WorldWideScience

Sample records for waterwall incinerators

  1. Solid waste utilization: incineration with heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1978-04-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) Program, Technology Evaluations, this evaluation considers the potential utilization of municipal solid wastes as an energy source by use of incineration with heat recovery. Subjects covered include costs, design data, inputs and outputs, and operational problems. Two generic types of heat recovery incinerators are evaluated. The first type, called a waterwall incinerator, is one in which heat is recovered directly from the furnace using water circulated through tubes imbedded in the furnace walls. This design normally is used for larger installations (>200 tons/day). The second type, a starved-air incinerator is used mainly in smaller sizes (<100 tons/day). Burning is performed in the incinerator, and heat recovery is obtained by the use of heat exchangers on the flue gases from the incinerator. Currently there are not many installations of either type in the United States; however, interest in this form of solid-waste handling appears to be increasing.

  2. Incineration technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Buekens, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Waste incineration is the art of completely combusting waste, while maintaining or reducing emission levels below current emission standards. Where possible, objectives include the recovering of energy as well as the  combustion residues.  Successful waste incineration makes it possible to achieve a deep reduction in waste volume, obtain a compact and sterile residue, and eliminate a wide array of pollutants. This book places waste incineration within the wider context of waste management, and demonstrates that, in contrast to landfills and composting, waste incineration can eliminate objectionable and hazardous properties such as flammability and toxicity, result in a significant reduction in volume, and destroy gaseous and liquid waste streams leaving little or no residues beyond those linked to flue gas neutralization and treatment. Moreover, waste incineration sterilizes and destroys putrescible matter, and produces usable heat.  Incineration Technologies first appeared as a peer-reviewed contribution ...

  3. In situ corrosion testing of various nickel alloys at Måbjerg waste incineration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Hansson, A. N.; Jensen, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of waste in Denmark is disposed via waste to energy (WTE) incineration plants which are fabricated from carbon steel. However, due to the increasing corrosiveness of waste over the years, more corrosion resistant alloys are required. In Denmark, Inconel 625 (UNSN06625) is the weld....... The composition of the deposits from the exposed waterwall panels was also analysed each time sections were removed. This paper will compare the various nickel alloys in the two areas and assess the results of the long‐term testing project....

  4. A study of LNCFS III coal burners on boiler waterwall tube wastage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, R.C.; Gordon, C.M.; Saunders, M.M.; Bray, A.J. [New York State Electric Gas, Bingamton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Ultrasonic Testing (UT) of waterwall tubing of a tangentially-fired, sub-critical boiler at Milliken Station of New York State Electric and Gas (NYSEG) was undertaken to determine the effects of the newly installed low NO{sub x} firing system on waterwall tube wastage. During a 1993 outage, the pulverized coal-fired boiler was equipped with an ABB CE Low NO, Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) of the third generation (III) including Staged Overfire Air (SOFA) and a coal pulverizing system capable of improving mill fineness by approximately 30 percent. The study was in conjunction with a Department of Energy Clean Coal Demonstration Project. Three separate thickness, surveys were compared using the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) Boiler Maintenance Workstation (BMW). The Tube Condition Module of BMW compared a total of 20,556 test locations of the three surveys. The evaluations of the surveys indicate that the short-term effect of low NO{sub x} firing with LNCFS III and increased fineness has moderately reduced the remaining life of the carbon steel boiler tubing in selected locations of the waterfall. Approximately 5 percent of the test locations are experiencing an annual tube wastage of 0.008 inches or greater. Additional testing and analyses are recommended to better understand the longer term effects of the low NO{sub x} firing system and the wastage of selected tubing The influence of boiler operating parameters, such as cyclic duty, proportioning of secondary air, or fuel changes, on waterwall tube wastage should also be evaluated over a longer operating period.

  5. Simulation of heat transfer in combustion chamber waterwall tubes of supercritical steam boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grądziel Sławomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of numerical computations performed for the furnace chamber waterwalls of a supercritical boiler with a steam output of 2400 × 103 kg/h. A model of distributed parameters is proposed for the waterwall operation simulation. It is based on the solution of equations describing the mass, momentum and energy conservation laws. The aim of the calculations was to determine the distribution of enthalpy, mass flow and fluid pressure in tubes. The balance equations can be brought to a form where on the left-hand side space derivatives, and on the right-hand side – time derivatives are obtained. The time derivatives on the right-hand side were replaced with backward difference quotients. This system of ordinary differential equations was solved using the Runge-Kutta method. The calculation also takes account of the variable thermal load of the chamber along its height. This thermal load distribution is known from the calculations of the heat exchange in the combustion chamber. The calculations were carried out with the zone method.

  6. Thermographic Imaging of Material Loss in Boiler Water-Wall Tubing by Application of Scanning Line Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wall thinning due to corrosion in utility boiler water-wall tubing is a significant inspection concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. This technique has proven to be very manpower and time intensive. This has resulted in a spot check approach to inspections, documenting thickness measurements over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall area. NASA Langley Research Center has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to image and quantitatively characterize the amount of material thinning present in steel tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source coupled with the analysis technique represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed for large structures such as boiler water-walls. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented which explains the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, a dynamic calibration system will be presented for the technique that allows the extraction of thickness information from the temperature data. Additionally, the results of applying this technology to actual water-wall tubing samples and in situ inspections will be presented.

  7. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-07-15

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance.

  8. Incineration by accelerator; Incineration par accelerateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribier, M.; FIoni, G.; Legrain, R.; Lelievre, F.; Leray, S.; Pluquet, A.; Safa, H.; Spiro, M.; Terrien, Y.; Veyssiere, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    The use MOX fuel allows to hope a stabilization of plutonium production around 500 tons for the French park. In return, the flow of minor actinides is increased to several tons. INCA (INCineration by Accelerator), dedicated instrument, would allow to transmute several tons of americium, curium and neptunium. It could be able to reduce nuclear waste in the case of stopping nuclear energy use. This project needs: a protons accelerator of 1 GeV at high intensity ( 50 m A), a window separating the accelerator vacuum from the reactor, a spallation target able to produce 30 neutrons by incident proton, an incineration volume where a part of fast neutrons around the target are recovered, and a thermal part in periphery with flows at 2.10 {sup 15} n/cm{sup 2}.s; a chemical separation of elements burning in thermal (americium) from the elements needing a flow of fast neutrons. (N.C.). 28 refs.

  9. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  10. Design of personal portable network hardware waterwall%个人便携式网络硬件防水墙设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张民; 李正生; 吴宁

    2012-01-01

    文中介绍了防水墙技术和数据包过滤技术,针对个人计算机网络安全的问题,设计了一种便携式的防水墙系统。本系统运用了防水墙技术和网络数据包过滤技术,采用MEGA128单片机控制DM9000网络控制器的方法,对本地计算机发出的数据进行过滤,达到了防止信息被窃取的目的。%This article describes a waterwall and packet filtering technology. A portable waterwall system is designed for the personal computer network security problems. This system uses waterwall technology and network packet filtering techniques, the method of DM9000 controlled by MEGA128, to filter the data issued by the local computer, to achieve the purpose of preventing the information being stolen.

  11. Waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede Rasmussen, Anja

    2004-06-15

    This prepatory thesis is a literature study on the incineration of waste. It deals with the concepts of municipal solid waste, the composition and combustion of it. A main focus is on the European emission regulations and the formation of dioxins, as well as a big effort is put into the treatment of solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration. In the latter area, concepts of treatment, such as physical and chemical separations, solidification and stabilization techniques, thermal methods, and extraction methods have been discussed. Evaluation of possible methods of treatment has been done, but no conclusions made of which is the best. Though, indications exist that especially two methods have shown positive qualities and must be further investigated. These methods are the acid extraction and sulfide stabilization (AES) process and the phosphate stabilization method of WES-PHix. Economic potentials of the two methods have been evaluated, and with the information obtained, it seems that the price for treatment and later landfilling of a material with improved leaching characteristics, will be approximately the same as the presently most used solution of export to Norway. However, more tests, investigations and economic evaluations are necessary in order for support of the findings in this work. (au)

  12. Design, fabrication and testing of a marketable waterwall component. Final technical report, 1 September 1978-31 August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, T.J.; Habib, V.

    1979-08-01

    One Design, Inc., has designed and developed modular waterwall components that make up a system for passive solar space heating using a south-facing thermal storage wall. The modules can also be used as thermal mass storage for roof apertures and for greenhouse applications. The modules are constructed of fiberglass reinforced polyester and each is 95 inches long, 16.5 inches wide and 24.5 inches tall. Each module contains 94 gallons or 784 pounds of water. When stacked behind south glazing, they provide 52 Btu//sup 0/F per square foot of net glazed area. A stack of four modules has a height of 93.5 inches, suitable for an 8-foot interior ceiling; a stack of five modules is 116.5 inches high, suitable for a 10-foot interior ceiling. The modules are designed to stack on one another without requiring additional hardware and nest inside each other to reduce shipping costs. Prototype modules were fabricated and subjected to structural tests. They were found to be capable of supporting at least 4.8 times the load imposed by a five tank stack, well above the recommended safety factor of 2. Long term purity of the water in the containers was tested and evaluated and found to be within acceptable limits. Prototype modules were installed in One Design's Star Tannery House near Winchester, Virginia, and performance was extensively monitored from January to April, 1979. Based on the performance during the period, it has been estimated that the passive solar heating contribution would be 79.5% of the house's total heating requirement.

  13. Incinerator technology overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoleri, Joseph J.

    1991-04-01

    In the 1960's, much effort was expended on cleaning up the air and water. Air Quality and Water Quality Acts were written and inpleinented in many states and coninunities. New products such as unleaded gasoline and water base paints were developed to aid in minimizing pollution. Conversion from oil fired combustion systems to natural gas fired for comfort and industrial heating was the normal practice. In 1970, the Clean Air Act was passed. There was concern on how to safely dispose of hazardous wastes. Indiscriminate dumping of chemical process wastes had been the practice since the birth of the chemical industry in the USA. Land dumping, inadequate landfills, and river-ocean dumping were the most economical ways to dispose of chemical wastes. Processes that would have reduced or eliminated wastes were disregarded as being too costly. Many of the major chemical companies who regarded a safe environment as their responsibility installed waste treatment and disposal facilities on their plant sites. Many of these plants elected to use incinerators as the treatment process. This was not always the most economical method, but in many cases it was the only method of disposal that provided a safe and sure method of maximum destruction. Environmental concern over contamination from uncontrolled land disposal sites, and the emergence of tougher regulations for land disposal provide incentives for industry to employ a wide variety of traditional and advanced technologies for managing hazardous wastes. Incineration systems utilizing proper design, operation, and maintenance provides the safest and in the long run, the most economical avenue to the maximum level of destruction of organic hazardous wastes.

  14. Effective incineration technology with a new-type rotary waste incinerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lie-qiang; ZHU Jian-zhong; CAI Ming-zhao; XIE Xin-yuan

    2003-01-01

    The technology of steady combustion in a new type of rotary incinerator is firstly discussed. The formation and control of HCl, NOx and SO2 during the incineration of sampled municipal organic solid waste are studied with the incinerator. Results showed that the new model of rotary incinerator can effectively control and reduce the pollutant formations by post combustion.

  15. Consolidated Incineration Facility model videotape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krolewski, J F; Augsburger, S T

    1988-01-01

    A Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) is in final design for construction at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina. The CIF will detoxify and volume reduce combustible radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste. A study model was constructed during scope development for project authorization to assist with equipment layout and insure sufficient maintenance access. To facilitate the Department of Energy Validation process, a videotape of the model was developed. This ten minute videotape includes general information about the incineration process and a tour of the study model with a discussion of activities in each area. The videotape will be shown and the current status and schedule for the CIF presented.

  16. MSW incineration: a critical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallis, M.K.; Watson, Alan (University of Wales Coll. of Cardiff (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.)

    1994-12-01

    Despite United Kingdom Government enthusiasm for the incineration of municipal waste, based on the desirability of energy recovery from waste, the authors offer a critical assessment of this option for the disposal of such wastes, which would otherwise be buried in scarce landfill sites. Most United Kingdom incinerators are poorly designed, unsuitable for domestic waste, frequently out of use for repairs, expensive to run and producers of unacceptably high levels of air polluting gaseous wastes. Despite these drawbacks, such schemes are subsidised through the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation to the tune of around Pound 15 per tonne. It is argued that this money should more logically be spent on cleaning up the pollution effects of existing conventional plant. For the future, a combination of materials recycling facilities and bio-digesters offers flexibility and economy, and is more likely to win public approval. (UK)

  17. Controlled air incinerator conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a conceptual design study for a controlled air incinerator facility for incineration of low level combustible waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). The facility design is based on the use of a Helix Process Systems controlled air incinerator. Cost estimates and associated engineering, procurement, and construction schedules are also provided. The cost estimates and schedules are presented for two incinerator facility designs, one with provisions for waste ash solidification, the other with provisions for packaging the waste ash for transport to an undefined location.

  18. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  19. Materials for Waste Incinerators and Biomass Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademakers, P.; Grossmann, G.; Karlsson, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13.......This paper reviews the projects of the sub-package on waste incineration and biomass firing carried out within COST 501 Round III, Work Package 13....

  20. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  1. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...

  2. Apparatus for incinerating hazardous waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.C.W.

    1994-12-20

    An apparatus is described for incinerating wastes, including an incinerator having a combustion chamber, a fluid-tight shell enclosing the combustion chamber, an afterburner, an off-gas particulate removal system and an emergency off-gas cooling system. The region between the inner surface of the shell and the outer surface of the combustion chamber forms a cavity. Air is supplied to the cavity and heated as it passes over the outer surface of the combustion chamber. Heated air is drawn from the cavity and mixed with fuel for input into the combustion chamber. The pressure in the cavity is maintained at least approximately 2.5 cm WC higher than the pressure in the combustion chamber. Gases cannot leak from the combustion chamber since the pressure outside the chamber (inside the cavity) is higher than the pressure inside the chamber. The apparatus can be used to treat any combustible wastes, including biological wastes, toxic materials, low level radioactive wastes, and mixed hazardous and low level transuranic wastes. 1 figure.

  3. Evaluation of medical waste incinerators in Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Ossama A; Hussein, Ahmed H; El-Shall, Waffaa I; Zakaria, Adel; Mohamed, Mona G

    2005-01-01

    Medical establishments play important roles in different activities by using of modern technology to serve the humans and the environment through different departments in the establishment and its firms. Medical wastes are considered as a hazardous waste because they contain toxic materials, infectious, or non-infectious wastes and they are considered as a hazard to millions of patients, health care workers, and visitors. Treatment processes for medical wastes comprise autoclaving, microwaving, chemical disinfection, irradiation, plasma system, and incineration. Incineration is a thermal process, which destroys most of the waste including microorganisms. Combustion process must be under controlled conditions to convert wastes containing hazardous materials into mineral residues and gases. Hospital waste incinerators may emit a number of pollutants depending on the waste being incinerated. These pollutants include particulate matter, acid gases, toxic metals, and toxic organic compounds products of incomplete combustion, e.g., dioxins, furans, and carbon monoxide, as well as sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. So, there should be a reduction of emissions of most of these pollutants by air pollution control devices. This study was conducted in 51 medical establishments (ME) in Alexandria. To evaluate its incinerators. It was found that only 31.4% of total ME have their own incinerators to treat their medical waste. Also, the incinerators conditions were poor with incomplete combustion. So, the study recommend handling of all medical wastes of ME in Alexandria by the company which is responsible now for management of domestic solid wastes of the city.

  4. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant.

  5. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...... suicide in remote areas of the countryside. Most were found dead at the scene, and the cause of death was usually heat exposure. Only a minority had a lethal carboxy-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentration. It is concluded that close cooperation between police, fire experts, and the forensic pathologist...

  6. Suicide by self-incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Hardt-Madsen, Michael

    1997-01-01

    was 43 years, with a broad age range (20-87). Many incidents of self-incineration as a form of political protest were reported in the press especially during the 1960s and 1970s, and the press reports often inspired others to commit suicide in the same way. None of the cases in our investigation were...... victims were of Danish origin, and a religious motive played no significant role. Most of the victims were suffering from mental illness, and a majority had tried to commit suicide before. None of the victims left a suicide note. The scene was most often at home and indoors--only a minority committed...... suicide in remote areas of the countryside. Most were found dead at the scene, and the cause of death was usually heat exposure. Only a minority had a lethal carboxy-hemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentration. It is concluded that close cooperation between police, fire experts, and the forensic pathologist...

  7. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...... of these issues focusing on pH-development in landfilled residues, effects of leaching test conditions on Cr leaching and effects of pre-treatment with FeSO4....

  8. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Riber, C.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main...... of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed...... material used amounting to 19,000–26,000tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000MWh. In terms of the environmental burden...

  9. Highly Efficient Fecal Waste Incinerator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Volume reduction is a critical element of Solid Waste Management for manned spacecraft and planetary habitations. To this end, the proposed fecal waste incinerator...

  10. Advanced Computer Simulations of Military Incinerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    models contain 3D furnace and canister geometries and all of the relevant physics and chemistry. The destruction of chemical agent is predicted using...computational chemistry methods, chemical kinetics have been developed that describe the incineration of organo -phosphorus nerve agent (GB, VX) and...States. The chemical warfare agents (CWA) consist of mustard gas and other blister agents as well as organo -phosphorus nerve agents. Incineration was

  11. Analysis on Microstructure and Hardness Evolution of 12Cr1MoV Water-wall Tubes Failure%12Cr1MoV水冷壁管失效后组织及硬度转变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫侯霞; 刘晓明

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and hardness evolution of 12CrlMoV water-wall tubes after failure was analyzed by advanced analysis-test means in order to find the failure reasons. The results show that the failure reason of 12CrlMoV water-wall tube is short-time overheating; the microstructure from back-fire side to face-fire side is F+P, F + S + P, F + B, F + M+T and M+T. The hardness from back-fire side to face-fire side increases.%采用先进的分析测试手段对12Cr1MoV水冷壁的珠光体耐热钢管失效后组织及硬度的 变化进行连续分析,以便更加准确地判断其失效原因.结果表明,12Cr1MoV水冷壁爆管原因为短时超温;组织自背火侧至向火侧依次为F+P,F+S+P,F+B,F+M+T,M+T,同时其硬度也呈现逐渐升高的趋势.

  12. Clinical waste incinerators in Cameroon--a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mochungong, Peter Ikome Kuwoh; Gulis, Gabriel; Sodemann, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Incinerators are widely used to treat clinical waste in Cameroon's Northwest Region. These incinerators cause public apprehension owing to purported risks to operators, communities and the environment. This article aims to summarize findings from an April 2008 case study....

  13. the development of new generation of solid waste refuse incinerators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design of these incinerators does not allow combustion products directly into ... will be almost impossible since the ash builds a semi-solid ash that cannot be ... subsidence of the ground destroys the incinerators by the base caving in.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION IN CFC INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the collection of combustion emission characterization data from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) incineration. A bench scale test program to provide emission characterization data from CFC incineration was developed and performed, with emphasis on the format...

  15. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted.

  16. 40 CFR 264.344 - Hazardous waste incinerator permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.344 Hazardous waste incinerator permits. (a) The owner or operator of a... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous waste incinerator permits...

  17. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  19. Cooling characteristics of closed greenhouse with water-walls in summer%水墙封闭温室夏季降温特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙维拓; 陈晓丽; 杨其长; 郭文忠; 王利春; 宋文品; 薛绪掌

    2016-01-01

    提供参考与技术支持。%The closed greenhouse is a light-permeable greenhouse type, with totally-enclosed architectural structure. Cooling by ventilation is replaced completely by mechanical cooling. Excess solar energy is collected and stored to be reused to heat the greenhouse or other buildings. The closed greenhouse can achieve energy conservation and emission reduction, recycling water of evapotranspiration, maintaining a high level of CO2 concentration, as well as isolating the bacteria spores from external environment, etc. However, high air temperature inside the closed greenhouse is difficult to control effectively in summer, or a great deal of energy is needed to consume, resulting in a restriction of the closed greenhouse when used in actual production. In order to decrease air temperature inside the closed greenhouse, taking low carbon emission and energy-saving into consideration, a closed greenhouse with water-walls (CGWW) was designed and built in Changping District of Beijing, China. With an indoor ground surface of about 7.6 m², it was supported by a steel skeleton and assembled from some glass tanks filled with water. And for suppressing the growth of green algae, pH value of the water was adjusted to 9.5. Water layer thickness of side walls and roof were 30 and 13 cm, respectively. Cooling characteristics of the CGWW in summer was tested from 26 Jul. to 10 Sep. 2015. During the test, cucumbers and rapes were cultivated inside the CGWW. The results showed that, average air temperature inside the CGWW was 29.4-34.3℃ around noon (10:00-16:00), decreased by 0.8-6.8℃ compared with ambient. Meanwhile, the air temperature drop range inside the CGWW got bigger with the increase of solar radiation or ambient air temperature (P<0.01). In 94.6% of the photosynthesis period (06:00-18:00), air temperature inside the CGWW was controlled within 35℃, which could avoid the high temperature stress effectively. So the CGWW had remarkable effect for

  20. Investigation of novel incineration technology for hospital waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Ma, Lanlan; Liu, Yushan; Kong, Guoxing

    2006-10-15

    Conventional incineration systems for hospital waste (HW) emit large amounts of particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, as well as dioxins, due to the large excess air ratio. Additionally, the final process residues--bottom and fly ashes containing high levels of heavy metals and dioxins--also constitute a serious environmental problem. These issues faced by HW incineration processes are very similar to those confronted by conventional municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. In our previous work, we developed a novel technology integrating drying, pyrolysis, gasification, combustion, and ash vitrification (DPGCV) in one step, which successfully solved these issues in MSW incineration. In this study, many experiments are carried out to investigate the feasibility of employing the DPGCV technology to solve the issues faced by HW incineration processes, although there was no MSW incinerator used as a HW incinerator till now. Experiments were conducted in an industrial HW incineration plant with a capacity of 24 tons per day (TPD), located in Zhenzhou, Henan Province. Results illustrated that this DPGCV technology successfully solved these issues as confronted by the conventional HW incinerators and achieved the expected results for HW incineration as it did for MSW incineration. The outstanding performance of this DPGCV technology is due to the fact that the primary chamber acted as both gasifier for organic matter and vitrifying reactor for ashes, and the secondary chamber acted as a gas combustor.

  1. 40 CFR 761.70 - Incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provisions of this regulation; (ii) When an incinerator is first used for the disposal of PCBs after the...; (c) CO2; (d) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX); (e) Hydrochloric Acid (HCl); (f) Total Chlorinated Organic... continuous. The monitoring for CO2 shall be periodic, at a frequency specified by the Regional...

  2. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues r...

  3. Carbon monoxide formation and emissions during waste incineration in a grate-circulating fluidized bed incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguo Zhang; Qinghai Li; Aihong Meng; Changhe Chen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of carbon monoxide (CO) formation and emissions in both grate drying bed incinerators and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerators to simulate the two key parts of a combined grate and circulating fluidized bed (grate-CFB) incinerator in order to investigate pollutant emission control in municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion that occurs in a grate-CFB incinerator utilizing a patented technology. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, kitchen waste, paper, textile, etc. were chosen to simulate the MSW. The effects of temperature, air staging, and moisture on the CO formation and emissions were analysed for both the grate drying bed combustion and the CFB combustion. In the grate drying bed, the low temperatures increased the carbon to CO conversion rate which also increased slightly with the moisture content. Industrial field tests in a commercial grate-CFB incinerator showed that the CO concentration at the grate drying bed exit was very high and decreased along furnace height. The carbon to CO conversion rates were 0-20% for the grate drying bed which exceeded the range of 0.8-16% measured in a grate drying bed exit of the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests. In the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests, at excess air ratios ranging from 1.5-2.0 or more, the CO emissions decreased to a low and stable level, whose corresponding carbon to CO conversion rates were far lower than 0-10%. The low CO emission is one of the factors enabling the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran emissions to satisfy the Chinese national regulations.

  4. Numerical simulation of synthesis gas incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, A. V.; Khaustov, S. A.; Tabakaev, R. B.; Belousova, Y. A.

    2016-04-01

    The authors have analysed the expediency of the suggested low-grade fuels application method. Thermal processing of solid raw materials in the gaseous fuel, called synthesis gas, is investigated. The technical challenges concerning the applicability of the existing gas equipment developed and extensively tested exclusively for natural gas were considered. For this purpose computer simulation of three-dimensional syngas-incinerating flame dynamics was performed by means of the ANSYS Multiphysics engineering software. The subjects of studying were: a three-dimensional aerodynamic flame structure, heat-release and temperature fields, a set of combustion properties: a flare range and the concentration distribution of burnout reagents. The obtained results were presented in the form of a time-averaged pathlines with color indexing. The obtained results can be used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of complex multicomponent gas incineration singularities.

  5. AEROSOL BEHAVIOR IN CHROMIUM WASTE INCINERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suyuan Yu

    2003-01-01

    Cr2O3 is considered as the dominant incineration product during the combustion disposal of chromium waste. A hydrogen/air diffusion flame was employed to simulate the industrial process of incineration. Cr2O3 aerosols were generated inside the flame by the gas phase reaction of chromium and oxygen. Chromium came from the rapid decomposition of chromium hexacarbonyl (Cr(CO)6) at room temperature and was carried into the combustion chamber by hydrogen. Aerosol and clusters can then be easily formed in the flame by nucleation and coagulation. A two dimensional Discrete-Sectional Model (DSM) was adopted to calculate the Cr2O3 aerosol behavior. The experimental measurement method was Dynamic Light Scattering. The numerically predicted results agreed well with those of the experimental measurement. Both results show that the Cr2O3 aerosol size reached about 70 nanometers at the flame top.

  6. Arsenic burden survey among refuse incinerator workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chung-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incinerator workers are not considered to have arsenic overexposure although they have the risk of overexposure to other heavy metals. Aim: To examine the relationship between arsenic burden and risk of occupational exposure in employees working at a municipal refuse incinerator by determining the concentrations of arsenic in the blood and urine. Settings and Design: The workers were divided into three groups based on their probability of contact with combustion-generated residues, namely Group 1: indirect contact, Group 2: direct contact and Group 3: no contact. Healthy age- and sex-matched residents living in the vicinity were enrolled as the control group. Materials and Methods: Heavy metal concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Downstream rivers and drinking water of the residents were examined for environmental arsenic pollution. A questionnaire survey concerning the contact history of arsenic was simultaneously conducted. Statistical analysis: Non-parametric tests, cross-tabulation and multinomial logistic regression. Results: This study recruited 122 incinerator workers. The urine and blood arsenic concentrations as well as incidences of overexposure were significantly higher in the workers than in control subjects. The workers who had indirect or no contact with combustion-generated residues had significantly higher blood arsenic level. Arsenic contact history could not explain the difference. Airborne and waterborne arsenic pollution were not detected. Conclusion: Incinerator workers run the risk of being exposed to arsenic pollution, especially those who have incomplete protection in the workplace even though they only have indirect or no contact with combustion-generated pollutants.

  7. Geotechnical engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhunthan, B; Taha, R; Said, J

    2004-08-01

    The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash. Landfilling has been the primary mode of disposal of these waste materials. Shortage in landfill space and the high cost of treatment have, however, prompted the search for alternative uses of these waste materials. This study presents an experimental program that was conducted to determine the engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes for use as construction materials. Incinerator ash mixes were tested as received and around optimum compacted conditions. Compaction curves, shear strength, and permeability values of fly ash, bottom ash, and their various blends were investigated. Bottom ash tends to achieve maximum dry density at much lower water content than does fly ash. The mixes displayed a change in their cohesion and friction angle values when one of the two mix components was altered or as a result of the addition of water. The permeability of bottom ash is quite comparable to that of sand. The permeability of fly ash lies in the range of those values obtained for silts and clays. A 100% bottom ash compacted at the optimum water content has a lower density value and yields a higher friction angle and cohesion values than most construction fills. This would encourage the use of bottom ash as a fill or embankment material because free drainage of water will prevent the buildup of pore water pressures.

  8. Tin cans and refuse incineration: upgrading the scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapper, G.; Dijkstra, S.J.; Loon, van A.P.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the series of investigations whether and how it is possible to reclaim the iron and tin constituents after incineration, several experiments were performed with the refuse incinerator of Amsterdam. The operating conditions were varied and the influence on the behaviour of the tin cans were determ

  9. LCA Comparison of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    of two incinerator systems that are representative of conditions in Northern and Southern Europe. The two case studies are Aarhus (Denmark) and Milan (Italy). The results show that waste incineration appears more environmentally friendly in the Danish case than in the Italian one, due to the higher...

  10. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING CFC INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of experiments to assess: (1) the effect of residual copper retained in an incineration facility on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) formation during incineration of non-copper-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); and (2) th...

  11. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  12. Use of Incineration MSW Ash: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H. K. Lam

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI ashes, with a main focus on the chemical properties of the ashes. Furthermore, the possible treatment methods for the utilization of ash, namely, separation processes, solidification/stabilization and thermal processes, are also discussed. Seven types of MSWI ash utilization are reviewed, namely, cement and concrete production, road pavement, glasses and ceramics, agriculture, stabilizing agent, adsorbents and zeolite production. The practical use of MSWI ash shows a great contribution to waste minimization as well as resources conservation.

  13. Incinerate, recycle, or wash and reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbe, M. A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the best way to minimize the environmental impact of using a product such as paper? Three debating teams were formed within a university class. One team advocated increased recycling of paper. Another team pointed to evidence showing reduced environmental impact and lower net CO2 emissions if the paper is incinerated rather than recycled. A third team advocated the replacement of paper by items such as porcelain plates and video screens, cutting costs and reducing waste by multiple reuse.

  14. Shredder and incinerator technology for treatment of commercial transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Ross, W.A.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes the selection and evaluation of process equipment to accomplish the shredding and incineration of commercial TRU wastes. The primary conclusions derived from this study are: Shredding and incineration technology appears effective for converting simulated commercial TRU wastes to a noncombustible form. The gas-heated controlled-air incinerator received the highest technical ranking. On a scale of 1 to 10, the incinerator had a Figure-of-Merit (FOM) number of 7.0. This compares to an FOM of 6.1 for the electrically heated controlled-air incinerator and an FOM of 5.8 for the rotary kiln incienrator. The present worth costs of the incineration processes for a postulated commercial reprocessing plant were lowest for the electrically heated and gas-heated controlled-air incinerators with costs of $16.3 M and $16.9 M, respectively (1985 dollars). Due to higher capital and operating costs, the rotary kiln process had a present worth cost of $20.8 M. The recommended process from the three evaluated for the commercial TRU waste application is the gas-heated controlled-air incinerator with a single stage of shredding for feed pretreatment. This process had the best cost-effectiveness ratio of 1.0 (normalized). The electrically heated controller-air incinerator had a rating of 1.2 and the rotary kiln rated a 1.5. Most of the simulated wastes were easily processed by the low-speed shredders evaluated. The HEPA filters proved difficult to process, however. Wood-framed HEPA filters tended to ride on the cutter wheels and spacers without being gripped and shredded. The metal-framed HEPA filters and other difficult to shred items caused the shredders to periodically reach the torque limit and go into an automatic reversal cycle; however, the filters were eventually processed by the units. All three incinerators were ineffective for oxidizing the aluminum metal used as spacers in HEPA filters.

  15. Analysis of Discharged Gas from Incinerator using Simulated Organic Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Kang, Dukwon [HaJI Co., Ltd., Radiation Eng. Center, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yunbok; Kwon, Youngbock [KORAD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Korea has no experience of treatment of RI organic waste and appropriate measures for treatment of organic waste did not suggested. RI organic wastes which are occurring in KOREA are stored at the RI waste storage building of KORAD. But they can't no more receive the RI organic waste because the storage facility for RI organic waste was saturated with these organic wastes. In case of Japan, they recognized the dangerousness of long-term storage for RI organic wastes. In case of Korea, the released concentration of gaseous pollutant from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.1 of the Notification No. 2012-60 of Nuclear Safety Commission and attached table No.8 of Clean Air Conservation Act. And the dioxin from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.3 of Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act. This experiment was performed to examine whether the incinerator introduced from Japan is manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and to confirm the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws especially attached table No.1 of NSC using simulated organic waste solution. In this experiment, we examined whether the incinerator was manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and confirmed the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws using simulated organic waste solution. The design requirement of incinerator for RI organic waste in the municipal law regulation is proposed briefly but the requirements for more detail about the incinerator are proposed in regulation of Japan. The incinerator used in this experiment is satisfied with all clauses of the domestic as well as Japan. Multiple safety functions were installed in the incinerator such as air purge system to remove unburned inflammable gases in the furnace and earthquake detector. Also, perfect combustion of RI organic waste is achieved because the temperature in the furnace

  16. INVESTIGATING THE STANDARD PROCESS OF INCINERATION IN LANGKAWI ISLAND, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shamshiry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development activities and increasing urbanization have direct impact on solid waste generation, especially in municipalities of the developing countries, which poses a major challenge to the authorities. Many various technologies and strategies can be used in the field of garbage procedures. Incineration is a well-organized approach and tool to decrease the volume of waste and insist for additional landfill area. One of the important benefits of using the incineration is its ability to decrease a significant amount of waste combustibles by 80 to 95%. Controlling air pollution in the process of using the incineration poses a challenge for solid waste disposal. The data utilized in this article include personal interview of the experts handling the incineration process in Langkawi and personal observation. Secondary data obtained from the Ministry of Housing and Local Government was used to investigate the external air pollution from using the incinerator in Langkawi. The results showed, through the analysis of raw data with SPSS IBM 19 and Pearson correlation analysis and identify cluster of dendrogram generated by UPGMA, an external pollution minimum (p<0.05 between sampling sites inside the incinerator. The reasons for the difference are related to untimely and inappropriate opening of the combustion chamber door, exorbitance blowing and improper use of the installed air pollution control devices. The proper treatment of solid waste is very crucial, especially in Langkawi Island which is a tourist destination. The use of incinerator can enhance solid waste treatment, but only when the standard operating procedure is observed. Without properly observing the procedure, the use of an incinerator can cause more environmental and personal health issues like air pollution and the releasing of hazardous waste and clinical waste s into the landfill. These are some of the reasons that motivated this study to investigate the use of incineration in

  17. Assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators: screening methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  18. LCA Comparison of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    Every year around 50 millions Mg solid waste are incinerated in Europe. Large differences exist in different regions, mainly regarding energy recovery, flue gas treatment and management of solid residues. This paper aims to identify and quantify those differences, providing a Life Cycle Assessment...... of two incinerator systems that are representative of conditions in Northern and Southern Europe. The two case studies are Aarhus (Denmark) and Milan (Italy). The results show that waste incineration appears more environmentally friendly in the Danish case than in the Italian one, due to the higher...

  19. Heat Recovery From Tail Gas Incineration To Generate Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Tarek

    2010-09-15

    Many industrial processes result in tail gas wastes that must be flared or incinerated to abide with environmental guidelines. Tail gas incineration occurs in several chemical processes resulting in high-temperature exhaust gas that simply go to the stack, thus wasting all that valuable heat! This paper discusses useful heat recovery and electric power generation utilizing available heat in exhaust gas from tail gas incinerators. This heat will be recovered in a waste-heat recovery boiler that will produce superheated steam to expand in a steam turbine to generate power. A detailed cost estimate is presented.

  20. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    . Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location......A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type...

  1. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations...

  2. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  3. A study on the safety of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, W. J.; Lee, B. S.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The main scope of the project is the selection of some considerable items in design criteria of radioactive waste incineration facilities not only for the protection of workers and residents during operation but also for the safe disposal of ashes after incineration. The technological and regulational status on incineration technologies in domestic and foreign is surveyed and analyzed for providing such basic items which must be contained in the guideline for safe and appropriate design, construction and operation of the facilities. The contents of the project are summarized as follows; surveying the status on incineration technologies for both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes in domestic and foreign, surveying and analysing same related technical standards and regulations in domestic and foreign, picking out main considerable items and proposing a direction of further research.

  4. A study on the safety of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, W. J.; Lee, B. S.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The main scope of the project is the selection of some considerable items in design criteria of radioactive waste incineration facilities not only for the protection of workers and residents during operation but also for the safe disposal of ashes after incineration. The technological and regulational status on incineration technologies in domestic and foreign is surveyed and analyzed for providing such basic items which must be contained in the guideline for safe and appropriate design, construction and operation of the facilities. The contents of the project are summarized as follows; surveying the status on incineration technologies for both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes in domestic and foreign, surveying and analysing same related technical standards and regulations in domestic and foreign, picking out main considerable items and proposing a direction of further research.

  5. Consolidated Incineration Facility waste burn test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.B.

    1995-01-11

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is Providing technical support for start-up and operation of the Consolidated Incineration Facility. This support program includes a series of pilot incineration tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Incineration Research Facility (MF) using surrogate CIF mixed wastes. The objectives for this test program included measuring incinerator offgas particulate loading and size distributions as a function of several operating variables, characterizing kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates, determining heavy metal partition between the kiln bottom ash and incinerator stack gas, and measuring kiln organics emissions (particularly polychlorinated dioxins and furans). These tests were designed to investigate the effect of the following operating parameters: Incineration Temperature; Waste Feed Rate; Waste Density; Kiln Solids Residence Time; and Waste Composition. Tests were conducted at three kiln operating temperatures. Three solid waste simulants were burned, two waste mixtures (paper, plastic, latex, and PVC) with one containing spiked toxic organic and metal compounds, and one waste type containing only paper. Secondary Combustion Chamber (SCC) offgases were sampled for particulate loading and size distribution, organic compounds, polychlorinated dibenzo[p]dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), metals, and combustion products. Kiln bottom ash and offgas particulates were characterized to determine the principal elements and compounds comprising these secondary wastes.

  6. Air pollution from incinerators and reproductive outcomes: a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Silvia; Ranzi, Andrea; Bonvicini, Laura; Baldacchini, Flavia; Marzaroli, Paolo; Evangelista, Andrea; Luberto, Ferdinando; Carretta, Elisa; Angelini, Paola; Sterrantino, Anna Freni; Broccoli, Serena; Cordioli, Michele; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-11-01

    The few studies that have investigated the relationship between emissions from municipal solid-waste incinerators and adverse pregnancy outcomes have had conflicting results. We conducted a study to assess the effects of air emissions from the eight incinerators currently in operation in the Emilia-Romagna Region of Italy on reproductive outcomes (sex ratio, multiple births, preterm births, and small for gestational age [SGA] births). We considered all births (n = 21,517) to women residing within a 4-km radius of an incinerator at the time of delivery during the period 2003-2010 who were successfully linked to the Delivery Certificate database. This source also provided information on maternal characteristics and deliveries. Each newborn was georeferenced and characterized by a specific level of exposure to incinerator emissions, categorized in quintiles of PM10, and other sources of pollution (NOx quartiles), evaluated by means of ADMS-Urban system dispersion models. We ran logistic regression models for each outcome, adjusting for exposure to other pollution sources and maternal covariates. Incinerator pollution was not associated with sex ratio, multiple births, or frequency of SGA. Preterm delivery increased with increasing exposure (test for trend, P < 0.001); for the highest versus the lowest quintile exposure, the odds ratio was 1.30 (95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.57). A similar trend was observed for very preterm babies. Several sensitivity analyses did not alter these results. Maternal exposure to incinerator emissions, even at very low levels, was associated with preterm delivery.

  7. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown.

  8. Effective utilization of incinerated municipal solid waste incineration ash: zeolitic material synthesis and silica extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bac, Bui Hoang; Song, Yungoo; Moon, Yonghee; Kim, Myung Hun; Kang, Il Mo

    2010-08-01

    In this study the effective utilization of two types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ashes, namely air-cooled ash (ACS) and water-cooled ash (WCS) samples obtained from a municipal solid waste incineration plant, was examined by applying zeolitic material synthesis and silica extraction. The influence of the experimental conditions including the ratio of sample : NaOH solution, the reaction temperature and time, and the concentration of NaOH solution were investigated. The results for the 25 experimental trials can be summarized as: (1) the formation of tobermorite and/or pectolite-1A as a major component in most conditions; (2) the synthesis of hydroxycancrinite as a major phase at 200 degrees C; (3) a dramatic increase in the extracted SiO(2) yield at 1 : 30 value of sample : NaOH ratio and 200 degrees C, even at short reaction times; and (4) relatively high SiO(2) yields for WCS ashes rather than ACS ashes. An increase in the reaction time improved the quantity of synthesized zeolitic materials. The reaction temperature determined the type of zeolite. An increase in the NaOH concentration can be an essential factor to improve zeolitic material synthesis, but it significantly reduced the yield of SiO(2) extraction. In conclusion, suitable conditions for obtaining both SiO(2) extraction and synthesized zeolites from the ashes of the incinerated solid waste materials should be: 200 degrees C reaction temperature; a 1 : 30 (g : mL) value for the sample : NaOH ratio; 2 mol L(-1) NaOH concentration; and a reaction time of more than 24 h.

  9. Corrosion in waste incineration facilities; Korrosion i avfallsfoerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalenheim, Annika; Henderson, Pamela

    2004-11-01

    Waste is a heterogeneous fuel, often with high levels of chlorine, alkali and heavy metals. This leads to much more severe corrosion problems than combustion of fossil fuels. The corrosion rates of the materials used can be extremely high. Materials used for heat transferring parts are usually carbon steel or low alloyed steel. These are significantly cheaper than other steels. Austenitic stainless steel is also used, but is often avoided due to its sensitivity to stress corrosion cracking. More advanced materials, such as nickel base alloys, can be used in extremely aggressive environments. Since these materials are expensive and do not always have sufficient mechanical properties, they are often used as coatings on carbon steel tubes or as composite tubes. A new method, which shows good results at the first tests in plants, is electroplating with nickel. Plastic materials can be used in low temperature parts if the temperature does not exceed 150 deg C. A glass fibre inforced material is probably the best choice. The parts of the furnace that are most prone to corrosion are waterwalls where the refractory coating is lost, has not been applied to a sufficient height in the boiler or is not used at all. Failures of superheaters often occur in areas near soot blowers or on the tubes exposed to the highest flue gas temperatures. Few cases of low temperature corrosion are reported in the literature, possibly because these problems are unusual or because low temperature corrosion rarely causes costly and dramatic failures. Waterwall tubes should be made of carbon steel, because of the price and to minimise the risk for stress corrosion cracking. Usually the tubes must be covered with a more corrosion resistant material to withstand the environment in the boiler. Metal coatings can be used in less demanding environments. Refractory is probably the best protection for waterwalls from severe erosion. Surfaces in extremely corrosive areas, e.g. the fuel feed area, should

  10. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.D., E-mail: j.nixon@kingston.ac.uk [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K. [Aston Business School, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Ghosh, S.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Centre for Quality Management System, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Davies, P.A. [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste

  11. Stabilization/solidification of TSCA incinerator ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Trotter, D.R.; Francis, C.L.; Morgan, I.L.

    1994-06-01

    Stabilization/solidification is a well-known waste treatment technique that utilizes different additives and processes. The Phoenix Ash Technology of the Technical Innovation Development Engineering Company is such a technique that uses Cass C fly ash and mechanical pressure to make brick waste forms out of solid wastes, such as the bottom ash from the Toxic Substances Control Act incinerator at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. One advantage of this technique is that no volume increase over the bulk volume of the bottom ash occurs. This technique should have the same high pH stabilization for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals as similar techniques. Also, consolidation of the bottom ash minimizes the potential problems of material dispersion and container corrosion. The bottom ash was spiked with {sup 99}{Tc} to test the effectiveness of the bricks as a physical barrier. The {sup 99}{Tc} leachability index measured for these bricks was 6.8, typical for the pertechnetate anion in cementitious waste forms, indicating that these bricks have accessible porosity as high as that of other cementitious waste forms, despite the mechanical compression, higher waste form density, and water resistant polymer coating.

  12. Glass ceramics for incinerator ash immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinina, G. A.; Stefanovsky, O. I.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2011-09-01

    Calcined solid radioactive waste (incinerator slag) surrogate and either Na 2Si 2O 5 or Na 2B 4O 7 (borax) at various mass ratios were melted in silicon carbide crucibles in a resistive furnace at temperatures of up to 1775 K (slag without additives). Portions of the melts were poured onto a metal plate; the residues were slowly cooled in turned-off furnace. Both quenched and slowly cooled materials were composed of the same phases. At high slag contents in silicate-based materials nepheline and britholite were found to be major phases. Britholite formed at higher slag content (85 wt.%) became major phase in the vitrified slag. In the system with borax at low slag contents (25 and 50 wt.%) material are composed of predominant vitreous and minor calcium silicate larnite type phase Ca 2SiO 4 where Ca 2+ ions are replaced by different cations. The materials containing slag in amount of 75 wt.% and more are chemically durable. The changes in the structure of anionic motif of quenched samples depending on slag loading were studied by IR spectroscopy.

  13. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  14. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J D; Wright, D G; Dey, P K; Ghosh, S K; Davies, P A

    2013-11-01

    The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87-92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management.

  15. Technical trend of alpha-bearing waste incinerator and R and D program in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Kim, Joon Hyung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    An alpha-bearing waste incineration technology is being developed from this year, after licensing the {beta}/{gamma}-bearing waste incinerator as a treatment facility for burnable wastes generated from KAERI. Some foreign incineration technologies were reviewed. The alpha-bearing waste generation in Korea and their characteristics were also discussed. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S. [Science Applications International Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Donaldson, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dickerson, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers.

  17. Electrodialytic upgrading of municipal waste incineration fly ash for reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    As incineration becomes a more widespread means of waste treatment, volumes of incineration residues increase and new means of handling become a demand. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash is hazardous material, which is presently disposed off as such; primarily due to its high...... to investigate the leachability of salts and toxic elements as a function of treatment time and current density. Results show that a delicate balance between pH and treatment-time exist and that continuous monitoring of pH and conductivity may be used for controlling of the process at an industrial scale...... utilization in mortar. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Engineering for Waste and Biomass Valorisation, Beijing, China, (2010)....

  18. Disposal of waste or excess high explosives. Final report. [Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The ''Disposal of Waste or Excess High Explosives'' project began January 1971. Various methods of disposal were investigated with the conclusion that incineration, at major ERDA facilities, would be the most feasible and safest method with the least cost and development time required. Two independent incinerator concepts were investigated: a rotary type for continuous processing and an enclosed pit type for batch processing. Both concepts are feasible; however, it is recommended that further investigations would be required to render them acceptable. It is felt that a larger effort would be required in the case of the rotary incinerator. The project was terminated (December 1976) prior to completion as a result of a grant of authority by the Texas Air Control Board allowing the ERDA Pantex Plant to continue indefinitely outdoor burning of explosives.

