Sample records for watershed management study

  1. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data (United States)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo


    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  2. Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management (United States)

    Vishnudas, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.; van der Zaag, P.; Anil, K. R.; Balan, K.


    This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

  3. Experimental study using coir geotextiles in watershed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vishnudas


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted in Kerala, South India, to test the effectiveness of coir geotextiles for embankment protection. In the context of sustainable watershed management, coir is a cheap and locally available material that can be used to strengthen traditional earthen bunds or protect the banks of village ponds from erosion. Particularly in developing countries, where coir is abundantly available and textiles can be produced by small-scale industry, this is an attractive alternative for conventional methods.

  4. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: User Manual and Case Studies (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  5. Multiagent distributed watershed management (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.


    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  6. Watershed management for erosion and sedimentation control Case Study: Goodwin Creek, Panola County, MS (United States)

    The Goodwin Creek watershed is located within the loessal hills of northern Mississippi, a region of high erosion risk and elevated watershed sediment yields. This manuscript combines a regional history of land management and conservation issues from the time of European settlement to present with a...

  7. Realities of the Watershed Management Approach: The Magat Watershed Experience


    Elazegui, Dulce D.; Combalicer, Edwin A.


    This paper aims to showcase the experience of the Magat watershed in the implementation of the watershed management approach. Magat watershed was declared as a forest-reservation area through Proclamation No. 573 on June 26, 1969 because of its great importance to human survival and environmental balance in the region. The Magat case demonstrates the important role that ‘champions’ like the local government unit (LGU) could play in managing the country’s watersheds. With the Nueva Viscaya pro...

  8. Observing, studying, and managing for change-Proceedings of the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds (United States)

    Medley, Nicolas; Patterson, Glenn; Parker, Melanie J.


    These proceedings contain the abstracts, manuscripts, and posters of presentations given at the Fourth Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds-Observing, Studying, and Managing for Change, held at the Westmark Hotel in Fairbanks, Alaska, September 26-30, 2011. The conference was jointly hosted by the Bureau of Land Management and the National Park Service.

  9. Dynamics of Soil Erosion as Influenced by Watershed Management Practices: A Case Study of the Agula Watershed in the Semi-Arid Highlands of Northern Ethiopia (United States)

    Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuyuki; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Negussie, Aklilu


    Since the past two decades, watershed management practices such as construction of stone bunds and establishment of exclosures have been widely implemented in the semi-arid highlands of northern Ethiopia to curb land degradation by soil erosion. This study assessed changes in soil erosion for the years 1990, 2000 and 2012 as a result of such watershed management practices in Agula watershed using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation factors were computed in a geographic information system for 30 × 30 m raster layers using spatial data obtained from different sources. The results revealed significant reduction in soil loss rates by about 55 % from about 28 to 12 t ha-1 per year in 1990-2000 and an overall 64 % reduction from 28 to 10 t ha-1 per year in 1990-2012. This change in soil loss is attributed to improvement in surface cover and stone bund practices, which resulted in the decrease in mean C and P-factors, respectively, by about 19 % and 34 % in 1990-2000 and an overall decrease in C-factor by 29 % in 1990-2012. Considerable reductions in soil loss were observed from bare land (89 %), followed by cultivated land (56 %) and shrub land (49 %). Furthermore, the reduction in soil loss was more pronounced in steeper slopes where very steep slope and steep slope classes experienced over 70 % reduction. Validation of soil erosion estimations using field observed points showed an overall accuracy of 69 %, which is fairly satisfactory. This study demonstrated the potential of watershed management efforts to bring remarkable restoration of degraded semi-arid lands that could serve as a basis for sustainable planning of future developments of areas experiencing severe land degradation due to water erosion.

  10. Community-Based Integrated Watershed Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qianxiang; Kennedy N.logbokwe; Li Jiayong


    Community-based watershed management is different from the traditional natural resources management. Traditional natural resources management is a way from up to bottom, but the community-based watershed management is from bottom to up. This approach focused on the joining of different stakeholders in integrated watershed management, especially the participation of the community who has been ignored in the past. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the important basic definitions, concepts and operational framework for initiating community-based watershed management projects and programs as well as some successes and practical challenges associated with the approach.

  11. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...

  12. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager" (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.


    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  13. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager" (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.


    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

  14. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management


    Qiu, Zeyuan


    Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMP...

  15. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L


    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to

  16. Water environmental planning and management at the watershed scale:A case study of Lake Qilu,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Water environmental planning and management has become essential for guiding the water pollution control activities.Past water pollution control activities have been site specific,with little thought on water quality standard reaching at the watershed scale.Based on the watershed approach,a seven-step methodological framework for water environmental planning and management was developed.The framework was applied to water environmental planning and management of the Lake Qilu watershed in Yunnan Province,China.Results show that the reduction amount of total nitrogen (TN) under the plan is 1,205 tons per year so that the target of environmental capacity can be reached in 2020.Compared with traditional methods,the framework has its prevalence and could be generalized to analogous watersheds.

  17. Towards sustainable integrated watershed ecosystem management: a case study in Dingxi on the loess plateau, China. (United States)

    Chen, Liding; Yang, Lei; Wei, Wei; Wang, Ziting; Mo, Baoru; Cai, Guojun


    The Chinese government initiated a massive conservation program called "Grain-for-Green" in 1999 to reduce soil erosion and improve ecosystem function. Implementing practical sustainable development in the loess plateau still remains problematic, particularly in its eco-fragile areas. Here we discussed an approach for sustainable development at the watershed scale by integrating land use suitability, ecosystem services and public participation in the loess hilly area. We linked land use scenario analysis and economic modeling to compare the outcomes of three scenarios, CLU (Current Land Use), GOLU (Grain-production Oriented Land Use) and PSLU (Potential Sustainable Land Use). The results indicated that compared to PSLU, GOLU may provide a higher economic productivity in the short-term, but not in the long-term. CLU ranked lowest in terms of economic benefits and did not meet the daily needs of the local farmers. To reconcile the land use adjustments with farmers' basic needs, a labor-saving land use strategy is necessary. Since the PSLU scenario assumes that slope cropland should be converted to pastures or orchards, more time may be available for off-farm work and for more public participation in integrated ecosystem management. Financial support to the local farmers for environmental conservation should be modulated in function of their positive contribution to ecosystem management.

  18. Application of watershed modeling system (WMS) for integrated management of a watershed in Turkey. (United States)

    Erturk, Ali; Gurel, Melike; Baloch, Mansoor Ahmed; Dikerler, Teoman; Varol, Evren; Akbulut, Neslihan; Tanik, Aysegul


    Watershed models, that enable the quantification of current and future pollution loading impacts, are essential tools to address the functions and conflicts faced in watershed planning and management. In this study, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) version 7.1 was used for the delineation of boundaries of Koycegiz Lake-Dalyan Lagoon watershed located in the southwest of Turkey at the Mediterranean Sea coast. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was created for one of the major streams of the watershed, namely, Kargicak Creek by using WMS, and DEM data were further used to extract stream networks and delineate the watershed boundaries. Typical properties like drainage areas, characteristic length and slope of sub-drainage areas have also been determined to be used as model inputs in hydrological and diffuse pollution modeling. Besides, run-off hydrographs for the sub-drainages have been calculated using the Rational Method, which produces valuable data for calculating the time variable inflow and input pollution loads to be further utilized in the future water quality models of the Creek. Application of WMS in the study has shown that, it is capable to visualize the results in establishing watershed management strategies.

  19. Optimal allocation of watershed management cost among different water users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zanxin; Margaret M.Calderon


    The issue of water scarcity highlights the importance of watershed management. A sound watershed management should make all water users share the incurred cost. This study analyzes the optimal allocation of watershed management cost among different water users. As a consumable, water should be allocated to different users the amounts in which their marginal utilities (Mus) or marginal products (MPs) of water are equal. The value of Mus or MPs equals the water price that the watershed manager charges. When water is simultaneously used as consumable and non-consumable, the watershed manager produces the quantity of water in which the sum of Mus and/or MPs for the two types of uses equals the marginal cost of water production. Each water user should share the portion of watershed management cost in the percentage that his MU or MP accounts for the sum of Mus and/or MPs. Thus, the price of consumable water does not equal the marginal cost of water production even if there is no public good.

  20. Integrated Resource Management at a Watershed Scale (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.


    Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur

  1. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: Theoretical Documentation (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  2. Participatory research using coir geotextiles in watershed management A case study in south India (United States)

    Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; van der Zaag, Pieter; Anil, Kunnathu R.; Balan, Krishnan

    This paper deals with participatory research on the introduction and use of coir geotextiles for soil and water conservation in a small community pond in a watershed in south India. The results demonstrate that a participatory approach enables the community to visualize and evaluate the impact of innovative technologies. As a result, farmers readily adapt a technology when they have experienced the positive research outcome. This reduces the adoption time, and can bring significant increase in yield, or decrease in labour costs, helping to enhance productivity, sustainability and improvement of livelihood.

  3. Storm Event Suspended Sediment-Discharge Hysteresis and Controls in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Scale Sediment Management. (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C; Rowan, John S; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó


    Within agricultural watersheds suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis during storm events is commonly used to indicate dominant sediment sources and pathways. However, availability of high-resolution data, qualitative metrics, longevity of records, and simultaneous multiwatershed analyses has limited the efficacy of hysteresis as a sediment management tool. This two year study utilizes a quantitative hysteresis index from high-resolution suspended sediment and discharge data to assess fluctuations in sediment source location, delivery mechanisms and export efficiency in three intensively farmed watersheds during events over time. Flow-weighted event sediment export was further considered using multivariate techniques to delineate rainfall, stream hydrology, and antecedent moisture controls on sediment origins. Watersheds with low permeability (moderately- or poorly drained soils) with good surface hydrological connectivity, therefore, had contrasting hysteresis due to source location (hillslope versus channel bank). The well-drained watershed with reduced connectivity exported less sediment but, when watershed connectivity was established, the largest event sediment load of all watersheds occurred. Event sediment export was elevated in arable watersheds when low groundcover was coupled with high connectivity, whereas in the grassland watershed, export was attributed to wetter weather only. Hysteresis analysis successfully indicated contrasting seasonality, connectivity and source availability and is a useful tool to identify watershed specific sediment management practices.

  4. Headwater management alters sources, flowpaths, and fluxes of water, carbon, and nitrogen in urban watersheds (United States)

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S.; Mayer, P. M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.


    Increased urbanization has altered watershed hydrology and increased nutrient pollution, leading to eutrophication and hypoxia in downstream coastal ecosystems. Due to urban stream degradation, there have been efforts to restore streams and reduce peak-flow discharges and contaminant export through stormwater management and stream restoration. However, there have been relatively few studies comparing watershed scale impacts of contrasting headwater management practices on sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients across space and time. In this study we compared sources and fluxes of water, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) along 4 watersheds of contrasting headwater management: 2 urban degraded watersheds with minimal or no stormwater management and 2 managed urban watersheds with stormwater controls and stream restoration. Surface water samples were collected biweekly at USGS gauging stations located within each watershed over 2 years. Spatially, watersheds were sampled longitudinally during 4 seasons. Sources of water, nitrate, and carbon were investigated using isotopic and spectroscopic tracer techniques. Indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) were also used to trace anthropogenic vs. natural water sources. Hydrologic flowpaths (groundwater vs. overland flow) were assessed with longitudinal synoptic surveys using stable water isotopes of H and O. Annual fluxes of water, C, and N, were estimated using the USGS program LOADEST. H and O isotope data showed that the source of stream water is primarily groundwater during summer months, with greater contributions from stormflow during winter months for all 4 watersheds. Elevated levels of indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) as well as greater "pulses" of C and N over time in the degraded vs. managed watersheds indicate potential sewage sources due to leaky sanitary sewers and greater stormdrain inputs. Unlike the managed watersheds where hydrologic flowpaths were from groundwater in headwaters, the longitudinal

  5. Technical review of managed underground storage of water study of the upper Catherine Creek watershed, Union County, northeastern Oregon (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.


    Because of water diversions during summer, flow in Catherine Creek, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon, is insufficient to sustain several aquatic species for which the stream is listed as critical habitat. A feasibility study for managed underground storage (MUS) in the upper Catherine Creek watershed in Union County, Oregon, was undertaken by Anderson Perry and Associates, Inc., to address the issue of low flows in summer. The results of the study were released as a report titled “Upper Catherine Creek Storage Feasibility Study for Grande Ronde Model Watershed,” which evaluated the possibility of diverting Catherine Creek streamflow during winter (when stream discharge is high), storing the water by infiltration or injection into an aquifer adjacent to the stream, and discharging the water back to the stream in summer to augment low flows. The method of MUS would be accomplished using either (1) aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) that allows for the injection of water that meets drinking-water-quality standards into an aquifer for later recovery and use, or (2) artificial recharge (AR) that involves the intentional addition of water diverted from another source to a groundwater reservoir. Concerns by resource managers that the actions taken to improve water availability for upper Catherine Creek be effective, cost-efficient, long-term, and based on sound analysis led the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to request that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent review and evaluation of the feasibility study. This report contains the results of that review. The primary objectives of the Anderson Perry and Associates study reviewed here included (1) identifying potentially fatal flaws with the concept of using AR and (or) ASR to augment the streamflow of Catherine Creek, (2) identifying potentially favorable locations for augmenting streamflow, (3) developing and evaluating alternatives for implementing AR and (or) ASR, and

  6. Ecological and Socio-Economic Modeling of Consequences of Biological Management Scenarios Implementation in Integrated Watershed Management (Case Study: Simindasht Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Keshtkar


    Full Text Available Integrated watershed management is considered as a new principle for development planning and management of water and soil resources emphasizing on socio-economic characteristics of the region to sustainable livelihoods without vulnerability for plants and the residents of an area. This research, in line with the objectives of integrated management, has been carried out for modelling and evaluating the effects of ecological, socio-economic consequences resulting from the implementation of the proposed management plans on the vegetation changes with a focus on the problems in Simindasht catchment, located in Semnan and Tehran Provinces. After standardization of indices by distance method and weighing them, the scenarios were prioritized using multi-criteria decision-making technique. Trade-off analysis of the results indicates that in the integrated management of Simindasht catchment more than one single management solution, covering all aspects of the system can be recommended in different weighting approaches. The approach used herein, considering the results of different models and comparing the results, is an efficient tool to represent the watershed system as a whole and to facilitate decision making for integrated watershed management.

  7. Quality of water and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources of hilly tribal villages with and without integrated watershed management-a one year prospective study. (United States)

    Nerkar, Sandeep S; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Khedkar, Smita U; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby


    In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV) compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV) (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081). The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05) was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV.

  8. Land degradation and integrated watershed management in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Bhan


    Government of India has launched various centre-sector, state-sector and foreign aided schemes for prevention of land degradation, reclamation of special problem areas for ensuring productivity of the land, preservation of land resources and improvement of ecology and environment. These schemes are being implemented on watershed basis in rainfed areas. Soil conservation measures and reclamation of degraded lands are decided considering the land capability and land uses. The efforts made so far resulted in enhancement of agricultural production and productivity of lands, increase in employment generation, improving the environment of the areas and socio-economic upgradation of the people. Integrated watershed management approach has been adopted as a key national strategy for sustainable development of rural areas. This has been proved by conducting monitoring and impact evaluation studies of the integrated watershed projects by external agencies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Vidula Arun Swami,


    Full Text Available In this era of ever increasing water demands and rapidly depleting water resources coupled with overpopulation, it has become necessary to develop the means to recharge the ground water resources which arenecessary for future requirements. This paper presents one such case study where large amount of rainwater is directed to recharge ground water resources. Somwar Peth is a small village located at distance of 15 Kms. from Kolhapur city. Under Social Forestry Department, some measures have been adopted to recharge the ground water resources, ut it has been found that these measures don’t work with full apacity in some cases. Hence it is planned to take such engineering and biological measures which will direct this extra runoff to ground water storage. The most significant feature of the work is that if such technologies are developed and adopted at larger scale in rural areas, it will prevent thousands of villages of the country from water supply by tankers. Moreover this will also help us to tackle the issue of flood which mainly occurs due to excess runoff.

  10. Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.


    Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address

  11. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.


    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  12. A digraph permanent approach to evaluation and analysis of integrated watershed management system (United States)

    Ratha, Dwarikanath; Agrawal, V. P.


    In the present study a deterministic quantitative model based on graph theory has been developed for the better development and management of watershed. Graph theory is an integrative systems approach to consider and model structural components of watershed management system along with the interrelationships between them concurrently and integratively. The factors responsible for the development of watershed system are identified. The degree of interaction between one subsystem with others are determined. The eigenvalue formulation is used to take care the inconsistencies arises due to inaccurate judgement in the degree of interaction between the subsystems. In this model the visual analysis is done to abstract the information using the directed graph or digraph. Then the matrix model is developed for computer processing. Variable permanent function in the form of multinomial represents the watershed system uniquely and completely by an index value. Different terms of the multinomial represent all possible subsystems of integrated watershed management system and thus different solutions for watershed management, leading to optimum solution. This index value is used to compare the suitability of the watershed with different alternatives available for its development. So the graph theory analysis presents a powerful tool to generate the optimum solutions for the decision maker for benefit of local people living in the watershed as well as the stakeholders. The proposed methodology is also demonstrated by a suitable example and is applied to the ecosystem and environment subsystem of the lake Qionghai watershed in China.

  13. A Spatially Explicit Decision Support System for Watershed-Scale Management of Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maher


    Full Text Available Effective management for wide-ranging species must be conducted over vast spatial extents, such as whole watersheds and regions. Managers and decision makers must often consider results of multiple quantitative and qualitative models in developing these large-scale multispecies management strategies. We present a scenario-based decision support system to evaluate watershed-scale management plans for multiple species of Pacific salmon in the Lewis River watershed in southwestern Washington, USA. We identified six aquatic restoration management strategies either described in the literature or in common use for watershed recovery planning. For each of the six strategies, actions were identified and their effect on the landscape was estimated. In this way, we created six potential future landscapes, each estimating how the watershed might look under one of the management strategies. We controlled for cost across the six modeled strategies by creating simple economic estimates of the cost of each restoration or protection action and fixing the total allowable cost under each strategy. We then applied a suite of evaluation models to estimate watershed function and habitat condition and to predict biological response to those habitat conditions. The concurrent use of many types of models and our spatially explicit approach enables analysis of the trade-offs among various types of habitat improvements and also among improvements in different areas within the watershed. We report predictions of the quantity, quality, and distribution of aquatic habitat as well as predictions for multiple species of species-specific habitat capacity and survival rates that might result from each of the six management strategies. We use our results to develop four on-the-ground watershed management strategies given alternative social constraints and manager profiles. Our approach provides technical guidance in the study watershed by predicting future impacts of potential

  14. Spatiotemporal variation of watershed health propensity through reliability-resilience-vulnerability based drought index (case study: Shazand Watershed in Iran). (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab


    Quantitative response of the watershed health to climate variability is of critical importance for watershed managers. However, existing studies seldom considered the impact of climate variability on watershed health. The present study therefore aimed to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of reliability (Rel), resilience (Res) and vulnerability (Vul) indicators in node years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 in connection with Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for 24 sub-watersheds in the Shazand Watershed of Markazi Province in Iran. The analysis was based on rainfall variability as one of the main climatic drivers. To achieve the study purposes, the monthly rainfall time series of eight rain gauge stations distributed across the watershed or neighboring areas were analyzed and corresponding SPIs and Rel ResVul indicators were calculated. Ultimately, the spatial variation of SPI oriented Rel ResVul was mapped for the study watershed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The average and standard deviation of SPI-Rel ResVul index for the study years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 was obtained 0.240±0.025, 0.290±0.036, 0.077±0.0280 and 0.241±0.081, respectively. In overall, the results of the study proved the spatiotemporal variations of SPI-Rel ResVul watershed health index in the study area. Accordingly, all the sub-watersheds of the Shazand Watershed were grouped in unhealthy and very unhealthy conditions in all the study years. For 1986 and 1998 all the sub-watersheds were assessed in unhealthy status. Whilst, it declined to very unhealthy condition in 2008 and then some 75% of the watershed ultimately referred again to unhealthy and the rest still remained under very unhealthy conditions in 2014.

  15. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan Qiu


    Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.

  16. Optimal Subdivision for Treatment and Management of Catastrophic Landslides in a Watershed Using Topographic Factors (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Yuan; Fu, Kuei-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Yu


    Recent extreme rainfall events led to many landslides due to climate changes in Taiwan. How to effectively promote post-disaster treatment and/or management works in a watershed/drainage basin is a crucial issue. Regarding the processes of watershed treatment and/or management works, disaster hotspot scanning and treatment priority setup should be carried out in advance. A scanning method using landslide ratio to determine the appropriate outlet of an interested watershed, and an optimal subdivision system with better homogeneity and accuracy in landslide ratio estimation were developed to help efficient executions of treatment and/or management works. Topography is a key factor affecting watershed landslide ratio. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the natural phenomenon, multivariate analysis was applied to understand the relationship between topographic factors and landslide ratio in the interested watershed. The concept of species-area curve, which is usually adopted at on-site vegetation investigation to determinate the suitable quadrate size, was used to derive the optimal threshold in subdivisions. Results show that three main component axes including factors of scale, network and shape extracted from Digital Terrain Model coupled with areas of landslide can effectively explain the characteristics of landslide ratio in the interested watershed, and a relation curve obtained from the accuracy of landslide ratio classification and number of subdivisions could be established to derive optimal subdivision of the watershed. The subdivision method promoted in this study could be further used for priority rank and benefit assessment of landslide treatment in a watershed.

  17. Improvement in health and empowerment of families as a result of watershed management in a tribal area in India - a qualitative study



    Background Tribal people in India, as in other parts of the world, reside mostly in forests and/or hilly terrains. Water scarcity and health problems related to it are their prime concern. Watershed management can contribute to resolve their health related problems and can put them on a path of socio-economic development. Integrated management of land, water and biomass resources within a watershed, i.e. in an area or a region which contributes rainfall water to a river or lake, is referred t...

  18. Watershed management for water supply in developing world city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 杨凯; 吕永鹏; 张宏伟; 吴健; 杨永川


    The water supply system in Shanghai provides about 2.55×109 m3/a,of which more than 50% is derived from the Upper Huangpu River Watershed. During the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization,the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources is emphasized in Shanghai. This paper proposes an integrated watershed management (IWM) approach in the context of the current pressures and problems of source water protection at the Upper Huangpu River Watershed in Shanghai. Based on data sets of land use,water quality and regional development,multi-criteria analysis and system dynamics techniques were used to evaluate effectiveness and improve decision-making of source water protection at a watershed scale. Different scenarios for potential source water quality changing from 2008 to 2020 were predicted,based on a systematic analysis and system dynamics modeling,a watershed management approach integrating land use prioritization and stakeholder involvement was designed to conserve the source water quality. The integrated watershed management (IWM) approach may help local authorities better understand and address the complex source water system,and develop improved safe drinking water strategies to better balance urban expansion and source water protection.

  19. Community participation and implementation of water management instruments in watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alejandro Perez Rincon


    Full Text Available The current model of water resources management in Brazil is decentralized, participative and integrated, and adopted the river basin as a planning unit. It is based on the performance of watershed committees; each committee has its own composition and rules of procedure, governed by its statute. The basic principles of this management have been established by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 and detailed by the National Water Resources Policy in 1997. At the State level, São Paulo enacted its water resources policy in 1991. This paper examined the participatory process in basin committees of the São Paulo State and its implications in the implementation of the instruments of water management, based in a case study of the Tiete - Jacaré Watershed Committee, using questionnaires filled by the Committee’s members (2009 - 2011. Engagement and integration among the stakeholders was observed. Still, the interviews’ results have shown that the Committee’s statute should be reviewed due to differences between the Federal and the State legislation, mainly regarding the participating sectors and representatives. It also showed a need for more information about water resource issues in this basin and in the State of São Paulo, as a whole. At the same time, it is recommended that representativeness of the institutions within the water council management be improved and that the work produced by the technical chambers be recognised at the committee decision-making level.

  20. Managing Watersheds as Couple Human-Natural Systems: A Review of Research Opportunities (United States)

    Cai, X.


    Many watersheds around the world are impaired with severe social and environmental problems due to heavy anthropogenic stresses. Humans have transformed hydrological and biochemical processes in watersheds from a stationary to non-stationary status through direct (e.g., water withdrawals) and indirect (e.g., altering vegetation and land cover) interferences. It has been found that in many watersheds that socio-economic drivers, which have caused increasingly intensive alteration of natural processes, have even overcome natural variability to become the dominant factor affecting the behavior of watershed systems. Reversing this trend requires an understanding of the drivers of this intensification trajectory, and needs tremendous policy reform and investment. As stressed by several recent National Research Council (NRC) reports, watershed management will pose an enormous challenge in the coming decades. Correspondingly, the focus of research has started an evolution from the management of reservoir, stormwater and aquifer systems to the management of integrated watershed systems, to which policy instruments designed to make more rational economic use of water resources are likely to be applied. To provide a few examples: reservoir operation studies have moved from a local to a watershed scale in order to consider upstream best management practices in soil conservation and erosion control and downstream ecological flow requirements and water rights; watersheds have been modeled as integrated hydrologic-economic systems with multidisciplinary modeling efforts, instead of traditional isolated physical systems. Today's watershed management calls for a re-definition of watersheds from isolated natural systems to coupled human-natural systems (CHNS), which are characterized by the interactions between human activities and natural processes, crossing various spatial and temporal scales within the context of a watershed. The importance of the conceptual innovation has been

  1. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling Software: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) (United States)

    Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a software application designed tofacilitate integrated water resources management across wet and dry climate regions. It allows waterresources managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices across their watersh...

  2. Social Safeguards for REDD+ in Mexico’s Watershed Management Program


    Garduño Diaz, Philippe Youssef


    Case studies on environmental governance are essential to improve comprehension on howto implement international agreements. This study focuses on seven social safeguards relevant toREDD+. The existence of these social safeguards is examined in Mexico’s watershed managementprogram in La Sierra Madre and La Costa of Chiapas. The watershed management program is anotherPayment for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme similar to REDD+. Questionnaires and interviews wereused to conduct primary research...

  3. Integrating socio-economic and biophysical data to enhance watershed management and planning (United States)

    Pirani, Farshad Jalili; Mousavi, Seyed Alireza


    Sustainability has always been considered as one of the main aspects of watershed management plans. In many developing countries, watershed management practices and planning are usually performed by integrating biophysical layers, and other existing layers which cannot be identified as geographic layers are ignored. We introduce an approach to consider some socioeconomic parameters which are important for watershed management decisions. Ganj basin in Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari Province was selected as the case study area, which includes three traditional sanctums: Ganj, Shiremard and Gerdabe Olya. Socioeconomic data including net agricultural income, net ranching income, population and household number, literacy rate, unemployment rate, population growth rate and active population were mapped within traditional sanctums and then were integrated into other biophysical layers. After overlaying and processing these data to determine management units, different quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted to achieve a practical framework for watershed management planning and relevant plans for homogeneous units were afterwards proposed. Comparing the results with current plans, the area of allocated lands to different proposed operations considering both qualitative and quantitative approaches were the same in many cases and there was a meaningful difference with current plans; e.g., 3820 ha of lands are currently managed under an enclosure plan, while qualitative and quantitative approaches in this study suggest 1388 and 1428 ha to be allocated to this operation type, respectively. Findings show that despite the ambiguities and complexities, different techniques could be adopted to incorporate socioeconomic conditions in watershed management plans. This introductory approach will help to enhance watershed management decisions with more attention to societal background and economic conditions, which will presumably motivate local communities to participate in

  4. Developing Participatory Models of Watershed Management in the Sugar Creek Watershed (Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Shaw Parker


    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

  5. Integrated Modeling System for Analysis of Watershed Water Balance: A Case Study in the Tims Branch Watershed, South Carolina (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.; Mahmoudi, M.; Lawrence, A.; Duque, N.


    The Applied Research Center at Florida International University (ARC-FIU) is supporting the soil and groundwater remediation efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) by developing a surface water model to simulate the hydrology and the fate and transport of contaminants and sediment in the Tims Branch watershed. Hydrological models are useful tool in water and land resource development and decision-making for watershed management. Moreover, simulation of hydrological processes improves understanding of the environmental dynamics and helps to manage and protect water resources and the environment. MIKE SHE, an advanced integrated modeling system is used to simulate the hydrological processes of the Tim Branch watershed with the objective of developing an integrated modeling system to improve understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes within the Tims Branch watershed. MIKE SHE simulates water flow in the entire land based phase of the hydrological cycle from rainfall to river flow, via various flow processes such as, overland flow, infiltration, evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. In this study a MIKE SHE model is developed and applied to the Tim branch watershed to study the watershed response to storm events and understand the water balance of the watershed under different climatic and catchment characteristics. The preliminary result of the integrated model indicated that variation in the depth of overland flow highly depend on the amount and distribution of rainfall in the watershed. The ultimate goal of this project is to couple the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models to integrate the hydrological component in the land phase of hydrological cycle and stream flow process. The coupled MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model will further be integrated with an Ecolab module to represent a range of water quality, contaminant transport, and ecological processes with respect to the stream, surface water and groundwater in the Tims

  6. Bridging the gap between uncertainty analysis for complex watershed models and decision-making for watershed-scale water management (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Han, F.; Wu, B.


    Process-based, spatially distributed and dynamic models provide desirable resolutions to watershed-scale water management. However, their reliability in solving real management problems has been seriously questioned, since the model simulation usually involves significant uncertainty with complicated origins. Uncertainty analysis (UA) for complex hydrological models has been a hot topic in the past decade, and a variety of UA approaches have been developed, but mostly in a theoretical setting. Whether and how a UA could benefit real management decisions remains to be critical questions. We have conducted a series of studies to investigate the applicability of classic approaches, such as GLUE and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, in real management settings, unravel the difficulties encountered by such methods, and tailor the methods to better serve the management. Frameworks and new algorithms, such as Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM)-based approaches, were also proposed for specific management issues. This presentation summarize our past and ongoing studies on the role of UA in real water management. Challenges and potential strategies to bridge the gap between UA for complex models and decision-making for management will be discussed. Future directions for the research in this field will also be suggested. Two common water management settings were examined. One is the Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) management for surface water quality protection. The other is integrated water resources management for watershed sustainability. For the first setting, nutrients and pesticides TMDLs in the Newport Bay Watershed (Orange Country, California, USA) were discussed. It is a highly urbanized region with a semi-arid Mediterranean climate, typical of the western U.S. For the second setting, the water resources management in the Zhangye Basin (the midstream part of Heihe Baisn, China), where the famous 'Silk Road' came through, was investigated. The Zhangye

  7. BMP analysis system for watershed-based stormwater management. (United States)

    Zhen, Jenny; Shoemaker, Leslie; Riverson, John; Alvi, Khalid; Cheng, Mow-Soung


    Best Management Practices (BMPs) are measures for mitigating nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused mainly by stormwater runoff. Established urban and newly developing areas must develop cost effective means for restoring or minimizing impacts, and planning future growth. Prince George's County in Maryland, USA, a fast-growing region in the Washington, DC metropolitan area, has developed a number of tools to support analysis and decision making for stormwater management planning and design at the watershed level. These tools support watershed analysis, innovative BMPs, and optimization. Application of these tools can help achieve environmental goals and lead to significant cost savings. This project includes software development that utilizes GIS information and technology, integrates BMP processes simulation models, and applies system optimization techniques for BMP planning and selection. The system employs the ESRI ArcGIS as the platform, and provides GIS-based visualization and support for developing networks including sequences of land uses, BMPs, and stream reaches. The system also provides interfaces for BMP placement, BMP attribute data input, and decision optimization management. The system includes a stand-alone BMP simulation and evaluation module, which complements both research and regulatory nonpoint source control assessment efforts, and allows flexibility in the examining various BMP design alternatives. Process based simulation of BMPs provides a technique that is sensitive to local climate and rainfall patterns. The system incorporates a meta-heuristic optimization technique to find the most cost-effective BMP placement and implementation plan given a control target, or a fixed cost. A case study is presented to demonstrate the application of the Prince George's County system. The case study involves a highly urbanized area in the Anacostia River (a tributary to Potomac River) watershed southeast of Washington, DC. An innovative system of

  8. Using game theory to assess multi-company strategies in watershed management



    Abstract The main objective of this work was to evaluate the use of game theory as a strategic tool for watershed management decision-making. An engineering problem case study was used in which three organizations compare various scenarios when deciding where to locate a polluting plant on a watershed. Six games were modeled to provide a variety of conditions that could feasibly be implemented and were simulated using software for finding Nash Equilibria solutions. The results show that game ...

  9. An Integrated Mobile Application to Improve the Watershed Management in Taiwan (United States)

    Chou, T. Y.; Chen, M. H.; Lee, C. Y.


    This study aims to focus on the application of information technology on the reservoir watershed management. For the civil and commercial water usage, reservoirs and its upstream plays a significant role due to water scarcity and inequality, especially in Taiwan. Due to the progress of information technology, apply it can improve the efficiency and accuracy of daily affairs significantly which already proved by previous researches. Taipei Water Resource District (TWRD) is selected as study area for this study, it is the first reservoir watershed which authorized as special protection district by urban planning act. This study has designed a framework of mobile application, which addressed three types of public affairs relate to watershed management, includes building management, illegal land-use investigation, and a dashboard of real time stream information. This mobile application integrated a dis-connected map and interactive interface to collect, record and calculate field information which helps the authority manage the public affairs more efficiency.

  10. Environmental indicators as an integrated management instrument for watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane Lopes de Mello


    Full Text Available Environmental problems at the watershed level are complex and require solutions that minimize socioeconomic, environmental, and political-institutional impacts. Within this context, a crosscutting analysis of concepts related to sustainable development, sustainable agriculture, watershed structure, and the use of indicators to measure local sustainability is of paramount importance for planning development at the local level. The objective of this research was to collect information related to management practices and rural development regarding the watersheds of Ribeirão Cachoeirinha and Córrego do Meio in the municipality of São Luiz do Paraitinga, SP. The goal was to propose sustainability indicators that would support an integrated watershed management strategy and promote sustainable development. Indicators should be based on the sustainability of watershed activities, be useful tools for implementing sustainable development and serve as reference in the decision-making process. Methods involved a general characterization of the area and the community using field surveys and published sources. The criteria utilized for defining the boundaries of the area were based on the Watershed State Program developed by the Agriculture and Supply Secretariat of the State of São Paulo. The results led to the development of 83 sustainability indicators and indicated the need for the community to develop an integrated strategy to promote local sustainable development.

  11. Interdisciplinary Watershed Studies Provide Science-Society Links (United States)

    Chambers, R. M.; Hancock, G. S.; Swaddle, J. P.; Hicks, R. L.; Roberts, J. T.


    Environmental issues typically occur at the intersection of traditional disciplines such as biology, geology, economics, public policy, and sociology, but many undergraduate students possess neither the tools nor the required interdisciplinary skills to effectively work together to address these complex issues. Our REU program--Interdisciplinary Watershed Studies at the College of William and Mary--with its common watershed theme, improves our students' independence as scientists, increases environmental science literacy across disciplines, and contributes to the educational development of undergraduates as environmental spokespersons. The cohort of students work with W&M faculty mentors on aquatic and associated upland habitats under increasing pressures from urbanization, posing questions integrated across disciplines to address relevant management issues identified by local government agencies and NGOs. Investigations of current hydrogeologic and ecological status in watersheds are completed by analyzing riparian corridor impacts associated with channel incision, stormwater management effectiveness, spatial variation in water quality, lake-wide budgets for water, sediment and nutrients, and population/community structure in aquatic and terrestrial portions of the watershed. Because the status of any watershed system is the result of historical changes in land use, sociologic and economic surveys of residents' perception of development, environmental protection and water and property rights are used to determine the current direction and strength of population and market forcing functions. Students work on each other's projects and develop an understanding of research approaches among fields. In addition to presenting their work at scientific conferences, many students give presentations at local meetings and agency workshops to enhance science-society links. Watershed analysis provides a comprehensive approach to environmental instruction that strengthens the

  12. Participatory integrated watershed management in the north-western highlands of Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagabo, M.D.


    This thesis is the result of assessments on the extent of existing resource use and management practices using a Participatory Integrated Watershed Management (PIWM) as a viable approach to promote best soil water conservation (SWC) measures towards more sustainable land use. The study was conducted

  13. Development and implementation of a watershed management plan forLlac la Biche, Alberta, Canada. (United States)

    White, J; Logan, M; Rawles, M


    Lakeland County is experiencing increasing developmental pressures arising from the oil and gas boom at nearby Fort McMurray. There is increased industrial traffic passing through the county, and 600 new residential lots are proposed in 2005, almost double from 5 years ago. Deteriorating surface water quality has been a concern in the area due to an increase in development and agriculture, while excessive fish harvesting and winterkills have impacted commercial and recreational fisheries. Today, walleye and pike populations in the lake remain collapsed and restocking efforts have not been successful. Due to the lack of studies done on the watershed, the county is leading a multidisciplinary research study which includes a baseline water quality study, riparian health assessments, land use mapping and ground-truthing and projects with the local health authority. This research has been summarized in a comprehensive state of the watershed report, which will be used to complete a watershed management plan for the Lac la Biche watershed. Recommendations from the state of the watershed report and watershed management plan will also be incorporated into municipal planning documents and recommend changes to the Municipal Government Act itself.

  14. Can Integrated Watershed Management Contribute to Improvement of Public Health? A Cross-Sectional Study from Hilly Tribal Villages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S. Nerkar


    Full Text Available Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study was performed in six purposively selected tribal villages located in Maharashtra, India. In three of the villages IWMP had been implemented (IWMV, but not in the other three (NWMV. The head of each household in all villages was interviewed using a questionnaire covering various public health aspects relevant to the villages. A total of 286/313 (92% households participated in the study. Compared to NWMV, respondents in IWMV experienced significantly lesser prolonged water scarcity (OR = 0.39, had greater number of toilets (OR = 6.95, cultivated more variety of crops (OR = 2.61, had lower migration (OR = 0.59, higher number of girls continuing education (OR = 3.04 and better utilized modern healthcare facilities in the antenatal, natal and postnatal period (OR = 3.75, 2.57, 4.88 respectively. Thus, tribal people in IWMP-implemented villages reported advantages in many aspects of public health.

  15. Can integrated watershed management contribute to improvement of public health? A cross-sectional study from hilly tribal villages in India. (United States)

    Nerkar, Sandeep S; Pathak, Ashish; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Tamhankar, Ashok J


    Tribal people living in hilly areas suffer from water scarcity in many parts of the world, including India. Water scarcity adversely impacts all aspects of life, including public health. Implementation of an Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) can help solve the problems arising out of water scarcity in such areas. However, the knowledge about and views of the water scarcity sufferers on the public health implications of IWMP have not been well documented. This cross-sectional study was performed in six purposively selected tribal villages located in Maharashtra, India. In three of the villages IWMP had been implemented (IWMV), but not in the other three (NWMV). The head of each household in all villages was interviewed using a questionnaire covering various public health aspects relevant to the villages. A total of 286/313 (92%) households participated in the study. Compared to NWMV, respondents in IWMV experienced significantly lesser prolonged water scarcity (OR=0.39), had greater number of toilets (OR=6.95), cultivated more variety of crops (OR=2.61), had lower migration (OR=0.59), higher number of girls continuing education (OR=3.04) and better utilized modern healthcare facilities in the antenatal, natal and postnatal period (OR=3.75, 2.57, 4.88 respectively). Thus, tribal people in IWMP-implemented villages reported advantages in many aspects of public health.

  16. Multi-objective game-theory models for conflict analysis in reservoir watershed management. (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Sheng


    This study focuses on the development of a multi-objective game-theory model (MOGM) for balancing economic and environmental concerns in reservoir watershed management and for assistance in decision. Game theory is used as an alternative tool for analyzing strategic interaction between economic development (land use and development) and environmental protection (water-quality protection and eutrophication control). Geographic information system is used to concisely illustrate and calculate the areas of various land use types. The MOGM methodology is illustrated in a case study of multi-objective watershed management in the Tseng-Wen reservoir, Taiwan. The innovation and advantages of MOGM can be seen in the results, which balance economic and environmental concerns in watershed management and which can be interpreted easily by decision makers. For comparison, the decision-making process using conventional multi-objective method to produce many alternatives was found to be more difficult.

  17. Vertical Collective Action: Addressing Vertical Asymmetries in Watershed Management



    Watersheds and irrigation systems have the characteristic of connecting people vertically by water flows. The location of users along these systems defines their role in the provision and appropriation of water which adds complexity to the potential for cooperation. Verticality thus imposes a challenge to collective action. This paper presents the results of field experiments conducted in four watersheds of Colombia (South America) and Kenya (East Africa) to study the role that location plays...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto


    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto


    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  20. To manage inland fisheries is to manage at the social-ecological watershed scale. (United States)

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Lynch, Abigail J; Young, Nathan; Cowx, Ian G; Beard, T Douglas; Taylor, William W; Cooke, Steven J


    Approaches to managing inland fisheries vary between systems and regions but are often based on large-scale marine fisheries principles and thus limited and outdated. Rarely do they adopt holistic approaches that consider the complex interplay among humans, fish, and the environment. We argue that there is an urgent need for a shift in inland fisheries management towards holistic and transdisciplinary approaches that embrace the principles of social-ecological systems at the watershed scale. The interconnectedness of inland fisheries with their associated watershed (biotic, abiotic, and humans) make them extremely complex and challenging to manage and protect. For this reason, the watershed is a logical management unit. To assist management at this scale, we propose a framework that integrates disparate concepts and management paradigms to facilitate inland fisheries management and sustainability. We contend that inland fisheries need to be managed as social-ecological watershed system (SEWS). The framework supports watershed-scale and transboundary governance to manage inland fisheries, and transdisciplinary projects and teams to ensure relevant and applicable monitoring and research. We discuss concepts of social-ecological feedback and interactions of multiple stressors and factors within/between the social-ecological systems. Moreover, we emphasize that management, monitoring, and research on inland fisheries at the watershed scale are needed to ensure long-term sustainable and resilient fisheries.

  1. Optimization Tool For Allocation Of Watershed Management Practices For Sediment And Nutrient Control (United States)

    Implementation of conservation programs are perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from nonpoint source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Herein...

  2. Adaptive management of watersheds and related resources (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.


    The concept of learning about natural resources through the practice of management has been around for several decades and by now is associated with the term adaptive management. The objectives of this paper are to offer a framework for adaptive management that includes an operational definition, a description of conditions in which it can be usefully applied, and a systematic approach to its application. Adaptive decisionmaking is described as iterative, learning-based management in two phases, each with its own mechanisms for feedback and adaptation. The linkages between traditional experimental science and adaptive management are discussed.

  3. Game theory and fuzzy programming approaches for bi-objective optimization of reservoir watershed management: a case study in Namazgah reservoir. (United States)

    Üçler, N; Engin, G Onkal; Köçken, H G; Öncel, M S


    In this study, game theory and fuzzy programming approaches were used to balance economic and environmental impacts in the Namazgah reservoir, Turkey. The main goals identified were to maximize economic benefits of land use and to protect water quality of reservoir and land resources. Total phosphorous load (kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and economic income (USD ha(-1) year(-1)) from land use were determined as environmental value and economic value, respectively. The surface area of existing land use types, which are grouped under 10 headings according to the investigations on the watershed area, and the constraint values for the watershed were calculated using aerial photos, master plans, and basin slope map. The results of fuzzy programming approach were found to be very close to the results of the game theory model. It was concluded that the amount of fertilizer used in the current situation presents a danger to the reservoir and, therefore, unnecessary fertilizer use should be prevented. Additionally, nuts, fruit, and vegetable cultivation, instead of wheat and corn cultivation, was found to be more suitable due to their high economic income and low total phosphorus (TP) load. Apart from agricultural activities, livestock farming should also be considered in the area as a second source of income. It is believed that the results obtained in this study will help decision makers to identify possible problems of the watershed.

  4. Watershed management and organizational dynamics: nationwide findings and regional variation. (United States)

    Clark, Brad T; Burkardt, Nina; King, Dawn


    Recent attention has focused on resource management initiatives at the watershed scale with emphasis on collaborative, locally driven, and decentralized institutional arrangements. Existing literature on limited selections of well-established watershed-based organizations has provided valuable insights. The current research extends this focus by including a broad survey of watershed organizations from across the United States as a means to estimate a national portrait. Organizational characteristics include year of formation, membership size and composition, budget, guiding principles, and mechanisms of decision-making. These characteristics and the issue concerns of organizations are expected to vary with respect to location. Because this research focuses on organizations that are place based and stakeholder driven, the forces driving them are expected to differ across regions of the country. On this basis of location, we suggest basic elements for a regional assessment of watershed organizations to channel future research and to better approximate the organizational dynamics, issue concerns, and information needs unique to organizations across the country. At the broadest level, the identification of regional patterns or organizational similarities may facilitate the linkage among organizations to coordinate their actions at the much broader river basin or ecosystem scale.

  5. Using a watershed-based approach to manage and protect water resources in the Bear Canyon Watershed, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, F.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Depending upon how people use land in a watershed, whether it be farming, livestock grazing, timber harvesting, mining, urbanization, or even recreation, all have significant impacts on the water moving through that watershed. This paper will focus on the urban watershed and how stormwater runoff from urbanization affects erosion, sedimentation, and water quality. It also will explore the potential of a watershed as the basis for managing and protecting water resources. Watershed-based management offers a clear look at how land-use changes affect not only water quality but also erosion and sedimentation; in addition, this approach develops preventive strategies to restore those affected water and land resources. The preventive strategies the author uses for this watershed can be applied to other New Mexico urban watersheds. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part shows how past and present land-use activities affect erosion, sedimentation, and water quality in the Bear Canyon arroyo system. The second part provides solutions to the problems of soil erosion and stormwater pollution in the urban areas through government intervention. The third part discusses how Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to limit or reduce stormwater pollution in residential and industrial areas.

  6. Identifying Cost-Effective Water Resources Management Strategies: Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a public-domain software application designed to aid decision makers with integrated water resources management. The tool allows water resource managers and planners to screen a wide-range of management practices for c...

  7. Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Adaptive Watershed Management (United States)

    Chang, N.


    The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals

  8. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management (United States)

    Smucker, Nathan J.; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A.; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Whorley, Sarah B.; Jicha, Terri M.; Serbst, Jonathan R.; Hill, Brian H.; Wehr, John D.


    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km2), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 - and Cl- that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria.

  9. Using game theory to assess multi-company strategies in watershed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Ogilvie Thompson


    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the use of game theory as a strategic tool for watershed management decision-making. An engineering problem case study was used in which three organizations compare various scenarios when deciding where to locate a polluting plant on a watershed. Six games were modeled to provide a variety of conditions that could feasibly be implemented and were simulated using software for finding Nash Equilibria solutions. The results show that game theory can provide key insights, such as the consideration of other players' strategies, and identify possible pitfalls that may occur when the companies seek only to maximize their individual profitability.

