatics tools developed by the Immunological Bioinformatics group at Center for Biological Sequence...

  18. Formal Methods in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Serna A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of formal methods in industry has progressed extensively over the past decade and the results are promising. But despite these achievements and it have been documented in numerous studies, it is still very common the skepticism about its usefulness and applicability. The goal of this paper is to show that its evolution over the past decade exceeds all previous processes and each time they do a better job to satisfy industrial needs. This is achieved by the description of some experiments and the result of various applications in industry and through an analyzing of the needs of companies that must be satisfy the research community in this field.

  19. Interval methods: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    This chapter contains selected papers presented at the Minisymposium on Interval Methods of the PARA'04 Workshop '' State-of-the-Art in Scientific Computing ''. The emphasis of the workshop was on high-performance computing (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides....... An important characteristic of the computer performance in scientific computing is the accuracy of the Computation results. Often, we can estimate this accuracy by using traditional statistical techniques. However, in many practical situations, we do not know the probability distributions of different...... '' techniques, and the applications of these techniques to various problems of scientific computing....

  20. Hydraulic mining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  1. QUATERNIONIC JACOBI METHOD APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    SANCREY RODRIGUES ALVES

    2008-01-01

    O método tipo-Jacobi quaterniônico foi proposto em 1993. Vários estudos provaram sua convergência e melhoram a teoria proposta desde então. O presente trabalho realiza uma síntese do método tipo- Jacobi quaterniônico, apresentando aplicações do mesmo a diferentes tipos de matrizes. The quaternionic Jacobi method was proposed on 1993. Lots of studies has proved his convergence and also has improved the theory proposed. This document makes a survey of this me...

  2. Methods in Bioengineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nahmias, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Offering a practical look into the field, this volume presents the science behind microscale device design and the engineering of its fabrication. Supported with dozens of full-color illustrations, this book offers you clear, step-by-step methods for the cell capture from whole blood, high-throughput study of transcriptional dynamics in living cells, temporal control of cell-cell interaction, nanoscale measurements of cellular forces, immobilizing living c. elegans, optical and electrical on-chip cell sorting and human-on-chip modeling of drug metabolism.

  3. Interior-point methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potra, Florian A.; Wright, Stephen J.

    2000-12-01

    The modern era of interior-point methods dates to 1984, when Karmarkar proposed his algorithm for linear programming. In the years since then, algorithms and software for linear programming have become quite sophisticated, while extensions to more general classes of problems, such as convex quadratic programming, semi-definite programming, and nonconvex and nonlinear problems, have reached varying levels of maturity. We review some of the key developments in the area, including comments on both the complexity theory and practical algorithms for linear programming, semi-definite programming, monotone linear complementarity, and convex programming over sets that can be characterized by self-concordant barrier functions.

  4. Mathematical methods for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Arfken, George B

    1985-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Third Edition provides an advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate study in physical science, focusing on the mathematics of theoretical physics. This edition includes sections on the non-Cartesian tensors, dispersion theory, first-order differential equations, numerical application of Chebyshev polynomials, the fast Fourier transform, and transfer functions. Many of the physical examples provided in this book, which are used to illustrate the applications of mathematics, are taken from the fields of electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. The He

  5. Ru promoted cobalt catalyst on γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Influence of different catalyst preparation method and Ru loadings on Fischer–Tropsch reaction and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnian, Mohammad Javad; Taheri Najafabadi, Ali [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155/4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mortazavi, Yadollah, E-mail: mortazav@ut.ac.ir [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155/4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Oil and Gas Processing Center of Excellence, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155/4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Abbas Ali [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155/4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Oil and Gas Processing Center of Excellence, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155/4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nazzari, Idin [Catalysis and Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155/4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Effect of impregnation order and Ru content on FT reaction is reported. • Co-impregnation of Co and Ru on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} resulted in an improved reducibility of Co. • CoRu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} prepared by co-impregnation method showed a better catalytic performance. • Ru does not affect C{sub 5+} selectivity whereas the activity is enhanced considerably. • Effect of synthesis parameter on rate constant and activation energy is reported. - Abstract: Ruthenium promoted cobalt catalysts supported on γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared by stepwise and co-impregnation methods. The effects of impregnation order on activity and selectivity of the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) were investigated using fixed bed microreactor. The catalysts were characterized by TPR, XRD and TEM. The selected Ru loading was 0.15 wt.% while that of Co was 15.0 wt.% in all of the prepared samples by different order of impregnation. The catalyst prepared by co-impregnation method shifted both steps of cobalt oxide reduction temperatures to lower temperatures by about 100 °C. However, temperature shift was lower for the catalyst prepared by stepwise impregnation method. The highest CO conversion and C{sub 5+} selectivity and the lowest methane selectivity were obtained for the catalyst synthesized by co-impregnation method. Two other catalysts with 0.3 and 0.6 wt.% of Ru loadings on 15.0 wt.% Co were synthesized by co-impregnation and its effect on the FTS was investigated. The prepared catalysts showed an increase in CO conversion with the increase of Ru from 0 to 0.30 wt.%. However, further increase in Ru led to lower CO conversion for a Ru loading of 0.6 wt.%. The effects of temperature and H{sub 2}/CO ratio for all catalysts were examined and their performance modeled by a Langmuir–Hinshelwood–Hougen–Watson (LHHW) rate expression.