  19. Life cycle assessment of capital goods related to waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impacts from the life cycle of products and systems were evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool. Today most LCAs of waste management systems only considers the impacts from the operation of the system but neglects the environmental impacts from construction......, maintenance and demolition of capital goods. Capital goods are defined as buildings, machinery, trucks and infrastructure at the facility. A LCA was performed using two modelling programmes: Simapro and EASEWASTE. This paper assesses the importance of including capital goods when performing LCAs of waste...... incineration with efficient energy recovery. The environmental costs of the capital goods related to an incinerator was assessed and compared to the operation of the incinerator. The environmental loads from the capital goods were found to be insignificant compared to the benefits from the energy recovery from...

  20. Experiences with waste incineration for energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences wi...... with waste incineration for energy production use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by COWI DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement.......The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...

  1. Electrodialytic upgrading of municipal waste incineration fly ash for reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    As incineration becomes a more widespread means of waste treatment, volumes of incineration residues increase and new means of handling become a demand. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash is hazardous material, which is presently disposed off as such; primarily due to its high......]. In order to optimize the process and reach the lowest possible leachability of target constituents (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cl, Na and SO4) at minimum time and energy consumption, the present work gives results of 10 pilot scale (8 kg MSWI fly ash each) electrodialysis experiments at different...... utilization in mortar. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Engineering for Waste and Biomass Valorisation, Beijing, China, (2010)....

  2. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  3. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  4. Waste incineration corrosion processes: Oxidation mechanisms by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, F.J.; Hierro, M.P.; Nieto, J. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales. Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Grupo de Investigacion de Ingenieria de Superficies, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Molten chloride mixtures are formed in waste incineration plants during waste firing and energy production. These mixtures are responsible for degradation processes like hot corrosion. In order to evaluate the damage of molten salt mixtures in waste incineration environments, the alloys 625 and 617 were exposed beneath a molten KCl-ZnCl{sub 2} mixture at 650 C in air. The corrosion process was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An extensive microscopy analysis has been done in order to correlate the electrochemical results, and to establish an electrochemical mechanism for such high temperature corrosion processes. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITES FROM INCINERATION ASH AND SLAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Łach

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The work concerns the possibility of the use of secondary waste from waste incineration processes for the production of zeolites. The study used fly ash and slag from national waste incineration plants. The test materials were subjected to hydrothermal alkaline activation in aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, the molar concentrations of the various variants. The research revealed the usefulness of this type of material for the synthesis of zeolites –obtained sodalite. Presents the results of analyzes of the SEM / EDS and XRD for the most efficient synthesis processes.

  6. Biodegradable organic matter in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Herbell, Jan-Dirk; Gaye-Haake, Birgit

    2004-01-01

    For investigation of the behavior of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in landfill, we have analysed bottom ash samples taken after the quench tank as well as after five months of storage in the laboratory for elements and organic constituents. Water extractable organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, amino acids, hexosamines and carbohydrates considerably decreased during the five months of storage and their spectra revealed microbial reworking. This shows that the organic matter present in the bottom ash after incineration can provide a substrate for microbial activity. The resulting changes of the physico-chemical environment may effect the short-term behavior of the bottom ash in landfill. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. 40 CFR 60.1445 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1445 Section 60.1445 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1445 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? If your air curtain incinerator...

  8. The domestic wastes incinerators; Les incinerateurs d'ordures menegares: quels risques? quelles politiques?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    This document presents the opinion of the Committee of Prevention and Precaution (CPP), on the domestic wastes incinerators, in the framework of the global wastes policy. The seven chapters detail and bring advices on the following topics: the elements which are going in and out of the incinerators, the technical processes, the occupational activities and the risks bound to the incinerators use, the transfer modes towards the different environmental areas, the exposure estimation, the risks of people living near the domestic wastes incinerators compared to the other concerning a cancer development, the legislation concerning the domestic wastes and the social acceptability of the incinerators. (A.L.B.)

  9. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    k. louhab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result show that the temperature and the length of incineration influence on the structure of the bottom ash and on the chromium in the bottom ash.

  10. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  11. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Fresh, Aged, and Incinerated Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot...

  13. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bed. (3) Where a boiler or process heater of less than 44 megawatts (150 million British thermal units... heaters. 63.988 Section 63.988 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters....

  14. Plant monitoring of air quality around waste incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Dijk, C.J. van; Dueck, T.A. [Plant Research International, Wageningen (Niger). Dept. of Crop and Production Ecology

    2002-07-01

    Since the early 1990's, three new waste incineration plants have come into operation in agricultural regions in The Netherlands. Multi-year standardised biomonitoring programmes around these incinerators were set up to determine the absence of adverse effects on quality of crop produce due to the incineration of waste. Depending on time of year, plants of kale (Brassica oleracea) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were cultivated for use as accumulators of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Trends in fluoride contents were followed by sampling field-grown pasture grass. Cow milk was sampled to determine the concentrations of dioxins. Plants of gladiola (Gladiolus gandavensis) were used for the assessment of visible injury by ambient fluoride in one programme only. The results of many years of biomonitoring showed that the emissions of the waste incinerators did not affect the quality of crop produce and cow milk. Concentrations of the various components in these products were generally similar to background levels and did not exceed standards for maximum allowable concentrations. On one occasion, concentrations of PAHs in spinach were clearly enhanced due to the use of wood-preserving compounds at a barn close to the monitoring site. This incident reveals that our biomonitoring projects are an appropriate tool to detect changes in air quality. (orig.)

  15. Application of microwaves for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, investigation results of microwave heating application for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores made of moulding sands with thermosetting resins are presented. It was found that waste shell cores or shell moulds left after casting, separated from moulding sand, can be effectively incinerated. It was evidenced that microwave heating allows effective control of this process and its results. Incineration of waste moulds and cores made of commercial grades of resin-coated moulding sand using microwave heating was found to be an effective way of their utilisation. It was determined that the optimum burning time of these wastes (except those insufficiently disintegrated and not mixed with an activating agent is maximum 240 s at the used magnetron power of 650 W. It was noticed that proper disintegration of the wastes and use of suitable additives to intensify the microwave heating process guarantee significant reduction of the process time and its full stabilisation. Application of microwave heating for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores ensure substantial and measurable economic profits due to shorter process time and lower energy consumption.

  16. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  17. Possibilities for gas turbine and waste incinerator integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Jellema, P.; Hirs, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    The aggressive nature of the flue gases in municipal waste incinerators does not allow the temperature of steam in the boiler to rise above 400°C. An increase in steam temperature can be achieved by external superheating in a heat recovery steam generator positioned behind a gas turbine, so that ste

  18. Danish Emission Inventory for Waste Incineration and Other Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelgaard, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This report contains detailed methodological issues, activity data, emission factors, uncertainties and references for waste incineration without energy recovery and other waste source categories of the Danish emission inventories 2013. The emissions are calculated for the years 1980-2011 according...

  19. Hydrodynamics of a Multistage Wet Scrubber Incineration Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, M. M.; Manyele, S. V.; Raphael, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the hydrodynamics of the two stage counter-current cascade wet scrubbers used during incineration of medical waste. The dependence of the hydrodynamics on two main variables was studied: Inlet air flow rate and inlet liquid flow rate. This study introduces a new wet scrubber operating features, which are…

  20. Thermal Stability and Material Balance of Nanomaterials in Waste Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Hauser, M.; Lang, I.; Teuscher, N.; Seifert, H.; Stapf, D.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured materials are widely used to improve the properties of consumer products such as tires, cosmetics, light weight equipment etc. Due to their complex composition these products are hardly recycled and thermal treatment is preferred. In this study we investigated the thermal stability and material balance of nanostructured metal oxides in flames and in an industrial waste incinerator. We studied the size distribution of nanostructured metal oxides (CeO2, TiO2, SiO2) in a flame reactor and in a heated reaction tube. In the premixed ethylene/air flame, nano-structured CeO2 partly evaporates forming a new particle mode. This is probably due to chemical reactions in the flame. In addition sintering of agglomerates takes place in the flame. In the electrically heated reaction tube however only sintering of the agglomerated nanomaterials is observed. Ceria has a low background in waste incinerators and is therefore a suitable tracer for investigating the fate of nanostructured materials. Low concentrations of Ceria were introduced by a two-phase nozzle into the post-combustion zone of a waste incinerator. By the incineration of coal dust in a burning chamber the Ceria nanoparticles are mainly found in the size range of the fly ash (1 - 10 µm) because of agglomeration. With gas as a fuel less agglomeration was observed and the Ceria nanoparticles were in the particle size range below 1 µm.

  1. Danish Emission Inventory for Waste Incineration and Other Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelgaard, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This report contains detailed methodological issues, activity data, emission factors, uncertainties and references for waste incineration without energy recovery and other waste source categories of the Danish emission inventories 2013. The emissions are calculated for the years 1980-2011 according...

  2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION IN CFC-12 INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of experiments to determine the effect of flame zone temperature on gas-phase flame formation and destruction of products of incomplete combustion (PICS) during dichlorodi-fluoromethane (CFC-12) incineration. The effect of water injection into the flame ...

  3. 10 CFR 20.2004 - Treatment or disposal by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....2004 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Waste Disposal... Commission pursuant to § 20.2002. (b)(1) Waste oils (petroleum derived or synthetic oils used principally as... conditions other than effluent limits specifically related to incineration of waste oil. The licensee...

  4. New Developments in Spinning Fluidised Bed Incineration Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    At the present time, the sewage treatment plants in the UK produce about 25 million tons of sewage sludge each year at a concentration of 4% solids. New regulations forbid sea dumping and in the near future new incinerators will be required to dispose of about 5 million tons per year. Bubbling fluidised bed incinerators are widely used to burn sewage sludge at a typical consumption rate of about 0.02kg(dry)·s-1·m2, and it follows that over 300 conventional fluidised bed incinerators of 3m diameter could be required to cope with the increased demand.At Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) research work is being carried out to develop a novel spinning fluidised bed incinerator. The key factor to note is that when air flows up through a bed of near mono-sized particles, it fluidises when the pressure drop across the bed is equal to the weight of the bed. Normally, the weight of the bed is determined by gravity. However, if the bed is contained by a cylindrical air distributor 'plate' that is rotating rapidly about its axis, then the effective weight of the bed can be increased dramatically. The airflow passing through the bed can be increased proportionally to the "g" level produced by the rotation and it follows that the process has been intensified. In exploratory tests with a spinning fluidised bed we have achieved combustion intensities with coal combustion as high as 100MW/m3. A problem with burning coal is that it was difficult to remove the heat and rotating water seals had to be used to transfer cooling water into the bed. In the case of sewage and other sludges, this problem does not exist since the flue gases can remove the small amount of heat released. The rotating fluidised bed sludge incinerator is a novel device, which is very compact. It is able to solve the turndown problem encountered with conventional fluidised beds by simply changing the rotation speed. Bearing in mind that a centrifugal sludge de-watering unit is already used

  5. Dangerous waste incineration and its impact on air quality. Case study: the incinerator SC Mondeco SRL Suceava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dangerous waste, such as oil residues, pesticides, lacquers, stains, glues, organic solvents, hospital and food industry residues represent a major risk for all components of the environment (water, air, earth, soil, flora, fauna, people as well. Consequently, their incineration with high-performance burning installations lessens the impact on the environment, especially on the air quality, and it gives the possibility to recuperate the warmth of the incineration. This research presents a representative technique of incineration of dangerous waste at S.C. Mondeco S.R.L. Suceava, which runs according to the European standards, located in the industrial zone of Suceava, on the Suceava river valley Suceava. Also it is analysed the impact of this unit on the quality of nearby air. Moreover, not only the concentrations of gases and powders during the action of the incineration process (paramaters that are continuously monitored by highly methods are analysed, but also here are described the dispersions of those pollutants in the air, taking into account the characteristics of the source and the meteorological parametres that are in the riverbed. 

  6. Incineration of wool-scouring sludge in a vertical-axis-spinning fluidised-bed incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Wong, W.Y.; Nasserzadeh, V.; Swithenbank, J. [Sheffield Univ. Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC), Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Shaw, T.; Madden, M. [Wool Development International (ENCO) Ltd., Ilkley (United Kingdom)

    2000-09-01

    The main purposes of this research was to investigate the feasibility of incineration of wool-scouring sludge in a novel vertical-axis-rotating fluidised bed (RFB). The experiment was carried out in a RFB with an internal diameter (ID) of 200 mm and height of 50 mm. A cold test was first conducted to investigate the fluidization performance of the RFB via parameters such as the bubbling, gas distribution, bed shape and pressure drop. The tumbling phenomena was observed in the bed, and this effectively enhanced the axial mixing. The appropriate range of bed thickness, rotating speed and sand particle size were identified to ensure the full fluidization and reduce the particle elutriation. Four wool-scouring sludges from different processes were incinerated in the RFB. With 5% support methane, all sludges with a maximum moisture up to 70% as received could be successfully burned in the RFB at rotating speeds of 200 and 300 rpm. The combustion was found to be intense with a high efficiency due to the good turbulence and mixing in the RFB. The effects of moisture content, feeding rate and rotating speed were investigated. It was found that for sludge (sample B2) with a moisture content of 5%, the combustion could be sustained at a bed surface temperature of around 500 degC and freeboard temperature of 900 degC without the support of methane. To investigate the special advantages of swirling flow in the RFB on the combustion and particle elutriation, a CFD model was used. In the calculated flow field, two flow regions were identified, viz, the outer free vortex region and the forced vortex flow near the axis. Recirculation and turbulence of flow were generated by the pressure gradients and shear layers, respectively. The modelling of premixed methane and air combustion, which was used to simulate the volatile burning in the freeboard of the RFB, showed two high-temperature zones near the exit and at the bottom of the chamber near the core in accordance with the flow

  7. Monetising the impacts of waste incinerators sited on brownfield land using the hedonic pricing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Casado, Monica; Serafini, Jan; Glen, John; Angus, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    In England and Wales planning regulations require local governments to treat waste near its source. This policy principle alongside regional self-sufficiency and the logistical advantages of minimising distances for waste treatment mean that energy from waste incinerators have been built close to, or even within urban conurbations. There is a clear policy and research need to balance the benefits of energy production from waste incinerators against the negative externalities experienced by local residents. However, the monetary costs of nuisance emissions from incinerators are not immediately apparent. This study uses the Hedonic Pricing Method to estimate the monetary value of impacts associated with three incinerators in England. Once operational, the impact of the incinerators on local house prices ranged from approximately 0.4% to 1.3% of the mean house price for the respective areas. Each of the incinerators studied had been sited on previously industrialised land to minimise overall impact. To an extent this was achieved and results support the effectiveness of spatial planning strategies to reduce the impact on residents. However, negative impacts occurred in areas further afield from the incinerator, suggesting that more can be done to minimise the impacts of incinerators. The results also suggest that in some case the incinerator increased the value of houses within a specified distance of incinerators under specific circumstances, which requires further investigation.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal......-separated and landfilled, the incineration of rest-waste presents better results on global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, and even ecotoxicity in soil. This process is considered a promising solution for MSW management in Shuozhou City. Weighted normalized environmental impacts were assessed based on Chinese...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits...

  9. Gas generation in incinerator ash; Gasbildning i aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Maria; Lindeberg, Johanna; Rodin, Aasa; Oehrstroem, Anna; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan

    2006-02-15

    In recent years, explosions have occurred in certain phases of ash handling in Sweden. Investigations have revealed that hydrogen may have been present in all cases. The hydrogen is believed to be generated by chemical reactions of aluminium and other metals within the ash in the presence of water. The purpose with this study is to increase the knowledge of gas generation of incinerator ash. Thereby, guides for appropriate ash management can be introduced and the risk for further explosions prevented. The study has comprised analyses of the ash properties, such as chemical and physical composition and the pH, of ash from 14 incineration plants (mostly waste incineration plants). Different fractions of ash materials representing different parts of the process in each plant have been analysed. Furthermore, the fuel and the technical differences between the plants have been analysed. A tool for measuring the gas generation in the laboratory has been developed and the gas generation of the different ash materials at natural and increased pH was measured. Gas analyses and thermodynamic calculations have also been performed. The results showed that: bottom ash from fluidised bed boilers generated small amounts of gas at increased pH, much smaller amounts than the idle pass, cyclone and filter ash did, bottom ash from grate fired boilers generated more gas at increased pH than their cyclone ash and filter ash, with exception of the Linkoeping plant, all bio waste incineration plants generated ash with low gas generation potential, all fly ash materials with a gas generation potential of more than 10 l/kg originated from municipal waste incineration plants, filter ash that had been stored in oxygen rich environment generated significant less gas than fresh filter ash of the same origin, hardly any other gases were generated apart from hydrogen (very small amounts of acetone, furane, benzene and most likely methane were detected in some of the ash materials), there were no

  10. Assessment of genotoxic potential of Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of metallic content in Ayurvedic drugs became an important burning issue in present days. The usefulness of Bhasmas (incinerated metals/minerals in therapeutics, their safety or toxicity is frequently being raised on different platforms. Considering this, there is a need to develop toxicity profiles of different metals/minerals. Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper one such metallic formulation is widely used in cardiac and lipid disorders by Ayurvedic Physicians. The present study is aimed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of Tamra Bhasma. Materials and Methods: It was prepared as per classical guidelines and administered to Swiss albino mice for 14 consecutive days. Chromosomal aberration and sperm abnormality assay were studied. Results: All treated groups exhibited significant body weight gain in comparison to cyclophosphamide (CP group. Results revealed no structural deformity in above parameters in comparison to CP group. Conclusion: Reported data showed that both tested samples of Tamra Bhasma were not genotoxic and can be used safely.

  11. PARAMETRIC EVALUATION OF VOC CONVERSION VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaskantzis Neto G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - A pilot-scale catalytic incineration system was used to investigate the effectiveness of catalytic incineration as a means of reducing volatile organic compound (VOC air pollutants. The objectives of the study were: 1 to investigate the effects of operating and design variables on the reduction efficiency of VOCs; and 2 to evaluate reduction efficiencies for specific compounds in different chemical classes. The study results verified that the following factors affect the catalyst performance: inlet temperature, space velocity, compound type, and compound inlet concentration. Tests showed that reduction efficiencies exceeding 98% were possible, given sufficiently high inlet gas temperatures for the following classes of compounds: alcohols, acetates, ketones, hydrocarbons, and aromatics

  12. Combustion Technology for Incinerating Wastes from Air Force Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    waste for energy (not recycling cement kiln dust for clinker ) to be distinguishable from a commercial hazardous waste incinerator in -" its potential...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10 PROGRAM ELEMENT . PROJECT, TASK . National Bureau of Standards AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Washington D.C. 20234 PE 63723F JON...high temperature combustion zone transit time which significantly exceeds fuel droplet burnout and mixing times, and (4) employing afterburners

  13. Dampak Pengolahan Limbah Padat Medis pada Petugas Incinerator di RSUP H. Adam Malik Tahun 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Darwin

    2016-01-01

    Adam Malik Central General Hospital causes some complaints from the incinerator operators such as wounded by spuit needles, wounded by broken glasses, and difficult to breathe because they inhale incinerator smoke or gas in the medical solid waste. Therefore, job safety and health in the hospital, especially in managing medical solid waste should be done. The research was qualitative which was aimed to analyze the effect of K3 (Job safety and health) n incinerator operators at H. Adam ...

  14. UK: Technical data for waste incineration background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade. This report presents a compilation of technical data on waste incineration that serve...... as background for a model of incineration processes to be used in the inventory analysis of LCA....

  15. Depositformation and corrosion in incinerators; Belagsbildung und Korrosion in Abfallverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfrang-Stotz, G.; Seifert, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Reichelt, J. [IBR, Hirschberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In a project of Karlsruhe Research Center (FZK) in the field of applied mineralogy, the mineralogical cycle of solids in the incinerator process was investigated for conventional incinerators with different grid types, a fluidized bed combustor of a sewage sludge incineration plant, and the rotary kiln of the THERESA test facility of FZK. The mineralogical investigations covered cakings inside the boiler, deposits on superheater surfaces and economizers, and phase transformations in the sulfate structures of deposits in convective boilers. The investigations may serve as a tool for process description, e.g. for identifying optimal fluidized bed temperatures, or for investigating damage phenomena like slagging of evaporator heating surface liners, interactions between cakings and liners, deposits on superheater surfaces and economizers, and as indicators for the corrosion processes to be expected. [German] Im Rahmen eines F+E-Projektes des Forschungszentrums Karlsruhe (FZK) wird im Bereich der angewandten Mineralogie der mineralogische Kreislauf der Feststoffe innerhalb von Abfallverbrennungsanlagen - fuer unterschiedliche Rostsysteme konventioneller Muellverbrennungsanlagen, die Wirbelschichtfeuerung einer Klaerschlammverbrennungsanlage sowie fuer die Drehrohrtechnik der Versuchsanlage THERESA des FZK - untersucht. Die mineralogischen Untersuchungen der Anbackungen im Kesselraum, der Ablagerungen auf Ueberhitzerflaechen und Economisern sowie der Phasentransformationen innerhalb der Sulfatstrukturen von Ablagerungen im konvektiven Kesselbereich koennen sowohl als Instrument zur Prozessbeschreibung, z.B. zur Bestimmung der Gutbett-Temperatur, als auch zur Begutachtung von Schadensfaellen innerhalb der Anlagen, wie Verschlackungen auf den Ausmauerungen der Verdampferheizflaechen, Wechselwirkung von Anbackungen und Ausmauerung, Ablagerung auf den Ueberhitzerflaechen und Economisern sowie als Indikator fuer zu erwartende Korrosionsvorgaenge eingesetzt werden.

  16. Separation of nanoparticles: Filtration and scavenging from waste incineration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Henning; Thajudeen, Thaseem; Funk, Christine; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Increased amounts of nanoparticles are applied in products of everyday life and despite material recycling efforts, at the end of their life cycle they are fed into waste incineration plants. This raises the question on the fate of nanoparticles during incineration. In terms of environmental impact the key question is how well airborne nanoparticles are removed by separation processes on their way to the bag house filters and by the existing filtration process based on pulse-jet cleanable fibrous filter media. Therefore, we investigate the scavenging and the filtration of metal nanoparticles under typical conditions in waste incineration plants. The scavenging process is investigated by a population balance model while the nanoparticle filtration experiments are realized in a filter test rig. The results show that depending on the particle sizes, in some cases nearly 80% of the nanoparticles are scavenged by fly ash particles before they reach the bag house filter. For the filtration step dust cakes with a pressure drop of 500Pa or higher are found to be very effective in preventing nanoparticles from penetrating through the filter. Thus, regeneration of the filter must be undertaken with care in order to guarantee highly efficient collection of particles even in the lower nanometre size regime.

  17. Thermal behaviour of ESP ash from municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Wilson, N; Voncken, J H L

    2009-07-15

    Stricter environmental regulations demand safer treatment and disposal of incinerator fly ashes. So far no sound technology or a process is available for a sustainable and ecological treatment of the waste incineration ashes, and only partial treatment is practised for temporary and short-term solutions. New processes and technology need to be developed for comprehensive utilization and detoxification of the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator residues. To explore the efficiency of thermal stabilisation and controlled vitrification, the thermal behaviour of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash was investigated under controlled conditions. The reaction stages are identified with the initial moisture removal, volatilization, melting and slag formation. At the temperature higher than 1100 degrees C, the ESP ashes have a quicker weight loss, and the total weight loss reaches up to 52%, higher than the boiler ash. At 1400 degrees C a salt layer and a homogeneous glassy slag were formed. The effect of thermal treatment on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ESP ash was evaluated with the availability-leaching test. The leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly lowered than that of the original ash.

  18. Treatment and recycling of incinerated ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W; Chu, J P; Tzeng, C C; Chen, Y S

    2002-01-01

    To treat incinerated ash is an important issue in Taiwan. Incinerated ashes contain a considerable amount of hazardous materials such as dioxins and heavy metals. If these hazardous materials are improperly treated or disposed of, they shall cause detrimental secondary contamination. Thermal plasma vitrification is a robust technology to treat and recycle the ash residues. Under the high temperature plasma environment, incinerated ashes are vitrified into benign slag with large volume reduction and extreme detoxification. Several one-step heat treatment processes are carried out at four temperatures (i.e. 850, 950, 1,050 and 1,150 degrees C) to obtain various "microstructure materials". The major phase to form these materials is a solid solution of gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and åkermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) belonging to the melilite group. The physical and mechanical properties of the microstructure materials are improved by using one-step post-heat treatment process after plasma vitrification. These microstructure materials with good quality have great potential to serve as a viable alternative for construction applications.

  19. Greenlandic Waste Incineration Fly And Bottom Ash As Secondary Resource In Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Today, 900 tons incineration fly ash is shipped abroad annually from Greenland for deposits, whereas the 6,000 tons incineration bottom ash is deposited locally. These incineration ashes could be valuable in concrete production, where the cement has to be shipped to Greenland. For this purpose...... and cement with fly ash. Based on the compressive strength tests, it is found that using Greenlandic incineration ashes in mortar as 5% cement replacement could consume all ash instead of disposals, and could thus turn the ashes into a local resource and simultaneously reduce the import of cement....

  20. Mathematical modelling of MSW incineration on a travelling bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y B; Goh, Y R; Zakaria, R; Nasserzadeh, V; Swithenbank, J

    2002-01-01

    The rising popularity of incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) calls for detailed mathematical modelling and understanding of the incineration process. In this paper, governing equations for mass, momentum and heat transfer for both solid and gaseous phases in a moving bed in a solid-waste incineration furnace are described and relevant sub-models are presented. The burning rates of volatile hydrocarbons in the moving bed of solids are limited not only by the reaction kinetics but also the mixing of the volatile fuels with the under-fire air. The mixing rate is averaged across a computation cell and correlated to a number of parameters including local void fraction of the bed, gas velocity and a length scale comparable to the particle size in the bed. A correlation equation is also included to calculate the mixing in the freeboard area immediately next to the bed surface. A small-scale fixed bed waste incinerator was built and test runs were made in which total mass loss from the bed, temperature and gas composition at different locations along the bed height were measured. A 2-D bed-modelling program (FLIC) was developed which incorporates the various sub-process models and solves the governing equations for both gases and solids. Thermal and chemical processes are mainly confined within a layer about 5-9 times in thickness of the averaged particle size in the burning bed. For a large part of the burning process, the total mass loss rate was constant until the solid waste was totally dried out and a period of highly rising CO emission followed. The maximum bed temperature was around 1200 K. The whole burning process ended within 60 min. Big fluctuations in species concentration were observed due to channelling and subsequent 'catastrophic' changes in the local bed conditions. Reasonably good agreement between modelling and measurements has been achieved. Yet the modelling work is complicated by the channelling phenomenon in the bed. Numerical simulations

  1. Mixed Incineration with Dry Sludge in Waste Incineration Plant%垃圾焚烧发电厂中掺烧干化污泥探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石靖宇

    2015-01-01

    介绍了污泥焚烧处理技术的主要方式(联合焚烧和单独焚烧)及应用现状,阐述了垃圾焚烧发电厂中掺烧干化污泥技术在国内外应用情况及其工艺流程与烟气处理工艺,并提出了垃圾焚烧发电厂掺烧干化污泥的可行性及优势。%The main modes (united-incineration and separate incineration) and application status of sludge incineration treatment technology were introduced. The application status of mixed incineration technology with dry sludge in waste incin-eration plants at home and abroad was expounded, as well as its process and flue gas treatment technology. And the feasibility and advantages of waste incineration mixing with dry sludge in waste incineration plant were put forward.

  2. The National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP): A summary of the characterization and treatment studies on residues from municipal solid waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawell, S.E.; Constable, T.W. (Waste Water Technology Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1993-10-01

    The National Incinerator Testing and Evaluation Program (NITEP) was implemented in 1984 to examine the impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration on the environment and human health. The chemical properties and leachability of different types of ash from MSW incinerators were evaluated using a battery of laboratory procedures. Three generic incinerator technologies were tested: two stage combustion, mass burning, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion. The semi-pyrolytic conditions in the two stage incinerator result in lower fixed solids contents and consequently higher organic contaminant concentrations in bottom ash when compared to the other two systems. Air pollution control system residues from MSW incinerator facilities were solidified using formulations of a Portland Type II cement and a waste pozzolan, using a minimum of solidification additives while retaining physical strength. The formulations produced solidified materials that typically had unconfined compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity and volume change factors appropriate for disposal in a landfill. Solidification typically reduces the solubility of metals under both acidic and highly alkaline leaching conditions. In general the use of cement and waste pozzolans to solidify fly ash from MSW incinerator systems appears to be technically feasible. 51 figs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  4. Technical data for waste incineration - background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...... and output of emissions to the environment caused by the incineration. The work has been performed as part of the EUREKA project EUROENVIRON 1296: LCAGAPS, sponsored by the Danish Agency for Industry and Trade....

  5. Long term plant biomonitoring in the vicinity of waste incinerators in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.J.; Doorn, van W.; Alfen, van A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-nineties new waste incineration plants have come into operation in the Netherlands. Burning of waste can result in the emission of potentially toxic compounds. Although the incineration plants must comply with strict conditions concerning emission control, public concern on the

  6. gis analysis in the siting of incinerators as a panacea for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanda Dogara & Auwal Abdul

    countries are constrained by limited finances and inadequate services (Omran and ... via landfills is expensive and spaces for them are getting scarce. Incineration then becomes an attractive alternative. Waste incineration is a .... conduct Geographic Information System based site suitability and site selection analysis to ...

  7. Long term plant biomonitoring in the vicinity of waste incinerators in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.J.; Doorn, van W.; Alfen, van A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-nineties new waste incineration plants have come into operation in the Netherlands. Burning of waste can result in the emission of potentially toxic compounds. Although the incineration plants must comply with strict conditions concerning emission control, public concern on the possibl

  8. Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in dedicated full scale waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in full scale waste incinerators is studied by analysing input waste streams and boiler and fly ash of a grate furnace incinerator (GFI) incinerating MSW, of a Fluidised Bed Combustor (FBC) incinerating a mix of 50% sludge, 25% refuse derived fuel (RDF) and 25% automotive shredder residue (ASR) and of a rotary kiln incinerator (RKI) incinerating hazardous waste. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs show that PCB oils Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254 late are the major dioxin-like PCB contamination source of sludge, RDF and ASR. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs are clearly different from the fingerprints of the outputs, i.e. boiler and fly ash, indicating that in full scale waste incinerators dioxin-like PCBs in the input waste are destroyed and other dioxin-like PCBs are newly formed in the post combustion zone. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprint of boiler and fly ash of all three incinerators corresponds well to the fly ash fingerprint obtained in lab scale de novo synthesis experiments, indicating that dioxin-like PCBs are mainly formed through this mechanism. The high PCB concentration in the input waste mix of the RKI does not promote the formation of dioxin-like PCBs through precursor condensation.

  9. 40 CFR 60.2260 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which... of materials you plan to burn in your air curtain incinerator. (b) Keep records of results of all initial and annual opacity tests onsite in either paper copy or electronic format, unless the...

  10. Small-scale medical waste incinerators: experiences and trials in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, DEC

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available incineration units. The trials showed that all of the units could be used to render medical waste non-infectious, and to destroy syringes or render needles unsuitable for reuse. Emission loads from the incinerators are higher than large-scale commercial...

  11. Sludge Incineration. Multiple Hearth. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This lesson introduces the basics of sludge incineration and focuses on the multiple hearth furnace in accomplishing this task. Attention is given to component identification and function process control fundamentals, theory of incineration, safety, and other responsibilites of furnace operation. The material is rather technical and assumes an…

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of municipal solid waste incineration residues using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, three different commercial membrane brands were used in an identical electrodialytic cell setup and operating conditions, in order to reduce the leaching of metals and salt anions of two types of municipal solid waste incineration residues: air pollution control residues...... as a technology to upgrade municipal solid waste incineration residues....

  13. Characterization of deposits and their influence on corrosion in waste incineration plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2001-01-01

    A program has been initiated in Denmark to investigate the aggressive environment in various waste incineration plants. The results described are the preliminary results from one waste incineration plant. Deposits and corrosion products have been removed from various locations in the boiler...

  14. Long term plant biomonitoring in the vicinity of waste incinerators in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.J.; Doorn, van W.; Alfen, van A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-nineties new waste incineration plants have come into operation in the Netherlands. Burning of waste can result in the emission of potentially toxic compounds. Although the incineration plants must comply with strict conditions concerning emission control, public concern on the possibl

  15. 78 FR 72581 - Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Negative Declaration for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerator Negative... negative declarations from Michigan and Wisconsin regarding Hospital/Medical/ Infectious Waste Incinerator...) requirements to existing solid waste combustors, including HMIWIs, and provide that EPA should include, as...

  16. Life cycle assessment of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy using two LCA models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, about 20% of municipal solid waste is incinerated. Large differences can be found between northern and southern Europe regarding energy recovery efficiencies, flue gas cleaning technologies and residue management. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) of waste incineration often provides contrad...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Options for incinerators, cement kilns... Technology (MACT) Standards § 270.235 Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns... incinerator, cement kiln, lightweight aggregate kiln, solid fuel boiler, liquid fuel boiler, or...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1450 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1450 Section 60.1450 Protection of Environment... Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1450 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in appendix A...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1920 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1920 Section 60.1920 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1920 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?...

  2. 40 CFR 62.15375 - What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15375 Section 62.15375 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 62.15375 What are the emission limits for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1925 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 60.1925 Section 60.1925 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Yard Waste § 60.1925 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? (a)...

  4. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  5. Recovery and distribution of incinerated aluminum packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Bakker, M C M; de Heij, P G

    2011-12-01

    A study was performed into relations between physical properties of aluminum packaging waste and the corresponding aluminum scraps in bottom ash from three typical incineration processes. First, Dutch municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash was analyzed for the identifiable beverage can alloy scraps in the +2mm size ranges using chemical detection and X-ray fluorescence. Second, laboratory-scale pot furnace tests were conducted to investigate the relations between aluminum packaging in base household waste and the corresponding metal recovery rates. The representative packaging wastes include beverage cans, foil containers and thin foils. Third, small samples of aluminum packaging waste were incinerated in a high-temperature oven to determine leading factors influencing metal recovery rates. Packaging properties, combustion conditions, presence of magnesium and some specific contaminants commonly found in household waste were investigated independently in the high-temperature oven. In 2007, the bottom ash (+2mm fraction) from the AEB MSWI plant was estimated to be enriched by 0.1 wt.% of aluminum beverage cans scrap. Extrapolating from this number, the recovery potential of all eleven MSWI plants in the Netherlands is estimated at 720 ton of aluminum cans scrap. More than 85 wt.% of this estimate would end up in +6mm size fractions and were amenable for efficient recycling. The pot furnace tests showed that the average recovery rate of metallic aluminum typically decreases from beverage cans (93 wt.%) to foil containers (85 wt.%) to thin foils (77 wt.%). The oven tests showed that in order of decreasing impact the main factors promoting metallic aluminum losses are the packaging type, combustion temperature, residence time and salt contamination. To a lesser degree magnesium as alloying element, smaller packaging size and basic contaminations may also promote losses.

  6. Emission of ultrafine particles from the incineration of municipal solid waste: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan M.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-09-01

    Ultrafine particles (diameter waste, and this article reviews studies carried out on the emissions from modern municipal waste incinerators. The effects of engineering controls upon particle emissions are considered, as well as the very limited information on the effects of changing waste composition. The results of measurements of incinerator flue gas, and of atmospheric sampling at ground level in the vicinity of incinerators, show that typical ultrafine particle concentrations in flue gas are broadly similar to those in urban air and that consequently, after the dispersion process dilutes incinerator exhaust with ambient air, ultrafine particle concentrations are typically indistinguishable from those that would occur in the absence of the incinerator. In some cases the ultrafine particle concentration in the flue gas may be below that in the local ambient air. This appears to be a consequence of the removal of semi-volatile vapours in the secondary combustion zone and abatement plant, and the high efficiency of fabric filters for ultrafine particle collection.

  7. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful.

  8. Mathematical modelling of MSW incineration in a packed bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Guanyi; Gu, Tianbao; He, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    and the entrained fine particles are further burned in the freeboard. Nevertheless, grate-firing generally needs to be improved in terms of efficiency and overall environmental impacts, in which computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling plays the vital role. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model......Grate-firing is the most commonly used technology for municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration for heat and power generation, in which MSW undergoes thermochemical conversion (e.g., drying, devolatilization, char gasification and oxidation) in the fuel bed on the grate while the combustible gases...

  9. A Burning Experiment Study of an Integral Medical Waste Incinerator

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Rong; Lu, Jidong; Li,Jie

    2010-01-01

    Mass burning of the medical waste is becoming attr active in China because Chinese government has banned landfilling of medical waste. Many advantages can be found in this method, such as reduction in waste vol-ume, destruction of pathogens and transformation of waste into the form of ash. However, the medical waste with high moisture in China is not suitable to be trea ted in the present direct mass burning incinerators. In this paper, a novel integral incinera tor is developed with combinin...

  10. Exergy analysis of aluminum recovery from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Allegrini, Elisa; Laner, D.

    Two main challenges, associated with the recovery of aluminum from state-of-the-art municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, are yield as well as quality losses of metallic aluminum due to particle surface oxidation and presence of impurities. Yet, in the framework of life cycle assessment...... in parallel to each other, with a goal to evaluate the added value of exergy for LCA studies in the resource recovery context. The functional unit is the treatment of 1 ton MSW. Two alternative approaches for recovering aluminum from MSW directed to a waste-to-energy plant are considered. A) MSW is treated...

  11. Combined glassification of EAF dust and incinerator fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W

    2003-01-01

    Stainless steelmaking dust contains large amount of heavy metals, such as Cr and Ni. If these hazardous materials are not treated properly, they will cause detrimental secondary contamination. Preliminary study on recycling stainless steelmaking dust employed the thermal molten technology. Glass-ceramics were formed by combination stainless steel dust and incinerator fly ash with the ratio of 1:9. The major phases were Augite, Akermanite, and Donathite. It was found that the glass-ceramics shows the best characteristic at 900 degrees C after 5 h of heat treatment. This product can be used as building materials or refractory materials.

  12. Gas purification downstream of waste incineration plants. Gasreinigung hinter Muellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-08-13

    HCl, HF and also SO/sub 2/ as well as most heavy metals can be separated in dry filters of refuse incineration plants by adding lime hydrate, but the gaseous heavy metals, such as mercury, can only be removed in a secondary wet separator. A secondary wet separator is installed for the separation of the residual acid emission components which are still in the flue gas after passing through the dry filter. Calcium hydroxide solutions and, additionally, an active substance of trimercapto-s-triazine are added to the scrubbing water cycle of this separator.

  13. The Cement Solidification of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Haobo; HE Xinghua; ZHU Shujing; ZHANG Dajie

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition, the content and the leachability of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration ( MSWI) fly ash were tested and analyzed. It is shown that the leachability of Pb and Cr exceeds the leaching toxicity standard, and so the MSWI fly ash is considered as hazardous waste and must be solidifled. The effect of solidifying the MSWI fly ash by cement was studied, and it is indicated that the heavy metals can be well immobilized if the mass fraction of the fly ash is appropriate. The heavy metals were immobilized within cement hydration products through either physical fixation, substitution, deposition or adsorption mechanisms.

  14. Incineration of different types of medical wastes: emission factors for gaseous emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Afonso, S. A. V.

    Previous research works showed that to protect public health, the hospital incinerators should be provided with air pollution control devices. As most hospital incinerators do not possess such equipment, efficient methodologies should be developed to evaluate the safety of incineration procedure. Emission factors (EF) can be used for an easy estimation of legal parameters. Nevertheless, the actual knowledge is yet very scarce, mainly because EF previously published do not include enough information about the incinerated waste composition, besides considering many different waste classifications. This paper reports the first EF estimated for CO, SO 2, NO x and HCl, associated to the incineration of medical waste, segregated in different types according to the classification of the Portuguese legislation. The results showed that those EF are strongly influenced by incinerated waste composition, directly affected by incinerated waste type, waste classification, segregation practice and management methodology. The correspondence between different waste classifications was analysed comparing the estimated EF with the sole results previously published for specific waste types, being observed that the correspondence is not always possible. The legal limit for pollutant concentrations could be obeyed for NO x, but concentrations were higher than the limit for CO (11-24 times), SO 2 (2-5 times), and HCl (9-200 times), confirming that air pollution control devices must be used to protect human health. The small heating value of medical wastes with compulsory incineration implied the requirement of a bigger amount of auxiliary fuel for their incineration, which affects the emitted amounts of CO, NO x and SO 2 (28, 20 and practically 100% of the respective values were related with fuel combustion). Nevertheless, the incineration of those wastes lead to the smallest amount of emitted pollutants, the emitted amount of SO 2 and NO x reducing to 93% and the emitted amount of CO

  15. Mass balance for POPs in hazardous and municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caneghem, J; Block, C; Van Brecht, A; Wauters, G; Vandecasteele, C

    2010-02-01

    The amount of different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the input of waste incinerators was compared to that in the output. Three cases were considered: a rotary kiln incinerating hazardous waste, a grate furnace incinerating municipal solid waste (MSW) and the same grate furnace co-incinerating plastics of waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) and automotive shredder residue (ASR) with MSW. The mass balance for PCBs in the rotary kiln indicates that these POPs are destroyed effectively during incineration. The grate furnace can be a sink or source of PCDD/Fs and PCBs depending on the concentrations in the incinerated waste. In order to compare the total amount of POPs in input and output, a methodology was developed whereby the amount of POPs was weighed according to minimal risk doses (MRDs) or cancer potency factors. For both incinerators the PCDD/Fs, PCBs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the main contributors to total weighed POP output. In MSW, the PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are the main contributors to the weighed POP input. The ratios of the weighed POP-input over -output clearly indicate that the rotary kiln incinerating hazardous waste is a weighed POP sink. The grate furnace incinerating MSW is a weighed POP sink or source depending on the POP-concentrations in the waste, but the difference between output and input is rather limited. When e.g. ASR and plastics of WEEE, containing high concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs, are co-incinerated in the grate furnace, it is clearly a weighed POP sink.

  16. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  17. Behavior and control of chlorine in dyestuff residue incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jian-hua; TAN Zhong-xin; JIANG Xue-guang; CHI Yong; CEN Ke-fa

    2006-01-01

    Dyestuff residue, a type of hazardous waste, is incinerated in the tubular furnace, and thermodynamic equilibrium model is used to calculate and analyze the chlorine behavior. The HCl emission and its effects on the behaviors of heavy metals are studied.Meanwhile, the effects of three dechlorine reagents are predicted at a high temperature. Results show that HCl emission is dependent on incineration temperature. The HCl evaporated mainly derives from the organic chlorine. Under the working condition of 500--900℃, the main products of Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mn in reaction with HCl are HgCl2 (g), PbCl4(g), PbCl2 (g), (CuCl)3 (g), NiCl2 (s),NiCl2 (g), ZnCl2 (s), ZnCl2 (g), Zn (g), MnCl2 (s), and MnCl2 (g), respectively. Among the three dechlorine reagents, CaCO3 is optimal to remove chlorine at high temperature, little of HCl is released below 800℃, whereas Fe3O4 is unstable at high temperature.

  18. Residues from waste incineration. Final report. Rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, T.; Juul Pedersen, A.; Hyks, J.; Frandsen, F.J.

    2010-04-15

    The overall objective of the project was to improve the understanding of the formation and characteristics of residues from waste incineration. This was done focusing on the importance of the waste input and the operational conditions of the furnace. Data and results obtained from the project have been discussed in this report according to the following three overall parts: i) mass flows and element distribution, ii) flue gas/particle partitioning and corrosion/deposition aspects, and iii) residue leaching. This has been done with the intent of structuring the discussion while tacitly acknowledging that these aspects are interrelated and cannot be separated. Overall, it was found that the waste input composition had significant impact of the characteristics of the generated residues. A similar correlation between operational conditions and residue characteristics could not be observed. Consequently, the project recommend that optimization of residue quality should focus on controlling the waste input composition. The project results showed that including specific waste materials (and thereby also excluding the same materials) may have significant effects on the residue composition, residue leaching, aerosol and deposit formation.It is specifically recommended to minimize Cl in the input waste. Based on the project results, it was found that a significant potential for optimization of waste incineration exist. (Author)

  19. Incineration of DOE offsite mixed waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.D.; Harvego, L.A.; Jacobs, A.M. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Willcox, M.V. [Dept. of Energy Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of three incinerators in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Complex capable of incinerating mixed low-level waste (MLLW). WERF has received MLLW from offsite generators and is scheduled to receive more. The State of Idaho supports receipt of offsite MLLW waste at the WERF incinerator within the requirements established in the (INEEL) Site Treatment Plan (STP). The incinerator is operating as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status Facility, with a RCRA Part B permit application currently being reviewed by the State of Idaho. Offsite MLLW received from other DOE facilities are currently being incinerated at WERF at no charge to the generator. Residues associated with the incineration of offsite MLLW waste that meet the Envirocare of Utah waste acceptance criteria are sent to that facility for treatment and/or disposal. WERF is contributing to the treatment and reduction of MLLW in the DOE Complex.

  20. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo and pollution load indices (PLI were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69, Pb (143.80, Cr (99.30, and Cd (7.54 in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  1. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M; Esena, R; Fosu-Mensah, B; Yirenya-Tawiah, D

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  2. Tracing source and migration of Pb during waste incineration using stable Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang, Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing [Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research and Training Center on Rural Waste Management, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of P.R. China, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • The migration of Pb during waste incineration was investigated using Pb isotopes. • Source tracing of Pb during incineration by isotopic technology was feasible. • Contributions of MSW components were measured to trace Pb sources quantitatively. • Isotopic technology helps understand the migration of Pb during thermal treatment. - Abstract: Emission of Pb is a significant environmental concern during solid waste incineration. To target Pb emission control strategies effectively, the major sources of Pb in the waste incineration byproducts must be traced and quantified. However, identifying the migration of Pb in each waste component is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the waste. This study used a laboratory-scale incinerator to simulate the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). The Pb isotope ratios of the major waste components ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8550–0.8627 and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 2.0957–2.1131) and their incineration byproducts were measured to trace sources and quantify the Pb contribution of each component to incineration byproducts. As the proportions of food waste (FW), newspaper (NP), and polyethylene bag (PE) in the artificial MSW changed, the contribution ratios of FW and PE to Pb in fly ash changed accordingly, ranging from 31.2% to 50.6% and from 35.0% to 41.8%, respectively. The replacement of PE by PVC significantly increased the partitioning and migration ratio of Pb. The use of Pb isotope ratios as a quantitative tool for tracing Pb from raw waste to incineration byproducts is a feasible means for improving Pb pollution control.

  3. Screening methodology for assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e., facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium.

  4. Screening methodology for assessing potential health effects from municipal sludge incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, L.; Bruins, R.J.F.; Lutkenhoff, S.D.; Stara, J.F.; Lomnitz, E.; Rubin, A.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes a risk assessment of methodology for preliminary assessment of municipal sludge incineration. The methodology is a valuable tool in that it can be used for determining the hazard indices of chemical contaminants that might be present in sewage sludge used in incineration. The paper examines source characteristics (i.e. facility design), atmospheric dispersion of emission, and resulting human exposure and risk from sludge incinerators. Seven of the ten organics were screened for further investigation. An example of the calculations are presented for cadmium. (Refs. 5).