  10. Development of a Prototype Web-Based Decision Support System for Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejian Zhang


    Full Text Available Using distributed hydrological models to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing non-point source pollution by applying best management practices (BMPs is an important support to decision making for watershed management. However, complex interfaces and time-consuming simulations of the models have largely hindered the applications of these models. We designed and developed a prototype web-based decision support system for watershed management (DSS-WMRJ, which is user friendly and supports quasi-real-time decision making. DSS-WMRJ is based on integrating an open-source Web-based Geographical Information Systems (Web GIS tool (Geoserver, a modeling component (SWAT, Soil and Water Assessment Tool, a cloud computing platform (Hadoop and other open source components and libraries. In addition, a private cloud is used in an innovative manner to parallelize model simulations, which are time consuming and computationally costly. Then, the prototype DSS-WMRJ was tested with a case study. Successful implementation and testing of the prototype DSS-WMRJ lay a good foundation to develop DSS-WMRJ into a fully-fledged tool for watershed management. DSS-WMRJ can be easily customized for use in other watersheds and is valuable for constructing other environmental decision support systems, because of its performance, flexibility, scalability and economy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available When rain falls on the earth, it just does not sit there, it starts moving according to the laws of gravity. A portion of the precipitation seeps into the ground to replenish Earth's groundwater. Most of it flows downhill as runoff. Runoff is extremely important in that not only does it keep rivers and lakes full of water, but it also changes the landscape by the action of erosion. The purpose and objective in this study are to estimate the conditions of land cover of Unda Watershed based on the results of image processing, to estimate the monthly average runoff and discharge in outlet of Unda Watershed from 1999 to 2003. The research location is in Unda Watershed. This watershed lies in Province of Bali which has wide 233.1 km2 (23.310 Ha (Balai Wilayah Sungai Bali-Penida. Administratively this watershed lies in 3 Regencies that are Karangasem, Klungkung and Bangli Regency. Mostly the region lies in the Karangasem Regency. In this research, the monthly rainfall data employed to generate the runoff process. Analyze of contour map from topography map obtained the watershed area, physical parameter of river and concentration time. In this research used monthly average rainf all data (from 1999 to 2003 from Pempatan, Besakih, Singarata, Sidemen, Klungkung, Telengan, Rain Gauge Station and Polygon Thiesen method employed to analyze the datas. Apart of rainfall, there are a number of site specific factors which have a direct bearing on the occurrence and volume of runoff, they are soil type, land cover and slope. The soil types in this research area are all Regosol, this soil mapping does not need to be overlayed in obtaining the land unit. Analyze of land cover was employed by Supervised Classification method. By image processing obtained land cover of Unda Watershed estimated consists of 38.129 km2 of forest area (16.357°Ai, 19.122 km2 of grassland area (8.203%, 100.991 km2 of farmland area (43.325%, 62-412 km2 of area housing (26.775%, 2.625 km2

  12. An index-based robust decision making framework for watershed management in a changing climate. (United States)

    Kim, Yeonjoo; Chung, Eun-Sung


    This study developed an index-based robust decision making framework for watershed management dealing with water quantity and quality issues in a changing climate. It consists of two parts of management alternative development and analysis. The first part for alternative development consists of six steps: 1) to understand the watershed components and process using HSPF model, 2) to identify the spatial vulnerability ranking using two indices: potential streamflow depletion (PSD) and potential water quality deterioration (PWQD), 3) to quantify the residents' preferences on water management demands and calculate the watershed evaluation index which is the weighted combinations of PSD and PWQD, 4) to set the quantitative targets for water quantity and quality, 5) to develop a list of feasible alternatives and 6) to eliminate the unacceptable alternatives. The second part for alternative analysis has three steps: 7) to analyze all selected alternatives with a hydrologic simulation model considering various climate change scenarios, 8) to quantify the alternative evaluation index including social and hydrologic criteria with utilizing multi-criteria decision analysis methods and 9) to prioritize all options based on a minimax regret strategy for robust decision. This framework considers the uncertainty inherent in climate models and climate change scenarios with utilizing the minimax regret strategy, a decision making strategy under deep uncertainty and thus this procedure derives the robust prioritization based on the multiple utilities of alternatives from various scenarios. In this study, the proposed procedure was applied to the Korean urban watershed, which has suffered from streamflow depletion and water quality deterioration. Our application shows that the framework provides a useful watershed management tool for incorporating quantitative and qualitative information into the evaluation of various policies with regard to water resource planning and management.

  13. Soil Erodibility for Water Pollution Management of Melaka Watershed in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Adham


    Full Text Available The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Results indicated that the weighted curve number varies from 82 to 85 and monthly runoff 23% to 30% among the five watersheds. Soil erodibility varies from 0.038 to 0.06 ton/ha ( Linau-Telok-Local Alluvium, Malacca-Munchong, Munchong-Malacca-Serdang and Malacca-Munchong-Tavy are the dominant soil series of this region having the average soil erodibility of about 0.042 ton/ha ( The main focus of this study is to provide the information of soil erodibility to reduce the water pollution of a watershed.

  14. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds (United States)

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  15. South Fork Iowa River watershed selected for a national water-quality study (United States)

    Erwin, M.L.; Kalkhoff, Stephen


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying seven watersheds across the Nation to better understand how natural factors and agricultural management practices (AMPs) affect the transport of water and chemicals. Natural factors include climate and landscape (soil type, topography, geology), and AMPs include practices related to tillage, irrigation, and chemical application. The study approach is similar in each watershed so that we can compare and contrast the results and more accurately predict conditions in other agricultural settings.

  16. Watershed Conservation and Groundwater Management: An Integrated Perspective (United States)

    Kaiser, B. A.


    US natural resource policy has explicitly acknowledged the hydrological connection between forest resources and water resources from the inception of the USDA Forest Service for the dual purpose of timber and watershed management,, but it is often overlooked in short run policy decisions. In Hawaii, these closely interconnected resources led to the establishment of the Ko`olau Mountains Conservation District in the early 1900s in order to improve water supplies. This early action on the part of the state has enabled today a healthy watershed. The health of the watershed, however, is now under threat from incremental ecosystem change, particularly in the form of invasive species (e.g. pigs (Sus scrofa) and weedy shrubs (Miconia calvescens)) that change the hydrological properties of the watershed to increase runoff and reduce aquifer recharge. Economic costs of reduced recharge in the face of rising water demand from a growing population are potentially large, with preliminary estimates suggesting the losses from reduced groundwater recharge in the Pearl Harbor aquifer have a present value of 1.4 to 2.6 billion dollars (Kaiser and Roumasset, 2002). To refine and improve these preliminary estimates we use spatial analysis of the water balance in the Ko`olaus to relate land use and land cover to recharge and we simultaneously explore the risk of degradation of the forest quality for recharge purposes through a survey of watershed experts. Using this information together with a dynamic model of water pricing as a function of aquifer recharge and use, we examine how much of an economic return (in present value) forest conservation expenditures may produce in the form of protecting aquifer recharge. In conjunction, we begin to examine additional integrated benefits of reducing runoff to near-shore resources by relating upland conservation to reef quality using monitoring data from the Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program. Kaiser and Roumasset (2002

  17. Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus budgets in urban watersheds and implications for managing urban water pollution. (United States)

    Hobbie, Sarah E; Finlay, Jacques C; Janke, Benjamin D; Nidzgorski, Daniel A; Millet, Dylan B; Baker, Lawrence A


    Managing excess nutrients remains a major obstacle to improving ecosystem service benefits of urban waters. To inform more ecologically based landscape nutrient management, we compared watershed inputs, outputs, and retention for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in seven subwatersheds of the Mississippi River in St. Paul, Minnesota. Lawn fertilizer and pet waste dominated N and P inputs, respectively, underscoring the importance of household actions in influencing urban watershed nutrient budgets. Watersheds retained only 22% of net P inputs versus 80% of net N inputs (watershed area-weighted averages, where net inputs equal inputs minus biomass removal) despite relatively low P inputs. In contrast to many nonurban watersheds that exhibit high P retention, these urban watersheds have high street density that enhanced transport of P-rich materials from landscapes to stormwater. High P exports in storm drainage networks and yard waste resulted in net P losses in some watersheds. Comparisons of the N/P stoichiometry of net inputs versus storm drain exports implicated denitrification or leaching to groundwater as a likely fate for retained N. Thus, these urban watersheds exported high quantities of N and P, but via contrasting pathways: P was exported primarily via stormwater runoff, contributing to surface water degradation, whereas N losses additionally contribute to groundwater pollution. Consequently, N management and P management require different strategies, with N management focusing on reducing watershed inputs and P management also focusing on reducing P movement from vegetated landscapes to streets and storm drains.

  18. Urban Stormwater Temperature Surges: A Central US Watershed Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean J. Zeiger


    Full Text Available Impacts of urban land use can include increased stormwater runoff temperature (Tw leading to receiving water quality impairment. There is therefore a need to target and mitigate sources of thermal pollution in urban areas. However, complex relationships between urban development, stormwater runoff and stream water heating processes are poorly understood. A nested-scale experimental watershed study design was used to investigate stormwater runoff temperature impacts to receiving waters in a representative mixed-use urbanizing watershed of the central US. Daily maximum Tw exceeded 35.0 °C (threshold for potential mortality of warm-water biota at an urban monitoring site for a total of five days during the study period (2011–2013. Sudden increases of more than 1.0 °C within a 15 min time interval of Tw following summer thunderstorms were significantly correlated (CI = 95%; p < 0.01 to cumulative percent urban land use (r2 = 0.98; n = 29. Differences in mean Tw between monitoring sites were significantly correlated (CI = 95%; p = 0.02 to urban land use practices, stream distance and increasing discharge. The effects of the 2012 Midwest USA drought and land use on Tw were also observed with maximum Tw 4.0 °C higher at an urban monitoring site relative to a rural site for 10.5 h. The current work provides quantitative evidence of acute increases in Tw related to urban land use. Results better inform land managers wishing to create management strategies designed to preserve suitable thermal stream habitats in urbanizing watersheds.

  19. Watershed management program on Santiago Island, Cape Verde (United States)

    Lopes, Vicente L.; Meyer, John


    The Watershed Management Program (WMP) was put into operation in early 1985 on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, with the stated purpose, “to develop and protect the soil and water resources of the Program-designated watersheds … to stabilize the natural environment and increase agricultural production potential in the Program area.” The approach to soil and water conservation in the program has been to build erosion and flood control structures (engineering approach) and plant trees (biological approach) to decrease rill and gully erosion, trap sediment behind control structures, provide flood protection, increase infiltration, increase fuelwood and fodder production, and increase water supplies for irrigation. There have been many successes resulting from specific management activities, but flawed approach or implementation in a few key areas has acted to impede the program's complete success, including lack of a scientific basis for evaluating its impact on soil and water conservation; poor design, placement, and maintenance of some major hydraulic structures; inadequate intervention in stabilizing farmlands or education of farmers and landowners in the need for and benefits of agroforestry; and incomplete integration of engineering and biological approaches.

  20. 76 FR 68499 - Draft WaterSMART Cooperative Watershed Management Program Funding Opportunity Announcement (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary Draft WaterSMART Cooperative Watershed Management Program Funding Opportunity Announcement AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Water and Science, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Cooperative Watershed Management Program whose goals are to improve water quality and ecological...

  1. River and watershed planning: The San Luis Rey River case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheli, E.


    The environmental management of our water resources requires the integration of science and politics, defining problems and solutions for physical resources within a social context. Watershed planning is a term applied to the development of long-term strategies to reconcile a community's goals for water quality, ecological resources, and economic development. Presently, little guidance is available to local governments on how to devise a watershed protection strategy. This study outlines a general approach and refers to an ongoing watershed planning effort on the San Luis Rey River as a case study. The intent is to identify a range of issues to be considered in the development of any river and watershed plan.

  2. Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management (United States)

    Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.


    facilitate the evaluation of LID potential in Quito, we conducted field observations and measurements, completed archival research, analyzed available geographic and hydrologic data, and developed plans and designs for the Quebrada Ortega from its steep headwater reaches down through the densely-populated valley floor. We identified opportunities and constraints for LID, along with strategies from international LID precedent cities that can be applied in the context of Quito's unique physical and climatic characteristics, urban planning practices, and institutional structures. Using remote sensing techniques to determine permeable versus impermeable surface areas, we calculated that basins of at least 1% of the Ortega subwatershed's surface area would be needed to mitigate peak flows from most design storm scenarios. Rainwater harvesting can provide approximately 30% of average daily water needs based on current Quito consumption rates for the subwatershed's residents. By implementing LID strategies while also addressing other water management priorities, Quito provides a unique case study of a city that could bypass prohibitively expensive models used in industrialized countries (e.g., end-of-pipe treatments), and serve as a model for other Latin American cities seeking to resolve similar water management problems.

  3. Watershed basin management and agriculture practices: an application case for flooding areas in Piemonte. (United States)

    Bianco, G.; Franzi, L.; Valvassore, U.


    Watershed basin management in Piemonte (Italy) is a challenging issue that forces the local Authorities to a careful land planning in the frame of a sustainable economy. Different and contrasting objectives should be taken into account and balanced in order to find the best or the most "reasonable" choice under many constraints. Frequently the need for flood risk reduction and the demand for economical exploitation of floodplain areas represent the most conflicting aspects that influence watershed management politics. Actually, flood plains have been the preferred places for socio-economical activities, due to the availability of water, fertility of soil and the easiness of agricultural soil exploitation. Sometimes the bed and planform profile adjustments of a river, as a consequence of natural processes, can impede some anthropogenic activities in agriculture, such as the erosion of areas used for crops, the impossibility of water diversion, the deposition of pollutants on the ground, with effects on the economy and on the social life of local communities. In these cases watershed basin management should either balance the opposite demands, as the protection of economic activities (that implies generally canalized rivers and levees construction) and the need of favouring the river morphological stability, allowing the flooding in the inundation areas. In the paper a case study in Piemonte region (Tortona irrigation district) is shown and discussed. The effects of the Scrivia river planform adjustment on water diversion and soil erodibility force the local community and the authority of the irrigation district to ask for flood protection and river bed excavation. A mathematical model is also applied to study the effects of local river channel excavation on flood risk. Some countermeasures are also suggested to properly balance the opposite needs in the frame of a watershed basin management.

  4. Novel GIS approaches to watershed science and management: Description, prediction, and integration (United States)

    Spatial data and geographic information systems (GIS) are playing an increasingly important role in watershed science and management, particularly in the face of increasing climate uncertainty and demand for water resources. Concomitantly, scientists and managers are presented wi...

  5. Community implementation dynamics: Nutrient management in the New York City and Chesapeake Bay Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Earl Sterner


    Full Text Available The creation of natural resource management and conservation strategies can be affected by engagement with local citizens and competing interests between agencies and stakeholders at the varying levels of governance. This paper examines the role of local engagement and the interaction between governance levels on the outcomes of nutrient management policy, a specific area of natural resource conservation and management. Presented are two case studies of the New York City and Chesapeake Bay Watersheds in the US. These case studies touch upon the themes of local citizen engagement and governance stakeholder interaction in changing nutrient management to improve water quality. An analysis of these cases leads to several key considerations for the creation and implementation of nutrient management and natural resource management more broadly, including the importance of: local citizen engagement, government brokering and cost sharing; and the need of all stakeholders to respect each other in the policy creation and implementation process.

  6. From Eutrophic to Mesotrophic: Modelling Watershed Management Scenarios to Change the Trophic Status of a Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mateus


    Full Text Available Management decisions related with water quality in lakes and reservoirs require a combined land-water processes study approach. This study reports on an integrated watershed-reservoir modeling methodology: the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to estimate the nutrient input loads from the watershed, used afterwards as boundary conditions to the reservoir model, CE-QUAL-W2. The integrated modeling system was applied to the Torrão reservoir and drainage basin. The objective of the study was to quantify the total maximum input load that allows the reservoir to be classified as mesotrophic. Torrão reservoir is located in the Tâmega River, one of the most important tributaries of the Douro River in Portugal. The watershed is characterized by a variety of land uses and urban areas, accounting for a total Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP discharge of ~100,000 p.e. According to the criteria defined by the National Water Institute (based on the WWTP Directive, the Torrão reservoir is classified as eutrophic. Model estimates show that a 10% reduction in nutrient loads will suffice to change the state to mesotrophic, and should target primarily WWTP effluents, but also act on diffuse sources. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  7. Longitudinal patterns in carbon and nutrient export from urban watersheds with contrasting headwater management (United States)

    Smith, R. M.; Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.


    Stormwater management in urban areas presents challenges and opportunities to enhance water quality while simultaneously protecting property and infrastructure. Through several generations, stormwater management practices have evolved from 'gray infrastructure' such as pipes and ditches designed to quickly transport water away from the landscape, to more 'green infrastructure' projects meant to allow for biological processing and retention of urban runoff. Implementation of these practices has replaced traditional stream burial with bioretention cells, wetlands, and ponds. We hypothesize that these contrasting green versus gray strategies for headwater management may have significant consequences for the delivery and processing of dissolved carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. To address this hypothesis, we compared two paired urbanized watersheds with different stormwater management by measuring the longitudinal export of DOC, DIC, TDN, PO4+, and major anions, and characterizing dissolved organic matter using Fluorescence Index (FI) and Spectral Slope. Both watersheds were located in the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Dead Run is an urbanized catchment with prevalent stream burial and minimal stormwater management which was implemented after initial development. Red Run is a similarly sized watershed with more recent development and comprehensive stormwater management (wetlands, ponds, bioretention cells, sand filters) and 100m wide stream buffer areas. In each of these contrasting watersheds, we chose two headwater streams which drain SWM features and one stream that terminates at a storm drain. We measured longitudinal changes in export by conducting a synoptic survey of both watersheds in which flow and water chemistry were measured every 500m in the main stem and approximately every 250m in the selected tributaries. Within watersheds, we found differences in the C, N and P loads from SWM and non-SWM streams. In Red Run, DOC


    Implementation of conservation programs are perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from non-point source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Here-...

  9. Watershed Dynamics, with focus on connectivity index and management of water related impacts on road infrastructure (United States)

    Kalantari, Z.


    In Sweden, spatially explicit approaches have been applied in various disciplines such as landslide modelling based on soil type data and flood risk modelling for large rivers. Regarding flood mapping, most previous studies have focused on complex hydrological modelling on a small scale whereas just a few studies have used a robust GIS-based approach integrating most physical catchment descriptor (PCD) aspects on a larger scale. This study was built on a conceptual framework for looking at SedInConnect model, topography, land use, soil data and other PCDs and climate change in an integrated way to pave the way for more integrated policy making. The aim of the present study was to develop methodology for predicting the spatial probability of flooding on a general large scale. This framework can provide a region with an effective tool to inform a broad range of watershed planning activities within a region. Regional planners, decision-makers, etc. can utilize this tool to identify the most vulnerable points in a watershed and along roads to plan for interventions and actions to alter impacts of high flows and other extreme weather events on roads construction. The application of the model over a large scale can give a realistic spatial characterization of sediment connectivity for the optimal management of debris flow to road structures. The ability of the model to capture flooding probability was determined for different watersheds in central Sweden. Using data from this initial investigation, a method to subtract spatial data for multiple catchments and to produce soft data for statistical analysis was developed. It allowed flood probability to be predicted from spatially sparse data without compromising the significant hydrological features on the landscape. This in turn allowed objective quantification of the probability of floods at the field scale for future model development and watershed management.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this study,a decision support system for managing pesticides losses in agricultural watersheds,based on a number of simulation,GIS and RS technologies was developed. The system allows acquisition of information through not only on-site survey but also RS technologies. Aerial photographs were used to generate DEM,and a set of terrain analysis methods were employed to calculate hydrological parameters that are needed for the pesticide loss model. The system also facilitates convenient management and presentation of vast amounts of modeling inputs and outputs through user interfaces. A case study in the Kintore Creek Watershed,Ontario,Canada was undertaken to provide bases for environmental management in the watershed and to demonstrate practical applicability of the developed DSS. The modeling outputs were verified through monitoring data,demonstrating reasonable prediction accuracy. The result indicated that the model provides an effective means for forecasting pesticide losses from agriculture lands. Especially,incorporation of GIS and remote sensing with the pesticides losses model provide a powerful tool for system simulation and environmental management. The major contribution of this study is the development of a new integrated modeling system for simulating fate of pesticides in agricultural lands,as well as its application to a real Canadian case study. In detail,a dynamic simulation model was developed,a solution algorithm was implemented,and the modeling results were verified. The developed simulator was also enhanced through incorporation of GIS and RS technologies within its framework to facilitate effective data acquisition and management,as well as input/output presentation.

  11. Watershed management and public health: an exploration of the intersection of two fields as reported in the literature from 2000 to 2010. (United States)

    Bunch, Martin J; Parkes, Margot; Zubrycki, Karla; Venema, Henry; Hallstrom, Lars; Neudorffer, Cynthia; Berbés-Blázquez, Marta; Morrison, Karen


    Watersheds are settings for health and well-being that have a great deal to offer the public health community due to the correspondence between the spatial form of the watershed unit and the importance to health and well-being of water. However, managing watersheds for human health and well-being requires the ability to move beyond typical reductionist approaches toward more holistic methods. Health and well-being are emergent properties of inter-related social and biophysical processes. This paper characterizes points of connection and integration between watershed management and public health and tests a new conceptual model, the Watershed Governance Prism, to determine the prevalence in peer-reviewed literature of different perspectives relating to watersheds and public health. We conducted an initial search of academic databases for papers that addressed the interface between watershed management (or governance) and public health themes. We then generated a sample of these papers and undertook a collaborative analysis informed by the Watershed Governance Prism. Our analysis found that although these manuscripts dealt with a range of biophysical and social determinants of health, there was a tendency for social factors and health outcomes to be framed as context only for these studies, rather than form the core of the relationships being investigated. At least one cluster of papers emerged from this analysis that represented a cohesive perspective on watershed governance and health; "Perspective B" on the Watershed Governance Prism, "water governance for ecosystems and well-being," was dominant. Overall, the integration of watershed management/governance and public health is in its infancy.

  12. Watershed regulation and local action: analysis of the Senegal River watershed management by a regional organisation and public participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sène


    Full Text Available Several social scientists have dealt with the usefulness of a participative approach in development plans. The call for sustainable development has increased the focus on this type of approach in a very classical way, which is the case for the creation of new water tanks. Most of these scientists have also pinpointed the major difficulties and failures faced during the execution of this new approach in developing countries. This study is a concrete example which underlines the lack of this type of approach as far as water management in the Senegal River is concerned, mainly in relation to watershed. We base our study on the analysis and criticism of the regional organization OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River which is in charge of water management in the Senegal River. The results of the study can, therefore, be summed up as follows: (i An on-site direct observation, individual interviews, group discussion and information analysis point out the lack of participation of local people in water management in the Senegal River and, in general, the harmful socio-economic impacts resulting from it. (ii The reasons for this lack of participative approach are mainly due to the model set up by the OMVS in terms of water management in the Senegal River, a model that has excluded or tackled in a very light way the issue of public participation in decision-making through out its juridical and regulation instruments. (iii Elements of consideration on some measures, which could possibly improve the level of participation of local people in river water management.

  13. Using causal loop diagrams for the initialization of stakeholder engagement in soil salinity management in agricultural watersheds in developing countries: a case study in the Rechna Doab watershed, Pakistan. (United States)

    Inam, Azhar; Adamowski, Jan; Halbe, Johannes; Prasher, Shiv


    Over the course of the last twenty years, participatory modeling has increasingly been advocated as an integral component of integrated, adaptive, and collaborative water resources management. However, issues of high cost, time, and expertise are significant hurdles to the widespread adoption of participatory modeling in many developing countries. In this study, a step-wise method to initialize the involvement of key stakeholders in the development of qualitative system dynamics models (i.e. causal loop diagrams) is presented. The proposed approach is designed to overcome the challenges of low expertise, time and financial resources that have hampered previous participatory modeling efforts in developing countries. The methodological framework was applied in a case study of soil salinity management in the Rechna Doab region of Pakistan, with a focus on the application of qualitative modeling through stakeholder-built causal loop diagrams to address soil salinity problems in the basin. Individual causal loop diagrams were developed by key stakeholder groups, following which an overall group causal loop diagram of the entire system was built based on the individual causal loop diagrams to form a holistic qualitative model of the whole system. The case study demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach, based on using causal loop diagrams in initiating stakeholder involvement in the participatory model building process. In addition, the results point to social-economic aspects of soil salinity that have not been considered by other modeling studies to date.

  14. Beyond Impervious: Urban Land-Cover Pattern Variation and Implications for Watershed Management (United States)

    Beck, Scott M.; McHale, Melissa R.; Hess, George R.


    Impervious surfaces degrade urban water quality, but their over-coverage has not explained the persistent water quality variation observed among catchments with similar rates of imperviousness. Land-cover patterns likely explain much of this variation, although little is known about how they vary among watersheds. Our goal was to analyze a series of urban catchments within a range of impervious cover to evaluate how land-cover varies among them. We then highlight examples from the literature to explore the potential effects of land-cover pattern variability for urban watershed management. High-resolution (1 m2) land-cover data were used to quantify 23 land-cover pattern and stormwater infrastructure metrics within 32 catchments across the Triangle Region of North Carolina. These metrics were used to analyze variability in land-cover patterns among the study catchments. We used hierarchical clustering to organize the catchments into four groups, each with a distinct landscape pattern. Among these groups, the connectivity of combined land-cover patches accounted for 40 %, and the size and shape of lawns and buildings accounted for 20 %, of the overall variation in land-cover patterns among catchments. Storm water infrastructure metrics accounted for 8 % of the remaining variation. Our analysis demonstrates that land-cover patterns do vary among urban catchments, and that trees and grass (lawns) are divergent cover types in urban systems. The complex interactions among land-covers have several direct implications for the ongoing management of urban watersheds.

  15. Hydromentor: An integrated water resources monitoring and management system at modified semi-arid watersheds (United States)

    Vasiliades, Lampros; Sidiropoulos, Pantelis; Tzabiras, John; Kokkinos, Konstantinos; Spiliotopoulos, Marios; Papaioannou, George; Fafoutis, Chrysostomos; Michailidou, Kalliopi; Tziatzios, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Mylopoulos, Nikitas


    Natural and engineered water systems interact throughout watersheds and while there is clearly a link between watershed activities and the quantity and quality of water entering the engineered environment, these systems are considered distinct operational systems. As a result, the strategic approach to data management and modeling within the two systems is very different, leading to significant difficulties in integrating the two systems in order to make comprehensive watershed decisions. In this paper, we describe the "HYDROMENTOR" research project, a highly-structured data storage and exchange system that integrates multiple tools and models describing both natural and modified environments, to provide an integrated tool for management of water resources. Our underlying objective in presenting our conceptual design for this water information system is to develop an integrated and automated system that will achieve monitoring and management of the water quantity and quality at watershed level for both surface water (rivers and lakes) and ground water resources (aquifers). The uniqueness of the system is the integrated treatment of the water resources management issue in terms of water quantity and quality in current climate conditions and in future conditions of climatic change. On an operational level, the system provides automated warnings when the availability, use and pollution levels exceed allowable limits pre-set by the management authorities. Decision making with respect to the apportionment of water use by surface and ground water resources are aided through this system, while the relationship between the polluting activity of a source to total incoming pollution by sources are determined; this way, the best management practices for dealing with a crisis are proposed. The computational system allows the development and application of actions, interventions and policies (alternative management scenarios) so that the impacts of climate change in quantity

  16. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng


    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses.

  17. GIBSI: an integrated modelling system for watershed management – sample applications and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Rousseau


    Full Text Available Hydrological and pollutant fate models have long been developed for research purposes. Today, they find an application in integrated watershed management, as decision support systems (DSS. GIBSI is such a DSS designed to assist stakeholders in watershed management. It includes a watershed database coupled to a GIS and accessible through a user-friendly interface, as well as modelling tools that simulate, on a daily time step, hydrological processes such as evapotranspiration, runoff, soil erosion, agricultural pollutant transport and surface water quality. Therefore, GIBSI can be used to assess a priori the effect of management scenarios (reservoirs, land use, waste water effluents, diffuse sources of pollution that is agricultural pollution on surface hydrology and water quality. For illustration purposes, this paper presents several management-oriented applications using GIBSI on the 6680 km2 Chaudière River watershed, located near Quebec City (Canada. They include impact assessments of: (i municipal clean water program; (ii agricultural nutrient management scenarios; (iii past and future land use changes, as well as (iv determination of achievable performance standards of pesticides management practices. Current and future developments of GIBSI are also presented as these will extend current uses of this tool and make it useable and applicable by stakeholders on other watersheds. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes some of the challenges that remain for a better use of DSS in integrated watershed management.

  18. Identification and prioritization of subwatersheds for land and water management in Tekeze dam watershed, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidane Welde


    Full Text Available Sedimentation and/or soil erosion are huge problems that have threatened many reservoirs in the Northern Ethiopian highlands, particularly in the Tekeze dam watershed. This study has been conducted to identify and prioritize the most sensitive subwatersheds with the help of a semi-distributed watershed model (SWAT 2009 for improved management of reservoir sedimentation mitigating strategies at the watershed level. SWAT 2009 was chosen for this study due to its ability to produce routed sediment yield and identify principal sediment source areas at the selected point of interest. Based on a digital elevation model (DEM the catchment was divided in to 47 subwatersheds using the dam axis as the main outlet. By overlaying land use, soil and slope of the study area, the subwatersheds were further divided in to 690 hydrological response units (HRUs. Model calibration (for the period of January 1996 to December 2002 and validation (for the period of January 2003 to December 2006 were carried out for stream flow rate and sediment yield data observed at Emba madre gage station. The results of model performance evaluation statistics for both stream flow and sediment yield shows that the model has a high potential in estimation of stream flow and sediment yield. Tekeze dam watershed has mean annual stream flow of 137.74 m3/s and annual sediment yield of 15.17 t/ha/year. Out of the 47 subwatersheds, 13 subwatersheds (mostly located in the north eastern and north western part of the catchment were prioritized. The maximum sediment outflow of these 13 subwatersheds, ranges from 18.49 to 32.57 t/ha/year and are characterized dominantly by cultivated land, shrub land & bare land with average land slope ranging from 7.9 to15.2% and with the dominant soil type of Eutric cambisols. These results can help to formulate and implement effective, appropriate and sustainable watershed management which in turn can help in sustaining the reservoir storage capacity of

  19. Ecosystem services of human-dominated watersheds and land use influences: a case study from the Dianchi Lake watershed in China. (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Li, Bo; Müller, Felix; Chen, Weiping


    Watersheds provide multiple ecosystem services. Ecosystem service assessment is a promising approach to investigate human-environment interaction at the watershed scale. The spatial characteristics of ecosystem services are closely related to land use statuses in human-dominated watersheds. This study aims to investigate the effects of land use on the spatial variations of ecosystem services at the Dianchi Lake watershed in Southwest China. We investigated the spatial variations of six ecosystem services-food supply, net primary productivity (NPP), habitat quality, evapotranspiration, water yield, and nitrogen retention. These services were selected based on their significance at the Dianchi Lake watershed and the availability of their data. The quantification of these services was based on modeling, value transference, and spatial analysis in combination with biophysical and socioeconomic data. Furthermore, we calculated the values of ecosystem services provided by different land use types and quantified the correlations between ecosystem service values and land use area proportions. The results show considerable spatial variations in the six ecosystem services associated with land use influences in the Dianchi Lake watershed. The cropland and forest land use types had predominantly positive influences on food productivity and NPP, respectively. The rural residential area and forest land use types reduced and enhanced habitat quality, respectively; these influences were identical to those of evapotranspiration. Urban area and rural residential area exerted significantly positive influences on water yield. In contrast, water yield was negatively correlated with forest area proportion. Finally, cropland and forest had significantly positive and negative influences, respectively, on nitrogen retention. Our study emphasizes the importance of consideration of the influences from land use composition and distribution on ecosystem services for managing the ecosystems of

  20. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS --Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of a fenced stream crossing over the Pahsimeroi River to enhance a livestock riparian enclosure. This structure would include up to four wood fence posts and two deadman anchors buried in the ground. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat by preventing livestock from entering the riparian area via the river. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Carl Rudeen with the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District (August 4, 2004) and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are gray wolf, Canada lynx, bald eagle, Ute ladies'Tresses, Snake River chinook salmon, Snake River steelhead trout, and Columbia River Basin bull trout. It was determined that the proposed fence crossing construction project would have no effect on these species. Bald eagle, gray wolf and Canada lynx are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity. Since the site is used primarily as livestock pasture it does not lend itself to the presence of Ute ladies'Tresses. ESA listed fish may be present in the project vicinity but will not be affected because the project does not involve instream work. Soil disturbance will be limited to the livestock pasture and to two holes that will be used to bury anchors for the suspended portion of the fence. Required river crossings will be made on foot. Requirements associated with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act were handled by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), in cooperation with staff from the U.S. Forest Service (Boise National Forest), under their existing Programmatic Agreement with the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). A description of the

  1. Emergy evaluation of the artificial forest ecosystems in the watershed of Miyun Reservoir:a case study for ecosystems valuation and environmental management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To build the artificial forest ecoaystem is the major eco-economic development model in the watershed of Miyun Reservoir.It is very important to evaluate the benefits of those ecosystems.Emergy theories are very helpful for us to establish a science-based assessment framework.Emergy evatuation of the artificial forest ecosystems in the watershed of Miyun Reservoir is used to asses the relative values of several ecological hinctions (sometimes called ecosystem services)and main ecosystem storages(sometimes called natural capital).The main driving energtes,internal processes and storages are evaluated.The main functions,including transpiration,GPP and infiltration,are evaluated,which are 609em$/ha/yr,6,245em$/ha/yr and 340em$/ha/yr respectively.The total values of major environmental services are 4,683em$/ha/yr in the artificial forest ecosystem.The main storages of natural capital including live biomass,soil moisture,organic matter,underground water and landform are estimated,which are 112,028em$/ha,9em$/ha,40,718em$/ha,34em$/ha and 6,400.514em$/ha respectively.The largest value is landform,which accounts for97.7%of these calculated total emdollar values.The concept of replacement value is explored using the emergy values of both ecosystem services and natural capital.The total calculated replacement values are 302,160em$/ha.

  2. Post-adoption behaviour of farmers towards soil and water conservation technologies of watershed management in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lal Bagdi


    Full Text Available The Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation (IISWC and its Research Centres have developed many successful model watershed projects in India in the past and implemented many Soil and Water Conservation (SWC technologies for sustainable watershed management. While many evaluation studies were conducted on these projects in the past, there has been no assessment of the post-adoption status of the SWC technologies over a longer period. It was imperative to appraise the behaviour of the farmers with regard to the continuance or discontinuance of the technologies adopted, diffusion or infusion that took place and technological gaps that occurred in due course of time in the post watershed programme. Therefore, it was realized that the post-adoption behaviour of beneficiary farmers who have adopted different soil and water conservation technologies for watershed management projects should be studied in detail. The research study was initiated in 2012 as a core project at Vasad as the lead Centre along with IISWC headquarter Dehradun, and Centres Agra, Bellary, Chandigarh, Datia, Kota & Ooty, with the specific objectives of the study to measure the extent of post-adoption behaviour (continued-adoption, discontinuance, technological gap, diffusion and infusion of farmers towards the adopted SWC technologies of watershed management. In the present study various indices regarding continued adoption, dis-adoption (discontinuance, technological gap, diffusion, infusion regarding soil and water conservation technologies for watershed management were developed for measurement of post-adoption behaviour of farmers. It was revealed that a little less than three-fourth (73% of SWC technologies continued to be adopted and more than one-fourth (27% were discontinued by farmers. Out of the total continue adopted SWC technologies by farmers, a little less than one-fifth (19% of technologies continued to be adopted with a technological gap. More than one

  3. Agile data management for curation of genomes to watershed datasets (United States)

    Varadharajan, C.; Agarwal, D.; Faybishenko, B.; Versteeg, R.


    A software platform is being developed for data management and assimilation [DMA] as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Genomes to Watershed Sustainable Systems Science Focus Area 2.0. The DMA components and capabilities are driven by the project science priorities and the development is based on agile development techniques. The goal of the DMA software platform is to enable users to integrate and synthesize diverse and disparate field, laboratory, and simulation datasets, including geological, geochemical, geophysical, microbiological, hydrological, and meteorological data across a range of spatial and temporal scales. The DMA objectives are (a) developing an integrated interface to the datasets, (b) storing field monitoring data, laboratory analytical results of water and sediments samples collected into a database, (c) providing automated QA/QC analysis of data and (d) working with data providers to modify high-priority field and laboratory data collection and reporting procedures as needed. The first three objectives are driven by user needs, while the last objective is driven by data management needs. The project needs and priorities are reassessed regularly with the users. After each user session we identify development priorities to match the identified user priorities. For instance, data QA/QC and collection activities have focused on the data and products needed for on-going scientific analyses (e.g. water level and geochemistry). We have also developed, tested and released a broker and portal that integrates diverse datasets from two different databases used for curation of project data. The development of the user interface was based on a user-centered design process involving several user interviews and constant interaction with data providers. The initial version focuses on the most requested feature - i.e. finding the data needed for analyses through an intuitive interface. Once the data is found, the user can immediately plot and download data

  4. A Decision Support Systems Using A Combined Dynamic Model For Integrated Watershed Management (United States)

    Kudo, E.; Ostrowski, M.

    In this context A Decision Support System (DSS) is presented using a combined dy- namic model for Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) in a small urbanized basin in Japan. In order to improve today's often unsustainable watershed management, the causes of water problems, which interact with each other, must be identified and adequate actions must be chosen to solve the problems. To achieve the ultimate goal of sustain- able development (SD) for water it is essential to develop and apply generic DSSs. A DSS is frequently defined as a combination of a management information system, a model base and an evaluation / assessment module. The EU Water Framework Di- rectives recently established have a narrow time schedule requiring fast action into this direction, which does hardly allow to develop completely new tolls. Thus we are trying to combine different existing dynamic models that incorporate an urban man- agement model, a water quality analysis model, a groundwater analysis model and a water supply model including geographical information system data. With this com- bined model, the most appropriate and sustainable water management plan in an urban area will be developed while considering land use, ground water level, allocation of drainage system, sewerage, water supply works, water quality, and quantity. Because of sharing input data, using this combined model requires less data than using sev- eral separate models. The DSS can also be used to determine the optimum location of gages and monitoring sites. As a case study, the research will deal with the Taguri-river basin in Japan. This basin is located near Tokyo. Although the area in this basin has about 8 km2 only, there are densely build-up areas, paddy fields, and non-developed areas. The river is polluted due to wastewater from point resources: households, and non-point resources: roads and fields, etc. Overpumping of aquifers results in sinking groundwater tables and land subsidence. Moreover, a decrease

  5. Development of a socio-ecological environmental justice model for watershed-based management (United States)

    Sanchez, Georgina M.; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Zhang, Zhen; Woznicki, Sean A.; Habron, Geoffrey; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra; Shortridge, Ashton


    The dynamics and relationships between society and nature are complex and difficult to predict. Anthropogenic activities affect the ecological integrity of our natural resources, specifically our streams. Further, it is well-established that the costs of these activities are born unequally by different human communities. This study considered the utility of integrating stream health metrics, based on stream health indicators, with socio-economic measures of communities, to better characterize these effects. This study used a spatial multi-factor model and bivariate mapping to produce a novel assessment for watershed management, identification of vulnerable areas, and allocation of resources. The study area is the Saginaw River watershed located in Michigan. In-stream hydrological and water quality data were used to predict fish and macroinvertebrate measures of stream health. These measures include the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), Family IBI, and total number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) taxa. Stream health indicators were then compared to spatially coincident socio-economic data, obtained from the United States Census Bureau (2010), including race, income, education, housing, and population size. Statistical analysis including spatial regression and cluster analysis were used to examine the correlation between vulnerable human populations and environmental conditions. Overall, limited correlation was observed between the socio-economic data and ecological measures of stream health, with the highest being a negative correlation of 0.18 between HBI and the social parameter household size. Clustering was observed in the datasets with urban areas representing a second order clustering effect over the watershed. Regions with the worst stream health and most vulnerable social populations were most commonly located nearby or down-stream to highly populated areas and agricultural lands.

  6. Critical sampling points methodology: case studies of geographically diverse watersheds. (United States)

    Strobl, Robert O; Robillard, Paul D; Debels, Patrick


    Only with a properly designed water quality monitoring network can data be collected that can lead to accurate information extraction. One of the main components of water quality monitoring network design is the allocation of sampling locations. For this purpose, a design methodology, called critical sampling points (CSP), has been developed for the determination of the critical sampling locations in small, rural watersheds with regard to total phosphorus (TP) load pollution. It considers hydrologic, topographic, soil, vegetative, and land use factors. The objective of the monitoring network design in this methodology is to identify the stream locations which receive the greatest TP loads from the upstream portions of a watershed. The CSP methodology has been translated into a model, called water quality monitoring station analysis (WQMSA), which integrates a geographic information system (GIS) for the handling of the spatial aspect of the data, a hydrologic/water quality simulation model for TP load estimation, and fuzzy logic for improved input data representation. In addition, the methodology was purposely designed to be useful in diverse rural watersheds, independent of geographic location. Three watershed case studies in Pennsylvania, Amazonian Ecuador, and central Chile were examined. Each case study offered a different degree of data availability. It was demonstrated that the developed methodology could be successfully used in all three case studies. The case studies suggest that the CSP methodology, in form of the WQMSA model, has potential in applications world-wide.

  7. Relating sediment impacts on coral reefs to watershed sources, processes and management: a review. (United States)

    Bartley, Rebecca; Bainbridge, Zoe T; Lewis, Stephen E; Kroon, Frederieke J; Wilkinson, Scott N; Brodie, Jon E; Silburn, D Mark


    Modification of terrestrial sediment fluxes can result in increased sedimentation and turbidity in receiving waters, with detrimental impacts on coral reef ecosystems. Preventing anthropogenic sediment reaching coral reefs requires a better understanding of the specific characteristics, sources and processes generating the anthropogenic sediment, so that effective watershed management strategies can be implemented. Here, we review and synthesise research on measured runoff, sediment erosion and sediment delivery from watersheds to near-shore marine areas, with a strong focus on the Burdekin watershed in the Great Barrier Reef region, Australia. We first investigate the characteristics of sediment that pose the greatest risk to coral reef ecosystems. Next we track this sediment back from the marine system into the watershed to determine the storage zones, source areas and processes responsible for sediment generation and run-off. The review determined that only a small proportion of the sediment that has been eroded from the watershed makes it to the mid and outer reefs. The sediment transported >1 km offshore is generally the clay to fine silt (erosion is the dominant process responsible for the fine sediment exported from these watersheds in recent times, although further work on the particle size of this material is required. Maintaining average minimum ground cover >75% will likely be required to reduce runoff and prevent sub-soil erosion; however, it is not known whether ground cover management alone will reduce sediment supply to ecologically acceptable levels.

  8. Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control (United States)

    The “Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control: State of the Technology” project investigated a range of innovative technology and management strategies emerging outside the normal realm of business within the continental United States, fo...

  9. Application of the SUSTAIN Model to a Watershed-Scale Case for Water Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Chen


    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID is a relatively new concept in land use management that aims to maintain hydrological conditions at a predevelopment level without deteriorating water quality during land development. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA developed the System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration model (SUSTAIN to evaluate the performance of LID practices at different spatial scales; however, the application of this model has been limited relative to LID modeling. In this study, the SUSTAIN model was applied to a Taiwanese watershed. Model calibration and verification were performed, and different types of LID facilities were evaluated. The model simulation process and the verified model parameters could be used in other cases. Four LID scenarios combining bioretention ponds, grass swales, and pervious pavements were designed based on the land characteristics. For the SUSTAIN model simulation, the results showed that pollution reduction was mainly due to water quantity reduction, infiltration was the dominant mechanism and plant interception had a minor effect on the treatment. The simulation results were used to rank the primary areas for nonpoint source pollution and identify effective LID practices. In addition to the case study, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters was performed, showing that the soil infiltration rate was the most sensitive parameter affecting the LID performance. The objectives of the study are to confirm the applicability of the SUSTAIN model and to assess the effectiveness of LID practices in the studied watershed.

  10. Influence of dem in Watershed Management as Flood Zonation Mapping (United States)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Khan, Mudasir; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla


    Despite of valuable efforts from working groups and research organizations towards flood hazard reduction through its program, still minimal diminution from these hazards has been realized. This is mainly due to the fact that with rapid increase in population and urbanization coupled with climate change, flood hazards are becoming increasingly catastrophic. Therefore there is a need to understand and access flood hazards and develop means to deal with it through proper preparations, and preventive measures. To achieve this aim, Geographical Information System (GIS), geospatial and hydrological models were used as tools to tackle with influence of flash floods in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia due to existence of large valleys (Wadis) which is a matter of great concern. In this research paper, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of different resolution (30m, 20m,10m and 5m) have been used, which have proven to be valuable tool for the topographic parameterization of hydrological models which are the basis for any flood modelling process. The DEM was used as input for performing spatial analysis and obtaining derivative products and delineate watershed characteristics of the study area using ArcGIS desktop and its Arc Hydro extension tools to check comparability of different elevation models for flood Zonation mapping. The derived drainage patterns have been overlaid over aerial imagery of study area, to check influence of greater amount of precipitation which can turn into massive destructions. The flow accumulation maps derived provide zones of highest accumulation and possible flow directions. This approach provide simplified means of predicting extent of inundation during flood events for emergency action especially for large areas because of large coverage area of the remotely sensed data.

  11. Iskuulpa Watershed Management Plan : A Five-Year Plan for Protecting and Enhancing Fish and Wildlife Habitats in the Iskuulpa Watershed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program


    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) propose to protect, enhance, and mitigate wildlife and wildlife habitat and watershed resources in the Iskuulpa Watershed. The Iskuulpa Watershed Project was approved as a Columbia River Basin Wildlife Fish and Mitigation Project by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) in 1998. Iskuulpa will contribute towards meeting BPA's obligation to compensate for wildlife habitat losses resulting from the construction of the John Day and McNary Hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. By funding the enhancement and operation and maintenance of the Iskuulpa Watershed, BPA will receive credit towards their mitigation debt. The purpose of the Iskuulpa Watershed management plan update is to provide programmatic and site-specific standards and guidelines on how the Iskuulpa Watershed will be managed over the next three years. This plan provides overall guidance on both short and long term activities that will move the area towards the goals, objectives, and desired future conditions for the planning area. The plan will incorporate managed and protected wildlife and wildlife habitat, including operations and maintenance, enhancements, and access and travel management.