  6. Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098

  7. Research methods in information

    CERN Document Server

    Pickard, Alison Jane

    2013-01-01

    The long-awaited 2nd edition of this best-selling research methods handbook is fully updated and includes brand new coverage of online research methods and techniques, mixed methodology and qualitative analysis. There is an entire chapter contributed by Professor Julie McLeod, Sue Childs and Elizabeth Lomas focusing on research data management, applying evidence from the recent JISC funded 'DATUM' project. The first to focus entirely on the needs of the information and communications community, it guides the would-be researcher through the variety of possibilities open to them under the heading "research" and provides students with the confidence to embark on their dissertations. The focus here is on the 'doing' and although the philosophy and theory of research is explored to provide context, this is essentially a practical exploration of the whole research process with each chapter fully supported by examples and exercises tried and tested over a whole teaching career. The book will take readers through eac...

  8. Nanoscale waveguiding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chia-Jean

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWhile 32 nm lithography technology is on the horizon for integrated circuit (IC fabrication, matching the pace for miniaturization with optics has been hampered by the diffraction limit. However, development of nanoscale components and guiding methods is burgeoning through advances in fabrication techniques and materials processing. As waveguiding presents the fundamental issue and cornerstone for ultra-high density photonic ICs, we examine the current state of methods in the field. Namely, plasmonic, metal slot and negative dielectric based waveguides as well as a few sub-micrometer techniques such as nanoribbons, high-index contrast and photonic crystals waveguides are investigated in terms of construction, transmission, and limitations. Furthermore, we discuss in detail quantum dot (QD arrays as a gain-enabled and flexible means to transmit energy through straight paths and sharp bends. Modeling, fabrication and test results are provided and show that the QD waveguide may be effective as an alternate means to transfer light on sub-diffraction dimensions.

  9. Recombinant methods and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roizman, B.; Post, L.E.

    1988-09-06

    This patent describes a method for stably effecting the insertion or deletion of a selected DNA sequence at a specific site in a viral genome. The method consists of: (1) isolating from the genome a linear DNA fragment comprising both (a) the specific site determined for insertion or deletion of selected DNA sequence and (b) flanking DNA sequences normally preceding and following the site; (2) preparing first and second altered genome fragments from the fragment isolated in step (1). (a) the first altered fragment comprising the fragment comprising a thymidine kinase gene in a position intermediate the ends of the fragment, and (b) the second altered fragment comprising the fragment having the selected DNA sequence inserted therein or deleted therefrom; (3) contacting the genome with the first altered fragment under conditions permitting recombination at sites of DNA sequence homology, selecting for a recombinant genome comprising the thymidine kinase gene, and isolating the recombinant genome; and (4) contacting the recombinant genome isolated in step (3) with the second altered fragment under conditions permitting recombination at sites of DNA sequence homology, selecting for a recombinant genome lacking the thymidine kinase gene, and isolating the recombinant genome product.

  10. Methods of Endotoxin Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenqiong; Ding, Xianting

    2015-08-01

    Endotoxin, present in the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria, can pose serious risks to human health, from irreversible shock to death. Therefore, it is essential to develop sensitive, accurate, and rapid methods for its detection. The rabbit pyrogen test is the first standard technique for endotoxin detection and, nowadays, has been replaced by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test, which is the most popular detection technique for endotoxin. With in-depth understanding of endotoxin, biosensors based on endotoxin-sensing components are promising alternatives to pursue in developing low-cost, easy-operation, and fast-response endotoxin detection techniques. This article summarizes the recent advances of endotoxin detection methods with a particular emphasis on optical and electrochemical biosensors based on various sensing elements ranging from nature biomolecules to artificial materials. As the research and technological revolution continues, the highly integrated and miniaturized commercial devices for sensitively and reliably detecting endotoxin will provide a wide range of applications in people's daily life.

  11. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles, methods of using, and methods of making

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2017-03-16

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for conjugated polymer nanoparticle, method of making conjugated polymer nanoparticles, method of using conjugated polymer nanoparticle, polymers, and the like.

  12. Microencapsulation system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A microencapsulation apparatus is provided which is configured to form co-axial multi-lamellar microcapsules from materials discharged from first and second microsphere dispensers of the apparatus. A method of fabricating and processing microcapsules is also provided which includes forming distinct droplets comprising one or more materials and introducing the droplets directly into a solution bath to form a membrane around the droplets such that a plurality of microcapsules are formed. A microencapsulation system is provided which includes a microcapsule production unit, a fluidized passage for washing and harvesting microcapsules dispensed from the microcapsule production unit and a flow sensor for sizing and counting the microcapsules. In some embodiments, the microencapsulation system may further include a controller configured to simultaneously operate the microcapsule production unit, fluidized passage and flow sensor to process the microcapsules in a continuous manner.