  5. Development and prospects of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfeng NIE

    2008-01-01

    With the lack of space for new landfills, municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is playing an increasingly important role in municipal solid waste management in China. The literatures on certain aspects of incineration plants in China are reviewed in this paper, including the development and status of the application of MSW incineration technologies, the treatment of leachate from stored MSW, air pollution control technologies, and the status of the fly-ash control method. Energy policy and its promotion of MSW-to-energy conversion are also elucidated.

  6. Biomonitoring of toxic metals in incinerator workers: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Sbordone, Carmine; Montuori, Paolo; Alfano, Rossella; Triassi, Maria; Iavicoli, Ivo; Manno, Maurizio

    2017-04-15

    Exposure to chemicals released during urban waste disposal and treatment is increasingly regarded as a potential occupational health issue. Indeed, several toxic metals emitted by an incinerator, including As, Be, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni and V, have potentially toxic properties and their exposure, therefore, may be of concern for the health of the workers involved. The levels of exposure should therefore be carefully measured. Environmental monitoring, however, may be unable, alone, to assess true exposure, due to its intrinsic limitations mainly concerning its inability to assess oral and dermal absorption. In these cases biological monitoring may represent a fundamental supplementary tool for the definition of the workers' true occupational exposure and for the prevention of the related health effects. There is, therefore, an increasing interest in developing and using, in these workers, sensitive and specific biomarkers for health risk assessment, particularly at low or even very low levels of exposure. Despite the large number of original and review articles present in the literature on the biomonitoring of workers exposed to metals, the data on subjects employed in waste treatment activities are scattered and results are sometimes inconsistent. This is the first systematic review, performed according to PRISMA methodology, of the major studies investigating the levels of different toxic metals measured in the main biological matrices (blood, urine, hair) of incinerator workers. The results show that the levels of metals measured in incinerators' workers are generally low, with some notable exceptions for Cd and Pb. These results, though, can be affected by several confounders related either to non-occupational exposure, including diet, area of residence and others, and/or by a number of methodological limitations, as we found in the reported studies. Future work should focus on an integrated approach, using ideally both biological and environmental monitoring

  7. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Fly ash from waste incineration contains large amounts of heavy metals and dioxins, which will cause a significant disposal problem within the coming years. The amount of fly ash produced in Sweden is currently approximately 60,000 tons/y. New technological options for the decontamination and/or inertization of incinerator fly ash are being developed with the objective of rendering a product that can be reused or, at least, be deposited at standard landfill sites with no risk. Many of these technologies have been tested at industrial scale or in pilot projects. The proposed alternatives include: Thermal treatments; Immobilization/stabilization by cement based techniques; Wet chemical treatments (extractions, immobilizations); Microbiological treatments. Of these, thermal treatments are the most promising solution. Depending on the temperature thermal treatments are classified in two main types: 1) low temperature (below 600 deg C) thermal treatments and 2) high temperature (above 1200 deg C) thermal treatments (vitrification). Most dioxins can be successfully destroyed at temperatures up to 400 deg C under oxygen deficient conditions and at temperatures up to 600 deg C under oxidising conditions. However most heavy metals remain in the fly ash after low temperature treatment. At a temperature of 900 deg C most heavy metals can also be removed in a 10% HCl atmosphere by forming volatile metal chlorides (CT-Fluapur process). During vitrification processes the fly ash melts and forms an inert glassy slag. The product does not leach any significant amount of heavy metals and is free from dioxin. The volume of the fly ash is significantly reduced. The product can be land filled at low costs or used as construction material. The properties of the product depend on the cooling process and on additives such as sand, limestone or waste glass. A series of vitrification methods at industrial size or in pilot scale using different furnaces are studied. Among these, plasma

  8. Exergy analysis of aluminum recovery from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Allegrini, Elisa; Laner, D.

    Two main challenges, associated with the recovery of aluminum from state-of-the-art municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, are yield as well as quality losses of metallic aluminum due to particle surface oxidation and presence of impurities. Yet, in the framework of life cycle assessment...... (LCA) a direct measure for expressing the quality of primary and secondary resources is missing. In view of a possible solution, exergy has been proposed as a concept to evaluate the quality of resources. In this paper, LCA and exergy analyses for two waste treatment approaches are conducted...... in a two-step system consisting of a waste-to-energy process and a consequent bottom ash treatment. B) An aluminum-pre-sorting step takes place prior to the thermal treatment. In case of B, an additional exergy is spent on pre-sorting, but, in return, a metal of higher quality is obtained. The discussion...

  9. Treatment of Decommissioning Combustible Wastes with Incineration Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y. Min; Yang, D. S.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of management for the decommissioning radioactive combustible and metal waste in KAERI. In Korea, two decommissioning projects were carried out for nuclear research facilities (KRR-1 and KRR-2) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP). Through the two decommissioning projects, lots of decommissioning wastes were generated. Decommissioning waste can be divided into radioactive waste and releasable waste. The negative pressure of the incineration chamber remained constant within the specified range. Off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measures gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved average volume reduction ratio during facility operation is about 1/65.

  10. DC Arc Plasma Furnace Melting of Waste Incinerator Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mingzhou; MENG Yuedong; SHI Jiabiao; KUANG Jingan; NI Guohua; LIU Wei; JIANG Yiman

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was melted using a set of direct current (DC) arc plasma furnace system for the first time in China.At a feed-rate of flying ash of 80 kg/h,the temperature at the gas outlet was above 1300℃.Dioxins in the off-gas were recorded as 0.029 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (international toxic equivalent,I-TEQ),well below 0.5 ng TEQ/Nm3 (toxic equivalent,TEQ),while those in the melted product(slag)were 0.00035 ng/g I-TEQ.Molten slag from the furnace showed excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals.These results prove that the plasma furnace is effective for the detoxification and stabilization of MSWI fly ash.

  11. Consolidated Incineration Facility, Savannah River Site. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential impacts associated with the siting, construction, and operation of the proposed Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF), at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. The text of the document is unchanged from the EA issued in June 1992, with the following three exceptions: (1) Section 2.1 refers to recent solid waste forecast information; (2) Section 4.5.1 deletes the reference to dioxin emission standards; and (3) a footnote to Section 4.6.2 includes the results of a morr, conservative risk factor. An additional appendix has also been added to the EA. Appendix B presents comments received on the June 1992 EA and the Proposed FONSI from federal, state, and local agencies, interest groups, and individuals. Appendix B also contains both general and specific DOE responses to these comments.

  12. Activated carbon treatment of municipal solid waste incineration flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengyong; Ji, Ya; Buekens, Alfons; Ma, Zengyi; Jin, Yuqi; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-02-01

    Activated carbon injection is widely used to control dioxins and mercury emissions. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to its modelling. This paper proposes an expansion of the classical Everaerts-Baeyens model, introducing the expression of fraction of free adsorption sites, f (s), and asserting the significant contribution of fly ash to dioxins removal. Moreover, the model monitors dioxins partitioning between vapour and particulate phase, as well as removal efficiency for each congener separately. The effects of the principal parameters affecting adsorption are analysed according to a semi-analytical, semi-empirical model. These parameters include temperature, contact time during entrained-flow, characteristics (grain-size, pore structure, specific surface area) and dosage of activated carbon, lignite cokes or mineral adsorbent, fly ash characteristics and concentration, and type of incinerator plant.

  13. Glass phase in municipal and industrial waste incineration bottom ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafał Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash is a material with rising significance in waste streams in numerous countries. Even if some part of them is now used as raw materials the great amount is still landfilled. High temperature of thermal processes (>1000°C) together with fast cooling results in high content of glass in bottom ash. Its chemical composition is influenced by various factors like composition of raw wastes and used incineration technique. Most of bottom ash grains are composed of glass with large amount of mineral phases and also metallic constituents embedded into it. Glass susceptibility for alteration processes together with the characteristics of glass-based grains can bring environmental risk in time of improper or long term storage on landfill site. In this study bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal and industrial (including hazardous and medical) wastes were studied to determine glass content, its chemical composition with emphasis on metal content (especially potentially hazardous) and its relations to metallic components of grains. Samples were collected from two thermal treatment plants in Poland. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used for determination of mineral composition of studied samples. Rietveld method and addition of internal standard for determination of amorphous phase content were used. Scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used for detailed analysis of glass and glass associated phases. Waste incineration bottom ash is a multi-components material rich in amorphous phase. It dominant part is represented by Si-rich glass. It is a main component of bottom ash grains but it contains minerals present in large quantities and also various forms of metallic elements. Glass within grains is often porous and cracked. In bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal wastes ~ 45-55 wt % of amorphous phase were present, mostly in form of glass with high

  14. Precious Metals in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchova, Lenka; Bakker, Erwin; Rem, Peter [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Materials and Environment, TU Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: P.C.REM@TUDELFT.NL

    2009-04-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash contains economically significant levels of silver and gold. Bottom ashes from incinerators at Amsterdam and Ludwigshafen were sampled, processed, and analyzed to determine the composition, size, and mass distribution of the precious metals. In order to establish accurate statistics of the gold particles, a sample of heavy non-ferrous metals produced from 15 tons of wet processed Amsterdam ash was analyzed by a new technology called magnetic density separation (MDS). Amsterdam's bottom ash contains approximately 10 ppm of silver and 0.4 ppm of gold, which was found in particulate form in all size fractions below 20 mm. The sample from Ludwigshafen was too small to give accurate values on the gold content, but the silver content was found to be identical to the value measured for the Amsterdam ash. Precious metal value in particles smaller than 2 mm seems to derive mainly from waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), whereas larger precious metal particles are from jewelry and constitute the major part of the economic value. Economical analysis shows that separation of precious metals from the ash may be viable with the presently high prices of non-ferrous metals. In order to recover the precious metals, bottom ash must first be classified into different size fractions. Then, the heavy non-ferrous (HNF) metals should be concentrated by physical separation (eddy current separation, density separation, etc.). Finally, MDS can separate gold from the other HNF metals (copper, zinc). Gold-enriched concentrates can be sold to the precious metal smelter and the copper-zinc fraction to a brass or copper smelter.

  15. The Louisiana State University waste-to-energy incinerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This proposed action is for cost-shared construction of an incinerator/steam-generation facility at Louisiana State University under the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). The SECP, created by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, calls upon DOE to encourage energy conservation, renewable energy, and energy efficiency by providing Federal technical and financial assistance in developing and implementing comprehensive state energy conservation plans and projects. Currently, LSU runs a campus-wide recycling program in order to reduce the quantity of solid waste requiring disposal. This program has removed recyclable paper from the waste stream; however, a considerable quantity of other non-recyclable combustible wastes are produced on campus. Until recently, these wastes were disposed of in the Devil's Swamp landfill (also known as the East Baton Rouge Parish landfill). When this facility reached its capacity, a new landfill was opened a short distance away, and this new site is now used for disposal of the University's non-recyclable wastes. While this new landfill has enough capacity to last for at least 20 years (from 1994), the University has identified the need for a more efficient and effective manner of waste disposal than landfilling. The University also has non-renderable biological and potentially infectious waste materials from the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Student Health Center, primarily the former, whose wastes include animal carcasses and bedding materials. Renderable animal wastes from the School of Veterinary Medicine are sent to a rendering plant. Non-renderable, non-infectious animal wastes currently are disposed of in an existing on-campus incinerator near the School of Veterinary Medicine building.

  16. The Louisiana State University waste-to-energy incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-26

    This proposed action is for cost-shared construction of an incinerator/steam-generation facility at Louisiana State University under the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). The SECP, created by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, calls upon DOE to encourage energy conservation, renewable energy, and energy efficiency by providing Federal technical and financial assistance in developing and implementing comprehensive state energy conservation plans and projects. Currently, LSU runs a campus-wide recycling program in order to reduce the quantity of solid waste requiring disposal. This program has removed recyclable paper from the waste stream; however, a considerable quantity of other non-recyclable combustible wastes are produced on campus. Until recently, these wastes were disposed of in the Devil`s Swamp landfill (also known as the East Baton Rouge Parish landfill). When this facility reached its capacity, a new landfill was opened a short distance away, and this new site is now used for disposal of the University`s non-recyclable wastes. While this new landfill has enough capacity to last for at least 20 years (from 1994), the University has identified the need for a more efficient and effective manner of waste disposal than landfilling. The University also has non-renderable biological and potentially infectious waste materials from the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Student Health Center, primarily the former, whose wastes include animal carcasses and bedding materials. Renderable animal wastes from the School of Veterinary Medicine are sent to a rendering plant. Non-renderable, non-infectious animal wastes currently are disposed of in an existing on-campus incinerator near the School of Veterinary Medicine building.

  17. 40 CFR 60.2870 - What are the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for air curtain incinerators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration... in paragraphs (c) (1) and (2) of this section. (1) The types of materials you plan to combust in your...

  18. A survey of Trace Metals Determination in Hospital Waste Incinerator in Lucknow City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the elemental content of incinerator burning of human organ, animal and medical waste is scanty in India Nineteen trace elements were analyzed in the incinerator ash from four major hospitals, one municipal waste incinerator and two R & D laboratories engaged in animal experiment in Lucknow city. Concentrations of Zinc and Lead were found to be very high in comparison to other metals due to burning of plastic products. The source of Ca, P and K are mainly bone, teeth and other animal organs. A wide variation in trace concentration of several toxic elements have been seen due to variation in initial waste composition, design of the incinerator and operating conditions.

  19. Municipal solid waste incineration in China and the issue of acidification: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Longjie; Lu, Shengyong; Yang, Jie; Du, Cuicui; Chen, Zhiliang; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-04-01

    In China, incineration is essential for reducing the volume of municipal solid waste arising in its numerous megacities. The evolution of incinerator capacity has been huge, yet it creates strong opposition from a small, but vocal part of the population. The characteristics of Chinese municipal solid waste are analysed and data presented on its calorific value and composition. These are not so favourable for incineration, since the sustained use of auxiliary fuel is necessary for ensuring adequate combustion temperatures. Also, the emission standard for acid gases is more lenient in China than in the European Union, so special attention should be paid to the issue of acidification arising from flue gas. Next, the techniques used in flue gas cleaning in China are reviewed and the acidification potential by cleaned flue gas is estimated. Still, acidification induced by municipal solid waste incinerators remains marginal compared with the effects of coal-fired power plants.

  20. Energy potential of municipal solid waste incineration in urban areas of China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the energy potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Chinese cities from 1996 to 2020. In China, with improving the standard of living recently, the extreme increase of the municipal solid waste generation (MSWG)

  1. Enviromental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielar, Agnieszka; Helios-Rybicka, Edeltrauda

    2013-07-01

    The environmental impact of a hospital waste incineration plant in Krakow was investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the degree of environmental effect of the secondary solid waste generated during the incineration process of medical waste. The analysis of pollution of the air emissions and leaching test of ashes and slag were carried out. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that (i) the hospital waste incineration plant significantly solves the problems of medical waste treatment in Krakow; (ii) the detected contaminant concentrations were generally lower than the permissible values; (iii) the generated ashes and slag contained considerable concentrations of heavy metals, mainly zinc, and chloride and sulfate anions. Ashes and slag constituted 10-15% of the mass of incinerated wastes; they are more harmful for the environment when compared with untreated waste, and after solidification they can be deposited in the hazardous waste disposal.

  2. The urban populations behavior facing a performant project of incineration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the different reactions of populations facing a performant project of incineration plant. Fears and advanced arguments (fog, pollutants, trucks traffic, effects on grounds and on surrounding farmings, effects on human health) are described. (O.L.).

  3. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    CO2-loads from combustible waste are important inputs for national CO2 inventories and life-cycle assessments (LCA). CO2 emissions from waste incinerators are often expressed by emission factors in kg fossil CO2 emitted per GJ energy content of the waste. Various studies have shown considerable...... variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... of this study was to quantify the importance of source separation for determination of emission factors for incineration of residual household waste. This was done by mimicking various source separation scenarios and based on waste composition data calculating resulting emission factors for residual waste...

  4. Production of coloured glass-ceramics from incinerator ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W; Huang, M Z; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, K B; Ueng, T H

    2007-08-01

    Incineration is a major treatment process for municipal solid waste in Taiwan. It is estimated that over 1.5 Mt of incinerator ash are produced annually. This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat incinerator ash. Sintered glass-ceramics were produced using quenched vitrified slag with colouring agents added. The experimental results showed that the major crystalline phases developed in the sintered glass-ceramics were gehlenite and wollastonite, but many other secondary phases also appeared depending on the colouring agents added. The physical/mechanical properties, chemical resistance and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure of the coloured glass-ceramics were satisfactory. The glass-ceramic products obtained from incinerator ash treated with thermal plasma technology have great potential for building applications.

  5. Energy potential of municipal solid waste incineration in urban areas of China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the energy potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Chinese cities from 1996 to 2020. In China, with improving the standard of living recently, the extreme increase of the municipal solid waste generation (MSWG)

  6. Technical and economic assessment of power generation from municipal solid waste incineration on steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Luna, Carlos Manuel; Carrocci, Luiz Roberto; Ferrufino, Gretta Larisa Aurora Arce; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Dept. of Energy. UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: carrocci@feg.unesp.br, perrella@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a concern in development of environmentally friendly methods for a municipal solid waste (MSW) management and demand for renewable energy sources. The source of waste is increasing, and the capacity and availability Landfill treatment and disposal are coming to be insufficient. In Sao Paulo City, the 10 million inhabitants produce 10,000 t of residential solid waste daily, being that 76% this quantity goes to landfill sites. In order to adopt a new treatment technology for MSW that will promote a solution minimizing this problem, within the order of priorities regarding waste management, the MSW incineration with energy recovery shown as the leading choice on the point of view of efficiency in converting energy. MSW incineration with energy recovery received wide acceptance from various countries including European Union members and the rest of the world in the past 15 years. Incineration has the ability decrease 90 % the volume of waste to be used in landfills, increasing the useful life of existing as well as a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. MSW incineration systems have a low global warming potential (GWP). now has become a less important source of dioxins and furans due to the current available technology. MSW incineration with energy recovery could contribute considerably in the energy matrix, thus promote the conservation of non-renewable resources. This paper proposes the assessment the technical and economic feasibility of a steam cycle with conventional steam generator for MSW incineration with energy recovery for power generation in Sao Paulo City. Will be developed a thermoeconomic analysis aiming at the total power generation product of MSW incineration, and the assessment investment cost regarding the total sale of power generated. The study shows that Sao Paulo City has potential for power generation from the MSW incineration, although it has a high cost investment this technology shown as a suitable alternative for

  7. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-02-01

    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  8. Innovative use of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Annika; Teo, Kanniainen; Tapio, Salo; Riina, Rantsi

    2016-07-01

    The utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash has been extensively studied, for example, in the unbound layers of roads and the products of cement and concrete industry. On the other hand, less attention has been given to other innovative utilisation possibilities, such as using the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media of plants. The municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash contains useful substances, such as calcium, that can influence plant growth in a positive manner. Therefore, the utilisation of this waste-derived material in the growing media may substitute the use of commercial fertilisers. Since the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash also contains hazardous substances that can be toxic to plants, the main aim of this study was to add different amounts of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in the growing media and to evaluate the effect of this material on plant growth. Based on the obtained results, the concentration of, for example copper and zinc, increased in test plants; ryegrass and barley, when recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash was added in their growing media. On the other hand, this did not have a significant effect on plant growth, if compared with the growth of plants in commercially produced growing medium. Furthermore, the replacement of natural sand with municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash had a positive liming effect in the growing media. Overall, these findings suggest that the utilisation of recovered municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as a component in growing media is possible and, thus, may allow more widespread and innovative use of this waste-derived material. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Incineration or Recycling of Dutch Household Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Gradus, Raymond; van Koppen, Rick; Dijkgraaf, Elbert; Nillesen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of plastic recycling is compared to energy recovery from plastic incineration in a waste-to-energy plant using data for the Netherlands. Both options have specific benefits and costs. The benefits of recycling are the avoidance of both CO2 that otherwise would be emitted during incineration and the production of virgin (new) material. There are significant costs, such as collection costs and recycling costs involved for plastic recycling by municipalities. The benefits ...

  10. Optimization of moderated targets loading in LMFBR for minor actinides incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Hongchun; Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1999-04-01

    Optimization of moderated targets loading in LMFBR for minor actinides (MAs) incineration has been performed in this paper. Results of many different composition ratios of moderated target mixture were compared. An optimum case was proposed which can offer good core performance and transmute MAs by about 73 percent (386 kg) and incinerate MAs by about 34 percent (181 kg) through 3 years of reactor operation. (author)

  11. Determination of the optimal area of waste incineration in a rotary kiln using a simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, J

    2015-08-01

    The article presents a mathematical model to determine the flux of incinerated waste in terms of its calorific values. The model is applicable in waste incineration systems equipped with rotary kilns. It is based on the known and proven energy flux balances and equations that describe the specific losses of energy flux while considering the specificity of waste incineration systems. The model is universal as it can be used both for the analysis and testing of systems burning different types of waste (municipal, medical, animal, etc.) and for allowing the use of any kind of additional fuel. Types of waste incinerated and additional fuel are identified by a determination of their elemental composition. The computational model has been verified in three existing industrial-scale plants. Each system incinerated a different type of waste. Each waste type was selected in terms of a different calorific value. This allowed the full verification of the model. Therefore the model can be used to optimize the operation of waste incineration system both at the design stage and during its lifetime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Envirotoxins from waste incineration - how does the supervision work?; Miljoegifter fraan avfallsfoerbraenningen - hur fungerar tillsynen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    Incineration of household wastes has increased rapidly in Sweden during the last few years, and new plants are being built. The volume of residues from waste incineration is expected to grow from 450,000 tons in 1999 to 1,100,000 tons in 2008. The National Audit Office (SNAO) has made an inquiry into the supervision by responsible authorities of incineration plants and landfills in order to how the environmental legislation is applied in practise. The investigation includes case studies of six incineration plants and seven landfills where the residues from the plants are disposed. The supervision is part of a complex system made up of state, local and private actors who all have a responsibility for applying the environmental legislation. SNAO has found serious shortcomings in the operational supervision of all incineration plants studied and several landfills concerning the risk of toxins leaching into the environment. SNAO also points at the lack of knowledge at the Swedish EPA regarding the potential environmental problems of incineration residues and the need for evaluation of the supervisory function. SNAO recommends that the government take an initiative for making more detailed demands in the environmental legislation, and that the Swedish EPA should improve its knowledge about the quality of the operational supervision in accordance with the legislation.

  13. Heat supply from municipal solid waste incineration plants in Japan: Current situation and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro; Tsai, Peii

    2016-02-01

    The use of waste-to-energy technology as part of a municipal solid waste management strategy could reduce the use of fossil fuels and contribute to prevention of global warming. In this study, we examined current heat and electricity production by incineration plants in Japan for external use. Herein, we discuss specific challenges to the promotion of heat utilisation and future municipal solid waste management strategies. We conducted a questionnaire survey to determine the actual conditions of heat production by incineration plants. From the survey results, information of about 498 incineration plants was extracted. When we investigated the relationship between heat production for external use and population density where incineration plants were located, we found that regions with a population density heat. We also found that external use of such energy for factories, markets, and related use, was noted in cities with a population density of 2000 to 4000 persons (km(2))(-1). Several incineration plants have poor performance for heat production because there are few facilities near them to provide demand for the energy. This is the result of redundant capacity, and is reflected in the heat production performance. Given these results, we discussed future challenges to creating energy demand around incineration plants where there is presently none. We also examined the challenges involved in increasing heat supply beyond the present situation.

  14. Domestic wastes incineration in France situation in 2000 evolution and perspectives the 31.12.2002; Incineration des dechets menagers en France situation en 2000 evolution et perspectives au 31.12.2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document presents the analysis and the conclusions of a working group, concerning the domestic wastes incineration. It presents successively the place of the domestic wastes in the wastes management approach, the regulations, the methodology and the corresponding results of an inquiry realized in 2000 and the research programs on the incineration as the Best Available Techniques, the sanitary impacts of the UIOM (domestic wastes incineration plants), the vitrification, the greenhouse effect. (A.L.B.)

  15. Costs of head-end incineration with respect to Kr separation in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnert-Wiemer, H.; Boehnert, R.

    1976-07-15

    The C-incinerations and the Kr-separations during head-end incineration in the reprocessing of HTR fuel elements are described. The costs for constructing an operating a head-end incineration of reprocessing capacities with 5,000 to 50,000 MW(e)-HTR power have been determined. The cost estimates are divided into investment and operating costs, further after the fraction of the N/sub 2/-content in the incineration exhaust gas, which strongly affects costs. It appears that, in the case of Kr-separation from the incineration exhaust gas, the investment costs as well as the operating costs of the head-end for N/sub 2/-containing exhaust gas are considerably greater than those for gas without N/sub 2/. The C-incineration of the graphite of the HTR fuel elements should therefore only be performed with influx gas that is free of N/sub 2/.

  16. The study on biomass fraction estimate methodology of municipal solid waste incinerator in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seongmin; Kim, Seungjin; Lee, Jeongwoo; Yun, Hyunki; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2016-10-01

    In Korea, the amount of greenhouse gases released due to waste materials was 14,800,000 t CO2eq in 2012, which increased from 5,000,000 t CO2eq in 2010. This included the amount released due to incineration, which has gradually increased since 2010. Incineration was found to be the biggest contributor to greenhouse gases, with 7,400,000 t CO2eq released in 2012. Therefore, with regards to the trading of greenhouse gases emissions initiated in 2015 and the writing of the national inventory report, it is important to increase the reliability of the measurements related to the incineration of waste materials. This research explored methods for estimating the biomass fraction at Korean MSW incinerator facilities and compared the biomass fractions obtained with the different biomass fraction estimation methods. The biomass fraction was estimated by the method using default values of fossil carbon fraction suggested by IPCC, the method using the solid waste composition, and the method using incinerator flue gas. The highest biomass fractions in Korean municipal solid waste incinerator facilities were estimated by the IPCC Default method, followed by the MSW analysis method and the Flue gas analysis method. Therefore, the difference in the biomass fraction estimate was the greatest between the IPCC Default and the Flue gas analysis methods. The difference between the MSW analysis and the flue gas analysis methods was smaller than the difference with IPCC Default method. This suggested that the use of the IPCC default method cannot reflect the characteristics of Korean waste incinerator facilities and Korean MSW. Incineration is one of most effective methods for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). This paper investigates the applicability of using biomass content to estimate the amount of CO2 released, and compares the biomass contents determined by different methods in order to establish a method for estimating biomass in the MSW incinerator facilities of Korea

  17. 40 CFR 60.2850 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator and then restart it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that... final compliance date, you must complete emission control retrofits and meet the emission limitations...

  18. Summary of Requirements for Sewage Sludge Incinerators (SSI): New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 2011 document summarizes the various requirements of the sewage sludge incinerators (SSI) new source performance standards (NSPS) and emission guidelines (EG), broken down into compliance categories.

  19. Useful heat and power from a new regional rubbish incineration plant; Environnement: usine d'incineration a Posieux. Des poubelles energetiques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoz, D.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the construction of a new regional rubbish incineration plant near the City of Fribourg, Switzerland. According to the new law on waste and rubbish management, which introduces in particular a tax on rubbish bags to promote recycling, the installed capacity of the plant is lower than previously foreseen in a first project, resulting also in a cost reduction. A large fraction of the thermal energy produced by the rubbish incineration is used for power production and heat supply to buildings via a district heating network. Data on the produced power and the financial savings achieved are given. [French] Cet article decrit l'installation d'une nouvelle usine regionale d'incineration des dechets pres de la ville de Fribourg en Suisse. Depuis la mise en place d'une nouvelle loi sur la gestion des dechets, qui introduit notamment la taxe au sac et donc l'incitation au tri, la capacite des fours a ete revue a la baisse, ce qui permet par consequent de reduire les couts. Une grande partie de l'energie produite par l'incineration est recuperee sous la forme de chaleur distribuee via le reseau de chauffage a distance et sous la forme d'electricite. L'article indique les puissances produites et les economies financieres realisees.

  20. Strategy for nuclear wastes incineration in hybrid reactors; Strategies pour l'incineration de dechets nucleaires dans des reacteurs hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre, F

    1998-12-11

    The transmutation of nuclear wastes in accelerator-driven nuclear reactorsoffers undeniable advantages. But before going into the detailed study of a particular project, we should (i) examine the possible applications of such systems and (ii) compare the different configurations, in order to guide technological decisions. We propose an approach, answering both concerns, based on the complete description of hybrid reactors. It is possible, with only the transmutation objective and a few technological constraints chosen a posteriori, to determine precisely the essential parameters of such reactors: number of reactors, beam current, size of the core, sub-criticality... The approach also clearly pinpoints the strategic decisions, for which the scientist or engineer is not competent. This global scheme is applied to three distinct nuclear cycles: incineration of solid fuel without recycling, incineration of liquid fuel without recycling and incineration of liquid fuel with on-line recycling; and for two spectra, either thermal or fast. We show that the radiotoxicity reduction with a solid fuel is significant only with a fast spectrum, but the incineration times range from 20 to 30 years. The liquid fuel is appropriate only with on-line recycling, at equilibrium. The gain on the radiotoxicity can be considerable and we describe a number of such systems. The potential of ADS for the transmutation of nuclear wastes is confirmed, but we should continue the description of specific systems obtained through this approach. (author)

  1. PAH emissions from coal combustion and waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei Ting; Liu, Mei Chen; Hung, Pao Chen; Chang, Shu Hao; Chang, Moo Been

    2016-11-15

    The characteristics of PAHs that are emitted by a municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and coal-fired power plant are examined via intensive sampling. Results of flue gas sampling reveal the potential for PAH formation within the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system of a coal-fired power plant. In the large-scale MWI, the removal efficiency of PAHs achieved with the pilot-scaled catalytic filter (CF) exceeds that achieved by activated carbon injection with a bag filter (ACI+BF) owing to the effective destruction of gas-phase contaminants by a catalyst. A significantly lower PAH concentration (1640ng/g) was measured in fly ash from a CF module than from an ACI+BF system (5650ng/g). Replacing the ACI+BF system with CF technology would significantly reduce the discharge factor (including emission and fly ash) of PAHs from 251.6 to 77.8mg/ton-waste. The emission factors of PAHs that are obtained using ACI+BF and the CF system in the MWI are 8.05 and 7.13mg/ton, respectively. However, the emission factor of MWI is significantly higher than that of coal-fired power plant (1.56mg/ton). From the perspective of total environmental management to reduce PAH emissions, replacing the original ACI+BF process with a CF system is expected to reduce environmental impact thereof.

  2. ALKALINE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF SECONDARY WASTE FROM WASTE INCINERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Mierzwiński

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper regards the possibility of using geopolymer matrix to immobilize heavy metals present in ash and slag from combustion of waste. In the related research one used the fly ash from coal combustion in one Polish CHP plant and the waste from Polish incineration plants. It was studied if the above-named waste materials are useful in the process of alkali-activation. Therefore, three sets of geopolymer mixtures were prepared containing 60, 50 and 30% of ash and slag from the combustion of waste and fly ash combustion of sewage skudge. The remaining content was fly ash from coal combustion. The alkali-activation was conducted by means of 14M solution of NaOH and sodium water glass. The samples, whose dimensions were in accordance with the PN-EN 206-1 norm, were subjected to 75°C for 24h. According to the results, the geopolymer matrix is able to immobilize heavy metals and retain compressive strength resembling that of concrete.

  3. Volatilization of heavy metals during incineration of municipal solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lu-shi; S. Abanades; J.D.Lu; G.Flamant; D.Gauthier

    2004-01-01

    Incineration experiments with MSW, which had been impregnated with heavy metals, were presented toobtain information on the volatilization behavior of the elements cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) underdifferent conditions. Experiments were carried out in a bubbling fluid bed system connected to a customizedinductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy(ICP-OES) for analyzing metals in the flue gas. The resultsindicated that the combustion temperature, the gas atmosphere, and the chlorine content in the flue gas could affectthe volatilization behavior of heavy metals. In the fluidized bed combustion, a large surface area was provided by thebed sand particles, and they may act as absorbents for the gaseous ash-forming compound. Comparer with themetals Cd and Pb, the vaporization of Zn was Iow. The formation of stable compounds such as ZnO·Al2O3 couldgreatly decrease the metals volatilization. The presence of chlorine would enhance the volatilization of heavy metalsby increasing the formation of metal chlorides. However, when the oxygen content was high, the chlorinatingreaction was kinetically hindered, which heavy metals release would be delayed.

  4. Separation of metals from incineration wastes using mineral industry processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheizer, G. [Universite de Technologie, Aix-la-Chapelle (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The incineration of municipal wastes in Federal Republic of Germany produced about 2.7 to 2.8 millions of tons of solid wastes in 1993 which still contain huge amounts of mineral and organic pollutants. Ashes represent the largest part of wastes with about 2.4 millions of tons. Vitrification is an innovative treatment technique which allows a 90% reduction of the waste volume, the complete removal of the organic matter content, and the storage of these waste in an environmentally neutral form. However, metals must be extracted from the ashes prior to the vitrification process. Most metals fall into the 2.4-2.7 g/cm{sup 3} and > 3 g/cm{sup 3} density ranges. The lighter fraction corresponds to aluminium particles and alloys, while the high density fraction is enriched in copper, copper alloys and more particularly in brass. The treatment process, after drying, consist in the use of high intensity magnetic separation devices (permanent neodymium-bore-iron magnets) for the removal of ferrous particles, and in the use of Foucault currents separation devices for non-magnetic metals. At the pilot-scale, the distribution of the processed wastes corresponds to: 62.6 % of non-metallized ashes, 35.5 % of magnetic products, and 1.9% of non-magnetic products. The possible recycling of the metal fraction must be demonstrated by further studies. (J.S.). Abstract only.

  5. Leaching characteristics of fly ash from Chinese medical waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhongxin; Xiao, Gang

    2012-03-01

    Many of the characteristics of typical medical waste ash can be found by using ash leaching experiments. The present study investigated the characteristics of fly ash derived from incineration of medical waste in China. The particle diameter of the fly ash was in the range 154-900 μm. Elemental analyses of the fly ash indicated that it contained calcium, aluminium, iron, sodium, potassium and magnesium, and that copper, lead, chromium and mercury were the dominant heavy metals it contained. As leaching time was increased the leaching concentrations of the heavy metals increased and the leaching toxicity was augmented. When the pH was neutral, the concentrations of most heavy metals in the leachate were minimum whereas when the pH was alkali or acid, the leaching toxicity was greatly enhanced. High temperature melting was found to be a good method of fixing heavy metals, and the main components of the sinter were Fe3O4, SiO2, CaSO4 and CaSiO3, etc.

  6. Porous materials produced from incineration ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Chiu, Wen-Tung; Wang, To-Mai; Chen, Ching-Ting; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2014-06-01

    This study presents a novel thermal plasma melting technique for neutralizing and recycling municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash residues. MSWI ash residues were converted into water-quenched vitrified slag using plasma vitrification, which is environmentally benign. Slag is adopted as a raw material in producing porous materials for architectural and decorative applications, eliminating the problem of its disposal. Porous materials are produced using water-quenched vitrified slag with Portland cement and foaming agent. The true density, bulk density, porosity and water absorption ratio of the foamed specimens are studied here by varying the size of the slag particles, the water-to-solid ratio, and the ratio of the weights of the core materials, including the water-quenched vitrified slag and cement. The thermal conductivity and flexural strength of porous panels are also determined. The experimental results show the bulk density and the porosity of the porous materials are 0.9-1.2 g cm(-3) and 50-60%, respectively, and the pore structure has a closed form. The thermal conductivity of the porous material is 0.1946 W m(-1) K(-1). Therefore, the slag composite materials are lightweight and thermal insulators having considerable potential for building applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy and exergy optimization of food waste pretreatment and incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanjun; Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zhou, Zhaozhi; Ni, Mingjiang

    2017-06-22

    With the aim of upgrading current food waste (FW) management strategy, a novel FW hydrothermal pretreatment and air-drying incineration system is proposed and optimized from an energy and exergy perspective. Parameters considered include the extracted steam quality, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW, and the reactor thermal efficiency. Results show that optimal working condition can be obtained when the temperature and pressure of extracted steam are 159 °C and 0.17 MPa, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW is 10%, and the reactor thermal efficiency is 90%. Under such circumstance, the optimal steam energy and exergy increments reach 194.92 and 324.50 kJ/kg-FW, respectively. The novel system is then applied under the local conditions of Hangzhou, China. Results show that approximately 2.7 or 11.6% (from energy or exergy analysis perspective) of electricity can be additionally generated from 1 ton of MSW if the proposed novel FW system is implemented. Besides, comparisons between energy and exergy analysis are also discussed.

  8. Mercury contamination and potential impacts from municipal waste incinerator on Samui Island, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Parkpian, Preeda; Delaune, R D; Gambrell, R P; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, mercury (Hg) pollution generated by municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) has become the subject of serious public concern. On Samui Island, Thailand, a large-scale municipal waste incinerator has been in operation for over 7 years with a capacity of 140 tons/day for meeting the growing demand for municipal waste disposal. This research assessed Hg contamination in environmental matrices adjacent to the waste incinerating plant. Total Hg concentrations were determined in municipal solid waste, soil and sediment within a distance of 100 m to 5 km from the incinerator operation in both wet and dry seasons. Hg analyses conducted in municipal solid waste showed low levels of Hg ranging between 0.15-0.56 mg/kg. The low level was due to the type of waste incinerator. Waste such as electrical appliances, motors and spare parts, rubber tires and hospital wastes are not allowed to feed into the plant. As a result, low Hg levels were also found in fly and bottom ashes (0.1-0.4 mg/kg and incinerator including uptake by local weeds were very low ranging from non detectable to 399 micro g/kg. However, low but elevated levels of Hg (76-275 micro g/kg) were observed in surface soil and deeper layers (0-40 cm) in the predominant downwind direction of incinerator over a distance of between 0.5-5 km. Soil Hg concentrations measured from a reference/background track opposite of the prevailing wind direction were lower ranging between 7-46 micro g/kg. Nevertheless, the trend of Hg build up in soil was clearly seen in the wet season only, suggesting that wet deposition process is a major Hg pollution source. Hg concentrations in the sea bottom sediment collected next to the last station track was small with values between 35-67 micro g/kg. Based upon the overall findings, in terms of current

  9. Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Ching Shu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD, children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary.

  10. Energy recovery from heavy ASR by co-incineration in a fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Isabel; Caneghem, Jo van; Block, Chantal; Vandecasteele, Carlo [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, Leuven (Belgium); Brecht, Andres van; Wauters, Guido [Indaver NV, Mechelen (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Automotive shredder residue (ASR) is a heterogeneous waste stream with varying particle size and elemental composition. Owing to its complexity and hazardous characteristics, landfilling of ASR is still a common practice. Nevertheless, incineration with energy recovery of certain ASR fractions (Waste-to-Energy, WtE) emerges as an interesting alternative. In a full scale experiment, a waste mix of 25 % heavy ASR, 25 % refuse derived fuel (RDF), and 50 % waste water treatment (WWT) sludge was incinerated in the SLECO fluidized bed combustor (FBC) at the Indaver site in Antwerp, Belgium. Input and output streams were sampled and analyzed to make an inventory of the most important pollutants and toxics. The inventory was further used to determine the environmental impact. Results are compared to those of two other scenarios: incineration of the usual waste feed (70 % RDF and 30 % WWT sludge) and co-incineration of 39 % ASR with 61 % WWT sludge. It can be concluded that co-incineration of heavy ASR in an existing FBC is a valid and clean technology to increase current reuse and recovery rates. In the considered FBC, 27 % of the energetic value of ASR can be recovered, while all emissions remain well below regulatory limits and only 12.6 % of the heavy ASR needs to be landfilled. The proportion of ASR in the input waste mix is however limited by the heavy metal concentration in the ASR and the generated ashes. (orig.)

  11. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland.

  12. Environmental assessment of waste incineration and alternatives; Miljoevurdering af affaldsforbraending og alternativer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, J.; Fruergaard, T.; Riber, C.; Astrup, T.; Hoejlund Christensen, T.

    2008-06-15

    Life cycle environmental assessment of waste combustion and alternatives were made using the LCA model EASEWASTE. Possible environmental effects for nine effect categories and the resource consumption of fossil fuels through treating 1 ton combustible waste were defined for several waste systems, including waste-only incineration, co-combustion in a fossil-fueled cogeneration plant, and combined biogas and compost production from household waste. The main conclusions of the analyses are: 1) with an optimum location, i.e. in the vicinity to a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration, co-combustion , and combined biogas and compost production are all equal environmentally viable alternatives . 2) Regarding potential toxic impacts in the area of a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration and combined biogas and compost production will result in slightly less net emissions compared to co-combustion because of better flue gas cleaning of heavy metals in incinerators than in power plants. 3) Siting the incinerator in a decentralized natural gas cogeneration area, co-combustion in a cogeneration plant is a better solution. 4) Combined biogas and compost production and waste-only combustion are environmentally equal treatments in all power plant areas. (ln)

  13. Recovery of high-purity metallic Pd from Pd(II)-sorbed biosorbents by incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sung Wook; Lim, Areum; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2013-06-01

    This work reports a direct way to recover metallic palladium with high purity from Pd(II)-sorbed polyethylenimine-modified Corynebacterium glutamicum biosorbent using a combined method of biosorption and incineration. This study is focused on the incineration part which affects the purity of recovered Pd. The incineration temperature and the amount of Pd loaded on the biosorbent were considered as major factors in the incineration process, and their effects were examined. The results showed that both factors significantly affected the enhancement of the recovery efficiency and purity of the recovered Pd. SEM-EDX and XRD analyses were used to confirm that Pd phase existed in the ash. As a result, the recovered Pd was changed from PdO to zero-valent Pd as the incineration temperature was increased from 600 to 900°C. Almost 100% pure metallic Pd was recovered with recovery efficiency above 99.0% under the conditions of 900°C and 136.9 mg/g.

  14. Incineration of kitchen waste with high nitrogen in vortexing fluidized-bed incinerator and its NO emission characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Feng; Chyang, Chiensong; Wen, Jiaruei; Tso, Jim

    2013-09-01

    Some municipal solid waste (MSW) can be used as the fuel. Combustion of MSW with high nitrogen content is successfully conducted in a lab-scale vortexing fluidized-bed incinerator (VFBI). Pigskin with 16.5 wt.% nitrogen content was used to simulate the high nitrogen content kitchen waste, and silica sand was used as the bed material. The effects of operating conditions, such as the bed temperature, freeboard temperature, excess oxygen ratio, and static bed height on the CO and NO concentrations at the exit of combustor and cyclone were investigated. The experimental results show that the freeboard temperature is the most important factor for CO emission. The order of operating conditions impact on the NO emission is: (1) excess oxygen ratio; (2) bed temperature; (3) freeboard temperature; and (4) static bed height. Utilizing cyclone can significantly reduce the CO emission concentration when the CO concentration released from the freeboard is higher than 50 ppm. On the other hand, the cyclone has no significant effect on the NO emission. Despite having high nitrogen content, a low conversion from fuel-N to NO was attained. Compared with other types of combustors, VFBI reduces the CO and NO emission concentrations much better when burning MSW with high nitrogen content.

  15. Incineration of kitchen waste with high nitrogen in vortexing fluidized-bed incinerator and its NO emission characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Duan; Chiensong Chyang; Jiaruei Wen; Jim Tso

    2013-01-01

    Some municipal solid waste (MSW) can be used as the fuel.Combustion of MSW with high nitrogen content is successfully conducted in a lab-scale vortexing fluidized-bed incinerator (VFBI).Pigskin with 16.5 wt.% nitrogen content was used to simulate the high nitrogen content kitchen waste,and silica sand was used as the bed material.The effects of operating conditions,such as the bed temperature,freeboard temperature,excess oxygen ratio,and static bed height on the CO and NO concentrations at the exit of combustor and cyclone were investigated.The experimental results show that the freeboard temperature is the most important factor for CO emission.The order of operating conditions impact on the NO emission is:(1) excess oxygen ratio; (2) bed temperature; (3)freeboard temperature; and (4) static bed height.Utilizing cyclone can significantly reduce the CO emission concentration when the CO concentration released from the freeboard is higher than 50 ppm.On the other hand,the cyclone has no significant effect on the NO emission.Despite having high nitrogen content,a low conversion from fuel-N to NO was attained.Compared with other types of combustors,VFBI reduces the CO and NO emission concentrations much better when burning MSW with high nitrogen content.

  16. Effects of different surface modification and contents on municipal solid waste incineration fly ash/epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, C K; Valavan, S E; Low, T K; Tang, L H

    2016-12-01

    Incineration fly ash, a waste from municipal solid waste incineration plant can be used to replace conventional filler as reinforcing filler to enhance the mechanical strength of a composite. Surface modification was performed on the incineration fly ash before mixing into the soft polymer matrix so as to improve interfacial bond of the filler and epoxy resin. In this study, detailed characterisation of mechanical, morphological and leaching behaviours of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash infused composite has been carried out. Flexural and tensile test was conducted to determine the effect on mechanical properties of the composite by varying the concentration of incineration fly ash filler added into polymer matrix and surface modification of incineration fly ash filler using silane coupling agent and colloidal mesoporous silica (CMS). The results indicated that composite infused with incineration fly ash filler surface treated with CMS shown improvement on the tensile and flexural strengths. In addition, SEM images showed that surface modification of incineration fly ash with colloidal mesoporous silica enhanced the interfacial bonding with polymer resin which explained the improvement of mechanical strength. Leaching test showed result of toxic metals such as Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Cd and Rb immobilised in the polymer matrix of the composite. Hence, the use of MSWI fly ash as reinforcing filler in the composite appears green and sustainable because this approach is a promising opportunity to substitute valuable raw material with MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 77 FR 24403 - Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators State Plan for Designated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators State Plan...). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving Illinois' revised State Plan to control air pollutants from ``Hazardous/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators'' (HMIWI). The Illinois Environmental...

  18. 77 FR 24451 - Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators State Plan for Designated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators State Plan...). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve, through direct final rulemaking, Illinois' revised State Plan to control air pollutants from Hazardous/ Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators (HMIWI...

  19. 77 FR 24405 - Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators State Plan for Designated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 Direct Final Approval of Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators State Plan...). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving Indiana's revised State Plan to control air pollutants from ``Hazardous/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators'' (HMIWI). The Indiana Department of...

  20. Full-Scale Incineration System Demonstration at the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 1. Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    AD-A252 956 VL FULL-SCALE INCINE AT ION SYST72Z DEMIONSTRAT ION AT THE NAVAL C071, * *STRUCTION BATTALION CENTER, ~*~GULFPORT, MISSISSIPPI -VOL!1...however, EPA OSW would not make a delisting determinacion at that time. 3. Incinerator Performance The MWP-2000 incinerator system demonstrated that

  1. 40 CFR 60.3065 - What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and not..., 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3065 What must I do if I plan to permanently close my air curtain incinerator that burns only...