  12. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - John Day Watershed Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the John Day Watershed Restoration Program, which includes projects to improve watershed conditions, resulting in improved fish and wildlife habitat. The project was planned and coordinated by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs through the John Day Basin Office in Prairie City, Oregon. A variety of activities will be implemented, described below. The project will involve the installation of four permanent lay flat diversions (structures) to replace temporary diversions. Two structures would be constructed in Beech Creek, one in Little Beech Creek and one in the John Day River. The structures will replace temporary pushup dams, which were constructed annually of various materials. Installation of the permanent diversion structures eliminates the stream-disturbing activities associated with annual installation of temporary structures. They also will enable fish passage in all flow conditions, an improvement over the temporary structures which can obstruct fish passage under some conditions. Five scour chains will be installed in six sites within the John Day River. The chains will be 3 feet long and consist of 1/4 inch chain. They will be buried within the streambed to monitor the movement of material in the streambed. Other activities that will be implemented include: Installation of off-site water systems in areas where fencing and revegetation projects are implemented, in order to restrict livestock access to waterways; construction of facilities to return irrigation flows to the Johns Day River, including the installation of pipe to replace failing drains or return ditches; installation of pumps to replace temporary diversions; and removal of junipers from approximately 500 acres per year by hand felling.

  13. Selection and placement of best management practices used to reduce water quality degradation in Lincoln Lake watershed (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector German; Popp, Jennie; Maringanti, Chetan; Chaubey, Indrajeet


    An increased loss of agricultural nutrients is a growing concern for water quality in Arkansas. Several studies have shown that best management practices (BMPs) are effective in controlling water pollution. However, those affected with water quality issues need water management plans that take into consideration BMPs selection, placement, and affordability. This study used a nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). This multiobjective algorithm selects and locates BMPs that minimize nutrients pollution cost-effectively by providing trade-off curves (optimal fronts) between pollutant reduction and total net cost increase. The usefulness of this optimization framework was evaluated in the Lincoln Lake watershed. The final NSGA-II optimization model generated a number of near-optimal solutions by selecting from 35 BMPs (combinations of pasture management, buffer zones, and poultry litter application practices). Selection and placement of BMPs were analyzed under various cost solutions. The NSGA-II provides multiple solutions that could fit the water management plan for the watershed. For instance, by implementing all the BMP combinations recommended in the lowest-cost solution, total phosphorous (TP) could be reduced by at least 76% while increasing cost by less than 2% in the entire watershed. This value represents an increase in cost of 5.49 ha-1 when compared to the baseline. Implementing all the BMP combinations proposed with the medium- and the highest-cost solutions could decrease TP drastically but will increase cost by 24,282 (7%) and $82,306 (25%), respectively.

  14. The participation of public institutions and private sector stakeholders to Devrekani Watershed management planning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Öztürk


    Full Text Available Watershed management is creating the ecological balance between human beings and habitats and natural resources especially water resources. In this study the nature and human beings and all of the components involving on human activities in nature were tried to be tackled and the strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities (SWOT analysis of the area were evaluated by prioritizing R’WOT (Ranking + SWOT analysis for ensuring the participation and evaluating the ideas and attitudes of public institutions and private sector which are interest groups of Devrekani Watershed. According to the analysis result, both of the participant groups stated that the planned Hydroelectric Power Plant (HPP in the basin will negatively affect the natural resource value. The economical deficiency- for the local administration- and the lack of qualified labour force –for private sector- issues are determined as the most important issues. Having an environmental plan (EP, supporting the traditional animal husbandry were determined as the highest priority factors by the local administration group and the presence of forests and grasslands and the eco-tourism potential were determined as the highest priority factors for the private sector. Creating awareness to local administration group, who are one of the most important decision making mechanisms in the area and did not prefer threats in a high priority way, is foreseen according to the context of the study.

  15. Environmental management cognitive strategies: Acid rain in the Yamaska watershed, Quebec, Canada (United States)

    Sasseville, Jean-Louis; Lachance, Marius


    Systematic budgetary restrictions foreseen for the next few years will require greater organizational effectiveness in public management systems, particularly in environmental management, in which costs are seen as a burden to the national economy Environmental management efficiency could be increased, among other means, by the adoption of knowledge acquisition strategies that take into account the multiple facets of environmental management, these cognitive strategies involve the development and use of methods to establish facts and to analyze complex environmental situations It is the purpose of this paper to show that an efficient approach is possible in establishing facts from existing data. The method involves a heuristic use of advanced statistical tools to integrate multiple data into the description of environmental phenomena An example is given in which the method has been applied to a data base obtained from the inventory of Yamaska watershed; it revealed 16 facts of potential interest to environmental managers The case study suggests that management system efficiency could be improved by a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental situation that takes into account the structure of biophysical processes and the elements involved in information processing

  16. SUSTAIN – A Framework for Placement of Best Management Practices in Urban Watersheds to Protect Water Quality (United States)

    Watershed and stormwater managers need modeling tools to evaluate alternative plans for water quality management and flow abatement techniques in urban and developing areas. A watershed-scale, decision-support framework that is based on cost optimization is needed to support gov...

  17. Riverine threat indices to assess watershed condition and identify primary management capacity of agriculture natural resource management agencies. (United States)

    Fore, Jeffrey D; Sowa, Scott P; Galat, David L; Annis, Gust M; Diamond, David D; Rewa, Charles


    Managers can improve conservation of lotic systems over large geographies if they have tools to assess total watershed conditions for individual stream segments and can identify segments where conservation practices are most likely to be successful (i.e., primary management capacity). The goal of this research was to develop a suite of threat indices to help agriculture resource management agencies select and prioritize watersheds across Missouri River basin in which to implement agriculture conservation practices. We quantified watershed percentages or densities of 17 threat metrics that represent major sources of ecological stress to stream communities into five threat indices: agriculture, urban, point-source pollution, infrastructure, and all non-agriculture threats. We identified stream segments where agriculture management agencies had primary management capacity. Agriculture watershed condition differed by ecoregion and considerable local variation was observed among stream segments in ecoregions of high agriculture threats. Stream segments with high non-agriculture threats were most concentrated near urban areas, but showed high local variability. 60 % of stream segments in the basin were classified as under U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) primary management capacity and most segments were in regions of high agricultural threats. NRCS primary management capacity was locally variable which highlights the importance of assessing total watershed condition for multiple threats. Our threat indices can be used by agriculture resource management agencies to prioritize conservation actions and investments based on: (a) relative severity of all threats, (b) relative severity of agricultural threats, and (c) and degree of primary management capacity.

  18. Rainwater Wildlife Area, Watershed Management Plan, A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.


    This Management Plan has been developed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) to document how the Rainwater Wildlife Area (formerly known as the Rainwater Ranch) will be managed. The plan has been developed under a standardized planning process developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Columbia River Basin Wildlife Mitigation Projects (See Appendix A and Guiding Policies Section below). The plan outlines the framework for managing the project area, provides an assessment of existing conditions and key resource issues, and presents an array of habitat management and enhancement strategies. The plan culminates into a 5-Year Action Plan that will focus our management actions and prioritize funding during the Fiscal 2001-2005 planning period. This plan is a product of nearly two years of field studies and research, public scoping, and coordination with the Rainwater Advisory Committee. The committee consists of representatives from tribal government, state agencies, local government, public organizations, and members of the public. The plan is organized into several sections with Chapter 1 providing introductory information such as project location, purpose and need, project goals and objectives, common elements and assumptions, coordination efforts and public scoping, and historical information about the project area. Key issues are presented in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discusses existing resource conditions within the wildlife area. Chapter 4 provides a detailed presentation on management activities and Chapter 5 outlines a monitoring and evaluation plan for the project that will help assess whether the project is meeting the intended purpose and need and the goals and objectives. Chapter 6 displays the action plan and provides a prioritized list of actions with associated budget for the next five year period. Successive chapters contain appendices, references, definitions, and a glossary. The purpose of the project is

  19. Integrated watershed management: a planning methodology for construction of new dams in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuayehu, Tefera; Stroosnijder, L.


    Integrated watershed management (IWM) is emerging as an alternative to the centrally planned and sectoral approaches that currently characterize the planning process for dam construction in Ethiopia. This report clarifies the concept of IWM, and reviews the major social, environmental and economic p

  20. Contingent Valuation of Watershed Protection in Nigeria: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi Olokesusi


    This paper focusses on the use of the willingness-to-pay (WTP approach for determining the amount of money that people in selected large-scale irrigation and dam project areas in the Sudano-Saludian zone of Nigeria are willing to forego for the sake of environmental protection in the watershed. After a general description of the problems and approaches to valuing and monetising environmental resources and their protection, the details of the study findings and policy implications are discussed.

  1. Turning conflict into collaboration in managing commons: A case of Rupa Lake Watershed, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashupati Chaudhary


    Full Text Available A growing body of literature on the commons has provided fascinating and intricate insights on how some local institutions have successfully managed to avoid a seemingly inevitable “tragedy of the commons” once popularized by Garrett Hardin. Primarily benefitting from the recent studies on the commonpool resources conducted by Elinor Ostrom and colleagues, polycentric selforganization and autonomy, rather than the direct state or market control over the commons, are often recognized as key features of the long enduring commons.However, these commons are quite diverse and the outcomes are often multiple and complex, accentuating the needs to differentiate among multiple commons outcomes. Furthermore, relatively under-reported are the cases where the degradation of common-pool resources are actually halted, and even restored. This study examines both the turbulent history of fishery mismanagement in Rupa Lake, Nepal and its reversal built around the participation, engagement and inclusiveness in the governance of its watershed. We find that Rupa Lake’s experience tells two stories. Reflecting Hardin’s dire forecast, the Rupa Lake watershed verged on collapse as population grew and seemingly selfish behaviorintensified under an open-access regime. But the users also found a way to rebound and reverse their course as they adopted a bottom-up approach to fishery management and established an innovative community institution, the ‘Rupa Lake Rehabilitation and Fishery Cooperative’, dedicated to the sustainable governance of the commons. This case highlights how one community at the threshold of ‘tragedy’ transformed itself by turning conflict into collaboration, which we hope contributes to the effort of better understanding multiple commons.

  2. Utilization of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring and Evaluation of Solo Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Gunawan


    Full Text Available This research is an application of remote sensing technology for monitoring and evaluation of watershed management, which was conducted is Solo Watershed, Central and East Java. The research objectives were 1 to investigate the capability of photomorphic analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Themmatic Mapper (ETM + imagery as the basic for analyzes of landforms, landuse, and morphometry of the land surface; 2 to calculate the overland flow – peak discharge and erosion – sediment yield as indicators of land degradation of the area; 3 to use the indicators as set of instrument for monitoring and evaluation of watershed management. In this study, visual interpretation by means of on-screen digilization of the digital imagery was carried out in order to identify and to delineate land parameters using photomorphic approach. Based on the photomorphic analysis, several image – based parameters such as relief topography, physical soil characteristic, litho – stratigraphy, and vegetation cover were integrated with other themati maps in a geographic information system (GIS environment. Estimation of overland flow (C based on Cook methods (1942 and calculation of peak disccharge (Qmax based on rational method (Qmax = C. I. A were applied. Meanwhile, estimation of surface erosion was carried out using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, A = R. K. L. S. CP. The sediment yield (Sy was estimated using seddiment delivery ratio ( SDR based on the following formula: Sy = [A + (25% x A] x SDR. Both pairs of C – Qmax and A – Sy, were utilized as the basis for monitoring and evaluation of the watershed. The combination of C – Qmax and A – Sy were also used as the basis for selection of stream gauge setting / AWLR within particular sub – catchment. It was found that the photomorphic analysis is only color/tone, slope aspects, pattern, and texture, unit boundaries between volcanic – origin landscape (Wilis volcanic complex and folded

  3. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.


    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

  4. Building Virtual Watersheds: A Global Opportunity to Strengthen Resource Management and Conservation. (United States)

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Barquin, Jose; McCleary, Richard; Cai, TiJiu; Ji, Y


    Modern land-use planning and conservation strategies at landscape to country scales worldwide require complete and accurate digital representations of river networks, encompassing all channels including the smallest headwaters. The digital river networks, integrated with widely available digital elevation models, also need to have analytical capabilities to support resource management and conservation, including attributing river segments with key stream and watershed data, characterizing topography to identify landforms, discretizing land uses at scales necessary to identify human-environment interactions, and connecting channels downstream and upstream, and to terrestrial environments. We investigate the completeness and analytical capabilities of national to regional scale digital river networks that are available in five countries: Canada, China, Russia, Spain, and United States using actual resource management and conservation projects involving 12 university, agency, and NGO organizations. In addition, we review one pan-European and one global digital river network. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the majority of the regional, national, and global scale digital river networks in our sample lack in network completeness, analytical capabilities or both. To address this limitation, we outline a general framework to build as complete as possible digital river networks and to integrate them with available digital elevation models to create robust analytical capabilities (e.g., virtual watersheds). We believe this presents a global opportunity for in-country agencies, or international players, to support creation of virtual watersheds to increase environmental problem solving, broaden access to the watershed sciences, and strengthen resource management and conservation in countries worldwide.

  5. Evaluating water management strategies in watersheds by new hybrid Fuzzy Analytical Network Process (FANP) methods (United States)

    RazaviToosi, S. L.; Samani, J. M. V.


    Watersheds are considered as hydrological units. Their other important aspects such as economic, social and environmental functions play crucial roles in sustainable development. The objective of this work is to develop methodologies to prioritize watersheds by considering different development strategies in environmental, social and economic sectors. This ranking could play a significant role in management to assign the most critical watersheds where by employing water management strategies, best condition changes are expected to be accomplished. Due to complex relations among different criteria, two new hybrid fuzzy ANP (Analytical Network Process) algorithms, fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and fuzzy max-min set methods are used to provide more flexible and accurate decision model. Five watersheds in Iran named Oroomeyeh, Atrak, Sefidrood, Namak and Zayandehrood are considered as alternatives. Based on long term development goals, 38 water management strategies are defined as subcriteria in 10 clusters. The main advantage of the proposed methods is its ability to overcome uncertainty. This task is accomplished by using fuzzy numbers in all steps of the algorithms. To validate the proposed method, the final results were compared with those obtained from the ANP algorithm and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is applied to find the similarity in the different ranking methods. Finally, the sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of cluster weights on the final ranking.

  6. Multi-Objective Optimization and Multi-Model Analysis of Watershed Management Under Uncertainty (United States)

    Shoemaker, C. A.; Akhtar, T.; Woodbury, J.


    Watershed Management planning can be assisted by the use of models that can incorporate the effect of management practices on hydrology and pollution transport under the effects of stochastic weather, including weather patterns influenced by climate change. However, such analysis is based usually on only one model (a set of equations) and the calibration of the model’s parameters to data. In this analysis we will discuss the use of two new multiobjective optimization methods for the incorporation of multiple criteria into choice of calibrated parameter values. One of these multiobjective methods (using radial basis functions) has been developed by our group, and a second new method from another group is based on Kriging. In addition we will compare these two new methods to the results obtained by the older (and widely used) NSGA-II multi-objective method on watershed models. We have developed two models and applied them to a large (1200 km2) northeastern watershed. The first model is based on SWAT2005, and the second model replaces SWAT’s Hortonian hydrology with variable source area (VSA) hydrology. In actuality a watershed’s flow paths can be expected to vary between Hortonian and VSA hydrology under different weather conditions. We present a multi-model analysis using Bayesian Model Averaging of these two types of models to obtain an improved estimate of the effects of alternative phosphorous management practices on long term sustainability of water quality in the watershed under a wide range of weather scenarios.

  7. Building Virtual Watersheds: A Global Opportunity to Strengthen Resource Management and Conservation (United States)

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Barquin, Jose; McCleary, Richard; Cai, TiJiu; Ji, Y.


    Modern land-use planning and conservation strategies at landscape to country scales worldwide require complete and accurate digital representations of river networks, encompassing all channels including the smallest headwaters. The digital river networks, integrated with widely available digital elevation models, also need to have analytical capabilities to support resource management and conservation, including attributing river segments with key stream and watershed data, characterizing topography to identify landforms, discretizing land uses at scales necessary to identify human-environment interactions, and connecting channels downstream and upstream, and to terrestrial environments. We investigate the completeness and analytical capabilities of national to regional scale digital river networks that are available in five countries: Canada, China, Russia, Spain, and United States using actual resource management and conservation projects involving 12 university, agency, and NGO organizations. In addition, we review one pan-European and one global digital river network. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the majority of the regional, national, and global scale digital river networks in our sample lack in network completeness, analytical capabilities or both. To address this limitation, we outline a general framework to build as complete as possible digital river networks and to integrate them with available digital elevation models to create robust analytical capabilities (e.g., virtual watersheds). We believe this presents a global opportunity for in-country agencies, or international players, to support creation of virtual watersheds to increase environmental problem solving, broaden access to the watershed sciences, and strengthen resource management and conservation in countries worldwide.

  8. Modeling and sediment study in the watershed Medjerda, Tunisia (United States)

    Kotti, Fatma; Mahé, Gil; Habaieb, Hamadi; Dieulin, Claudine; Hermassi, Taoufik


    Water projects have experienced a major expansion in the late 1980s, and we now have sufficient perspective to assess their actual performance and their socio-environmental impacts (Payan, 2007). This study focuses on the great watershed of Tunisia namely Medjerda which has an area of about 23,600 km2. In the main river of Medjerda some dams have been created for water retention: Sidi Salem Dam (the largest in the country), El Aroussia dam, and others on tributaries Mellegue Bouhertma, Siliana, Beni Mtir, Lakhemess and Kasseb. Since the construction of dams, essentially Sidi Salem and Siliana, the Medjerda river has undergone significant changes in morphology. The monitoring of the flow of the major hydrological stations in the pre-estuarine zone downstream from Sidi Salem dam is used to measure the impact of the constructions on hydrological regimes: reduction in average rates, reduction in volumes sold, altered seasonal pattern, and most of all reduction of the sediment transport, which the highest values are related to extreme events. In this context, the balance of sediment monitoring appears indispensable for the quantification of sediment transport at the outlet. Our approach is to calculate a specific flow rate relative to the area of the basin for every structure built in the Medjerda watershed, from the information available on transport and sedimentation rates known, combined with contours of each sub watershed. There are about ten dams spread throughout Medjerda watershed. The methodology is primarily developed for the Mellegue dam because we have at this station a long data set from 1955 until 2005. Other stations will be studied later on. The main objective of this study is to provide a series of annual variation of theoretical contributions. These calculated values will be compared with the actual measured sedimentary series. Two cores in the sediments of the pre-estuarine area are performed to determine past variability in sediment inputs over a time

  9. Watershed runoff and sediment transport impacts from management decisions using integrated AnnAGNPS and CCHE1D models (United States)

    Conservation planning tools that consider all sources of erosion, sheet and rill, gully, and channels, is critical to developing an effective watershed management plan that considers the integrated effect of all practices on the watershed system. The Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source polluta...


    The goal of this project, and associated research, is to establish thresholds for ecological response to watershed disturbance and to develop tools and insights that will help us manage risks. Changes in the amount and types of land use in a watershed can result in increased ris...

  11. Spatially explicit methodology for coordinated manure management in shared watersheds. (United States)

    Sharara, Mahmoud; Sampat, Apoorva; Good, Laura W; Smith, Amanda S; Porter, Pamela; Zavala, Victor M; Larson, Rebecca; Runge, Troy


    Increased clustering and consolidation of livestock production systems has been linked to adverse impacts on water quality. This study presents a methodology to optimize manure management within a hydrologic region to minimize agricultural phosphorus (P) loss associated with winter manure application. Spatial and non-spatial data representing livestock, crop, soil, terrain and hydrography were compiled to determine manure P production rates, crop P uptake, existing manure storage capabilities, and transportation distances. Field slope, hydrologic soil group (HSG), and proximity to waterbodies were used to classify crop fields according to their runoff risk for winter-applied manure. We use these data to construct a comprehensive optimization model that identifies optimal location, size, and transportation strategy to achieve environmental and economic goals. The environmental goal was the minimization of daily hauling of manure to environmentally sensitive crop fields, i.e., those classified as high P-loss fields, whereas the economic goal was the minimization of the transportation costs across the entire study area. A case study encompassing two contiguous 10-digit hydrologic unit subwatersheds (HUC-10) in South Central Wisconsin, USA was developed to demonstrate the proposed methodology. Additionally, scenarios representing different management decisions (storage facility maximum volume, and project capital) and production conditions (increased milk production and 20-year future projection) were analyzed to determine their impact on optimal decisions.

  12. Quantify Effects of Integrated Land Management on Water Quality in Agricultural Landscape in South Fork Watershed, Iowa River (United States)

    Ha, M.; Wu, M. M.


    Sustainable biofuel feedstock production — environmental sustainability and economic sustainability — may be achieved by using a multi-faceted approach. This study focuses on quantifying the water sustainability of an integrated landscaping strategy, by which current land use and land management, cropping system, agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and economics play equal roles. The strategy was applied to the South Fork watershed, IA, including the tributaries of Tipton and Beaver Creeks, which expand to 800-km2 drainage areas. The watershed is an agricultural dominant area covered with row-crops production. On the basis of profitability, switchgrass was chosen as a replacement for row crops in low-productivity land. Areas for harvesting agricultural residue were selected on the basis of soil conservation principals. Double cropping with a cover crop was established to further reduce soil loss. Vegetation buffer strips were in place at fields and in riparian areas for water quality control, resource conservation, and eco service improvement. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to evaluate source reduction under various management schemes and land use changes. SWAT modeling incorporated 10-yr meteorological information, soil data, land slope classification, land use, four-year crop-rotation cycle, and management operations. Tile drain and pothole parameters were modeled to assess the fate and transport of nutrients. The influence of landscape management and cropping systems on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, erosion process, and hydrological performance at the sub-watershed scale was analyzed and key factors identified. Results suggest strongly that incorporating agricultural BMPs and conservation strategies into integrated landscape management for certain energy crops in row-crop production regions can be economical and environmentally sustainable.

  13. Small watershed management as a tool of flood risk prevention (United States)

    Jakubinsky, J.; Bacova, R.; Svobodova, E.; Kubicek, P.; Herber, V.


    According to the International Disaster Database (CRED 2009) frequency of extreme hydrological situations on a global scale is constantly increasing. The most typical example of a natural risk in Europe is flood - there is a decrease in the number of victims, but a significant increase in economic damage. A decrease in the number of victims is caused by the application of current hydrological management that focuses its attention primarily on large rivers and elimination of the damages caused by major flood situations. The growing economic losses, however, are a manifestation of the increasing intensity of floods on small watercourses, which are usually not sufficiently taken into account by the management approaches. The research of small streams should focus both on the study of the watercourse itself, especially its ecomorphological properties, and in particular on the possibility of flood control measures and their effectiveness. An important part of society's access to sustainable development is also the evolution of knowledge about the river landscape area, which is perceived as a significant component of global environmental security and resilience, thanks to its high compensatory potential for mitigation of environmental change. The findings discussed under this contribution are based on data obtained during implementation of the project "GeoRISK" (Geo-analysis of landscape level degradation and natural risks formation), which takes into account the above approaches applied in different case studies - catchments of small streams in different parts of the Czech Republic. Our findings offer an opportunity for practical application of field research knowledge in decision making processes within the national level of current water management.

  14. Statistical approach for the estimation of watershed scale nitrate export: a case study from Melen watershed of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiner Muhammed Ernur


    Full Text Available Nutrient pollution such as nitrate (NO3− can cause water quality degradation in rivers used as a source of drinking water. This situation raises the question of how the nutrients have moved depending on many factors such as land use and anthropogenic sources. Researchers developed several nutrient export coefficient models depending on the aforementioned factors. To this purpose, statistical data including a number of factors such as historical water quality and land use data for the Melen Watershed were used. Nitrate export coefficients are estimates of the total load or mass of nitrate (NO3− exported from a watershed standardized to unit area and unit time (e.g. kg/km2/day. In this study, nitrate export coefficients for the Melen Watershed were determined using the model that covers the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches. River retention coefficient was determined and introduced into the model as an important variable.

  15. A decision support system for phosphorus management at a watershed scale. (United States)

    Djodjic, Faruk; Montas, Hubert; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Bergström, Lars; Ulén, Barbro


    Phosphorus (P) is one of the main nutrients controlling algal production in aquatic systems. Proper management of P in agricultural production systems can greatly enhance our ability to combat pollution of aquatic environments. To address this issue, a decision support system (DSS) consisting of the Maryland Phosphorus Index (PI), diagnosis expert system (ES), prescription ES, and a nonpoint-source pollution model, Ground Water Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), was developed and applied to an agricultural watershed in southern Sweden. This system can identify critical source areas (CSAs) regarding phosphorus losses within the watershed, make a diagnosis of probable causes, prescribe the most appropriate best management practices (BMPs), and test the environmental effects of the applied BMPs. The PI calculations identified small parts of the watershed as CSAs. Only 10.4% of the total watershed area in 1995 and 5.2% of the total watershed area in 1996 were classed as "high potential P movement." Four probable causes (high P level in soil, excessive P fertilization, stream proximity, and subsurface drainage) and three BMPs (riparian buffer strips, reduced P fertilizer application, and P fertilizer incorporation) were identified by a diagnosis and prescription expert system. The GLEAMS simulations conducted for one selected CSA field for a 24-yr period showed that the recommended BMP reduced runoff P losses by 55% and sediment P losses by 71%, if applied from the first year. Results showed that using DSS may enable us to select a proper BMP implementation strategy and to realize the beneficial effect of BMPs on a long-term basis.

  16. Tribal Watershed Management: Culture, Science, Capacity, and Collaboration (United States)

    Cronin, Amanda; Ostergren, David M.


    This research focuses on two elements of contemporary American Indian natural resource management. First, the authors explore the capacity of tribes to manage natural resources, including the merging of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) with Western science. Second, they analyze tribal management in the context of local and regional…

  17. The Potential Importance of Conservation, Restoration and Altered Management Practices for Water Quality in the Wabash River Watershed (United States)

    Yang, G.; Best, E. P.; Goodwin, S.


    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment within the United States. Conservation, restoration and altered management (CRAM) practices may effectively reduce NPS pollutants to receiving water bodies and enhance local and regional ecosystem services. Barriers for the implementation of CRAM include uncertainties related to the extent to which nutrients are removed by CRAM at various spatial and temporal scales, longevity, optimal placement of CRAM within the landscape, and implementation / operation / maintenance costs. We conducted a study aimed at the identification of optimal placement of CRAM in watersheds that reduces N loading to an environmentally sustainable level, at an acceptable, known, cost. For this study, we used a recently developed screening-level modeling approach, WQM-TMDL-N, running in the ArcGIS environment, to estimate nitrogen loading under current land use conditions (NLCD 2006). This model was equipped with a new option to explore the performances of placement of various CRAM types and areas to reduce nitrogen loading to a State-accepted Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) standard, with related annual average TN concentration, and a multi-objective algorithm optimizing load and cost. CRAM practices explored for implementation in rural area included buffer strips, nutrient management practices, and wetland restoration. We initially applied this modeling approach to the Tippecanoe River (TR) watershed (8-digit HUC), a headwater of the Wabash River (WR) watershed, where CRAM implementation in rural and urban areas is being planned and implemented at various spatial scales. Consequences of future land use are explored using a 2050 land use/land cover map forecasted by the Land Transformation Model. The WR watershed, IN, drains two-thirds of the state's 92 counties and supports predominantly agricultural land use. Because the WR accounts for over 40% of the nutrient loads of the Ohio River and

  18. Methodology for generation of hydrogeologic maps: rio da Palma watershed case study, DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Nóbile Diniz


    Full Text Available This paper had the objective of developing a methodology to support the management of water resources, based on hydro geological cartography, tested for the hydro geologic conditions of a watershed located at Central Brazil. Results show two major products: a hydro geologic, and a potential infiltration and recharge maps of the high course of the Rio da Palma watershed. This paper is presented in six parts. The first one discusses the map’s elements, essential thematic maps and appropriate scales. The second part proposes the graphic criteria for the integrated representation of the major parameters of overlaying aquifers. The third part demonstrates the importance of the data basis for the hydro geologic cartography, i.e., the contribution of each theme such as soil, geology, slope, climate and land use, when appropriately integrated. The fourth part discusses the selection and the integration of the main information layers for the Rio da Palma watershed using a Geographic Information System (GIS. On the fifth part, the result of the integration of the porous domain with the fractured domain aquifer information layers is shown and, finally, the potential infiltration and recharge map of the studied area, elaborated from the integration of overlapping of the data basis information layers is presented and discussed. In general, in the studied area, regions with high infiltration potential prevail where human interference is still moderate. Large portions of low infiltration potential are either associated with high slopes, with shallow soils (Cambissolos or else with urban constructions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nourani


    Full Text Available Increasing importance of watershed management during last decades highlighted the need for sufficient data and accurate estimation of rainfall and runoff within watersheds. Therefore, various conceptual models have been developed with parameters based on observed data. Since further investigations depend on these parameters, it is important to accurately estimate them. This study by utilizing various methods, tries to estimate Nash rainfall-runoff model parameters and then evaluate the reliability of parameter estimation methods; moment, least square error, maximum likelihood, maximum entropy and genetic algorithm. Results based on a case study on the data from Ammameh watershed in Central Iran, indicate that the genetic algorithm method, which has been developed based on artificial intelligence, more accurately estimates Nash’s model parameters.

  20. Use of Sediment Budgets for Watershed Erosion Control Planning: A Case Study From Northern California (United States)

    O'Connor, M.; McDavitt, W.


    Erosion, sedimentation and peak flow increases caused by forest management for commercial timber production may negatively affect aquatic habitat of endangered anadromous fish such as coho salmon ({\\ it O. kisutch}). This paper summarizes a portion of a Watershed Analysis study performed for Pacific Lumber Company, Scotia, CA, focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates and downstream sediment routing and water quality in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Hillslope, road and bank erosion, channel sedimentation and sediment rates were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. The resulting sediment budget was validated through comparison using recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield collected by a community watershed group at a downstream monitoring site with technical assistance from the US Forest Service. Another check on the sediment budget was provided by bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study provide sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments for use in the TMDL process. The sediment budget also identifies the most significant sediment sources and suggests a framework within which effective erosion control strategies can be developed.

  1. A decentralized optimization algorithm for multiagent system-based watershed management (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Cai, Ximing; Stipanović, DušAn M.


    A watershed can be simulated as a multiagent system (MAS) composed of spatially distributed land and water users (agents) within a common defined environment. The watershed system is characterized by distributed decision processes at the agent level with a coordination mechanism organizing the interactions among individual decision processes at the system level. This paper presents a decentralized (distributed) optimization method known as constraint-based reasoning, which allows individual agents in an MAS to optimize their behaviors over various alternatives. The method incorporates the optimization of all agents' objectives through an interaction scheme, in which the ith agent optimizes its objective with a selected priority for collaboration and forwards the solution and consequences to all agents that interact with it. Agents are allowed to determine how important their own objectives are in comparison with the constraints, using a local interest factor (βi). A large βi value indicates a selfish agent who puts high priority on its own benefit and ignores collaboration requirements. This bottom-up problem-solving approach mimics real-world watershed management problems better than conventional "top-down" optimization methods in which it is assumed that individual agents will completely comply with any recommendations that the coordinator makes. The method is applied to a steady state hypothetical watershed with three off-stream human agents, one in-stream human agent (reservoir), and two ecological agents.

  2. Fostering Incentive-Based Policies and Partnerships for Integrated Watershed Management in the Southeast Asian Uplands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Neef


    Full Text Available This paper attempts to identify the major factors associated with some of the failures and successes of integrated watershed management policies and projects with a particular emphasis on the uplands of mainland Southeast Asia. It argues that many policy measures have been misguided by failing to acknowledge the multi-dimensional facets of sustainable watershed management and putting too much emphasis on command-and-control approaches to resource management and one-size-fits-all conservation models. Attempts to introduce soil and water conservation measures, for instance, have largely failed because they concentrated merely on the technical feasibility and potential ecological effects, while neglecting economic viability and socio-cultural acceptance. The production of agricultural commodities, on the other hand, has mostly been market-driven and often induced boom and bust cycles that compromised the ecological and social dimensions of sustainability. Purely community-based approaches to watershed management, on their part, have often failed to address issues of elite capture and competing interests within and between heterogeneous uplands communities. Drawing on a review of recent experience and on lessons from initiatives in a long-term collaborative research program in Thailand (The Uplands Program aimed at bridging the various dimensions of sustainability in the Southeast Asian uplands, this paper discusses how a socially, institutionally and ecologically sustainable mix of agricultural production, ecosystem services and rural livelihood opportunities can be achieved through incentive-based policies and multi-stakeholder partnerships that attempt to overcome the (perceived antagonism between conservation and development in upland watersheds of Southeast Asia.

  3. Watershed Assessment with Beach Microbial Source Tracking and Outcomes of Resulting Gull Management. (United States)

    Goodwin, Kelly D; Gruber, Steve; Vondrak, Mary; Crumpacker, Andrea


    Total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation at a southern California beach involved ultraviolet treatment of watershed drainage that provided >97% reduction in fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations. However, this pollutant control measure did not provide sufficient improvement of beach water quality, prompting further assessment. Investigation included microbial source tracking (MST) for human, gull, and canine fecal sources, monitoring of enterococci and fecal coliform, and measurement of chemical and physical water quality parameters for samples collected from watershed, groundwater, and beach sites, including a beach scour pond and tidal creek. FIB variability remained poorly modeled in regression analysis. However, MST revealed correlations between FIB and gull source tracking markers, leading to recommendations to manage gulls as a pollutant source. Beach conditions were followed for three years after implementation of a best management practice (BMP) to abate gulls using a falconry program for the beach and an upland landfill. The gull abatement BMP was associated with improved beach water quality, and this appears to be the first report of falconry in the context of TMDL implementation. Overall, MST data enabled management action despite an inability to fully model FIB dynamics in the coupled watershed-beach system.

  4. Environmental quality integrated indicator applied to the management of the Jiquiriçá river watershed, BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Maria de Oliveira


    Full Text Available In this work social, economic and environmental aspects were studied using the concept of programming by commitment, with the objective of structuring an integrated indicator capable of estimating the degree of the environmental quality of the Jiquiriça river basin, BA, composed by the indicator of environmental salubrity, water quality and soil’s protection. For the determination of the environmental salubrity indicator, data of the following variables were collected: existence of treated water supply, disposition and treatment of solid residues, diseases vectors control, the existence of the Agenda 21, socioeconomics data and indices of human development for each municipal district located in the area of the watershed. The indicator of the water quality was structured based on the analysis of water samples collected in eight sampling points along Jiquiriçá river and determined by seven parameters. The indicator of soil’s protection was based on the analysis of maps obtained according to the weight of each steepness and land use class. Results indicate that the watershed is in a poor equilibrium condition and suggest the need for structural investments as well as changes in public polices. The methodology used was efficient for this watershed management and could be used as tool for the environmental planning of the region, once it can be adapted to several situations depending on the data availability.

  5. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson


    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.


    The integration of IKONOS satellite data, airborne color infrared remote sensing, visualization, and decision support tools is discussed, within the contexts of management techniques for minimizing non-point source pollution in inland waterways, such s riparian buffer restoration...

  7. Improving model prediction reliability through enhanced representation of wetland soil processes and constrained model auto calibration - A paired watershed study (United States)

    Sharifi, Amirreza; Lang, Megan W.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Lee, Sangchul; Yen, Haw; Rabenhorst, Martin C.; Jeong, Jaehak; Yeo, In-Young


    Process based, distributed watershed models possess a large number of parameters that are not directly measured in field and need to be calibrated, in most cases through matching modeled in-stream fluxes with monitored data. Recently, concern has been raised regarding the reliability of this common calibration practice, because models that are deemed to be adequately calibrated based on commonly used metrics (e.g., Nash Sutcliffe efficiency) may not realistically represent intra-watershed responses or fluxes. Such shortcomings stem from the use of an evaluation criteria that only concerns the global in-stream responses of the model without investigating intra-watershed responses. In this study, we introduce a modification to the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, and a new calibration technique that collectively reduce the chance of misrepresenting intra-watershed responses. The SWAT model was modified to better represent NO3 cycling in soils with various degrees of water holding capacity. The new calibration tool has the capacity to calibrate paired watersheds simultaneously within a single framework. It was found that when both proposed methodologies were applied jointly to two paired watersheds on the Delmarva Peninsula, the performance of the models as judged based on conventional metrics suffered, however, the intra-watershed responses (e.g., mass of NO3 lost to denitrification) in the two models automatically converged to realistic sums. This approach also demonstrates the capacity to spatially distinguish areas of high denitrification potential, an ability that has implications for improved management of prior converted wetlands under crop production and for identifying prominent areas for wetland restoration.

  8. The effectiveness and resilience of phosphorus management practices in the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario, Canada (United States)

    Crossman, J.; Futter, M. N.; Palmer, M.; Whitehead, P. G.; Baulch, H. M.; Woods, D.; Jin, L.; Oni, S. K.; Dillon, P. J.


    Uncertainty surrounding future climate makes it difficult to have confidence that current nutrient management strategies will remain effective. This study used monitoring and modeling to assess current effectiveness (% phosphorus reduction) and resilience (defined as continued effectiveness under a changing climate) of best management practices (BMPs) within five catchments of the Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario. The Integrated Catchment Phosphorus model (INCA-P) was used, and monitoring data were used to calibrate and validate a series of management scenarios. To assess current BMP effectiveness, models were run over a baseline period 1985-2014 with and without management scenarios. Climate simulations were run (2070-2099), and BMP resilience was calculated as the percent change in effectiveness between the baseline and future period. Results demonstrated that livestock removal from water courses was the most effective BMP, while manure storage adjustments were the least. Effectiveness varied between catchments, influenced by the dominant hydrological and nutrient transport pathways. Resilience of individual BMPs was associated with catchment sensitivity to climate change. BMPs were most resilient in catchments with high soil water storage capacity and small projected changes in frozen-water availability and in soil moisture deficits. Conversely, BMPs were less resilient in catchments with larger changes in spring melt magnitude and in overland flow proportions. Results indicated that BMPs implemented are not always those most suited to catchment flow pathways, and a more site-specific approach would enhance prospects for maintaining P reduction targets. Furthermore, BMP resilience to climate change can be predicted from catchment physical properties and present-day hydrochemical sensitivity to climate forcing.

  9. Ecological Engineering Practices for the Reduction of Excess Nitrogen in Human-Influenced Landscapes: A Guide for Watershed Managers (United States)

    Passeport, Elodie; Vidon, Philippe; Forshay, Kenneth J.; Harris, Lora; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Kellogg, Dorothy Q.; Lazar, Julia; Mayer, Paul; Stander, Emilie K.


    Excess nitrogen (N) in freshwater systems, estuaries, and coastal areas has well-documented deleterious effects on ecosystems. Ecological engineering practices (EEPs) may be effective at decreasing nonpoint source N leaching to surface and groundwater. However, few studies have synthesized current knowledge about the functioning principles, performance, and cost of common EEPs used to mitigate N pollution at the watershed scale. Our review describes seven EEPs known to decrease N to help watershed managers select the most effective techniques from among the following approaches: advanced-treatment septic systems, low-impact development (LID) structures, permeable reactive barriers, treatment wetlands, riparian buffers, artificial lakes and reservoirs, and stream restoration. Our results show a broad range of N-removal effectiveness but suggest that all techniques could be optimized for N removal by promoting and sustaining conditions conducive to biological transformations (e.g., denitrification). Generally, N-removal efficiency is particularly affected by hydraulic residence time, organic carbon availability, and establishment of anaerobic conditions. There remains a critical need for systematic empirical studies documenting N-removal efficiency among EEPs and potential environmental and economic tradeoffs associated with the widespread use of these techniques. Under current trajectories of N inputs, land use, and climate change, ecological engineering alone may be insufficient to manage N in many watersheds, suggesting that N-pollution source prevention remains a critical need. Improved understanding of N-removal effectiveness and modeling efforts will be critical in building decision support tools to help guide the selection and application of best EEPs for N management.

  10. A system method for the assessment of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in mountain watershed areas: the case of the "Giffre" watershed (France). (United States)

    Charnay, Bérengère


    In the last fifty years, many mountain watersheds in temperate countries have known a progressive change from self-standing agro-silvo-pastoral systems to leisure dominated areas characterized by a concentration of tourist accommodations, leading to a drinking water peak during the winter tourist season, when the water level is lowest in rivers and sources. The concentration of water uses increases the pressure on "aquatic habitats" and competition between uses themselves. Consequently, a new concept was developed following the international conferences in Dublin (International Conference on Water and the Environment - ICWE) and Rio de Janeiro (UN Conference on Environment and Development), both in 1992, and was broadly acknowledged through international and European policies. It is the concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). It meets the requirements of different uses of water and aquatic zones whilst preserving the natural functions of such areas and ensuring a satisfactory economic and social development. This paper seeks to evaluate a local water resources management system in order to implement it using IWRM in mountain watersheds. The assessment method is based on the systemic approach to take into account all components influencing a water resources management system at the watershed scale. A geographic information system was built to look into interactions between water resources, land uses, and water uses. This paper deals specifically with a spatial comparison between hydrologically sensitive areas and land uses. The method is applied to a French Alps watershed: the Giffre watershed (a tributary of the Arve in Haute-Savoie). The results emphasize both the needs and the gaps in implementing IWRM in vulnerable mountain regions.

  11. Research on Modern Watershed Management System%现代流域管理体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Modem watershed management is a multi-level and unified pollution control system covering watershed-region-pollution control unit-pollution source, which includes the watershed target management system, the watershed pollution control system, the watershed monitoring and the early warning system, the law and policy guaranteeing system and the watershed administration system. The watershed target management system is the core of watershed management; the definitions, connotations, main contents and functions of water body health target, pollution control target, natural ecology target, and scientific utilization target of modern watershed target management system were elaborated. The watershed pollution control system is a supporting system for modern watershed management; in order to improve the watershed ecological environment, a practical and scientific watershed pollution control system should be established. The watershed monitoring and the early warning system plays the roles of "perception"; and a complete system should possess capability of provision of timely, accurate and complete monitoring data, capability of network monitoring, capability of assessing, as well as capability of early warning and emergency response. The necessity of law and policy guaranteeing system was stressed for modern watershed management; to intensify watershed law making, to improve management regulation and to make proper economy policy could guarantee and support the smooth running of the watershed target system, watershed pollution control system and the watershed monitoring and early warning system. Finally the problem of "many dragons managing the same water separately", in the other word, the separated management of the present watershed administration system was analyzed; the necessity and urgency of the watershed zoning management and regional coordination were pointed out. In China, watershed management is still at the beginning on stage, watershed pollution control

  12. Spatial and temporal estimation of soil loss for the sustainable management of a wet semi-arid watershed cluster. (United States)

    Rejani, R; Rao, K V; Osman, M; Srinivasa Rao, Ch; Reddy, K Sammi; Chary, G R; Pushpanjali; Samuel, Josily


    The ungauged wet semi-arid watershed cluster, Seethagondi, lies in the Adilabad district of Telangana in India and is prone to severe erosion and water scarcity. The runoff and soil loss data at watershed, catchment, and field level are necessary for planning soil and water conservation interventions. In this study, an attempt was made to develop a spatial soil loss estimation model for Seethagondi cluster using RUSLE coupled with ARCGIS and was used to estimate the soil loss spatially and temporally. The daily rainfall data of Aphrodite for the period from 1951 to 2007 was used, and the annual rainfall varied from 508 to 1351 mm with a mean annual rainfall of 950 mm and a mean erosivity of 6789 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) year(-1). Considerable variation in land use land cover especially in crop land and fallow land was observed during normal and drought years, and corresponding variation in the erosivity, C factor, and soil loss was also noted. The mean value of C factor derived from NDVI for crop land was 0.42 and 0.22 in normal year and drought years, respectively. The topography is undulating and major portion of the cluster has slope less than 10°, and 85.3% of the cluster has soil loss below 20 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land varied from 2.9 to 3.6 t ha(-1) year(-1) in low rainfall years to 31.8 to 34.7 t ha(-1) year(-1) in high rainfall years with a mean annual soil loss of 12.2 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land was higher in the month of August with an annual soil loss of 13.1 and 2.9 t ha(-1) year(-1) in normal and drought year, respectively. Based on the soil loss in a normal year, the interventions recommended for 85.3% of area of the watershed includes agronomic measures such as contour cultivation, graded bunds, strip cropping, mixed cropping, crop rotations, mulching, summer plowing, vegetative bunds, agri-horticultural system, and management practices such as broad bed furrow, raised sunken beds, and harvesting available water

  13. Assisting community management of groundwater: Irrigator attitudes in two watersheds in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India (United States)

    Varua, M. E.; Ward, J.; Maheshwari, B.; Oza, S.; Purohit, R.; Hakimuddin; Chinnasamy, P.


    The absence of either state regulations or markets to coordinate the operation of individual wells has focussed attention on community level institutions as the primary loci for sustainable groundwater management in Rajasthan and Gujarat, India. The reported research relied on theoretical propositions that livelihood strategies, groundwater management and the propensity to cooperate are associated with the attitudinal orientations of well owners in the Meghraj and Dharta watersheds, located in Gujarat and Rajasthan respectively. The research tested the hypothesis that attitudes to groundwater management and farming practices, household income and trust levels of assisting agencies were not consistent across the watersheds, implying that a targeted approach, in contrast to default uniform programs, would assist communities craft rules to manage groundwater across multiple hydro-geological settings. Hierarchical cluster analysis of attitudes held by survey respondents revealed four statistically significant discrete clusters, supporting acceptance of the hypothesis. Further analyses revealed significant differences in farming practices, household wealth and willingness to adapt across the four groundwater management clusters. In conclusion, the need to account for attitudinal diversity is highlighted and a framework to guide the specific design of processes to assist communities craft coordinating instruments to sustainably manage local aquifers described.

  14. The relationship between the Municipal Master Plan and local Watershed Plans in water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gallo Pizella


    Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy has as one of its tools the drafting of local Water Resource Plans. In view of water resources planning and its relationship to land use planning, the aim of this work is to analyze the institutional and legal difficulties and the potential for an integrated system of water resources management. For this, we used the method of documentary and bibliographic research, beginning with the “Estatuto da Cidade”, a law for urban policy in Brazil, and literature on water management at the municipal and watershed levels. At the municipal level, the “Master Plan” (municipal plan of land use planning became the main instrument of territorial and municipal management, defining the parameters for the compliance of social, environmental and economic functions of real property. In this sense, the municipalities have a responsibility to protect water resources and, without local support, territorial and water management cannot be integrated in the context of the river basin. Despite the difficulties of including environmental variable in urban planning, the Master Plan has the potential to shape local water management systems that are environmentally sustainable and that progressively improve water quality and quantity within the watershed. Similarly, with more significant participation of the municipality in the Basin Committee, it is possible that the forms of municipal land use and occupation can be considered during the development and implementation of the Basin Plan. Thus, the management of water resources can occur integrally.