  13. Introduction to perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, M

    1995-01-01

    This book is an introductory graduate text dealing with many of the perturbation methods currently used by applied mathematicians, scientists, and engineers. The author has based his book on a graduate course he has taught several times over the last ten years to students in applied mathematics, engineering sciences, and physics. The only prerequisite for the course is a background in differential equations. Each chapter begins with an introductory development involving ordinary differential equations. The book covers traditional topics, such as boundary layers and multiple scales. However, it also contains material arising from current research interest. This includes homogenization, slender body theory, symbolic computing, and discrete equations. One of the more important features of this book is contained in the exercises. Many are derived from problems of up- to-date research and are from a wide range of application areas.

  14. Extending the MINLO method

    CERN Document Server

    Frederix, Rikkert

    2015-01-01

    We consider improving POWHEG+MINLO simulations, so as to also render them NLO accurate in the description of observables receiving contributions from events with lower parton multiplicity than present in their underlying NLO calculation. On a conceptual level we follow the strategy of the so-called MINLO' programs. Whereas the existing MINLO' framework requires explicit analytic input from higher order resummation, here we derive an effective numerical approximation to these ingredients, by imposing unitarity. This offers a way of extending the MINLO' method to more complex processes, complementary to the known route which uses explicit computations of high-accuracy resummation inputs. Specifically, we have focused on Higgs-plus-two-jet production (HJJ) and related processes. We also consider how one can cover three units of multiplicity at NLO accuracy, i.e. we consider how the HJJ-MINLO simulation may yield NLO accuracy for inclusive H, HJ, and HJJ quantities. We perform a feasibility study assessing the po...

  15. Data mining methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chattamvelli, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    DATA MINING METHODS, Second Edition discusses both theoretical foundation and practical applications of datamining in a web field including banking, e-commerce, medicine, engineering and management. This book starts byintroducing data and information, basic data type, data category and applications of data mining. The second chapterbriefly reviews data visualization technology and importance in data mining. Fundamentals of probability and statisticsare discussed in chapter 3, and novel algorithm for sample covariants are derived. The next two chapters give an indepthand useful discussion of data warehousing and OLAP. Decision trees are clearly explained and a new tabularmethod for decision tree building is discussed. The chapter on association rules discusses popular algorithms andcompares various algorithms in summary table form. An interesting application of genetic algorithm is introduced inthe next chapter. Foundations of neural networks are built from scratch and the back propagation algorithm is derived...

  16. New methods in cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, V J; Kearney, L

    1994-06-01

    Developments in the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) now permit hybridization of sequences ranging from 1 kb to whole genomes. The technique can be used in applications from coarse mapping of whole chromosomes to high-resolution analysis of extended strands of DNA. The complexity, and hence the coverage, of 'paints' prepared by amplification is being improved to the extent that such methods are used in cloning strategies for the generation of region-specific probes. Interphase analysis and comparative genomic hybridization are becoming important tools in cancer cytogenetics, and the potential for routine analysis of fetal cells obtained from maternal blood may provide a fresh approach to prenatal cytogenetic screening. Functional studies of gene activity and nuclear organization are now also possible.

  17. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  18. Floating Silicon Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  19. Cyclostationarity theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Leśkow, Jacek; Napolitano, Antonio; Sanchez-Ramirez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade the research in signal analysis was dominated by models that encompass nonstationarity as an important feature. This book presents the results of a workshop held in Grodek—Poland in February 2013 which was dedicated to the investigation of cyclostationary signals. Its main objective is to highlight the strong interactions between theory and applications of cyclostationary signals with the use of modern statistical tools. An important application of cyclostationary signals is the analysis of mechanical signals generated by a vibrating mechanism. Cyclostationary models are very important to perform basic operations on signals in both time and frequency domains. One of the fundamental problems in diagnosis of rotating machine is the identification of significant modulating frequencies that contribute to the cyclostationary nature of the signals. The book shows that there are modern tools available for analyzing cyclostationary signals without the assumption of gaussianity. Those methods are...

  20. METHOD OF RECOVERING THORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, R.W.

    1957-12-10

    A method is described for recovering thorium from impurities found in a slag containing thorium and said impurities, comprising leaching a composition containing thorium with water, removing the water solution, treating the residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting its acidity to 1 to 3 normal, adding oxalic acid, and thereafter separating the precipitated thorium oxalate digesting the residue from the hydrochloric acid treatment with a strong solution of sodium hydroxide at an elevated temperature, removing said solution and treating the insoluble residue with hydrochloric acid, separating the solution from the insoluble residue, adjusting the acidity of this solution to 1 to 3 normal, adding nitric acid to oxidize the iron present, adding oxalic acid and thereafter separating the thorium oxalate thus precipitated.