  2. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  3. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  4. Next generation of high-efficient waste incinerators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jappe Frandsen, F.

    2010-11-15

    Modern society produces increasing amounts of combustible waste which may be utilized for heat and power production, at a lower emission of CO{sub 2}, e.g. by substituting a certain fraction of energy from fossil fuel-fired power stations. In 2007, 20.4 % of the district heating and 4.5 % of the power produced in Denmark came from thermal conversion of waste, and waste is a very important part of a future sustainable, and independent, Danish energy supply [Frandsen et al., 2009; Groen Energi, 2010]. In Denmark, approx 3.3 Mtons of waste was produced in 2005, an amount predicted to increase to 4.4 Mtons by the year 2030. According to Affald Danmark, 25 % of the current WtE plant capacity in Denmark is older than 20 years, which is usually considered as the technical and economical lifetime of WtE plants. Thus, there is a need for installation of a significant fraction of new waste incineration capacity, preferentially with an increased electrical efficiency, within the next few years. Compared to fossil fuels, waste is difficult to handle in terms of pre-treatment, combustion, and generation of reusable solid residues. In particular, the content of inorganic species (S, Cl, K, Na, etc.) is problematic, due to enhanced deposition and corrosion - especially at higher temperatures. This puts severe constraints on the electrical efficiency of grate-fired units utilizing waste, which seldom exceeds 26-27%, campared to 46-48 % for coal combustion in suspension. The key parameters when targeting higher electrical efficiency are the pressure and temperature in the steam cycle, which are limited by high-temperature corrosion, boiler- and combustion-technology. This report reviews some of the means that can be applied in order to increase the electrical efficiency in plants firing waste on a grate. (Author)

  5. Nutrient recovery from ash after incineration of organic residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, L. [ASH DEC Umwelt AG, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-08-15

    Organic residues (sewage sludge, biomass, manure) contain significant amounts of nutrients and organic matter that have justified their cheap disposal on cropland. In recent years, however, many plant and soil scientists, public authorities and food industry companies have called for restrictions on uncontrolled spreading of organic residues on cropland because of constant (PAHs, phthalates) or increasing (PBDEs, Bisphenol A, hormones, antibiotics etc.) concentrations of organic pollutants and heavy metals that are partly accumulated in soils and may be transferred to the food chain. Moreover, intensive cattle and pig farming produces increasing quantities of manure that may lead to over-fertilization of croplands and eutrophication of aquatic bodies. An alternative and safe disposal route for organic residues in incineration that makes use of the calorific value of organics, yields energy, destroys the organic pollutants and concentrates inorganic pollutants and most nutrients - except nitrogen that is lost to the atmosphere - in the ash. Most sludge-, manure- and biomass ashes contain P and K (15-25%), Ca (20-30%); Si (15-25%), Fe (10-20%) and trace nutrients. Because of their commonly high concentrations of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium and their limited usability as a fertilizer (dust, insufficient nutrient plant availability) untreated ashes are frequently banned from application on crop- or woodland and are disposed of in landfills, where nutrient are lost or may even adversely affect water bodies. To minimize adverse effects of biomass-to-energy concepts, ash must be converted to a P-rich fertilizer raw material. The selected technological approach is a thermo-chemical ash treatment at around 1.000 deg. C that removes harmful heavy metals and makes P fully plant available. (BA)

  6. Environmental impacts of post-consumer material managements: recycling, biological treatments, incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, F

    2010-11-01

    The environmental impacts of recycling, mechanical biological treatments (MBT) and waste-to-energy incineration, the main management strategies to respond to the increasing production of post-consumer materials are reviewed and compared. Several studies carried out according to life-cycle assessment (LCA) confirm that the lowest environmental impact, on a global scale, is obtained by recycling and by biological treatments (composting and anaerobic fermentations) if compost is used in agriculture. The available air emission factors suggest that, on a local scale, mechanical biological treatments with energy recovery of biogas, may be intrinsically safer than waste-to-energy incinerators. Several studies confirm the capability of biological treatments to degrade many toxic xenobiotic contaminating urban wastes such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, an important property to be improved, for safe agricultural use of compost. Further LCA studies to compare the environmental impact of MBTs and of waste-to-energy incinerators are recommended.

  7. Stabilisation of dental structures of severely incinerated victims at disaster scenes to facilitate human identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berketa, John; Higgins, Denice

    2017-10-01

    Fatalities due to fire events such as bushfires, domestic and industrial fires and vehicle accident related incineration, leave victims with limited prospects of being accurately identified. Due to their morphology and anatomical position teeth are uniquely protected in incineration cases and via comparison to dental records often provide the only scientifically valid means of identification. However, extreme heat and direct exposure to flame can render the teeth extremely fragile and vulnerable to damage and loss especially during collection and transportation to the mortuary. Here we highlight the advantages of forensic odontology assistance at the scene of such events and discuss techniques and protocols applied to actual cases in which these processes were used to facilitate the identification of incineration victims. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Al Mahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S. Div., CA (United States); Blandin, C. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chabod, S. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dupont, E.; Fioni, G. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Isnard, H. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Letourneau, A.; Marie, F. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Oriol, L. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The {sup 241}Am and {sup 232}Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

  9. Treatment of radioactive wastes by incineration; Tratamiento de desechos radiactivos por incineracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priego C, E., E-mail: emmanuel.priego@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Great part of the radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level generated during the nuclear fuel cycle, in laboratories and other sites where the radionuclides are used for the research in the industry, in medicine and other activities, are combustible wastes. The incineration of these radioactive wastes provides a very high reduction factor and at the same time converts the wastes in radioactive ashes and no-flammable residuals, chemically inert and much more homogeneous that the initial wastes. With the increment of the costs in the repositories and those every time but strict regulations, the incineration of radioactive wastes has been able to occupy an important place in the strategy of the wastes management. However, in a particular way, the incineration is a complex process of high temperature that demands the execution of safety and operation requirements very specific. (author)

  10. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  11. Eco-efficiency assessment of options for metal recovery from incineration residues: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Grégoire; Spoerri, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Switzerland have been a hot topic in recent years, both in the research and practice communities. Regarded by many as an economically and environmentally sound solution to this issue, technological retrofitting of existing grate incinerators has the dual purpose of enhancing the metal recovery of bottom and fly ashes and improving the inertization of residues to be landfilled. How does context influence the economic and environmental performance of this particular technological option? Under which conditions would this technological option be implemented nationwide in the future? What are stakeholders' views on sustainable transitions of MSW incineration? We propose a three-stage methodological procedure to address these questions.

  12. Integration of a free-piston Stirling engine and a moving grate incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Y.C.; Hsu, T.C.; Chiou, J.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2008-01-15

    The feasibility of recovering the waste heat from a small-scale incinerator (designed by Industrial Technology Research Institute) and generating electric power by a linear free-piston Stirling engine is investigated in this study. A heat-transfer model is used to simulate the integration system of the Stirling engine and the incinerator. In this model, the external irreversibility is modeled by the finite temperature difference and by the actual heat transfer area, while the internal irreversibility is considered by an internal heat leakage. At a fixed source temperature and a fixed sink temperature, the optimal engine performance can be obtained by the method of Lagrange multipliers. From the energy and mass balances for the interesting incinerator with the feeding rate at 16 t/d, there is enough otherwise wasted energy for powering the Stirling engine and generate more than 50 kW of electricity. (author)

  13. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ash (SSA), a material which is rich...... in phosphorus (P), but that it is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock (PR) supply, P recovery from SSA has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of P...... extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods. The results show that comparable recovery rates of P were achieved with a single ED step for incineration SSA and a sequential combination of two ED steps for gasification SSA, which was due to a higher influence of Fe and/or Al in P solubility for the latter...

  14. Variability over time in the mutagenicity of ashes from municipal solid-waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, B S; Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J

    1993-01-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste as an alternative to its disposal in landfills has advantages such as volume reduction and generation of energy. However, both air emissions and the residual ash may pose environmental and human health hazards. The Ames mutagenicity assay was used to determine the mutagenicity of fly and bottom ash from two incinerators over time. This assay is an alternative to costly and time-consuming chemical analyses and is more realistic for the assessment of the best disposition of the ash i.e. whether it could pose a risk to handlers of the ash, whether it can be used in cement or as a fertilizer or whether it should be relegated to a landfill. The mutagenic potency of fly and bottom ash on a per g weight basis of material is similar. Furthermore, the variability over time in mutagenicity indicates that constant monitoring of incineration products and byproducts is essential.

  15. Influence of ammonia on leaching behaviors of incineration fly ash and its geochemical modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Guan, Zhen Zhen; Chen, De Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Incineration fly ash could be contaminated with NH3 that was slipped from the ammonia-based selective non-catalytic reduction(SNCR) process and from evaporation of municipal solid wastes' leachate involved in the wastes. This research was conducted to investigate the impacts of ammonia on leaching...... of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals from incineration fly ash in the pH range of 3.66-12.44 with an active ammonia spike. A geochemical modeling software Visual MINTEQ was adopted to calculate the chemical speciation of metals under the leaching conditions to reveal the mechanism behind the impacts...... by precipitation/dissolution and surface complexation/precipitation processes; Visual MINTEQ modeling could well describe the leaching behaviors of Al, Cu, Pb and Zn from incineration fly ash....

  16. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling; Skal husholdningernes madaffald braendes eller genanvendes? Samfundsoekonomisk analyse af oeget genanvendelse af organisk dagrenovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  17. Characterization of animal manure and cornstalk ashes as affected by incineration temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.; Dong, H.; Shang, B.; Zhu, Z. [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory for Agro-environment and Climate Change, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081 (China); Xin, H. [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Incineration has been proposed as an alternative technology to reuse animal manure by producing energy and ash fertilizers. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of incineration temperature on the physical (ash yield) and chemical (nutrient) properties of ashes for different types of animal manure and cornstalk. The source materials were incinerated in a temperature-controlled muffle furnace at the temperature of 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 or 900 C and the properties of the resultant ashes were determined following the procedures set by China National Standards. The results indicated that ash yield (AY, %), total nitrogen (TN) recovery and total potassium (K{sub 2}O) recovery all decreased with increasing incineration temperature. The ranges of AY, ash TN and K{sub 2}O recovery were, respectively, 43.6-30.2%, 6.9-0.6%, and 80-61% for laying-hen manure; 34.3-32.1%, 18.8-15.4%, and 95-56% for cattle manure; 25.3-20.7%, 14-0%, and 78-57% for swine manure; and 8.4-7.5%, 2.1-1.4%, and 37-19% for cornstalk. However, total phosphorus (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) content of the ashes increased with incineration temperature, being 20.7-24.0% for swine manure, 4.5-7.5% for layer manure, and 2.7-3.4% for cornstalk. Animal manures have greater TN and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} volatilization but less K{sub 2}O and total sodium (Na{sub 2}O) volatilization as compared to the cornstalk. The results provide a basis for incineration as an alternative means to reuse animal manures and cornstalk and suitability of the resultant ash co-product for different applications. (author)

  18. [Correlation of Persistent Free Radicals, PCDD/Fs and Metals in Waste Incineration Fly Ash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-jiao; Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiao-dong

    2016-03-15

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are relatively highly stable and found in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Recent studies have concentrated on model dioxin formation reactions and there are few studies on actual waste incineration fly ash. In order to study EPFRs and the correlation with dioxins and heavy metals in waste incineration fly ash, the spins of EPFRs, concentration of PCDD/Fs and metals in samples from 6 different waste incinerators were detected. The medical waste incineration fly ash from Tianjin, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash from Jiangxi Province, black carbon and slag from municipal solid waste incinerator in Lanxi, Zhejiang Province, all contained EPFRs. Above all the signal in Tianjin sample was the strongest. Hydroxyl radicals, carbon-center radicals and semiquinone radicals were detected. Compared with other samples, Jiangxi fly ash had the highest toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) of dioxins, up to 7.229 4 ng · g⁻¹. However, the dioxin concentration in the Tianjin sample containing the strongest EPFR signals was only 0.092 8 ng · g⁻¹. There was perhaps little direct numeric link between EPFRs and PCDD/Fs. But the spins of EPFRs in samples presented an increasing trend as the metal contents increased, especially with Al, Fe, Zn. The signal strength of radicals was purposed to be related to the metal contents. The concentration of Zn (0.813 7% ) in the Tianjin sample was the highest and this sample contained much more spins of oxygen-center radicals. We could presume the metal Zn had a greater effect on the formation of EPFRs, and was easier to induce the formation of radicals with a longer half-life period.

  19. Mechanisms of formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides during polyamide incineration in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahnel, F.; Gadiou, R.; Prado, G. [Univ. de Haute Alsace, Mulhouse (France). Lab. de Gestion des Risques et Environnement

    1998-09-01

    In order to study the incineration of nitrogen-containing polymers, a fludized bed has been built. This paper reports the results for polyamide 6-6 incineration. The main nitrogen containing species have been identified, and the axial profiles of concentration of nitrogen oxides, HCN and NH3 have been measured. The main steps of decomposition of the polyamide were identified. We present an experimental investigation of the influence of operating parameters (temperature, excess air) on the formation and reduction of polymer combustion products. The yields of conversion of nitrogen to the different N-species have been calculated as a function of excess air in the fluidized bed. (orig.)

  20. Environmental assessment of waste incineration in a life-cycle-perspective (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2008-01-01

    A model for life-cycle assessment of waste incinerators is described and applied to a case study for illustrative purposes. As life-cycle thinking becomes more integrated into waste management, quantitative tools for assessing waste management technologies are needed. The presented model...... is a module in the life-cycle assessment model EASEWASTE. The module accounts for all uses of materials and energy and credits the incinerator for electricity and heat recovered. The energy recovered is defined by the user as a percentage of the energy produced, calculated on the lower heating value...

  1. Drying and incineration of wastewater sludge. Experiences and perspectives based on the development in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, N.; Bruus, J.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the recent development within sludge disposal in Denmark, where the traditional disposal for agricultural use has changed to other disposal routes. One of the main routes is the thermal treatment, drying and/or incineration. The great majority of WWTP's in Denmark are small and middle-sized plants, which is why these plants are in focus. Drying and incineration concepts adapted to this size of plants have been developed, and the experience has shown that these concepts are sustainable in all main respects, i.e. energy utilisation, environment, operation etc. (author)

  2. Sex determination by PCR analysis of DNA extracted from incinerated, deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D; Lewis, M; Franzen, T; Lissett, V; Adams, C; Whittaker, D; Tysoe, C; Butler, R

    2004-01-01

    Establishing the biological sex of human remains is a very important part of identifying victims of fire when severe soft tissue destruction has occurred. Deciduous (children's) teeth were exposed to a range of incineration temperatures 100-500 degrees C for 15 minutes. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification was used to identify specific human amelogenin regions. There was successful identification of human biological sex, from deciduous teeth exposed to incineration temperatures of 200 degrees C and below, using standard ethidium bromide gel staining. There was greater sensitivity using fragment analysis by laser induced fluorescence which achieved sex identification from some teeth heated to 400 degrees C.

  3. Incineration of organic solar cells: Efficient end of life management by quantitative silver recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Zimmermann, Yannick Serge; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of silver from the electrodes of roll-to-roll processed organic solar cells after incineration has been performed quantitatively by extraction with nitric acid. This procedure is more than 10 times faster than previous reports and the amount of acid needed for the extraction is reduced...... by a factor of 100-150. LCA studies show that the resulting environmental impacts from silver extraction of incinerated ashes are more favourable on almost all standard factors compared to extraction from shredded organic solar cells. The so lessened environmental impacts by efficient recovery fully justify...... the use of Ag as an electrode in scaled production of organic solar cells....

  4. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viader, Raimon Parés; Erland Jensen, Pernille; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods. The results show that comparable recovery rates of P were achieved with a single ED step for incineration SSA and a sequential combination of two ED steps for gasification SSA, which was due to a higher influence of Fe and/or Al in P solubility for the latter....... A product with lower level of metallic impurities and comparable to wet process phosphoric acid (WPA) was eventually obtained from gasification SSA. Thus, gasification becomes an interesting alternative to incineration also in terms of P separation....

  5. Simulation of low-temperature plasma interaction with pulverized coal for incineration improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Askarova; E. Karpenko; V. Messerle; A. Ustimenko [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Department of Physics

    2003-07-01

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmental friendly low-grade coals incineration. The work presents numerical modeling results of plasma ignition, gasification and thermochemical preparation of a pulverized coal for incineration at power boilers. Thermodynamic code TERRA allows calculating products compound of plasma activated pulverized coal depended on temperature, pressure and plasma source power. Considering plasma source kinetic code PLASMA-COAL gives initial data for 3D-modeling of power boilers furnaces by FLOREAN code. 5 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Incineration and co-incineration of sewage sludge in Poland. Current situation and perspectives; Mono- und Mitverbrennung von Klaerschlamm in Polen. Aktueller Stand und Entwicklungsperspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajak, Tadeusz [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Thermal Waste Treatment Div.

    2011-05-15

    This study presents a synthetic approach which has been developed during the previous decade, especially since Poland joined the EU, with the aim of establishing a dynamic development of national municipal sewage sludge management. Based on the guiding principle of its treatment, consisting in drying and incineration, the following aspects were taken into consideration: current development level of the national communal sewage sludge management in comparison to developed EU-countries and the new member countries, assessment of current and planned investments concerning drying and incineration of sewage sludge in Poland, importance of sewage sludge as biomass and as source of renewable energy, and the urgency of elaborating a strategic document under the name of the national communal sewage sludge management program, which is necessary to enable future rational planning of the municipal sewage sludge management and making essential investments. (orig.)

  7. Waste incineration within the Swedish district heating systems - Sub-Project 4; Avfallsfoerbraenning inom Sveriges fjaerrvaermesystem - Delprojekt 4 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, Maarten; Holmstroem; David

    2012-07-01

    Waste incineration within the Swedish district heating systems is one of the five sub-projects within the project Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment. The goal of this project is to evaluate the economic potential for waste incineration in the Swedish district heating systems. With the current expansion of incineration, we may relatively soon reach an upper limit for what is demanded by the Swedish district heating systems. How much more waste incineration that is economically attractive to build is of great importance for the development of the Swedish waste system, not least for the alternatives to incineration as for example biogas production. With continued rising quantities of waste and stagnant demand for waste incineration from the district heating systems, today's surplus of treatment capacity may change the market picture for other waste treatment options. How much more waste incineration requested and how quickly the market reaches this level is studied in this project.

  8. Testing fluidized bed incinerators for energy-efficient operation for the Southtowns Sewage Treatment Agency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Two methods for improving the energy efficiency of fluidized bed sludge incinerators were evaluated. The first method used paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents for municipal sludge instead of lime and ferric chloride. Automatic control of the incinerator was the second method evaluated for energy savings. To evaluate the use of paper pulp and polymer as conditioning agents, varying quantities of paper pulp were added to the liquid sludge to determine the optimal sludge-to-paper pulp ratio. The effect of the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge on plant operations also was evaluated. When compared to sludge conditioned with lime and ferric chloride, the paper pulp and polymer-conditioned sludge had similar cake release and feed characteristics, higher BTU values for the dry sludge solids, required less auxiliary fuel for incineration, and generated less ash for disposal. The paper pulp and polymer did not have any appreciable negative effects on the operation of the wastewater treatment plant. It was estimated that processing and incinerating the sludge conditioned with paper pulp and polymer resulted in a cost savings of up to $91.73 per dry ton of activated sludge solids. To evaluate the effect of automatic control, all the incinerator operating parameters including air flow rates, fuel oil feed rates, and sludge feed rates, were automatically monitored and controlled to minimize auxiliary fuel oil use and to keep the incinerator running at optimal conditions. Although effective, the estimated cost savings for automatic control of the incinerator were small.

  9. PCDD/FS EMISSION IN A 150T/D MSW AND COAL CO-FIRING FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Incineration as a method of reducing Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) volume and recovery of energy has been developed gradually in China. More attention is paid on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) formed in MSW incineration process. This paper presents results of the analysis of PCDD/Fs in the residues of a fluidized bed incinerator co-firing MSW and coal in the Yuhang Thermal Power Plant. The effects of operation conditions and the wet scrubber system on PCDD/Fs formation were also analyzed. PCDD/Fs emitting from the smoke stack was 0.92 I-TEQ ng/Nm3. After the wet scrubber emission of dioxins increased and the shifting of homologue profiles in flue gas was also observed, PCDFs were not detected in the incinerator residues. From this, we can see that in the MSW incineration process, the formation mechanism of PCDFs was different from that of PCDDs. The results will benefit further research on the optimal operation of incinerator and control of PCDD/Fs emission from the MSW incinerator.

  10. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  11. Use of pyrolysis GC/MS for predicting emission byproducts from the incineration of double-base propellant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropek, Donald M; Kemme, Patricia A; Day, Jean M; Cochran, Jack

    2002-10-15

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to analyze the pyrolytic byproducts from an Army-unique propellant compound (AA2) that is composed of predominantly nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. Compounds produced by AA2 pyrolysis were compared to compounds detected in the gaseous effluent from AA2 incineration. The light permanent gases and most of the higher molecular weight byproducts produced by AA2 incineration are replicated by laboratory pyrolysis on AA2. The reverse case also holds whereby 18 out of 24 high molecular weight AA2 pyrolytic byproducts are found in the incinerator emissions. Poor matching, however, was obtained between the two processes for the volatile, water-soluble species. None of these low molecular weight compounds produced under pyrolytic conditions were detected in the AA2 incinerator samples, likely indicating inefficient capture of these compounds from the effluent stream. Separate pyrolytic degradation of the individual components of AA2 provides evidence that nearly all of the incomplete combustion products detected during incineration originate not from the prevalent energetic ingredients but rather from the minor and trace additives in AA2. In addition, pyrolysis successfully identified the AA2 components capable of surviving the incineration process intact. This work illustrates the potential of bench-scale pyrolysis for predicting incineration behavior.

  12. Site selection for installing plasma incinerator reactor using the GIS in Rudsar county, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi-Varaki, Mehdi; Davtalab, Mehri

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the urban waste disposal and the proper location for doing so is considered as one of the most important urban service issues, which has the potential of causing environmental hazards for the citizens, if not done properly. One of the newest methods of waste burial is using plasma incinerator reactors. Using the advanced technology of plasma reactors in waste disposal has been the subject of study for a considerable number of researchers in the last few years. Moreover, insignificant emissions of environmental pollutants and high efficiency in these reactors have led to a high incentive for using them in the area of urban services. Therefore, finding the proper location for the plasma incinerator reactor in order to minimize environmental hazards is considered as a very important issue. In the present study, different parts of this reactor and its working procedure are presented at first. Then, quantitative and qualitative criteria effective on locating plasma incinerator reactor are presented, and these criteria are given proper weights using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) multi-criteria decision making method. Next, the data were collected for the studying area, and then, weighting, analysis, and presentation of geospatial data were performed using the geographic information system (GIS). Finally, the output map for installing location of the plasma incinerator reactor was developed in three classes of good, average, and bad.

  13. High temperature co-treatment of bottom ash and stabilized fly ashes from waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Mogensen, E.P.B.; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2001-01-01

    Bottom ashes from two Danish municipal solid waste incineration plants were heated at 900 degreesC with iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues at actual mass flow ratios (9:1), simulating a treating method for the residues. The two residues were cotreated, producing one combined...

  14. Incinerator performance: effects of changes in waste input and furnace operation on air emissions and residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Riber, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2011-01-01

    and residue composition at a full-scale incinerator were affected by known additions of specific waste materials to the normal municipal solid waste (MSW) input. Six individual experiments were carried out (% ww of total waste input): NaCl (0.5%), shoes (1.6%), automobile shredder waste (14%), batteries (0...

  15. Experiences with the KEMA Corrosion Probe in waste incineration plants and coal fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong, M.P. de; Leferink, R.G.I. [KEMA Nederland B.V. Arnhem, (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Fireside corrosion is still a major cause of concern in coal- fired power plants and municipal waste incineration plants. In a highly competitive electricity market, the demand for a method to determine the quality or protectiveness of the oxide layers on evaporator walls, in boilers of power plants with low-NO{sub x} firing techniques, will increase. Moreover, co-firing of new fuels (RDF, pulverised wood and other residual fractions) has as yet unknown consequences for corrosion in evaporator walls and super heaters in boiler installations and waste incinerators. Corrosion monitoring enables operators of coal fired power plants to measure and act when corrosion problems are likely to occur. If done properly corrosion monitoring allows the plant operator to adjust the (co-) firing conditions to less corrosive conditions with the highest possible plant efficiency. Recently KEMA developed the KEMA Corrosion Probe (KEMCOP) which enables plant owners to determine fireside corrosion in different locations in their boiler. A good example is the 540 MWe E.on Maasvlakte power plant, which was recently fitted for the exposure of 144 probes simultaneously. The probes can also be used for material testing by exposing different materials under actual firing conditions. Aside from corrosion monitoring also slagging behaviour and condensation of heavy metals can be monitored. In the Netherlands KEMCOP probes are used for several purposes and are more and more becoming common practice for coal fired boilers and waste incinerators. Until now almost 300 probes have been mounted in coal fired boilers and waste incineration plants. (orig.)

  16. The mobile incinerator for intermediate and low level radioactive organic (wood) wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raginsky, L.S.; Demidovich, N.N.; Elanchik, A.G. [A.A. Bochvar Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    The Chernobyl accident contaminated many settlements and the environment. The programme Vector was designed to mitigate the effects and involves designing a mobile facility for incinerating solid organic intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes. Results of the first stage are described.

  17. 40 CFR 63.1219 - What are the replacement standards for hazardous waste incinerators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Combustors Replacement Emissions Standards and Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and...) Emission limits for existing sources. You must not discharge or cause combustion gases to be emitted into... percent oxygen, provided that the combustion gas temperature at the inlet to the initial...

  18. Design, operation and management of waste incinerators; Design, Betrieb und Management von Muellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, U.; Swithenbank, J.; Nasserzadeh, V.; Ewan, B.; Lee, P.H. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Waste Incineration Centre; Lawrence, D.; Garrod, N.P. [Sheffield Heat and Power Ltd. (United Kingdom); Jones, B.; Sykes, G. [Sheffield Incinerator Plant (United Kingdom); Bernet, U. [Electrowatt Engineering Ltd. (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    Design of combustion chambers for solid residues combution is hampered by the non-existence of accurate mathematical models of the combustion process, so that semi-empirical correlations must be used. Modern flow simulation programs (computational fluid dynamics), on the other hand, offer the pssibility of predicting flow in the gaseous phase although further tests are still required for validation. Since experiments on a laboratory scale hardly ever provide reliable data material, research in the field of waste incineration must make tests on industrial-scale systems. For this reason, the Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) cooperated with Sheffield Heat and Power Ltd and was therefore able to carry out extensive research at the Bernard Road waste incinerator in Sheffield. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Konstruktion von Feueraeumen zur Feststoffverbrennung wird dadurch behindert, dass kein genaues mathematisches Modell fuer den Verbrennungsprozess existiert. Statt dessen muss noch immer auf halb-empirische Korrelationen zurueckgegriffen werden. Aufgrund moderner Stroemungssimulationsprogramme (Computational Fluid Dynamics) ist hingegen die Vorhersage des Stroemungsverhaltens der Gasphase in Verbrennungsanlagen weiter entwickelt, obwohl zusaetzliche Tests zur Validierung noch erforderlich sind. Da Versuche im Testmassstab selten verlaessliches Datenmaterial liefern, ist die Forschung im Bereich der Muellverbrennung auf Tests an Grossanlagen angewiesen. Dank der guten Beziehungen zu Sheffield Heat and Power Ltd hat Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) an der Bernard Road Muellverbrennungsanlage in Sheffield ein umfangreiches Forchungsprogramm durchfuehren koennen. (orig./SR)

  19. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: the case study of a new Italian incineration line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, A; Mazzi, A; Niero, M; Boatto, T

    2009-09-01

    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis).

  20. Contribution of natural organic matter to copper leaching from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2004-01-01

    The leaching of heavy metals, such as copper, from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is a concern in many countries and may inhibit the beneficial reuse of this secondary material. The enhanced leaching of copper from three MSWI bottom ash samples by dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

  1. Carbon speciation in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash in relation to facilitated metal leaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2009-01-01

    The release of inorganic and organic contaminants from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is controlled to a large extent by the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and in particular by the reactive humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) subfractions of DOC. The properties of organ

  2. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, Nazare; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland;

    2014-01-01

    A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs. Ind...

  3. A review of municipal solid waste environmental standards with a focus on incinerator residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues are often neglected until a lapse in the care for environment, which leads to serious human health problem, would then put regulation gaps in the spotlight. Environmental regulations and standards are important as they maintain balance among competing resources and help protect human health and the environment. One important environmental standard is related to municipal solid waste (MSW. Proper MSW management is crucial for urban public health. Meanwhile, the sustainability of landfills is also of concern as increasing volumes of MSW consume finite landfill space. The incineration of MSW and the reuse of incinerated residues help alleviate the burden on landfill space. However, the reuse of MSW incinerator residues must be regulated because they may expose the environment to toxic heavy metal elements. The study of environmental standards from different countries applicable to MSW is not widely published, much less those for incinerated MSW residue reuse. This paper compares extant waste classification and reuse standards pertinent to MSW, and explores the unique recent history and policy evolution in some countries exhibiting high environmental regard and rapid changes, so that policy makers can propose new or revise current MSW standards in other countries.

  4. High Solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) Wastes Stabilization with Ceramicrete and Super Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-09-14

    High Solids ash and scrubber solution waste streams were generated at the incinerator facility at SRS by burning radioactive diatomaceous filter rolls which contained small amounts of uranium, and listed solvents (F and U). This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) technologies with the High Solids waste streams.

  5. Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Møller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2009-01-01

    Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and soli...

  6. Waste incineration on its way to the power plants; Muellverbrennung auf dem Weg zum Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J. [STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany); Neukirchen, B. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Looking at the year 2005 and the end of disposal of untreated domestic waste the politic hopes that the prognosticated lack of waste treatment capacity is remedied by coal-fired power plants. The classical municipal waste incinerators by contrast want to get recognition as energetic recycler in comparison with power stations. The decision of the European Court of Justice concerning recycling and disposal of domestic waste by incineration has started the discussion and competition on fuel-rich commercial waste. Are municipal waste incineration plants power stations or must power plants be regarded as incinerators? These questions are still open. (orig.) [German] Mit Blick auf das Jahr 2005 und das Ende der Ablagerung von unbehandeltem Siedlungsabfall hofft die Politik, dass der prognostizierte Mangel an Vorbehandlungskapazitaeten von den Kohlekraftwerken behoben wird. Die klassischen Muellverbrennungsanlagen wollen dagegen mit dem Kraftwerksvergleich die Anerkennung als energetische Verwerter erreichen. Das EuGH-Urteil zur Verwertung oder Beseitigung von Siedlungsabfall durch Verbrennen hat in diesem Jahr die Diskussion und den Kampf um den heizwertreichen Gewerbeabfall angeheizt. Die Frage, wie weit in Zukunft die Muellverbrennungsanlagen als Kraftwerke, aber auch die Kraftwerke als Muellverbrennungsanlagen angesehen werden muessen, ist noch offen. (orig.)

  7. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Incineration or Recycling of Dutch Household Plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond); R. van Koppen (Rick); E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); P. Nillesen (Paul)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe cost-effectiveness of plastic recycling is compared to energy recovery from plastic incineration in a waste-to-energy plant using data for the Netherlands. Both options have specific benefits and costs. The benefits of recycling are the avoidance of both CO2 that otherwise would be e

  8. A Review of Exposure Assessment Methods in Epidemiological Studies on Incinerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cordioli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incineration is a common technology for waste disposal, and there is public concern for the health impact deriving from incinerators. Poor exposure assessment has been claimed as one of the main causes of inconsistency in the epidemiological literature. We reviewed 41 studies on incinerators published between 1984 and January 2013 and classified them on the basis of exposure assessment approach. Moreover, we performed a simulation study to explore how the different exposure metrics may influence the exposure levels used in epidemiological studies. 19 studies used linear distance as a measure of exposure to incinerators, 11 studies atmospheric dispersion models, and the remaining 11 studies a qualitative variable such as presence/absence of the source. All reviewed studies utilized residence as a proxy for population exposure, although residence location was evaluated with different precision (e.g., municipality, census block, or exact address. Only one study reconstructed temporal variability in exposure. Our simulation study showed a notable degree of exposure misclassification caused by the use of distance compared to dispersion modelling. We suggest that future studies (i make full use of pollution dispersion models; (ii localize population on a fine-scale; and (iii explicitly account for the presence of potential environmental and socioeconomic confounding.

  9. Numerical study of radiation effect on the municipal solid waste combustion characteristics inside an incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingfu, E-mail: jfwang@bjut.edu.cn; Xue, Yanqing; Zhang, Xinxin; Shu, Xinran

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A 3-D model for the MSW incinerator with preheated air was developed. • Gas radiative properties were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. • Non-gray body radiation model can provide more accurate simulation results. - Abstract: Due to its advantages of high degree volume reduction, relatively stable residue, and energy reclamation, incineration becomes one of the best choices for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal. However, detailed measurements of temperature and gas species inside a furnace are difficulty by conventional experimental techniques. Therefore, numerical simulation of MSW incineration in the packed bed and gas flow field was applied. In this work, a three dimensional (3-D) model of incinerator system, including flow, heat transfer, detailed chemical mechanisms, and non-gray gas models, was developed. Radiation from the furnace wall and the flame formed above the bed is of importance for drying and igniting the waste. The preheated air with high temperature is used for the MSW combustion. Under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure, MSW combustion produces a variety of radiating gases. The wavelength-depend radiative properties of flame adopted in non-gray radiation model were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. The influence of radiative heat transfer on temperature, flow field is researched by adiabatic model (without considering radiation), gray radiation model, and non-gray radiation model. The simulation results show that taking into account the non-gray radiation is essential.

  10. CORRELATION OF POLYCHLORINATED NAPHTHALENES WITH POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FORMED FROM WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomer composition of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) was measured for municipal waste incinerator fly ash samples,and for emission samples produced from soot and copper deposit experiments conducted at EPA. Two types of PCN isomer patterns were identified. One pattern cxonta...

  11. Comparative Assessment of Particulate Air Pollution Exposure from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Ashworth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research to date on health effects associated with incineration has found limited evidence of health risks, but many previous studies have been constrained by poor exposure assessment. This paper provides a comparative assessment of atmospheric dispersion modelling and distance from source (a commonly used proxy for exposure as exposure assessment methods for pollutants released from incinerators. Methods. Distance from source and the atmospheric dispersion model ADMS-Urban were used to characterise ambient exposures to particulates from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs in the UK. Additionally an exploration of the sensitivity of the dispersion model simulations to input parameters was performed. Results. The model output indicated extremely low ground level concentrations of PM10, with maximum concentrations of <0.01 μg/m3. Proximity and modelled PM10 concentrations for both MSWIs at postcode level were highly correlated when using continuous measures (Spearman correlation coefficients ~ 0.7 but showed poor agreement for categorical measures (deciles or quintiles, Cohen’s kappa coefficients ≤ 0.5. Conclusion. To provide the most appropriate estimate of ambient exposure from MSWIs, it is essential that incinerator characteristics, magnitude of emissions, and surrounding meteorological and topographical conditions are considered. Reducing exposure misclassification is particularly important in environmental epidemiology to aid detection of low-level risks.

  12. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incineration and gasification sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Thomsen, Tobias P; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is a common practice in many western countries. Gasification is an attractive option because of its high energy efficiency and flexibility in the usage of the produced gas. However, they both unavoidably produce sewage sludge ashes, a material that is rich in phosphorus, but which is commonly landfilled or used in construction materials. With current uncertainty in phosphate rock supply, phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ashes has become interesting. In the present work, ashes from incineration and gasification of the same sewage sludge were compared in terms of phosphorus extractability using electrodialytic (ED) methods. The results show that comparable recovery rates of phosphorus were achieved with a single ED step for incineration ashes and a sequential combination of two ED steps for gasification ashes, which was due to a higher influence of iron and/or aluminium in phosphorus solubility for the latter. A product with lower level of metallic impurities and comparable to wet process phosphoric acid was eventually obtained from gasification ashes. Thus, gasification becomes an interesting alternative to incineration also in terms of phosphorus separation.

  13. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Incineration or Recycling of Dutch Household Plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond); R. van Koppen (Rick); E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); P. Nillesen (Paul)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe cost-effectiveness of plastic recycling is compared to energy recovery from plastic incineration in a waste-to-energy plant using data for the Netherlands. Both options have specific benefits and costs. The benefits of recycling are the avoidance of both CO2 that otherwise would be

  14. Development of an evaporation crystallizer for desalination of alkaline organic wastewater before incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A wastewater evaporation-desalination pretreatment method was introduced to remove the Na+ and K+ salts in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) wastewater before it was fed into the incinerator. VOCs in the wastewater were volatilized in the evaporation system and then the vapor was combusted in an incinerator. Simulated phenol wastewater containing sodium chloride was evaporated and concentrated and sodium chloride was crystallized in different parameters. The experimental results showed that the higher initial concentration of sodium chloride increases the ratio of volatilization of VOCs, which was due to the effect of "salting out" (a decrease in the solubility of the nonelectrolyte in the solution, or more rigorously, an increase in its activity coefficient, caused by the salt addition (Furter and Cook, 1967)). When evaporation speed was increased from 1.67 ml/min to 2.73ml/min, the total removal coefficient of sodium chloride was about 99.88%~99.99%. This pretreatment procedure eliminates the slag phenomenon caused by Na+ and K+ salts during wastewater incineration, so the incinerator could operate continuously, and the wastewater evaporation could increase the heat value of wastewater, and the operation cost would be reduced.

  15. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force.

  16. Incinerated sewage sludge ash as alternative binder in cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Goltermann, Per; Hodicky, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    it can minimize the need of ash landfill disposal. The objective of this study is to show potential use of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA), an industrial byproduct, as possible binder in cement-based materials. Chemical and mechanical characteristics are presented and compared with results obtained...

  17. ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CO, POHC, AND PIC EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements conducted on full-scale hazardous waste incinerators have occasionally shown a relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and emissions of toxic organic compounds. In this study, four mixtures of chlorinated C1 and C2 hydrocarbons were diluted in commercial...

  18. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING THE INCINERATION OF RECOVERED CFC-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PICS) during "recovered" trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) incineration. Tests involved burning the recovered CFC-11 in a propane gas flame. combustion gas samples were taken and an...

  19. Characterization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash before and after electrodialytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which has been treated electrodialytically for the removal of heavy metals, may have changed characteristics compared to untreated fly ash. In this study, MSWI fly ash was characterized with respect to leaching properties (pH static leaching...

  20. Stabilization of APC residues from waste incineration with ferrous sulfate on a semi-industrial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2002-01-01

    A stabilization method for air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) involving mixing of the residue with water and FeSO4 has been demonstrated on a semi-industrial scale on three types of APC residues: a semidy (SD) APC residue, a fly ash (FA), and an FA...

  1. Discussion on installation construction technology of incineration furnace in waste incineration power project%垃圾焚烧发电项目焚烧炉安装施工工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉英俊

    2012-01-01

    总结了垃圾焚烧发电项目焚烧炉安装的施工经验,以实际项目为例,研究探讨了焚烧炉安装的工艺流程,从而合理、安全、有序地安排施工,确保工期质量。%This paper summarized the installation construction experience of incineration furnace in waste incineration power project, taking actu- al project as an example, researched and discussed the process of incineration furnace installation, so as to reasonable, safe, orderly arrange construction, ensured project quality.

  2. The potential impact of municipal solid waste incinerators ashes on the anthropogenic osmium budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.funari@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Osmium release from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI), even if acknowledged to occur at least over the last fifteen years, remains overlooked in the majority of recent studies. We present the osmium concentration and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotopic measurements of different kinds of bottom and fly ash samples from MSWI plants and reference materials of incinerator fly ash (BCR176 and BCR176R). The analysis of the unknown ash samples shows a relatively wide range of {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios (0.24–0.70) and Os concentrations (from 0.026 ng/g to 1.65 ng/g). Osmium concentrations and isotopic signatures differ from those of other known Os sources, either natural or manmade, suggesting a mixture of both contributions in the MSWI feedstock material. Furthermore, the comparison between the BCR176 and the renewed BCR176R indicates a decrease in Os concentration of one order of magnitude over the years (from 1 to 0.1 ng/g) due to improved recycling efficiency of Os-bearing waste. The estimated annual amount of Os from a typical incinerator (using average Os values and MSWI mass balance) is 13.4 g/a. The osmium potentially released from MSWI smokestacks is predicted to be from 16 to 38 ng Os/m{sup 2}/a, considering a medium size country having 50 MSWI facilities; therefore much higher than the naturally transported osmium from continental dust in the atmosphere (about 1 pg Os/m{sup 2}/a). MSWI systems are considered one of the best options for municipal solid waste management in industrialised countries, but their contribution to the Os budget can be significant. - Highlights: • Bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators are investigated. • Their Os levels and Os isotopic signatures are discussed. • An estimate of Os release from incinerators and incinerated ashes is given. • Os contamination from incineration plants impacts the geochemical Os cycle.

  3. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, Elisa, E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Holtze, Maria Sommer [Afatek Ltd., Selinevej 18, 2300 Copenhagen S (Denmark); Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Ferrous and non-ferrous metals were quantified in MSWI bottom ashes. • Metal recovery system efficiencies for bottom ashes were estimated. • Total content of critical elements was determined in bottom ash samples. • Post-incineration recovery is not viable for most critical elements. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2 mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results

  4. Incineration or autoclave? A comparative study in isfahan hospitals waste management system (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-03-01

    Medical wastes are among hazardous wastes and their disposal requires special methods prior to landfilling. Medical wastes are divided into infected and non-infected wastes and the infected wastes require treatment. Incineration is one of the oldest methods for treatment of medical wastes, but their usage have faced wide objections due to emission of hazardous gases such as CO2 and CO as well as Carcinogenic gases such as Dioxins and Furans which are generated as a result of incomplete combustion of compositions like PVCs. Autoclave is one the newest methods of medical wastes treatment which works based on wet disinfection. The statistical population in this descriptive, comparative study includes hospitals located in Isfahan city and the sample hospitals were selected randomly. To environmentally evaluate the Autoclave method, TST (time, steam, temperature) and Spore tests were used. Also, samples were made from incinerator's stack gases and their analyses results were compared with WHO standards. TST and spore tests results were negative in all cases indicating the success of treatment process. The comparison of incinerator's stack gases with WHO standards showed the high concentration of CO in some samples indicating the incomplete combustion. Also, the incineration efficiency in some cases was less than 99.5 percent, which is the efficiency criterion according to the administrative regulations of wastes management law of Iran. No needle stick was observed in Autoclave method during the compaction of bags containing wastes, and the handlers were facing no danger in this respect. The comparison of costs indicated that despite higher capital investment for purchasing autoclave, its current costs (e.g. maintenance, etc) are much less than the incineration method. Totally, due to inappropriate operation of incinerators and lack of air pollution control devices, the use of incinerators doesn't seem rational anymore. Yet, despite the inefficiency of autoclaves in

  5. Fair fund distribution for a municipal incinerator using GIS-based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Chang, Ying-Hsi; Chen, Ho-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Burning municipal solid waste (MSW) can generate energy and reduce the waste volume, which delivers benefits to society through resources conservation. But current practices by society are not sustainable because the associated environmental impacts of waste incineration on urbanized regions have been a long-standing concern in local communities. Public reluctance with regard to accepting the incinerators as typical utilities often results in an intensive debate concerning how much welfare is lost for those residents living in the vicinity of those incinerators. As the measure of welfare change with respect to environmental quality constraints nearby these incinerators remains critical, new arguments related to how to allocate the fair fund among affected communities became a focal point in environmental management. Given the fact that most County fair fund rules allow a great deal of flexibility for redistribution, little is known about what type of methodology may be a good fit to determine the distribution of such a fair fund under uncertainty. This paper purports to demonstrate a system-based approach that helps any fair fund distribution, which is made with respect to residents' possible claim for fair damages due to the installation of a new incinerator. Holding a case study using integrated geographic information system (GIS) and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) for finding out the most appropriate distribution strategy between two neighboring towns in Taipei County, Taiwan demonstrates the application potential. Participants in determining the use of a fair fund also follow a highly democratic procedure where all stakeholders involved eventually express a high level of satisfaction with the results facilitating the final decision making process. It ensures that plans for the distribution of such a fair fund were carefully thought out and justified with a multi-faceted nature that covers political, socio-economic, technical, environmental, public

  6. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-01

    After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8×10(3) times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: incineration and base catalyzed decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Zhu, Jianxin; Ding, Qiong

    2011-07-15

    Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and BCD were about 432.35 and 38.5 kg CO(2)-eq per ton PCB-containing soils, respectively. LCA results showed that the single score of BCD environmental impact was 1468.97 Pt while IHTI's score is 2785.15 Pt, which indicates BCD potentially has a lower environmental impact than IHTI technology in the PCB contaminated soil remediation process.

  8. Evaluation of resource recovery from waste incineration residues--the case of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, J; Lederer, J; Purgar, A; Winterstetter, A; Rechberger, H; Winter, F; Laner, D

    2015-03-01

    Solid residues generated at European Waste to Energy plants contain altogether about 69,000 t/a of Zn, of which more than 50% accumulates in air pollution control residues, mainly boiler and filter ashes. Intensive research activities aiming at Zn recovery from such residues recently resulted in a technical scale Zn recovery plant at a Swiss waste incinerator. By acidic leaching and subsequent electrolysis this technology (FLUREC) allows generating metallic Zn of purity>99.9%. In the present paper the economic viability of the FLUREC technology with respect to Zn recovery from different solid residues of waste incineration has been investigated and subsequently been categorised according to the mineral resource classification scheme of McKelvey. The results of the analysis demonstrate that recovery costs for Zn are highly dependent on the costs for current fly ash disposal (e.g. cost for subsurface landfilling). Assuming current disposal practice costs of 220€/ton fly ash, resulting recovery costs for Zn are generally higher than its current market price of 1.6€/kg Zn. With respect to the resource classification this outcome indicates that none of the identified Zn resources present in incineration residues can be economically extracted and thus cannot be classified as a reserve. Only for about 4800 t/a of Zn an extraction would be marginally economic, meaning that recovery costs are only slightly (less than 20%) higher than the current market price for Zn. For the remaining Zn resources production costs are between 1.5 and 4 times (7900 t/a Zn) and 10-80 times (55,300 t/a Zn) higher than the current market value. The economic potential for Zn recovery from waste incineration residues is highest for filter ashes generated at grate incinerators equipped with wet air pollution control.