  15. Effectiveness of alternative management scenarios on the sediment load in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossama M. M. Abdelwahab


    Full Text Available The Annualised Agricultural Non-point Source model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of different management practices to control the soil erosion and sediment load in the Carapelle watershed, a Mediterranean medium-size watershed (506 km2 located in Apulia, Southern Italy. The model was previously calibrated and validated using five years of runoff and sediment load data measured at a monitoring station located at Ordona - Ponte dei Sauri Bridge. A total of 36 events were used to estimate the performance of the model during the period 2007-2011. The model performed well in predicting runoff, as the high values of the coefficients of efficiency and determination during the validation process showed. The peak flows predictions were satisfactory especially for the high flow events; the prediction capability of sediment load was good, even if a slight over-estimation was observed. Simulations of alternative management practices show that converting the most eroding cropland cells (13.5% of the catchment area to no tillage would reduce soil erosion by 30%, while converting them to grass or forest would reduce soil erosion by 36.5% in both cases. A crop rotation of wheat and a forage crop can also provide an effective way for soil erosion control as it reduces erosion by 69%. Those results can provide a good comparative analysis for conservation planners to choose the best scenarios to be adopted in the watershed to achieve goals in terms of soil conservation and water quality.

  16. Science Education for Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study of the Palouse Watershed (United States)

    Lyman, Samson E.


    This study uses case study and qualitative content analysis methodologies to answer the question: What is the relationship between Washington State's k-12 science education standards and the environmental sustainability needs of the Palouse River Watershed? After defining the Palouse Watershed's attributes, the author presents a land use history…

  17. Chemical characterization of sediment "Legacy P" in watershed streams - implications for P loading under land management (United States)

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan; Voroney, Paul


    Transfer of dissolved phosphorus (P) in runoff water via streams is regulated mainly by both stream sediment P adsorption and precipitation processes. The adsorption capacity of stream sediments acting as a P sink was a great benefit to preserving water quality in downstream lakes in the past, as it minimized the effects of surplus P loading from watershed streams. However, with long-term continued P loading the capacity of the sediments to store P has diminished, and eventually converted stream sediments from P sinks to sources of dissolved P. This accumulation of 'legacy P' in stream sediments has become the major source of dissolved P and risk to downstream water quality. Agricultural best management practices (BMP) for P typically attempt to minimize the transfer of P from farmland. However, because of the limitation in sediment P adsorption capacity, adoption of BMPs, such as reduction of external P loading, may not result in an immediate improvement in water quality. The goal of the research is to chemically characterize the P forms contributing to legacy P in stream sediments located in the watershed connecting to Cook's Bay, one of three basins of Lake Simcoe, Ontario, Canada. This watershed receives the largest amount of external P loading and has the highest rate of sediment build-up, both of which are attributed to agriculture. Water samples were collected monthly at six study sites from October 2015 for analysis of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, total P, dissolved reactive P, particulate P, total N, NH4-N, NO3-N, TOC and other elements including Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, S, Na, K and Zn. Sediment core samples were collected in November 2015 and will continue to be collected in March, July and October 2016. Various forms of P in five vertical sections were characterized by sequential fractionation and solution 31P NMR spectroscopy techniques. Pore water, sediment texture and clay identification were performed. The concentration of total P in water samples

  18. Study on the Land Use Structure and Soil Erosion Variation before and a fter the Small Watershed Comprehensive Management%小流域综合治理前后土地利用结构和土壤侵蚀强度变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝高明; 刘银迪; 郝名利; 王敬贵; 刘超群


    土地利用结构调整和减少土壤侵蚀面积、降低土壤侵蚀强度是小流域综合治理工程的主要效益,小流域综合治理前后土地利用和土壤侵蚀变化分析是评价工程实施效益的重要方面。以云贵鄂渝水土保持世行贷款/欧盟赠款项目重点监测小流域-盆古小流域为研究对象,基于治理前后的两期高分辨率遥感影像和eCogni-tion、Arcgis软件,对盆古小流域治理前后的土地利用和土壤侵蚀变化情况进行了分析研究。结果表明:2008~2011年盆古小流域旱地、水田等面积减少,有林地和梯田等面积增加;小流域轻度侵蚀在有林地中分布最多,而轻度以上侵蚀主要分布在旱地中;另外,小流域土壤侵蚀这一期间整体呈现由强转弱的趋势,表明小流域综合治理工程取得了明显成效。%Main benefits of the small watershed comprehensive management include the adjustment of the land use structure , reduction of the soil erosion areas and the reduction of soil erosion strength .The land use before&after the small watershed comprehensive management and the soil erosion variation analysis are the important aspects in the as -sessment of the project implementation benefits .Based on the high -resolution RS images took before and after the management with the software such as the eCognition , Arcgis,the analysis and study was conducted on the land use and soil erosion variation before and after the management of the Pengu Small Watershed , that is under the Key Moni-toring Small Watershed of the World Bank Loan /EU Grant Project of Yunnan ,Guizhou , Hubei and Chongqing Prov-inces .The results showed that from 2008 to 2011 the area of dry land and paddy land reduced while the areas of forest and terrace increased .Most of the slight erosion is located in the forest land , while the erosion level higher than slight erosion is mainly located in the dry land .In addition , the soil erosion of

  19. Minnesota Watersheds (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide minor watershed delineations with major/minor watershed identifiers and names for provinces, major watersheds, and basins. Also included are watershed...

  20. SWAT meta-modeling as support of the management scenario analysis in large watersheds. (United States)

    Azzellino, A; Çevirgen, S; Giupponi, C; Parati, P; Ragusa, F; Salvetti, R


    In the last two decades, numerous models and modeling techniques have been developed to simulate nonpoint source pollution effects. Most models simulate the hydrological, chemical, and physical processes involved in the entrainment and transport of sediment, nutrients, and pesticides. Very often these models require a distributed modeling approach and are limited in scope by the requirement of homogeneity and by the need to manipulate extensive data sets. Physically based models are extensively used in this field as a decision support for managing the nonpoint source emissions. A common characteristic of this type of model is a demanding input of several state variables that makes the calibration and effort-costing in implementing any simulation scenario more difficult. In this study the USDA Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the Venice Lagoon Watershed (VLW), Northern Italy. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) network was trained on SWAT simulations and used as a meta-model for scenario analysis. The MLP meta-model was successfully trained and showed an overall accuracy higher than 70% both on the training and on the evaluation set, allowing a significant simplification in conducting scenario analysis.

  1. Development of Optimal Water-Resources Management Strategies for Kaidu-Kongque Watershed under Multiple Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou


    Full Text Available In this study, an interval-stochastic fractile optimization (ISFO model is advanced for developing optimal water-resources management strategies under multiple uncertainties. The ISFO model can not only handle uncertainties presented in terms of probability distributions and intervals with possibility distribution boundary, but also quantify subjective information (i.e., expected system benefit preference and risk-averse attitude from different decision makers. The ISFO model is then applied to a real case of water-resources systems planning in Kaidu-kongque watershed, China, and a number of scenarios with different ecological water-allocation policies under varied p-necessity fractiles are analyzed. Results indicate that different policies for ecological water allocation can lead to varied water supplies, economic penalties, and system benefits. The solutions obtained can help decision makers identify optimized water-allocation alternatives, alleviate the water supply-demand conflict, and achieve socioeconomic and ecological sustainability, particularly when limited water resources are available for multiple competing users.

  2. Relating management practices and nutrient export in agricultural watersheds of the United States (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.


    Relations between riverine export (load) of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) from 133 large agricultural watersheds in the United States and factors affecting nutrient transport were evaluated using empirical regression models. After controlling for anthropogenic inputs and other landscape factors affecting nutrient transport-such as runoff, precipitation, slope, number of reservoirs, irrigated area, and area with subsurface tile drains-the relations between export and the area in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) (N) and conservation tillage (P) were positive. Additional interaction terms indicated that the relations between export and the area in conservation tillage (N) and the CRP (P) progressed from being clearly positive when soil erodibility was low or moderate, to being close to zero when soil erodibility was higher, to possibly being slightly negative only at the 90th to 95th percentile of soil erodibility values. Possible explanations for the increase in nutrient export with increased area in management practices include greater transport of soluble nutrients from areas in conservation tillage; lagged response of stream quality to implementation of management practices because of nitrogen transport in groundwater, time for vegetative cover to mature, and/or prior accumulation of P in soils; or limitations in the management practice and stream monitoring data sets. If lags are occurring, current nutrient export from agricultural watersheds may still be reflecting the influence of agricultural land-use practices that were in place before the implementation of these management practices.

  3. Economics of integrated watershed management in the presence of a dam (United States)

    Lee, Yoon; Yoon, Taeyeon; Shah, Farhed A.


    This paper presents an optimal control model of integrated watershed management in the presence of a dam. Management efforts focus on upstream soil conservation, reservoir-level sediment removal, and downstream damage control from water pollution. Increased soil conservation potentially benefits farmers and also has the external benefit of reducing sediment accumulation in the reservoir. Sediment is released downstream of the reservoir using the hydrosuction sediment removal system (HSRS). This sediment release extends reservoir life and provides nutrients to downstream farmers who then use less fertilizer. Also included in the functions of the dam manager are the provision of water to downstream farms, the control of instream flow to mitigate downstream damages from water pollution, and the use of water treatment to meet quality standards for water supplied directly from the reservoir to residential users. An illustrative application of the model to Lake Aswan, located between Egypt and Sudan, indicates substantial benefits from far-sighted behavior and cooperation across all agents. Moving from the baseline case that reflects the status quo to the socially optimal solution increases watershed net present value by more than $500 billion. Other scenarios with varying types of collaboration among the agents are also explored. Interestingly, while decisions with respect to soil conservation do impact the welfare of upstream farmers, the benefits to reservoir management and agriculture in Egypt are modest compared to benefits Egypt gets from improved control of instream flow. Also, subject to technical limits, increasing reservoir life through practice of HSRS is economically desirable.

  4. Effects of environmental protection on forest management costs in the Nehalliston creek watershed: An analysis. FERIC special report No. SR-95, and Working paper No. WP-6-008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, E.D.


    This report presents results of a study investigating the economic impacts of environmental protection on forest management for a typical watershed in the interior of British Columbia. The study compares three scenarios representing past, present, and future generations of integrated resource management guidelines. Specific objectives of the study were to analyze, describe, and compare the sustainable flow of harvested timber over a 120-year period from the watershed, and to estimate and compare the annual costs of harvesting and related management activities for the first 20 years of each scenario. The study estimated sustainable harvest volumes over a full rotation using the ATLAS (A Tactical Landscape Analysis System) computer model.


    The Goodwater Creek Watershed is a subwatershed of the Mark Twain Lake watershed, an ARS-CEAP benchmark watershed in Northeast Missouri. This 7,250-ha watershed was selected for initial modeling because of its smaller size and the large hydrologic and climatologic dataset available. A SWAT model of ...

  6. Community-based shared values as a 'Heart-ware' driver for integrated watershed management: Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective (United States)

    Mohamad, Zeeda Fatimah; Nasaruddin, Affan; Abd Kadir, Siti Norasiah; Musa, Mohd Noor; Ong, Benjamin; Sakai, Nobumitsu


    This paper explores the case for using "community-based shared values" as a potential driver for the "Heartware" aspects of governance in Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) - from a Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective. This policy approach was originally inspired by the Japanese experience, and the paper investigates whether a similar strategy can be adapted in the Malaysian context-based on a qualitative exploratory case study of a local downstream watershed community. The community-based shared values are categorized into six functional values that can be placed on a watershed: industry, ecosystem, lifestyle, landscape, water resource and spirituality. The study confirmed the availability of a range of community-based shared values in each category that are promising to drive the heartware for integrated watershed management in the local Malaysian context. However, most of these shared values are either declining in its appreciation or nostalgic in nature. The paper ends with findings on key differences and similarities between the Malaysian and Japanese contexts, and concludes with lessons for international transfer of IWM heartware policy strategies between the two countries.

  7. Soil and nutrient retention in winter-flooded ricefields with implications for watershed management (United States)

    Manley, S.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Rodrigue, P.B.; Dewey, J.C.; Schoenholtz, S.H.; Gerard, P.D.; Reinecke, K.J.


    The ability of water resources to support aquatic life and human needs depends, in part, on reducing nonpoint source pollution amid contemporary agricultural practices. Winter retention of shallow water on rice and other agricultural fields is an accepted management practice for wildlife conservation; however, soil and water conservation benefits are not well documented. We evaluated the ability of four post-harvest ricefield treatment combinations (stubble-flooded, stubble-open, disked-flooded and disked-open) to abate nonpoint source exports into watersheds of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Total suspended solid exports were 1,121 kg ha-1 (1,000 lb ac-1) from disked-open fields where rice stubble was disked after harvest and fields were allowed to drain, compared with 35 kg ha-1 (31 lb ac-1) from stubble-flooded fields where stubble was left standing after harvest and fields captured rainfall from November 1 to March 1. Estimates of total suspended solid exports from ricefields based on Landsat imagery and USDA crop data are 0.43 and 0.40 Mg km-2 day-1 in the Big Sunflower and L'Anguille watersheds, respectively. Estimated reductions in total suspended solid exports from ricefields into the Big Sunflower and L'Anguille water-sheds range from 26% to 64% under hypothetical scenarios in which 65% to 100% of the rice production area is managed to capture winter rainfall. Winter ricefield management reduced nonpoint source export by decreasing concentrations of solids and nutrients in, and reducing runoff volume from, ricefields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley.

  8. Application of a Structured Decision Process for Informing Watershed Management Options in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico (United States)

    The Guánica Bay watershed has been a priority for research, assessment and management since the 1970s, and since 2008, has been the focus of a U.S. Coral Reef Task Force (USCRTF) research initiative involving multiple agencies assembled to address the effect of land management de...

  9. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajeet Chaubey


    Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ≤ NS ≤ 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

  10. Evaluation of Distributed BMPs in an Urban Watershed - High Resolution Modeling for Stormwater Management (United States)

    Fry, T. J.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Higgins, C. P.


    Urbanization presents challenging water resource problems for communities worldwide. The hydromodifications associated with urbanization results in increased runoff rates and volumes and increased peak flows which can lead to increased erosion and stream destabilization, decreased evapotranspiration, decreased ground water recharge, increases in pollutant loading, and localized anthropogenic climate change or Urban Heat Islands. Stormwater management is shifting from a drainage-efficiency focus to a natural systems focus. The natural system focus, referred to as Low Impact Development (LID), or Green Infrastructure, uses best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the impacts caused by urbanization hydromodification. Currently there are two modeling approaches used to evaluate BMPs in urban watersheds, conceptually-based coarse resolution hydrologic models and high-resolution physically-based models. Conceptual urban hydrology-hydraulic models typically are used to determine peak flow hydrographs within a watershed based on uniform rainfall, the basins size, shape, and percent of impervious land cover. Physically-based hydrologic models simulate integrated surface and subsurface water flow. Here, we use high-resolution physically based hydrologic models of the urban hydrologic cycle with explicit inclusion of the built environment. We compare the inclusion and exclusion of LID features to evaluate the parameterizations used to model these components in more conceptually based models. Differences in response are discussed and a road map is put forth for improving LID representation in commonly used urban water models.

  11. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhruvesh P Patel; Prashant K Srivastava; Manika Gupta; Naresh Nandhakumar


    Watershed morphometric analysis is important for controlling floods and planning restoration actions. The present study is focused on the identification of suitable sites for locating water harvesting structures using morphometric analysis and multi-criteria based decision support system. The Hathmati watershed of river Hathmati at Idar taluka, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat is experiencing excessive runoff and soil erosion due to high intensity rainfall. Earth observation dataset such as Digital Elevation Model and Geographic Information System are used in this study to determine the quantitative description of the basin geometry. Several morphometric parameters such as stream length, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor, circularity ratio, and compactness coefficient are taken into account for prioritization of Hathmati watershed. The overall analysis reveals that Hathmati comprises of 13 mini-watersheds out of which, the watershed number 2 is of utmost priority because it has the highest degradation possibilities. The final results are used to locate the sites suitable for water harvesting structures using geo-visualization technique. After all the analyses, the best possibilities of check dams in the mini-watersheds that can be used for soil and water conservation in the watershed are presented.

  12. Physical characterization of a watershed through GIS: a study in the Schmidt stream, Brazil. (United States)

    Reis, D R; Plangg, R; Tundisi, J G; Quevedo, D M


    Remote sensing and geoprocessing are essential tools for obtaining and maintaining records of human actions on space over the course of time; these tools offer the basis for diagnoses of land use, environmental interference and local development. The Schmidt stream watershed, located in the Sinos River basin, in southern Brazil, has an environmental situation similar to that of the majority of small streams draining rural and urban areas in southern Brazil: agricultural and urbanization practices do not recognize the riparian area and there is removal of original vegetation, disregarding the suitability of land use; removal of wetlands; intensive water use for various activities; and lack of control and monitoring in the discharge of wastewater, among other factors, deteriorate the quality of this important environment.This article aims to achieve a physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed (Sinos river basin) identifying elements such as land use and occupation, soil science, geology, climatology, extent and location of watershed, among others, so as to serve as the basis for a tool that helps in the integrated environmental management of watersheds. By applying geographic information system - GIS to the process of obtaining maps of land use and occupation, pedologicaland geological, and using climatological data from the Campo Bom meteorological station, field visit, review of literature and journals, and publicly available data, the physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed was performed, with a view to the integrated environmental management of this watershed. Out of the total area of the Schmidt stream watershed (23.92 km(2)), in terms of geology, it was observed that 23.7% consist of colluvial deposits, 22.6% consist of grass facies, and 53.7% consist of Botucatu formation. Major soil types of the watershed: 97.4% Argisols and only 2.6% Planosols. Land use and occupation is characterized by wetland (0.5%), Native Forest (12

  13. Putting watershed restoration in context: alternative future scenarios influence management outcomes. (United States)

    Fullerton, A H; Steel, E A; Caras, Y; Sheer, M; Olson, P; Kaje, J


    Predicting effects of habitat restoration is an important step for recovery of imperiled anadromous salmonid populations. Habitat above three major hydropower dams in the Lewis River watershed, southwestern Washington, USA, will soon become accessible to anadromous fish. We used multiple models to estimate habitat conditions above dams and fish population responses. Additionally, we used scenario planning to predict how habitat and fish will respond to potential future trends in land use due to human population growth and riparian conservation policies. Finally, we developed a hypothetical management strategy (i.e., a set of prioritized restoration projects in specific locations within the watershed) as an example of how a fixed amount of restoration funds might be spent to enhance the success of reintroducing fish above dams. We then compared predicted outcomes from this new strategy to those of six previously modeled strategies. We estimated how the choice of the best management strategy might differ among alternative future scenarios. Results suggest that dam passage will provide access to large amounts of high-quality habitat that will benefit fish populations. Moreover, conservation of existing riparian areas, if implemented, has the potential to improve conditions to a much greater extent than restoration strategies examined, despite expected urban growth. We found that the relative performance of management strategies shifted when fish were allowed to migrate above dams, but less so among alternative futures examined. We discuss how predicted outcomes from these seven hypothetical management strategies could be used for developing an on-the-ground strategy to address a real management situation.

  14. Twenty years of water-quality studies in the Cheney Reservoir Watershed, Kansas, 1996-2016 (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy M.; Kramer, Ariele R.


    Since 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Wichita, has done studies in the Cheney Reservoir watershed to understand environmental effects on water-quality conditions. Early studies (1996–2001) determined subwatershed sources of contaminants, nutrient and sediment loading to Cheney Reservoir, changes in reservoir sediment quality over time, and watershed sources of phosphorus. Later studies (2001–present) focused on nutrient and sediment concentrations and mass transport from the watershed; the presence of cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, and taste-and-odor compounds in the reservoir; and development of regression models for real-time computations of water-quality constituents of interest that may affect drinking-water treatment. This fact sheet summarizes key results from studies done by the USGS during 1996–2016 in the Cheney Reservoir watershed and Cheney Reservoir.

  15. Establishing ecological and social continuities: new challenges to optimize urban watershed management (United States)

    Mitroi, V.; de Coninck, A.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J.-F.


    The (re)construction of the ecological continuity is stated as one of the main objectives of the European Water Framework Directive for watershed management in Europe. Analysing the social, political, technical and scientific processes characterising the implementation of different projects of ecological continuity in two adjacent peri-urban territories in Ile-de-France, we observed science-driven approaches disregarding the social contexts. We show that, in urbanized areas, ecological continuity requires not only important technical and ecological expertise, but also social and political participation to the definition of a common vision and action plan. Being a challenge for both, technical water management institutions and "classical" ecological policies, we propose some social science contributions to deal with ecological unpredictability and reconsider stakeholder resistance to this kind of project.

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of management practices on hydrology and water quality at watershed scale with a rainfall-runoff model. (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Bralts, Vincent F; Engel, Bernard A


    The adverse influence of urban development on hydrology and water quality can be reduced by applying best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) practices. This study applied green roof, rain barrel/cistern, bioretention system, porous pavement, permeable patio, grass strip, grassed swale, wetland channel, retention pond, detention basin, and wetland basin, on Crooked Creek watershed. The model was calibrated and validated for annual runoff volume. A framework for simulating BMPs and LID practices at watershed scales was created, and the impacts of BMPs and LID practices on water quantity and water quality were evaluated with the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for 16 scenarios. The various levels and combinations of BMPs/LID practices reduced runoff volume by 0 to 26.47%, Total Nitrogen (TN) by 0.30 to 34.20%, Total Phosphorus (TP) by 0.27 to 47.41%, Total Suspended Solids (TSS) by 0.33 to 53.59%, Lead (Pb) by 0.30 to 60.98%, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) by 0 to 26.70%, and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) by 0 to 27.52%. The implementation of grass strips in 25% of the watershed where this practice could be applied was the most cost-efficient scenario, with cost per unit reduction of $1m3/yr for runoff, while cost for reductions of two pollutants of concern was $445 kg/yr for Total Nitrogen (TN) and $4871 kg/yr for Total Phosphorous (TP). The scenario with very high levels of BMP and LID practice adoption (scenario 15) reduced runoff volume and pollutant loads from 26.47% to 60.98%, and provided the greatest reduction in runoff volume and pollutant loads among all scenarios. However, this scenario was not as cost-efficient as most other scenarios. The L-THIA-LID 2.1 model is a valid tool that can be applied to various locations to help identify cost effective BMP/LID practice plans at watershed scales.

  17. Assessment and modelling of the influence of man-made networks on the hydrology of a small watershed: implications for fast flow components, water quality and landscape management (United States)

    Carluer, Nadia; Marsily, Ghislain De


    Up to now, most watershed models have been focused on the representation of 'natural' flow and transport processes. In this paper, we discuss the role of man-made networks, such as ditches, roads, hedge rows and hedges, underground drainage by buried pipes, etc. The influence of such features on the hydrology of a watershed may be of particular importance if the aim of the modelling is to predict the effect of landscape management or the fate of contaminants, e.g. pesticides, when a rain event occurs very soon after their spreading on the soil surface. It is likely that such artificial networks may act as conduits or short-circuits for the transport of contaminants, either dissolved or sorbed on soil particles, by-passing some of the retardation mechanisms such as sorption in the soil, retention of surface runoff by grass verges, biodegradation in the unsaturated zone, etc. We first present a small watershed on which the study was conducted, the Kervidy, which is a 5 km 2 'bocage ' catchment in Brittany, France. The man-made networks were observed and their extent and functioning described. We then included the potential hydraulic role of these networks in a distributed watershed model (TOPOG, [J. Hydrol. 150 (1993) 665]). This modified model, ANTHROPOG, was run, for comparison, with and without the man-made network; sensitivity tests were also made to assess the hydrologic importance of these networks. It was shown that they can have a very significant effect on the functioning of a watershed. We conclude on the relevance of the improved distributed model for the management of rural landscapes, and on the type of additional data needed to calibrate the model with parameters representative of the true processes. Bocage is a landscape with grassland, hedges, and occasional trees—often apple trees—typical of Brittany and Normandy.

  18. Application of risk-based multiple criteria decision analysis for selection of the best agricultural scenario for effective watershed management. (United States)

    Javidi Sabbaghian, Reza; Zarghami, Mahdi; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Sharifi, Mohammad Bagher; Herman, Matthew R; Daneshvar, Fariborz


    Effective watershed management requires the evaluation of agricultural best management practice (BMP) scenarios which carefully consider the relevant environmental, economic, and social criteria involved. In the Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) process, scenarios are first evaluated and then ranked to determine the most desirable outcome for the particular watershed. The main challenge of this process is the accurate identification of the best solution for the watershed in question, despite the various risk attitudes presented by the associated decision-makers (DMs). This paper introduces a novel approach for implementation of the MCDM process based on a comparative neutral risk/risk-based decision analysis, which results in the selection of the most desirable scenario for use in the entire watershed. At the sub-basin level, each scenario includes multiple BMPs with scores that have been calculated using the criteria derived from two cases of neutral risk and risk-based decision-making. The simple additive weighting (SAW) operator is applied for use in neutral risk decision-making, while the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) and induced OWA (IOWA) operators are effective for risk-based decision-making. At the watershed level, the BMP scores of the sub-basins are aggregated to calculate each scenarios' combined goodness measurements; the most desirable scenario for the entire watershed is then selected based on the combined goodness measurements. Our final results illustrate the type of operator and risk attitudes needed to satisfy the relevant criteria within the number of sub-basins, and how they ultimately affect the final ranking of the given scenarios. The methodology proposed here has been successfully applied to the Honeyoey Creek-Pine Creek watershed in Michigan, USA to evaluate various BMP scenarios and determine the best solution for both the stakeholders and the overall stream health.


    The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) developed a document entitled Managing Urban Watershed Pathogen Contamination (EPA 600/R-03/111). This document provides information to support specific steps of the total maximum daily load (TMDL) process for meeting water q...

  20. Best Management Practices in the CEAP Goodwater Creek Watershed: What, Where, Why, and How Much? (United States)

    Continuation of conservation funding may depend upon demonstration that past funded projects have contributed to improvement of water quality or reduction of pollutant loadings from agricultural sources. In the Goodwater Creek watershed, a 7,250 ha sub-watershed of the Mark Twain Lake watershed in N...

  1. Different seasonality of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed in Midwestern USA (United States)

    Tian, S.; Youssef, M. A.; Richards, R. P.; Liu, J.; Baker, D. B.; Liu, Y.


    Land use/land cover is a critical factor affecting temporal dynamics of nitrate export from watersheds. Based on a long-term (>30 years) water quality monitoring program in the Western Lake Erie area, United States, this study compared seasonal variation of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed. A seasonality index was adapted to quantitatively characterize seasonal variation of nitrate export from the two watersheds. Results showed that monthly nitrate concentrations from the two watersheds exhibited different seasonal variation. Seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading for the agricultural watershed is approximately 3 times of that from the urbanized watershed and the difference is statistically significant (p export from the two watersheds were mainly attributed to their distinct nitrogen sources, physical and biogeochemical settings. The declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the agricultural watershed could be partially caused by historical climate change in the study region, especially increased temperature during winter. Urbanization could be one key factor contributing to the declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the urbanized watershed. Information derived from this study have practical implications for developing proper management practices to mitigate nitrate pollution in Midwestern United States.

  2. Impact of conservationpractices on soil quality indicators: case study in the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed, Oklahoma (United States)

    While there has been controversy amongst researchers about the concepts and terminology of soil quality, there is agreement that management has critical effects on soils and that soils can either move toward or away from a condition that is favorable for the defined use of that soil. Within watershe...

  3. An establishment on the hazard mitigation system of large scale landslides for Zengwen reservoir watershed management in Taiwan (United States)

    Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Lee, Ming-Hsi; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Huang, Meng-Hsuan; Yu, Chia-Ching


    hazard mitigation program operated by local government and reservoir watershed management in southern Taiwan. Keywords: large scale landslide, disaster prevention, hazard mitigation, watershed management

  4. Watershed influence on fluvial ecosystems: an integrated methodology for river water quality management. (United States)

    Carone, Maria T; Simoniello, Tiziana; Manfreda, Salvatore; Caricato, Gaetano


    The EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60 (Integrated River Basin Management for Europe) establishes the importance of preserving water quality through policies applied at watershed level given the strong links existing among ecological, hydrological, and hydrogeological systems. Therefore, monitoring campaigns of river water quality should be planned with multidisciplinary approaches starting from a landscape perspective. In this paper, the effects of the basin hydrology on the river water quality and, in particular, the impacts caused by the runoff production coming from agricultural areas are investigated. The fluvial segments receiving consistent amount of pollutant loads (due to the runoff routing over agricultural areas) are assumed more critical in terms of water quality and thus, they require more accurate controls. Starting from this perspective, to evaluate the runoff productions coming from agricultural areas, we applied a semi-distributed hydrological model that adopts satellite data, pedological and morphological information for the watershed description. Then, the river segments receiving critical amount of runoff loads from the surrounding cultivated areas were identified. Finally, in order to validate the approach, water quality for critical and non critical segment was investigated seasonally, by using river macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality because of their effectiveness in preserving in time a memory of pollution events. Biomonitoring data showed that river water quality strongly decreases in correspondence of fluvial segments receiving critical amount of runoff coming from agricultural areas. The results highlight the usefulness of such a methodology to plan monitoring campaigns specifically devoted to non-point pollution sources and suggest the possibility to use this approach for water quality management and for planning river restoration policies.

  5. Suburban watershed nitrogen retention: Estimating the effectiveness of stormwater management structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Koch


    Full Text Available Abstract Excess nitrogen (N is a primary driver of freshwater and coastal eutrophication globally, and urban stormwater is a rapidly growing source of N pollution. Stormwater best management practices (BMPs are used widely to remove excess N from runoff in urban and suburban areas, and are expected to perform under a wide variety of environmental conditions. Yet the capacity of BMPs to retain excess N varies; and both the variation and the drivers thereof are largely unknown, hindering the ability of water resource managers to meet water quality targets in a cost-effective way. Here, we use structured expert judgment (SEJ, a performance-weighted method of expert elicitation, to quantify the uncertainty in BMP performance under a range of site-specific environmental conditions and to estimate the extent to which key environmental factors influence variation in BMP performance. We hypothesized that rain event frequency and magnitude, BMP type and size, and physiographic province would significantly influence the experts’ estimates of N retention by BMPs common to suburban Piedmont and Coastal Plain watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay region. Expert knowledge indicated wide uncertainty in BMP performance, with N removal efficiencies ranging from 40%. Experts believed that the amount of rain was the primary identifiable source of variability in BMP efficiency, which is relevant given climate projections of more frequent heavy rain events in the mid-Atlantic. To assess the extent to which those projected changes might alter N export from suburban BMPs and watersheds, we combined downscaled estimates of rainfall with distributions of N loads for different-sized rain events derived from our elicitation. The model predicted higher and more variable N loads under a projected future climate regime, suggesting that current BMP regulations for reducing nutrients may be inadequate in the future.

  6. Parcelling out the Watershed: The Recurring Consequences of Organising Columbia River Management within a Basin-Based Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Vogel


    Full Text Available This article examines a 75-year history of North America’s Columbia river to answer the question: what difference does a river basin territory actually make? Advocates reason that river basins and watersheds are natural and holistic water management spaces, and can avoid the fragmentations and conflicts endemic to water management within traditional political territories. However, on the Columbia, this reasoning has not played out in practice. Instead, basin management has been shaped by challenges from and negotiations with more traditional jurisdictional spaces and political districts. The recurring result has been 'parcelling out the watershed': coordinating river management to produce a few spreadable benefits, and distributing these benefits, as well as other responsibilities and policy-making influence, to jurisdictional parts and political districts. To provide generous spreadable benefits, river management has unevenly emphasised hydropower, resulting in considerable environmental losses. However, benefits have been widely spread and shared – and over time challengers have forced management to diversify. Thus a river basin territory over time produced patterns of both positive and negative environmental, social, economic, and democratic outcomes. To improve the outcomes of watershed-based water management, we need more interactive and longer-term models attentive to dynamic politics and geographies.

  7. 77 FR 71404 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Flood Risk Management Study... (United States)


    ... Proposed Flood Risk Management Study for the Blanchard River Watershed Including Communities of Findlay and... Management Study. The Buffalo District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) will be the lead agency in... Study in the Blanchard River Watershed including the communities of the City of Findlay in...

  8. Curative vs. preventive management of nitrogen transfers in rural areas: lessons from the case of the Orgeval watershed (Seine River basin, France). (United States)

    Garnier, J; Billen, G; Vilain, G; Benoit, M; Passy, P; Tallec, G; Tournebize, J; Anglade, J; Billy, C; Mercier, B; Ansart, P; Azougui, A; Sebilo, M; Kao, C


    The Orgeval watershed (104 km(2)) is a long-term experimental observatory and research site, representative of rural areas with intensive cereal farming of the temperate world. Since the past few years, we have been carrying out several studies on nitrate source, transformation and transfer of both surface and groundwaters in relation with land use and agriculture practices in order to assess nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching, contamination of aquifers, denitrification processes and associated nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. A synthesis of these studies is presented to establish a quantitative diagnosis of nitrate contamination and N2O emissions at the watershed scale. Taking this watershed as a practical example, we compare curative management measures, such as pond introduction, and preventive measures, namely conversion to organic farming practices, using model simulations. It is concluded that only preventive measures are able to reduce the NO3(-) contamination level without further increasing N2O emissions, a result providing new insights for future management bringing together water-agro-ecosystems.

  9. A Study of Disaster Adaptation Behavior and Risk Communication for watershed Area Resident - the Case of Kaoping River Watershed in Taiwan (United States)

    Te Pai, Jen; Chen, Yu-Yun; Huang, Kuan-Hua


    Along with the global climate change, the rainfall patterns become more centralized and cause natural disasters more frequently and heavily. Residents in river watersheds area are facing high risk of natural disasters and severe impacts, especially in Taiwan. From the experience of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, we learned that poor risk communication between the governments and the households and communities would lead to tremendous loss of property and life. Effective risk communication can trigger action to impending and current events. On the other hand, it can also build up knowledge on hazards and risks and encourage adaptation behaviors. Through the participation and cooperation of different stakeholders in disaster management, can reduce vulnerability, enhance adaptive capacity, improve the interaction between different stakeholders and also avoid conflicts. However, in Taiwan there are few studies about how households and communities perceive flood disaster risks, the process of risk communications between governments and households, or the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. Therefore, this study takes household and community of Kaoping River Watershed as study area. It aims to identify important factors in the process of disaster risk communication and find out the relationship between risk communication and adaptation behaviors. A framework of risk communication process was established to describe how to trigger adaptation behaviors and encourage adaptation behaviors with risk communication strategies. An ISM model was utilized to verify the framework by using household questionnaire survey. Moreover, a logit choice model was build to test the important factors for effective risk communication and adaption behavior. The result of this study would provide governments or relevant institutions suggestions about risk communication strategies and adaptation strategies to enhance the adaptive capacity of households and reduce the

  10. AnnAGNPS – A United States Department of Agriculture Watershed Conservation Management Planning Tool for Non-Point Source Pollution Control (United States)

    A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...

  11. Global change impacts on river ecosystems: A high-resolution watershed study of Ebro river metabolism. (United States)

    Val, Jonatan; Chinarro, David; Pino, María Rosa; Navarro, Enrique


    Global change is transforming freshwater ecosystems, mainly through changes in basin flow dynamics. This study assessed how the combination of climate change and human management of river flow impacts metabolism of the Ebro River (the largest river basin in Spain, 86,100km(2)), assessed as gross primary production-GPP-and ecosystem respiration-ER. In order to investigate the influence of global change on freshwater ecosystems, an analysis of trends and frequencies from 25 sampling sites of the Ebro river basin was conducted. For this purpose, we examined the effect of anthropogenic flow control on river metabolism with a Granger causality study; simultaneously, took into account the effects of climate change, a period of extraordinary drought (largest in past 140years). We identified periods of sudden flow changes resulting from both human management and global climate effects. From 1998 to 2012, the Ebro River basin was trending toward a more autotrophic condition indicated by P/R ratio. Particularly, the results show that floods that occurred after long periods of low flows had a dramatic impact on the respiration (i.e., mineralization) capacity of the river. This approach allowed for a detailed characterization of the relationships between river metabolism and drought impacts at the watershed level. These findings may allow for a better understanding of the ecological impacts provoked by flow management, thus contributing to maintain the health of freshwater communities and ecosystem services that rely on their integrity.

  12. Phosphorus losses from an irrigated watershed in the Northwestern U.S.: Case study of the Upper Snake Rock Watershed (United States)

    Watersheds utilizing surface water for irrigation often return a portion of the water to a water body. This irrigation return flow often includes sediment and nutrients that reduce the quality of the receiving water body. Research in the 82,000 ha Upper Snake Rock (USR) watershed from 2005 to 2008 s...

  13. Sustainable Water Resources Management in a Complex Watershed Under Climate Change Scenarios (United States)

    Schuster, J. P.; McPhee, J.


    The Aconcagua River Basin in central Chile supplies water for over one million people, high-return agriculture, mining and hydropower industries. The Aconcagua river basin has Mediterranean/semi-arid climate, its hydrologic regime varies along its path from snow- to a rainfall-dominated, and significant stream-aquifer interaction is observed throughout the river path. A complex water market operates in the Aconcagua River Basin, where private owners hold surface and subsurface water rights independently of land ownership and/or intended use. The above yield integrated watershed management critical for the sustainability of basin operations, moreover under conditions of significant precipitation interannual variability and uncertain future climatic scenarios. In this work we propose an integrated hydrologic-operational model for the Aconcagua River in order to evaluate sustainable management scenarios under conditions of climatic uncertainty. The modeling software WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning System) serves as the platform for decision support, allowing the assessment of diverse scenarios of water use development and hydrologic conditions. The hydrologic component of the adopted model utilizes conceptual functions for describing the relations between different hydrologic variables. The management component relies on economic valuation for characterizing the space of efficient operational policies.

  14. Analysis of livelihood security: a case study in the Kali-Khola watershed of Nepal. (United States)

    Bhandari, B S; Grant, M


    This paper examines household livelihoods in highland and lowland communities of the Kali-Khola agricultural watershed in western Nepal on the basis of economic, ecological and social security indicators. Significant differences were found in soil fertility status, pests and diseases management, risk and uncertainties, use of agrochemicals and access to social services. No remarkable variations were found in crop diversification, annual agricultural income and food sufficiency. However, uncertainty and risk in agricultural production is relatively low in highland communities. The findings reveal that agriculture production alone is not a viable livelihood option for agricultural watershed communities in Nepal. The households growing crops with hired labour have relatively sustainable livelihoods in Nepal's agricultural watersheds. Insufficient agricultural land, insufficient working manpower within a family, and lack of access to ecological agricultural services are prime factors in being livelihood insecure in agricultural watershed communities. Therefore, long-term policies and plans need to be developed for the empowerment of local farmers and to support rural livelihoods with adaptable and flexible income-generating strategies, resilient resource management institutions and enhancement of knowledge, skills and social capital.

  15. Poverty and Environmental Services: Case Study in Way Besai Watershed, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beria Leimona


    Full Text Available Local communities in developing countries are often forbidden to earn their livelihood from state-owned forests, but nonetheless local people commonly manage these lands and depend on them to survive. In these places, community participation is the key to successful conservation programs intended to rehabilitate environmental functions and produce environmental services for beneficiaries outside the area. This paper reviews the relationship between poverty and environmental services and briefly discusses the main ways in which approaches that rely on payment for environmental services are thought likely to alleviate poverty. It also discusses the poverty profile and inequality of upland dwellers in the Sumberjaya watershed in Indonesia's Lampung Province, using income, education, and land-holding indicators. Data related to these three indicators were collected from intensive household surveys and interviews and used via Gini decomposition to measure inequality. In addition, analysis of data on stem at breast height and horizontal root diameter of coffee and other noncoffee trees planted on coffee farms showed that index of root shallowness could be used as an estimator of environmental services. This study revealed that state forest land in Lampung Province, Indonesia, not only provides important income for poor farmers but also leads to a more equitable distribution of income and land holdings. These farmers have also successfully rehabilitated degraded land by establishing coffee-based agroforestry. As found in other recent studies, these findings show that coffee-based agroforestry can perform watershed service functions similar to those of natural, undisturbed forests. This supports the argument that poor farmers who provide environmental services through their activities in state-owned forests should be rewarded with land rights as a policy to alleviate poverty.

  16. Learning through Participatory Resource Management Programs: Case Studies from Costa Rica (United States)

    Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John


    Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…

  17. Optimal Reoperation of Multi-Reservoirs for Integrated Watershed Management with Multiple Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Xu


    Full Text Available Constructing reservoirs can make more efficient use of water resources for human society. However, the negative impacts of these projects on the environment are often ignored. Optimal reoperation of reservoirs, which considers not only in socio-economic values but also environmental benefits, is increasingly important. A model of optimal reoperation of multi-reservoirs for integrated watershed management with multiple benefits was proposed to alleviate the conflict between water use and environmental deterioration. The social, economic, water quality and ecological benefits were respectively taken into account as the scheduling objectives and quantified according to economic models. River minimum ecological flows and reservoir water levels based on flood control were taken as key constraint conditions. Feasible search discrete differential dynamic programming (FS-DDDP was used to run the model. The proposed model was used in the upstream of the Nanpan River, to quantitatively evaluate the difference between optimal reoperation and routine operation. The results indicated that the reoperation could significantly increase the water quality benefit and have a minor effect on the benefits of power generation and irrigation under different hydrological years. The model can be readily adapted to other multi-reservoir systems for water resources management.

  18. A Sediment Budget Case Study: Comparing Watershed Scale Erosion Estimates to Modeled and Empirical Sediment Loads (United States)

    McDavitt, B.; O'Connor, M.


    The Pacific Lumber Company Habitat Conservation Plan requires watershed analyses to be conducted on their property. This paper summarizes a portion of that analysis focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates coupled with downstream sediment routing in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Watershed scale erosion sources from hillslopes, roads, and channel banks were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. Recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield that a community watershed group collected with technical assistance from the US Forest Service were used to validate the resulting sediment budget. Bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek, provided another check on the sediment budget. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study generated sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments. Ongoing monitoring of sediment sources coupled with sediment routing models and reach scale field data allows for predictions to be made regarding in-channel sediment storage.

  19. Measuring environmental sustainability of water in watersheds. (United States)

    Hester, Erich T; Little, John C


    Environmental sustainability assessment is a rapidly growing field where measures of sustainability are used within an assessment framework to evaluate and compare alternative actions. Here we argue for the importance of evaluating environmental sustainability of water at the watershed scale. We review existing frameworks in brief before reviewing watershed-relevant measures in more detail. While existing measures are diverse, overlapping, and interdependent, certain attributes that are important for watersheds are poorly represented, including spatial explicitness and the effect of natural watershed components, such as rivers. Most studies focus on one or a few measures, but a complete assessment will require use of many existing measures, as well as, perhaps, new ones. Increased awareness of the broad dimensions of environmental sustainability as applied to water management should encourage integration of existing approaches into a unified assessment framework appropriate for watersheds.

  20. Impediments and solutions to sustainable, watershed-scale urban stormwater management: lessons from Australia and the United States. (United States)

    Roy, Allison H; Wenger, Seth J; Fletcher, Tim D; Walsh, Christopher J; Ladson, Anthony R; Shuster, William D; Thurston, Hale W; Brown, Rebekah R


    In urban and suburban areas, stormwater runoff is a primary stressor on surface waters. Conventional urban stormwater drainage systems often route runoff directly to streams and rivers, thus exacerbating pollutant inputs and hydrologic disturbance, and resulting in the degradation of ecosystem structure and function. Decentralized stormwater management tools, such as low impact development (LID) or water sensitive urban design (WSUD), may offer a more sustainable solution to stormwater management if implemented at a watershed scale. These tools are designed to pond, infiltrate, and harvest water at the source, encouraging evaporation, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge, and re-use of stormwater. While there are numerous demonstrations of WSUD practices, there are few examples of widespread implementation at a watershed scale with the explicit objective of protecting or restoring a receiving stream. This article identifies seven major impediments to sustainable urban stormwater management: (1) uncertainties in performance and cost, (2) insufficient engineering standards and guidelines, (3) fragmented responsibilities, (4) lack of institutional capacity, (5) lack of legislative mandate, (6) lack of funding and effective market incentives, and (7) resistance to change. By comparing experiences from Australia and the United States, two developed countries with existing conventional stormwater infrastructure and escalating stream ecosystem degradation, we highlight challenges facing sustainable urban stormwater management and offer several examples of successful, regional WSUD implementation. We conclude by identifying solutions to each of the seven impediments that, when employed separately or in combination, should encourage widespread implementation of WSUD with watershed-based goals to protect human health and safety, and stream ecosystems.


    The assessment of land use and land cover is an extremely important activity for contemporary land management. A large body of current literature suggests that human land-use practice is the most important factor influencing natural resource management and environmental condition...

  2. Sustaining the Earth's Watersheds-Agricultural Research Data System: Data development, user interaction, and operations management (United States)

    To support the Agricultural Research Service’s Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in assessing USDA conservation programs and practices on soil and water quality, a publicly available web-based watershed data system, called Sustaining the Earth’s Watersheds, Agricultural Research Data Sy...

  3. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: line-point-intercept and photo quadrat surveys of benthic communities for benthic cover from 2014 to 2015 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  4. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: Belt transect surveys of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) from 2014 to 2015 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  5. The watershed as a conceptual framework for the study of environmental and human health. (United States)

    Kolok, Alan S; Beseler, Cheryl L; Chen, Xun-Hong; Shea, Patrick J


    The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. Epidemiological limitations include difficulties associated with the organization of risk factor data and uncertainty about which measurable endpoints are most appropriate for an agricultural setting. Nevertheless, it is our contention that an adoption of the watershed concept can alleviate some of these difficulties. From an environmental perspective, the watershed concept helps identify differences in land use and application of agrichemicals at a level of resolution relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiological perspective, the watershed concept places data into a construct with environmental relevance. In this perspectives paper, we discuss how the watershed can provide a conceptual framework for studies in environmental and human health.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Chesapeake Bay Studies: Scientific Solutions for a Healthy Bay and Watershed (United States)

    Phillips, Scott


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the science agency for the Department of Interior (DOI), has the critical role of providing objective science to document and understand ecosystem change in the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. The human population in the Bay watershed, which grew from 8.1 million in 1950 to almost 16 million in 2000, has resulted in degraded water quality, loss of habitat, and declines in fish and bird populations. USGS scientists are leaders in understanding cause and effect of human activities and natural changes on water quality and the health of the ecosystem. The USGS interacts with resource managers and policy makers to use the science to adapt approaches for implementation, and assess effectiveness of, management actions for ecosystem conservation, restoration, and sustainability.

  7. Study on Ecological Remediation for Water and Soil Conservation of a Small Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunjuan; ZHANG; Xueying; HE


    Taking the waterhead area of the middle line project for diverting water from the south to the north,Hanjiang watershed in Shiquan, as an example,ecological remediation of the small watershed was studied from aspects of necessity,practicability,plans and aims. The ecological restoration for soil and water conservation in Hanjiang River basin can not only control soil erosion and effectively protect water resources to provide clean water for people living in the lower reaches of Hanjiang mainstream,but also increase farmers’ income and protect environment, which is both typical and exemplary.

  8. Innovative assessment tools to improve water quality and watershed management in farming areas. (United States)

    Merot, Philippe; Aurousseau, Pierre; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Durand, Patrick


    A lot of initiatives for improving water quality have been developed over the last 15 y in Brittany in response to degradation induced by intensive farming and under the pressure of European policy and environmental organizations. This has involved the partnerships of farmer organizations, organizations in charge of rural affairs, research and formation institutes, and environmental nongovernmental organizations. In this paper, we present 2 complementary aspects of an original, and possibly efficient, water policy within the framework of water management in a medium-sized watershed, including 1) development of new methods of diagnostic and decision support based on participative approaches and 2) development of new methods to assess the current status and effect of alternative scenarios, taking into account the complexity of a system with strong agricultural and hydrological variability and a relatively long response time. The 1st series of methods, which deals with the buffering capacity of landscape structures, is close to a social learning approach; the 2nd illustrates the importance, for policy makers, of a precisely defined protocol for data monitoring and analysis and of the use of spatially distributed and dynamic models when water policy is based on an obligation of results. In spite of the coexistence of all the necessary constituents of a coherent policy, it seems difficult to build. The state of current water quality illustrates the importance and limitations of incentive policy.

  9. Simulation of streamflow and the effects of brush management on water yields in the Double Mountain Fork Brazos River watershed, western Texas 1994–2013 (United States)

    Harwell, Glenn R.; Stengel, Victoria G.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Lubbock and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, developed and calibrated a Soil and Water Assessment Tool watershed model of the Double Mountain Fork Brazos River watershed in western Texas to simulate monthly mean streamflow and to evaluate the effects of brush management on water yields in the watershed, particularly to Lake Alan Henry, for calendar years 1994–2013. Model simulations were done to quantify the possible change in water yield of individual subbasins in the Double Mountain Fork Brazos River watershed as a result of the replacement of shrubland (brush) with grassland. The simulation results will serve as a tool for resource managers to guide brush-management efforts.

  10. Simulation of streamflow and the effects of brush management on water yields in the upper Guadalupe River watershed, south-central Texas, 1995-2010 (United States)

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Thompson, Florence E.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board and the Upper Guadalupe River Authority, developed and calibrated a Soil and Water Assessment Tool watershed model of the upper Guadalupe River watershed in south-central Texas to simulate streamflow and the effects of brush management on water yields in the watershed and to Canyon Lake for 1995–2010. Model simulations were done to quantify the possible change in water yield of individual subbasins in the upper Guadalupe River watershed as a result of the replacement of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) with grasslands. The simulation results will serve as a tool for resource managers to guide their brush-management efforts.

  11. Study Regarding Hydrochemical Classification of the main Lakes from Fizes Watershed (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Regarding to the importance of the ponds is noted an increasing interest in Europe, and also an increase of theawareness on the ponds contribution to biodiversity and proper functioning of the watersheds. Although significantprogress was made in establishing generic methodologies of analysis in the purpose of implementing water directive,small water bodies, as lakes and ponds are still insufficient represented. The study area, Fizes watershed, is located inTransylvania Plain, in the northern part of Romania. A distinct characteristic of this watershed is the presence of lakeunits (natural and artificial. Natural lakes and ponds are a polarizing element, which provides identity for the landscapein Fizes watershed, concentrates the majority of settlements in their close vicinity and also represent a support ofeconomical activities development, from agriculture to tourism.The objective of the present work is to discuss the major ion chemistry of the main lakes from Fizes watershed.Chemical classification also throws light on the concentration of various predominant cations, anions and theirinterrelationships. Water lake samples were collected from 11 sampling points covering the area during the years 2007and 2008 and were analyzed for physical-chemical characters. The system of lake units present distinctive physicalchemicalcharacteristics, influenced by local natural conditions, main factors being climate, morphometriccharacteristics of lakes, vegetation by shadowing, factors which together with biological conditions and anthropicinfluences shape the quality conditions of the lake waters. Climatic, hydrological and substrate conditions are reflectedin the resulting water quality. The lakes located in the upper part of the watershed can be included in the bicarbonateclass, while lakes located in the lower part are closer to sulphate waters.

  12. Streamflow allocation in arid watersheds: a case study in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. He


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a framework for allocating water resources among the upper, middle, and lower reaches of arid watersheds to meet the multiple demands for water, including rehabilitation of downstream ecosystem. The framework includes: (1 hydrologic simulation of distribution of water resources in the study watershed; (2 development of water allocation criteria; and (3 implementation of the water allocation plan. The advantages of the proposed framework are: (1 spatial integration; (2 multiple objectives; (3 incorporation of local needs through participatory decision making; and (4 dynamic evaluation.

    The framework was applied to the Heihe watershed, a large inland (terminal lake watershed with a drainage area of over 128 000 km2 in Northwestern China. Simulation of the daily river flows for the period of 1990–2000 by the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model shows that Qilian Mountain in the upper reach produced most of the runoff in the watershed, and the increased withdrawals of water for agricultural irrigation, industrial development, and municipal supplies at the middles reach oasis reduced the annual mean discharge by approximately 0.18 × 109 m3 over the simulation period, making the middle reach unable to deliver the mandated amount of 0.95 × 109 m3 water downstream by the State Council, under normal climatic conditions. Changes in land use practices need to be implemented to achieve the mandated water allocation plan. The paper suggests that a participatory watershed planning approach involving multiple stakeholders in the water allocation process be undertaken to address key questions regularly, including how much water should be allocated to what uses and for whom and at what price?

  13. Prediction of climate change impacts on agricultural watersheds and the performance of winter cover crops: Case study of the upper region of the Choptank River Watershed (United States)

    Elevated CO2 concentration, temperature, and precipitation intensity driven by climate change are expected to cause significant environmental changes in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW). Although the potential effects of climate change are widely reported, few studies have been conducted to unders...

  14. High-resolution maps of forest-urban watersheds present an opportunity for ecologists and managers (United States)

    Dense populations of people and abundant impervious surfaces contribute to poor water quality and increased flooding in forest-urban watersheds. Green infrastructure mitigates these effects, but precisely quantifying benefits is difficult because most land cover maps rely on coar...

  15. 2007 Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Watershed, Yamhill County (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset represents LiDAR elevations acquired during a leaf-off and a leaf-on vegetative condition for the Upper Panther Creek Watershed in the Yamhill County...

  16. Watershed Management Tool for Selection and Spacial Allocation of Non-Point Source Pollution Control Practices (United States)

    Distributed-parameter watershed models are often utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of sediment and nutrient abatement strategies through the traditional {calibrate→ validate→ predict} approach. The applicability of the method is limited due to modeling approximations. In ...

  17. Assessment of temporal hydrologic anomalies coupled with drought impact for a transboundary river flow regime: The Diyala watershed case study (United States)

    Al-Faraj, Furat A. M.; Scholz, Miklas


    Recent increases in human activities in shared river basins have unquestionably raised concerns about potential hydrological impacts, especially impacts of dams and large-scale water withdrawal schemes in the highlands. Anthropogenic pressures twinned with drought impacts have exacerbated water management challenges. This article assesses the cumulative consequences of upstream anthropogenic pressures and drought spells on temporal river flow regimes for the downstream country. The size and complexity of problems confronting transboundary river watersheds makes it necessary to use a representative example basin to study the problems and potential solutions. The Diyala (Sīrvān) river basin, which shares dozens of transboundary watersheds between Iraq and Iran, has been selected as a representative case study. A subset of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) was utilised and climate variability was considered in assessing the combined effect of various forms of upstream human-river regulations and climatic conditions on natural flow regimes in the downstream state. Findings indicated that the anthropogenic river-regulation coupled with the impact of drought periods have noticeably modified the natural flow paradigm. The yearly average runoffs, which are no longer available for the downstream country, have soared to very high levels, particularly over the last fifteen years. More adverse impacts were detected in the non-rainy season. Findings reveal also that damming and considerable water diversion to large-scale irrigation projects in the upstream state are the main regulations affecting the management of shared water resources in the downstream country.

  18. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool: An approach for incorporating LID into integrated water management plans (United States)

    To assist communities in the evaluation of green infrastructure, low impact development, and land conservation practices as part of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has supported the development of the Wat...

  19. Effect of cropland management and slope position on soil organic carbon pool at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yueli; Lal, Rattan; Owens, Lloyd; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Post, W M.; Hothem, Daniel


    Soil organic matter is strongly related to soil type, landscape morphology, and soil and crop management practices. Therefore, long-term (15-36-years) effects of six cropland management systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in 0-30 cm depth were studied for the period of 1939-1999 at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds (<3 ha, Dystric Cambisol, Haplic Luvisol, and Haplic Alisol) near Coshocton, OH, USA. Six management treatments were: (1) no tillage continuous corn with NPK (NC); (2) no tillage continuous corn with NPK and manure (NTC-M); (3) no tillage corn?soybean rotation (NTR); (4) chisel tillage corn?soybean rotation (CTR); (5) moldboard tillage with corn?wheat?meadow?meadow rotation with improved practices (MTR-I); (6) moldboard tillage with corn?wheat?meadow?meadow rotation with prevalent practices (MTR-P). The SOC pool ranged from 24.5Mgha?1 in the 32-years moldboard tillage corn (Zea mays L.)?wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?meadow?meadow rotation with straight row farming and annual application of fertilizer (N:P:K = 5:9:17) of 56?112 kg ha?1 and cattle (Bos taurus) manure of 9Mg ha?1 as the prevalent system (MTR-P) to 65.5Mgha?1 in the 36-years no tillage continuous corn with contour row farming and annual application of 170?225 kgNha?1 and appropriate amounts of P and K, and 6?11Mgha?1 of cattle manure as the improved system (NTC-M).

  20. Impact of Integrated Watershed Management on Complex Interlinked Factors Influencing Health: Perceptions of Professional Stakeholders in a Hilly Tribal Area of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S. Nerkar


    Full Text Available Lack of access to water has a significant impact on the health of people in tribal areas, where water in households as well as for productive purposes is essential for life. In resource-limited settings such as hilly tribal areas, implementation of an integrated watershed management programme (IWMP can have a significant impact on public health by providing a solution to water scarcity and related problems. The professional stakeholders in rural healthcare and development administration are important pillars of the system that implements various programmes and policies of government and non-government organizations, and act as facilitators for the improvement of public health in tribal areas. Information about the perceptions of these stakeholders on public health implications of the integrated watershed management programme is important in this context. A qualitative study was conducted using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with stakeholders involved in healthcare provision, education and development administration. The transcripts of interviews and FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The perceptions and experiences shared by healthcare and development administration stakeholders suggest that implementation of IWMP in tribal areas helps efficient water and agriculture management, which results in improved socio-economic conditions that lead to positive health outcomes.

  1. Impact of Integrated Watershed Management on Complex Interlinked Factors Influencing Health: Perceptions of Professional Stakeholders in a Hilly Tribal Area of India. (United States)

    Nerkar, Sandeep S; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Johansson, Eva; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby


    Lack of access to water has a significant impact on the health of people in tribal areas, where water in households as well as for productive purposes is essential for life. In resource-limited settings such as hilly tribal areas, implementation of an integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) can have a significant impact on public health by providing a solution to water scarcity and related problems. The professional stakeholders in rural healthcare and development administration are important pillars of the system that implements various programmes and policies of government and non-government organizations, and act as facilitators for the improvement of public health in tribal areas. Information about the perceptions of these stakeholders on public health implications of the integrated watershed management programme is important in this context. A qualitative study was conducted using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with stakeholders involved in healthcare provision, education and development administration. The transcripts of interviews and FGDs were analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The perceptions and experiences shared by healthcare and development administration stakeholders suggest that implementation of IWMP in tribal areas helps efficient water and agriculture management, which results in improved socio-economic conditions that lead to positive health outcomes.

  2. Longer-term Stream Nitrogen Dynamics after Wildfire and Salvage Harvesting: Implications for Management Concepts based on Trajectories of Post-disturbance Watershed Recovery. (United States)

    Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Bladon, K. D.; Stone, M.; Williams, C.; Martens, A. M.; Wagner, M. J.


    Biogeochemical processes reflecting interaction of vegetation and hydrology govern long-term export of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon over successional time scales. While management concepts of watershed "recovery" from disturbance back towards pre-disturbance conditions are often considered over much shorter timescales, few studies have directly explored watershed biogeochemical responses to disturbance long enough to directly document the longer-term trajectory of responses to severe land disturbance on nitrogen export. The objectives of this study were to document both the initial magnitude and patterns of longer-term recovery of stream nitrogen after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire over nine years in front ranges of the Rocky Mountains in south-west Alberta, Canada. The study was conducted in seven instrumented catchments (4-14 km2), including burned, burned and salvage logged, and unburned (reference) conditions since 2004. Total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations and area-normalized yields were greater and more variable in burned and post-fire salvage logged catchments when compared with unburned catchments. Large initial increases in stream TN and NO3- production 1-3 years after both wildfire and post-fire salvage logging declined strongly to levels similar to, or below that of unburned watersheds 4-6 years after the fire, and continued to decline (although more slowly) 7-9 years after the wildfire. Post-fire salvage logging produced lower impacts on TN and NO3- in streams and these effects declined even more rapidly compared to the effects of wildfire alone. These changes closely corresponded to the early trajectory of establishment and rapid juvenile growth of post-fire regenerating forest vegetation in both catchment groups. While the concept of hydrologic recovery from disturbance is both a practical and meaningful concept for integrated landscape management for protection of forest water resources, the benchmark for

  3. Characterization of nested watershed hydrologic response from high-resolution rainfall and runoff data in the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER (United States)

    Miller, A. J.; Lindner, G. A.; Smith, J. A.; Baeck, M. L.; Welty, C.; Miller, J.; Meierdiercks, K. L.


    rise and peak at the same time as their tributaries, and in other cases the larger watersheds exhibit a double peak in response to a single rainfall pulse, with the first peak (thought to be derived from local storm drains) occurring before peaks recorded upstream in tributary watersheds. Although there are pronounced differences in patterns of development and extent of stormwater management between the different tributary watersheds, observed hydrologic response does not always conform to the expected effects of these patterns. Hydrograph behavior with the change in scale from 5-6 km2 to 14 km2 is more predictable as a combination of translation and attenuation of the tributary hydrographs.

  4. The effect of land use change on water quality: A case study in Ciliwung Watershed (United States)

    Ayu Permatasari, Prita; Setiawan, Yudi; Nur Khairiah, Rahmi; Effendi, Hefni


    Ciliwung is the biggest river in Jakarta. It is 119 km long with a catchment area of 476 km2. It flows from Bogor Regency and crosses Bogor City, Depok City, and Jakarta before finally flowing into Java Sea through Jakarta Bay. The water quality in Ciliwung River has degraded. Many factors affect water quality. Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. It has been widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the land use type and water quality. This study aims to analyze the influence of various land use types on the water quality within the Ciliwung Watershed based on the water quality monitoring data and remote sensing data in 2010 and 2014. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. The result can provide scientific reference for the local land use optimization and water pollution control and guidance for the formulation of policies to coordinate the exploitation and protection of the water resource.

  5. Hydrogeologic and Hydrochemical Studies in a Semi-arid Watershed in Northern Mexico (United States)

    Kretzschmar, T.; Vazquez, R.; Hinojosa, A.


    Within the Baja California panhandle exist quite a significant number of valleys which hydrogeology conditions are of great importance for the communities of the region. The Guadalupe Valley for example, located 30 km Northeast of Ensenada, hosts an important wine industry which presents a mayor factor for agriculture and tourism in Baja California. The irrigation is carried out basically by groundwater extracted from quaternary sediments filling this post-Miocene depression. Besides the intensive usage of the water by the wine industry in the Guadalupe Valley, the local waterworks installed in 1985 a gallery of 10 wells extracting around 320 l/s or 30 % of the total water extraction in the valley to supply the city of Ensenada with drinking water. A total of more than 500 wells with a combined annual consumption of about 28 Mio m3 are at the moment active in the valley. In the arid portions of northern Mexico Mountain front recharge presents an important recharge source for the alluvial aquifers. Other important sources directly related to precipitation are direct infiltration, recharge by surface water runoff in the arroyos as well as by active fault systems. The principal recharge sources for the Guadalupe Valley aquifer are the Sierra Juárez and the Guadalupe River. To be able to address the state of equilibrium of aquifer, recharge estimates for the watershed were calculated determining the runoff/infiltration relationships obtained by curve number determinations combined with the interpretation of satellite images. These results were integrated into an evaluation and hydrologic modeling of the hydrologic data pointing towards differences of up to over 50 percent in the recharge estimation in comparison to earlier studies carried out in the area. Furthermore hydrochemical and isotopic studies were carried out to show the effects of the excessive ground water extraction on the water quality of the aquifer. The hydrochemical data indicate that intense use of

  6. Empirical streamflow simulation for water resource management in data-scarce seasonal watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Shortridge


    Full Text Available In the past decade, certain methods for empirical rainfall–runoff modeling have seen extensive development and been proposed as a useful complement to physical hydrologic models, particularly in basins where data to support process-based models is limited. However, the majority of research has focused on a small number of methods, such as artificial neural networks, despite the development of multiple other approaches for non-parametric regression in recent years. Furthermore, this work has generally evaluated model performance based on predictive accuracy alone, while not considering broader objectives such as model interpretability and uncertainty that are important if such methods are to be used for planning and management decisions. In this paper, we use multiple regression and machine-learning approaches to simulate monthly streamflow in five highly-seasonal rivers in the highlands of Ethiopia and compare their performance in terms of predictive accuracy, error structure and bias, model interpretability, and uncertainty when faced with extreme climate conditions. While the relative predictive performance of models differed across basins, data-driven approaches were able to achieve reduced errors when compared to physical models developed for the region. Methods such as random forests and generalized additive models may have advantages in terms of visualization and interpretation of model structure, which can be useful in providing insights into physical watershed function. However, the uncertainty associated with model predictions under climate change should be carefully evaluated, since certain models (especially generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines became highly variable when faced with high temperatures.

  7. Impact of over-exploitation on groundwater quality: A case study from WR-2Watershed, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Bhushan R Lamsoge; Yashwant B Katpatal; Vijay P Nawale


    The WR-2 watershed is located in the Deccan trap basaltic terrain of Maharashtra State, India. The watershed area incorporates a rich orange orchard belt that requires a huge quantity of water for irrigation. This requirement is mostly met through groundwater, extracted from the shallow aquifers of the WR-2 watershed. However, over the years, excess withdrawal of groundwater from these aquifers has resulted in depletion of groundwater level. The declining trends of groundwater level, both long term and short term, have had a negative impact on the groundwater quality of the study area. This effect can be gauged through the rising electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater in the shallow aquifers (dug wells) of the WR-2 watershed. It is observed that the long term declining trend of groundwater level, during 1977–2010, varied from 0.03 to 0.04 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC varied from 1.90 to 2.94 S/cm per year. During 2007–2010, about 56% dug wells showed a positive correlation between depleting groundwater level and rising EC values. The groundwater level depletion during this period ranged from 0.03 to 0.67 m per year, whereas the corresponding trend of rising EC ranged from 0.52 to 46.91 S/cm per year. Moreover, the water quality studies reveal that groundwater from more than 50% of the dug wells of the WR-2 watershed is not suitable for drinking purpose. The groundwater, though mostly suitable for irrigation purpose, is corrosive and saturated with respect to mineral equilibrium and shows a tendency towards chemical scale formation.

  8. Benthic habitat map of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Watershed Partnership Initiative Kā'anapali priority study area and the State of Hawai'i Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, west-central Maui, Hawai'i (United States)

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; White, Darla J.


    Nearshore areas off of west-central Maui, Hawai‘i, once dominated by abundant coral coverage, now are characterized by an increased abundance of turf algae and macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area was established by the State of Hawai‘i, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected the Kā‘anapali region as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological survey mapped nearly 5 km2 of sea floor from the shoreline to water depths of about 30 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes 65 percent of the sea floor in the mapped area. Reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitments constitutes 35 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only 51 percent is covered with a minimum of 10 percent coral, and most is found between 5 and 10 m water depth.

  9. A framework model for investigating the export of phosphorus to surface waters in forested watersheds: Implications to management. (United States)

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L


    The present study was developed in four sub-basins of rivers Cávado and Douro, located in the North of mainland Portugal. The goal was to identify main stressors as well as driving and attenuating processes responsible for the presence of phosphorus in masses of surface water in those catchments. To accomplish the goal, the basins were selected where a quality station was present at the outlet, the forest occupation was greater than 75% and the phosphorus concentrations have repeatedly exceeded the threshold for the good ecological status in the period 2000-2006. Further, in two basins the quality station was installed in a lotic (free-flow water) environment whereas in the other two was placed in a lentic (dammed water) environment. The ArcMap GIS-based software package was used for the spatial analysis of stressors and processes. The yields of phosphorus vary widely across the studied basins, from 0.2-30 kg·ha(-1)·yr(-1). The results point to post-fire soil erosion and hardwood clear cuttings as leading factors of phosphorus exports across the watersheds, with precipitation intensity being the key variable of erosion. However, yields can be attenuated by sediment deposition along the pathway from burned or managed areas to water masses. The observed high yields and concentrations of phosphorus in surface water encompass serious implications for water resources management in the basins, amplified in the lentic cases by potential release of phosphorus from lake sediments especially during the summer season. Therefore, a number of measures were proposed as regards wildfire combat, reduction of phosphorus exports after tree cuts, attenuation of soil erosion and improvement of riparian buffers, all with the purpose of preventing phosphorus concentrations to go beyond the regulatory good ecological status.

  10. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution of a wetland watershed : the case study of the Oualidia-Sidi Moussa wetland, Morocco



    The susceptibility of wetlands to continental pollution is closely related to the vulnerability of their surface and sub-surface watersheds. Therefore, to help manage wetlands, especially those fed by groundwater, it can be useful to assess the vulnerability of their aquifers. This approach is illustrated by the case study of the wetland of Oualidia-Sidi Moussa. Firstly, the hydrogeological basin of the wetland was identified. Vulnerability mapping was then performed using the specific Suscep...

  11. Evaluating Coupled Human-Hydrologic Systems in High Altitude Regions: A Case Study of the Arun Watershed, Eastern Nepal (United States)

    Voss, K.; Bookhagen, B.; Tague, C.; Lopez-Carr, D.


    The Himalaya exhibit dynamic ecological, hydrological, and climatic extremes that magnify the variability and extent of natural hazards, resulting in destruction to both physical and human landscapes. Coupled with poverty, these factors intensify local communities' vulnerability to climate change. This study highlights the Arun watershed in eastern Nepal as a case study to evaluate how local communities in high altitude regions are managing their water for domestic and agricultural needs while coping with extreme events, such as floods and landslides. Remotely-sensed precipitation, snowpack and glacial extent data from the past decade are combined with preliminary results from extensive field-based community surveys in the Arun watershed. The analysis of remotely-sensed data will describe seasonal trends in water availability, glacial lake growth, and the spatial variation of these trends within the basin. These hydrologic changes will be linked to the human survey analysis, which will provide an understanding of locals' perceptions of water challenges and the current water management strategies within the basin. Particular attention will be given to a comparison between the eastern and western tributaries of the Arun River, where the catchments are mainly rain-fed (eastern) versus glacial-fed (western). This contrast will highlight how different hydrologic scenarios evidenced from remote-sensing data motivate diverse human water management responses as defined in field surveys. A particular focus will be given to management decisions related to agriculture expansion and hydropower development. This synthesis of remote-sensing and social research methodologies provides a valuable perspective on coupled human-hydrologic systems.

  12. Institutional Analysis of Watershed Manangement in Batam Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Donie


    Full Text Available This study aimed to look at the institutional condition of the current watershed management and institutional models (management authority which were relevant to Batam Island in the future. The data collection was conducted by interview techniques and was validated through focus group discussions. The data were described and analyzed with SCP (structure, conduct, performance method for relevant stakeholders’ data, legislation, and with KIPA (quadrant interpretative performance analysis method for data of interest and power of stakeholders. The results showed that the watershed management institutional in Batam Island was still overlapping. According to the regulations, the Management Board (BP of Batam Island was given the authority to manage and to use land and water; on the other hand the Local Government (Mayor was facilitated by BPDAS KEPRI (Watershed Management Institute of Riau Islands to also arrange an integrated watershed management. The results of discussions showed that BP Batam was an institute of having interest and power as well as key position in achieving successful watershed management. Based on this study, it was suggested that BP Batam should be given authority in watershed management in Batam Island, which keeps referring to the norms, standards, procedures, and indicators set by the central government.

  13. Land use change for flood protection: A prospective study for the restoration of the river Jelašnica watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Ratko


    Full Text Available Serbia’s hilly-mountainous regions are extremely vulnerable to flooding as a consequence of their natural characteristics and human impacts. Land mismanagement influences the development of erosion processes, and causes soil degradation that significantly reduces the land’s capacity to infiltrate and retain rainwater. Inappropriate land use as well as development activities replace permeable with impervious surfaces in the watershed. This leads to more rapid runoff generation and the more frequent appearance of torrential floods and bed-load deposits on downstream sections. Environmental degradation creates economicsocial problems within local societies which is often followed by depopulation. Restoring watersheds to their optimal hydrologic state would reduce flood discharge and by increasing groundwater recharge would increase both low-flow and average discharges in springs and streams. Best management practices could be developed through the application of specific combinations of biotechnical, technical and administrative measures, and by using the concept of ″natural reservoirs″. The design of such practices is explored through a case study of the watershed of the river Jelašnica, southeastern Serbia. Realization of these planned restoration works should help decrease the annual yields of erosive material by 44.1% and the specific annual transport of sediment through hydrographic network by 43.6%. Representative value of the coefficient of erosion will be reduced from Z=0.555 to Z=0.379. The value of maximal discharge Qmax-AMCIII (1%=54.17 m3•s-1, before restoration, is decreased to Qmax-AMCIII (1%=41.22 m3•s-1 after restoration, indicating the improvement of hydrological conditions, as a direct consequence of land use changes. Administrative measures are applied through ″Plans for announcement of erosive regions and protection from torrential floods in the territory of Leskovac municipality″.

  14. Using Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli data and Bayesian microbial risk assessment to examine public health risks in agricultural watersheds under tile drainage management. (United States)

    Schmidt, P J; Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A M; Flemming, C A; Lanthier, M; Laprade, N; Sunohara, M D; Simhon, A; Thomas, J L; Topp, E; Wilkes, G; Lapen, D R


    Human campylobacteriosis is the leading bacterial gastrointestinal illness in Canada; environmental transmission has been implicated in addition to transmission via consumption of contaminated food. Information about Campylobacter spp. occurrence at the watershed scale will enhance our understanding of the associated public health risks and the efficacy of source water protection strategies. The overriding purpose of this study is to provide a quantitative framework to assess and compare the relative public health significance of watershed microbial water quality associated with agricultural BMPs. A microbial monitoring program was expanded from fecal indicator analyses and Campylobacter spp. presence/absence tests to the development of a novel, 11-tube most probable number (MPN) method that targeted Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. These three types of data were used to make inferences about theoretical risks in a watershed in which controlled tile drainage is widely practiced, an adjacent watershed with conventional (uncontrolled) tile drainage, and reference sites elsewhere in the same river basin. E. coli concentrations (MPN and plate count) in the controlled tile drainage watershed were statistically higher (2008-11), relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but yearly variation was high as well. Escherichia coli loading for years 2008-11 combined were statistically higher in the controlled watershed, relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed, but Campylobacter spp. loads for 2010-11 were generally higher for the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (but not statistically significant). Using MPN data and a Bayesian modelling approach, higher mean Campylobacter spp. concentrations were found in the controlled tile drainage watershed relative to the uncontrolled tile drainage watershed (2010, 2011). A second-order quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used, in a relative way, to identify

  15. Methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design (United States)

    Romnée, Ambroise; Evrard, Arnaud; Trachte, Sophie


    In urban stormwater management, decentralized systems are nowadays worldwide experimented, including stormwater best management practices. However, a watershed-scale approach, relevant for urban hydrology, is almost always neglected when designing a stormwater management plan with best management practices. As a consequence, urban designers fail to convince public authorities of the actual hydrologic effectiveness of such an approach to urban watershed stormwater management. In this paper, we develop a design oriented methodology for studying the morphology of an urban watershed in terms of sustainable stormwater management. The methodology is a five-step method, firstly based on the cartographic analysis of many stormwater relevant indicators regarding the landscape, the urban fabric and the governance. The second step focuses on the identification of many territorial stakes and their corresponding strategies of a decentralized stormwater management. Based on the indicators, the stakes and the strategies, the third step defines many spatial typologies regarding the roadway system and the urban fabric system. The fourth step determines many stormwater management scenarios to be applied to both spatial typologies systems. The fifth step is the design of decentralized stormwater management projects integrating BMPs into each spatial typology. The methodology aims to advise urban designers and engineering offices in the right location and selection of BMPs without given them a hypothetical unique solution. Since every location and every watershed is different due to local guidelines and stakeholders, this paper provide a methodology for a stormwater sensitive urban watershed design that could be reproduced everywhere. As an example, the methodology is applied as a case study to an urban watershed in Belgium, confirming that the method is applicable to any urban watershed. This paper should be helpful for engineering and design offices in urban hydrology to define a

  16. Groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit, California (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Upper Santa Ana Watershed is one of the study units being evaluated.

  17. Quality of Water and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Water Sources of Hilly Tribal Villages with and without Integrated Watershed Management—A One Year Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S. Nerkar


    Full Text Available In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081. The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05 was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV.

  18. Watersheds in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S


    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics o...

  19. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability (United States)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel


    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  20. 农业最佳管理措施在全分布式水文模型中的表达--以罗玉沟流域为例%Representation of Agricultural Best Management Practices in a Fully Distributed Hydrologic Model:A Case Study in the Luoyugou Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴辉; 刘永波; 刘军志; 朱阿兴


    Agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) are effective ways to reduce agricultural nonpoint source pol ution from their source area to receiving water bodies. Characterization of BMPs in a watershed model is a critical prerequisite for evaluating their impacts on water quantity and water quality in a complex system. However, limited research has reported about the representation of BMPs in fully distributed models. This paper presents a stepwise procedure for representation of several BMPs and assessment of their hydrologic impacts with a ful y distributed model, SEIM (Spatially Explicit Integrated Modeling). A case study is conducted in the 73 km2 Luoyugou watershed located in the Loess Plateau of China, where rainstorm erosion accounts for more than 60%of annual sediment load in average. Three BMPs are selected in this study including (i) conversion from farmland to forest, (i ) terrace, and (i i) no-til farming. These management practices are represented in the model through the alteration of model parameters characterizing their physical processes in the ifeld. The results of scenario assessment for a historical storm event showed that the maximum sediment reduction after terrace is about 97.3%, the average sediment reduction after no-till farming is about 9.5%, and the average sediment reduction after conversion from farmland to forest is 75.6%.%农业最佳管理措施(BMPs)是为了减少由农业活动引起的非点源污染,防止污染物进入受纳水体的一系列措施。分布式水文模型是流域非点源污染模拟和BMPs评估的重要工具。利用分布式水文模型评估BMPs在水土保持、拦沙减污的有效性,首先要在模型中对BMPs进行刻画和表达。但是,在全分布式水文模型中,如何进行BMPs表达的研究比较缺乏。本文以黄土高原丘陵沟壑区典型小流域罗玉沟流域为例,基于一个全分布式模型,SEIM(Spatially Explicit Integrated Modeling)模型,逐步

  1. GIS-ROUT: a river model for watershed planning


    Xinhao Wang; Charlotte White-Hull; Scott Dyer; Ying Yang


    Previous studies have shown that significant environmental changes are the result of human activities such as urbanization occurring at the spatial scale of landscapes. The challenge faced by many planners today is how to understand such relationships in order to support integrated watershed planning and management. Although many mathematical models have been developed to simulate the chemical transport process in a river, few are actually used in watershed assessment and management. Recently...

  2. Differences in Net Ecosystem Exchange for an intensely managed watershed using a lumped, regional model and a mechanistic, hillslope-scale model (United States)

    Wilson, C. G.; Wacha, K.; Papanicolaou, T.; Stanier, C. O.; Jamroensan, A.


    In this study, Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), and its components Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) and Ecosystem Respiration (RESP), were compared from a lumped, regional model and a mechanistic, hillslope-scale model to determine if the effects of land management on the carbon cycle are captured by larger-scale biosphere models that determine CO2 sources and sinks. WRF-VPRM (Weather Research & Forecasting - Vegetation Photosynthesis & Respiration Model) is a regional-scale model that uses simulated downward shortwave radiation and surface temperatures, along with satellite-derived land cover indices and eddy flux tower-derived parameters to estimate biosphere CO2 fluxes with empirical equations. The DAYCENT biogeochemical model coupled with the Watershed Erosion Prediction Project model (WEPP), which simulates changes in soil carbon stocks due to different land management and the resulting enhanced erosion, can also quantify biosphere CO2 fluxes. Both models (i.e., WRF-VPRM and WEPP-DAYCENT) were used to quantify GEE, RESP, and NEE for the summer of 2008 in the IML-CZO Clear Creek watershed of the U.S. Midwest to examine the role of land management heterogeneity in CO2 exchanges between the biosphere and atmosphere. Comparing average daily GEE rates from WRF-VPRM (-11.0 ± 5.2 g C/m2/d) with WEPP-DAYCENT average values weighted per land use area in the watershed (-10.2 ± 1.5 g C/m2/d) showed no significant differences (t-test; p=0.08). In contrast, daily RESP values were different between the two models. Daily respiration rates were relatively constant for WRF-VPRM (6.0 ± 0.8 g C/m2/d), while WEPP-DAYCENT values for each management practice were significantly greater (7.2 ± 1.8 g C/m2/d; t-test, prates from WRF-VPRM (-5.0 ± 5.3 g C/m2/d) with WEPP-DAYCENT average weighted values (-3.0 ± 1.8 g C/m2/d) also showed significant differences (t-test; p<0.001).

  3. Assessing the long-term hydrological services provided by wetlands under changing climate conditions: A case study approach of a Canadian watershed (United States)

    Fossey, M.; Rousseau, A. N.


    The water content of wetlands represents a key driver of their hydrological services and it is highly dependent on short- and long-term weather conditions, which will change, to some extent, under evolving climate conditions. The impact on stream flows of this critical dynamic component of wetlands remains poorly studied. While hydrodynamic modelling provide a framework to describe the functioning of individual wetland, hydrological modelling offers the opportunity to assess their services at the watershed scale with respect to their type (i.e., isolated or riparian). This study uses a novel approach combining hydrological modelling and limited field monitoring, to explore the effectiveness of wetlands under changing climate conditions. To achieve this, two isolated wetlands and two riparian wetlands, located in the Becancour River watershed within the St Lawrence Lowlands (Quebec, Canada), were monitored using piezometers and stable water isotopes (δD - δ18O) between October 2013 and October 2014. For the watershed hydrology component of this study, reference (1986-2015) and future meteorological data (2041-2070) were used as inputs to the PHYSITEL/HYDROTEL modelling platform. Results obtained from in-situ data illustrate singular hydrological dynamics for each typology of wetlands (i.e., isolated and riparian) and support the hydrological modelling approach used in this study. Meanwhile, simulation results indicate that climate change could affect differently the hydrological dynamics of wetlands and associated services (e.g., storage and slow release of water), including their seasonal contribution (i.e., flood mitigation and low flow support) according to each wetland typology. The methodological framework proposed in this paper meets the requirements of a functional tool capable of anticipating hydrological changes in wetlands at both the land management scale and the watershed management scale. Accordingly, this framework represents a starting point towards

  4. Watershed Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan


    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  5. Emerging Technologies for Ecohydrological Studies during the North American Monsoon in a Chihuahuan Desert Watershed (United States)

    Templeton, R. C.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mendez-Barroso, L. A.; Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Saripalli, S.


    Monsoonal systems are due to seasonal shifts in atmospheric circulation that may result in a large fraction of the annual precipitation falling within a few months. The North American Monsoon System (NAMS) contributes approximately 55% of the annual rainfall in the New Mexico Chihuahuan Desert during the summer period. Relatively frequent storm events during the NAMS result in increased soil moisture that drive greater soil microbial activity and increased ecosystem primary productivity. During severe storms, runoff production can lead to flood events that recharge the subsurface through channel losses. In this study, we present preliminary results from a network of soil, channel, and atmospheric monitoring equipment in a small watershed (~0.05 km2) located in the Jornada Experimental Range (JER) near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Using the instrument network, we characterize the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall (5 rain gauges), soil moisture and temperature (16 profile locations), and channel runoff (4 flumes) within the watershed during the summer of 2010. In addition, we utilize CO2, H2O, and energy flux measurements by an eddy covariance tower to quantify the seasonal changes in land-atmosphere exchanges. These coordinated, spatially-distributed observations are complemented by the novel use of two Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms for watershed characterization. Using a small airplane (the MLB BAT 3), we obtained a set of very high-resolution images (~7 cm) and created an orthomosaic to characterize vegetation cover and species prior to the NAMS and after full canopy development. Several instrument packages (optical, stereo and LIDAR) on board a SR30 UAV Electric helicopter also provide detailed information on the watershed, including a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). The conjunctive use of these datasets will allow for unprecedented analysis of how the onset and progression of the NAMS affects water, energy and carbon fluxes in a

  6. Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel


    This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation

  7. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R


    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  8. Sub-watershed prioritization based on sediment yield using game theory (United States)

    Adhami, Maryam; Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza


    The proper placement of soil and water conservation measures cannot be designated due to lack of appropriate technical prioritization of different areas of a watershed. Therefore, quantifying soil erosion hazard and spatial prioritization of sub-watersheds would aid in better watershed management planning. Although, many approaches have been applied to prioritize sub-watersheds, but still the efficient techniques like game theory have not been practically applied to prioritize sub-watersheds. The present study therefore has used the game theory to prioritize sub-watersheds in Gorganroud and Qareh Sou watersheds in Golestan Province, northern Iran. Towards this goal, 38 independent factors were classified in seven components using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method with one representative variable in each component. The Condorcet method used for prioritization of effective variables indicated that the percent of forestry lands (52 scores) and discharge with 10 years of return period (32 scores) were respectively the most and the least effective variables on sediment yield. The Fallback bargaining and the Borda Scoring algorithms were also selected to prioritize study sub-watersheds based on weighted grades of total score for each variable. Accordingly, the aforesaid algorithms classified sub-watersheds in three categories. Comparison of results similarly introduced Galikesh, Qazaqli, Gonbad, Siyah Ab and Tamar as first ranked sub-watersheds with the worth condition, Tangrah and Naharkhoran as second priority and eventually Pole Ordougah as sub-watershed with the lowest priority.

  9. Quantifying the Fecal Coliform Loads in Urban Watersheds by Hydrologic/Hydraulic Modeling: Case Study of the Beauport River Watershed in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Thériault


    Full Text Available A three-step method for the identification of the main sources of fecal coliforms (FC in urban waters and for the analysis of remedial actions is proposed. The method is based on (1 The statistical analysis of the relationship between rainfall and FC concentrations in urban rivers; (2 The simulation of hydrology and hydraulics; and (3 Scenario analysis. The proposed method was applied to the Beauport River watershed, in Canada, covering an area of 28.7 km2. FC loads and concentrations in the river, during and following rainfall events, were computed using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM hydrological/hydraulic simulation model combined with event mean concentrations. It was found that combined sewer overflows (CSOs are the main FC sources, and that FC from stormwater runoff could still impair recreational activities in the Beauport River even if retention tanks were built to contain CSOs. Thus, intervention measures should be applied in order to reduce the concentration of FC in stormwater outfalls. The proposed method could be applied to water quality components other than FC, provided that they are present in stormwater runoff and/or CSOs, and that the time of concentration of the watershed is significantly lower than their persistence in urban waters.

  10. Modelling the hydrologic role of glaciers within a Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP: a case study in the Rio Santa watershed (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Condom


    Full Text Available For the past 30 years, a process of glacier retreat has been observed in the Andes, raising alarm among regional water resources managers. The purpose of this paper is to develop a model of the role of Andean glaciers in the hydrology of their associated watersheds, which is appropriate for application at a river basin scale, with an eye towards creating an analytical tool that can be used to assess the water management implications of possible future glacier retreat. While the paper delves deeply into our formulation of a glacier module within a water resources management modelling system, the widely subscribed Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP, the originality of our work lies less in the domain of glaciology and more in how we apply an existing reduced form representation of glacier evolution within a model of the climate-glacier-hydrology-water management continuum. Key insights gained pertain to appropriate ways to deploy these reduced form representations in a relatively data poor environment and to effectively integrate them into a modelling framework that places glaciers within a wider water management context. The study area is the Rio Santa watershed in Peru which contains many of the expansive glaciers of the singular Cordillera Blanca. The specific objectives of this study included: (i adequately simulating both monitored glacier retreat and observed river flows from the last forty years using historical climate time series as model input; (ii quantifying the proportion of river flow in the Rio Santa produced from melting glaciers during this period; (iii estimating the historical contribution of groundwater accretions to river flows; and (vi reproducing a reasonable simulation of recent hydropower operations in the Rio Santa system. In pursuit objective (i, a split sample calibration-validation of the model was conducted by comparing the simulated glacier area to Landsat images taken in 1987 and 1998 and observed and

  11. Discussions about some theoretical issues of small watershed comprehensive management%小流域综合治理的几个理论问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Soil and water resources are vital basic resources in mankind' s living and development progress. The Loss of soil and water resources caused by soil erosion has already seriously obstructed economy development of our country, which has been the first environmental problem. Therefore, it is essential for our country to carry out comprehensive management of soil erosion, with small watershed as unit. After SO years of exploration and development, the achievements of the small watershed management model are positive and remarkable. However, many weaknesses and outstanding theoretical problems we faced must be resolved. In order to solve the outstanding theory problems and provide some references for future study, this paper summarized the problems existed in comprehensive management of small watershed from the following aspects: soil erosion, hydrology and water resources, ecosystem economy, health, environment and ecosystem engineering.%水土资源是人类生存和发展过程中不可代替的基础资源,而由土壤侵蚀引发的水土资源流失问题已严重阻碍了我国经济的可持续发展,成为我国的头号环境问题.为此以小流域为单元,开展水土流失综合治理是我国可持续发展的必然选择.经过50多年的不断探索与发展,小流域综合治理模式成效显著,治理模式已日趋成熟,然而在肯定成果的同时,也面临着不少薄弱环节和突出理论问题亟待解决.为此,主要基于理论角度,从流域土壤侵蚀、流域水文与水资源、流域生态经济、流域生态系统健康、流域环境和流域生态工程等6方面对小流域综合治理过程中存在的问题加以总结,为小流域综合治理的未来发展提供一定参考.

  12. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management. (United States)

    Francisković-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zunić, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D


    problems. Diseases of the circulatory system, endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases, neoplasms, and respiratory diseases predominate. This paper calls for further multidisciplinary research on the health effects of barium and trace elements, as well as for bioremediation of contaminated gardens and for watershed management of vulnerable karstic aquifers.

  13. Locating farmer-based knowledge and vested interests in natural resource management: the interface of ethnopedology, land tenure and gender in soil erosion management in the Manupali watershed, Philippines. (United States)

    Price, Lisa Leimar


    This paper examines local soil knowledge and management in the Manupali watershed in the Philippines. The study focuses on soil erosion and its control. Research methods used in the study include ethnosemantic elicitations on soils and focus group discussions. In addition, in-depth work was conducted with 48 farmers holding 154 parcels at different elevations/locations in the watershed. The on-parcel research consisted of farmer classifications of the soil, topography, and erosion status of their parcels. Soil samples were also taken and examined. Farming households were also examined with regard to erosion control activities conducted by age and sex. Erosion management was examined in relation to tenure of the parcel, which emerged as a salient aspect among focus group members and was evidenced by the actual control measures taken on farmed parcels. The results show that the major constraint in soil erosion management is not local knowledge as much as it is the tenure arrangements which allow "temporary owners" (those working rented or mortgaged parcels) to manage the parcels as they see fit. Most of these temporary owners are not willing to invest in erosion control measures other than water diversion ditches. Parcel owners, in contrast, do invest in longer term erosion control measures on the parcels they actually work. The findings of this paper illustrate that linking local knowledge and practices is often not sufficient in and of itself for addressing questions of sound environmental management. While local knowledge serves farmers generally well, there are some limitations. Importantly, the pressures in the contemporary world of markets and cash can undermine what they know as the right thing to do for the environment.

  14. Locating farmer-based knowledge and vested interests in natural resource management: the interface of ethnopedology, land tenure and gender in soil erosion management in the Manupali watershed, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Lisa


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines local soil knowledge and management in the Manupali watershed in the Philippines. The study focuses on soil erosion and its control. Research methods used in the study include ethnosemantic elicitations on soils and focus group discussions. In addition, in-depth work was conducted with 48 farmers holding 154 parcels at different elevations/locations in the watershed. The on-parcel research consisted of farmer classifications of the soil, topography, and erosion status of their parcels. Soil samples were also taken and examined. Farming households were also examined with regard to erosion control activities conducted by age and sex. Erosion management was examined in relation to tenure of the parcel, which emerged as a salient aspect among focus group members and was evidenced by the actual control measures taken on farmed parcels. The results show that the major constraint in soil erosion management is not local knowledge as much as it is the tenure arrangements which allow "temporary owners" (those working rented or mortgaged parcels to manage the parcels as they see fit. Most of these temporary owners are not willing to invest in erosion control measures other than water diversion ditches. Parcel owners, in contrast, do invest in longer term erosion control measures on the parcels they actually work. The findings of this paper illustrate that linking local knowledge and practices is often not sufficient in and of itself for addressing questions of sound environmental management. While local knowledge serves farmers generally well, there are some limitations. Importantly, the pressures in the contemporary world of markets and cash can undermine what they know as the right thing to do for the environment.

  15. Perceiving Patagonia: An Assessment of Social Values and Perspectives Regarding Watershed Ecosystem Services and Management in Southern South America (United States)

    Zagarola, Jean-Paul A.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Veteto, James R.


    Research on human dimensions of ecosystems through the ecosystem services (ES) concept has proliferated over recent decades but has largely focused on monetary value of ecosystems while excluding other community-based values. We conducted 312 surveys of general community members and regional researchers and decision-makers (specialists) to understand local perceptions and values of watershed ES and natural resource management in South America's southern Patagonian ecoregion. Results indicated that specialists shared many similar values of ES with community members, but at the same time their mentalities did not capture the diversity of values that existed within the broader community. The supporting services were most highly valued by both groups, but generally poorly understood by the community. Many services that are not easily captured in monetary terms, particularly cultural services, were highly valued by community members and specialists. Both groups perceived a lack of communication and access to basic scientific information in current management approaches and differed slightly in their perspective on potential threats to ES. We recommend that a community-based approach be integrated into the natural resource management framework that better embodies the diversity of values that exist in these communities, while enhancing the science-society dialog and thereby encouraging the application of multiple forms of ecological knowledge in place-based environmental management.