  9. Determination of some air pollutants emited from hospital incinerators in Hamadan in 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Joneydi Jaffari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Hospital wastes pose a serious public health problem. This is primarily caused by the way individual components of the waste is handled. One acceptable method for managing the medical waste is incineration but uncontrolled incinerators can cause emission of pollutants to atmosphere. The objective of this study was to evaluate pollutants emission from hospital waste incinerators in Hamadan.Materials and methods: In this investigation, samples were collected from Emam, Syna, Fatemieh, Mobasher Kashani hospital incinerators to determine the level of lead, mercury, cadmium, benzene, toluene. Xylene, carbon monoxide, sulphour dioxide and particulate.Collected samples were analysed using gas chromatograph, atomic absorbtion, spectrometer and smoke meter in the laboratory or by SO2 and CO meter as a direct method in the field.Results: Results show that Mobasher hospital has maximum concentration of metals fume such as lead, mercury, cadmium (1113, 540, 3340 mg/m3, respectively. Mean concentration of sulphour dioxide was 127 ppm and for suspended particulate concentration was 639 mg/m3. In Syna hospital, the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, toluene, xylene and carbon monoxide were maximum (77.46, 108.64, 33.6 mg/m3 and 1041 ppm respectively.Conclusion: It can be concluded that hospital atmospheric pollutants are higher than EPA standards, at least with P<0.05 which can be due to inopportune opening door of combustion chamber, input of excess air mass, low temperature, unmixed solid waste and unsuitable design of the incinerator, and leak or unsuitable pollution control device.

  10. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different types of hospital waste incinerator ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Hao, Zhengping; Wang, Hailin

    2008-07-01

    Waste ashes from three types of hospital waste (HW) incinerators, built in SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) period and currently running in China, were collected and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) properties in the ashes were investigated. The mean summation PAH levels in the waste ashes varied widely from 4.16 mg kg(-1) to 198.92 mg kg(-1), and the mean amounts of carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 0.74 to 96.77 mg kg(-1), exceeding the limits regulated by several countries. Among the three types of incinerators, two medium-scale incinerators generated relatively high levels of PAHs (mean summation PAH 22.50 and 198.92 mg kg(-1)) compared to small-scale and large-scale incinerators (mean summation PAH 4.16 and 16.43 mg kg(-1)). Bottom ashes were dominated by low molecular weight PAHs (LM-PAH; containing two- to three-ringed PAHs) and medium molecular weight PAHs (MM-PAH; containing four-ringed PAHs), while fly ashes were abundant in MM-PAH and high molecular weight PAHs (HM-PAH, containing five- to six-ringed PAHs). Statistical analysis indicated that there was a positive relationship (R2=0.88) between organic matter and total PAHs thus it has the potential to be used as an indicator for PAHs in HW ashes. Moreover, it was found that PAHs in the ashes correlated highly with some metallic elements either positively (e.g. Fe, Ti, Mg) or negatively (Ca), indicating that these elements might promote or prevent PAH formation during HW combustion. Although bottom ash resulted from HW incinerators has not been classified as hazardous material, the results of this study indicated that this type of waste ash contained high levels of PAHs thus need special treatment before landfill.

  11. Wastes incineration and public health: status of recent knowledge and risk evaluation; L'incineration des dechets et la sante publique: bilan des connaissances recentes et evaluation du risque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The incineration of municipal and industrial wastes produces combustion products with various pollutants like: dusts, acid gases, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, dioxines etc.. This report analyzes the toxicity of different pollutants (particulates, polycyclic halogenated compounds, cadmium, mercury, lead), the exposure of the population with respect to incineration pollutants (occupational and general exposure), and the risks linked with this exposure (hazard identification, exposure evaluation, risk characterization, results). (J.S.)

  12. Research paper 2000-B-8: the implementation of the municipal waste incineration directives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    End-of-pipe options are needed whenever recycling and source reduction can not cope with waste streams at acceptable costs. One of the disposal options is waste incineration. The incineration of waste was considered 'clean' for a long time. In the 1970's and 1980's it proved that the incineration of municipal waste was a significant source of air pollution. Notorious pollutants were hydrogen chloride, hydrogen florid, sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, fine particulate matter, 'heavy metals' and dioxines and furans. Most notorious and issue of public anxiety in some countries were emissions of dioxines and that might cause cancer and birth defects. Municipal waste is domestic waste from households and comparable waste from markets and companies. Consent is present that in the long history of waste incinerators, incineration in plants started in Europe around 1900, important steps to secure health and the environment have been taken and will be taken in the future. Debates are still going on the level of emissions that is negligible and acceptable. Also in the European arena waste management is about knowledge, perceptions, uncertainties and negotiations. Arguments are on the right level of ambition and the right level of fine-tuning where precautionary measures are discussed. The European Union decided to issue two European Directives on the atmospheric emissions from municipal waste incineration in 1989. This chapter focuses on the implementation and effects of the 1989 Directives. In section 2 of this chapter we summarize the bargaining on the 1989 European Directives. Section 2 indicates that characteristics of municipal waste incineration and the level of pre-existing national regulation sectors in individual member states played decisive roles. When the 1989 Directives came into force, the requirements had to be integrated in the national legislation in European Member States. In section 3 Germany and the Netherlands will prove

  13. Fluidized beds and their application to hazardous wastes incineration. Lecho fluidizado y su aplicacion a la incineracion de residuos peligrosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, J.F.; Franco, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fluidized bed combustion technology and its application to sludge and hazardous wastes incineration are analyzed. A review on specific advantages of this technology including those related to investment costs, operation and maintenance, as well as operation flexibility are given.

  14. Recycling of Pre-Washed Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash in the Manufacturing of Low Temperature Setting Geopolymer Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claudio Ferone; Francesco Colangelo; Francesco Messina; Luciano Santoro; Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-01-01

      In this work, three samples of municipal solid waste incinerators fly ash (MSWI-FA) have been stabilized in systems containing coal fly ash to create geopolymers through a polycondensation reaction...

  15. Integral incineration plant of urban solid wastes in Melilla (Spain); Planta integral incineradora de residuos solidos urbanos en Melilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Amoros, F.

    1996-12-01

    Melilla is a city of 6.700 people by Km?. The construction of an integral incineration plant was a necessity. The present article presents the project, design, separation of solid wastes and construction of mentioned plant. (Author)

  16. Classification of incineration plants regarding to their energetic utilization; Einordnung von Muellverbrennungsanlagen im Hinblick auf die energetische Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M. [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar (Germany). Lehrstuhl Verfahren und Umwelt; Kleppmann, F. [Confederation of European Waste to Energy Plants (CEWEP) Buero Deutschland, Wuerzburg (Germany); Martin, J.J.E. [Martin GmbH fuer Umwelt- und Energietchnik, Muenchen (Germany); Scholz, R. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik; Seifert, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Bereich Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    2007-07-01

    In the energetic evaluation of incineration plants, two different tasks have to be differentiated: (a) Determination of the energetic efficiency of a plant from technical view; (b) Definition of the energetic utilization in relation to the removal from political or legal aspect. The separation of the technical aspect and the political aspect results into a possibility how incineration plants can be arranged regarding the energetic utilization. The authors of the contribution under consideration describe both aspects and come to the following results: (a) The VDI recommendation 3460 is the basis for the evaluation of the energy efficiency of incineration plants regarding to the optimization; (b) The R1 formula determines whether an incineration plant is used energetically or not; (c) Distinguishing between technical and political aspect, the reference of the VDI recommendation 3460 to the R1 factor is not necessary.

  17. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, C.; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2010-01-01

    of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction...... impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during......Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion...

  18. Recycle of Inorganic Nutrients for Hydroponic Crop Production Following Incineration of Inedible Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Recovery of resources from waste streams is essential for future implementation and reliance on a regenerative life support system. The major waste streams of concern are from human activities and plant wastes. Carbon, water and inorganics are the primary desired raw materials of interest. The goal of resource recovery is maintenance of product quality to insure support of reliable and predictable levels of life support function performance by the crop plant component. Further, these systems must be maintained over extended periods of time, requiring maintenance of nutrient solutions to avoid toxicity and deficiencies. Today, reagent grade nutrients are used to make nutrient solutions for hydroponic culture and these solutions are frequently changed during the life cycle or sometimes managed for only one crop life cycle. The focus of this study was to determine the suitability of the ash product following incineration of inedible biomass as a source of inorganic nutrients for hydroponic crop production. Inedible wheat biomass was incinerated and ash quality characterized. The incinerator ash was dissolved in adequate nitric acid to establish a consistent nitrogen concentration in all nutrient solution treatments. Four experimental nutrient treatments were included: control, ash only, ash supplemented to match control, and ash only quality formulated with reagent grade chemicals. When nutrient solutions are formulated using only ash following-incineration of inedible biomass, a balance in solution is established representing elemental retention following incineration and nutrient proportions present in the original biomass. The resulting solution is not identical to the control. This imbalance resulted in suppression of crop growth. When the ash is supplemented with nutrients to establish the same balance as in the control, growth is identical to the control. The ash appears to carry no phytotoxic materials. Growth in solution formulated with reagent grade chemicals

  19. Risk for non Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the vicinity of French municipal solid waste incinerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauleau Erik-André

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators are one of the major sources of dioxins and therefore are an exposure source of public concern. There is growing epidemiologic evidence of an increased risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL in the vicinity of some municipal solid waste incinerators with high dioxin emission levels. The purpose of this study was to examine this association on a larger population scale. Methods The study area consisted of four French administrative departments, comprising a total of 2270 block groups. NHL cases that had been diagnosed during the period 1990–1999, and were aged 15 years and over, were considered. Each case was assigned a block group by residential address geocoding. Atmospheric Dispersion Model System software was used to estimate immissions in the surroundings of 13 incinerators which operated in the study area. Then, cumulative ground-level dioxin concentrations were calculated for each block group. Poisson multiple regression models, incorporating penalized regression splines to control for covariates and dealing with Poisson overdispersion, were used. Five confounding factors were considered: population density, urbanisation, socio-economic level, airborne traffic pollution, and industrial pollution. Results A total of 3974 NHL incident cases was observed (2147 among males, and 1827 among females during the 1990–1999 time period. A statistically significant relationship was found at the block group level between risk for NHL and dioxin exposure, with a relative risk (RR of 1.120 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.002 – 1.251 for persons living in highly exposed census blocks compared to those living in slightly exposed block groups. Population density appeared positively linked both to risk for NHL and dioxin exposure. Subgroup multivariate analyses per gender yielded a significant RR for females only (RR = 1.178, 95% CI 1.013 – 1.369. Conclusion This study, in

  20. CFD simulation of MSW combustion and SNCR in a commercial incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Zihong; Li, Jian; Wu, Tingting [Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification and Energy Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Chen, Caixia, E-mail: cxchen@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification and Energy Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Xiaoke [Shanghai Environment Group Company, 1881 Hongqiao Road, Shanghai 200336 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Presented a CFD scheme for modeling MSW incinerator including SNCR process. • Performed a sensitivity analysis of SNCR operating conditions. • Non-uniform distributions of gas velocity, temperature and NO{sub x} in the incinerator. • The injection position of reagent was critical for a desirable performance of SNCR. • A NSR 1.5 was recommended as a compromise of NO{sub x} reduction rates and NH{sub 3} slip. - Abstract: A CFD scheme was presented for modeling municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in a moving-grate incinerator, including the in-bed burning of solid wastes, the out-of-bed burnout of gaseous volatiles, and the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process between urea (CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The in-bed calculations provided 2-D profiles of the gas–solid temperatures and the gas species concentrations along the bed length, which were then used as inlet conditions for the out-of-bed computations. The over-bed simulations provided the profiles of incident radiation heat flux on the top of bed. A 3-dimensional benchmark simulation was conducted with a 750 t/day commercial incinerator using the present coupling scheme incorporating with a reduced SNCR reduction mechanism. Numerical tests were performed to investigate the effects of operating parameters such as injection position, injection speed and the normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) on the SNCR performance. The simulation results showed that the distributions of gas velocity, temperature and NO{sub x} concentration were highly non-uniform, which made the injection position one of the most sensitive operating parameters influencing the SNCR performance of moving grate incinerators. The simulation results also showed that multi-layer injections were needed to meet the EU2000 standard, and a NSR 1.5 was suggested as a compromise of a satisfactory NO{sub x} reduction and reasonable NH{sub 3} slip rates. This work provided useful guides to the design and

  1. Incineration of a Commercial Coating with Nano CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan, Olivier; Ounoughene, Ghania; Meunier, Laurent; Debray, Bruno; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    The potential environmental risk arising from the incineration of waste containing nanomaterials is a new field which deserves further attention. Some recent studies have begun to focus on this topic but the data are incomplete. In addition, there is a need to consider real life waste. The present study gives some insight into the fate and behavior of a commercial coating containing a commercial additive (7% w/w) based on nano-CeO2 (aggregates of 10 to 40 nm, with elemental particles of 2-3 nm). The tests have been conducted with a system developed in the frame of the NanoFlueGas project. The test protocol was designed to respect the regulatory criteria of a good combustion in incineration plants (temperature around 850°C, highly ventilated combustion, at least 2 s residence time for the combustion gas in a post-combustion chamber at 850°C, and high oxygen/fuel contact). Time tracking by electric low pressure impaction (ELPI) shows that the incineration produces aerosol with number concentration dominated by sub-100 nm particles. Cerium is observed by TEM and EDS analysis but as a minor compound of a sub-group of particles. No nanoCeO2 particles have been observed in the aerosol. ICP-MS analysis indicates that the residual material consists mainly of CeO2 (60% of the mass). Observation by TEM establishes that this material is in the form of aggregates with individual particle of 40-200 nm and suggests that sintering occurred during incineration. As a conclusion, the lab scale incineration study led mainly to the release of nano-CeO2 in the residual material, as the major component. Its size distribution is different than the one of the nano-CeO2 observed in the initial sample before incineration. Additional research is needed to improve the understanding of nanoCeO2 behavior, and to integrate experiments at lab and real scale.

  2. Development of thermal sprayed layers for high temperature areas in waste incineration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendix, D.; Tegeder, G.; Crimmann, P.; Metschke, J.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    Corrosion and wear in the hot gas area of thermal energy plants are severe problems, which often cause premature damage of components. In general, the most components of plants are made of materials, which are not stable under corrosive conditions. For corrosion protection (and also wear protection) and lifetime extension of these components, coatings with more resistant materials are applied. Because of the high concentration of corrosive species and the alternating composition of the atmosphere near to the components, the waste incineration plant is the 'worst case' of high temperature corrosion. Nowadays, the most usual coating process to protect pipes in the waste incineration plants is cladding. In the last few years, alternative processes are under investigation because cladding is very cost-intensive. The specific costs of thermal spraying are much lower than those of cladding. In addition, the coating by thermal spraying reduces the risk of the dilution of substrate and coating material, different materials can be combined (e.g. metal alloys, ceramics) and the thickness of the layer for an acceptable resistance according to corrosion and wear can be drastically reduced. Thermal spraying has the potential to create cost-efficient coatings to protect components in the critical zones of incineration plants. Since many years, ATZ Entwicklungszentrum is involved in the development and/or advancement of materials, technologies and applications of thermal spraying for corrosion and/or wear protection in thermal energy plants. The main focuses of the investigations are layers for components in high temperature areas of waste incineration plants. On the basis of the present results, different coatings (metal alloys, ceramics) and different spray technologies (e.g. HVOF, APS) have been tested by different strategies (corrosion tests under laboratory scale, air cooled material probes inside the hot gas area of an incineration plant and coated pipes in

  3. Burnout in the horizontal tubes of a furnace waterwall panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.Y. Kamenetskii [All-Russia Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering (OAO VNIIAM), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    An experimental study of heat transfer that occurs in tubes nonuniformly heated over the perimeter at low velocities of subcooled water flowing in them is presented. Experiments with unsteady supply of heat made it possible to determine heat fluxes under burnout conditions. Unusually low values of critical heat fluxes were obtained under such conditions.

  4. Burnout in the horizontal tubes of a furnace waterwall panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetskii, B. Ya.

    2009-08-01

    An experimental study of heat transfer that occurs in tubes nonuniformly heated over the perimeter at low velocities of subcooled water flowing in them is presented. Experiments with unsteady supply of heat made it possible to determine heat fluxes under burnout conditions. Unusually low values of critical heat fluxes were obtained under such conditions.

  5. Water-Walled Microfluidics Makes an Ultimate Optical Finesse

    CERN Document Server

    Maayani, Shai; Carmon, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Liquids serve microcavity research ever since Ashkins studies on optical resonances in levitating droplets to recent optofluidic resonators. Droplets can provide optical quality factor (Q) in proximity to the limit restricted by water absorption and radiation loss. However, water micro-drops vaporize quickly due to their large area to volume ratio. Here we fabricate a water-air interface that almost entirely surrounds our device, allowing for more than 1,000,000 recirculations of light (finesse). We sustain the droplets for longer than 16 hours using a nano-water-bridge that extends from the droplet to a practically-unlimited distant-reservoir that compensates for evaporation. Our device exhibits surface tension 8000-times stronger than gravity that self-stabilizes its shape to a degree sufficient to maintain critical coupling as well as to resolve split modes. Our device has 98 percents of their surrounding walls made strictly of water-air interfaces with concave, convex or saddle geometries, suggesting an a...

  6. Optimum distribution of water-wall thickness in a transwall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhya, M.; Tiwari, G.N. (Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)); Rai, S.N. (Physics Dept., M.M.H. Coll., Ghaziabad (India))

    1991-01-01

    In this communication, a transient analysis of a transwall for an air-conditioned room is presented. An analytical expression for the thermal flux entering the air-conditioned room through direct and indirect gain is derived in terms of the physical properties of the transwell as well as the climatic parameters. The water temperatures and the flux entering the room are computed on an hourly basis for a number of days for the typical cold climate conditions of Srinagar. On the basis of the numerical results, it is observed that: (i) steady-state, conditions are achieved after the third day; and (ii) the maximum flux is achieved for {delta}L = {delta}L{sub w1}/{delta}L{sub w}=1. (orig.).

  7. Evaluation of scale formation in waterwall heated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylasheva Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibility of forecasting assessments of the speed and the time of formation of depositions in the evaporator-tube elements of double-drum boilers. The values of thermal flow in the wall region of tank screens of boiler furnace are obtained, besides the velocity values of scaling metal corrosion products are obtained. Conclusions about the ability of forecasting unnominal situations and emergency risks dependent with damage to the screen surface heating pipes are made.

  8. Economizer water-wall damages initiated by feedwater impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojković Sonja M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main causes of efficiency loss in thermal power plants are boiler tube failures that diminish unit reliability and availability, and raise the cost of the electric energy. For that reason, regular examination of boiler tubes is indispensable measure for prevention future malfunctions of power units. Microscopic examination of economizer inner wall microstructure, analysis of chemical composition of deposit using x-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS has been performed in a subcritical power plant. Stress corrosion cracking, pitting corrosion, destroyed protective magnetite layer, presence of magnetite and hematite in deposit and corrosive impurities within the cracks were indicated the effect of inadequate quality of feedwater that can not entirely ensure reliable operation of the boiler. It may be stated that maintenance of present boiler does not provide its reliable operation. Extensive chemical control of water/steam cycle was recommended. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009 i br. III 45012

  9. Combined incineration of industrial wastes with in-plant residues in fluidized-bed utility boilers--decision relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragossnig, Arne M; Lorber, Karl E

    2005-10-01

    In Austria more than 50% of the high-calorific industrial residues and wastes generated are utilized for energy recovery in industrial utility boilers. This study investigated full-scale trials of combined incineration of in-plant residues with various industrial wastes. These trials were carried out in order to learn how the alternatively used fuel influences the incineration process itself as well as the quantity and quality of the various incineration products. The currently used fuel, which consisted of in-plant residues as well as externally acquired waste wood and the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) mixtures used during the full-scale trials are characterized in terms of material composition as well as chemical and physical parameters. An input-output mass balance for the incineration plant (two fluidized bed combustion units, 20 and 30 MW, respectively) has been established, based on the data collected during the full-scale incineration trials. Furthermore, pollutant concentrations in the off-gas as well as the solid incineration residue are reported. It is not only the pollutant content but also a variety of other internal as well as external factors that have to be considered if a company is to decide whether or not to thermally utilize specific waste types. Therefore a strengths and weaknesses profile for several types of waste and the specific industrial boiler is also presented.

  10. Fluidized-bed incineration system and materials recovery facility. In use at Kosai City Environmental Center; Ryudoshoshiki gomi shokyaku shisetsu oyobi recycle plaza. Kosaishi kankyo center nonyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asao, S.; Nishiyama, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takada, J.; Onishi, M.; Takahashi, S.; Kumisawa, G.; Shiba, T.; Tsuchiya, A.; Inaba, N.; Iio, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-01-20

    Ebara`s fluidized-bed incineration system and materials recovery facility are being used at Kosa City Environmental Center, a municipal waste incineration plant, since July 1998. The incineration system includes two incinerators, each with an incineration capacity of 60 tons per day. It is also the first such plant in Japan to include a counterflow absorber tower in which activated coke is used to absorb dioxins. The most advanced technology is used in all aspects of this system. The materials recovery facility is capable of recovering 30 tons of materials (metals, plastics, and glass) per day and includes various equipment for recycling and incombustibles treatment, as well as a stock yard for storing recovered materials. Both the incineration system and the materials recovery facility are designed to cause minimal impaction the environment. (author)

  11. A Critical Evaluation of Waste Incineration Plants in Wuhan (China Based on Site Selection, Environmental Influence, Public Health and Public Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the waste incineration industry in China, top priority has been given to the problem of pollution caused by waste incineration. This study is the first attempt to assess all the waste incineration plants in Wuhan, the only national key city in central China, in terms of environmental impact, site selection, public health and public participation. By using a multi-criterion assessment model for economic, social, public health and environmental effects, this study indicates these incineration plants are established without much consideration of the local residents’ health and environment. A location analysis is also applied and some influences of waste incineration plants are illustrated. This study further introduces a signaling game model to prove that public participation is a necessary condition for improving the environmental impact assessment and increasing total welfare of different interest groups in China. This study finally offers some corresponding recommendations for improving the environmental impact assessments of waste incineration projects.

  12. High temperature materials for radioactive waste incineration and vitrification. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D F; Ondrejcin, R S; Salley, L

    1986-01-01

    Incineration or vitrification of radioactive waste subjects equipment to alkaline or acidic fluxing, oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and thermal shock. It is necessary to select appropriate materials of construction and control operating conditions to avoid rapid equipment failure. Nickel- and cobalt-based alloys with high chromium or aluminum content and aluminum oxide/chromium oxide refractories with high chromium oxide content have provided the best service in pilot-scale melter tests. Inconel 690 and Monofrax K-3 are being used for waste vitrification. Haynes 188 and high alumina refractory are undergoing pilot scale tests for incineration equipment. Laboratory tests indicate that alloys and refractories containing still higher concentrations of chromium or chromium oxide, such as Inconel 671 and Monofrax E, may provide superior resistance to attack in glass melter environments.

  13. Experimental study on drying of typical MSW under incinerator-like conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; YanGuo; CHEN; MeiQian; MENG; AiHong; LI; QingHai; CHEN; YunXuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the drying of typical municipal solid wastes (MSW) in a muffle incinerator. From the experimental drying characteristic curves, the effects of temperature on drying process were observed to be more obvious in the low temperature region than in the high temperature region in muffle incinerator. At a specified drying temperature, drying time was highly dependent upon the packed waste thickness, having an exponent relation with the thickness. When the drying temperature increased or the thickness of potato bulks was diminished, the maximum drying rate reduced. Based on the first-order reaction, activation energy (Ea), and factor A of potato and cabbage were determined.

  14. Chemical speciation and mobility of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng; LIU Jian-guo; YU Qian-feng; NIE Yong-feng

    2004-01-01

    Chemical speciation is a significant factor that governs the toxicity and mobility of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash. Sequential extraction procedure is applied to fractionate heavy metals(Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Cr) into five defined groups: exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic, and residual fractions. The mobility of heavy metals is also investigated with the aid of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. In the fly ash sample, Pb is primarily presented in the carbonate(51%) and exchangeable(20%) fractions; Cd and Zn mainly exist as the exchangeable(83% and 49% respectively); Cu is mostly contained in the last three fractions(totally 87%); and Cr is mainly contained in the residual fraction(62%). Pb, Zn and Cd showed the high mobility in the investigation, thus might be of risk to the natural environment when municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is landfilled or reutilized.

  15. Enhancing biomethanogenic treatment of fresh incineration leachate using single chambered microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Sun, Dezhi; Dang, Yan; Lei, Yuqing; Ji, Jiayang; Lv, Tingwei; Bian, Rui; Xiao, Zhihui; Yan, Liangming; Holmes, Dawn E

    2017-05-01

    Methanogenic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration leachate can be hindered by high concentrations of refractory organic matter and humification of compounds in the leachate. In an attempt to overcome some of these impediments, microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were incorporated into anaerobic digesters (ADMECs). COD removal efficiencies and methane production were 8.7% and 44.3% higher in ADMECs than in controls, and ADMEC reactors recovered more readily from souring caused by high organic loading rates. The degradation rate of large macromolecules was substantially higher (96% vs 81%) in ADMEC than control effluent, suggesting that MECs stimulated degradation of refractory organic matter and reduced humification. Exoelectrogenic bacteria and microorganisms known to form syntrophic partnerships were enriched in ADMECs. These results show that ADMECs were more effective at treatment of MSW incineration leachate, and should be taken into consideration when designing future treatment facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluorination of incinerator ash by hydrofluorination or ammonium bifluoride fusion for plutonium recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.D.; Gray, J.H.; Kent, S.J.; Apgar, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Incinerator ash containing small quantities of plutonium has been accumulating across the defense complex for many years. Although the total Pu inventory is small, the ash is a nondiscardable residue which presents storage and accountability difficulties. The work discussed here is the result of a joint exploratory effort between members of Savannah River Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory to compare two proposed pyrochemical pretreatments of incinerator ash prior to aqueous processing. These experiments attempted to determine the relative effectiveness of hydrofluorination and ammonium bifluoride fusion as head-end operations for a two step aqueous recovery method. The two pretreatments are being considered as possible second generation enhancements for the New Special Recovery Facility nearing operation at Savannah River Plant. Experimental results and potential engineering concerns are discussed. 3 figs.

  17. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Carcinogenic risk assessment for emissions from clinical waste incineration and road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Andrew; Sadhra, Steven

    2010-10-01

    The most significant potentially carcinogenic substances arising from a state-of-the-art clinical waste incinerator (CWI) and vehicle emissions were identified as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, 1-butadiene, arsenic, cadmium, chromium and nickel. Long-term exposures of the notional maximum exposed individual (MEI) in the local environment, together with aggregate emissions from transport of clinical waste, were estimated. Mass emission rates of PAHs from the CWI to air were compared with previously published estimates of mass emissions to land from CWI bottom ash. Aggregate emissions from road transport of clinical waste were of a similar order to stack emissions from incineration. Mass emissions of PAHs to landfill generally greatly exceeded those from stack emissions. Emissions associated with operation of the CWI present a negligible contribution to overall cancer risk from PAHs and other carcinogens. Uncertainty in the quantitative risk estimates presented here is discussed in the context of these findings.

  19. Incinerator ash dissolution model for the system: Plutonium, nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E V

    1988-06-01

    This research accomplished two goals. The first was to develop a computer program to simulate a cascade dissolver system. This program would be used to predict the bulk rate of dissolution in incinerator ash. The other goal was to verify the model in a single-stage dissolver system using Dy/sub 2/O/sub 3/. PuO/sub 2/ (and all of the species in the incinerator ash) was assumed to exist as spherical particles. A model was used to calculate the bulk rate of plutonium oxide dissolution using fluoride as a catalyst. Once the bulk rate of PuO/sub 2/ dissolution and the dissolution rate of all soluble species were calculated, mass and energy balances were written. A computer program simulating the cascade dissolver system was then developed. Tests were conducted on a single-stage dissolver. A simulated incinerator ash mixture was made and added to the dissolver. CaF/sub 2/ was added to the mixture as a catalyst. A 9M HNO/sub 3/ solution was pumped into the dissolver system. Samples of the dissolver effluent were analyzed for dissolved and F concentrations. The computer program proved satisfactory in predicting the F concentrations in the dissolver effluent. The experimental sparge air flow rate was predicted to within 5.5%. The experimental percentage of solids dissolved (51.34%) compared favorably to the percentage of incinerator ash dissolved (47%) in previous work. No general conclusions on model verification could be reached. 56 refs., 11 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Suppressing effect of goethite on PCDD/F and HCB emissions from plastic materials incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang-Zhu; Lee, Se-Jin; Kang, Jung-Ho; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Chang, Yoon-Young

    2008-02-01

    Polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are the leading plastics in total production in the world. The incineration of plastic-based materials forms many chlorinated compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In this study the addition of goethite (alpha-FeOOH) was investigated to determine its suppressing effect on the emission of PCDD/Fs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) during the combustion of wastes containing PE and PVC. Goethite was being considered since it acts as a dioxin-suppressing catalyst during incineration. Results showed that incorporation of goethite greatly reduced the generation of PCDD/Fs and HCB in the exhaust gas and fly ash. The concentration of PCDD/Fs in flue gas decreased by 45% for lab-scale and 52% for small incinerator combustion experiments, where the goethite ratios in feed samples were 0.54% and 0.34%, respectively. Under the same conditions, the concentration of HCB in flue gas decreased by 88% and 62%, respectively. The present study showed a possible mechanism of the suppressing effect of the goethite for PCDD/F formation. It is likely that iron chlorides react with particulate carbon to form organo-chlorine compounds and promote PCDD/F formation in the gas phase. XRD analysis of combustion ash revealed that the goethite was partially dehydrated and converted to alpha-Fe(2)O(3) and Fe(3)O(4) but no iron chlorides formation. Therefore the goethite impregnated plastics can contribute the reduction of PCDD/Fs and HCB in the exhaust gas during incineration of MSW.

  1. Electrochemical Incineration of Phenolic Compounds from the Hydrocarbon Industry Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Medel; Erika Bustos; Karen Esquivel; Godínez, Luis A.; Yunny Meas

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical incineration using boron-doped diamond electrodes was applied to samples obtained from a refinery and compared to the photo-electro-Fenton process in order to selectively eliminate the phenol and phenolic compounds from a complex matrix. Due to the complex chemical composition of the sample, a pretreatment to the sample in order to isolate the phenolic compounds was applied. The effects of the pretreatment and of pH on the degradation of the phenolic compounds were evaluated. ...

  2. Physicochemical properties and morphology of vitreous waste forms incorporating hazardous incineration ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Tae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Joon Hyung [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Ja Kong [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yong Chil [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Ash melting experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of glass matrix as a binder for the solidification of hazardous incineration ash. Several batches of hazardous incineration ash from a paint-factory were melt at 1300 deg C. to fabrication solidified waste forms with the addition of different contents of base-glass material as an additive. The XRD analysis of the final waste forms indicated mixtures of ash and additive are satisfactorily vitrified to form amorphous phases. Even though solidification agents (base-glass) were added, the total waste volume was reduced after vitrification. The volume reduction factor increased with HWI ash loading and reached up t 4.6. The minimum compressive strength and microhardness were 54 MPA and 5.9 GPa, respectively, which were higher than those of cement-solidified incineration ash. All the vitreous waste forms passes the standard extraction tests performed in accordance with Korean MOE's EP and US EPA's TCLP method and thus they could be classified as non-hazardous wastes to save disposal cost. The total mass leach rates were several g/m{sup 2}.d after 14 days of MCC-5S leaching test. Morphology and chemical analysis of waste glass by SEM/EDS before and after leaching tests showed that titanium in the glass network was very durable to leave a Ti-rich layer at the surface of the waste form after leaching. The overall assessment of experimental results showed that the applicability of vitrification technology to treat hazardous incineration ashes would be viable. (author). 20 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. FORMATION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR DIOXINS IN INCINERATION PROCESS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    1 IntroductionWith the progress of industrization and citization,a rapidly increase in municipal solid wastes (MSWs)has become one of serious global environmental andecological problems. Compared to filling andfertilizing technologies, the MSWs treating processwith incineration combined heat recovery for powergeneration has attracted considerable attention, as thismethod may significantly decrease landfill volumeand utilize energy contained in MSWs. Somedeveloped countries have given great concerns todevelo...

  4. Treatment Technologies for Hazardous Ashes Generated from Possible Incineration of Navy Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    Resources Projected for Phase 1 of the RTD&E Program: Waste Characterization/ Source Study A-9 A-4 Analytical Tests on Bottom and Fly Ash Generated from...Overall Project Schedule A-4 A-2 Phase I- Waste Characterization/ Source Study Detailed Schedule A-10 A-3 Phase 2: Pilot Rotary Kiln Incineration...fol- lowing RDT&E program is recommended: * Phase 1--Waste Characterization/ Source Study Project future, post-RCRA conformity, Navy waste data needed to

  5. Local CFD kinetic model of cadmium vaporization during fluid bed incineration of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, J. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte (IDEPA, CONICET-UNCo) y Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Gauthier, D., E-mail: Daniel.Gauthier@promes.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Falcoz, Q.; Flamant, G. [Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France); Mazza, G. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Patagonia Norte (IDEPA, CONICET-UNCo) y Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A 2-D local CFD model for simulating the Cd vaporization process is presented. ► It includes a kinetic expression of Cd vaporization into the incineration process. ► Pyrolysis, volatiles’ combustion and residual carbon combustion are also taken into account. ► It fits very well the experimental results obtained on a lab-scale fluidized bed reported in literature. ► It also compares favorably with a model developed previously by the group. -- Abstract: The emissions of heavy metals during incineration of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are a major issue to health and the environment. It is then necessary to well quantify these emissions in order to accomplish an adequate control and prevent the heavy metals from leaving the stacks. In this study the kinetic behavior of Cadmium during Fluidized Bed Incineration (FBI) of artificial MSW pellets, for bed temperatures ranging from 923 to 1073 K, was modeled. FLUENT 12.1.4 was used as the modeling framework for the simulations and implemented together with a complete set of user-defined functions (UDFs). The CFD model combines the combustion of a single solid waste particle with heavy metal (HM) vaporization from the burning particle, and it takes also into account both pyrolysis and volatiles’ combustion. A kinetic rate law for the Cd release, derived from the CFD thermal analysis of the combusting particle, is proposed. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained in a lab-scale fluidized bed incinerator reported in literature, and with the predicted values from a particulate non-isothermal model, formerly developed by the authors. The comparison shows that the proposed CFD model represents very well the evolution of the HM release for the considered range of bed temperature.

  6. Destruction behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes during incineration of solid waste containing expanded and extruded polystyrene insulation foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kajiwara, Natsuko

    2014-12-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) have been used for flame retardation mainly in expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation foams. Controlled incineration experiments with solid wastes containing each of EPS and XPS were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator to investigate the destruction behavior of HBCDs and their influence on the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs). EPS and XPS materials were respectively blended with refuse derived fuel (RDF) as input wastes for incineration. Concentrations of HBCDs contained in the EPS- and XPS-added RDFs, were 140 and 1100 mg kg(-1), respectively. In which γ-HBCD was dominant (68% of the total HBCD content) in EPS-added RDF and α-HBCD accounted for 73% of the total HBCDs in XPS-added RDF. During the incineration experiments with EPS and XPS, primary and secondary combustion zones were maintained at temperatures of 840 °C and 900 °C. The residence times of waste in the primary combustion zone and flue gas in the secondary combustion zone was 30 min and three seconds, respectively. HBCDs were steadily degraded in the combustion chambers and α-, β-, and γ-HBCD behaved similarly. Concentration levels of the total HBCDs in the bag filter exit gas for the two experiments with EPS and XPS were 0.7 and 0.6ngmN(-3), respectively. HBCDs were also not detected (polystyrene is increased in the input wastes just to make sure of formation prevention and emission control of PBDD/DFs. The concentrations and congener patterns of PCDD/DFs and dl-PCBs in the samples during the three experiments were not affected by an addition of HBCDs.

  7. A Field Investigation and Facility Review of Eight Modular Starved-Air Heat Recovery Incinerator Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    90,000 cfd (about 3.75 million Btu/hr) total on high-fire. FACILITY DESCRIPTION: The incinerator is housed in a metal building across the railroad...Equipment Baghouse neump \\Instrumentation & Feedr r-VlfControl Panel Overhead Conveyor for Classified Documents Receiving Area& Baling Equipment__ Bale...Flue gases are cleaned up in a baghouse before being vented. They have found that if ash falls on a stationary conveyor chain, the chain tends to "hang

  8. Status and Prospect of Domestic Waste Incineration%生活垃圾焚烧技术现状思考及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝文安

    2011-01-01

    Application status of domestic waste incineration technology in China was introduced Understandings of incineration technology and relative standards were expounded, and development of waste incineration technology was expected.%阐述了我国生活垃圾焚烧处理技术应用现状,简述了对焚烧处理技术及相关标准的理解,并对焚烧技术的发展进行展望.

  9. The Design of a Portable Municipal Waste Incinerator With Fuzzy Logic Based Support for Emission Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Akpe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy logic interface system to estimate oxygen requirement for complete combustion as well as the level of pollution from incinerator gas flue in order to manage solid waste from domestic, institutional, medical and industrial sources was designed. The designed incinerator is double chambered operating with a maximum temperature of 760 °C in the lower chamber and 1000°C in the upper chamber.  The insulating wall is made up of a refractory brick of 55mm in thickness having a 2mm thickness low carbon steel as the outer wall.  Hydrogen Chloride (HCl and Nitrous oxides (NOx are the gases was used to demonstrate the Fuzzy Inference System (FIS model. The FIS was built with five input variables (Food, PVC, Polythene, Paper and Textile and three input variables with two membership functions. The FIS was developed to estimation the degree of possibility distribution of pollution that should be expected when a certain composition of waste is incinerated. The plots of composition of waste high in food against oxygen require for combustion gives a possibility distribution of about 0.9 which is high according to the fuzzy set definition while the plot of waste composition high in PVC against HCL shows linearity.

  10. A chemical basis for the partitioning of radionuclides in incinerator operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Incineration as a method of treating radioactive or mixed waste is attractive because of volume reduction, but may result in high concentrations of some hazardous components. For safety reasons during operation, and because of the environmental impact of the plant, it is important to know how these materials partition between the furnace slay, the fly ash, and the stack emission. The chemistry of about 50 elements is discussed and through consideration of high temperature thermodynamic equilibria, an attempt is made to provide a basis for predicting how various radionuclides and heavy metals behave in a typical incinerator. The chemistry of the individual elements is first considered and a prediction of the most stable chemical species in the typical incinerator atmosphere is made. The treatment emphasizes volatility and the parameters considered are temperature, acidity, oxygen, sulfur, and halogen content, and the presence of several other key non-radioactive elements. A computer model is used to calculate equilibrium concentrations of many species in several systems at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1600{degrees}K. It is suggested that deliberate addition of various feed chemicals can have a major impact on the fate of many radionuclides and heavy metals. Several problems concerning limitations and application of the data are considered.

  11. A new gasification and melting incineration process of MSW with co-current shaft furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Qi; Zou, Zongshu; Liu, Haixiao; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    In all the municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal technology, incineration with gasification and melting has been taken as a environmentally sound and zero emission technology owing to avoiding second-pollution of heavy metals and dioxin. In this background, a new direct gasification and melting incineration process with co-current shaft furnace is put forward. In this process, MSW and combustion-supporting air are co-current from top to bottom in a shaft furnace. Fuel gas from pyrolysis and gasification burns completely in the bottom in order to offer energy for slag melting. The simulation experiment of the co-current shaft furnace has been done. The results of simulation experiment show that the temperature on the condition of co-current is much higher than on the condition of countercurrent at the bottom of reaction tube and so is the CO2 quantity discharged from reaction tube. It can be concluded that the co-current shaft furnace is more suitable for direct gasification and melting incineration process.

  12. Numerical Investigation of Swirl Enhancement for Complete Combustion in an Incinerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. Senthil Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, the entire country looks for to keep our environment neat and tidy. All form of wastes has some form of energy; normally it is incinerated to yield energy from it, and can be used to run gas turbines in power generation or mechanical drive applications. Incineration is one of the ways to control pollution, safe disposal of waste and need for landfill. Low emission level is great competitive in this world by burning all the given fuels in Engineering point of view. The work presented here is a numerical simulation of a cylindrical 3D combustion chamber, burning of all the given fuels without any residuals by providing Velocity Normal to Boundary (VNB and Velocity Inclined to Boundary (VIB with different approximations of fuel and oxygen by using CFD software, ANSYS-FLUENTTM. The present work takes incineration gases, Toluene and Benzene as fuel. It is found that creation of swirl inside the chamber and supply of excess amount of oxygen to the chamber, provide a complete combustion of given fuel. The numerical predictions would provide useful information for further analysis in this area.

  13. Electrochemical Incineration of Phenolic Compounds from the Hydrocarbon Industry Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Medel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical incineration using boron-doped diamond electrodes was applied to samples obtained from a refinery and compared to the photo-electro-Fenton process in order to selectively eliminate the phenol and phenolic compounds from a complex matrix. Due to the complex chemical composition of the sample, a pretreatment to the sample in order to isolate the phenolic compounds was applied. The effects of the pretreatment and of pH on the degradation of the phenolic compounds were evaluated. The results indicate that the use of a boron-doped diamond electrode in an electrochemical incineration process mineralizes 99.5% of the phenolic sample content. Working in acidic medium (pH = 1, and applying 2 A at 298 K under constant stirring for 2 hours, also results in the incineration of the reaction intermediates reflected by 97% removal of TOC. In contrast, the photo-electro-Fenton process results in 99.9% oxidation of phenolic compounds with only a 25.69% removal of TOC.

  14. Combustion Air Pre-heating from Ash Sensible Heat in Municipal Waste Incineration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariya Kaneesamkandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery from bottom ash is more important in municipal waste combustion systems than in any other solid fuel combustion since almost 50% of it comprises of non-combustibles. In this study, an ash cooling system using air as the cooling medium has been modeled for pre-heating the combustion air. Air cooling has several advantages over water cooling methods. The study involves modeling using Gambit tool and is solved with the fluent solver. Municipal solid waste incineration systems have the advantage of being located near the waste collection area apart from the high volume reduction ratio. Improvements in the emission control systems and combustion technology can make incineration a highly feasible disposal method. Low furnace temperature due to heat losses through fuel moisture loss and ash sensible heat loss has been a disadvantage with these systems. In this study, a small percentage of the combustion air is pre-heated in a non-contact type heat exchanger and its effect on the available energy of combustion gases at the evaporator outlet is studied. The study is performed for two different waste samples. Results indicate significant increase in available energy at the evaporator outlet and better relative performance for the lower grade fuel. A comparison is made with similar methods reported in the literature along with a brief discussion on the methodologies adopted. The results confirm the importance of installing ash sensible heat recovery mechanism for waste incineration systems as well as the feasibility of the air based method.

  15. Study on drying and combustion process in 8rate-CFB incinerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI QingHai; ZHANG YanGuo; CHEN MeiQian; MENG AiHong; CHEN ChangHe

    2009-01-01

    The drying and combustion process in the combined grate and circulating fiuidized bed (grate-CFB)municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator was investigated experimentally and mathematically. The drying grate bed was simulated by a muffle furnace, which could be controlled at a constant tempera-ture level. The kind of wastes, thickness of waste layer fed and temperature were chosen as the ad-justable parameters to study their effect on the drying process. The experimental results indicated that the hydrophilic wastes were more difficult to be dried than the hydrophobic wastes. The higher the temperature is the easier the waste is to be dried. The thinner waste layer is favorable to drying the waste. The pyrolysis experiment in the furnace showed that the higher temperature level could reduce the conversion rate of carbon to carbon monoxide. The semi-empirical mathematical model that in-cluded the bed material distribution subrnodel, volatile matter release submodel, carbon particle combustion submodel and so on was proposed. A 260 t/d grate-CFB incinerator was modeled and the model predicted bulk density agreed with the measured value from industrial field test. The predicted flue gas (e.g. CO2, CO) concentration deviated slightly from the industrial test data. The parameters and variables used in the model were determined by the experiments or practical field test. This model can be used to design the grate-CFB incinerator and guide its operation.

  16. PCDD/Fs in soil around a hospital waste incinerator: comparison after three years of operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Li; Mi Yan; Jie Yang; Tong Chen; Shengyong Lu; Jianhua Yan

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) can be formed during the cooling of flue gases in waste incinerator.These pollutants are either in the gas phase or attached to the fine particles,escaping dust collection.After stack emission,they are slowly oxidized photochemically (gas phase),or eventually are deposited (dry and wet deposition of particulate) in earth surface.In 2007 and 2010,11 soil samples were collected in the vicinity of a hospital waste incinerator (HWI),prior and after its startup.In order to find out any variation of PCDD/Fs in soil,in brief dioxins,their concentrations were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS).Compared to the baseline survey (2007),PCDD/Fs in soil significantly increased,by average,+81.6% in total PCDD/Fs and +132.7% in international toxic equivalency (Ⅰ-TEQ) unit.By principal component analysis (PCA),both the PCDD/Fs homologue and the HxCDF isomer profile in soil were found to become more similar with fly ash.Generally,this incinerator influences the soil only in a limited area.More comprehensive supervision,stricter management and more advanced technology should be implemented m this plant to reduce pollutants emission,even though the level of PCDD/Fs in soil is quite low at present.

  17. Numerical Study of Flow Characteristics in a Solid Particle Incinerator for Various Design Parameters of Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jin Woo; Kim, Su Ho; Sohn, Chae Hoon [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The flow characteristics in a solid particle incinerator are investigated numerically for high burning rate of wastes. The studied incinerator employs both a swirl flow used in the furnace of power plants and a design concept applied to a rocket combustor. As the first step, the non-reactive flow field is analyzed in the incinerator with primary and secondary injectors through which solid fuel and air are injected. The deflection angle of a primary injector, inclination angle of a secondary injector, and gap between the two types of injectors are selected as design parameters. The swirl number is adopted for evaluating the degree of swirl flow and estimated over wide ranges of three parameters. The swirl number increases with deflection angle, but it is affected little by inclination angle. Recirculation zones are formed near the injectors, and their size affects the swirl number. The swirl number decreases with the zonal size of recirculation. From the numerical results, the design points can be found with strong swirl flow.