  16. Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor Approach: A case study on Tevankarai stream watershed, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha; G Victor Rajamanickam; P Kumaravel


    This paper reports the use of a GIS based Probabilistic Certainty Factor method to assess the geo-environmental factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility in Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal. Landslide occurrences are a common phenomenon in the Tevankarai Ar sub-watershed, Kodaikkanal owing to rugged terrain at high altitude, high frequency of intense rainfall and rapidly expanding urban growth. The spatial database of the factors influencing landslides are compiled primarily from topographical maps, aerial photographs and satellite images. They are relief, slope, aspect, curvature, weathering, soil, land use, proximity to road and proximity to drainage. Certainty Factor Approach is used to study the interaction between the factors and the landslide, highlighting the importance of each factor in causing landslide. The results show that slope, aspect, soil and proximity to roads play important role in landslide susceptibility. The landslide susceptibility map is classified into five susceptible classes – low, very low, uncertain, high and very high − 93.32% of the study area falls under the stable category and 6.34% falls under the highly and very highly unstable category. The relative landslide density index (R index) is used to validate the landslide susceptibility map. R index increases with the increase in the susceptibility class. This shows that the factors selected for the study and susceptibility mapping using certainty factor are appropriate for the study area. Highly unstable zones show intense anthropogenic activities like high density settlement areas, and busy roads connecting the hill town and the plains.

  17. [Watershed water environment pollution models and their applications: a review]. (United States)

    Zhu, Yao; Liang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Wei; Yang, Yi; Yang, Mu-Yi; Mao, Wei; Xu, Han-Li; Wu, Wei-Xiang


    Watershed water environment pollution model is the important tool for studying watershed environmental problems. Through the quantitative description of the complicated pollution processes of whole watershed system and its parts, the model can identify the main sources and migration pathways of pollutants, estimate the pollutant loadings, and evaluate their impacts on water environment, providing a basis for watershed planning and management. This paper reviewed the watershed water environment models widely applied at home and abroad, with the focuses on the models of pollutants loading (GWLF and PLOAD), water quality of received water bodies (QUAL2E and WASP), and the watershed models integrated pollutant loadings and water quality (HSPF, SWAT, AGNPS, AnnAGNPS, and SWMM), and introduced the structures, principles, and main characteristics as well as the limitations in practical applications of these models. The other models of water quality (CE-QUAL-W2, EFDC, and AQUATOX) and watershed models (GLEAMS and MIKE SHE) were also briefly introduced. Through the case analysis on the applications of single model and integrated models, the development trend and application prospect of the watershed water environment pollution models were discussed.

  18. Assessing the costs and benefits of improved land management practices in three watershed areas in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abonesh Tesfaye


    Full Text Available Unsustainable land use management and the resulting soil erosion are among the most pervasive problems in rural Ethiopia, where most of the country’s people live, jeopardizing food security. Despite various efforts to introduce soil conservation measures and assess their costs and benefits, it is unclear how efficient these measures are from an economic point of view in securing food production. This paper examines the costs and benefits of three soil conservation measures applied in the country in three different rural districts facing different degrees of soil erosion problems using survey data collected from 750 farm households. A production function is estimated to quantify the costs and benefits of more sustainable land use management practices. We show that the soil conservation measures significantly increase productivity and hence food security. Comparing the costs and benefits, the results indicate that implementing soil conservation measures would benefit farm communities in the case study areas through increased grain productivity and food security.

  19. Stability of patches of oasis landscape in arid areas: A case study of Sangong River Watershed, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Geping; ZHOU Chenghu; CHEN Xi


    The stability of oases is one of the key scientific issues in the process of evolution and management of oases in arid areas. The stability of oases and its representation are also different at different scales. This paper deals with the stability of oases at the landscape patch scale with a case study in the Sangong River Watershed of Tianshan Mountains.We employed the remote sensing, geographic information system and mathematical statistical methods to process the remote sensing images of three periods in 1978, 1987 and 1998, and put forward the approaches for representing the oasis stability at the landscape patch scale. The landscape control capacity of oasis patches is a kind of natural driving forces of the dynamic landscape change. The control capacity of a certain patch type on landscape change increases with its area and shape complexity and contrasts between it and other patches, and reduces with its spatial distances between it and other patches. The patch type with the strongest control capacity should be the matrix of landscape. The conversion of oasis landscape patches results from both natural and anthropogenic driving forces, particularly the anthropogenic driving forces. The higher the conversion proportion is, the lower the stability of patch types is and the stronger the anthropogenic disturbance is. The patch type with the strongest net control capacity in the Sangong River Watershed in 1987 was the desert grassland, which was the matrix of landscapes; but the matrix of landscapes had been changed into the irrigated lands in 1987 and 1998.The control capacities of landscape patches on the oasis landscape evolution have gradually reduced with time in the Sangong River Watershed, and the change extents also have reduced gradually. This reveals that the interaction among the landscape patch types generally tends to reduce, and the natural stability of the oasis landscape patches generally tends to increase. However, the conversion among the

  20. Modeling of Soil Erosion by IntErO model: The Case Study of the Novsicki Potok Watershed, of the Prokletije high mountains of Montenegro (United States)

    Spalevic, Velibor; Al-Turki, Ali M.; Barovic, Goran; Leandro Naves Silva, Marx; Djurovic, Nevenka; Soares Souza, Walisson; Veloso Gomes Batista, Pedro; Curovic, Milic


    The application of soil conservation programs to combat erosion and sedimentation are significantly contributing to the protection of the natural resources. Watershed management practices include the assessment of Physical-Geographical, Climate, Geological, Pedological characteristics, including the analysis of Land Use of the regions concerned. The policy makers are increasingly looking for the different land uses and climatic scenarios that can be used for valuable projections for watershed management. To increase knowledge about those processes, use of hydrological and soil erosion models is needed and that is allowing quantification of soil redistribution and sediment productions. We focused on soil erosion processes in one of Northern Montenegrin mountain watersheds, the Novsicki Potok Watershed of the Polimlje River Basin, using modeling techniques: the IntErO model for calculation of runoff and soil loss. The model outcomes were validated through measurements of lake sediment deposition at the Potpec hydropower plant dam. Our findings indicate a medium potential of soil erosion risk. With 464 m³ yr-1 of annual sediment yield, corresponding to an area-specific sediment yield of 270 m³km-2 yr-1, the Novsicki Potok drainage basin belongs to the Montenegrin basins with the medium sediment discharge; according to the erosion type, it is surface erosion. The value of the Z coefficient was calculated on 0.403, what indicates that the river basin belongs to 3rd destruction category (of five). Our results suggest that the calculated peak discharge from the river basin was 82 m3s-1 for the incidence of 100 years. According to our analysis there is a possibility for large flood waves to appear in the studied river basin. With this research we, to some extent, improved the knowledge on the status of sediment yield and runoff of the river basins of Montenegro, where the map of Soil erosion is still not prepared. The IntErO model we used in this study is relatively

  1. Participatory Scenario Planning for the Cienega Watershed: Embracing Uncertainty in Public Lands Management in the U.S. Southwest (United States)

    Hartmann, H.; Morino, K.; Bodner, G.; Markstein, A.; McFarlin, S.


    Land managers and communities struggle to sustain natural landscapes and the benefits they provide--especially in an era of rapid and unpredictable changes being driven by shifts in climate and other drivers that are largely outside the control of local managers and residents. The Cienega Watershed Partnership (CWP) is a long-standing multi-agency partnership involved in managing lands and resources over about 700,000 acres in southeast Arizona, surrounding the Bureau of Land Management's Las Cienegas National Conservation Area. The region forms a vital wildlife corridor connecting the diverse ecosystems of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts and grasslands with the Sierra Madrean and Rocky Mountain forests and woodlands. The CWP has long-standing forums and relationships for considering complex issues and novel approaches for management, including practical implementation of adaptive management, development of monitoring programs and protocols, and the use of nested objectives to adjust management targets. However, current plans have objectives and strategies based on what is known or likely to become known about natural and socio-cultural systems; they do not incorporate uncertainties related to rapid changes in climate or have well developed feedback mechanisms for routinely reconsidering climate information. Since 2011, more than 50 individuals from over 20 federal and local governments, non-governmental organizations, and private landowners have participated in scenario planning for the Cienega Watershed. Scenario planning is an important tool for (1) managing risks in the face of high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity; (2) integrating quantitative climate projections, trend and impact assessments, and local expertise to develop qualitative scenario narratives that can inform decisions even by simply provoking insights; and (3) engaging jurisdictions having different missions, objectives, and planning processes. Participants are helping to

  2. Can isolated and riparian wetlands mitigate the impact of climate change on watershed hydrology? A case study approach. (United States)

    Fossey, M; Rousseau, A N


    The effects of wetlands on stream flows are well established, namely mitigating flow regimes through water storage and slow water release. However, their effectiveness in reducing flood peaks and sustaining low flows is mainly driven by climate conditions and wetland type with respect to their connectivity to the hydrographic network (i.e. isolated or riparian wetlands). While some studies have demonstrated these hydrological functions/services, few of them have focused on the benefits to the hydrological regimes and their evolution under climate change (CC) and, thus, some gaps persist. The objective of this study was to further advance our knowledge with that respect. The PHYSITEL/HYDROTEL modelling platform was used to assess current and future states of watershed hydrology of the Becancour and Yamaska watersheds, Quebec, Canada. Simulation results showed that CC will induce similar changes on mean seasonal flows, namely larger and earlier spring flows leading to decreases in summer and fall flows. These expected changes will have different effects on 20-year and 100-year peak flows with respect to the considered watershed. Nevertheless, conservation of current wetland states should: (i) for the Becancour watershed, mitigate the potential increase in 2-year, 20-year and 100-year peak flows; and (ii) for the Yamaska watershed, accentuate the potential decrease in the aforementioned indicators. However, any loss of existing wetlands would be detrimental for 7-day 2-year and 10-year as well as 30-day 5-year low flows.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shafaie


    Full Text Available Whereas the tank volume and dehydrating digits from kinds of tanks are depended on repository sludge, so calculating the sediments is so important in tank planning and hydraulic structures. We are worry a lot about soil erosion in the basin area leading to deposit in rivers and lakes. It holds two reasons: firstly, because the surface soil of drainage would lose its fertility and secondly, the capacity of the tank decreases also it causes the decrease of water quality in downstream. Several studies have shown that we can estimate the rate of suspension sediments through remote sensing techniques. Whereas using remote sensing methods in contrast to the traditional and current techniques is faster and more accurate then they can be used as the effective techniques. The intent of this study has already been to estimate the rate of sediments in Karaj watershed through remote sensing and satellite images then comparing the gained results to the sediments data to use them in gauge-hydraulic station. We mean to recognize the remote sensing methods in calculating sediment and use them to determine the rate of river sediments so that identifying their accuracies. According to the results gained of the shown relations at this article, the amount of annual suspended sedimentary in KARAJ watershed have been 320490 Tones and in hydrologic method is about 350764 Tones .

  4. Quantifying the Effect of Thinning Vegetation on Evapotranspiration in a Mountainous Watershed through Remote Sensing: Improving Water Balance Estimates for Managed Aquifer Recharge (United States)

    Revelle, P.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.


    A long-term water balance study in an experimental watershed of the Sacramento Mountains in New Mexico monitors the impact of thinning vegetation on groundwater recharge. The study objective is to evaluate if thinning forest vegetation will increase groundwater recharge in the mountains to provide larger regional flows to aquifers in surrounding basins. In the semi-arid Southwest, evapotranspiration (ET) makes up 75 to 95% or more of the total water budget. The variability of daily vegetation transpiration and solar radiation with time of year and the effects of complex terrain create a seasonal and spatial variability of ET that is not well quantified in mountainous regions. Through applying the remote sensing model METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration with High Resolution and Internalized Calibration) to satellite imagery from the LANDSAT satellite, we calculate high-resolution maps of ET for the Sacramento Mountains watershed area to quantify spatially-distributed estimates of ET before and after thinning to provide improved estimates for determining the water balance and the effect on recharge. METRIC calculates ET through applying an energy balance spatially across an image to estimate ET for each pixel (30m x 30m). Differences in ET are calculated between thinned and control plots in the watershed before and after thinning with the net impact of thinning on ET for an image determined with standard statistical tests following a Before-After Control-Impact (BACI) approach commonly used in environmental impact assessment studies. Estimates of ET from METRIC indicate a net decrease in ET in the first year after thinning for all of the thinned plots but show significant variability (~2 - 12 %) between areas with different terrain characteristics. The impact of surface parameters such as slope, aspect, or albedo among others are currently being examined using multivariate statistical analysis methods to improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal

  5. Potential and limitations of Payments for Environmental Services (PES as a means to manage watershed services in mainland Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana George


    Full Text Available Based on two case studies conducted at local sites in Northern Thailand and Lao PDR, the objectives of this paper are (i to assess whether conditions for the establishment of PES at the watershed level exist in the uplands of mainland SE Asia and (ii to examine and discuss limitations that are likely to impinge on direct transfer of the PES concept as well as the institutional adaptations and support that are required for the successful implementation of PES markets in this regional context. The study's main findings are that: (i acceptance of PES principles and constraints are directly related to stakeholders' perception of their land rights irrespective of their actual rights; (ii willingness to pay (WTP is very low among local stakeholders, making any PES market unlikely to emerge without external support; (iii the classical scheme for watershed services hardly applies in its original form because environmental service (ES providers and buyers are generally the same people; (iv where potential ES buyers feel that ES providers are better-off or wealthier than them, they do not have any WTP for ES; (v good governance, including a strong liaising at various levels between people and the authorities is a strong prerequisite for the successful establishment of PES markets, even without direct government funding

  6. Research on watershed sustainability index:a case study of Le’an River watershed%乐安河流域可持续发展指标体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏雨; 鄢帮有; Thomas Koenig; 方豫


    基于Chaves & Alipazz在巴西南某流域建立可持续发展指标体系理论,根据乐安河流域的实际情况及数据获取程度,选用可避免主观性误差的定量指标,建立了乐安河流域可持续发展指标体系,计算出乐安河流域可持续发展指数为0.72,属于中等水平。其中最高参数值为水文现状指标(0.88),而最低值为压力指数参数(0.25),充分反应了流域内目前水质尚好,水量也充分,但社会经济发展及气候变化影响已带来巨大压力。为了全面提高流域的可持续发展能力,水权使用方和政策制定者应致力于提高流域内水源涵养功能,加大污染防治力度,合理制定土地利用规划,改善土壤环境,提升流域内部环境容量。%The best way to compromise the resource development and environmental protection is to con-duct a comprehensive management based on the watershed unit. The watershed sustainability is closely re-lated to such factors as hydrology,environment,lifestyle and politics,which can be employed together to establish an index system for the purpose of survey and planning. The surveyed watershed that is employed in the case study is located in the North of Jiangxi Province of China,and the WSI-concept applied here is based on the principles published first by Chaves and Alipaz(2007)based on their research on the water-shed of a river in Brazil. We adjust our index according to the local situation and the data we collected,a-voiding using the subjective quantity index. We manage to find out that the WSI for Le’an River water-shed is 0. 72,which falls into an intermediate level. More specifically,the indicator for“hydrology pres-sure”reaches only the mark of 0 . 25 ,while“hydrology state”scores at 0 . 88 . The result suggests that al-though both the water quality and quantity reach a satisfying status currently,the social and economic de-velopment has brought serious pressure on both

  7. An Integrated Approach to Identification, Assessment and Management of Watershed-Scale Risk for Sustainable Water Use Through Reuse and Recycling (United States)

    Hunter, C. K.; Bolster, D.; Gironas, J. A.


    Water resources are essential to development, not only economically but also socially, politically and ecologically. With growing demand and potentially shrinking supply, water scarcity is one of the most pressing socio-ecological problems of the 21st century. Considering implications of global change and the complexity of interrelated systems, uncertain future conditions compound problems associated with water stress, requiring hydrologic models to re-examine traditional water resource planning and management. The Copiapó water basin, located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile exhibits a complex resource management scenario. With annual average precipitation of only 28 mm, water intensive sectors such as export agriculture, extensive mining, and a growing population have depleted the aquifeŕs reserves to near critical levels. Being that global climate change models predict a decrease in already scarce precipitation, and that growing population and economies demand will likely increase, the real future situation might be even worse than that predicted. A viable option for alleviation of water stress, water reuse and recycling has evolved through technological innovation to feasibly meet hydraulic needs with reclaimed water. For the proper application of these methods for resource management, however, stakeholders must possess tools by which to quantify hydrologic risk, understand its factors of causation, and choose between competing management scenarios and technologies so as to optimize productivity. While previous investigations have addressed similar problems, they often overlook aspects of forecasting uncertainty, proposing solutions that while accurate under specific scenarios, lack robustness to withstand future variations. Using the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) platform for hydrologic modeling, this study proposes a methodology, applicable to other stressed watersheds, to quantify inherent risk in water management positions, while considering

  8. Summary and Synthesis of Mercury Studies in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, 2000-01 (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Slotton, Darell G.; Alpers, Charles N.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Churchill, Ronald; Bloom, Nicolas; Ayers, Shaun M.; Clinkenbeard, John


    This report summarizes the principal findings of the Cache Creek, California, components of a project funded by the CALFED Bay?Delta Program entitled 'An Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Impacts of Mercury in the Bay?Delta Watershed.' A companion report summarizes the key findings of other components of the project based in the San Francisco Bay and the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. These summary documents present the more important findings of the various studies in a format intended for a wide audience. For more in-depth, scientific presentation and discussion of the research, a series of detailed technical reports of the integrated mercury studies is available at the following website: .

  9. An integrated multi-level watershed-reservoir modeling system for examining hydrological and biogeochemical processes in small prairie watersheds. (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Huang, Guo H; Wang, Dunling; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Gongchen; An, Chunjiang; Cui, Zheng; Liao, Renfei; Nie, Xianghui


    Eutrophication of small prairie reservoirs presents a major challenge in water quality management and has led to a need for predictive water quality modeling. Studies are lacking in effectively integrating watershed models and reservoir models to explore nutrient dynamics and eutrophication pattern. A water quality model specific to small prairie water bodies is also desired in order to highlight key biogeochemical processes with an acceptable degree of parameterization. This study presents a Multi-level Watershed-Reservoir Modeling System (MWRMS) to simulate hydrological and biogeochemical processes in small prairie watersheds. It integrated a watershed model, a hydrodynamic model and an eutrophication model into a flexible modeling framework. It can comprehensively describe hydrological and biogeochemical processes across different spatial scales and effectively deal with the special drainage structure of small prairie watersheds. As a key component of MWRMS, a three-dimensional Willows Reservoir Eutrophication Model (WREM) is developed to addresses essential biogeochemical processes in prairie reservoirs and to generate 3D distributions of various water quality constituents; with a modest degree of parameterization, WREM is able to meet the limit of data availability that often confronts the modeling practices in small watersheds. MWRMS was applied to the Assiniboia Watershed in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Extensive efforts of field work and lab analysis were undertaken to support model calibration and validation. MWRMS demonstrated its ability to reproduce the observed watershed water yield, reservoir water levels and temperatures, and concentrations of several water constituents. Results showed that the aquatic systems in the Assiniboia Watershed were nitrogen-limited and sediment flux played a crucial role in reservoir nutrient budget and dynamics. MWRMS can provide a broad context of decision support for water resources management and water quality

  10. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: Belt transect surveys of coral demography (adult and juvenile corals) from 2014-06-29 to 2015-12-01 (NCEI Accession 0137092) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  11. Determining Watershed Management Efficacy in West Maui: line-point-intercept and photo quadrat surveys of benthic communities for benthic cover from 2014-06-24 to 2015-07-31 (NCEI Accession 0138585) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of the Wahikuli-Honokowai Watershed Management Plan is the land use practices and alterations affected in the agricultural and urban districts that have...

  12. Problems in Determining the Return of a Watershed to Pretreatment Conditions: Techniques Applied to a Study at Caspar Creek, California (United States)

    Thomas, Robert B.


    Using a previously treated basin as a control in subsequent paired watershed studies requires the control to be stable. Basin stability can be assessed in many ways, some of which are investigated for the South Fork of Caspar Creek in northern California. This basin is recovering from logging and road building in the early 1970s. Three storm-based discharge characteristics (peak discharge, quick flow, and total storm flow), daily flows, and concentration of suspended sediment were studied to see if the South Fork can be used as a control in a second experiment. Mean sediment concentration in three discharge classes and regression parameters for the other data were tested to estimate remaining treatment effects relative to the North Fork. Patterns of change were similar for most data, with rises in response followed by returns toward pretreatment conditions. The storm and sediment data showed few significant differences, but tests on daily flows indicated that differences still exist. The overall evidence suggests that the South Fork has returned to near pretreatment conditions. Better sediment data are needed for studies of the effects of land management.

  13. Downscaling future climate projections to the watershed scale: a north San Francisco Bay estuary case study (United States)

    Micheli, Elisabeth; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan; Weiss, Stuart; Kennedy, Morgan


    We modeled the hydrology of basins draining into the northern portion of the San Francisco Bay Estuary (North San Pablo Bay) using a regional water balance model (Basin Characterization Model; BCM) to estimate potential effects of climate change at the watershed scale. The BCM calculates water balance components, including runoff, recharge, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and stream flow, based on climate, topography, soils and underlying geology, and the solar-driven energy balance. We downscaled historical and projected precipitation and air temperature values derived from weather stations and global General Circulation Models (GCMs) to a spatial scale of 270 m. We then used the BCM to estimate hydrologic response to climate change for four scenarios spanning this century (2000–2100). Historical climate patterns show that Marin’s coastal regions are typically on the order of 2 °C cooler and receive five percent more precipitation compared to the inland valleys of Sonoma and Napa because of marine influences and local topography. By the last 30 years of this century, North Bay scenarios project average minimum temperatures to increase by 1.0 °C to 3.1 °C and average maximum temperatures to increase by 2.1 °C to 3.4 °C (in comparison to conditions experienced over the last 30 years, 1981–2010). Precipitation projections for the 21st century vary between GCMs (ranging from 2 to 15% wetter than the 20th-century average). Temperature forcing increases the variability of modeled runoff, recharge, and stream discharge, and shifts hydrologic cycle timing. For both high- and low-rainfall scenarios, by the close of this century warming is projected to amplify late-season climatic water deficit (a measure of drought stress on soils) by 8% to 21%. Hydrologic variability within a single river basin demonstrated at the scale of subwatersheds may prove an important consideration for water managers in the face of climate change. Our results suggest that in arid

  14. Estimation of runoff and sediment yield in the Redrock Creek watershed using AnnAGNPS and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsou Ming-Shu; ZHAN Xiao-yong


    Sediment has been identified as a significant threat to water quality and channel clogging that in turn may lead to river flooding. With the increasing awareness of the impairment from sediment to water bodies in a watershed, identifying the locations of the major sediment sources and reducing the sediment through management practices will be important for an effective watershed management. The annualized agricultural non-point source pollution(AnnAGNPS) model and newly developed GIS interface for it were applied in a small agricultural watershed, Redrock Creek watershed, Kansas, in this pilot study for exploring the effectiveness of using this model as a management tool. The calibrated model appropriately simulated monthly runoff and sediment yield through the practices in this study and potentially suggested the ways of sediment reduction through evaluating the changes of land use and field operation in the model for the purpose of watershed management.

  15. 泰国的流域环境管理%Environmental Management of Watershed in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Concept of watershed has been used in this country for a long time. The reason for its popularity is its simplicity to understand the role of the flow of the water from an upper area to a lower one. The problems associated with watershed concentrate on a couple of major items: water use and availability, and environmental degradation. A few examples have been brought forward from existing works. Upland-lowland conflicts are a global problem, with the use of water as the main issue, plus the contamination of the environment with pesticides and other wastes. The misuse of land by influential people, especially on sloping areas, may induce flood and landslide to occur. In some mining areas, some heavy metals like lead may cause damages to health and well-being of inhabitants. Some cases have been stagnating and people cannot find help from anywhere. On a bright side, there have been good examples of cooperation in saving some rivers, e.g. the Tha Chin, which can exemplify for other similar cases too. Finally the pollutants go down to the sea though some parts of them have been caused by activities in and around there. Establishments of the Environmental Dispute Mediation Center and the Green Bench for environmental court cases are considered a good progress of environmental circles of the country.%流域的概念在泰国沿用已久.之所以这么普及,是由于河流自上游地区流往下游地区这一概念容易被人理解接受.与小流域相关的问题主要包括以下几个方面:水资源利用及其有效性,环境退化问题等.针对现在的工作举几个例子.上下游冲突是个全球性的问题,其中水资源利用是个主要问题,还包括因为杀虫剂和其他废弃物造成的环境污染问题等.滥用土地,特别是在坡地上的过度开发,可能会导致洪灾和山崩.在某些矿区,某些重金属,诸如铅等,对人体健康和居民生活产生不良影响.有些情况无法解决,而人们却无法从其他地区获

  16. Imagined Communities, Contested Watersheds: Challenges to Integrated Water Resources Management in Agricultural Areas (United States)

    Ferreyra, Cecilia; de Loe, Rob C.; Kreutzwiser, Reid D.


    Integrated water resources management is one of the major bottom-up alternatives that emerged during the 1980s in North America as part of the trend towards more holistic and participatory styles of environmental governance. It aims to protect surface and groundwater resources by focusing on the integrated and collaborative management of land and…

  17. Soil quality index comparisons using Fort Cobb Oklahoma watershed-scale land management data (United States)

    The Soil Conditioning Index (SCI) and Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) are two different but complementary methods for evaluating soil management effects on soil quality. Although both tools have been widely used, little is known regarding how they compare to one another and if they produ...

  18. 流域差别化环境管理研究%Research on Watershed-Differentiated Environmental Management LUO Hong, FENG Hui-juan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宏; 冯慧娟


    按照自然规律和经济规律要求对流域实施差别化环境管理,是提高流域环境管理针对性、有效性,改善环境管理效率和效果的必然选择.通过对流域差别化管理在系统论和行为经济学的理论剖析,以及流域在地理要素、功能和经济发展上的地域分异性特征分析,提出"分域、分区、分序、分期、分类、分级、分责、分权、分策"的"九分"原则.在"九分"原则指导下,从划分流域环境经济功能区、优化流域环境管理手段、创造流域差别化环境管理的实施条件等方面,体现流域差别化环境管理思想并保证其得以顺利实施.%Watershed-differentiated environmental management is an inevitable choice for improving pertinence, validity, efficiency and effects of environmental management according to the rules of nature and economy. Through analyzing system theory, behavior economics theory and the features of differentiated geographic factors, function, and economic development, the "nine divisions" concept of watershed-differentiated environmental management was put forward. The "nine divisions" are basin division, area division, sequence division, stage division, kind division, class division, responsibility division, authority division and policy division.Under the guidance of the "nine divisions", mechanisms including repartitioning environmental economic functional area,optimizing watershed environmental management instruments and creating executable conditions for watershed-differentiated environmental management can embody the thoughts of differentiated watershed environmental management and assure healthily implemented differentiated management.

  19. Study of Groundwater Circulation Using Stable Isotopes : the Example of the Punaruu Watershed (Tropical Oceanic Island of Tahiti, French Polynesia) (United States)

    Sichoix, L.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marlin, C.; Gillot, P. Y.; Pheulpin, L.; Barriot, J. P.


    The increasing demand for drinking and industrial water, especially in the most populated areas of the tropical oceanic Island of Tahiti in French Polynesia (South central Pacific), makes it necessary to conduct hydrological and hydrogeological studies on water resources and management. Our investigation area represents the second largest watershed of Tahiti called Punaruu. The largest industrial zone of Tahiti occupies the minor low valley of this catchment and is particularly impacted by dredging of the stream and rock removals since several decades whereas the major high part is naturally well preserved. This study aims to identify the main infiltration areas of the aquifers of this industrial zone as well as the areas at low elevations to be protected from potential pollutions. During the period between May 2013 and July 2015, we have collected rainwater samples from five rain gauges located at elevations ranging from 0 to 1420 m. We have also performed water sampling from the main rivers and three springs up to altitudes of 800 m as well as six pumping boreholes in the industrial zone. Chemical (major elements) and stable isotopic (δ18O and δ2H) analyses have been done from all these water samples and help us to constrain a conceptual model of groundwater circulation within such a complex discontinuous volcanic structure.

  20. Modeling the influence of climate change on watershed systems: Adaptation through targeted practices (United States)

    Dudula, John; Randhir, Timothy O.


    Climate change may influence hydrologic processes of watersheds (IPCC, 2013) and increased runoff may cause flooding, eroded stream banks, widening of stream channels, increased pollutant loading, and consequently impairment of aquatic life. The goal of this study was to quantify the potential impacts of climate change on watershed hydrologic processes and to evaluate scale and effectiveness of management practices for adaptation. We simulate baseline watershed conditions using the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) simulation model to examine the possible effects of changing climate on watershed processes. We also simulate the effects of adaptation and mitigation through specific best management strategies for various climatic scenarios. With continuing low-flow conditions and vulnerability to climate change, the Ipswich watershed is the focus of this study. We quantify fluxes in runoff, evapotranspiration, infiltration, sediment load, and nutrient concentrations under baseline and climate change scenarios (near and far future). We model adaptation options for mitigating climate effects on watershed processes using bioretention/raingarden Best Management Practices (BMPs). It was observed that climate change has a significant impact on watershed runoff and carefully designed and maintained BMPs at subwatershed scale can be effective in mitigating some of the problems related to stormwater runoff. Policy options include implementation of BMPs through education and incentives for scale-dependent and site specific bioretention units/raingardens to increase the resilience of the watershed system to current and future climate change.

  1. Defining a data management strategy for USGS Chesapeake Bay studies (United States)

    Ladino, Cassandra


    The mission of U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Chesapeake Bay studies is to provide integrated science for improved understanding and management of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Collective USGS efforts in the Chesapeake Bay watershed began in the 1980s, and by the mid-1990s the USGS adopted the watershed as one of its national place-based study areas. Great focus and effort by the USGS have been directed toward Chesapeake Bay studies for almost three decades. The USGS plays a key role in using “ecosystem-based adaptive management, which will provide science to improve the efficiency and accountability of Chesapeake Bay Program activities” (Phillips, 2011). Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. The USGS is responsible for collaborating and sharing this information with other Federal agencies and partners as described under the President’s Executive Order 13508—Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed signed by President Obama in 2009. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process. This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. Data management by definition is “the business functions that develop and execute plans, policies, practices and projects that acquire, control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information.” (Mosley, 2008a). In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better

  2. Ecosystem services valuation to support decisionmaking on public lands—A case study of the San Pedro River watershed, Arizona (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Semmens, Darius; Winthrop, Rob; Jaworksi, Delilah; Larson, Joel


    This report details the findings of the Bureau of Land Management–U.S. Geological Survey Ecosystem Services Valuation Pilot Study. This project evaluated alternative methods and tools that quantify and value ecosystem services, and it assessed the tools’ readiness for use in the Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking process. We tested these tools on the San Pedro River watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico, and southeast Arizona. The study area includes the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (managed by the Bureau of Land Management), which has been a focal point for conservation activities and scientific research in recent decades. We applied past site-specific primary valuation studies, value transfer, the Wildlife Habitat Benefits Estimation Toolkit, and the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) and Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) models to value locally important ecosystem services for the San Pedro River watershed—water, carbon, biodiversity, and cultural values. We tested these approaches on a series of scenarios to evaluate ecosystem service changes and the ability of the tools to accommodate scenarios. A suite of additional tools were either at too early a stage of development to run, were proprietary, or were place-specific tools inappropriate for application to the San Pedro River watershed. We described the strengths and weaknesses of these additional ecosystem service tools against a series of evaluative criteria related to their usefulness for Bureau of Land Management decisionmaking. Using these tools, we quantified gains or losses of ecosystem services under three categories of scenarios: urban growth, mesquite management, and water augmentation. These results quantify tradeoffs and could be useful for decisionmaking within Bureau of Land Management district or field offices. Results are accompanied by a relatively high level of uncertainty associated with model outputs, valuation

  3. Decision Making for Natural Resources and Watershed Management: Current Thinking and Approaches (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document overviews representative research related to natural resources andwatershed management, and gives directions to readers regarding publicly available...

  4. 流域管理决策支持系统研究进展%Decision support system for watershed management: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宇; 颜晶


    Watershed management decision support system ( DSS) is an intellectual system developed for the optimal allocation of water resources by watershed managers, and the simulation results of the system can directly affect the scientificity and practicability of watershed management. This paper summarized the related researches from the aspects of water quantity simulation and deployment systems, water quality monitoring and evaluation systems, and integrated watershed management systems. The main features and problems in existing DSS were analyzed, and the model structure and development status of the representative systems such as AQUA-Tool, Elbe-DSS, and HD were introduced. It was suggested that the accuracy and stability of simulated results, the succinctness of working process, and the high degree of user visualization would be the focuses in developing the DSS in the future, and the optimization of program-selecting models and 3D visualization tools, the research and development of inter-basin integrated management DSS, and the improvement of stakeholder participation would be the development trend for the future watershed management DSS.%流域管理决策支持系统是为帮助流域管理者实现水资源优化配置而研发的智能系统,其模拟结果直接影响流域管理的科学性和实用性.本文从水量模拟和调配系统、水质监测和评价系统、流域综合管理系统三方面总结了国内外的相关研究,并分析了现存系统的特点和存在的问题,同时简要介绍AQUA-Tool、Elbe-DSS、HD等代表性系统的模型结构和发展现状.模拟结果精确稳定、工作流程简洁、用户可视化程度高是流域管理决策支持系统的研发重点,优化方案选择模型和三维可视化工具、研发跨流域综合管理系统、提高利益相关者的参与度是未来该领域的发展方向.

  5. Watershed District (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Boundaries show on this map are derived from legal descriptions contained in petitions to the Kansas Secretary of State for the creation or extension of watershed...

  6. Watershed Investigations (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise


    Investigating local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. Investigation activities promote learning in an investigations interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…

  7. Clear Creek Watershed Flood Risk Management Habitat Assessments Using Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP): Analyses, Results and Documentation (United States)


    There are an additional 16 cities that are at least partially within the watershed including Pearland, Friendswood, and League City. Clear Creek...LULC) classes present in the Clear Creek watershed.1 Landuse/Landcover Characterization of the Clear Creek Watershed Legend Clear Creek KAIIr A. _, 1A El\\DC𔃻 EA"’""""’uJ !Abono- lor clio tiSACt-DoalDCn Cltu Ct"k Floo4 IU&k Rt4JCOODI!..-,_ Pro!oa tnMq:OOS Legend Cover Types

  8. Hydrology of C-3 watershed, Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Michigan (United States)

    Sweat, Michael J.


    Proposed changes to watershed management practices near C-3 Pool at Seney National Wildlife Refuge will affect surface-water flow patterns, ground-water levels, and possibly local plant communities. Data were collected between fall 1998 and spring 2000 to document existing conditions and to assess potential changes in hydrology that might occur as a consequence of modifications to water management practices in C-3 watershed.Minimum and maximum measured inflows and outflows for the study period are presented in light of proposed management changes to C-3 watershed. Streamflows ranged from 0 to 8.61 cubic meters per second. Low or zero flow was generally measured in late summer and early fall, and highest flows were measured during spring runoff and winter rain events. Ground-water levels varied by about a half meter, with levels closest to or above the land surface during spring runoff into the early summer, and with levels generally below land surface during late fall into early winter.A series of optional management practices that could conserve and restore habitat of the C-3 watershed is described. Modifications to the existing system of a drainage ditch and control structures are examined, as are the possibilities of reconnecting streams to their historical channels and the construction of additional or larger control structures to further manage the distribution of water in the watershed. The options considered could reduce erosion, restore presettlement streamflow conditions, and modify the ground-water gradient.

  9. Using Streamwater Chemistry in Flowpath Analysis of Large-Scale Forested Watersheds Near Stowe, VT: Developed vs. Undeveloped Watersheds (United States)

    Zinni, B. J.; Wemple, B. C.; Lini, A.; James, S. B.


    The analysis of flowpaths in small alpine watersheds has provided insight into the interrelationships between overall streamwater chemistry and the various flowpaths contributing to it. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the methods used in determining the flowpaths of small watersheds are applicable in a large-scale watershed. The two sites being studied are in the Mt. Mansfield region of Vermont. They are the Ranch Brook (9.6km2) and West Branch (11.7km2) watersheds. The techniques being implemented include the isotopic characterization of streamwater samples following a precipitation event, basic streamwater chemistry data and their relationship to stream discharge, and the determination of endmembers to the overall streamwater chemistry. Analysis of stream chemistry data suggests that up to three end members contribute to run-off production in both watersheds. A second aspect of this study is a comparison of the two watersheds. These watersheds are similar in all aspects except for the amount of development within each. Ranch Brook is undeveloped forestland while West Branch encompasses an alpine ski resort. Elevated chloride concentrations in the managed watershed suggest the possibility of contamination due to the application of road-salt. Initial oxygen isotope data suggests different flowpath patterns during snowmelt events, which may be the result of the impacts of ski trails and artificial snow on the West Branch site. These two sites provide the unique opportunity to determine impacts of ski development on the streamwater chemistry of alpine watersheds. Future plans include sampling of potential end members such as soilwater, groundwater and snowpack and analysis of additional isotopic data in order to constrain our assessment of flowpaths contributing to the runoff in these basins.

  10. Reply to comment on “Suburban watershed nitrogen retention: Estimating the effectiveness of stormwater management structures” by Koch et al. (Elem Sci Anth 3:000063, July 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Koch


    Full Text Available Abstract We reply to a comment on our recent structured expert judgment analysis of stormwater nitrogen retention in suburban watersheds. Low relief, permeable soils, a dynamic stream channel, and subsurface flows characterize many lowland Coastal Plain watersheds. These features result in unique catchment hydrology, limit the precision of streamflow measurements, and challenge the assumptions for calculating runoff from rainfall and catchment area. We reiterate that the paucity of high-resolution nitrogen loading data for Chesapeake Bay watersheds warrants greater investment in long-term empirical studies of suburban watershed nutrient budgets for this region.

  11. Geospatial tool-based morphometric analysis using SRTM data in Sarabanga Watershed, Cauvery River, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India (United States)

    Arulbalaji, P.; Gurugnanam, B.


    A morphometric analysis of Sarabanga watershed in Salem district has been chosen for the present study. Geospatial tools, such as remote sensing and GIS, are utilized for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM-30 m resolution) data have been used for morphometric analysis and evaluating various morphometric parameters. The morphometric parameters of Sarabanga watershed have been analyzed and evaluated by pioneer methods, such as Horton and Strahler. The dendritic type of drainage pattern is draining the Sarabanga watershed, which indicates that lithology and gentle slope category is controlling the study area. The Sarabanga watershed is covered an area of 1208 km2. The slope of the watershed is various from 10 to 40% and which is controlled by lithology of the watershed. The bifurcation ratio ranges from 3 to 4.66 indicating the influence of geological structure and suffered more structural disturbances. The form factor indicates elongated shape of the study area. The total stream length and area of watershed indicate that mean annual rainfall runoff is relatively moderate. The basin relief expressed that watershed has relatively high denudation rates. The drainage density of the watershed is low indicating that infiltration is more dominant. The ruggedness number shows the peak discharges that are likely to be relatively higher. The present study is very useful to plan the watershed management.

  12. A Study on sediment sources in a small watershed by using REE tracer method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石辉; 田均良; 刘普灵; 周佩华


    In simulation experiments, rare earth element (REE) tracer method was first used to sludy the sources of sediment yield in a small watershed. The experimental results have shown that the chief parts of sediment sources are constantly changing with the development of gullies. The cutting erosion plays a major role in the primary stage of watershed development. Slope erosion intensity increased gradually with gully development of the watershed, while gully erosion intensity decreased. Similar process was also observed in an individual rainfall. The simulation experiments have shown that the method can satisfactorily interpret the origins of sediment yield of a small watershed on an effective way. The simulation experiments have also provided basic information for field researches.

  13. Mapping benefits as a tool for natural resource management in estuarine watersheds (United States)

    Natural resource managers are often called upon to justify the value of protecting or restoring natural capital based on its perceived benefit to stakeholders. This usually takes the form of formal valuation exercises (i.e., ancillary costs) of a resource without consideration f...

  14. Baseline Studies of Selected Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Air of the Nandamojo Watershed, Costa Rica (United States)

    Geesey, Mary Sophia

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in a number of common household and commercial products around the world. PBDEs enter the environment in a variety of ways, such as through emissions, leaching from end-of-life electronics in landfills, and incineration. While many countries have phased out the manufacturing of penta-, octa-, and deca-PBDEs or have banned the manufacture and use of these congeners altogether, these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to be detected in humans and the environment. This study investigates spatial and temporal variations of selected PBDEs in the air of the Nandamojo watershed area in Costa Rica by comparing air concentrations of PBDEs in the dry winter vs. wet summer seasons and rural vs. urban areas and also investigates the impact of anthropogenic activities on air concentration of PBDEs. This study is significant to the field, because there are no baseline studies nor are there currently any monitoring programs to assess the environmental levels of PBDEs or other POPs for this region of the Guanacaste province. Baseline information is needed to track spatial and temporal trends as well as evaluate the effectiveness of control measures employed nationally and internationally. Samples obtained from passive air sampling devices were analyzed via GC/MS for a number of congeners. PBDE-47 and -99 were found to be the congeners present in greatest concentration in air samples from the Nandamojo watershed area. Air concentrations were estimated assuming an average sampler uptake rate of 3.5 m3/day and ranged as follows: SigmaPBDE5 35.20-1549.25 pg/m3 over the entire study. The presence of PBDEs in remote and pristine environments indicates that PBDEs are now a global concern. This study suggests that the spatial and temporal distribution patterns observed are strongly related to anthropogenic activities and presence of a population similar to that observed in other studies. The presence of

  15. Management & Communication: Project Management Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Nathalie Dumeaux


    We are pleased to announce the recent launch of a new workshop on Project Management. This is designed for People with budgetary, scheduling and/or organizational responsibilities in a project or a sub-project. The objectives through a management case study specially suited to CERN are: to become familiar with modern management techniques in use for structuring, planning, scheduling, costing and progress monitoring of a project or a sub-project. to understand in-depth issues associated with Deliverable-oriented Project Management, Earned Value Management, Advanced Project Cost Engineering and Project Risk Management. The full description of this workshop can be found here. The next session will be held on 8 October 2004. If you are interested in this workshop, please contact Nathalie Dumeaux, email or 78144. Programme of Seminars October to December 2004 Situation : 21.09.2004 Séminaires bilingues Dates Jours Places disponibles Project Management Case study 8 October 1 oui Intr...

  16. Healthy Watersheds Protection (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Healthy Watersheds Protection (HWP) Share ... live in a watershed — thus watershed condition is important to everyone. Watersheds exist at different geographic scales, ...

  17. User friendly tools to target vulnerable areas at watershed scale: evaluation of the soil vulnerability and conductivity claypan indices (United States)

    One finding of the Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP) watershed studies was that Best Management practices (BMPs) were not always installed where most needed: in many watersheds, only a fraction of BMPs were implemented in the most vulnerable areas. While complex computer simulation mode...

  18. 流域城市化进程中雨洪综合管理量化关系分析%Quantitative analysis of stormwater management strategies in the process of watershed urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虹; 李昌志; 程晓陶


    针对城市化进程中流域尺度暴雨洪涝水文特征的变异及径流峰值与总量的增加,采用GIS技术划分子流域并应用数值模拟方法,对流域范围内不同蓄滞渗排与雨洪利用组合方案进行模拟分析及量化研究。研究结果显示,以流域为整体,实施雨洪综合调蓄管理措施明显优于传统的各子流域分散管理方式。以位于美国伊利诺伊州的黑莓溪流域为例,经过优化分析,流域尺度所需的雨洪蓄滞容积,较之于子流域分散蓄滞方式可减少24.7%。在单纯流域蓄滞的基础上加之于源头与社区尺度的低影响开发(LID)与雨洪利用等新型综合管理措施,可将流域尺度的蓄滞容积减少60.3%之多,有益于缓解城市雨洪管理中的蓄滞占用土地、耗资巨大和运行维护困难的结症。本文为流域尺度雨洪综合优化管理决策提供了新的规划评估思路与参考。%Utilizing GIS and hydrologic modeling techniques, this study analyzed various urban stormwater management strategies. Due to data limitation and availability in China, a typical watershed in the United States was chosen as a demonstration. The 185-square-kilometer watershed, located in the vicinity of the City of Chicago, Illinois, USA, has been experiencing urbanization in recent decades. Considering the land use pattern of 2005 as pre-development condition and projected land development of 2040 as post-develop⁃ment condition, a numeric model was constructed using HEC-HMS software, and hydrologic effects of ur⁃banization were examined. Moreover,various urban stormwater management measures,such as detention,re⁃tention, infiltration, and rain water harvesting, were modeled both at sub-catchment scale and watershed scale;the quantitative relationships among the various measures were investigated at watershed scale. The outcomes demonstrate that the sustainable urban stormwater management integrated at watershed level can

  19. A Paired watershed Evaluation of Agroforestry effects on Water Quality on a Corn/Soybean Rotation (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith; Jose, Shibu; Garrett, Harold


    Rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited and thus limit the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world. The objective of the study was to examine non point source pollution (NPSP) reduction by agroforestry buffers in row-crop watersheds. The study consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Knox County, Missouri, USA. Watersheds were established in 1991 and treatments of agroforestry (trees+grass) and grass buffers were established on two watersheds in 1997 after a 7-year calibration period. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2009 to 2010 period. Results indicated that agroforestry and grass buffers on row crop watersheds significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with row crop management reduced runoff by 26% during the study period as compared to the control treatments. Average sediment loss for row crop management and buffer watersheds was 14.8 and 9.7 kg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared to the control treatments. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in management, soils, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be implemented to reduce NPSP to water bodies while improving land value and environmental quality.

  20. A coupled model approach to reduce nonpoint-source pollution resulting from predicted urban growth: A case study in the Ambos Nogales watershed (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Guertin, D.P.; Feller, M.


    The development of new approaches for understanding processes of urban development and their environmental effects, as well as strategies for sustainable management, is essential in expanding metropolitan areas. This study illustrates the potential of linking urban growth and watershed models to identify problem areas and support long-term watershed planning. Sediment is a primary source of nonpoint-source pollution in surface waters. In urban areas, sediment is intermingled with other surface debris in transport. In an effort to forecast the effects of development on surface-water quality, changes predicted in urban areas by the SLEUTH urban growth model were applied in the context of erosion-sedimentation models (Universal Soil Loss Equation and Spatially Explicit Delivery Models). The models are used to simulate the effect of excluding hot-spot areas of erosion and sedimentation from future urban growth and to predict the impacts of alternative erosion-control scenarios. Ambos Nogales, meaning 'both Nogaleses,' is a name commonly used for the twin border cities of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The Ambos Nogales watershed has experienced a decrease in water quality as a result of urban development in the twin-city area. Population growth rates in Ambos Nogales are high and the resources set in place to accommodate the rapid population influx will soon become overburdened. Because of its remote location and binational governance, monitoring and planning across the border is compromised. One scenario described in this research portrays an improvement in water quality through the identification of high-risk areas using models that simulate their protection from development and replanting with native grasses, while permitting the predicted and inevitable growth elsewhere. This is meant to add to the body of knowledge about forecasting the impact potential of urbanization on sediment delivery to streams for sustainable development, which can be

  1. Trend Change Study of Climate Variables in Xin’anjiang-Fuchunjiang Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman


    Full Text Available This study emphasizes the precipitation and the maximum and minimum temperature trend and presents the results of study in temporal and spatial scales, after performing statistical analysis of the Xin’anjiang-Fuchunjiang watershed. Statistical Mann Kendall and Theil Sen techniques were used to determine the trend and its magnitude, respectively, and for determining the start and abrupt change in the trend, Sequential Mann Kendall test has been performed. Furthermore, statistical tests were performed to determine the overall trend in the area at a regional basis. For the removal of the serial effect of the data, prewhitening technique is applied. In this study, statistical tests were performed at 1901–2013 precipitation and temperature series and then after detection of the change year precipitation data were divided into two different scenarios of 1901–1960 period and 1961–2013 period. The results showed that precipitation trend is insignificant while maximum and minimum temperature have increased during 1901–2013 period except for some stations of autumn and summer seasons.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Olakunle Bilewu


    Full Text Available Hydrological models are very useful for predictions in many ungauged basins across the world. There are many hydrological models available for discharge data generation with different complexities and varied input parameter requirements. Studies have shown that models with many input parameters do not necessarily perform better than those with few input parameters. Basin morphometric parameters play significant roles in the conversion of rainfall to runoff and obtaining good estimates of these parameters for use in runoff models is sometime challenging as Inaccurate input into models can propagate errors and make the models to perform poorly. This study employs the method of principal component analysis to reduce the number of morphometric parameters required to run a runoff model without losing any major information. Parameters for five selected study basins in central Nigeria were measured and analysed. The result shows that three morphometric parameters (Fitness Ratio, Ruggedness Number and Watershed Eccentricity can adequately represent other parameters as an input into a runoff model for the basins. This reduces significantly the time and effort needed to compute all the parameters which in actual fact may not improve the quality or efficiency of the runoff model.

  3. Landscape processes, effects and the consequences of migration in their management at the Jatún Mayu watershed (Bolivia) (United States)

    Penna, Ivanna; Jaquet, Stephanie; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Kaenzig, Raoul; Schwilch, Gudrun; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Liniger, Hanspeter; Machaca, Angelica; Cuba, Edgar; Boillat, Sebastien


    Bolivia has a large rural population, mostly composed of subsistence farmers that face natural and anthropogenic driven processes affecting their livelihoods. In order to establish sustainable management strategies, it is important to understand the factors governing landscape changes. This work explores the geomorphic imprint and effects of natural and anthropogenic driven processes on three mountain communities undergoing de-population in the Jatún Mayu watershed (Cochabamba, Bolivia). Based on satellite image interpretation, field work and household surveys, we have identified gullies and landslides as main active processes, causing land losses, affecting inter-communal roads, etc. While landslides are mostly occurring in the middle and lower section of the basin, gullies are especially affecting the upper part (especially the southern slope). Our analysis indicated that in the middle and lower part of the basin, landslides are developing in response to the Jatún Mayu incision (slopes reach a critical angle and slope failures increase). However in the upper part, where no river down-cutting is taking place, preliminary analysis indicates that past and present human interventions (over-grazing, agriculture, road construction, etc.) play a key role on driving land degradation toward the formation of gullies. Based on the comparison of high resolution images from 2004 and 2009, we determined an agricultural land loss rate of 8452 m2/year, mostly in the form of landslides. One single event swept away 0.03 km2 of agricultural lands (~13 parcels), approximately 87% of an average household property. People's main concerns are hail, frost and droughts because they cause an "immediate" loss on family incomes, but the impacts caused by landslides and gullies are not disregarded by the communities and the government. Communities are organized to set up and maintain key infrastructure such as irrigation canals and roads. They also intend to develop protective measures

  4. Design of Water Discharge of Medewi Watershed Using Avswat Model (United States)

    Pramana, Y. H.; Purwanto, B. P.


    Medewi watersheds is located in the southern of Bali Island and its estuary is located in Medewi Beach at Kabupaten Jembrana. The exact location of Medewi watersheds is between Desa Medewi and Desa Pulukan, Kecamatan Pekutatan, Kabupaten Jembrana. The watersheds itself, due to its strategic location is used as a territorial border between the two villages. Geographically, Medewi watersheds is between 114o48'00' - 114o50'00' east longitude and 08o20'00' - 08o26,5'00' south latitude. The main river of Medewi Watersheds is 25,64 km long and is classified as a continuous river, the width of the watersheds itself is measured 128,2 km2. Medewi watersheds have two tributaries which is Medaan watersheds and Pangliman watersheds, both watersheds' heads are located in Medewi Beach. Medewi watersheds is often flooded and brings heavy toll to its surrounding areas and citizen. Therefore, there is an urgent need to perform engineering techniques to overcome the aforementioned problem. However, there is a slight issue in the definition of water discharge plan in the location. The water discharge plan, which is used as a basis to prevent flooding, is often inaccurate. That is the reason why it is needed to build a model in order to accurately find out the amount of water discharge in the study location. Medewi watersheds' area usage is as follow: bushes (9,44%), forestation (77,10%), farm (7,76%), settlement (2,15%), irrigation field (1,64%), rainfed field (1,88%) and crops field (0,48%). The result of our modeling using ASVAT shows that the maximum water discharge is 149,9 m3/sec. The discharge is calibrated with the available water discharge data log. According to AWLR data, it is known that the largest discharge occurred on June 2nd, 2009 and measured at 147,9 m3/sec. Our conclusion is that the model used in this study managed to approach the field result with minimum error.

  5. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  6. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.


    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  7. Preliminary studies on occurrence of monensin antibiotic in Bosque River Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sudarshan Kurwadkar; Victoria Sicking; Barry Lambert; Anne McFarland; Forrest Mitchell


    Water quality impact due to excessive nutrients has been extensively studied.In recent years,however,micro-pollutants such as pharmaceuticals and hormonal products used in animal agriculture have added an additional impact to overall water quality.Pharmaceuticals used in the poultry,swine,beef,and dairy industries have been detected in various environmental matrices such as,soil,groundwater and surface water.In this study,26 surface water samples were collected throughout the Bosque River Watershed (BRW) with samples representing a range of land use conditions and locations of major dairy operations.Samples were analyzed using commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay test.Of the 26 samples,three samples consistently tested positive for monensin antibiotic with concentration ranging from 0.30 to 3.41 μg/L.These three samples were collected from sites that received varying amount of agriculture wastes (11.7% to 31.3%) and located downstream from sites associated with moderate levels of animal agriculture.The preliminary results suggest that there is a potential for monensin occurrence in the BRW,although initial findings indicate only very low levels.

  8. Goddard DEVELOP Students: Using NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (United States)

    Moore, Rachel


    The DEVELOP National Program is an Earth Science research internship, operating under NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Each spring, summer, and fall, DEVELOP interns form teams to investigate Earth Science related issues. Since the Fall of 2003, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been home to one of 10 national DEVELOP teams. In past terms, students completed a variety of projects related to the Applied Sciences Applications of National Priority, such as Public Health, Natural Disasters, Water Resources, and Ecological Forecasting. These projects have focused on areas all over the world, including the United States, Africa, and Asia. Recently, Goddard DEVELOP students have turned their attention to a local environment, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed is a complex and diverse ecosystem, spanning approximately 64,000 square miles. The watershed encompasses parts of six states: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. The Bay itself is the biggest estuary in the United States, with over 100,000 tributaries feeding into it. The ratio of fresh water to salt water varies throughout the Bay, allowing for a variety of habitats. The Bay s wetlands, marshes, forests, reefs, and rivers support more than 3,600 plant and animal species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and crabs. The Bay is also commercially significant. It is ranked third in the nation in fishery catch, and supplies approximately 500 million pounds of seafood annually. In addition to its abundant flora and fauna, the Chesapeake Bay watershed is home to approximately 16.6 million people, who live and work throughout the watershed, and who use its diverse resources for recreational purposes. Over the past several decades, the population throughout the watershed has increased rapidly, resulting in land use changes, and ultimately decreasing the health of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Over the

  9. Utilizing In-Situ Static Chamber Measurements and UAV Imagery for Integrated Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimations: Assessing Environmental and Management Impacts on Agricultural Emissions for Two Paired-Watershed Sites in Vermont (United States)

    Barbieri, L.; Peterson, F. S.; Wyngaard, J.


    Agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribute to ~10-12% of global anthropogenic emissions. While agriculture is a major source of GHG emissions, there is also great potential for mitigation, as emissions can be reduced by utilizing specific field management and fertilization strategies. This study closely monitors hay and corn fields in Vermont in two paired-watershed sites. Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane emissions were measured weekly using static chambers and a Photoacoustic Gas Sensor (PAS) across both field management treatments: conventional and mitigation. Accurately quantifying emissions from agricultural landscapes is crucial to develop and implement optimal mitigation strategies, but quantifying landscape-wide emissions is challenging. In this study, we show that both field management treatments and environmental conditions (such as field flooding from rain events) significantly affect GHG emissions, and both can be highly spatially variable even on the field-scale. Monitoring this kind of complexity across a watershed is difficult, as most current emissions quantification techniques, such as static chambers, are localized, point specific and costly. Remote sensing provides an opportunity to monitor landscapes more efficiently and cost effectively. High resolution imagery from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can also provide opportunities for more accurate watershed-wide estimates of GHG emission rates based on observable agricultural field conditions and management signals, such as field flooding, fertilizer application method, and cover cropping. Satellite imagery, and even the higher resolution aerial imagery used for agricultural monitoring, do not provide the spatial or temporal resolution needed to monitor the on-field complexities that affect GHG emissions. This study combines and compares environmental and management observations from UAV imagery and in-situ field GHG emissions measurements to determine the effectiveness of

  10. Modeling the Dynamic Water Resource Needs of California's Coastal Watersheds (United States)

    Alford, C.


    Many watersheds face formidable water supply challenges when it comes to managing water availability to meet diverse water supply and ecosystem management objectives. California’s central coast watersheds are no exception, and both the scarcity of water resources during drier water years and mandates to establish minimum instream flows for salmon habitat have prompted interests in reassessing water management strategies for several of these watersheds. Conventional supply-oriented hydrologic models, however, are not adequate to fully investigate and describe the reciprocal implications of surface water demands for human use and the maintenance of instream flows for salmon habitat that vary both temporally and spatially within a watershed. In an effort to address this issue I developed a coastal watershed management model based on the San Gregorio watershed utilizing the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system, which permits demand-side prioritization at a time step interval and spatial resolution that captures functional supply and demand relationships. Physiographic input data such as soil type, land cover, elevation, habitat, and water demand sites were extrapolated at a sub-basin level in a GIS. Time-series climate data were collected and processed utilizing the Berkeley Water Center Data Cube at daily time steps for the period 1952 through September 2009. Recent synoptic flow measurements taken at seven tributary sites during the 2009 water year, water depth measured by pressure transducers at six sites within the watershed from September 2005 through September 2009, and daily gauge records from temporary gauges installed in 1981 were used to assess the hydrologic patterns of sub-basins and supplement historic USGS gauge flow records. Empirical functions were used to describe evapotranspiration, surface runoff, sub-surface runoff, and deep percolation. Initial model simulations carried out under both dry and wet water year scenarios were able to capture

  11. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate achievable water quality targets through implementation of beneficial management practices in an agricultural watershed. (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Benoy, Glenn A; Chow, Thien Lien; Daigle, Jean-Louis; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui


    Runoff from crop production in agricultural watersheds can cause widespread soil loss and degradation of surface water quality. Beneficial management practices (BMPs) for soil conservation are often implemented as remedial measures because BMPs can reduce soil erosion and improve water quality. However, the efficacy of BMPs may be unknown because it can be affected by many factors, such as farming practices, land-use, soil type, topography, and climatic conditions. As such, it is difficult to estimate the impacts of BMPs on water quality through field experiments alone. In this research, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate achievable performance targets of water quality indicators (sediment and soluble P loadings) after implementation of combinations of selected BMPs in the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Four commonly used BMPs (flow diversion terraces [FDTs], fertilizer reductions, tillage methods, and crop rotations), were considered individually and in different combinations. At the watershed level, the best achievable sediment loading was 1.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) (89% reduction compared with default scenario), with a BMP combination of crop rotation, FDT, and no-till. The best achievable soluble P loading was 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (62% reduction), with a BMP combination of crop rotation and FDT and fertilizer reduction. Targets estimated through nonpoint source water quality modeling can be used to evaluate BMP implementation initiatives and provide milestones for the rehabilitation of streams and rivers in agricultural regions.

  12. Biotransformation of chlorpyrifos in riparian wetlands in agricultural watersheds: implications for wetland management. (United States)

    Karpuzcu, M Ekrem; Sedlak, David L; Stringfellow, William T


    Biodegradation of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate) in sediments from wetlands and agricultural drains in San Joaquin Valley, CA was investigated. Sediments were collected monthly, spiked with chlorpyrifos, and rates of chlorpyrifos degradation were measured using a standardized aerobic biodegradation assay. Phosphoesterase enzyme activities were measured and phosphotriesterase activity was related to observed biodegradation kinetics. First-order biodegradation rates varied between 0.02 and 0.69 day(-1), after accounting for abiotic losses. The average rate of abiotic chlorpyrifos hydrolysis was 0.02 d(-1) at pH 7.2 and 30 °C. Sediments from the site exhibiting the highest chlorpyrifos degradation capacity were incubated under anaerobic conditions to assess the effect of redox conditions on degradation rates. Half-lives were 5 and 92 days under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. There was a consistent decrease in observed biodegradation rates at one site due to permanently flooded conditions prevailing during one sampling year. These results suggest that wetland management strategies such as allowing a wet-dry cycle could enhance degradation rates. There was significant correlation between phosphotriesterase (PTE) activity and the chlorpyrifos biotransformation rates, with this relationship varying among sites. PTE activities may be useful as an indicator of biodegradation potential with reference to the previously established site-specific correlations.

  13. Model Watershed Plan; Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, and East Fork of the Salmon River Management Plan, 1995 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, Ralph


    Idaho`s Model Watershed Project was established as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council`s plan for salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin. The Council`s charge was simply stated and came without strings. The tasks were to identify actions within the watershed that are planned or needed for salmon habitat, and establish a procedure for implementing habitat-improvement measures. The Council gave the responsibility of developing this project to the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. This Model Watershed Plan is intended to be a dynamic plan that helps address these two tasks. It is not intended to be the final say on either. It is also not meant to establish laws, policies, or regulations for the agencies, groups, or individuals who participated in the plan development.

  14. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Libby Creek (Lower Cleveland) Stabilization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project is follow-up to stream stabilization activities on Libby Creek that were initiated on the Upper Cleveland reach of Libby Creek 2 years ago. BPA now proposes to fund FWP to complete channel stabilization activities on the Lower Cleveland reach of Libby Creek, reduce sediment sources, convert overwidened portions of the stream into self-maintaining channel types, use natural stream stabilization techniques, and improve wildlife migratory corridors. This lower reach is about one river mile below the upper Cleveland Reach and the proposed activities are very similar to those conducted before. The current work would be constructed in two additional phases. The first phase of the Lower Cleveland project would be completed in the fall of 2004 (9/1/04--12/31/04), to include the upper 3,100 feet. The second phase will be constructed in the fall of 2005 (9/1/05--12/31/05), to include stabilizing the remaining 6,200 feet of stream. The Cleveland reaches are a spawning and rearing tributary for resident redband trout, and resident and fluvial bull trout migrating from the Kootenai River. The planned work at the two remaining phases calls for shaping cut banks; installing root wads and tree revetments; installing channel grade control structures; planting native vegetation; and installing cross vanes constructed from rock and trees to control channel gradient. In the past, this reach of Libby Creek has been degraded by past management practices, including road building, hydraulic and dredge mining, and riparian logging. This past activity has resulted in accelerated bank erosion along a number of meander bends, resulting in channel degradation and poor fish habitat. Currently the stream channel is over-widened and shallow having limited pool habitat. The current stream channel is over-widened and shallow, having limited pool habitat.

  15. Interim report on the scientific investigations in the Animas River watershed, Colorado to facilitate remediation decisions by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service, March 29, 2000 meeting, Denver, Colorado (United States)



    INTRODUCTION The joint U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Department of Agriculture Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) was developed as a collaborative effort between the Federal land management agencies (FLMA, that is the U.S. Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1996. The stated goal of the AML Initiative was to develop a strategy for gathering and communicating the scientific information needed to develop effective and cost-efficient remediation of abandoned mines within the framework of a watershed. Four primary objectives of the AMLI are to: 1. Provide the scientific information needed (in the short-term) by the FLMAs to make decisions related to the design and implementation of cleanup actions, 2. Develop a multi-disciplined, multi-division approach that integrates geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and ecological information into a knowledge base for sound decision making, 3. Transfer technologies developed within the scientific programs of the USGS to the field and demonstrate their suitability to solve real, practical problems, and 4. Establish working relationships among involved members of land management and regulatory agencies within the framework of a watershed approach to the cleanup of abandoned mines. Long-term process-based research, including development of analytical tools, is recognized as being critical to the long-term success in remediating watersheds impacted by historical mining activities (AML 5-year plan, In a meeting of Federal agencies (U.S. Bureau of Land Management [BLM], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation [BOR], U.S. National Park Service [NPS], U.S. Forest Service [USFS], the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [F&WS]), and State agencies (Colorado Division of Public Health and Environment, Colorado Division of Mines and Geology), several watersheds were examined within the state whose water quality was

  16. Development of Watershed Evaluation Index for Water Resources Considering Climate Change (United States)

    Lee, K. S.; Oh, J.; Lee, S.; Chung, E.


    The concept of sustainable development is the center of issue between economic development and environmental protection. Water resources development and management is a main part of the issue. With this, integrated watershed management (IWM) which considers flood, drought and water quality control together is needed for watershed management. The Green house effect has been increased by the carbon based and thoughtless development, and climate change caused by global warming will affect all human activities. Accordingly, this study developed watershed evaluation index for water resources to assess water resources of watershed considering flood, drought, water quality control, and climate change and then applied results to actual watershed. This study consists of mainly 2 parts. The first is development of watershed evaluation index to analyze water resources vulnerability considering flood, drought, water quality, and climate change. Watershed evaluation index for water resources consists of flood indicator with climate change, drought indicator with climate change, and water quality indicator with climate change. There are two frameworks to make indices. One is a cause-effect chain framework and the other is a theme framework. Watershed evaluation index for water resources has been developed using DPSIR (Driving force-Pressure-Impact-Response) framework by EEA (European Environment Agency) that can explain interactions between socio-economic and water resources. The second is applying the index to study watershed. Three kinds of date sets are needed to apply the index. These are socio-economic data, meteorological and hydrologic data, and GCM (General Circulation Model) as a future climate change scenario. In this study, the North Han River watershed was selected as a study area. The socio-economic data set was collected using municipal statistics. The meteorological and hydrologic data, especially flow and water quality (BOD, DO et al.) data has been simulated

  17. Using an integrated method to estimate watershed sediment yield during heavy rain period: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hsu


    Full Text Available A comprehensive approach estimating sediment yield from a watershed is needed to develop better measures for mitigating sediment disasters and assessing downstream impacts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an integrated method, considering sediment supplies associated with soil erosion, shallow landslide and debris flow to estimate sediment yield from a debris-flow-prone watershed on a storm event basis. The integrated method is based on the HSPF and TRIGRS models for predicting soil erosion and shallow landslide sediment yield, and the FLO-2D model for calculating debris flow sediment yield. The proposed method was applied to potential debris-flow watersheds located in the Sioulin Township of Hualien County. The available data such as hourly rainfall data, historical streamflow and sediment records as well as event-based landslide inventory maps have been used for model calibration and validation. Results for simulating sediment yield have been confirmed by comparisons of observed data from several typhoon events. The verified method employed a 24-h design hyetograph with the 100-yr return period to simulate sediment yield within the study area. The results revealed that the influence of shallow landslides on sediment supply as compared with soil erosion was significant. The estimate of landslide transport capacity into a main channel indicated the sediment delivery ratio on a typhoon event basis was approximately 38.4%. In addition, a comparison of sediment yields computed from occurrence and non-occurrence of debris flow scenarios showed that the sediment yield from an occurrence condition was found to be increasing at about 14.2 times more than estimated under a non-occurrence condition. This implied watershed sediment hazard induced by debris flow may cause severe consequences.

  18. Watersheds in disordered media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S. Andrade Jr.


    Full Text Available What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watershedsseparating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have beenused to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes betweencountries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance,slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in awatershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arisesnaturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide,and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields suchas image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scalingproperties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a moreprofound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed andstatistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of awatershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometricaland physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificialmodel landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be ingood qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  19. MesoHABSIM: an effective tool for river and watershed management; MesoHABSIM: una herramienta eficaz para la gestion de rios y cuencas fluviales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parasiewicz, P.; Gortazar rubial, J.; Mateo Sanchez, M.; Garcia de Jalon Lastra, D.


    MesoHABSIM is an approach to modelling in stream habitats. It allows a user to compute how much habitat is available for selected aquatic fauna under specific environmental circumstances. It overcomes the classical physical habitat models, since it is designed to work in a catchment scale. For this reason it is a very efficient tool for the decision making in the management of rivers and watersheds. MesoHABSIM has applications in Environmental Impact Assessment, in the design of Ecological Flow Regimes or in river restoration planning. (Author) 19 refs.

  20. Morphometric evaluation of Swarnrekha watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India: an integrated GIS-based approach (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhishek; Singh, Prafull; Pratap, Kamleshwar


    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is vital to understand the hydrological setup of any terrain. The present study deals with quantitative evaluation of Swarnrekha Watershed, Madhya Pradesh, India based on IRS satellite data and SRTM DEM. Morphometric parameters of the watershed were evaluated by computations of linear and areal aspect using standard methodology in GIS environment. ARC GIS software was utilized for morphometric component analysis and delineation of the watershed using SRTM digital elevation model (DEM). The watershed is drained by a fifth-order river and shown a dendritic drainage pattern, which is a sign of the homogeneity in texture and lack of structural control. The drainage density in the area has been found to be low which indicates that the area possesses highly permeable soils and low relief. The bifurcation ratio varies from 3.00 to 5.60 and elongation ratio is 0.518 which reveals that the basin belongs to the elongated shape basin and has the potential for water management. The main objective of the paper is to extract the morphometric parameters of the watershed and their relevance in water resource evaluation management. The results observed from this work would be useful in categorization of watershed for future water management and selection recharge structure in the area.

  1. Flow path studies in forested watersheds of heatwater tributaries of Brush Brook, Vermont (United States)

    Ross, Donald S.; Bartlett, Richmond J.; Magdoff, Frederick R.; Walsh, Gregory J.


    An investigation was undertaken into how headwater tributaries of Brush Brook, Vermont, could have average pH differences of almost two units (4.75 and 6.7). Sampling along four tributaries revealed that most of one tributary, below an area of seeps, had consistently higher pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+, and lower Al than other sites. Bedrock mapping showed numerous fractures in vicinity of the seeps. A portion of this tributary's watershed and a portion of an acid tributary's watershed were intensively mapped for soil depth. Sampling showed the widespread existence of dense basal till in the watershed of the acid tributary but none in that of the near-neutral stream. Lateral flow, found above the dense till, was chemically similar to that of the acid tributary and to solutions sampled from soil B horizons. There were no differences in the average pH of nonseep soils sampled from either watershed. Flow paths are hypothesized to be through the B horizons in the acid tributaries and from below the soil profile in the near-neutral tributary. The acid catchment should be more sensitive to environmental change.

  2. The Watershed as A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Environmental and Human Health



    The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. E...

  3. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha


    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  4. Soil erosion and sediment fluxes analysis: a watershed study of the Ni Reservoir, Spotsylvania County, VA, USA. (United States)

    Pope, Ian C; Odhiambo, Ben K


    Anthropogenic forces that alter the physical landscape are known to cause significant soil erosion, which has negative impact on surface water bodies, such as rivers, lakes/reservoirs, and coastal zones, and thus sediment control has become one of the central aspects of catchment management planning. The revised universal soil loss equation empirical model, erosion pins, and isotopic sediment core analyses were used to evaluate watershed erosion, stream bank erosion, and reservoir sediment accumulation rates for Ni Reservoir, in central Virginia. Land-use and land cover seems to be dominant control in watershed soil erosion, with barren land and human-disturbed areas contributing the most sediment, and forest and herbaceous areas contributing the least. Results show a 7 % increase in human development from 2001 (14 %) to 2009 (21.6 %), corresponding to an increase in soil loss of 0.82 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) in the same time period. (210)Pb-based sediment accumulation rates at three locations in Ni Reservoir were 1.020, 0.364, and 0.543 g cm(-2) year(-1) respectively, indicating that sediment accumulation and distribution in the reservoir is influenced by reservoir configuration and significant contributions from bedload. All three locations indicate an increase in modern sediment accumulation rates. Erosion pin results show variability in stream bank erosion with values ranging from 4.7 to 11.3 cm year(-1). These results indicate that urban growth and the decline in vegetative cover has increased sediment fluxes from the watershed and poses a significant threat to the long-term sustainability of the Ni Reservoir as urbanization continues to increase.

  5. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication--A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China). (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin


    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r² was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality.

  6. Ecosystem health assessment of the Jinghe River Watershed on the Huangtu Plateau. (United States)

    Suo, An-Ning; Xiong, You-Cai; Wang, Tian-Ming; Yue, Dong-Xia; Ge, Jian-Ping


    An improved Costanza model was developed to assess the health of the Jinhe River Watershed ecosystem. The watershed is located at the center of the Huangtu Plateau in China and has suffered a severe disturbance in the last few decades. Three indicators including vigor, organization, and resilience were calculated respectively by merging ground-based observations with remotely sensed data on a watershed scale. Health indices of 12 topographic sub-watersheds were calculated using a modified Costanza formula. Health evaluated results indicated that sub-watersheds in the Huangtu mountain region were relatively healthy ecosystems with scores over 0.673. The sub-watersheds in the loess mountain and the loess gully regions, e.g., Jinghe, Heihe, and Honghe regions, scored moderately; their evaluated value ranged from 0.505 to 0.606. The two sub-watersheds in the loess gully region and all sub-watersheds in the loess hilly region scored the lowest, less than 0.50 and were considered unhealthy ecosystems. It can be argued that the loess hilly region and the loess gully regions should be in primary consideration for ecological protection and rehabilitation. This study provided a possible quantitative model for ecological planning and landscape management with respect to topographic conditions in this area.

  7. Statewide Watershed Protection and Local Implementation: A Comparison of Washington, Minnesota, and Oregon



    Abstract In 1991 EPA embraced the watershed protection approach for environmental management. EPA defines watershed protection as â a strategy for effectively protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems and protecting human health.â To encourage statewide watershed protection, EPA developed the â Statewide Watershed Protection Approachâ document, which is designed to aid states in developing their own watershed protection program. The watershed protection approach is n...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Daw HSIEH; Wan-Fa YANG; Wen C.WANG


    Long term sediment yield and phosphorus yield from a watershed are important information for watershed management planning. Since sediment and water quality data for the streams draining a watershed are most often observed only periodically, a method is needed to extend the knowledge gained from the observed data to the rest of the observation period. In this study, it is proposed that suspended sediment load be established as a power function of stream discharge, and total phosphorus load as a power function of suspended sediment load. The propositions are applied to a watershed in Taiwan. Using suspended sediment load and total phosphorus load data, parameters for the functions are calibrated. The functions are used to simulate daily suspended sediment load and daily total phosphorus load based on observed daily stream discharges for the gauging station near the watershed outlet. Annual sediment yield and total phosphorus yield are then calculated from the simulated daily load. It is shown in this study that the intercepts of the power functions are related to watershed land use activities and can be calibrated using those data. The relations may be used to develop watershed management strategies for controlling sediment and phosphorus exports.

  9. Consideration of Experimental Approaches in the Physical and Biological Sciences in Designing Long-Term Watershed Studies in Forested Landscapes (United States)

    Stallard, R. F.


    The importance of biological processes in controlling weathering, erosion, stream-water composition, soil formation, and overall landscape development is generally accepted. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) Project in eastern Puerto Rico and Panama and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) Panama Canal Watershed Experiment (PCWE) are landscape-scale studies based in the humid tropics where the warm temperatures, moist conditions, and luxuriant vegetation promote especially rapid biological and chemical processes - photosynthesis, respiration, decay, and chemical weathering. In both studies features of small-watershed, large-watershed, and landscape-scale-biology experiments are blended to satisfy the research needs of the physical and biological sciences. The WEBB Project has successfully synthesized its first fifteen years of data, and has addressed the influence of land cover, geologic, topographic, and hydrologic variability, including huge storms on a wide range of hydrologic, physical, and biogeochemical processes. The ongoing PCWE should provide a similar synthesis of a moderate-sized humid tropical watershed. The PCWE and the Agua Salud Project (ASP) within the PCWE are now addressing the role of land cover (mature forests, pasture, invasive-grass dominated, secondary succession, native species plantation, and teak) at scales ranging from small watersheds to the whole Panama Canal watershed. Biologists have participated in the experimental design at both watershed scales, and small (0.1 ha) to large (50 ha) forest-dynamic plots have a central role in interfacing between physical scientists and biologists. In these plots, repeated, high-resolution mapping of all woody plants greater than 1-cm diameter provides a description of population changes through time presumably reflecting individual life histories, interactions with other organisms and the influence of landscape processes and climate

  10. Hydrologic Responses to Land Use Change in the Loess Plateau: Case Study in the Upper Fenhe River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Lu


    Full Text Available We applied an integrated approach to investigate the impacts of land use and land cover (LULC changes on hydrology at different scales in the Loess Plateau of China. Hydrological modeling was conducted for the LULC maps from remote sensing images at two times in the Upper Fenhe River watershed using the SWAT model. The main LULC changes in this watershed from 1995 to 2010 were the transformation of farmland into forests, grassland, and built-up land. The simulation results showed that forested land contributed more than any other LULC class to water yield, but built-up land had most impact due to small initial loss and infiltration. At basin scale, a comparison of the simulated hydrological components of two LULC maps showed that there were slight increases in average annual potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, and water yield, but soil water decreased, between the two intervals. In subbasins, obvious LULC changes did not have clear impacts on hydrology, and the impacts may be affected by precipitation conditions. By linking a hydrological model to remote sensing image analysis, our approach of quantifying the impacts of LULC changes on hydrology at different scales provide quantitative information for stakeholders in making decisions for land and water resource management.

  11. GIS and ordination techniques for studying influence of watershed characteristics on river water quality. (United States)

    Ou, Yang; Wang, Xiaoyan


    Landscape characteristics of twenty-eight sub-catchments within the Miyun reservoir watershed in Miyun County, northeast Beijing of China were examined to identify relationships with stream water chemistry. The influences of the entire catchment and 300 m buffer zone on water quality were compared using multiple regression analysis and redundancy analysis during three seasons. Results showed that strong seasonal differences in nitrate, nitrite and ammonium are observed whereas no difference in total phosphorus and conductivity. Landscape factors were significantly correlated to stream water quality. Residential area and stream density contributed markedly to river condition variability. Water quality was better explained by interactions with the landscape during and after rainy season. There was also a seasonal shift in the landscape factors that were the dominant explanatory variables. The relationships between landscape attributes and water quality on watershed scale were slightly different from those on riparian scale; however, landscape attributes may have stronger influences on water chemistry.

  12. Payments for watershed services: opportunities and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Ivan


    Many nations have found that regulatory approaches to land and water management have limited impact. An alternative is to create incentives for sound management - under mechanisms known as payments for ecosystem services. It is a simple idea: people who look after ecosystems that benefit others should be recognised and rewarded. In the case of watersheds, downstream beneficiaries of wise upstream land and water use should compensate the stewards. To be effective these 'payments for watershed services' must cover the cost of watershed management. In developing countries, they might also aid local development and reduce poverty. But new research shows that the problems in watersheds are complex and not easily solved. Payments for watershed services do not guarantee poverty reduction and cannot replace the best aspects of regulation.

  13. Methods for interfacing IPCC climate change scenarios with higher resolution watershed management models in the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin (United States)

    Easton, Z. M.; MacAlister, C.; Fuka, D. R.


    As much as 90% of the Nile River flow that reaches Egypt originates in the Highlands of the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin. This imbalance in water availability poses a threat to water security in the region, and could be severely impacted by projected climate change. This analysis coupled hydrodynamic/watershed models with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR4 climate change scenarios to assess the potential impact on water resources and sediment dynamics. Specific AR4 scenarios include the A1B, B1, B2 and COMMIT, which were used to force the baseline hydrodynamic models calibrated against 1979-2011 streamflow for 20 sub-watersheds in the Tana and Beles basins. Transfer functions were developed to distribute the model parameters from the calibrated sub-watersheds to un-gauged portions of the basins based on a similarity index of hydrologic response units. We analyzed the scenario in two manners: first we ran all of the seven individual Global Circulation Model results in the IPCC AR4 report though our watershed models to asses the potential spread of climate change predictions; then we assessed the mean value produced for each IPCC AR4 scenario to better estimate convergence. Results indicate that the Tana basin is expected to experience an increase in mean annual flow. The Beles basin is predicted to experience a small decrease in mean annual flow. Sediment concentrations in the Tana basin increase proportionally more than the flow increase. Interestingly, and perhaps counter to what might be expected for a decrease in flow in the Beles basin, sediment concentrations increase.

  14. Study on Ecological Risk of Land Use in Urbanization Watershed Based on RS and GIS:A Case Study of Songhua River Watershed in Harbin Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; YUAN; Wenfeng; GONG; Yongfeng; DANG; Zexu; LONG


    By using RS and GIS technology,the ecological risk index ( ERI) was constructed based on the analysis of land use change and structural characteristics in urbanization watershed of Songhua River in Harbin section. Afterwards,the spatial distribution and change characteristics maps of ERI obtained by using block Kriging were analyzed to reveal the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics,change rules and formation mechanisms of ecological risk based on land use under the background of urbanization,and to minimize land use risk during urbanization process. The results showed that during the past 18 years,moderate ecological risk level was major,while proportion of high ecological risk was the lowest,and the area of higher and lower ecological risk region changed most greatly; high and higher ecological risk were focused on urban region and the transition zone from urban to suburban region,while low and lower ecological risk mainly distributed in forestland with higher vegetation coverage,water bodies,grassland,shrub land and so on. Meanwhile,the transition zone from high to low ecological risk was very obvious. In addition,ecological risk became slightly worse in some region due to the transformation from cropland to residential and urban land,while it became slightly better in other regions because of the transformation from cropland to forestland; the center of gravity in lower ecological risk region shifted most greatly,while the shift was the smallest in high ecological risk region,namely 12. 31 and 0. 57 km respectively.

  15. Data base management study (United States)


    Data base management techniques and applicable equipment are described. Recommendations which will assist potential NASA data users in selecting and using appropriate data base management tools and techniques are presented. Classes of currently available data processing equipment ranging from basic terminals to large minicomputer systems were surveyed as they apply to the needs of potential SEASAT data users. Cost and capabilities projections for this equipment through 1985 were presented. A test of a typical data base management system was described, as well as the results of this test and recommendations to assist potential users in determining when such a system is appropriate for their needs. The representative system tested was UNIVAC's DMS 1100.

  16. Application of SWAT model for assessing effect on main functions of watershed ecosystem in Headwater, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sudjarit


    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is a well prediction accuracy of agricultural watershed ecosystem depends on how well model input spatial parameters describe the characteristics of watershed. The aim of this study was to assess the effects on watershed ecosystem main functions in terms of water and sediment yield. It was calibrated and validated for streamflow in the watershed to evaluate alternative management scenarios and estimate their effects on watershed functions. The goodness of the calibration results was assessed by the coefficient of determination (R2. Results indicated that the average annual rainfall and streamflow estimations were quite satisfactory. On a daily scale R2 was about 0.69 and a monthly scale was 0.97 which can be considered as acceptable. However, using for the case study of an intensive agricultural watershed ecosystem, it was shown that model versions are able to appropriately reproduce the water balance, nutrients balance, carbon balance, and energy balance. Crop yield, total streamflow and total suspended sediment (TSS losses calibration were performed using field survey information and data during 2008-2012. This study showed that SWAT model was able to apply for simulating and assessing streamflow, sediment, and nutrients successfully and can be used to study the effects of land use practices on water balance, nutrient balance, carbon balance and energy balance in the small scale of sub-watershed ecosystem as well.

  17. Simulating Daily and Sub-daily Water Flow in Large, Semi-arid Watershed Using SWAT: A Case Study of Nueces River Basin, Texas (United States)

    Bassam, S.; Ren, J.


    Runoff generated during heavy rainfall imposes quick, but often intense, changes in the flow of streams, which increase the chance of flash floods in the vicinity of the streams. Understanding the temporal response of streams to heavy rainfall requires a hydrological model that considers meteorological, hydrological, and geological components of the streams and their watersheds. SWAT is a physically-based, semi-distributed model that is capable of simulating water flow within watersheds with both long-term, i.e. annually and monthly, and short-term (daily and sub-daily) time scales. However, the capability of SWAT in sub-daily water flow modeling within large watersheds has not been studied much, compare to long-term and daily time scales. In this study we are investigating the water flow in a large, semi-arid watershed, Nueces River Basin (NRB) with the drainage area of 16950 mi2 located in South Texas, with daily and sub-daily time scales. The objectives of this study are: (1) simulating the response of streams to heavy, and often quick, rainfall, (2) evaluating SWAT performance in sub-daily modeling of water flow within a large watershed, and (3) examining means for model performance improvement during model calibration and verification based on results of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The results of this study can provide important information for water resources planning during flood seasons.

  18. Enhancements to TauDEM to support Rapid Watershed Delineation Services (United States)

    Sazib, N. S.; Tarboton, D. G.


    Watersheds are widely recognized as the basic functional unit for water resources management studies and are important for a variety of problems in hydrology, ecology, and geomorphology. Nevertheless, delineating a watershed spread across a large region is still cumbersome due to the processing burden of working with large Digital Elevation Model. Terrain Analysis Using Digital Elevation Models (TauDEM) software supports the delineation of watersheds and stream networks from within desktop Geographic Information Systems. A rich set of watershed and stream network attributes are computed. However limitations of the TauDEM desktop tools are (1) it supports only one type of raster (tiff format) data (2) requires installation of software for parallel processing, and (3) data have to be in projected coordinate system. This paper presents enhancements to TauDEM that have been developed to extend its generality and support web based watershed delineation services. The enhancements of TauDEM include (1) reading and writing raster data with the open-source geospatial data abstraction library (GDAL) not limited to the tiff data format and (2) support for both geographic and projected coordinates. To support web services for rapid watershed delineation a procedure has been developed for sub setting the domain based on sub-catchments, with preprocessed data prepared for each catchment stored. This allows the watershed delineation to function locally, while extending to the full extent of watersheds using preprocessed information. Additional capabilities of this program includes computation of average watershed properties and geomorphic and channel network variables such as drainage density, shape factor, relief ratio and stream ordering. The updated version of TauDEM increases the practical applicability of it in terms of raster data type, size and coordinate system. The watershed delineation web service functionality is useful for web based software as service deployments

  19. Geospatial techniques for developing a sampling frame of watersheds across a region (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.; Bateman, Doug; Lienkaemper, George; Guy, T.J.


    Current land-management decisions that affect the persistence of native salmonids are often influenced by studies of individual sites that are selected based on judgment and convenience. Although this approach is useful for some purposes, extrapolating results to areas that were not sampled is statistically inappropriate because the sampling design is usually biased. Therefore, in recent investigations of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) located above natural barriers to anadromous salmonids, we used a methodology for extending the statistical scope of inference. The purpose of this paper is to apply geospatial tools to identify a population of watersheds and develop a probability-based sampling design for coastal cutthroat trout in western Oregon, USA. The population of mid-size watersheds (500-5800 ha) west of the Cascade Range divide was derived from watershed delineations based on digital elevation models. Because a database with locations of isolated populations of coastal cutthroat trout did not exist, a sampling frame of isolated watersheds containing cutthroat trout had to be developed. After the sampling frame of watersheds was established, isolated watersheds with coastal cutthroat trout were stratified by ecoregion and erosion potential based on dominant bedrock lithology (i.e., sedimentary and igneous). A stratified random sample of 60 watersheds was selected with proportional allocation in each stratum. By comparing watershed drainage areas of streams in the general population to those in the sampling frame and the resulting sample (n = 60), we were able to evaluate the how representative the subset of watersheds was in relation to the population of watersheds. Geospatial tools provided a relatively inexpensive means to generate the information necessary to develop a statistically robust, probability-based sampling design.

  20. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ssegane


    Full Text Available Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment during the calibration (pre-treatment and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1–3 year intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, 14–15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control, and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.

  1. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds. (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert


    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production.

  2. Landslide mapping with multi-scale object-based image analysis – a case study in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lahousse


    Full Text Available We developed a multi-scale OBIA (object-based image analysis landslide detection technique to map shallow landslides in the Baichi watershed, Taiwan, after the 2004 Typhoon Aere event. Our semi-automated detection method selected multiple scales through landslide size statistics analysis for successive classification rounds. The detection performance achieved a modified success rate (MSR of 86.5% with the training dataset and 86% with the validation dataset. This performance level was due to the multi-scale aspect of our methodology, as the MSR for single scale classification was substantially lower, even after spectral difference segmentation, with a maximum of 74%. Our multi-scale technique was capable of detecting landslides of varying sizes, including very small landslides, up to 95 m2. The method presented certain limitations: the thresholds we established for classification were specific to the study area, to the landslide type in the study area, and to the spectral characteristics of the satellite image. Because updating site-specific and image-specific classification thresholds is easy with OBIA software, our multi-scale technique is expected to be useful for mapping shallow landslides at watershed level.

  3. Analysis Of Leakage In Carbon Sequestration Projects In Forestry:A Case Study Of Upper Magat Watershed, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasco, Rodel D.; Pulhin, Florencia B.; Sales, Renezita F.


    The role of forestry projects in carbon conservation andsequestration is receiving much attention because of their role in themitigation of climate change. The main objective of the study is toanalyze the potential of the Upper Magat Watershed for a carbonsequestration project. The three main development components of theproject are forest conservation, tree plantations, and agroforestry farmdevelopment. At Year 30, the watershed can attain a net carbon benefit of19.5 M tC at a cost of US$ 34.5 M. The potential leakage of the projectis estimated using historical experience in technology adoption inwatershed areas in the Philippines and a high adoption rate. Two leakagescenarios were used: baseline and project leakage scenarios. Most of theleakage occurs in the first 10 years of the project as displacement oflivelihood occurs during this time. The carbon lost via leakage isestimated to be 3.7 M tC in the historical adoption scenario, and 8.1 MtC under the enhanced adoption scenario.

  4. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.


    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  5. Management systems research study (United States)

    Bruno, A. V.


    The development of a Monte Carlo simulation of procurement activities at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. Data cover: simulation of the procurement cycle, construction of a performance evaluation model, examination of employee development, procedures and review of evaluation criteria for divisional and individual performance evaluation. Determination of the influences and apparent impact of contract type and structure and development of a management control system for planning and controlling manpower requirements.

  6. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi


    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  7. Watershed based intelligent scissors. (United States)

    Wieclawek, W; Pietka, E


    Watershed based modification of intelligent scissors has been developed. This approach requires a preprocessing phase with anisotropic diffusion to reduce subtle edges. Then, the watershed transform enhances the corridors. Finally, a roaming procedure, developed in this study, delineates the edge selected by a user. Due to a very restrictive set of pixels, subjected to the analysis, this approach significantly reduces the computational complexity. Moreover, the accuracy of the algorithm performance makes often one click point to be sufficient for one edge delineation. The method has been evaluated on structures as different in shape and appearance as the retina layers in OCT exams, chest and abdomen in CT and knee in MR studies. The accuracy is comparable with the traditional Life-Wire approach, whereas the analysis time decreases due to the reduction of the user interaction and number of pixels processed by the method.

  8. Interacting Watershed Size and Landcover Influences on Habitat and Biota of Lake Superior Coastal Wetlands (United States)

    Coastal wetlands are important contributors to the productivity and biodiversity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake - watershed connection. This study explores how strength of connection to the watershed (represented by watershed size and wetland morphological ty...

  9. A Corresponding Study of Water Quality Evaluation of the Pasquotank Watershed in Northeastern North Carolina (United States)

    Stevenson, J.; Walthall, S.; McKenzie, R.; Dixon, R.


    The Pasquotank River Watershed covers 450 sq miles in the Coastal Plain of NE North Carolina. It flows from the Great Dismal Swamp at the VA/NC border into the Albemarle Sound. The watershed provides a transition between spawning grounds and waters of the Albemarle Sound. Forested swamp wetlands border much of the waterways. Increased agricultural and urban development has greatly affected water quality during recent years. Test were completed along the tributaries and the river itself, adding to the previously data from 2011, 2013, and 2014. Streams tested were the Newbegun Creek, Knobbs Creek, Areneuse Creek, Mill Dam Creek, and Sawyers Creek. These streams cover a large area of the watershed and provide a wide variety of shore development from swampland and farmland to industrial development. Samples were tested for pH, salinity, total dissolved solids, and conductivity. Air/water temperature, dissolved oxygen, wind speed/direction, and turbidity/clarity measurements were taken in the field. The results were placed into an online database and correlated to the location of the sample using Google Maps®. Analysis tools were developed to compare the data from all years. Excel spreadsheets were developed to look more closely at individual points and tests for each point. This database was connected to a data visualization page utilizing Google Maps®. The results show variations for the individual water quality scores, but the overall water quality score for all the tested water sources remained at a comparable level from previous years. Mill Dam Creek rose above the previous three scores of 48 (2011), 47 (2013), and 49 (2014) and achieved a medium water quality score of 57. Areneuse Creek improved in water quality with a medium water quality score of 60. Sawyers Creek became the lowest scoring waterway tested at 35. Knobbs Creek decreased from previous years with a water quality score of 42. For a fourth consecutive testing year, Newbegun Creek fell within the

  10. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Jayakaran


    Full Text Available Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow-difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over thirty years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds – a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic shift in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of canopy transpiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

  11. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida (United States)

    Morrison, G.; Greening, H.S.; Yates, K.K.


    Tampa Bay, Florida,USA, is a shallow,subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of sea grasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds.

  12. Study on the Topographic Effect on Soil Erosion Using RUSLE Model for Small Size Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuan-sheng; JIANG Xin


    Soil erosion and subsequent sedimentation have caused serious environmental and soil degradation problems in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. This research aims at evaluating an availability of the Revised Universal Soil loss Equation (RUSLE) for predicting the range of soil loss values for the Nago watershed in Okinawa. It shows that climatic conditions substantially influence the rainfall amount as a function of the I30 of the rainfall event. The rate of soil loss is higher with increasing in altitude due to greater slope steepness. By rainfall data analysis, it is concluded that the large difference in soil loss between 2000 and 2001 was due to concentrated heavy rainfall in the rainy season or the typhoon season.