  18. Recycling of air pollution control residues from municipal solid waste incineration into lightweight aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2014-02-01

    This work focuses on the assessment of technological properties and on the leaching behavior of lightweight aggregates (LWA) produced by incorporating different quantities of air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. Currently this hazardous waste has been mostly landfilled after stabilization/solidification. The LWA were produced by pelletizing natural clay, APC residues as-received from incineration plant, or after a washing treatment, a small amount of oil and water. The pellets were fired in a laboratory chamber furnace over calcium carbonate. The main technological properties of the LWA were evaluated, mainly concerning morphology, bulk and particle densities, compressive strength, bloating index, water adsorption and porosity. Given that APC residues do not own expansive (bloating) properties, the incorporation into LWA is only possible in moderate quantities, such as 3% as received or 5% after pre-washing treatment. The leaching behavior of heavy metals from sintered LWA using water or acid solutions was investigated, and despite the low acid neutralization capacity of the synthetic aggregates, the released quantities were low over a wide pH range. In conclusion, after a washing pre-treatment and if the percentage of incorporation is low, these residues may be incorporated into LWA. However, the recycling of APC residues from MSW incineration into LWA does not revealed any technical advantage.

  19. Investigating pyrolysis/incineration as a method of resource recovery from solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bobby J.; Lemay, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrolysis/incineration (P/I) is a physicochemical method for the generation of recoverable resources from solid waste materials such as inedible plant biomass (IPB), paper, plastics, cardboard, etc. P/I permits the collection of numerous gases with a minimal amount of solid residue. Pyrolysis, also known as starved air incineration, is usually conducted at relatively high temperatures (greater than 500 deg C) in the absence of oxygen. Incineration is conducted at lower temperatures in the presence of oxygen. The primary purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a model P/I. The system design includes safety requirements for temperature and pressure. The objectives of this study were: (1) to design and construct a P/I system for incorporation with the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System; (2) to initiate testing of the P/I system; (3) to collect and analyze P/I system data; (4) to consider test variables; and (5) to determine the feasibility of P/I as an effective method of resource recovery. A P/I system for the recovery of reuseable resources from solid waste materials was designed, constructed, and tested. Since a large amount of inedible plant biomass (IPB) will be generated in a space-based habitat on the lunar surface and Mars, IPB was the primary waste material tested in the system. Analysis of the effluent gases was performed to determine which gases could be used in a life support system.

  20. Aluminium recovery from waste incineration bottom ash, and its oxidation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The recovery of aluminium (Al) scraps from waste incineration bottom ash is becoming a common practice in waste management. However, during the incineration process, Al in the waste undergoes oxidation processes that reduce its recycling potential. This article investigates the behaviour of Al scraps in the furnace of two selected grate-fired waste-to-energy plants and the amount recoverable from the bottom ash. About 21-23% of the Al fed to the furnace with the residual waste was recovered and potentially recycled from the bottom ash. Out of this amount, 76-87% was found in the bottom ash fraction above 5 mm and thus can be recovered with standard eddy current separation technology. These values depend on the characteristics and the mechanical strength of the Al items in the residual waste. Considering Al packaging materials, about 81% of the Al in cans can be recovered from the bottom ash as an ingot, but this amount decreases to 51% for trays, 27% for a mix of aluminium and poly-laminated foils and 47% for paper-laminated foils. This shows that the recovery of Al from the incineration residues increases proportionally to the thickness of the packaging.

  1. Performance appraisal of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as controlled low-strength material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Hashim Abdul; Naganathan, Sivakumar; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2009-12-30

    Controlled low-strength material (CLSM) is slurry made by mixing sand, cement, ash, and water. It is primarily used as a replacement for soil and structural fillings. This paper presents the findings of a preliminary investigation carried out on the performance of industrial waste incineration bottom ash as CLSM. CLSM mixes were designed using industrial waste incineration bottom ash, and cement. Tests for density, setting time, bleed, and compressive strength on cubes under various curing conditions, corrosivity, and leaching of heavy metals and salts were carried out on the CLSM mixtures, and the results discussed. Compressive strength for the designed CLSM mixtures ranged from 0.1 to 1.7 MPa. It is shown that the variations in curing conditions have less influence on the compressive strength of CLSM at high values of water to cement ratio (w/c), but low values of w/c influences the strength of CLSM. The CLSM produced does not exhibit corrosive characters as evidenced by pH. Leaching of heavy metals and salts is higher in bleed than in leachate collected from hardened CLSM. Cement reduces the leaching of Boron in bleed. It is concluded that there is good potential for the use of industrial waste incineration bottom ash in CLSM.

  2. The rare earth elements in municipal solid waste incinerators ash and promising tools for their prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.funari@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Vigliotti, Luigi [Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR-CNR)—National Research Council, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The REE concentrations of bottom and fly ashes from municipal incinerators are investigated. • First attempt toward discriminating the magnetic signature (susceptibility) of ashes from incinerators. • New methods and parameters for REE prospecting, which can be determined quickly and with limited costs, are provided. - Abstract: Bottom and fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are hazardous products that present concern for their safe management. An attractive option to reduce their impact both on the environment and the financial commitment is turning MSWI ashes into secondary raw materials. In this study we present the REE content and distribution of bottom and fly ashes from MSWI after a highly effective digestion method and samples analysis by ICP–MS. The chondrite-normalised REE patterns of MSWI bottom and fly ash are comparable with that of crustal averages, suggesting a main geogenic source. Deviations from typical crustal pattern (e.g., Eu, Tb) disclose a contribution of likely anthropogenic provenance. The correlation with major elements indicates possible sources for REE and facilitates a preliminary resource assessment. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility measurements can be a useful prospecting method in urban ores made of MSWI ashes. The relationship between REE and some influencing parameters (e.g., Pricing Influence Factor) emphasises the importance of MSWI ash as alternative source of REE and the need of further efforts for REE recovery and purification from low concentrations but high flows waste.

  3. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans from incineration of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejerano, Eric P; Holder, Amara L; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-05-07

    Disposal of some nanomaterial-laden waste through incineration is inevitable, and nanomaterials' influence on combustion byproduct formation under high-temperature, oxidative conditions is not well understood. This work reports the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from incineration of paper and plastic waste containing various nanomaterials, including titania, nickel oxide, silver, ceria, iron oxide, quantum dots, and C60-fullerene, in a laboratory-scale furnace. The presence of nanomaterials in the waste stream resulted in higher emissions of some PAH species and lower emissions of others, depending on the type of waste. The major PAH species formed were phenanthrene and anthracene, and emissions were sensitive to the amount of nanomaterials in the waste. Generally, there were no significant differences in emission factors for the larger PAH species when nanomaterials were added to the waste. The total PAH emission factors were on average ~6 times higher for waste spiked with nanomaterials v. their bulk counterparts. Emissions of chlorinated dioxins from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) waste were not detected; however, chlorinated furans were formed at elevated concentrations with wastes containing silver and titania nanomaterials, and toxicity was attributable mainly to 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran. The combination of high specific surface area and catalytic, including electrocatalytic, properties of nanomaterials might be responsible for affecting the formation of toxic pollutants during incineration.

  4. Hazardous waste incinerators under waste uncertainty: balancing and throughput maximization via heat recuperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos Aristeides

    2013-09-01

    Hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) differ substantially from thermal power facilities, since instead of maximizing energy production with the minimum amount of fuel, they aim at maximizing throughput. Variations in quantity or composition of received waste loads may significantly diminish HWI throughput (the decisive profit factor), from its nominal design value. A novel formulation of combustion balance is presented, based on linear operators, which isolates the wastefeed vector from the invariant combustion stoichiometry kernel. Explicit expressions for the throughput are obtained, in terms of incinerator temperature, fluegas heat recuperation ratio and design parameters, for an arbitrary number of wastes, based on fundamental principles (mass and enthalpy balances). The impact of waste variations, of recuperation ratio and of furnace temperature is explicitly determined. It is shown that in the presence of waste uncertainty, the throughput may be a decreasing or increasing function of incinerator temperature and recuperation ratio, depending on the sign of a dimensionless parameter related only to the uncertain wastes. The dimensionless parameter is proposed as a sharp a' priori waste 'fingerprint', determining the necessary increase or decrease of manipulated variables (recuperation ratio, excess air, auxiliary fuel feed rate, auxiliary air flow) in order to balance the HWI and maximize throughput under uncertainty in received wastes. A 10-step procedure is proposed for direct application subject to process capacity constraints. The results may be useful for efficient HWI operation and for preparing hazardous waste blends.

  5. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50μm did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential exposure levels and health effects of neighborhood exposure to a municipal incinerator bottom ash landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, A H; Munshi, A A; Goodman, A K

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to assess the potential exposure levels and pursuant public health implications of neighborhood exposure to a municipal incinerator bottom ash landfill. This site received ash from a single incinerator without pollution control devices from 1954-1973. Soil was sampled for 10 heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodioxin and furan congeners, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil concentrations for these substances were converted to estimates of exposure, health effects, and/or cancer risk by the application of a general exposure model and exposure/effect and exposure/risk models for specific substances. The results of soil analysis and modeling indicate that the level of lead detected on the site was considerably above the recommended levels of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and may lead to an elevated blood lead level in exposed children above that currently defining a case of lead poisoning. The potential for health effects resulting from exposure to other substances measured in the soil on this site is considered to be small, and no significant increased cancer risk is expected. Comparison of levels of various substances obtained at this site with levels obtained in fresh bottom ash in other studies suggests that these results may be applicable to exposures from other municipal incinerator bottom ash landfills.

  7. Numerical study of radiation effect on the municipal solid waste combustion characteristics inside an incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingfu; Xue, Yanqing; Zhang, Xinxin; Shu, Xinran

    2015-10-01

    Due to its advantages of high degree volume reduction, relatively stable residue, and energy reclamation, incineration becomes one of the best choices for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal. However, detailed measurements of temperature and gas species inside a furnace are difficulty by conventional experimental techniques. Therefore, numerical simulation of MSW incineration in the packed bed and gas flow field was applied. In this work, a three dimensional (3-D) model of incinerator system, including flow, heat transfer, detailed chemical mechanisms, and non-gray gas models, was developed. Radiation from the furnace wall and the flame formed above the bed is of importance for drying and igniting the waste. The preheated air with high temperature is used for the MSW combustion. Under the conditions of high temperature and high pressure, MSW combustion produces a variety of radiating gases. The wavelength-depend radiative properties of flame adopted in non-gray radiation model were obtained from a statistical narrow-band model. The influence of radiative heat transfer on temperature, flow field is researched by adiabatic model (without considering radiation), gray radiation model, and non-gray radiation model. The simulation results show that taking into account the non-gray radiation is essential.

  8. Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An overview on characterization, utilization and leachate analysis of biomedical waste incinerator ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajor, Anita; Xaxa, Monika; Mehta, Ratika; Kunal

    2012-10-15

    Solid waste management is one of the major global environmental issues, as there is continuous increase in industrial globalization and generation of waste. Solid wastes encompass the heterogeneous mass of throwaways from the urban community as well as the homogeneous accumulations of agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes. Biomedical waste pose a significant impact on health and environment. A proper waste management system should be required to dispose hazardous biomedical waste and incineration should be the best available technology to reduce the volume of this hazardous waste. The incineration process destroys pathogens and reduces the waste volume and weight but leaves a solid material called biomedical waste ash as residue which increases the levels of heavy metals, inorganic salts and organic compounds in the environment. Disposal of biomedical waste ash in landfill may cause contamination of groundwater as metals are not destroyed during incineration. The limited space and the high cost for land disposal led to the development of recycling technologies and the reuse of ash in different systems. In order to minimize leaching of its hazardous components into the environment several studies confirmed the successful utilization of biomedical waste ash in agriculture and construction sector. This paper presents the overview on the beneficial use of ash in agriculture and construction materials and its leachate characteristics. This review also stressed on the need to further evaluate the leachate studies of the ashes and slag for their proper disposal and utilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phytomining of valuable metals from waste incineration residues using hyperaccumulator plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Theresa; Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide the availability of primary sources of certain economically important metals is decreasing, resulting in high supply risks and increasing prices for this materials. Therefore, an alternative way of retrieving these high valuable technical metals is the recycling and use of anthropogenic secondary sources, such as waste incineration residues. Phytomining offers an environmentally sound and cheap technology to recover such metals from secondary sources. Thus, the aim of our research work is to investigate the potential of phytomining from waste incineration slags by growing metal hyperaccumulating plants on this substrates and use the metal enriched biomass as a bio-ore. As a first stage, material from Vienna's waste incineration plants was sampled and analyzed. Residues from municipal wastes as well as residues from hazardous waste incineration and sewage sludge incineration were analyzed. In general, the slags can be characterized by a very high pH, high salinity and high heavy metal concentrations. Our work is targeting the so-called critical raw materials defined by the European Commission in 2014. Thus, the target metal species in our project are amongst others cobalt, chromium, antimony, tungsten, gallium, nickel and selected rare earth elements. This elements are present in the slags at moderate to low concentrations. In order to optimize the substrate for plant growth the high pH and salt content as well as the low nitrogen content in the slags need to be controlled. Thus, different combinations of amendments, mainly from the waste industry, as well as different acidifying agents were tested for conditioning the substrate. Washing the slags with diluted nitric acid turned out to be effective for lowering the pH. The acid treated substrate in combination with material from mechanical biological waste treatment and biochar, is currently under investigation in a greenhouse pot experiment. The experimental setup consists of a full factorial design

  11. Feasibility study for a stand-alone Torbed incinerator; Haalbaarheidsstudie stand-alone Torbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, R.M.H. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-03-01

    Thermal conversion of waste and biomass streams for local energy (electricity and/or heat) generation are currently hot items. An important reason for this is the sustainable nature of these energy sources. However, the nature and composition of these fuels impose special requirements on the conversion technology. This is also influenced by the scale (about 20 MWth) of the installation. Based on experiences with the pilot plant of CES (CES Environmental Technology in Wageningen, Netherlands), Torbed appears to be especially suitable as an incineration system. However, complete stand-alone Torbed installations with energy conversion and flue gas cleaning are not yet built. This is the reason that there was a need for a total concept of such a stand-alone Torbed installation. This is developed for the thermal conversion of tires, cocoa shells, verge, wooden sleepers and sewage sludge and is described in this report. With this total concept, a judgement and comparison can be made with more developed and commercialized incineration technologies, e.g. fluidized bed, cyclone and grid firing. The conclusion can be drawn that Torbed has enough potential as a competitive incineration technique to current technologies with an installation size of 20 up to 60MWth. Part of this potential is the fact that Torbed can claim a relatively high thermal efficiency. The most competitive technology for Torbed seems to be fluidized bed combustion. From the five selected fuels, the technical and economic feasibility is the greatest for the incineration of verge and sewage sludge. In general, Torbed appears to be best suitable for burning fine material that needs no further pretreatment. Because Torbed is an incinerator in a relative early development stage, some open questions cannot be answered. Especially questions related to operation, possible reduction of harmful emissions due to additive injection in the reactor and the availability of the installation. This is why long-term tests

  12. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  13. Green, Eco, Innovative Design, and Manufacturing Technology of a 1-Ton per Batch Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerdsuwan Somrat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal treatment of waste by incineration is considered an ultimate solution in order to get rid of waste properly by using the combustible properties of waste and transforming them into inert form and gaseous emission, with the main advantage of a huge reduction in mass and volume of treated waste, destruction of the dangerous components in waste, and obtaining green and clean energy from the exothermal reaction from the completed combustion process. In order to achieve the main goal of incineration, a good design, construction, supervision, and intensive operation and maintenance must be taken into account, especially for the small-scale incinerator. This research will deal with the green, innovative, and eco design and manufacturing technology of a 1-ton per batch municipal solid waste (MSW incinerator. The concept design of the incinerator will focus on the design of the feeding process where only one batch of waste will be discharged into the combustion chamber at one time instead of the semi-feed process, as found in the conventional incinerator. This will ease the operation of the operator and reduce the operating cost. Moreover, the innovative design includes the redesign of combustion air injection into either the primary or secondary combustion chamber in order to achieve the 3Ts of combustion (time, temperature. and turbulence. This design can eliminate the use of an auxiliary burner in the primary combustion chamber. Rethinking the innovative design of using recirculation hot flue gas for preheating of wet garbage in order to pre-dry the waste before combustion is also taken into account. The manufacturing process of the wall composition as well as other parts of the incinerator are also examined.

  14. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative for the European Union member countries were considered. For AD, biogas utilisation with a biogas engine was considered and two potential situations investigated - biogas combustion with (1) combined heat and power production (CHP) and (2) electricity production only. For incineration, four technology options currently available in Europe were covered: (1) an average incinerator with CHP production, (2) an average incinerator with mainly electricity production, (3) an average incinerator with mainly heat production and (4) a state-of-the art incinerator with CHP working at high energy recovery efficiencies. The study was performed using a life cycle assessment in its consequential approach. Furthermore, the role of waste-sorting guidelines (defined by the material fractions allowed for SSOHW) in relation to GWP of treating overall SSOHW with AD was investigated. A case-study of treating 1tonne of SSOHW under framework conditions in Denmark was conducted. Under the given assumptions, vegetable food waste was the only material fraction which was always better for AD compared to incineration. For animal food waste, kitchen tissue, vegetation waste and dirty paper, AD utilisation was better unless it was compared to a highly efficient incinerator. Material fractions such as moulded fibres and dirty cardboard were attractive for AD, albeit only when AD with CHP and incineration with mainly heat production were compared. Animal straw, in contrast, was always better to incinerate. Considering the total amounts of individual material fractions in waste generated within households in Denmark, food waste (both animal and vegetable derived) and kitchen tissue are the main material

  15. Laboratory-scale study of the suppression of PCDD/F emission during coal and MSW co-incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng-yong; YAN Jian-hua; LI Xiao-dong; NI Ming-jiang; CEN Ke-fa

    2007-01-01

    The experimental test of co-incinerating Chinese raw municipal solid waste (MSW) and coal in a laboratory-scale tubular reactor was first reported in present study, and the emission of normal gas components and the effects of the S/Cl molar ratio or coal mixing percentages on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) emission were investigated and discussed. The results indicated that OCDD was the only PCDD homologues since others like TCDD-HpCDD was hardly detected, while as the categories of PCDF homologues were comparatively much more general. The amount of PCDD was much larger than that of PCDF in all operating conditions. Since ∑PCDF/∑PCDD<<1, the dominant role of the precursor formation was proven in our experimental conductions. With increasing the coal addition to MSW (from 0 to 16%), PCDD and PCDF were reduced considerably. Coal and MSW may suppress the PCDD/F emissions efficiently (over 95%) during the MSW incineration process. The PCDD/F suppression results of the present study could be helpful guidance to the industrial application of Chinese MSW and auxiliary coal co-incineration processes. The PCDD/F stack emission data of two industrial incinerators using co-incineration technology in China seem to have a great positive reduction of PCDDs/Fs.

  16. Indoor air concentrations of mercury species in incineration plants for municipal solid waste (MSW) and hospital waste (HW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Zhan, Ziyu; Du, Fang; Kong, Sifang; Liu, Yushan

    2009-04-01

    Until now, there is limited information about mercury exposures inside solid waste incineration plants although incineration has been considered as one of major solid waste treatments. This study investigated indoor air concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (Hgp) and indoor dust mercury concentrations in a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant and a hospital waste incineration (HWI) plant during December 2003 and July 2004. The final results showed that the employees in incineration plants are not only exposed to GEM, but also to RGM and Hgp. For the HWI plant, only concentration of total mercury (HgT) in operation center in summer was below 1000ngm(-3) due to frequent ventilation, while those of GEM and HgT in hospital waste depot exceeded 3000ngm(-3). For the MSWI plant, only concentration of HgT in workplace in winter exceeded 1000ngm(-3). Therefore, more attention should be paid to mercury exposures in HWI plants than in MSWI plants. Indoor dust containing approximately 3968microgHgTkg(-1) (dry matter) possibly served as the potential source for indoor air mercury pollution, especially in the HWI plant.

  17. Occupational airborne contamination in South Brazil: 2. Oxidative stress detected in the blood of workers of incineration of hospital residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, F P; Avila, S; Budni, P; Backes, P; Parisotto, E B; Rizelio, V M; Torres, M A; Colepicolo, P; Wilhelm Filho, D

    2009-11-01

    One of the most useful methods for elimination of solid residues of health services (SRHS) is incineration. However, it also provokes the emission of several hazardous air pollutants such as heavy metals, furans and dioxins, which produce reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. The present study, which is parallel to an accompanied paper (Avila Jr. et al., this issue), investigated several enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers of oxidative stress in the blood (contents of vitamin E, lipoperoxidation = TBARS, reduced glutathione = GSH, oxidized glutathione = GSSG, and activities of glutathione S-transferase = GST, glutathione reductase = GR, glutathione peroxidase = GPx, catalase = CAT and superoxide dismutase = SOD), in three different groups (n = 20 each) exposed to airborne contamination associated with incineration of SRHS: workers directly (ca. 100 m from the incinerator) and indirectly exposed (residents living ca. 5 km the incineration site), and controls (non-exposed subjects). TBARS and GSSG levels were increased whilst GSH, TG and alpha-tocopherol contents were decreased in workers and residents compared to controls. Increased GST and CAT activities and decreased GPx activities were detected in exposed subjects compared to controls, while GR did not show any difference among the groups. In conclusion, subjects directly or indirectly exposed to SRHS are facing an oxidative insult and health risk regarding fly ashes contamination from SRHS incineration.

  18. Review of the incineration of 500 tonnes of radio-active residues; Bilan de l'incineration de 500 tonnes de residus radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Seyfried, P.; Charbonneaux, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    During its first five years operation, the incinerator at the Marcoule Centre has burnt almost 500 tonnes of radio-active residues. Improvements in some of the details of the process have been made during this period; they concern the nature of the materials involved. The technical and radiological results for the installation are very favorable, and have made it possible to maintain a high charge factor.Although the overall economic results are not advantageous in the case of ungraded solid residues this method represents nevertheless the best available for eliminating oils, solvents, wood and dead animals. It can also be of use furthermore each time that a dilution in the atmosphere can advantageously be used as a method of disposing of certain radio elements such as tritium or carbon 14 in the form of gases or vapours. (author) [French] L'incinerateur du Centre de Marcoule a brule, durant les 5 premieres annees de fonctionnement, pres de 500 tonnes de residus radioactifs. Les ameliorations de detail realisees au cours de cette periode ont porte sur la nature des materiaux employes. Les bilans techniques et radiologiques de l'installation sont tres favorables et ont permis de maintenir un facteur de charge eleve. Si le bilan economique n'est pas favorable a l'incineration des residus solides 'tout venant' cette methode constitue cependant la solution ideale pour l'elimination des huiles, des solvants, du bois et des cadavres d'animaux. En outre, elle peut etre interessante chaque fois que la dilution dans l'atmosphere peut etre avantageusement mise a profit pour rejeter certains radioelements tels que le tritium ou le carbone 14 sous forme de gaz ou de vapeurs. (auteur)

  19. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  20. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  2. Life cycle assessment of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitrous oxides in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Munk, Bjarne; Crillesen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitrous oxides in a full-scale municipal solid waste incinerator was investigated using LCA. The relationship between NOx-cleaning and ammonia dosage was measured at the plant. Un-reacted ammonia – the ammonia slip – leaving the flue-gas cleaning system......-removal in flue-gas cleaning from waste incineration....

  3. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions and nitrous oxide isotopic composition from waste incineration in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Eliza, E-mail: eliza.harris@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Zeyer, Kerstin [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Kegel, Rainer; Müller, Beat [FOEN, Federal Office for the Environment, Air Pollution Control and Chemicals, CH-3003 Berne (Switzerland); Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim [Empa, Laboratory for Air Pollution and Environmental Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • N{sub 2}O emissions from waste incineration with SNCR NO{sub x} removal are 51.5 ± 10.6 g t{sup −1}. • This is significantly lower than the reported Swiss emission factor of 120 g t{sup −1} (FOEN, 2013). • N{sub 2}O contributes <0.3% and ≈2.5% of GHG emissions from SCR and SNCR plants. • Measured isotopic SP of 17.7‰ is likely characteristic for N{sub 2}O emissions from SNCR. • CH{sub 4} emitted by waste incineration is negligible, contributing <0.01% to total GHGs. - Abstract: Solid waste incineration accounts for a growing proportion of waste disposal in both developed and developing countries, therefore it is important to constrain emissions of greenhouse gases from these facilities. At five Swiss waste incineration facilities with grate firing, emission factors for N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} were determined based on measurements of representative flue gas samples, which were collected in Tedlar bags over a one year period (September 2010–August 2011) and analysed with FTIR spectroscopy. All five plants burn a mixture of household and industrial waste, and two of the plants employ NO{sub x} removal through selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) while three plants use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} removal. N{sub 2}O emissions from incineration plants with NO{sub x} removal through selective catalytic reduction were 4.3 ± 4.0 g N{sub 2}O tonne{sup −1} waste (wet) (hereafter abbreviated as t{sup −1}) (0.4 ± 0.4 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}), ten times lower than from plants with selective non-catalytic reduction (51.5 ± 10.6 g N{sub 2}O t{sup −1}; 4.5 ± 0.9 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}). These emission factors, which are much lower than the value of 120 g N{sub 2}O t{sup −1} (10.4 g N{sub 2}O GJ{sup −1}) used in the 2013 Swiss national greenhouse gas emission inventory, have been implemented in the most recent Swiss emission inventory. In addition, the isotopic composition of N{sub 2}O emitted from the two

  4. Comparison of green-house gas emission reductions and landfill gas utilization between a landfill system and an incineration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibin Han; Jisheng Long; Shude Li; Guangren Qian

    2010-04-01

    Electricity generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions were researched by making comparisons between municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill and incineration systems with three different electricity generation efficiencies - 10%, 21%, and 24.7%. For MSW landfill systems, it is shown that the total electricity generation is 198,747 MWh, and the total GHG emission reduction is 1,386,081 tonne CO( 2) during a 21-year operation period. For incineration systems, the total electricity generation is 611,801 MWh, and the total GHG emission reduction is 1,339,158 tonne CO(2) during a 10-year operation period even if the electricity generation efficiency is only 10%. It is also shown that electricity generation increases quicker than the GHG emission reductions with the increase of electricity generation efficiency. However, incineration systems show great superiority in LFG utilisation and GHG emission reductions.

  5. Environmental Assessment of a Waste Incineration Tax. Case Study and Evaluation of a Framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, Anna; Johansson, Jessica [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Maans [Stockholm Environment Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Eldh, Peter; Finnveden, Goeran [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Ecology

    2003-12-01

    A framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is tested in a case study on a proposed waste incineration tax. Also included is testing of developed methods for valuation and site-dependent life cycle impact assessment. The results indicate that although a suggested waste incineration tax of 400 SEK/ton is likely to lead to environmental improvements, these are small compared to the potential improvements as shown in more visionary scenarios. In order to go in this direction a waste incineration tax based on the content of fossil carbon in the waste would be useful. The framework for SEA includes several different pathways. These have different advantages and disadvantages and provide different types of information. It is therefore suggested that they largely complement each other and that the choice of methods should be done in relation to the function of the SEA and the questions asked.

  6. UK: Technical data for waste incineration background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    UK: In life cycle assessment (LCA) the environmental impacts from a product are assessed throughout the entire life-cycle of the product, i.e. from the extraction of the raw materials from which the product is made through manufacture and use of the product to the final disposal of the product...... and possible recycling hereof. The assessment is based on an inventory of inputs and outputs (resource/material consumption and generation of energy and emissions) for all the processes that occur as part of the product life-cycle. A model is developed to estimate the inputs and outputs associated...... with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...

  7. Technical data for waste incineration - background for modelling of product-specific emissions in a life cycle assessment context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    In life cycle assessment (LCA) the environmental impacts from a product are assessed throughout the entire life-cycle of the product, i.e. from the extraction of the raw materials from which the product is made through manufacture and use of the product to the final disposal of the product...... and possible recycling hereof. The assessment is based on an inventory of inputs and outputs (resource/material consumption and generation of energy and emissions) for all the processes that occur as part of the product life-cycle. A model is developed to estimate the inputs and outputs associated...... with the disposal of a product through waste incineration. Based on knowledge of the material composition of the product and the technology applied in the waste incineration plant, the model estimates input of energy and auxiliary materials required for the incineration of the product and generation of energy...

  8. Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2011-10-01

    As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard.

  9. Environmental impacts and resource losses of incinerating misplaced household special wastes (WEEE, batteries, ink cartridges and cables)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Damgaard, Anders; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    the misplaced special waste is only 0.5% of residual household waste, it constitutes in the residual household waste the most significant fraction with respect to metal content when iron and aluminum are excluded. By extending the boundary of the LCA beyond the traditional “zero burden boundary”, we were able......The contribution of misplaced special waste (sWEEE, lamps, CRT, batteries, ink cartridges and cables) to environmental impacts from incineration of residual household waste was quantified through life cycle assessment (LCA)-modelling. Misplaced special waste was quantified to constitute less than 1...... and batteries. However as shown by sensitivity analysis, lack of good data on the transfer of rare and hazardous metals to the flue gas in the incineration process should receive further investigation before the environmental impacts from misplaced incinerated special waste can fully be concluded upon. Although...

  10. Production of materials with alumina and ashes from incineration of chromium tanned leather shavings: environmental and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basegio, T; Haas, C; Pokorny, A; Bernardes, A M; Bergmann, C P

    2006-09-21

    The leather tannery industry produces a significant amount of solid and hazardous wastes. Chromium-containing wastes like tanned shavings used to be incinerated in order to recover energy. The incineration process generates ashes that must be disposed of. This paper is a report on the results of the evaluation of technological properties and environmental compatibility of products made of alumina and ashes from incinerated chrome tanned shavings. The raw materials, tannery ashes and alumina were mixed together in different proportions. The ceramic bodies were molded using a hydraulic press and fired with a heating rate of 100 K/h until 1400 degrees C for 4 h in a muffle furnace. The ceramic specimens were characterized regarding physical, mechanical and thermal properties. Leaching tests, according to Brazilian, German and Dutch regulations, were performed on ceramic bodies containing different additions of ash. Results show that the ceramic materials produced are acceptable for refractory applications.

  11. Size-resolved culturable airborne bacteria sampled in rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incineration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yongju; Park, Jiyeon; Lim, Sung-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil; Kim, Daesung; Park, Kihong

    2010-08-01

    Size-resolved bacterial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols sampled by using a six stage viable impactor at rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incinerator sites were determined. Culture-based and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were used to identify the airborne bacteria. The culturable bacteria concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) was found to be the highest (848 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/m(3)) at the sanitary landfill sampling site, while the rice field sampling site has the lowest (125 CFU/m(3)). The closed landfill would be the main source of the observed bacteria concentration at the sanitary landfill. The rice field sampling site was fully covered by rice grain with wetted conditions before harvest and had no significant contribution to the airborne bacteria concentration. This might occur because the dry conditions favor suspension of soil particles and this area had limited personnel and vehicle flow. The respirable fraction calculated by particles less than 3.3 mum was highest (26%) at the sanitary landfill sampling site followed by waste incinerator (19%) and rice field (10%), which showed a lower level of respiratory fraction compared to previous literature values. We identified 58 species in 23 genera of culturable bacteria, and the Microbacterium, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus were the most abundant genera at the sanitary landfill, waste incinerator, and rice field sites, respectively. An antibiotic resistant test for the above bacteria (Micrococcus sp., Microbacterium sp., and Staphylococcus sp.) showed that the Staphylococcus sp. had the strongest resistance to both antibiotics (25.0% resistance for 32 microg ml(-1) of Chloramphenicol and 62.5% resistance for 4 microg ml(-1) of Gentamicin).

  12. Life cycle assessment of waste incineration in Denmark and Italy using two LCA models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turconi, Roberto; Butera, Stefania; Boldrin, Alessio; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    In Europe, about 20% of municipal solid waste is incinerated. Large differences can be found between northern and southern Europe regarding energy recovery efficiencies, flue gas cleaning technologies and residue management. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) of waste incineration often provides contradictory results if these local conditions are not properly accounted for. The importance of regional differences and site-specific data, and choice of LCA model itself, was evaluated by assessment of two waste incinerators representing northern and southern Europe (Denmark and Italy) based on two different LCA models (SimaPro and EASEWASTE). The results showed that assumptions and modelling approaches regarding energy recovery/substitution and direct air emissions were most critical. Differences in model design and model databases mainly had consequences for the toxicity-related impact categories. The overall environmental performance of the Danish system was better than the Italian, mainly because of higher heat recovery at the Danish plant. Flue gas cleaning at the Italian plant was, however, preferable to the Danish, indicating that efficient flue gas cleaning may provide significant benefits. Differences in waste composition between the two countries mainly affected global warming and human toxicity via water. Overall, SimaPro and EASEWASTE provided consistent ranking of the individual scenarios. However, important differences in results from the two models were related to differences in the databases and modelling approaches, in particular the possibility for modelling of waste-specific emissions affected the toxicity-related impact categories. The results clearly showed that the use of site-specific data was essential for the results.

  13. Characteristics of residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung; Lateef, Shaik Khaja; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2010-10-15

    Although heavy metals in bottom ash have been a primary issue in resource recovery of municipal solid waste incinerator residues in past decades, less studied are potentially toxic and odorous organic fractions that exist as they have not been completely oxidized during the mass burn process. Using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and soxtec extraction (SE) techniques, this study investigated the characteristics of un-oxidized organic residues contained in bottom ash from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan during 2008-2009. All together 99 organics were identified in bottom ash samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the identified organics, aromatic compounds were most frequently detected. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted by SFE or SE. Several phthalates (e.g., phthalic acid isobutyl tridec-2-yn-1-yl ester, dibutyl phthalate and 2-butoxyethyl butyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate), organic phosphates (e.g., octicizer and phosphoric acid isodecyl diphenyl ester), and aromatics and amines including pyridine, quinoline derivatives, chloro- and cyano-organics were successfully extracted. Aromatic amines (e.g., 1-nitro-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid diethylamide and 3-bromo-N-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl)-propanamide) and aromatic compounds (other than amines) (e.g., 7-chloro-4-methoxy-3-methylquinoline and 2,3-dihydro-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl indole-2-one) are probably the major odorous compounds in bottom ash. This work identifies organic pollutants in incinerated bottom ash that have received far less attention than their heavy metals counterpart.

  14. Study on drying and combustion process in grate-CFB incinerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The drying and combustion process in the combined grate and circulating fluidized bed(grate-CFB) municipal solid waste(MSW) incinerator was investigated experimentally and mathematically.The drying grate bed was simulated by a muffle furnace,which could be controlled at a constant tempera-ture level.The kind of wastes,thickness of waste layer fed and temperature were chosen as the ad-justable parameters to study their effect on the drying process.The experimental results indicated that the hydrophilic wastes were more difficult to be dried than the hydrophobic wastes.The higher the temperature is the easier the waste is to be dried.The thinner waste layer is favorable to drying the waste.The pyrolysis experiment in the furnace showed that the higher temperature level could reduce the conversion rate of carbon to carbon monoxide.The semi-empirical mathematical model that in-cluded the bed material distribution submodel,volatile matter release submodel,carbon particle combustion submodel and so on was proposed.A 260 t/d grate-CFB incinerator was modeled and the model predicted bulk density agreed with the measured value from industrial field test.The predicted flue gas(e.g.CO2,CO) concentration deviated slightly from the industrial test data.The parameters and variables used in the model were determined by the experiments or practical field test.This model can be used to design the grate-CFB incinerator and guide its operation.

  15. Mercury speciation and emission from municipal solid waste incinerators in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Ming; Fan, Ruifang; Ma, Shexia; Xu, Zhencheng; Ren, Mingzhong; He, Qiusheng

    2013-03-01

    The potential for Hg release during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is attracting increased attention due to high volume of municipal waste being treated by incineration in China. Emission amounts have been estimated using emission factors developed for other countries. To fine tune our emission estimate total mercury (THg) and mercury speciation were measured using isokinetic sampling in eight plants, of which six used grate furnace combustor (GFC) and two circulation fluidized bed combustors (CFBCs). Results showed that average THg concentration (19.5 ± 13.6 μg/Nm) in flue gas at the facilities that used CFBC was significantly lower than that at those using GFC (51.4 ± 28.3 μg/Nm, p=0.002). Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, Hg), and particulate mercury (Hg) represented 95.5 ± 3.8%, 4.1 ± 3.9% and 0.4 ± 0.3% in GFC, and 63.8 ± 8.6%, 33.6 ± 10.5% and 2.6 ± 1.9% in CFBC, respectively. The measured average THg emission factor for the 8 MSWI plants was 208 ± 130 mg/t in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, with 217 ± 158 mg/t and 188 ± 17.7 mg/t were from GFC and CFBC, respectively. Using the average emission factor the estimated total mercury emissions from MSWI were 4.67 ± 2.91 t in China, and 770 ± 65.5 kg in the PRD region in 2010. Of these, 4240 ± 210 kg, 408 ± 231 kg and 14.8 ± 14.1 kg, and 688 ± 37 kg, 78.9 ± 40.6 kg and 3.2 ± 3.0 kg were GOM, Hg, and Hg, respectively. Mercury emissions will continue to increase as the amounts of MSW being incinerated increases.

  16. [Influence of ammonia on leaching behaviors of incineration fly ash and its geochemical modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, De-Zhen; Thomas, Astrup

    2013-06-01

    Incineration fly ash could be contaminated with NH3 that was slipped from the ammonia-based selective non-catalytic reduction(SNCR) process and from evaporation of municipal solid wastes' leachate involved in the wastes. This research was conducted to investigate the impacts of ammonia on leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals from incineration fly ash in the pH range of 3.66-12.44 with an active ammonia spike. A geochemical modeling software Visual MINTEQ was adopted to calculate the chemical speciation of metals under the leaching conditions to reveal the mechanism behind the impacts. It was proved that at pH > 9, the leaching of DOC increased significantly in the presence of high concentrations of ammonia (> or = 1 357 mg x L(-1)), but there was little effect when the ammonia level in eluates was not higher than 537 mg x L(-1). At pH or = 3 253 mg x L(-1)) mobilized Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn significantly due to the formation of soluble metal-ammonia complexes, and the leaching rates reached their peaks at pH around 9; however, ammonia had little impacts on Al and Pb leaching within this pH range. At pH > 12, for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn, their leaching species were predominantly in the form of hydroxide complexes. Under the ammonia concentration of 3253 mg x L(-1), the Visual MINTEQ modeling results were compared with the experimental data, and it was proved that the leaching of Al, Pb and Zn was mainly controlled by precipitation/dissolution modeling, while Cd, Cu and Ni were controlled by precipitation/dissolution and surface complexation/precipitation processes; Visual MINTEQ modeling could well describe the leaching behaviors of Al, Cu, Pb and Zn from incineration fly ash.

  17. Chemical properties of heavy metals in typical hospital waste incinerator ashes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Wang, Kaisheng; Zhu, Jianxin

    2009-03-01

    Incineration has become the main mechanism for hospital waste (HW) disposal in China after the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003. However, little information is available on the chemical properties of the resulting ashes. In the present study, 22HW ash samples, including 14 samples of bottom ash and eight samples of fly ash, were collected from four typical HW incineration plants located across China. Chemical analysis indicated that the HW ashes contained large amounts of metal salts of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na with a concentration range of 1.8-315gkg(-1). Furthermore, the ashes contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, Sb, Sn, Sr, Zn with a vast range of 1.1-121,411mgkg(-1), with higher concentrations found in the fly ash samples. Sequential extraction results showed that Ba, Cr, Ni and Sn are present in the residual fraction, while Cd existed in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. As, Mn, Zn existed in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, Pb was present in the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions, and Cu was present in the organic matter fraction. Furthermore, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that leached amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb from almost all fly ash samples exceeded the USEPA regulated levels. A comparison between the HW ashes and municipal solid waste (MSW) ash showed that both HW bottom ash and fly ash contained higher concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ti, and Zn. This research provides critical information for appropriate HW incineration ash management plans.

  18. Thermal destruction of wastes containing polychlorinated naphthalenes in an industrial waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Noma, Yukio; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-02

    A series of verification tests were carried out in order to confirm that polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) contained in synthetic rubber products (Neoprene FB products) and aerosol adhesives, which were accidentally imported into Japan, could be thermally destroyed using an industrial waste incinerator. In the verification tests, Neoprene FB products containing PCNs at a concentration of 2800 mg/kg were added to industrial wastes at a ratio of 600 mg Neoprene FB product/kg-waste, and then incinerated at an average temperature of 985 °C. Total PCN concentrations were 14 ng/m(3)N in stack gas, 5.7 ng/g in bottom ash, 0.98 ng/g in boiler dust, and 1.2 ng/g in fly ash. Destruction efficiency (DE) and destruction removal efficiency (DRE) of congener No. 38/40, which is considered an input marker congener, were 99.9974 and 99.9995 %, respectively. The following dioxin concentrations were found: 0.11 ng-TEQ/m(3)N for the stack gas, 0.096 ng-TEQ/g for the bottom ash, 0.010 ng-TEQ/g for the boiler dust, and 0.072 ng-TEQ/g for the fly ash. Since the PCN levels in the PCN destruction test were even at slightly lower concentrations than in the baseline test without PCN addition, the detected PCNs are to a large degree unintentionally produced PCNs and does not mainly stem from input material. Also, the dioxin levels did not change. From these results, we confirmed that PCNs contained in Neoprene FB products and aerosol adhesives could be destroyed to a high degree by high-temperature incineration. Therefore, all recalled Neoprene FB products and aerosol adhesives containing PCNs were successfully treated under the same conditions as the verification tests.

  19. Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Thomas; Møller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2009-11-01

    Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N(2)O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and solid residues generated. GHG contributions were categorized with respect to direct emissions from the combustion plant as well as indirect upstream contributions (e.g. provision of fuels and materials) and indirect downstream contributions (e.g. substitution of electricity and heat produced elsewhere). GHG accounting was done per tonne of waste received at the plant. The content of fossil carbon in the input waste, for example as plastic, was found to be critical for the overall level of the GHG emissions, but also the energy conversion efficiencies were essential. The emission factors for electricity provision (also substituted electricity) affected the indirect downstream emissions with a factor of 3-9 depending on the type of electricity generation assumed. Provision of auxiliary fuels, materials and resources corresponded to up to 40% of the direct emission from the plants (which were 347-371 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of waste for incineration and 735-803 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) of waste for co-combustion). Indirect downstream savings were within the range of -480 to -1373 kg CO(2)eq. tonne(-1) of waste for incineration and within -181 to -2607 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) of waste for co-combustion. N(2)O emissions and residue management did not appear to play significant roles.

  20. Testing cleanable/reuseable HEPA prefilters for mixed waste incinerator air pollution control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.B.; Wong, A.; Walker, B.W.; Paul, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at the US DOE Savannah River Site is undergoing preoperational testing. The CIF is designed to treat solid and liquid RCRA hazardous and mixed wastes from site operations and clean-up activities. The technologies selected for use in the air pollution control system (APCS) were based on reviews of existing incinerators, air pollution control experience, and recommendations from consultants. This approach resulted in a facility design using experience from other operating hazardous/radioactive incinerators. In order to study the CIF APCS prior to operation, a 1/10 scale pilot facility, the Offgas Components Test Facility (OCTF), was constructed and has been in operation since late 1994. Its mission is to demonstrate the design integrity of the CIF APCS and optimize equipment/instrument performance of the full scale production facility. Operation of the pilot facility has provided long-term performance data of integrated systems and critical facility components. This has reduced facility startup problems and helped ensure compliance with facility performance requirements. Technical support programs assist in assuring all stakeholders the CIF can properly treat combustible hazardous, mixed, and low-level radioactive wastes. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used to remove hazardous and radioactive particulates from the exhaust gas strewn before being released into the atmosphere. The HEPA filter change-out frequency has been a potential issue and was the first technical issue to be studied at the OCTF. Tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of HEPA filters under different operating conditions. These tests included evaluating the impact on HEPA life of scrubber operating parameters and the type of HEPA prefilter used. This pilot-scale testing demonstrated satisfactory HEPA filter life when using cleanable metal prefilters and high flows of steam and water in the offgas scrubber. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Development of the Heat-Recovery Incinerator Feasibility (HRIFEAS) Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Kenneth Griggs. Dr. David Joncich is Division Chief, CECER- FE, and Dr. Michael O’Connor is Laboratory Chief, CECER-FL. The USACERL technical editor was...evaluation per start of HRIFEAS. The LCCID 6 K.E. Griggs, G.A. Chamberlin, R.A. Ducey , and G.W. Schanche, Characteristics oJIncinerators With Iteat Recovery...Griggs, K.E., G.A. Chamberlin, R.A. Ducey , and G.W. Schanche, Characteristics of Incinerators With Ileat Recovery Capability, Technical Report (TR) E-88

  2. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  3. LCA of management strategies for RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash based on experimental leaching data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gianfilippo, Martina; Costa, Giulia; Pantini, Sara; Allegrini, Elisa; Lombardi, Francesco; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    The main characteristics and environmental properties of the bottom ash (BA) generated from thermal treatment of waste may vary significantly depending on the type of waste and thermal technology employed. Thus, to ensure that the strategies selected for the management of these residues do not cause adverse environmental impacts, the specific properties of BA, in particular its leaching behavior, should be taken into account. This study focuses on the evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with two different management options for BA from thermal treatment of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF): landfilling and recycling as a filler for road sub bases. Two types of thermal treatment were considered: incineration and gasification. Potential environmental impacts were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASETECH model. Both non-toxicity related impact categories (i.e. global warming and mineral abiotic resource depletion) and toxic impact categories (i.e. human toxicity and ecotoxicity) were assessed. The system boundaries included BA transport from the incineration/gasification plants to the landfills and road construction sites, leaching of potentially toxic metals from the BA, the avoided extraction, crushing, transport and leaching of virgin raw materials for the road scenarios, and material and energy consumption for the construction of the landfills. To provide a quantitative assessment of the leaching properties of the two types of BA, experimental leaching data were used to estimate the potential release from each of the two types of residues. Specific attention was placed on the sensitivity of leaching properties and the determination of emissions by leaching, including: leaching data selection, material properties and assumptions related to emission modeling. The LCA results showed that for both types of BA, landfilling was associated with the highest environmental impacts in the non-toxicity related categories. For the toxicity

  4. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions and nitrous oxide isotopic composition from waste incineration in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Zeyer, Kerstin; Kegel, Rainer; Müller, Beat; Emmenegger, Lukas; Mohn, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste incineration accounts for a growing proportion of waste disposal in both developed and developing countries, therefore it is important to constrain emissions of greenhouse gases from these facilities. At five Swiss waste incineration facilities with grate firing, emission factors for N2O and CH4 were determined based on measurements of representative flue gas samples, which were collected in Tedlar bags over a one year period (September 2010-August 2011) and analysed with FTIR spectroscopy. All five plants burn a mixture of household and industrial waste, and two of the plants employ NOx removal through selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) while three plants use selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx removal. N2O emissions from incineration plants with NOx removal through selective catalytic reduction were 4.3 ± 4.0g N2O tonne(-1) waste (wet) (hereafter abbreviated as t(-1)) (0.4 ± 0.4 g N2O GJ(-1)), ten times lower than from plants with selective non-catalytic reduction (51.5 ± 10.6g N2O t(-1); 4.5 ± 0.9g N2O GJ(-1)). These emission factors, which are much lower than the value of 120g N2O t(-1) (10.4g N2O GJ(-1)) used in the 2013 Swiss national greenhouse gas emission inventory, have been implemented in the most recent Swiss emission inventory. In addition, the isotopic composition of N2O emitted from the two plants with SNCR, which had considerable N2O emissions, was measured using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy. The isotopic site preference of N2O - the enrichment of (14)N(15)NO relative to (15)N(14)NO - was found to be 17.6 ± 0.8‰, with no significant difference between the two plants. Comparison to previous studies suggests SP of 17-19‰ may be characteristic for N2O produced from SNCR. Methane emissions were found to be insignificant, with a maximum emission factor of 2.5 ± 5.6g CH4 t(-1) (0.2 ± 0.5g CH4 GJ(-1)), which is expected due to high incinerator temperatures and efficient combustion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Problematic Incinerator Ash: A Case Study of Finding a Successful Treatment Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Gering

    1999-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) produces incinerator flyash and bottom ash as a consequence of burning low-level radioactive waste materials at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF). The incineration process greatly reduces original waste volumes but concentrates the metals that are present, such as toxic metals (most notably cadmium, lead, and antimony) and nuisance metals (e.g., zinc). Anion species also become predominant in flyash produced by INEEL incineration, where chloride and sulfate are at concentrations that can approach 15-20 wt% each. In addition, treatment of the WERF flyash is further complicated by a significant fraction of ignitables composed of carbon soot and various hydrocarbon species that have been measured in some cases at 30% net by Loss-on-Ignition tests. Bottom ash produced at the WERF site is generally much less toxic, if not nontoxic, as compared to the flyash. Due to the complex composition of the flyash material, stabilization attempts at the INEEL have been only partly successful, causing the effectiveness and viability of treatment methods to be revisited. Breakthroughs in flyash stabilization came in 1998 when more complete characterization data gave us further insight into the chemical and physical nature of the flyash. These breakthroughs were also facilitated by the use of a computer model for electrolytes that allowed us to simulate stabilization options prior to started laboratory studies. This paper summarizes efforts at the INEEL, spanning the past three years, that have focused on stabilizing flyash. A brief history of INEEL treatability studies is given, showing that the degree of effective flyash stabilization was proportional to the amount of meaningful characterization data that was available. Various binders have been used in these treatability studies, including Portland cement type I/II, Portland cement type V, JGC Super Cement (blast furnace slag cement), a Fluid Tech

  6. Stabilization of high and low solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) waste with super cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B.W.

    2000-01-11

    This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies with the High and Low Solid waste streams. Ceramicrete and Super Cement technologies were chosen as the best possible replacement solidification candidates for the waste streams generated by the SRS incinerator from a list of several suggested Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies. These technologies were tested, evaluated, and compared to the current Portland cement technology being employed. Recommendation of a technology for replacement depends on waste form performance, process flexibility, process complexity, and cost of equipment and/or raw materials.

  7. Combustion aerosols from municipal waste incineration - Effect of fuel feedstock and plant operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, J.H.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Hansen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    ( NaCl), batteries, and automotive shredder waste. Also, runs with different changes in the operational conditions of the incinerator were made. Mass- based particle size distributions were measured using a cascade impactor and the number- based size distributions were measured using a Scanning......). The mass- based particle size distribution was bimodal with a fine mode peak around 0.4 mm and a coarse mode peak around 100 mu m. The addition of NaCl, shredder waste, and impregnated wood increased the mass concentration of fine particles ( aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 mu m). In general the mass...

  8. Plasma-fuel systems for environment and economy indexes of pulverized coal incineration and gasification improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Karpenko; V. Messerle; A. Ustimenko [United Power System of Russia, Gusinoozersk (Russian Federation). Branch Centre of Plasma-Power Technologies of Russian J.S.Co.

    2003-07-01

    Coal is one of the main energy resources. To improve efficiency of coal incineration new plasma-energy technologies are developing. Steam-productivity 75t/h 670t/h boilers were tested for their starting up by plasma ignition of pulverized coal and flame stabilization. Laboratory (coal consumption to 20kg/h) and pilot (coal consumption 300kg/h and 32000kg/h) plasma gasification experiments are given. Plasma air and steam gasification of coal with its mineral mass utilization is studied. 8 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Manuel F; Xará, Susana M; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1h at 1273K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  10. Cleaner phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes for application in building materials: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Reijnders [University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    Application of phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes in building materials has been limited by the presence of minor components that are hazardous, such as radioactive substances, chlorinated dioxins and heavy metals, or have a negative impact on product quality or production economics, such as phosphate, fluoride, carbon and chloride. Source reduction, destruction of persistent organics and separation techniques may reduce the concentrations of such components. With a few exceptions, separation techniques currently lead to significantly higher (private) costs. Higher waste disposal costs, tighter regulations and higher prices for competing virgin minerals could make the use of the purified phosphogypsum and ashes in building materials more attractive.

  11. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (<10(-6)) both for children and workers. Exposure to ash increased workers' cancer risks and children's noncancer risks. Given the risk estimate is complex including toxicity/bioaccessibility of metals, the ways of exposure, and many uncertainties, further researches are required before any definite decisions on mitigating health risks caused by exposure to EDR incinerated ash are made.

  12. Relationship between distance of schools from the nearest municipal waste incineration plant and child health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Yura, A; Misaki, H; Ikeda, Y; Usui, T; Iki, M; Shimizu, T

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, the main source of dioxins is incinerators. This study examined the relationship between the distance of schools from municipal waste incineration plants and the prevalence of allergic disorders and general symptoms in Japanese children. Study subjects were 450,807 elementary school children aged 6-12 years who attended 996 public elementary schools in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. Parents of school children completed a questionnaire that included items about illnesses and symptoms in the study child. Distance of each of the public elementary schools from all of the 37 municipal waste incineration plants in Osaka Prefecture was measured using geographical information systems packages. Adjustment was made for grade, socioeconomic status and access to health care per municipality. Decreases in the distance of schools from the nearest municipal waste incineration plant were independently associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for shortest vs. longest distance categories =1.08 [1.01-1.15], 1.05 [1.00-1.11], 1.06 [1.01-1.11], and 1.12 [1.08-1.17], respectively). A positive association with fatigue was pronounced in schools within 4 km of the second nearest municipal waste incineration plant. There was no evident relationship between the distance of schools from such a plant and the prevalence of atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis. The findings suggest that proximity of schools to municipal waste incineration plants may be associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue in Japanese children.

  13. Risk of cancer in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators: importance of using a flexible modelling strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goria Sarah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted an ecological study in four French administrative departments and highlighted an excess risk in cancer morbidity for residents around municipal solid waste incinerators. The aim of this paper is to show how important are advanced tools and statistical techniques to better assess weak associations between the risk of cancer and past environmental exposures. Methods The steps to evaluate the association between the risk of cancer and the exposure to incinerators, from the assessment of exposure to the definition of the confounding variables and the statistical analysis carried out are detailed and discussed. Dispersion modelling was used to assess exposure to sixteen incinerators. A geographical information system was developed to define an index of exposure at the IRIS level that is the geographical unit we considered. Population density, rural/urban status, socio-economic deprivation, exposure to air pollution from traffic and from other industries were considered as potential confounding factors and defined at the IRIS level. Generalized additive models and Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate the association between the risk of cancer and the index of exposure to incinerators accounting for the confounding factors. Results Modelling to assess the exposure to municipal solid waste incinerators allowed accounting for factors known to influence the exposure (meteorological data, point source characteristics, topography. The statistical models defined allowed modelling extra-Poisson variability and also non-linear relationships between the risk of cancer and the exposure to incinerators and the confounders. Conclusion In most epidemiological studies distance is still used as a proxy for exposure. This can lead to significant exposure misclassification. Additionally, in geographical correlation studies the non-linear relationships are usually not accounted for in the statistical analysis. In studies of

  14. Mechanisms contributing to the thermal analysis of waste incineration bottom ash and quantification of different carbon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Stefania; van Zomeren, André; Costa, Giulia; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J; Lombardi, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The focus of this study was to identify the main compounds affecting the weight changes of bottom ash (BA) in conventional loss on ignition (LOI) tests and to obtain a better understanding of the individual processes in heterogeneous (waste) materials such as BA. Evaluations were performed on BA samples from a refuse derived fuel incineration (RDF-I) plant and a hospital waste incineration (HW-I) plant using thermogravimetric analysis and subsequent mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products. Results of TG-MS analysis on RDF-I BA indicated that the LOI measured at 550°C was due to moisture evaporation and dehydration of Ca(OH)(2) and hydrocalumite. Results for the HW-I BA showed that LOI at 550°C was predominantly related to the elemental carbon (EC) content of the sample. Decomposition of CaCO(3) around 700°C was identified in both materials. In addition, we have identified reaction mechanisms that underestimate the EC and overestimate the CaCO(3) contents of the HW-I BA during TG-MS analyses. These types of artefacts are expected to occur also when conventional LOI methods are adopted, in particular for materials that contain CaO/Ca(OH)(2) in combination with EC and/or organic carbon, such as e.g. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom and fly ashes. We suggest that the same mechanisms that we have found (i.e. in situ carbonation) can also occur during combustion of the waste in the incinerator (between 450 and 650°C) demonstrating that the presence of carbonate in bottom ash is not necessarily indicative for weathering. These results may also give direction to further optimization of waste incineration technologies with regard to stimulating in situ carbonation during incineration and subsequent potential improvement of the leaching behavior of bottom ash.

  15. Changes imposed by pyrolysis, thermal gasification and incineration on composition and phosphorus fertilizer quality of municipal sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias Pape; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Fertilizer quality of ash and char from incineration, gasification and pyrolysis of a single municipal sewage sludge sample were investigated by comparing composition and phosphorus (P) plant availability. A process for post oxidation of gasification ash and pyrolysis char was developed......-oxidized slow pyrolysis char was found to be the substrate with the highest P fertilizer value while ash from commercial fluid bed sludge incineration had the lowest P fertilizer quality. The high P fertilizer value in the best substrate is suggested to be a function of several different mechanisms including...

  16. 浅谈危废物焚烧线控制系统%Dangerous waste incineration line control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小新; 陈其伟; 陈光湘

    2011-01-01

    This paper dangerous waste incineration line control system is discussed, the development of the main structure, burn line condition and function as well as the electric wire european-standard hazardous waste incineration, meter, DCS system, monitoring,process simulation screen is introduced in this paper.%本文对危废物焚烧线控制系统的研制进行了阐述,对焚烧线的主体结构、工况与功能以及危废焚烧线的电气、仪表、DCS系统、监控、工艺模拟屏作了介绍.

  17. Pollutant emission characteristics of rice husk combustion in a vortexing fluidized bed incinerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Duan; Chiensong Chyang; Yucheng Chin; Jim Tso

    2013-01-01

    Rice husk with high volatile content was burned in a pilot scale vortexing fiuidized bed incinerator.The fluidized bed incinerator was constructed of 6 mm stainless steel with 0.45 m in diameter and 5 m in height.The emission characteristics of CO,NO,and SO2 were studied.The effects of operating parameters,such as primary air flow rate,secondary air flow rate,and excess air ratio on the pollutant emissions were also investigated.The results show that a large proportion of combustion occurs at the bed surface and the freeboard zone.The SO2 concentration in the flue gas decreases with increasing excess air ratio,while the NOx concentration shows reverse trend.The flow rate of secondary air has a significant impact on the CO emission.For a fixed primary air flowrate,CO emission decreases with the secondary air flowrate.For a fixed excess air ratio,CO emission decreases with the ratio of secondary to primary air flow.The minimum CO emission of 72 ppm is attained at the operating condition of 40% excess air ratio and 0.6 partition air ratio.The NOx and SO2 concentrations in the flue gas at this condition are 159 and 36 ppm,which conform to the EPA regulation of Taiwan.

  18. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-05

    This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future.

  19. A critical review of economic valuation studies of externalities from incineration and landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshet, Tzipi; Ayalon, Ofira; Shechter, Mordechai

    2005-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assist waste management researchers, decision-makers and waste managers at national, regional and local levels, in their decision-making processes, with most recent valuations on the environmental and social costs of externalities associated with various pollutants and disamenities related to landfilling and incineration of municipal solid waste. The aim was achieved by mapping, gathering, analysing, comparing and synthesizing various valuation estimates, based on a thorough review of existing literature. This study provides the first comprehensive review and analysis focused on primary and secondary valuation studies, conducted since 1990. The second objective was to assess the appropriateness and reliability of the valuation methods and techniques that were performed in the reviewed studies. The results of the review are summarized in tables, organized by topics and units of measure and in addition a classified list that describes the profile of the reviewed studies is provided. The results are then analysed and compared, and recommended ranges of the values are presented. The study reveals inconsistency in part of the estimates across the reviewed studies and provides reasonable explanations for the variations. Given the nature of uncertainty, and the difficulties associated with transferring values among different places and cases, these values should be considered mostly as an indication for the order of magnitude of the externalities. Nevertheless, these essential estimates of the external costs can beneficially be used with proper adjustment for each individual case to address important policy questions regarding landfilling and incineration of waste.

  20. Innovative treatment trains of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Olaf; Simon, Franz-Georg

    2017-01-01

    The industrial sector of bottom ash (BA) treatment from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in Germany is currently changing. In order to increase the recovery rates of metals or to achieve a higher quality of mineral aggregates derived from BA, new procedures have been either implemented to existing plants or completely new treatment plants have been built recently. Three treatment trains, which are designated as entire sequences of selected processing techniques of BA, are introduced and compared. One treatment train is mainly characterized by usage of a high speed rotation accelerator whereas another is operating completely without crushing. In the third treatment train the BA is processed wet directly after incineration. The consequences for recovered metal fractions and the constitution of remaining mineral aggregates are discussed in the context of legislative and economical frameworks. Today the recycling or disposal options of mineral residues still have a high influence on the configuration and the operation mode of the treatment trains of BA despite of the high value of recovered metals.

  1. Study of air pollution in the proximity of a waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy – University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Calzolai, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy – University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Chiari, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lucarelli, F., E-mail: lucarelli@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy – University of Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Nava, S.; Giannoni, M. [National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) – Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Becagli, S.; Frosini, D. [Department of Chemistry – University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Montale is a small town in Tuscany characterised by high PM10 levels. Close to the town there is a waste incinerator plant. There are many concerns in the population and in the press about the causes of the high levels of pollution in this area. Daily PM10 samples were collected for 1 year by the FAI Hydra Dual sampler and analysed by different techniques in order to obtain a complete chemical speciation (elements by PIXE and ICP-MS, ions by Ion Chromatography, elemental and organic carbon by a thermo-optical instrument); hourly fine (<2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5–10 μm) PM samples were collected for shorter periods by the Streaker sampler and hourly elemental concentrations were obtained by PIXE analysis. Positive Matrix Factorization identified and quantified the major aerosol sources. Biomass burning turned out to be the most important source with an average percentage contribution to PM10 of 27% of and even higher percentages during the winter period when there are the highest PM10 concentrations. The contribution of the incinerator source has been estimated as about 6% of PM10.

  2. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.

  3. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Nazaré; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille E; Højrup, Mads; Rodrigo, Ana P; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2014-05-01

    A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs. Individual and synergistic effects of biostimulation were also tested, in parallel. An interim evaluation at the end of the first 42 days showed that biostimulation and active heating, as separate treatments, enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) removal compared to natural attenuation. The coupling of both technologies was even more effective, corroborating the benefits of both techniques in a remediation strategy. However, between day 42 and day 168, there was an opposite remediation trend with all treatments suggesting a stabilization except for natural attenuation, where PHC values continued to decrease. This enforces the "self-purification" capacity of the system, even at low temperatures. Coupling biostimulation with active heating was the best approach for PHC removal, namely for a short period of time (42 days). The proposed remediation scheme can be considered a reliable option for faster PHC removal with low maintenance and using "waste heating" from an incineration facility.

  4. Comparison of phosphorus recovery from incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysed sewage sludge char (PSSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Rosanna; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Clift, Roland; Morse, Stephen; Pearce, Pete; Saroj, Devendra

    2017-02-01

    This research compares and contrasts the physical and chemical characteristics of incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and pyrolysis sewage sludge char (PSSC) for the purposes of recovering phosphorus as a P-rich fertiliser. Interest in P recovery from PSSC is likely to increase as pyrolysis is becoming viewed as a more economical method of sewage sludge thermal treatment compared to incineration. The P contents of ISSA and PSSC are 7.2-7.5% and 5.6%, respectively. Relative to the sludge, P concentrations are increased about 8-fold in ISSA, compared to roughly 3-fold in PSSC. Both PSSC and ISSA contain whitlockite, an unusual form of calcium phosphate, with PSSC containing more whitlockite than ISSA. Acid leaching experiments indicate that a liquid/solid ratio of 10 with 30min contact time is optimal to release PO4-P into leachate for both ISSA and PSSC. The proportion of P extracted from PSSC is higher due to its higher whitlockite content. Heavy metals are less soluble from PSSC because they are more strongly incorporated in the particles. The results suggest there is potential for the development of a process to recover P from PSSC.

  5. Municipal solid wastes incineration with combined cycle: a case study from Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Balcazar, Juan Galvarino; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: pos09007@feg.unesp.br, rubdias@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Large urban centers have a huge demand for electricity, for the needs of its residents, and a growing problem of management of solid waste generated by it, that becomes an public administrative and great social problem. The correct disposal of solid waste generated by large urban centers is now one of the most complex engineering problems involving logistics, safety, environment, energy spent among other tools for sound management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This study was carried out a study of the use of incinerators and residue derived fuel and MSW with combined cycles, with the aim of producing thermal and mechanical energy (this later becomes electrical energy) and solid waste treatment in Sao Paulo. We used existing models and real plants in the European Union in this case, with the aim of making it the most viable and compatible with the current context of energy planning and resource today. A technical and economic feasibility study for a plant of this nature, using the scheme, is presented. It is expected a good attractiveness of using incinerators combined-cycle, due to its high efficiency and its ability to thermoelectric generation. (author)

  6. Thermal behaviors and heavy metal vaporization of phosphatized tannery sludge in incineration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ping; ZHAO Youcai; XIA Fengyi

    2008-01-01

    The high concentration of heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb) in tannery sludge causes severe heavy metal emissions in the process of incineration. In the present investigation, the tannery sludge was treated with 85% phosphoric acid before the incineration process in the tube furnace to control the heavy metal emissions. The thermal behavior and heavy metal vaporization of pre-treated tannery sludge were investigated, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were also implemented to elucidate the chemical mechanisms responsible for the thermal behavior and weakening of heavy metal vaporization of pre-treated tannery sludge. The results obtained show that the differences in thermal behaviors between untreated and pre-treated tannery sludge are caused by the reaction of phosphoric acid and calcium carbonate. The vaporization percentage of heavy metal decreased efficiently with the increasing volumes of H3PO4, which indicated the important thermal stability of the water-insoluble metallic phosphates (Ca18Cu3(PO4)14 Ca9Cr(PO4)7 Ca19Zn2(PO4)14, PbMgP2O7) formed during tannery sludge phosphatation.

  7. Characterization of bottom ash from two hospital waste incinerators in Rabat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkali, Meriem E L; Bahri, Meriem; Gmouh, Said; Jaddi, Hassan; Bakkali, Mohammed; Laglaoui, Amin; Mzibri, Mohammed E L

    2013-12-01

    The uncontrolled disposal of bottom ash generated by the incineration units of hazardous and infected wastes in developed countries are the main cause of significant damage, such as contamination of the soil, as well as surface and underground waters, which may put both the environment and public health at risk. In Morocco, little information is available on the chemical properties of the resulting ashes. In this study, 16 hospital waste ash samples were collected from the incinerators of the two main hospitals in Rabat: Ibn Sina and Cheikh Zayd. A series of tests was conducted, including particle size distribution, mineralogical and chemical composition, and heavy metal leaching behaviour. The results showed that the samples were composed mainly of P2O5 (18%), SiO2 (17%), Na2O (16%), CaO (14%) and SO3 (10%). Moreover, chemical analysis clearly demonstrated that medical waste (MW) contains large amounts of waste generated by domestic activities in the hospital, with a lack of sorting system in the monitoring of MW. Furthermore, the ashes contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as zinc, lead, chromium and nickel with a vast range of 0.5-25071 mg/kg. Leaching tests showed that the extracted amounts of all the heavy metals were lower, with concentrations waste acceptance criteria regarding these heavy metals.

  8. Optimisation of water-cannon cleaning for deposit removal on water walls inside waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graube, Franziska; Grahl, Sebastian; Rostkowski, Slawomir; Beckmann, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Deposits in municipal waste incinerators are very inhomogeneous in structure and constitution. They cause corrosion and reduce the efficiency, so they need to be removed frequently. Among other systems, operators use water cannons for the deposit removal. Two different removal mechanisms of water-cannon cleaning are suggested: A direct shattering of the deposit by the impact of the water jet, as well as the cracking caused by thermal stresses where droplets cool the deposits. As the contribution of each of the aforementioned mechanisms to the overall cleaning efficiency is unknown, we performed empirical investigations to determine the dominating effect. In a first experimental setup focusing on thermal stress, cold droplets were applied onto hot deposits taken from a waste incinerator. Results showed that the cleaning effect strongly depends on the deposit thickness and structure, so that the deposits could be categorised in three different groups. A second measurement campaign focused on the influence of deposit material, deposit temperature and water jet momentum. It could be shown that both deposit material and temperature have a significant effect on the cleaning efficiency, whereas an increase in water jet momentum only led to modest improvements. The combination of these two parameter studies implies that the influence of the thermal stress outweighs that of the momentum. This knowledge is applicable to the cleaning setup by increasing the temperature gradient. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Development of fission micro-chambers for nuclear waste incineration studies

    CERN Document Server

    Fadil, M; Christophe, S; Deruelle, O; Fioni, G; Marie, F; Mounier, C; Ridikas, D; Trapp, J P

    2002-01-01

    The Incineration by Accelerator (INCA) project of the Directorate for Science of Matter of the French Atomic Energy Authority (CEA/DSM) aims to outline the ideal physical conditions to transmute minor actinides in a high intensity neutron flux obtained either by hybrid systems or innovative critical reactors. To measure on-line the incineration rates of minor actinides, we are developing an innovative Double Deposit Fission Chamber (DDFC) working in current mode. Our method is based on a comparison between the isotope under study and a reference material whose nuclear parameters are well known, as sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U and sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu. This new fission chamber will be used in the High Flux Reactor in Grenoble/France in a neutron flux of 1.2x10 sup 1 sup 5 n cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 for 50 days, the operating cycle of the reactor. These specific experimental conditions require substantial modifications of the existing chambers. The first experiment will be carried out in fall 2000.

  10. Numerical simulation of municipal solid waste combustion in a novel two-stage reciprocating incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huai, X L; Xu, W L; Qu, Z Y; Li, Z G; Zhang, F P; Xiang, G M; Zhu, S Y; Chen, G

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model was presented in this paper for the combustion of municipal solid waste in a novel two-stage reciprocating grate furnace. Numerical simulations were performed to predict the temperature, the flow and the species distributions in the furnace, with practical operational conditions taken into account. The calculated results agree well with the test data, and the burning behavior of municipal solid waste in the novel two-stage reciprocating incinerator can be demonstrated well. The thickness of waste bed, the initial moisture content, the excessive air coefficient and the secondary air are the major factors that influence the combustion process. If the initial moisture content of waste is high, both the heat value of waste and the temperature inside incinerator are low, and less oxygen is necessary for combustion. The air supply rate and the primary air distribution along the grate should be adjusted according to the initial moisture content of the waste. A reasonable bed thickness and an adequate excessive air coefficient can keep a higher temperature, promote the burnout of combustibles, and consequently reduce the emission of dioxin pollutants. When the total air supply is constant, reducing primary air and introducing secondary air properly can enhance turbulence and mixing, prolong the residence time of flue gas, and promote the complete combustion of combustibles. This study provides an important reference for optimizing the design and operation of municipal solid wastes furnace.

  11. Simulation of mercury capture by activated carbon injection in incinerator flue gas. 2. Fabric filter removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, F

    2001-11-01

    Following a companion paper focused on the in-duct mercury capture in incinerator flue gas by powdered activated carbon injection, this paper is concerned with the additional mercury capture on the fabric filter cake, relevant to baghouse equipped facilities. A detailed model is presented for this process, based on material balances on mercury in both gaseous and adsorbed phases along the growing filter cake and inside the activated carbon particles,taking into account mass transfer resistances and adsorption kinetics. Several sorbents of practical interest have been considered, whose parameters have been evaluated from available literature data. The values and range of the operating variables have been chosen in order to simulate typical incinerators operating conditions. Results of simulations indicate that, contrary to the in-duct removal process, high mercury removal efficiencies can be obtained with moderate sorbent consumption, as a consequence of the effective gas/sorbent contacting on the filter. Satisfactory utilization of the sorbents is predicted, especially at long filtration times. The sorbent feed rate can be minimized by using a reactive sorbent and by lowering the filter temperature as much as possible. Minor benefits can be obtained also by decreasing the sorbent particle size and by increasing the cleaning cycle time of the baghouse compartments. Reverse-flow baghouses were more efficient than pulse-jet baghouses, while smoother operation can be obtained by increasing the number of baghouse compartments. Model results are compared with available relevant full scale data.

  12. Biological monitoring of organic substances in workers of a hazardous waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agramunt, C.; Domingo, J.L.; Bocio, A.; Nadal, M. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Muller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    In recent years, incineration has been one of the most frequently used technologies for hazardous waste treatment. However, health risks and the potential environmental impact of hazardous waste incinerators (HWI) are still issues of major concern. The reason is the association of stack emissions of semivolatile and volatile compounds from HWI with their potential adverse health effects. Some compounds of special interest are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In relation to this, HWI workers can be potentially exposed to PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other pollutants with a well-known toxicity. Since 1999, the only HWI in Spain has been operating in Constanti (Tarragona, Catalonia). It has a burning furnace that operates at a temperature of 1100 C and can burn 30,000 tons of hazardous waste per year. The purpose of the present survey was to determine after four years of regular operations in the facility, the concentrations in blood and urine of the HWI workers of a number of organic substances directly related with HWI and to which workers could be exposed. Human biological monitoring evaluates the degree of internal exposure to a defined environmental or occupational pollutant of individuals or population groups. The results of the current study have been compared with the baseline levels.

  13. STORAGE AND RECOVERY OF SECONDARY WASTE COMING FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS IN UNDERGROUND MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Korzeniowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding current and planned development of municipal waste incineration plants in Poland there is an important problem of the generated secondary waste management. The experience of West European countries in mining shows that waste can be stored successfully in the underground mines, but especially in salt mines. In Poland there is a possibility to set up the underground storage facility in the Salt Mine “Kłodawa”. The mine today is capable to locate over 3 million cubic meters and in the future it can increase significantly. Two techniques are proposed: 1 – storage of packaged waste, 2 – waste recovery as selfsolidifying paste with mining technology for rooms backfilling. Assuming the processing capacity of the storage facility as 100 000 Mg of waste per year, “Kłodawa” mine will be able to accept around 25 % of currently generated waste coming from the municipal waste incineration plants and the current volume of the storage space is sufficient for more than 20 years. Underground storage and waste recovery in mining techniques are beneficial for the economy and environment.

  14. Leaching characteristics of heavy metals during cement stabilization of fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunwen LIANG; Jianguo JIANG; Yan ZHANG; Xin XU

    2008-01-01

    The leaching characteristics of heavy metals in products of cement stabilization of fly ash from a muni-cipal solid waste incinerator were investigated in this paper. The stabilization of heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in fly ash from such incinerators was exam-ined through the national standard method in China based on the following-factors: additive quantity of cement and Na2S, curing time, and pH of leaching liquor. The results showed that as more additives were used, less heavy metals were leached except for Pb, which is sensitive to pH of the leachate, and the worse effect was observed for Cd. The mass ratio of cement to fly ash=10% is the most appropriate parameter according to the national standard method. When the hydration of cement was basically finished, stabilization of heavy metals did not vary after curing for 1 d. The mixtures of cement and fly ash had excellent adaptability to environmental pH. The pH of leachate was maintained at 7 when pH of leaching liquor varied from 3 to 11.

  15. Recycling of ash from biomass incinerator in clay matrix to produce ceramic bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Villarejo, L; Eliche-Quesada, D; Iglesias-Godino, Fco J; Martínez-García, C; Corpas-Iglesias, Fco A

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of incorporation of ash from biomass incinerator as raw material on the production of ceramic bricks for their application in construction. So, for the fabrication of bricks, compositions were prepared with addition of increasing amounts of waste ash (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% in wt.) in the clay body. The mixed samples were sintered using conventional powder processing based on powder compaction at 54.5 MPa and firing them at 950 °C without the addition of additives. Effect on apparent density, water absorption and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed that water absorption increased and apparent density and compressive strength decreased with higher amounts of ash. Bricks with an ash content up to 20% meet the UNE standards compressive strength. As a result, since interesting performances were observed, the potential use of ashes from biomass incinerator up to 20 wt.% in ceramic formulations of industrial interest was confirmed. In this sense, incorporating ashes into clay body reduces environmental problems and total cost of raw material disposition. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

    2015-01-01

    Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and fluid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650 kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700 kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant.

  17. Efficiency of energy recovery from waste incineration, in the light of the new Waste Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Mario; Motta, Astrid; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2010-07-01

    This paper deals with a key issue related to municipal waste incineration, which is the efficiency of energy recovery. A strong driver for improving the energy performances of waste-to-energy plants is the recent Waste Framework Directive (Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives), which allows high efficiency installations to benefit from a status of "recovery" rather than "disposal". The change in designation means a step up in the waste hierarchy, where the lowest level of priority is now restricted to landfilling and low efficiency wastes incineration. The so-called "R1 formula" reported in the Directive, which counts for both production of power and heat, is critically analyzed and correlated to the more scientific-based approach of exergy efficiency. The results obtained for waste-to-energy plants currently operating in Europe reveal some significant differences in their performance, mainly related to the average size and to the availability of a heat market (district heating).

  18. PCDD/F emissions during startup and shutdown of a hazardous waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Chao; Cen, Kefa; Ni, Mingjiang; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    Compared with municipal solid waste incineration, studies on the PCDD/F emissions of hazardous waste incineration (HWI) under transient conditions are rather few. This study investigates the PCDD/F emission level, congener profile and removal efficiency recorded during startup and shutdown by collecting flue gas samples at the bag filter inlet and outlet and at the stack. The PCDD/F concentration measured in the stack gas during startup and shutdown were 0.56-4.16 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3) and 1.09-3.36 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively, far exceeding the present codes in China. The total amount of PCDD/F emissions, resulting from three shutdown-startup cycles of this HWI-unit is almost equal to that generated during one year under normal operating conditions. Upstream the filter, the PCDD/F in the flue gas is mainly in the particle phase; however, after being filtered PCDD/F prevails in the gas phase. The PCDD/F fraction in the gas phase even exceeds 98% after passing through the alkaline scrubber. Especially higher chlorinated PCDD/F accumulate on inner walls of filters and ducts during these startup periods and could be released again during normal operation, significantly increasing PCDD/F emissions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Stabilization/solidification of incinerator fly ash for the manufacture of artificial aggregate by cementitious granulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, F.; Cioffi, R. [Univ. Pathenope of Naples (Italy). Dept. of Technology; Montagnaro, F.; Santoro, L. [Univ. Federico 2 of Naples (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry; Di Giacomo, C.; Roncone, A. [Extra Group Co., Citta Sant' Angelo (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a study in which municipal, hospital, and industrial waste ash from an incineration plant equipped with rotary and stoker furnaces was used in a stabilization/solidification granulation process with cement, lime, and coal fly ash as binder components. The ash from the incineration plant was classified as hazardous. The granulation process was conducted with a range of waste ash mixtures in order to determine the appropriate waste ash percentage for the safe manufacture of artificial aggregates. Waste ash content ranging from 50 to 70 per cent was incorporated within the binding matrix. A 2-step granulation process was then conducted with a pure binder in order to encapsulate the granules from the initial process within an outer shell. The granules obtained from the processes were tested to assess their physico-mechanical and leaching properties. Concrete mixtures were then prepared with some of the artificial aggregates made using the granulation process. Results of the study demonstrated that the granules were suitable for the manufacture of concrete blocks. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. The Effect of Water Spray upon Incineration Flue Gas Clean—up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaigangWang; BinLi; 等

    2000-01-01

    The existence of liquid water was found very important in incineration flue gas clean-up systems for enhancing the absorption of acid components contained.In a newly developed incineration flue gas clean-up tower,which works in a semi-dry mode,the water is injected in the form of spray to maximum its contact surface with the gas.The criteria for the design of the water nozzles would be high water concentration but no liquid impinging on the solid wall and complete evaporation inside the tower,In order to optimize the atomizer design,the effects of the spray type (hollow or solid cone),their initial droplet size distribution and water flow rate on the performance of the acid gas absorption were investigated.The liquid behaviour was studied with a fluid dynamic simulation code,and the overall performance was checked experimentally.This paper presents the use of a commercial CFD code,FLUENT,and some modifications made during such investigation.The modification includes the viscosity of the flue gas defined as a function of the temperature,and the initial mass fraction of different droplet size group described with an exponential distribution formula of Rosin-Rammler.The investigation results (the optimal spray parameters)were used to guide the water nozzle design.The general performance of the flue gas clean-up system measured during the plant operation complied with the design criteria.

  1. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, L.N. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project.

  2. Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration ash in Portland cement clinker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Charles Hoi King; Barford, John Patrick; McKay, Gordon [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-08-15

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash is used in part as raw materials for cement clinker production by taking advantage of the high contents of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CaO. It is necessary for environmental reasons to establish a material utilization system for the incineration waste ash residue instead of disposing these ashes into landfill. The aim of this paper is to study the feasibility of replacing clinker raw materials by waste ash residue for cement clinker production. MSWI bottom ash and MSWI fly ash are the main types of ashes being evaluated. The ashes were mixed into raw mixture with different portions of ash residue to produce cement clinker in a laboratory furnace at approximately 1400 C. X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence techniques were used to analyze the phase chemistry and chemical composition of clinkers in order to compare these ash-based clinkers with commercial Portland cement clinker. (orig.)

  3. Recycling and recovery routes for incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatello, Shane; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2013-11-01

    The drivers for increasing incineration of sewage sludge and the characteristics of the resulting incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) are reviewed. It is estimated that approximately 1.7 milliontonnes of ISSA are produced annually world-wide and is likely to increase in the future. Although most ISSA is currently landfilled, various options have been investigated that allow recycling and beneficial resource recovery. These include the use of ISSA as a substitute for clay in sintered bricks, tiles and pavers, and as a raw material for the manufacture of lightweight aggregate. ISSA has also been used to form high density glass-ceramics. Significant research has investigated the potential use of ISSA in blended cements for use in mortars and concrete, and as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. However, all these applications represent a loss of the valuable phosphate content in ISSA, which is typically comparable to that of a low grade phosphate ore. ISSA has significant potential to be used as a secondary source of phosphate for the production of fertilisers and phosphoric acid. Resource efficient approaches to recycling will increasingly require phosphate recovery from ISSA, with the remaining residual fraction also considered a useful material, and therefore further research is required in this area.

  4. Treatment of clinical solid waste using a steam autoclave as a possible alternative technology to incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2012-03-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.

  5. Fast neutron incineration in the energy amplifier as alternative to geologic storage the case of Spain

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Kadi, Y; Rubio, Juan Antonio

    1997-01-01

    In previous reports [1][2] we have presented the conceptual design of a fast neutron driven sub-critical device (Energy Amplifier) designed both for energy amplification (production) and for the incineration of unwanted ³waste² from Nuclear Light Water Reactors (LWR). The latter scheme is here applied to the specific case of Spain, where 9 large LWR¹s are presently in operation. It is shown that a cluster of 5 EA¹s is a very effective and realistic solution to the elimination (in 37 years) of the present and foreseen (till 2029) LWR-Waste stockpiles of Spain, but with major improvements over Geologic Storage, since: (1) only a Low Level Waste (LLW) surface repository of reasonable size is ultimately required; (2) the large amount of energy stored in the trans-Uranics is recovered, amounting for each of the 37 years of incineration to a saving of about 8% of the present primary energy demand of Spain (100 MTep/y); (3) the slightly enriched (1.1%) Uranium, unburned by LWR¹s, can be recovered for further us...

  6. Studying the melting behaviour of fly ash from the incineration of MSW using viscosity and heated stage XRD data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Folkedahl, B.; Frandsen, F. J.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study has been to investigate the melting behaviour of fly ashes from the incineration of MSW (municipal solid waste). Four fly ash samples from the Svendborg WtE (waste-to-energy) plant (2nd-3rd pass, super-heater, economizer, ESP), in Denmark, have been investigated...

  7. Metal recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWIBA): state of the art, potential and environmental benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Holtze, Maria S.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    Incineration has a central role in the waste management system in Denmark (e.g. 52% of the household waste) resulting in approximately 726000t of solid residues each year. However, the targets imposed by the Danish Waste Strategy and the increasing discussions about resource in waste raise an issue...

  8. Protective Coatings in the Power Boilers Used to Incinerate Waste – Fuel Characteristics of Waste as the Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słania J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A general characteristics of waste management was presented. Municipal waste was characterised and its fuel properties were provided. Numerous thermal processes of waste utilisation were described such as an incinerating process, free-oxygen technology - pyrolysis, technology with oxygen deficiency - gasification and the plasma technology.

  9. Effect of municipal solid waste incinerator types on characteristics of ashes from different air pollution control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chuang, Kui-Hao

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of fly and bottom ashes sampled from both fluidized bed (FB) and mass-burning (MB) municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), respectively. Fly ashes from different locations at FB and MB MSWIs equipped with a cyclone, a semi-dry scrubber, and a bag filter as air pollution control devices were examined to provide the baseline information between physicochemical properties and leaching ability. Experimental results of leachability indicated that the bag filter fly ash (FB-FA(B)) from the FB incinerator meets Taiwan regulatory standards set through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. X-ray diffraction results revealed the presence of Cr5O12 and Pb2O3 in the cyclone fly ash (MB-FA(C)) and bag filter fly ash (MB-FA(B)), respectively, from the MB incinerator. To observe lead incorporation mechanism, mixture of simulate lead-laden waste with bed material were fired between 600 °C and 900 °C in a laboratory scale FB reactor. The results clearly demonstrate a substantial decrease in lead leaching ratio for products with an appropriate temperature. The concentration of Pb in the MB-FA(B) was 250 times that in the FB-FA(B), suggesting that incineration of MSW in FB is a good strategy for stabilizing hazardous metals.

  10. Treatment of waste incinerator air-pollution-control residues with FeSO4: Laboratory investigation of design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2002-01-01

    The key design parameters of a new process for treatment of air-pollution-control (APC) residues (the Ferroxprocess) were investigated in the laboratory. The optimisation involved two different APC-residues from actual incinerator plants. The design parameters considered were: amount of iron oxide...

  11. Propensity for the formation of dioxins during the cool-down of plumes from medical waste incinerators in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, D

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available /annum)2. In SA, as in most developing countries, less than 1% of the 137 medical waste incinerators registered in SA3 are fitted with gas clean up systems, and the exhaust gases are vented at temperatures above the onset of dioxin formation (450 °C to 150...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1203 - What are the standards for hazardous waste incinerators that are effective until compliance with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Operating Limits for Incinerators, Cement Kilns, and Lightweight Aggregate Kilns § 63.1203 What are the....1219? (a) Emission limits for existing sources. You must not discharge or cause combustion gases to be... percent oxygen provided that the combustion gas temperature at the inlet to the initial particulate...

  13. 40 CFR 62.15380 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste? (a) Use EPA Reference Method 9 in Appendix A of 40 CFR part 60 to determine compliance with the opacity limit. (b) Conduct an initial test for opacity as specified in § 60.8 of subpart A of 40 CFR part... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent yard waste? 62.15380 Section 62.15380 Protection of...

  14. Application of CFD in Investigation of Ventilation Strategies for Improvement of Working Environment in a Waste Incineration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Kragh, Hans

    In this study CFD was applied to investigate the ability of different ventilation systems and strategies to improve working conditions in a waste incineration plant. The plant, VS Amagerforbn:ending, had expanded to supply both district heating and power. Because of that too high temperatures were...

  15. Electrodialytic extraction of Cu, Pb and Cl from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash suspended in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lima, Ana Teresa; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in, for example, concrete is considered. MSWI fly ash, however, has too high a concentration of heavy metals, which may cause leaching problems during use or problems with waste handling at the end of the lifetime...

  16. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted separation method, has previ-ously shown potential for removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of MSWI fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent...

  17. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  18. Did we choose the best one? A new site selection approach based on exposure and uptake potential for waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirarslan, K Onur; Korucu, M Kemal; Karademir, Aykan

    2016-08-01

    Ecological problems arising after the construction and operation of a waste incineration plant generally originate from incorrect decisions made during the selection of the location of the plant. The main objective of this study is to investigate how the selection method for the location of a new municipal waste incineration plant can be improved by using a dispersion modelling approach supported by geographical information systems and multi-criteria decision analysis. Considering this aim, the appropriateness of the current location of an existent plant was assessed by applying a pollution dispersion model. Using this procedure, the site ranking for a total of 90 candidate locations and the site of the existing incinerator were determined by a new location selection practice and the current place of the plant was evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey tests. This ranking, made without the use of modelling approaches, was re-evaluated based on the modelling of various variables, including the concentration of pollutants, population and population density, demography, temporality of meteorological data, pollutant type, risk formation type by CALPUFF and re-ranking the results. The findings clearly indicate the impropriety of the location of the current plant, as the pollution distribution model showed that its location was the fourth-worst choice among 91 possibilities. It was concluded that the location selection procedures for waste incinerators should benefit from the improvements obtained by the articulation of pollution dispersion studies combined with the population density data to obtain the most suitable location. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Risk of congenital anomalies around a municipal solid waste incinerator: a GIS-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garavelli Livia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waste incineration releases into the environment toxic substances having a teratogenic potential, but little epidemiologic evidence is available on this topic. We aimed at examining the relation between exposure to the emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of birth defects in a northern Italy community, using Geographical Information System (GIS data to estimate exposure and a population-based case-control study design. By modelling the incinerator emissions, we defined in the GIS three areas of increasing exposure according to predicted dioxins concentrations. We mapped the 228 births and induced abortions with diagnosis of congenital anomalies observed during the 1998–2006 period, together with a corresponding series of control births matched for year and hospital of birth/abortion as well as maternal age, using maternal address in the first three months of pregnancy to geocode cases and controls. Results Among women residing in the areas with medium and high exposure, prevalence of anomalies in the offspring was substantially comparable to that observed in the control population, nor dose-response relations for any of the major categories of birth defects emerged. Furthermore, odds ratio for congenital anomalies did not decrease during a prolonged shut-down period of the plant. Conclusion Overall, these findings do not lend support to the hypothesis that the environmental contamination occurring around an incineration plant such as that examined in this study may induce major teratogenic effects.

  20. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BDAT INCINERATION OF CERCLA SARMS AT THE JOHN ZINK COMPANY TEST FACILITY (FINAL PROJECT REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of a treatability study of rotary kiln incineration of a synthetic "Superfund soil" bearing a wide range of chemical contaminants typically occurring at Superfund sites. This surrogate soil is referred to as a synthetic analytical reference ...

  1. The leaching of trace elements from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash at different stages of weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meima, J.A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-01-01

    For a proper assessment of the environmental impact of the utilisation and disposal of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash it is necessary to understand weathering processes and their effects on (trace) element leaching. The authors have investigated the processes that control the le

  2. The leaching of trace elements from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash at different stages of weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meima, J.A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-01-01

    For a proper assessment of the environmental impact of the utilisation and disposal of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash it is necessary to understand weathering processes and their effects on (trace) element leaching. The authors have investigated the processes that control the le

  3. Treatment of waste incinerator air-pollution-control residues with FeSO4: Concept and product characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new concept for treatment of air- pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration and characterises the wastewater and stabilised residues generated by the process. The process involves mixing of APC-residues with a ferrous sulphate solution and subsequent oxidation...

  4. Cesium Speciation in Dust from Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge Incineration by Synchrotron Radiation Micro-X-ray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Kenji; Takaoka, Masaki; Fujimori, Takashi; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Terada, Yasuko

    2015-11-17

    The chemical behavior of Cs in waste incineration processes is important to consider when disposing of radionuclide-contaminated waste from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan. To determine the speciation of Cs, we attempted the direct speciation of trace amounts of stable Cs in the dust from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and sewage sludge incineration (SSI) by micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (μ-XAFS) at the SPring-8 facility. The μ-XRF results revealed that locally produced Cs was present in MSWI and SSI dust within the cluster size range of 2-10 μm. The μ-XAFS analysis confirmed that the speciation of Cs in MSWI dust was similar to that of CsCl, while in SSI dusts it was similar to pollucite. The solubility of Cs was considered to be influenced by the exact Cs species present in incineration residue.

  5. Influence of SO2 in incineration flue gas on the sequestration of CO2 by municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Jiang; Sicong Tian; Chang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The influence of CO2 content and presence of SO2 on the sequestration of CO2 by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was studied by investigating the carbonation reaction of MSWI fly ash with different combinations of simulated flue gas.The reaction between fly ash and 100% CO2 was relatively fast; the uptake of CO2 reached 87 g CO2/kg ash,and the sequestered CO2 could be entirely released at high temperatures.When CO2 content was reduced to 12%,the reaction rate decreased; the uptake fell to 41 g CO2/kg ash,and 70.7% of the sequestered CO2 could be released.With 12% CO2 in the presence of SO2,the reaction rate significantly decreased; the uptake was just 17 g CO2/kg ash,and only 52.9% of the sequestered CO2 could be released.SO2 in the simulated gas restricted the ability of fly ash to sequester CO2 because it blocked the pores of the ash.

  6. Effects of phosphoric acid sprayed into an incinerator furnace on the flue gas pressure drop at fabric filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Hwang, In-Hee; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Fabric filters are widely used to remove dust from flue gas generated by waste incineration. However, a pressure drop occurs at the filters, caused by growth of a dust layer on the filter fabric despite regular cleaning by pulsed-jet air. The pressure drop at the fabric filters leads to energy consumption at induced draft fan to keep the incinerator on negative pressure, so that its proper control is important to operate incineration facility efficiently. The pressure drop at fabric filters decreased whenever phosphoric acid wastewater (PAW) was sprayed into an incinerator for treating industrial waste. Operational data obtained from the incineration facility were analyzed to determine the short- and long-term effects of PAW spraying on the pressure drop. For the short-term effect, it was confirmed that the pressure drop at the fabric filters always decreased to 0.3-1.2kPa within about 5h after spraying PAW. This effect was expected to be obtained by about one third of present PAW spraying amount. However, from the long-term perspective, the pressure drop showed an increase in the periods of PAW spraying compared with periods for which PAW spraying was not performed. The pressure drop increase was particularly noticeable after the initial PAW spraying, regardless of the age and type of fabric filters used. These results suggest that present PAW spraying causes a temporary pressure drop reduction, leading to short-term energy consumption savings; however, it also causes an increase of the pressure drop over the long-term, degrading the overall operating conditions. Thus, appropriate PAW spraying conditions are needed to make effective use of PAW to reduce the pressure drop at fabric filters from a short- and long-term point of view.

  7. Research paper 2000-B-1: the implementation of the municipal waste incineration directive (89/429) in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schucht, S.

    2000-07-01

    This paper constitutes a contribution to the project 'IMPOL - The Implementation of EU Environmental Policies: Efficiency Issues'. The paper deals with the implementation of the EU Directives directed at atmospheric emissions from new (89/369/EEC) and existing (89/429/EEC) municipal waste incineration plants in France. The goal of this paper is twofold: a historic review of the implementation processes and their evaluation following economic criteria of environmental effectiveness and economic efficiency. The focus is on the implementation of the Directives' requirements towards existing municipal waste incineration plants, i.e. those plants having received their operation licence after December 1, 1990. For France we find a general picture of poor compliance. This result has to be differentiated, though: the current compliance rate of plants of a capacity above 6 t/h is almost 100% (although compliance often came late) while the majority of smaller plants does not comply with the Directive's requirements. With a waste incineration park of about 250 plants currently, many of which are very small plants and only treat weak amounts of waste, France constitutes an exception compared to other European countries. A further specific characteristic of France is the high share of waste incineration in total waste treatment (especially in the big cities) which amounts to almost 40%. The outline of the paper is the following: chapter two gives some context information on the French municipal waste incineration plant park and its structure, on the development of waste quantities, on the legal framework and on available subsidy schemes. Chapter three assesses environmental effectiveness, i.e. goal attainment and factors explaining the results. Chapter four comprises the assessment of cost efficiency. Chapter five contains the historic review, i.e. a characterisation of the implementation process, and chapter six concludes, linking the characterisation of

  8. Characterization of hot-mix asphalt concrete containing municipal solid waste incinerator ash using the dynamic modulus (E) test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, H.F. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). College of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    In 2001, approximately 229 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) were produced in the United States. MSW consists of items such as paper, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, appliances, paint, and batteries. MSW incinerator ash is the by-product produced during the combustion of municipal solid waste in combustor facilities and has two components, namely bottom ash and fly ash. To reduce the disposal problem, the incinerators are used to reduce the volume and weight of MSW. This is usually a self-sustained process using the waste as a fuel resulting in as much as a 90 and 75 per cent reduction in volume and weight, respectively. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the use of incinerator ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate in hot-mix asphalt concrete. MSW incinerator ash was collected from an incinerator facility at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman and a physical and chemical characterization of the ash was conducted. MSW ash was used in the mixture to replace fine aggregate with a percentage ranging from 0 to 40 per cent, by total aggregate weight. The mixes were designed using the Marshall mix design method and the dynamic modulus test was conducted on samples prepared at optimum asphalt contents for mixes containing different percentage of ash and at different temperatures and frequencies. Master curves for different percentages of ash in the mix were developed from the testing results. It was found that the Marshall mix design results for the mixes containing MSW ash indicated a decrease in stability, and specific gravity, and an increase in air voids. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Effects of heat recovery for district heating on waste incineration health impact: a simulation study in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, Michele; Vincenzi, Simone; De Leo, Giulio A

    2013-02-01

    The construction of waste incinerators in populated areas always causes substantial public concern. Since the heat from waste combustion can be recovered to power district heating networks and allows for the switch-off of domestic boilers in urbanized areas, predictive models for health assessment should also take into account the potential benefits of abating an important source of diffuse emission. In this work, we simulated the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants from a waste incinerator under construction in Parma (Italy) into different environmental compartments and estimated the potential health effect of both criteria- (PM(10)) and micro-pollutants (PCDD/F, PAH, Cd, Hg). We analyzed two emission scenarios, one considering only the new incinerator, and the other accounting for the potential decrease in pollutant concentrations due to the activation of a district heating network. We estimated the effect of uncertainty in parameter estimation on health risk through Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we analyzed the robustness of health risk to alternative assumptions on: a) the geographical origins of the potentially contaminated food, and b) the dietary habits of the exposed population. Our analysis showed that under the specific set of assumptions and emission scenarios explored in the present work: (i) the proposed waste incinerator plant appears to cause negligible harm to the resident population; (ii) despite the net increase in PM(10) mass balance, ground-level concentration of fine particulate matter may be curbed by the activation of an extensive district heating system powered through waste combustion heat recovery and the concurrent switch-off of domestic/industrial heating boilers. In addition, our study showed that the health risk caused by waste incineration emissions is sensitive to assumptions about the typical diet of the resident population, and the geographical origins of food production.

  10. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori, E-mail: matsukami.hidenori@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan); Kose, Tomohiro [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, < 0.01–0.048 μg m{sup −3} and < 0.5–68 μg kg{sup −1}. Almost all of the total phosphorus in the input materials was partitioned into the ash, but less into final exit gases, indicating negligible emissions of volatile phosphorus compounds during incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of

  11. Engineering Analysis on China's Municipal Solid Waste Incineration%我国生活垃圾焚烧工程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白良成; 卜亚明; 刘庆丽; 张晓斌

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the basic characteristics of the municipal solid waste(MSW), the benifit of MSW incineration plant and the current situation of MSW incineration plant in China, and puts forward views on the development trend of MSW incineration engineering.%分析了我国生活垃圾的基本特征、垃圾焚烧厂的效益和垃圾焚烧厂的现状,展望了我国垃圾焚烧工程的发展趋势。

  12. Emission and distribution of PCDD/Fs, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, and PAHs from stack gas of a fluidized bed and a stoker waste incinerator in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianjiao; Chen, Tong; Lin, Xiaoqing; Zhan, Mingxiu; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-12-29

    The concentrations, homologue, and congener profiles, as well as the gas/particle distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs), chlorophenols (CPhs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack gas of two different municipal solid waste incinerators in China, were characterized. The incinerators were a stoker furnace incinerator equipped with the advanced air pollution control device (APCD) and a common circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace. The concentration of PCDD/Fs in the stack gas of the stoker incinerator ranged 0.011-0.109 ng international toxic equivalent factor (I-TEQ)/Nm(3) and was below the current limit for PCDD/F emissions from the municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in China (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)) in most of the cases. Moreover, the concentration of PCDD/Fs in the stack gas of the stoker incinerator was significantly lower than that of the CFB incinerator (0.734 to 24.6 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). In both incinerators, the majority of the total PCDD/F emissions (above 90%) ended up in the gas phase. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, which occupied 24.3-43.6 and 32.5-75.6% of I-TEQ contribution in MSWIs A and B, respectively, was the most abundant congener. However, different types of incinerators and APCDs induced different congener and homologue distributions. The total concentration of CBzs from the stoker incinerator (0.05-3.2 μg/Nm(3)) was also much lower than that formed from the CFB incinerator (10.9-75.2 μg/Nm(3)). The phase distribution of CBzs followed the same pattern as with the PCDD/Fs. Moreover, the emission level of CBz was 100-1000 times higher than that of the PCDD/Fs, which determines the applicability of CBzs as indicators of PCDD/F emissions. High correlations between the emission concentrations of PCDD/Fs, TeCBz, and PCBz in specific ranges were revealed. Furthermore, high concentrations of CPhs (0.6-141.0 μg/Nm(3)) and PAHs (148.6-4986.5 μg/Nm(3)) were detected in the stack gases of MSWI

  13. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  14. Effects of sulfur on lead partitioning during sludge incineration based on experiments and thermodynamic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-yong, E-mail: www053991@126.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Shu-jie; Sun, Shui-yu; Ning, Xun-an; He, Rui-zhe [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Xiao-ming [Guangdong Testing Institute of Product Quality Supervision, Guangzhou 510330 (China); Chen, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Guang-qian [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu-jie; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Fu, Jie-wen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was carried out. • Effects of three types of sulfurs on Pb distribution were investigated. • The mechanism for three types of sulfurs acting on Pb partitioning were proposed. • Lead partitioning and species in bottom ash and fly ash were identified. - Abstract: Experiments in a tubular furnace reactor and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were conducted to investigate the impact of sulfur compounds on the migration of lead (Pb) during sludge incineration. Representative samples of typical sludge with and without the addition of sulfur compounds were combusted at 850 °C, and the partitioning of Pb in the solid phase (bottom ash) and gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) was quantified. The results indicate that three types of sulfur compounds (S, Na{sub 2}S and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) added to the sludge could facilitate the volatilization of Pb in the gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) into metal sulfates displacing its sulfides and some of its oxides. The effect of promoting Pb volatilization by adding Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S was superior to that of the addition of S. In bottom ash, different metallic sulfides were found in the forms of lead sulfide, aluminosilicate minerals, and polymetallic-sulfides, which were minimally volatilized. The chemical equilibrium calculations indicated that sulfur stabilizes Pb in the form of PbSO{sub 4}(s) at low temperatures (<1000 K). The equilibrium calculation prediction also suggested that SiO{sub 2}, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing materials function as condensed phase solids in the temperature range of 800–1100 K as sorbents to stabilize Pb. However, in the presence of sulfur or chlorine or the co-existence of sulfur and chlorine, these sorbents were inactive. The effect of sulfur on Pb partitioning in the sludge incineration process mainly depended on the gas phase reaction, the surface reaction, the volatilization of products, and the

  15. Stabilization of APC residues from waste incineration with ferrous sulfate on a semi-industrial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2002-01-01

    A stabilization method for air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) involving mixing of the residue with water and FeSO4 has been demonstrated on a semi-industrial scale on three types of APC residues: a semidy (SD) APC residue, a fly ash (FA), and an FA...... mixed with sludge (FAS) from a wet flue gas cleaning system. The process was performed in batches of 165-175 kg residue. It generates a wastewater that is highly saline but has a low content of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, and Pb. The stabilized and raw residues have been subject to a range of leaching...... tests: the batch leacing test, the pH-static leaching test, the availability test, and the column test. These tests showed that the stabilized residues have remarkably improved leaching properties, especially with respect to Pb but also with respect to Cd, Cu, and Zn. The release of Pb was reduced...

  16. Electrical efficiency in waste incineration plants - Turgi case study; Elektrizitaetseffizienz in Kehrichtverwertungsanlagen - Fallbeispiel KVA Turgi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenny, D.; Schnyder, G.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the more efficient use of electricity in the waste incineration plant in Turgi, Switzerland. Using this plant as a model, an evaluation of the potential for increasing efficiencies in the area of electricity consumption was carried out. All energy-relevant processes and technologies were analysed on site in order to draw up a catalogue of optimisation measures. The measures described were evaluated and classified, whereby their feasibility and economic viability were taken into account. The electricity savings potential for the Turgi plant was extrapolated: the potential increase in efficiency in all thermal waste treatment plants in Switzerland indicates annual savings of around 38 GWh, which is equivalent to the electricity consumption of around 10,000 private households.

  17. Removal efficiencies of PCDDs/PCDFs by air pollution control devices in municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S C; Jeon, S H; Jung, I R; Kim, K H; Kwon, M H; Kim, J H; Yi, J H; Kim, S J; You, J C; Jung, D H

    2001-01-01

    Removal efficiencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) by air pollution control devices (APCDs) in the commercial-scale municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators with a capacity of above 200 ton/day were evaluated. The removal efficiencies of PCDDs/PCDFs were up to 95% when the activated carbon (AC) was injected in front of electrostatic precipitator (EP). Spray dryer absorber/bag filter (SDA/BF) had high removal efficiency (99%)) of PCDDs/PCDFs when a mixture of lime and AC was sprayed into the SDA. When the AC was not added in scrubbing solution, the whole congeners of PCDDs/PCDFs were enriched in the wet scrubber (WS) with negative removal efficiencies of -25% to -5731%. Discharge of PCDDs/PCDFs was decreased with increasing the proportions of AC added in scrubbing solution. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system had the removal efficiencies of up to 93% during the test operation.

  18. Research on Toxicity Evaluation of Waste Incineration Residues of Printed Circuit Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Volungevičienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recycling waste printed circuit boards (PCB is an extremely complicated process, because PCBs consist of a number of complex components – hazardous and non-hazardous materials sets. Pyrolysis and combustion are currently the most effective treatment technologies for waste printed circuit boards. Pyrolysis can be used for thermally decomposing PCBs allowing for the simultaneous recovery of valuable materials. Following the extraction of valuable materials, the problem of residual ash utilization is encountered. Determining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of incineration residue helps with choosing effective ash management technologies. This paper analyzes PCB ash generated at three different temperatures of 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C. Ash residues have been analysed to determine the quantity and type of metals present. Furthermore, the experiment of leaching heavy metals from ash has been described.

  19. LCA of management strategies for RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash based on experimental leaching data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianfilippo, Martina Di; Costa, Giulia; Pantini, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The main characteristics and environmental properties of the bottom ash (BA) generated from thermal treatment of waste may vary significantly depending on the type of waste and thermal technology employed. Thus, to ensure that the strategies selected for the management of these residues do...... not cause adverse environmental impacts, the specific properties of BA, in particular its leaching behavior, should be taken into account. This study focuses on the evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with two different management options for BA from thermal treatment of Refuse Derived...... Fuel (RDF): landfilling and recycling as a filler for road sub bases. Two types of thermal treatment were considered: incineration and gasification. Potential environmental impacts were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASETECH model. Both non-toxicity related impact categories (i...

  20. Municipal waste management in Italy. Incinerators; Impianti di smaltimento. Indagine sui termoutilizzatori RU (rifiuti urbani)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    In this work are reported the data related to the incineration plants of municipal wastes in Italy. Technologies, energy production, air pollution monitoring and emission analysis are here considered. [Italian] L'obiettivo di questo lavoro e' proseguire e sviluppare l'analisi presentata per la prima volta da Federambiente nel 1998 che riguarda il parco impianti incenerimento dei rifiuti urbani e assimilabili presenti o presenti su tutto il territorio nazionale. I dati sono riferiti a 63 impianti ed aggiornati al 1999. Sono state trattate le tecnologie utilizzate dai forni, le capacita', le quantita' trattate nel 1998 e 1999, la produzione energetica e, particolare enfasi e' stata data all'analisi delle emissioni, con riferimento alla normativa vigente.

  1. Test and evaluation of the heat recovery incinerator system at Naval Station, Mayport, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    This report describes test and evaluation of the two-ton/hr heat recovery incinerator (HRI) facility located at Mayport Naval Station, Fla., carried out during November and December 1980. The tests included: (1) Solid Waste: characterization, heating value, and ultimate analysis, (2) Ash: moisture, combustibles, and heating values of both bottom and cyclone ashes; Extraction Procedure toxicity tests on leachates from both bottom and cyclone ashes; trace metals in cyclone particulates, (3) Stack Emissions: particulates (quantity and size distribution), chlorides, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and trace elements, and (4) Heat and Mass Balance: all measurements required to carry out complete heat and mass balance calculations over the test period. The overall thermal efficiency of the HRI facility while operating at approximately 1.0 ton/hr was found to be 49% when the primary Btu equivalent of the electrical energy consumed during the test program was included.

  2. Suitability of oil bioremediation in an Artic soil using surplus heating from an incineration facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, Nazare; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    . Individual and synergistic effects of biostimulation were also tested, in parallel. An interim evaluation at the end of the first 42 days showed that biostimulation and active heating, as separate treatments, enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) removal compared to natural attenuation. The coupling of both...... technologies was even more effective, corroborating the benefits of both techniques in a remediation strategy. However, between day 42 and day 168, there was an opposite remediation trend with all treatments suggesting a stabilization except for natural attenuation, where PHC values continued to decrease......A 168-day period field study, carried out in Sisimiut, Greenland, assessed the potential to enhance soil remediation with the surplus heating from an incineration facility. This approach searches a feasible ex situ remediation process that could be extended throughout the year with low costs...

  3. Metallic elements occurrences within metallic fragments in the municipal waste incineration bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2017-04-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is composed of grainy ash material, residual components and metallic fragments (from few µm up to 3-5 cm). Its mineral and chemical composition is related to the composition of the waste stream in the incinerator operational area. Wide use of thermal techniques in management of solid waste makes important the studies on valuable components and their distribution within the material in terms of their further processing. By using various valorization or extraction techniques it is possible to extend the range of its possible further application. To investigate metallic elements distribution within metallic fragments of the MSWI BA material produced in municipal waste incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015 and 2016. BA and its components were investigated using spectroscopic methods of chemical analysis: ICP-OES, ICP-MS, LECO and EDS (used for microanalysis during SEM observations). BA is a material rich in Si (22.5 wt%), Ca (13.4 wt%), Fe (4 wt%), Al (5.2 wt%) and Na (3.5 wt%), composed of equal part of amorphous (silicate glass dominated) and crystalline phase (rich in silicates, aluminosilicates, oxides of non- and metallic elements and sulphates). The content of metallic elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Ti, Mn, Cr, Ni, Sc, Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sn) is 11.5 wt% with domination of Al (5.2 wt%) and Fe (4 wt%) and elevated values of Mg (1 wt%), Ti (0.54 wt%), Cu (0.26 wt%) and Zn (0.27 wt%) (Kowalski et al., 2016). They were mostly concentrated in the form of metallic fragments, mainly as metallic inclusions in the size of 1-20 µm and separated metallic grains in the size of 50-300 µm. Metallic fragments present in the BA are characterized by their composition heterogeneity and various oxygen content. Fragments are rarely composed of single metallic element and usually in their composition up to few main elements dominated over others. The most common were Fe-, Al- and Zn-rich fragments forming respectively

  4. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered...... breakeven points beyond which the burdens of the recovery processes outweigh the environmental benefits from valorising metals and mineral aggregates. Experimental data for the quantity and quality of individual material fractions were used as a basis for LCA modelling. For the aggregates, three disposal...... routes were compared: landfilling, road sub-base and aggregate in concrete, while specific leaching data were used as the basis for evaluating toxic impacts. The recovery and recycling of aluminium, ferrous, stainless steel and copper scrap were considered, and the importance of aluminium scrap quality...

  5. Removal of PCDDs/Fs from municipal solid waste incineration by entrained-flow adsorption technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jian-hua; PENG Zheng; LU Sheng-yong; LI Xiao-dong; CEN Ke-fa

    2006-01-01

    Entrained flow adsorption using activated carbon as the adsorbent is widely adopted for PCDDs/Fs-abatement in municipal solidwaste incineration (MSWI) process. The effects of operating parameters including flue gas temperature, feeding rate of activated carbon, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) concentration at the inlet of the air pollution control device (APCD), filter materials, pressure drop on PCDDs/Fs removal efficiency are reviewed and commented upon in this paper. Evaluation on the various mechanistic models for entrained flow adsorption is carried out based on the computational simulation in terms of the actual operating condition and theoretical analysis. Finally, an advancement of entrained flow adsorption in combination of dual bag filter is introduced.

  6. Assessment of long-term pH developments in leachate from waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    alkalinity as a function of pH. Mass balance calculations for typical disposal scenarios were used to provide data on pH as a function of the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio in the leaching system. Regardless of residue type and pretreatment, pH was found to stay above 7 for L/S ratios up to about 2000 L kg(-1......) corresponding to about 100 000 years in typical landfill scenarios. It was found that pH changes were mainly governed by alkalinity decreases from leaching processes rather than neutralization reactions. The results suggest that leaching testing for assessment purposes should be carried out in the alkaline...... range, for example, at pH 9. The paper offers a thorough basis for further modelling of incineration residue leaching and for modelling the environmental consequences of landfilling and utilization of these residues....

  7. An approach for modeling thermal destruction of hazardous wastes in circulating fluidized bed incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, M P; Sonolikar, R L

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based approach for modeling thermal destruction of hazardous wastes in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator. The model is based on Eular - Lagrangian approach in which gas phase (continuous phase) is treated in a Eularian reference frame, whereas the waste particulate (dispersed phase) is treated in a Lagrangian reference frame. The reaction chemistry hasbeen modeled through a mixture fraction/ PDF approach. The conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy, mixture fraction and other closure equations have been solved using a general purpose CFD code FLUENT4.5. Afinite volume method on a structured grid has been used for solution of governing equations. The model provides detailed information on the hydrodynamics (gas velocity, particulate trajectories), gas composition (CO, CO2, O2) and temperature inside the riser. The model also allows different operating scenarios to be examined in an efficient manner.

  8. Geo-environmental application of municipal solid waste incinerator ash stabilized with cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinder Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of soluble salts contained in the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI ash significantly affects the strength development and hardening reaction when stabilized with cement. The present study focuses on the compaction and strength behavior of mixed specimens of cement and MSWI ash. A series of indices such as unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, California bearing ratio (CBR and pH value was examined. Prior to this, the specimens were cured for 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d. The test results depict that the maximum dry density (MDD decreases and the optimum moisture content (OMC increases with the addition of cement. The test results also reveal that the cement increases the strength of the mixed specimens. Thus, the combination of MSWI ash and cement can be used as a lightweight filling material in different structures like embankment and road construction.

  9. Use of lance-type water blowers in refuse incineration plants; Einsatz von Wasserlanzenblaesern in Muellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefers, W.; Fey, W. [Babcock-Steinmueller GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Simon, S.; Kahle, F.D. [Clyde Bergemann GmbH, Wesel (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    In order to achieve the desired boiler campaign lengths in refuse incineration plants, cleaning devices are an absolute necessity. Whereas the cleaning of convective heating surfaces in vertical-pass and horizontal-pass boilers presents no great difficulty, the possibilities for effective cleaning of the radiant passes were up to now limited. The use of lance-type water blowers has considerably improved this situation. (orig.) [German] Um die gewuenschten Reisezeiten bei Muellverbrennungsanlagen einhalten zu koennen, ist der Einsatz von Reinigungseinrichtungen notwendig. Waehrend die Reinigung der Konvektivheizflaechen bei Vertikal- und Horizontalzugkesseln keine Probleme bereitet, waren bisher die Moeglichkeiten zur Reinhaltung der Strahlungszuege begrenzt. Durch den Einsatz von Wasserlanzenblaesern ergibt sich hier eine deutlich verbesserte Situation. (orig.)

  10. Recovering metals from sewage sludge, waste incineration residues and similar substances with hyperaccumulative plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Johannes; Gattringer, Heinz; Iordanopoulos-Kisser, Monika

    2015-04-01

    Sewage sludges as well as ashes from waste incineration plants are known accumulation sinks of many elements that are either important nutrients for biological organisms (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, etc.) or valuable metals when considered on their own in pure form (nickel, chrome, zinc, etc.); they are also serious pollutants when they occur in wild mixtures at localized anthropogenic end- of-stream points. Austria and many other countries have to import up to 90% of the material inputs of metals from abroad. These primary resources are becoming more expensive as they become more scarce and remaining deposits more difficult to mine, which is a serious concern for industrialized nations. Basic economic and strategic reasoning demands an increase in recycling activities and waste minimization. Technologies to recover metals in a reasonable and economically relevant manner from very diffuse sources are practically non-existent or require large amounts of energy and chemicals, which pose environmental risks. On the other hand agriculture uses large volumes of mineral fertilizers, which are often sourced from mines as well, and thus are also subject to the same principle of finiteness and potential shortage in supply. These converted biological nutrients are taken up by crops and through the food chain and human consumption end up in sewage systems and in wastewater treatment plants in great quantities. The metabolized nutrients mostly do not return to agriculture, but due to contamination with heavy metals are diverted to be used as construction aggregates or are thermally treated and end up rather uselessly in landfills. The project BIO-ORE aimed to explore new pathways to concentrate metals from diluted sources such as sewage sludge and wastewater by using highly efficient biological absorption and transport mechanisms. These enzymatic systems from plants work with very little energy input. The process is called bioaccumulation and can be most effectively

  11. Production of technical grade phosphoric acid from incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatello, S; Tong, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge ash samples obtained from 7 operating sludge incinerators in the UK using a sulfuric acid washing procedure to produce a technical grade phosphoric acid product has been investigated. The influences of reaction time, sulfuric acid concentration, liquid to solid ratio and source of ISSA on P recovery have been examined. The optimised conditions were the minimum stoichiometric acid requirement, a reaction time of 120 min and a liquid to solid ratio of 20. Under these conditions, average recoveries of between 72% and 91% of total phosphorus were obtained. Product filtrate was purified by passing through a cation exchange column, concentrated to 80% H(3)PO(4) and compared with technical grade H(3)PO(4) specifications. The economics of phosphate recovery by this method are briefly discussed.

  12. Sieving of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash; Siktning av askor fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, Jelena

    2010-07-01

    Waste-to-Energy is steadily increasing in Sweden and more than 46 % of municipal solid waste (MSW) is being incinerated. Solid residues from MSW incineration (MSWI) mainly constitute of bottom ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Bottom ashes from MSWI amounted to 0.7 millions of tons and APC residues to 0.2 millions of tons in 2008. Bottom ashes from MSWI contain pollutants like metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cu), metalloids (e.g. As, Se), elements forming oxyanions (e.g. Sb, Cr, Mo) and easily soluble salts like chlorides and sulphates. These constituents can leach out polluting the environment if ash comes in contact with water. Treatment methods for decreasing the amount of pollutants in ashes or their mobility are therefore needed. Sieving was investigated as a separate or a complementary treatment method for MSWI ashes. Hypothesis was that the large share of pollutant concentrations could be removed from the ashes through separation of the finest fractions. The rest is less harmful to the environment, more acceptable as secondary construction material or less costly to landfill. Investigation included three MSWI ashes, namely bottom ash from Boraas Energy och Miljoe's plant with fluid bad, boiler ash from the same plant and bottom ash from Renova's stocker grate type plant. Ashes were sieved in 2-4 size fractions. Total content of pollutants and their leachability (batch leaching test, L/S=10 l/kg) was assessed for each of the fractions. Leaching results were compared to limit values stipulated by Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for acceptance of waste at landfills as wells as to recommendations for reuse of waste as a construction material. Results from bottom ash from the stocker grate type incinerator and from the boiler ash confirm the hypothesis that pollutants leach out in higher concentrations from the finer fractions. A large amount of pollutant could be removed from the ashes through sieving, but the goal to produce a fraction that

  13. Biogas--municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash interactions: sulphur compounds removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducom, Gaëlle; Radu-Tirnoveanu, Daniela; Pascual, Christophe; Benadda, Belkacem; Germain, Patrick

    2009-07-30

    This study focuses on a new way of reusing municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash: landfill gas purification before energetic valorisation. A pilot plant was designed and operated on a landfill site located in France (Loire). One kilogram bottom ash is able to sequestrate more than 3.0 g of hydrogen sulphide, 44 mg of methyl mercaptan, and 86 mg of dimethyl sulphide. Hydrogen sulphide retention is probably due to acid-basic reactions conducting to sulphur mineralisation under the form of low solubility metal sulphides. The reaction medium is hydration water. The retention mechanism for methyl mercaptan is probably similar but dimethyl sulphide is most likely retained by physical adsorption. As methane is not retained by bottom ash, the landfill gas energetic content will not be lowered. There seems to be no appreciable difference in these results whether bottom ash is fresh or carbonated. These results are encouraging in the perspective of a field scale application of this biogas treatment process.

  14. Extracting phosphorous from incinerated sewage sludge ash rich in iron or aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Jensen, Pernille E.

    2013-01-01

    Ashes from mono-incineration of sewage sludge (ISSA) generally contain high concentrations of phosphorous (P) and can be regarded as secondary P resources. ISSA has no direct value as fertilizer as P is not plant available. The present paper experimentally compares P extraction in acid from two...... different ISSAs; one rich in Al (67g/kg) and the other in Fe (58g/kg). The difference related to P precipitation at the waste water treatment facilities. Another major difference between the ashes was that flue gas purification products were mixed into the first ash and it contained about 5% activated...... carbon. The Al rich ash had a significantly higher buffering capacity and required more acid for extraction of P. When acid extraction of P from ISSA is the method for recovery, it is thus beneficial to go back to the waste water treatment facility and e.g. choose Fe for P precipitation rather than Al...

  15. Enrichment of PCDDs/PCDFs in peripheral utilities of the municipal solid waste incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sam-Cwan; Song, Geum-Ju; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Ko, Yun-Hwa; Hunsinger, Hans

    2013-05-01

    This study was performed to suggest the improvements through measuring the amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), re-synthesized in peripheral utilities (PUs) of a commercial-scale municipal solid waste incineration facility (MSWIF) where a few research results existed. The PUs examined in this study consisted of air pre-heaters (APHs) and gas/gas re-heater (GGRH) and kerosene-fired duct burner for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process. PCDDs/PCDFs in flue gas were simultaneously measured at the inlet and outlet of PUs. Flue gas was cooled down from 380 °C to 249 °C by exchanging the heat with fresh air in APHs, and then heated up to 383 °C by GGRH and duct burner from 164 °C at the outlet of bag filter. The results showed that PCDDs/PCDFs were 3-4 times higher within this temperature range of PUs. In comparison of PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations at the inlet with those at the outlet of PUs, particulate-phase PCDDs/PCDFs were about 9.5-10 times enriched while gaseous-phase ones were decreased by about 33-41%. The PCDDs/PCDFs re-synthesized in the PUs, where PCDDs were relatively higher than PCDFs, showed somewhat different patterns compared to those formed at incinerators and emitted at stack. Through the investigations for PUs, we conclude that the PUs used in MSWIFs was a potential source for de novo synthesis of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  16. In Situ Measurement of Alkali Metals in an MSW Incinerator Using a Spontaneous Emission Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental investigations of the in situ diagnosis of the alkali metals in the municipal solid waste (MSW flame of an industrial grade incinerator using flame emission spectroscopy. The spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame were obtained using a spectrometer. A linear polynomial fitting method is proposed to uncouple the continuous spectrum and the characteristic line. Based on spectra processing and a non-gray emissivity model, the flame temperature, emissivity, and intensities of the emission of alkali metals were calculated by means of measuring the spectral radiation intensities of the MSW flame. Experimental results indicate that the MSW flame contains alkali metals, including Na, K, and even Rb, and it demonstrates non-gray characteristics in a wavelength range from 500 nm to 900 nm. Peak intensities of the emission of the alkali metals were found to increase when the primary air was high, and the measured temperature varied in the same way as the primary air. The temperature and peak intensities of the lines of emission of the alkali metals may be used to adjust the primary airflow and to manage the feeding of the MSW to control the alkali metals in the MSW flame. It was found that the peak intensity of the K emission line had a linear relationship with the peak intensity of the Na emission line; this correlation may be attributed to their similar physicochemical characteristics in the MSW. The variation trend of the emissivity of the MSW flame and the oxygen content in the flue gas were almost opposite because the increased oxygen content suppressed soot formation and decreased soot emissivity. These results prove that the flame emission spectroscopy technique is feasible for monitoring combustion in the MSW incinerator in situ.

  17. Fate of metals before and after chemical extraction of incinerated sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Wang, Qi-Ming; Fang, Le; Xue, Qiang; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-08-05

    Chemical extraction of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) can effectively recycle P, but it may change the speciation and mobility of the remaining metals. This study investigated the changes of the leaching potential and distribution of metals in the chemically extracted ISSA. Batch extraction experiments with different extractants, including inorganic acids, organic acids, and chelating agents, were conducted on the ISSA collected from a local sewage sludge incinerator. The extraction of Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Ba, Cr and As from the ISSA and the corresponding changes of the mobility and speciation were examined. The results showed that the metals in ISSA were naturally stable because large portions of metals were associated with the residual fraction. The inorganic (HNO3 and H2SO4) and organic acids (citric acid and oxalic acid) significantly co-dissolved the metals through acid dissolution, but the reduction in the total concentrations did not tally the leaching potential of the residual metals. The increase in the exchangeable fraction due to destabilization by the extractants significantly enhanced the mobility and leachability of the metals in the residual ISSA. Chelating agents (EDTA and EDTMP) only extracted a small quantity of metals and had a marginal effect on the fate of the residual metals, but they significantly reduced the Fe/Mn oxide-bound fraction. In comparison, the bioaccessibility of residual metals were reduced to varying extent. Therefore, the disposal or reuse of chemically extracted ISSA should be carefully evaluated in view of possible increase in mobility of residual metals in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Dioxins, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions from a hospital and cemetery waste incinerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininni, Giuseppe; Sbrilli, Andrea; Maria Braguglia, Camilla; Guerriero, Ettore; Marani, Dario; Rotatori, Mauro

    An experimental campaign was carried out on a hospital and cemetery waste incineration plant in order to assess the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Raw gases were sampled in the afterburning chamber, using a specifically designed device, after the heat recovery section and at the stack. Samples of slags from the combustion chamber and fly ashes from the bag filter were also collected and analyzed. PCDD/Fs and PAHs concentrations in exhaust gas after the heat exchanger (200-350 °C) decreased in comparison with the values detected in the afterburning chamber. Pollutant mass balance regarding the heat exchanger did not confirm literature findings about the de novo synthesis of PCDD/Fs in the heat exchange process. In spite of a consistent reduction of PCDD/Fs in the flue gas treatment system (from 77% up to 98%), the limit of 0.1 ng ITEQ Nm -3 at the stack was not accomplished. PCDD/Fs emission factors for air spanned from 2.3 up to 44 μg ITEQ t -1 of burned waste, whereas those through solid residues (mainly fly ashes) were in the range 41-3700 μg ITEQ t -1. Tests run with cemetery wastes generally showed lower PCDD/F emission factors than those with hospital wastes. PAH total emission factors (91-414 μg kg -1 of burned waste) were in the range of values reported for incineration of municipal and industrial wastes. In spite of the observed release from the scrubber, carcinogenic PAHs concentrations at the stack (0.018-0.5 μg Nm -3) were below the Italian limit of 10 μg Nm -3.

  19. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative...

  20. Incinerators, Solid Waste, Waste Cleanup OPEN Responsible Party Sites., Published in 2010, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Incinerators, Solid Waste dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as...

  1. Incinerators, Solid Waste, Waste Cleanup INACTIVE Responsible Party Sites, Published in 2010, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Incinerators, Solid Waste dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as...

  2. Incinerators, Solid Waste, Solid Waste Test Sites, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Incinerators, Solid Waste dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as...

  3. Incinerators, Solid Waste, Waste Cleanup CLOSED Responsible Party Sites, Published in 2010, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Incinerators, Solid Waste dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as...

  4. Incinerators, Solid Waste, Solid Waste Facilities., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Incinerators, Solid Waste dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as...

  5. Distribution of heavy metals in an incineration system of solid wastes in the Three-Gorges region of the Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Chuan; WANG Li'ao; CHEN Gangcai; LUO Yu; ZHANG Jun; CUI Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of investigations on the composition and contents of heavy metals in the domestic refuse in the Three-Gorges region of the Yangtze River, in combination with the experimental results, this paper deals with the distribution rule of heavy metals in the various compartments of an incineration system: leachate pool, fly ash and residue. It is concluded that in the leachate pool heavy metals should not be neglectable since about 30% of Pb and 10% of Cr are leached here; in the incineration system, above 74% of Cr, As and Pb exists in residue; above 96% of Hg exists in fly ash and the contents of Cd in fly ash are close to those of residue. It is also concluded that the physical conditions of incineration have a significant influence on the distribution of heavy metals in the incineration system.

  6. Air quality around of incineration plan of solid urban wastes; Calidad del aire en el entorno de una incineradora de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateu Barcelo, J.; Mas Torres, F.; Cerda Martin, V.; Colom-Altes, M.; Oms Molla, M.T.

    1996-12-01

    The measuring surveillance and control of incineration plant of urban solid wastes in San Reus has the main mission on the control of quality air in this are. The present study analyzes the data of emission of metal wastes. (Author)

  7. Incineration as treatment system of urban solid wastes. La incineracion como parte del sistem integral de tratamiento de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano Martinez, F. (IDAE. Madrid (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    Spain produces 12 million tons of municipal solid wastes. The incineration is the cleanest process and, at the moment, its use is complementary with the recycling. This article analyzes the Spanish situation and the process in USA and European Community.

  8. Incineration plant of urban solid wastes in Tarragona: experiences of five year functioning; Planta incineradora de residuos solidos urbanos de Tarragona: experiencias de cinco aos de funcionamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal Albiol, R.

    1996-12-01

    The incineration plant of urban solid wastes in Tarragona (Spain) was founded in 1991. After five years, the author does an review of the state of the art in the plant. The technical environmental experience are shown. (Author) 7 refs.

  9. International experience of Foster Wheeler in the incineration of urban solid wastes; Experiencia internacional de Foster Wheeler en el campo de la incineracion de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisen, C.; Florez, J. M.

    1996-12-01

    The enterprise Foster Wheeler presents its experience on incineration or urban solid wastes. The main examples of construction in the international area are the Camden and the Valorsul plants. (Author)

  10. Overlagssvejsning i affaldsanlæg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidstrup, Henrik; Hald, John; Tiedje, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In waste-to-energy plants nickel welding is often used to protect the waterwalls and superheaters from corrosion. Corrosion is caused by an aggressive atmosphere generated by the incineration of municipal waste. These corrosion attacks are often found to attack the welds, where the beads overlap...

  11. The comparison of fossil carbon fraction and greenhouse gas emissions through an analysis of exhaust gases from urban solid waste incineration facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Kang, Seongmin; Lee, Jeongwoo; Lee, Seehyung; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, in order to understand accurate calculation of greenhouse gas emissions of urban solid waste incineration facilities, which are major waste incineration facilities, and problems likely to occur at this time, emissions were calculated by classifying calculation methods into 3 types. For the comparison of calculation methods, the waste characteristics ratio, dry substance content by waste characteristics, carbon content in dry substance, and (12)C content were analyzed; and in particular, CO2 concentration in incineration gases and (12)C content were analyzed together. In this study, 3 types of calculation methods were made through the assay value, and by using each calculation method, emissions of urban solid waste incineration facilities were calculated then compared. As a result of comparison, with Calculation Method A, which used the default value as presented in the IPCC guidelines, greenhouse gas emissions were calculated for the urban solid waste incineration facilities A and B at 244.43 ton CO2/day and 322.09 ton CO2/day, respectively. Hence, it showed a lot of difference from Calculation Methods B and C, which used the assay value of this study. It is determined that this was because the default value as presented in IPCC, as the world average value, could not reflect the characteristics of urban solid waste incineration facilities. Calculation Method B indicated 163.31 ton CO2/day and 230.34 ton CO2/day respectively for the urban solid waste incineration facilities A and B; also, Calculation Method C indicated 151.79 ton CO2/day and 218.99 ton CO2/day, respectively. This study intends to compare greenhouse gas emissions calculated using (12)C content default value provided by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) with greenhouse gas emissions calculated using (12)C content and waste assay value that can reflect the characteristics of the target urban solid waste incineration facilities. Also, the concentration and (12)C content

  12. Study of trans-uranian incineration in molten salt reactor; Etude de l'incineration des transuraniens en reacteur a sel fondu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valade, M

    2000-10-27

    With the emergence of new options for nuclear power, molten salt reactors are envisaged for waste management. The aim of this thesis is to show how molten salt reactors can help to solve the transuranics issue. Their high versatility regarding to isotopic vector allows to accommodate large fractions of minor actinides as compared to solid fuel system. In this thesis, a neutronics study of molten salt reactors, MSR, has been conducted. For this purpose, two reference systems were considered, TIER1 and AMSTER. In the case of TIER1, an optimisation was made to reach an equilibrium. The analysis of both systems showed the main characteristics of MSR: their link to chemistry and on line reprocessing. In this work, several methods to drive the system to a state of equilibrium have been implemented and compared. During this process the isotopic composition and neutron spectrum, thus the nuclear reaction cross sections, vary tremendously. It is essential to take these evolutions into account in order to accurately estimate the equilibrium state. This has been accomplished inside the multi-recycling procedure we set with ERANOS. A dedicated calculation schema has been realized to simulate superthermal systems with this computation code. These results were checked through a benchmark against other computer codes. Then, with multi-recycling method, several molten salt systems have been compared in order to define the optimal reactor for transuranics incineration. Nevertheless, a final choice can not only be done using only neutronics characteristics since chemistry and thermal-hydraulics constraints are really important for MSR. Moreover, a complete safety study would be required. (author)

  13. 变频装置在生活垃圾焚烧发电厂中的应用%Application of Inverter in Domestic Waste Incineration Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 刘云杰; 蒋金明; 高波

    2013-01-01

    介绍了垃圾焚烧技术中变频器的应用,并结合某垃圾发电厂工程介绍其在工程设计中的应用.%The application of inverter in waste incineration technology was introduced. Its application in engineering design was expounded by combining a project of waste incineration power plant.

  14. 城市生活垃圾焚烧发电厂的环境防护%Environmental Protection in Incineration and Power Plant of Urban Domestic Refuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李煜

    2013-01-01

      近年来,随着城市生活垃圾焚烧处理技术的快速发展,垃圾焚烧减量化、资源化效果显著,但伴随垃圾焚烧处理过程中产生的恶臭、烟气、废水、废渣、噪声污染,使得社会越来越广泛关注城市生活垃圾焚烧发电厂对周边环境及居民生活的影响。文章根据垃圾焚烧污染物的产生根源及其无害化处理方法,探讨了垃圾焚烧发电厂的环境保护措施。%In recent years, with the fast development of incineration treatment technology of urban domestic refuse, it is obvious in minimization of refuse incineration and resource result, but malodor, flue gas, waste water, waste residue, noise pol-lutions caused in the course of incineration treatment inspire the society to pay more attention to the impact of incineration and power plant of urban domestic refuse on the environment and resident living. The paper probes into environmental protection of the refuse incineration and power plant in accordance with occurring source of refuse incineration pol utants and harmless disposal methods.

  15. Mathematical modelling of municipal solid waste incineration and thermodynamic study of the behaviour of heavy metals; Modelisation de l'incineration sur grille d'ordures menageres et approche thermodynamique du comportement des metaux lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, Y.

    2003-07-15

    The present dissertation describes experimental and theoretical investigations undertaken for the mathematical modelling of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in a grate furnace and the thermodynamic study of the speciation of heavy metals (HM), originally contained into MSW, during combustion. Thermogravimetric and gaseous analysis (mass spectrometry and gas chromatography) experiments were performed on MSW samples to get pyrolysis kinetics and to quantify the gaseous species that evolve during the primary reactions of devolatilization. Other experiments were carried out in a fixed bed pilot-scale reactor: the combustion of two types of solids (wood chips and MSW) was studied, and the influence of operating conditions (flow rate, staging and temperature of the primary air) as well as fuel characteristics (moisture content, inert material fraction, lower calorific value) was investigated. A mathematical model was developed for simulating the combustion of a solid fuel, either in a fixed bed reactor or on the grate of an incineration plant. It has been validated by comparison of the calculated results and the experiments carried out on the pilot. Thanks to this model, we have been able to localize the different processes taking place in the fuel bed and to evaluate the influence of the operating conditions on the combustion efficiency. Numerical simulations of the gas flow and combustion in the post-combustion chamber and the heater of an incineration plant were performed using the CFD code FLUENT. The local thermal conditions as well as local gaseous species concentrations obtained from these simulations were eventually used to carry out thermodynamic calculations of the speciation of HM during incineration. (author)

  16. Comparative assessment of municipal sewage sludge incineration, gasification and pyrolysis for a sustainable sludge-to-energy management in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolada, M C; Zabaniotou, A A

    2014-02-01

    For a sustainable municipal sewage sludge management, not only the available technology, but also other parameters, such as policy regulations and socio-economic issues should be taken in account. In this study, the current status of both European and Greek Legislation on waste management, with a special insight in municipal sewage sludge, is presented. A SWOT analysis was further developed for comparison of pyrolysis with incineration and gasification and results are presented. Pyrolysis seems to be the optimal thermochemical treatment option compared to incineration and gasification. Sewage sludge pyrolysis is favorable for energy savings, material recovery and high added materials production, providing a 'zero waste' solution. Finally, identification of challenges and barriers for sewage sludge pyrolysis deployment in Greece was investigated.

  17. A simplified sample train for collection of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from incinerator gaseous emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamparski, L. [Dow Chemical Co., Analytical Sciences Laboratory, Midland, MI (United States); Dunn, J. [Dow Chemical Co., Toxicology and Environemental Research, Midland, MI (United States); Nestrick, T.

    2004-09-15

    Because of the complexity of the sample collection procedures for stack gas emissions samples and the limited resources available to meet the ever-increasing sample analysis demands, steps were initiated by Dow Analytical Sciences Lab to reduce the complexity of EPA-defined procedures while not adversely affecting data quality of analytical results. The modified stack gas collection train has been in use for the collection of data to document process improvements undertaken to reduce dioxin emissions from incinerators. This document is intended to 1) describe a simplified stack gas sample collection train which has been used for a number of years at The Dow Chemical Company for the collection of research samples of gaseous emissions from incinerators; 2) explain the procedural differences compared to standard methods; 3) compare data generated by the techniques; and 4) discuss any potential biases in samples collected by this method.

  18. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed......, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some...

  19. Leaching for recovery of copper from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash: influence of ash properties and metal speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassesson, Henric; Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2014-08-01

    Recovery of metals occurring in significant amounts in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, such as copper, could offer several advantages: a decreased amount of potentially mobile metal compounds going to landfill, saving of natural resources and a monetary value. A combination of leaching and solvent extraction may constitute a feasible recovery path for metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. However, it has been shown that the initial dissolution and leaching is a limiting step in such a recovery process. The work described in this article was focused on elucidating physical and chemical differences between two ash samples with the aim of explaining the differences in copper release from these samples in two leaching methods. The results showed that the chemical speciation is an important factor affecting the release of copper. The occurrence of copper as phosphate or silicate will hinder leaching, while sulphate and chloride will facilitate leaching.

  20. A particulate model of solid waste incineration in a fluidized bed combining combustion and heavy metal vaporization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazza, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, UE Neuquen (CONICET - UNCo), Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Falcoz, Q.; Gauthier, D.; Flamant, G. [Laboratoire Procedes Materiaux et Energie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES), 7 Rue du Four Solaire, Odeillo, 66120 Font-Romeu (France)

    2009-11-15

    This study aims to develop a particulate model combining solid waste particle combustion and heavy metal vaporization from burning particles during MSW incineration in a fluidized bed. The original approach for this model combines an asymptotic combustion model for the carbonaceous solid combustion and a shrinking core model to describe the heavy metal vaporization. A parametric study is presented. The global metal vaporization process is strongly influenced by temperature. Internal mass transfer controls the metal vaporization rate at low temperatures. At high temperatures, the chemical reactions associated with particle combustion control the metal vaporization rate. A comparison between the simulation results and experimental data obtained with a laboratory-scale fluid bed incinerator and Cd-spiked particles shows that the heavy metal vaporization is correctly predicted by the model. The predictions are better at higher temperatures because of the temperature gradient inside the particle. Future development of the model will take this into account. (author)