  13. Assessing Water Management Impacts of Climate Change for a semi-arid Watershed in the Southwestern US (United States)

    Rajagopal, S.; Dominguez, F.; Gupta, H. V.; Castro, C. L.; Troch, P. A.


    Water managers for the City of Phoenix currently face the need to make informed policy decisions regarding long-term impacts of climate change on the Salt-Verde River basin in central Arizona. To provide a scientifically informed basis for this, we estimate the evolution of important components of the basin-scale water balance through the end of the 21st century. Bias-corrected and spatially downscaled climate projections from the Phase-3 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project of the World Climate Research Programme were used to drive a spatially distributed variable infiltration capacity model of the hydrologic processes in the basins. Of the Global Climate Model's participating in the IPCC fourth assessment we selected a five-model ensemble, including the three that best reproduce the historical climatology for our study region, plus two others to represent wetter and drier than model average conditions; the latter two were requested by City of Phoenix water managers to more fully represent the full range of GCM prediction uncertainty. For each GCM, data for three emission scenarios (A1B, A2, B1) was used to drive the hydrologic model into the future. The model projections indicate a 25% statistically significant decrease in streamflow by the end of the 21st century. This is primarily caused by decreased winter precipitation accompanied by significant (temperature driven) reductions in storage of snow. From the analysis of the future period, a synthetic climate dataset was created to reflect future changes in magnitude while preserving the correlation by perturbing the historical observed precipitation and temperature. This dataset was used to evaluate climate elasticity and improve water managers understanding of the impacts to the basin. The results shown in this presentation clearly indicate the manner in which water management in central Arizona is likely to be impacted by changes in regional climate.

  14. Reducing Phosphorus Runoff and Leaching from Poultry Litter with Alum: Twenty-Year Small Plot and Paired-Watershed Studies. (United States)

    Huang, Lidong; Moore, Philip A; Kleinman, Peter J A; Elkin, Kyle R; Savin, Mary C; Pote, Daniel H; Edwards, Dwayne R


    Treating poultry litter with alum has been shown to lower ammonia (NH) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. Two long-term studies were conducted to assess the effects of alum-treated poultry litter on P availability, leaching, and runoff under pasture conditions. From 1995 to 2015, litter was applied annually in a paired watershed study comparing alum-treated and untreated litter and in a small plot study comparing 13 treatments (an unfertilized control, four rates of alum-treated litter, four rates of untreated litter, and four rates of NHNO). In the paired watershed study, total P loads in runoff were 231% higher from pasture receiving untreated litter (1.96 kg P ha) than from that receiving alum-treated litter (0.85 kg P ha). In both studies, alum-treated litter resulted in significantly higher Mehlich III P (M3-P) and lower water-extractable P at the soil surface, reflecting greater retention of applied P and lesser availability of that P to runoff or leaching. In soils fertilized with alum-treated litter, M3-P was much higher when analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry than by colorimetry, possibly due to the formation of aluminum phytate. Indeed, alum-treated poultry litter leached less P over the 20-yr study: M3-P at 10 to 50 cm was 266% greater in plots fertilized with untreated litter (331 kg M3-P ha) than with alum-treated litter (124 kg M3-P ha). This research provides compelling evidence that treating poultry litter with alum provides short-term and long-term benefits to P conservation and water quality.

  15. Lessons From Watershed-Based Climate Smart Agricultural Practices In Jogo-Gudedo Watershed Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera Assefa


    Full Text Available Abstract Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is therefore watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry agriculture pasture and soil water management with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre MARC has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research PAR was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation SWC area enclosure Agroforestry AF Conservation Tillage CT energy saving stove drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit meetings trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture

  16. Cycling of Organoarsenic Compounds in Agricultural Watersheds (United States)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Chambers, D. B.; White, J. S.


    The use of the organoarsenical roxarsone, added to poultry feed to increase weight gain, results in elevated arsenic concentrations (10-50 mg/kg) in poultry litter. This litter is extensively applied to crop fields and pastures, both as a fertilizer and as a waste disposal technique, in agricultural regions. Using a combination of field sampling and laboratory experiments, we investigated the sources and sinks of arsenic within soils and natural waters in an agricultural watershed in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, USA, an area of intense poultry production. Surface, ground, and soil waters were collected in an instrumented field site to examine arsenic and other litter-derived species in different hydrologic compartments and different settings within the field site. We collected soil cores of the Frederick series, common in the Shenandoah Valley, from several areas experiencing different litter application histories in the valley to examine relationships between arsenic and physico-chemical properties of the soils. Last, we conducted a series of batch experiments to examine adsorption and biotransformation characteristics of roxarsone within Ap and Bt soil horizons of the Frederick soils. Results of these combined studies document a complex yet intriguing cycling of arsenic through the watershed, which will provide useful information for management of poultry litter in agricultural watersheds.

  17. Citizen participation in collaborative watershed partnerships. (United States)

    Koehler, Brandi; Koontz, Tomas M


    Collaborative efforts are increasingly being used to address complex environmental problems, both in the United States and abroad. This is especially true in the growing field of collaborative watershed management, where diverse stakeholders work together to develop and advance water-quality goals. Active citizen participation is viewed as a key component, yet groups often struggle to attract and maintain citizen engagement. This study examined citizen participation behavior in collaborative watershed partnerships by way of a written survey administered to citizen members of 12 collaborative watershed groups in Ohio. Results for the determination of who joins such groups were consistent with the dominant-status model of participation because group members were not demographically representative of the broader community. The dominant-status model, however, does not explain which members are more likely to actively participate in group activities. Instead, individual characteristics, including political activity, knowledge, and comfort in sharing opinions with others, were positively correlated with active participation. In addition, group characteristics, including government-based membership, rural location, perceptions of open communication, perceptions that the group has enough technical support to accomplish its goals, and perceived homogeneity of participant opinions, were positively correlated with active participation. Overall, many group members did not actively participate in group activities.

  18. 加拿大最佳管理措施流域评价项目评述%A Review of the Canadian Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永波; 吴辉; 刘军志


    可持续农业的目的是在保持良好环境质量的同时获得较高的农业生产率.最佳管理措施( BMPs)在世界范围内已得到广泛应用,以减少农业污染物对水环境的影响.自2004年以来,加拿大农业部实施了最佳管理措施流域评价(WEBs)项目,在全国各地选择了有代表性的9个小流域,对BMPs的环境和经济效益进行评价.笔者对过去几年来WEBs项目的进展、研究方法及主要成果进行简要的回顾,并对在中国开展类似项目的必要性和启示进行了探讨.%The objective of sustainable agriculture is to maintain high agriculture productivity while preserving a sound environmental quality. However, water quality degradation caused by excessive sediment and nutrient runoff has become a critical environment impact on agricultural watersheds all over the world. Beneficial management practices ( BMPs) are therefore designed and implemented to minimize these negative impacts on water environment. In 2004, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada ( AAFC) launched a watershed evaluation of BMPs ( WEBs) project with a primary goal of assessing the environmental and economic performance of nine selected small watersheds across Canada under BMPs. The WEBs is composed of four main components, including biophysical evaluation, economic evaluation, hydrologic modeling, and integrated modeling. So far, WEBs has made significant progress in understanding the environmental and economic performance of the BMPs selected for the study and in validating hydrologic models using results from the field-tested BMPs, and WEBs has successfully begun to integrate biophysical and economic findings for planning for broader scales of land. The innovative and interdisciplinary research conducted in the WEBs watersheds will help farmers decide what practices might work best on their farm and will help the governments develop policies and programs to assist farmers in implementing effective BMPs for improving water

  19. Comparison of Hydrologic Dynamics in Forested and Agricultural Sub-watersheds of a Large Mixed-use Prairie Watershed (United States)

    Petzold, H.; Ali, G.


    The natural history of the Prairies includes the large-scale human modification of landscape biology and hydrology from first settlement to present. Forested land has been and continues to be lost and runoff is increasingly artificially drained in this intensively managed region. The impact of such modifications on hydrological dynamics has yet to be understood in such a way that measurable landscape alterations (i.e., area of forest loss, hydraulic capacity of artificial surface drains) can be linked to quantifiable alterations in event storm hydrographs or hydrological regimes. Here we focused on a large mixed-used watershed to compare the hydrological dynamics of forested sub-watersheds to those of neighboring deforested agricultural sub-watersheds within a similar geologic and pedologic setting. The chosen study site, the Catfish Creek watershed (CCW), drains a 600 km2 area located approximately 90 km north-east of Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada) and has been extensively impacted by human activities including the continued clearing of forested land for cultivation. It is characterized as a low-relief, agro-forested watershed (~45% forest, ~40% crops, ~10% swamp, ~5% other). Surface runoff is managed in part by a network of artificial drains in both the forested and cultivated portions of this watershed. The lower CCW is naturally-vegetated by parkland forest and swamp. The eastern edge of the upper watershed is also forested and of greater relative relief; while to the west the landscape is dominated by intensive, large-scale agricultural operations on a near level landscape. Detailed topographic information was collected in 1 m LiDAR survey of the area. Through the spring of 2013, CCW was instrumented with thirteen water level recorders (15-minute frequency) and five weather stations (1-minute frequency) to monitor the precipitation-runoff dynamics from spring thaw to winter freeze-up. Water level gauging stations, 12 located in-stream and 1 located in swampland

  20. Watershed-scale assessment of oil palm cultivation impact on water quality and nutrient fluxes: a case study in Sumatra (Indonesia). (United States)

    Comte, Irina; Colin, François; Grünberger, Olivier; Whalen, Joann K; Harto Widodo, Rudi; Caliman, Jean-Pierre


    High fertilizer input is necessary to sustain high yields in oil palm agroecosystems, but it may endanger neighboring aquatic ecosystems when excess nutrients are transported to waterways. In this study, the hydrochemical dynamics of groundwater and streams under baseflow conditions were evaluated with bi-monthly measurements for 1 year on 16 watersheds. Hydrochemical measurements were related to the spatial distribution of soil and fertilization practices across a landscape of 100 km(2), dominated by oil palm cultivation, in Central Sumatra, Indonesia. The low nutrient concentrations recorded in streams throughout the landscape indicated that the mature oil palm plantations in this study did not contribute to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. This was ascribed to high nutrient uptake by oil palm, a rational fertilizer program, and dilution of nutrient concentrations due to heavy rainfall in the study area. Soil type controlled dissolved inorganic N and total P fluxes, with greater losses of N and P from loamy-sand uplands than loamy lowlands. Organic fertilization helped to reduce nutrient fluxes compared to mineral fertilizers. However, when K inputs exceeded the oil palm requirement threshold, high K export occurred during periods when groundwater had a short residence time. For higher nutrient use efficiency in the long term, the field-scale fertilizer management should be complemented with a landscape-scale strategy of fertilizer applications that accounts for soil variability.

  1. Near-Channel Sediment Sources Now Dominate in Many Agricultural Landscapes: The Emergence of River-Network Models to Guide Watershed Management (United States)

    Czuba, J. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Gran, K. B.; Belmont, P.; Wilcock, P. R.


    Detailed sediment budgets for many agricultural watersheds are revealing a surprising story - that sediment is no longer primarily sourced from upland fields, but instead from near-channel sources. This is the case for the Minnesota River Basin (MRB) where an intensification and expansion of agricultural drainage combined with increased precipitation has (1) reduced surface runoff and erosion, (2) amplified streamflows, and (3) accelerated both near-channel sediment generation and sediment transport. Bluffs and streambanks in the MRB are now the dominant sources of sediment, but these features are not easily incorporated into traditional watershed-scale, sediment-transport models. Instead, we are advancing a network-based modeling framework that explicitly considers sediment sources, transport, and storage along a river network. We apply this framework to bed-material sediment transport in the Greater Blue Earth River Basin, the major sediment-generating subbasin of the MRB, where a recent sediment budget has quantified the locations and rates of erosion and deposition of major sediment sources and sinks (i.e., bluffs, streambanks/floodplains, agricultural fields, and ravines) over millennial and decadal timescales. With the river network as the basis of a simple model, inputs of sediment to the network are informed by the sediment budget and these inputs are tracked through the network using process-based time delays that incorporate uniform-flow hydraulics and at-capacity sediment transport. We explore how this sediment might move through the network and affect the variability of bed elevations under cases where the mechanisms of in-channel and floodplain storage are turned on and off. We will discuss timescales of movement of sediment through the system to better inform legacy effects and hysteresis, and also discuss targeted management actions that will most effectively reduce the detrimental effects of excess sediment.

  2. Baseline Profile of Soil Samples from Upian River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilanfranco Caballero TAYONE


    Full Text Available The Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB in the Philippines is currently mapping out the entire Davao City Watershed Area (DCWA. There are 8 major watershed areas within DCWA that has been identified by the MGB and the largest is the Davao River Watershed Area (DRWA. A smaller sub-watershed within DRWA, the Upian River Watershed Area (URWA, was proposed of which its boundary and soil profile is yet to be established. This study focused on the analyses of the soil samples from URWA. The results for pH, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, N, P, K, Ca and Mg were then compared to the Bureau of Soil standard for its fertility rating. Analysis of lead (Pb was also included as a pollutant indicator for possible soil contamination. There are 4 sampling sites with unfavorable ratings for pH, 3 for both organic matter and phosphorus, and 2 stations for both nitrogen and calcium. Fertility rating is generally good for cation exchange capacity, potassium and magnesium. The Bureau of Soil has no existing standards for micronutrients. However, all sampling sites were found to be too low with micronutrients according to Gershuny and Smillie. No indication of lead contamination or pollution on all sites as far as natural levels of lead in surface soil is concerned. This study will provide baseline information that is useful to all stakeholders, to the people living near the area, farmers, planners, and resource managers. This can also provide inputs to key government agencies in the Philippines like the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR and the City Planning Office of Davao in formulating policies for sustainable management of the resource upon implementation of their programs and projects. Without the aforementioned information, planners would have difficulty in predicting the impact or recommend best management strategies for a specific land use.

  3. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada. (United States)

    Null, Sarah E; Viers, Joshua H; Mount, Jeffrey F


    This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  4. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Null

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  5. Mapping technological and biophysical capacities of watersheds to regulate floods (United States)

    Mogollon, Beatriz; Villamagna, Amy M.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Angermeier, Paul


    Flood regulation is a widely valued and studied service provided by watersheds. Flood regulation benefits people directly by decreasing the socio-economic costs of flooding and indirectly by its positive impacts on cultural (e.g., fishing) and provisioning (e.g., water supply) ecosystem services. Like other regulating ecosystem services (e.g., pollination, water purification), flood regulation is often enhanced or replaced by technology, but the relative efficacy of natural versus technological features in controlling floods has scarcely been examined. In an effort to assess flood regulation capacity for selected urban watersheds in the southeastern United States, we: (1) used long-term flood records to assess relative influence of technological and biophysical indicators on flood magnitude and duration, (2) compared the widely used runoff curve number (RCN) approach for assessing the biophysical capacity to regulate floods to an alternative approach that acknowledges land cover and soil properties separately, and (3) mapped technological and biophysical flood regulation capacities based on indicator importance-values derived for flood magnitude and duration. We found that watersheds with high biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities lengthened the duration and lowered the peak of floods. We found the RCN approach yielded results opposite that expected, possibly because it confounds soil and land cover processes, particularly in urban landscapes, while our alternative approach coherently separates these processes. Mapping biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities revealed great differences among watersheds. Our study improves on previous mapping of flood regulation by (1) incorporating technological capacity, (2) providing high spatial resolution (i.e., 10-m pixel) maps of watershed capacities, and (3) deriving importance-values for selected landscape indicators. By accounting for technology that enhances

  6. Geospatial approach in mapping soil erodibility using CartoDEM - A case study in hilly watershed of Lower Himalayan Range (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Gupta, Surya


    Soil erodibility is one of the most important factors used in spatial soil erosion risk assessment. Soil information derived from soil map is used to generate soil erodibility factor map. Soil maps are not available at appropriate scale. In general, soil maps at small scale are used in deriving soil erodibility map that largely generalized spatial variability and it largely ignores the spatial variability since soil map units are discrete polygons. The present study was attempted to generate soil erodibilty map using terrain indices derived from DTM and surface soil sample data. Soil variability in the hilly landscape is largely controlled by topography represented by DTM. The CartoDEM (30 m) was used to derive terrain indices such as terrain wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), sediment transport index (STI) and slope parameters. A total of 95 surface soil samples were collected to compute soil erodibility factor (K) values. The K values ranged from 0.23 to 0.81 t ha-1R-1 in the watershed. Correlation analysis among K-factor and terrain parameters showed highest correlation of soil erodibilty with TWI (r 2= 0.561) followed by slope (r 2= 0.33). A multiple linear regression model was developed to derive soil erodibilty using terrain parameters. A set of 20 soil sample points were used to assess the accuracy of the model. The coefficient of determination (r 2) and RMSE were computed to be 0.76 and 0.07 t ha-1R-1 respectively. The proposed methodology is quite useful in generating soil erodibilty factor map using digital elevation model (DEM) for any hilly terrain areas. The equation/model need to be established for the particular hilly terrain under the study. The developed model was used to generate spatial soil erodibility factor (K) map of the watershed in the lower Himalayan range.

  7. Geospatial approach in mapping soil erodibility using CartoDEM - A case study in hilly watershed of Lower Himalayan Range (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Gupta, Surya


    Soil erodibility is one of the most important factors used in spatial soil erosion risk assessment. Soil information derived from soil map is used to generate soil erodibility factor map. Soil maps are not available at appropriate scale. In general, soil maps at small scale are used in deriving soil erodibility map that largely generalized spatial variability and it largely ignores the spatial variability since soil map units are discrete polygons. The present study was attempted to generate soil erodibilty map using terrain indices derived from DTM and surface soil sample data. Soil variability in the hilly landscape is largely controlled by topography represented by DTM. The CartoDEM (30 m) was used to derive terrain indices such as terrain wetness index (TWI), stream power index (SPI), sediment transport index (STI) and slope parameters. A total of 95 surface soil samples were collected to compute soil erodibility factor ( K) values. The K values ranged from 0.23 to 0.81 t ha-1R-1 in the watershed. Correlation analysis among K-factor and terrain parameters showed highest correlation of soil erodibilty with TWI ( r 2= 0.561) followed by slope ( r 2= 0.33). A multiple linear regression model was developed to derive soil erodibilty using terrain parameters. A set of 20 soil sample points were used to assess the accuracy of the model. The coefficient of determination ( r 2) and RMSE were computed to be 0.76 and 0.07 t ha-1R-1 respectively. The proposed methodology is quite useful in generating soil erodibilty factor map using digital elevation model (DEM) for any hilly terrain areas. The equation/model need to be established for the particular hilly terrain under the study. The developed model was used to generate spatial soil erodibility factor ( K) map of the watershed in the lower Himalayan range.

  8. Possible Scenarios of Impacts of Climatic Change on Potential Evapotranspiration in the Watershed of the Conchos River, Mexico (United States)

    Raynal-Villasenor, J. A.; Rodriguez-Pineda, J. A.


    The watershed of the Conchos River is the main watershed of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, and it is the main source of water of the watershed of the Grande river downstream El Paso, Texas. Such part of the watershed of the Grande River is also the border between Mexico and the United States of America, from El Paso-Ciudad Juarez up to Brownsville-Matamoros. It is very important for the state of Chihuahua and Mexico as a whole, to construct possible scenarios of the effects of the global climatic change in the potential evapotranspiration in such watershed and to construct likely scenarios which results will help to define an integrated watershed management to mitigate those global climate change impacts. The results of a recent study sponsored by the alliance between WWF-Fundacion Gonzalo Rio Arronte, are presented in the paper. The study was conducted to construct possible scenarios on the effects of the global climatic change on the potential evapotranspiration in the watershed of the Conchos River in Mexico. Three watershed characteristic meteorological stations were selected to conduct such study. The predictions of change of the surface air temperature and the change of the rainfall produced by the global climatic change, by the end of the XXI Century, were those published by the Hadley Center. The results show that air temperature increment of one degree centigrade increases evapotranspiration values between 3 and 3.5% with respect current values. As a consequence moisture deficiency increases from 9% to 40%. With an air temperature increment of three degrees centigrades, the potential evapotranspiration increases between 8.8% and 10% increasing moisture deficiency from 27.5% up to 116%. The expected rainfall increment values show a negligible contribution for the potential evapotranspiration reduction in the Rio Conchos watershed. These results conclude that immediate actions need to be taken to mitigate climate change impacts all along the watershed.

  9. Physio-climatic controls on vulnerability of watersheds to climate and land use change across the U. S. (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ankit; Singh, Riddhi


    Understanding how a watershed's physio-climatic characteristics affect its vulnerability to environmental (climatic and land use) change is crucial for managing these complex systems. In this study, we combine the strengths of recently developed exploratory modeling frameworks and comparative hydrology to quantify the relationship between watershed's vulnerability and its physio-climatic characteristics. We propose a definition of vulnerability that can be used by a diverse range of water system managers and is useful in the presence of large uncertainties in drivers of environmental change. This definition is related to adverse climate change and land use thresholds that are quantified using a recently developed exploratory modeling approach. In this way, we estimate the vulnerability of 69 watersheds in the United States to climate and land use change. We explore definitions of vulnerability that describe average or extreme flow conditions, as well as others that are relevant from the point of view of instream organisms. In order to understand the dominant controls on vulnerability, we correlate these indices with watershed's characteristics describing its topography, geology, drainage, climate, and land use. We find that mean annual flow is more vulnerable to reductions in precipitation in watersheds with lower average soil permeability, lower baseflow index, lower forest cover, higher topographical wetness index, and vice-versa. Our results also indicate a potential mediation of climate change impacts by regional groundwater systems. By developing such relationships across a large range of watersheds, such information can potentially be used to assess the vulnerability of ungauged watersheds to uncertain environmental change.

  10. Chamberino Floodplain Management Study (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Dona Ana County Flood Commission requested the United States Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service to conduct a study of the...

  11. Risk of flooding: Activities, parameters and regional peculiarities, Case study: Varbitsa watershed basin, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubenov Todor


    Full Text Available An overview of the activities overtaken during risk of flooding situations, in one of the more often flooding region - the watershed of Varbitsa river (Southeastern part of Bulgaria - has been performed. The main cognitive parameters for risk perception and risk definition, depending on regional, social and historical factors have been examined. The existing information and instructions for mass media communication in relation to the process of interaction in a disaster situation have been discussed. In connection to determination of the risky segments in the basin and plans for announcement, the prevention communication measures have been outlined. On the basis of the Bulgarian normative legislation, the activities concerning organization of communications in a risk-of-disaster situation and mutual aid between authorities, which are part of the Integrated Help System have been indicated. It has been accented on the necessity of a more effective realization of the action plans during natural disasters and especially flooding, in order to improve the partnership between authorities and participants in the communication process during risk-of-flooding situations.

  12. Adopt Your Watershed (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  13. pyLIDEM: A Python-Based Tool to Delineate Coastal Watersheds Using LIDAR Data (United States)

    O'Banion, R.; Alameddine, I.; Gronewold, A.; Reckhow, K.


    Accurately identifying the boundary of a watershed is one of the most fundamental and important steps in any hydrological assessment. Representative applications include defining a study area, predicting overland flow, estimating groundwater infiltration, modeling pollutant accumulation and wash-off rates, and evaluating effectiveness of pollutant mitigation measures. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, the most comprehensive water quality management program in the United States (US), is just one example of an application in which accurate and efficient watershed delineation tools play a critical role. For example, many impaired water bodies currently being addressed through the TMDL program drain small coastal watersheds with relatively flat terrain, making watershed delineation particularly challenging. Most of these TMDL studies use 30-meter digital elevation models (DEMs) that rarely capture all of the small elevation changes in coastal watersheds, leading to errors not only in watershed boundary delineation, but in subsequent model predictions (such as watershed runoff flow and pollutant deposition rate predictions) for which watershed attributes are key inputs. Manually delineating these low-relief coastal watersheds through the use of expert knowledge of local water flow patterns, often produces relatively accurate (and often more accurate) watershed boundaries as compared to the boundaries generated by the 30-meter DEMs. Yet, manual delineation is a costly and time consuming procedure that is often not opted for. There is a growing need, therefore, particularly to address the ongoing needs of the TMDL program (and similar environmental management programs), for software tools which can utilize high resolution topography data to more accurately delineate coastal watersheds. Here, we address this need by developing pyLIDEM (python LIdar DEM), a python-based tool which processes bare earth high

  14. The simulated effects of wastewater-management actions on the hydrologic system and nitrogen-loading rates to wells and ecological receptors, Popponesset Bay Watershed, Cape Cod, Massachusetts (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.


    The discharge of excess nitrogen into Popponesset Bay, an estuarine system on western Cape Cod, has resulted in eutrophication and the loss of eel grass habitat within the estuaries. Septic-system return flow in residential areas within the watershed is the primary source of nitrogen. Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for nitrogen have been assigned to the six estuaries that compose the system, and local communities are in the process of implementing the TMDLs by the partial sewering, treatment, and disposal of treated wastewater at wastewater-treatment facilities (WTFs). Loads of waste-derived nitrogen from both current (1997–2001) and future sources can be estimated implicitly from parcel-scale water-use data and recharge areas delineated by a groundwater-flow model. These loads are referred to as “instantaneous” loads because it is assumed that the nitrogen from surface sources is delivered to receptors instantaneously and that there is no traveltime through the aquifer. The use of a solute-transport model to explicitly simulate the transport of mass through the aquifer from sources to receptors can improve implementation of TMDLs by (1) accounting for traveltime through the aquifer, (2) avoiding limitations associated with the estimation of loads from static recharge areas, (3) accounting more accurately for the effect of surface waters on nitrogen loads, and (4) determining the response of waste-derived nitrogen loads to potential wastewater-management actions. The load of nitrogen to Popponesset Bay on western Cape Cod, which was estimated by using current sources as input to a solute-transport model based on a steady-state flow model, is about 50 percent of the instantaneous load after about 7 years of transport (loads to estuary are equal to loads discharged from sources); this estimate is consistent with simulated advective traveltimes in the aquifer, which have a median of 5 years. Model-calculated loads originating from recharge areas reach 80

  15. Impacts of future climate change on river discharge based on hydrological inference: A case study of the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada. (United States)

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiuquan; Han, Jingcheng; Fan, Yurui


    Over the recent years, climate change impacts have been increasingly studied at the watershed scale. However, the impact assessment is strongly dependent upon the performance of the climatic and hydrological models. This study developed a two-step method to assess climate change impacts on water resources based on the Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) modeling system and a Hydrological Inference Model (HIM). PRECIS runs provided future temperature and precipitation projections for the watershed under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios. The HIM based on stepwise cluster analysis is developed to imitate the complex nonlinear relationships between climate input variables and targeted hydrological variables. Its robust mathematical structure and flexibility in predictor selection makes it a desirable tool for fully utilizing various climate modeling outputs. Although PRECIS and HIM cannot fully cover the uncertainties in hydro-climate modeling, they could provide efficient decision support for investigating the impacts of climate change on water resources. The proposed method is applied to the Grand River Watershed in Ontario, Canada. The model performance is demonstrated with comparison to observation data from the watershed during the period 1972-2006. Future river discharge intervals that accommodate uncertainties in hydro-climatic modeling are presented and future river discharge variations are analyzed. The results indicate that even though the total annual precipitation would not change significantly in the future, the inter-annual distribution is very likely to be altered. The water availability is expected to increase in Winter while it is very likely to decrease in Summer over the Grand River Watershed, and adaptation strategies would be necessary.

  16. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi


    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of winter cover crop on nitrate reduction in two-paired sub-basins on the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (United States)

    Lee, S.; Yeo, I. Y.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Mccarty, G.; Hively, W. D.; Lang, M. W.


    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely adopted to improve water quality throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW). Winter cover crops (WCC) use has been highlighted for the reduction of nitrate leaching over the fallow season. Although various WCC practices are currently conducted in local croplands, the water quality improvement benefits of WCC have not been studied thoroughly at the watershed scale. The objective of this study is to assess the long-term impacts of WCC on reducing nitrate loadings using a processed-based watershed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Remote sensing based estimates of WCC biomass will be used to calibrate plant growth processes of SWAT and its nutrient cycling. The study will be undertaken in two-paired agricultural watersheds in the Coastal Plain of CBW. Multiple WCC practice scenarios will be prepared to investigate how nitrate loading varies with crop species, planting dates, and implementation areas. The performance of WCC on two-paired watersheds will be compared in order to understand the effects of different watershed characteristics on nitrate uptake by crops. The results will demonstrate the nitrate reduction efficiency of different WCC practices and identify the targeting area for WCC implementation at the watershed scale. This study will not only integrate remote sensing data into the physically based model but also extend our understandings of WCC functions. This will provide key information for effective conservation decision making. Key words: Water quality, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, Winter Cover Crop, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

  18. Modeling subsurface contaminant reactions and transport at the watershed scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwo, J.P.; Jardine, P.M.; D`Azevedo, E.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, G.V. [Desert Research Inst., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Water Resources Center


    The objectives of this research are: (1) to numerically examine the multiscale effects of physical and chemical mass transfer processes on watershed scale, variably saturated subsurface contaminant transport, and (2) to conduct numerical simulations on watershed scale reactive solute transport and evaluate their implications to uncertainty characterization and cost benefit analysis. Concurrent physical and chemical nonequilibrium caused by inter aggregate gradients of pressure head and solute concentration and intra-aggregate geochemical and microbiological processes, respectively, may arise at various scales and flowpaths. To this date, experimental investigations of these complex processes at watershed scale remain a challenge and numerical studies are often needed for guidance of water resources management and decision making. This research integrates the knowledge bases developed during previous experimental and numerical investigations at a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the concurrent effects of physical and chemical nonequilibrium. Comparison of numerical results with field data indicates that: (1) multiregion, preferential flow and solute transport exist under partially saturated condition and can be confirmed theoretically, and that (2) mass transfer between pore regions is an important process influencing contaminant movement in the subsurface. Simulations of watershed scale, multi species reactive solute transport suggest that dominance of geochemistry and hydrodynamics may occur simultaneously at different locales and influence the movement of one species relative to another. Execution times on the simulations of the reactive solute transport model also indicate that the model is ready to assist the selection of important parameters for site characterization.

  19. Trip report: pilot studies of factors linking watershed function and coastal ecosystem health in American Samoa (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Medeiros, Arthur C.


    Coral reef resources in the territory of American Samoa face significant problems from overfishing, non-point source pollution, global warming, and continuing population growth and development. The islands are still relatively isolated relative to other parts of the Pacific and have managed to avoid some of the more devastating invasive species that have reached other archipelagoes. As a result, there are opportunities for collaborative and integrative research and monitoring programs to help restore and maintain biodiversity and functioning natural ecosystem in the archipelago. We found that the 'Ridge to Reef' paradigm already exists in American Samoa, with a high degree of interagency cooperation and efficient use of limited resources already taking place in the Territory. USGS may be able to make contributions as a partner organization in the Coral Reef Advisory Group (CRAG) through deployment of sediment monitoring instrumentation to supplement stream monitoring by the American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency, by providing high resolution vegetation and land-use maps of main islands, by providing additional support to the American Samoa Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources and the National Park Service for monitoring of invasive species, by working with members of CRAG to initiate sediment transport studies on Samoan reefs, and by developing new projects on the effects of bacterial contamination and pollutants on coral reef physiology and demography.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaijian YUAN; Qiangguo CAI; Yingmin CHU


    Based on the measuring data and Digital Elevation Data (DEM) in a typical watershed--Hemingguan Watershed, Nanbu County, Sichuan Province of China, a GIS-based distributed soil erosion model was developed particularly for the purple soil type. It takes 20 m × 20 m grid as calculating unit and operates at 10-minute time interval. The required input data to the model include DEM, soil, land use, and time-series of precipitation and evaporation loss. The model enables one to estimate runoff, erosion and sediment yield for each grid cell and route the flow along its flow path to the watershed outlet. Furthermore, the model is capable of calculating the total runoff; erosion and sediment yield for the entire watershed by recursion algorithm. The validation of the model demonstrated that it could quantitatively simulate the spatial distribution of hydrological variables in a watershed, such as runoff, vegetation entrapment, soil erosion, the degree of soil and water loss. Moreover, it can evaluate the effect of land use change on the runoff generation and soil erosion with an accuracy of 80% and 75% respectively. The application of this model to a neighboring watershed with similar conditions indicates that this distributed model could be extended to other similar regions in China.

  1. Can functional gene abundance predict N-fluxes? Examples from a well-studied hydrological flow path in a forested watershed in SW China (United States)

    Liu, Binbin; Muzammil, Bushra; Dörsch, Peter; Zhu, Jing; Mulder, Jan; Frostegård, Åsa


    Edaphic, climatic and management factors shape soil microbial communities taxonomically and functionally, resulting in spatial separation of nitrogen (N) oxidation and reduction processes along hydrological flowpaths. In a recent study, we investigated N-cycling processes and N2O emissions along a mesic hillslope (HS) and a hydrologically connected groundwater discharge zone (GDZ) in a forested headwater catchment dominated by acid soils (pH 4.0 - 4.5) in subtropical China (Chongqing). The watershed receives 50 kg N ha-1 a-1 through atmogenic deposition (2/3 as ammonium), most of which is removed before discharge. Surprisingly, N2O emissions were found to be greatest on the well-drained HS, whereas a drop of NO3- concentrations along the flow path indicated that N removal was highest in the moist GDZ. Nitrification was assumed to be none-limiting as the total flux of NO3- leaving the hill slope soils roughly equalled the input of NH4+. To understand watershed N-cycling and removal in more detail, we studied the abundance of functional genes involved in ammonium oxidation (amoA of AOB and AOA), nitrite oxidation (nxrB) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, nosZ) in top soils from 8 locations along the flow path spanning from the hilltop to the outlet of the GDZ. 16S rRNA gene abundance was assessed as a general marker for bacterial abundance. All genes showed highest abundance per gram soil in the heavily disturbed GDZ (formerly cultivated terraces), despite lower soil organic carbon content (1-4% w/w as opposed to 10-20% w/w in HS topsoil) and periodically stagnant conditions due to high water tables after monsoonal rainfalls. Ratios of nosZ/nirS+nirK, commonly used to predict denitrification product stoichiometry (N2O/N2), yielded counterintuitive results with higher values for HS than for GDZ. However, comparing nir gene with 16S rRNA gene abundance revealed that denitrifiers accounted for up to 10% of the bacterial community in the GDZ soils whereas this value was

  2. Artificial neural networks applied to flow prediction scenarios in Tomebamba River - Paute watershed, for flood and water quality control and management at City of Cuenca Ecuador (United States)

    Cisneros, Felipe; Veintimilla, Jaime


    The main aim of this research is to create a model of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) that allows predicting the flow in Tomebamba River both, at real time and in a certain day of year. As inputs we are using information of rainfall and flow of the stations along of the river. This information is organized in scenarios and each scenario is prepared to a specific area. The information is acquired from the hydrological stations placed in the watershed using an electronic system developed at real time and it supports any kind or brands of this type of sensors. The prediction works very good three days in advance This research includes two ANN models: Back propagation and a hybrid model between back propagation and OWO-HWO. These last two models have been tested in a preliminary research. To validate the results we are using some error indicators such as: MSE, RMSE, EF, CD and BIAS. The results of this research reached high levels of reliability and the level of error are minimal. These predictions are useful for flood and water quality control and management at City of Cuenca Ecuador

  3. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab


    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination (R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  4. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  5. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.


    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  6. Using GIS-based distributed soil loss modeling and morphometric analysis to prioritize watershed for soil conservation in Bago river basin of Lower Myanmar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kay Thwe HLAING; Shigeko HARUYAMA; Maung Maung AYE


    Bago River is an important river in Myanmar. Although shorter than other rivers, it has its own river system, and people along the river rely heavily on it for their daily lives. The upper part of the watershed has changed rapidly from dosed forest to open forest land in the 1990s. Since the recent degradation of the forest environment, annual flooding has become worse during the rainy season in Bago City. This paper aims at determining soil conser-vation prioritization of watershed based on soil loss due to erosion and morphometric analysis in the Bago Watershed by integrating remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. In this study, soil erosion of the Bago watershed was determined using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Such factor maps as rainfall, soil erodibility, slope length gradient, and crop management were compiled as input parameters for the modeling; and the soil loss from 26 sub-watersheds were estimated. Then, the soil erosion maps of the Bago watershed for 2005 were developed. The resulting Soil Loss Tolerance Map could be utilized in developing watershed management planning, forestry management planning, etc.

  7. The impact of topographical characteristics and land use change on the quality of Umbaniun micro-watershed water resources, Meghalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllbor Rymbai


    Full Text Available A watershed is a geohydrological unit draining at a common point. Such natural unit has evolved through rain water interaction with land mass, typically comprising arable land, non-arable land and natural drainage lines in rain-fed areas. Sustainable production depends on the health, vitality and purity of a particular environment in which land and water are important constituents. A pilot study was thus undertaken to study the geomorphology, land-use systems and their impact on water resource management on the Meghalaya Umbaniun micro-watershed. In this Micro-watershed (3951.18 ha, water body covers an area of 5.69ha (0.14%. The paper highlights the linkage between geomorphology, land use systems and its impact on quality of water resources on the Umbaniun Micro-Watershed, Meghalaya. Topographical and physical-chemical characteristics, such as pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and water temperature, were used as environmental degradation indicators

  8. Biogeochemical and Hydrological Controls on Mercury and Methylmercury in First Order Coastal Plain Watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay (United States)

    Heyes, A.; Gilmour, C. C.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.


    Over the past 7 years we made use of the long-term research site at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) in central Maryland to study the fluxes of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in three small first-order mid-Atlantic coastal plain watersheds. One watershed is entirely forested, one watershed is primarily agriculture with a forested stream buffer, and one watershed is mixed land use but contains a beaver produced wetland pond. Our initial goals were to assess watershed Hg yields in the mid-Atlantic and to establish a baseline prior to implementation of Hg emissions controls. All three studied watersheds produced relatively high yields of Hg, with the greatest yield coming from the forested watershed. Our initial evaluation of three watersheds showed that MeHg production and flux could also be high, but varied dramatically among watersheds and across years and seasons. During each year we observed episodic MeHg production in the spring and sometimes during prolonged high-flow storm events in the fall. The observed spring maxima of MeHg release coincided with development of anoxia in riparian groundwater. MeHg accumulation in riparian groundwater began once nitrate was depleted and either iron accumulation or sulfate depletion of groundwater began. We propose the presence of nitrate was modulating MeHg production through the suppression of sulfate and iron reducers and perhaps methanogens. As sulfate is not limiting in any of the watersheds owing to the sediments marine origin, we hypothesize the depletion of nitrate allows sulfate reducing bacteria to now utilize available carbon. Although wetlands are generally thought of as the primary zones of MeHg production in watersheds, shallow riparian groundwaters very close to the stream appear to play that role in SERC Coastal Plain watersheds. We hypothesize that the balance between nitrate, sulfate and other microbial electron acceptors in watersheds is a major control on MeHg production. Land

  9. A novel solution for outlier removal of ICESat altimetry data:a case study in the Yili watershed, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong HUANG; Hongjie XIE; Guoqing ZHANG; Tiangang LIANG


    Due to the influence of cloud and saturated waveforms,ICESat data contain many contaminated elevation data that cannot be directly used in examining surface elevation and change.This study provides a novel solution for removing bad data and getting clean ICESat data for land applications by using threshold values of reflectivity,saturation,and gain directly from ICESat's GLAS (Geoscience Laser Alteimeter System) 01,05,and 06 products.It is found that each laser campaign needs different threshold compositions to assure qualified ICESat data and that bad data removal rates range from 9.6% (laser 2A) to 62.3% (laser 2B) for the test area in the Yili watershed,China.These thresholds would possibly be used in other regions to extract qualified ICESat footprints for land applications.However,it is recommended to use the steps proposed here to further examine the transferability of threshold values for other regions of different elevations and climate regimes.As an example,the resulting ICESat data are applied to examine lake level changes of two lakes in the study area.

  10. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  11. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)


    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  12. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business


    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  13. Modeling the impact of climate change on sediment transport and morphology in coupled watershed-coast systems:A case study using an integrated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achilleas GSAMARAS; Christopher GKOUTITAS


    Climate change is an issue of major concern nowadays. Its impact on the natural and human environment is studied intensively, as the expected shift in climate will be significant in the next few decades. Recent experience shows that the effects will be critical in coastal areas, resulting in erosion and inundation phenomena worldwide. In addition to that, coastal areas are subject to"pressures"from upstream watersheds in terms of water quality and sediment transport. The present paper studies the impact of climate change on sediment transport and morphology in the aforementioned coupled system. The study regards a sandy coast and its upstream watershed in Chalkidiki, North Greece; it is based on: (a) an integrated approach for the quantitative correlation of the two through numerical modeling, developed by the authors, and (b) a calibrated application of the relevant models Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and PELNCON-M, applied to the watershed and the coastal zone, respectively. The examined climate change scenarios focus on a shift of the rainfall distribution towards fewer and more extreme rainfall events, and an increased frequency of occurrence of extreme wave events. Results indicate the significance of climatic pressures in wide-scale sediment dynamics, and are deemed to provide a useful perspective for researchers and policy planners involved in the study of coastal morphology evolution in a changing climate.

  14. Watershed-scale assessment of oil palm cultivation impact on water quality and nutrient fluxes : a case study in Sumatra (Indonesia)


    Comte, I.; Colin, F.; Grunberger, Olivier; Whalen, J.K.; Widodo, R. H.; Caliman, J.P.


    High fertilizer input is necessary to sustain high yields in oil palm agroecosystems, but it may endanger neighboring aquatic ecosystems when excess nutrients are transported to waterways. In this study, the hydrochemical dynamics of groundwater and streams under baseflow conditions were evaluated with bi-monthly measurements for 1 year on 16 watersheds. Hydrochemical measurements were related to the spatial distribution of soil and fertilization practices across a landscape of 100 km(2), dom...

  15. The Walnut Gulch - Santa Rita Wildland Watershed-Scale LTAR Sites (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Heilman, P.; Scott, R. L.; Nearing, M. A.; Moran, M. S.; Nichols, M.; Vivoni, E. R.; Archer, S. R.; Biederman, J.; Naito, A. T.


    The 150 km2 Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW), a Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) site, near Tombstone, Arizona was established in 1953 by the USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center in Tucson. It is one of the most intensively instrumented semiarid experimental watersheds in the world with elevation ranging from 1220 to 1950 m with mean annual temperature and precipitation equal to 17.7°C and 312 mm. Desert shrubs dominate the lower two thirds of the watershed and grasses the upper third. Spatial variation in precipitation is measured with a network of 88 weighing-type recording rain gauges. Surface runoff is quantified over a range of scales (0.002 to 0.06 km2) to characterize interactions between rainfall intensity, soils and vegetation at nine sub-watersheds. Channel network processes and rainfall spatial variability are studied using 11 nested watersheds (2 to 150 km2). Sediment from the small sub-watersheds is sampled. Meteorological, soil moisture and temperature, and energy/water/CO2 flux measurements are made within two vegetation/soil complexes. Parallel investigations dating back to 1974 have also been conducted on eight small experimental watersheds at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) 80 km west of Walnut Gulch. In contrast to the creosote bush-grass WGEW, the mesquite-grass SRER is publicly owned, which ensures control and consistent reporting of management for research purposes. A key LTAR objective is to contrast a "business as usual" to an alternate management strategy presumed to have the potential of significantly improving forage and livestock production and diversification of ecosystem services. Consequently, a new ARS-U. of Arizona-Arizona State U. partnership will assess the watershed-scale impacts of brush management, a common land use practice typically applied in conjunction with livestock grazing, on a suite of ecosystem services at the SRER including provisioning (forage production, water yield), supporting

  16. The Demonstration Test Catchment Approach to Land and Water Management in the river Eden Watershed, UK. (Invited) (United States)

    Jonczyk, J.; Quinn, P. F.; Haygarth, P.; Reaney, S.; Wilkinson, M.; Burke, S.; McGonigle, D.; Harris, B.


    The Demonstration Test Catchment (DTC) initiative is a five year project to address pollution issues in catchments. The initiative will study the wider environmental problems suffered by catchments which are under intense farming pressures and potential climate change impacts. The UK Department for Food, Agriculture and Rural Affairs (Defra) in partnership with the Environment Agency for England and Wales (EA) have funded this initiative to answer key policy concerns in catchments. The first key step has been the establishment of a ‘research platform’ at three catchments in the UK (The Eden, Wensum and Hampshire Avon) whereby funding of 9.3 million dollars has gone into funding new equipment and pollution sampling regimes have been established. Within each catchment between three and four, 8-10km2 sub-catchments have been established. The experimental design and thinking for DTCs will be explained fully in this paper. The next phase of the project will install an extensive suite of land management and pollution mitigation interventions. In parallel to this monitoring work, a full knowledge exchange package will seek to engage with farmers, the rural community and understand the governance regime at the broader catchment scale. There is also a need for a modelling component to upscale the findings to the whole of the UK. Whilst this is an ambitious goal, there is a very basic commitment of working with rural communities to come up with real solutions that will help underpin effective policy making for the future. The research platform covers a multi-scale approach to the monitoring strategy that will allow local grouping of mitigation measures to be studied local in terms of impact and propagated to the catchment scale. Even with high level of funding, the DTC can only fully instrument a catchment of 8-10km2. Beyond this scale, the EA and the standard catchment monitoring will continue as normal. The focus here is to prove that mitigation can be achieved within

  17. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Applicability on Nutrients Loadings Prediction in Mountainous Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) Watershed, Utah. (United States)

    Salha, A. A.; Stevens, D. K.


    The application of watershed simulation models is indispensable when pollution is generated by a nonpoint source. These models should be able to simulate large complex watersheds with varying soils, land use and management conditions over long periods of time. This study presents the application of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to investigate, manage, and research the transport and fate of nutrients in (Subbasin HUC 16010204) Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) watershed, Box elder County, Utah. Water quality problems arise primarily from high phosphorus and total suspended sediment concentrations that were caused by increasing agricultural and farming activities and complex network of canals and ducts of varying sizes and carrying capacities that transport water (for farming and agriculture uses). Using the available input data (Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use/Land cover (LULC), soil map and weather and climate data for 20 years (1990-2010) to predict the water quantity and quality of the LBMR watershed using a spatially distributed model version of hydrological ArcSWAT model (ArcSWAT 2012.10_1.14). No previous studies have been found in the literature regarding an in-depth simulation study of the Lower Bear Malad River (LBMR) watershed to simulate stream flow and to quantify the associated movement of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment. It is expected that the model mainly will predict monthly mean total phosphorus (TP) concentration and loadings in a mountainous LBRM watershed (steep Wellsville mountain range with peak of (2,857 m)) having into consideration the snow and runoff variables affecting the prediction process. The simulated nutrient concentrations were properly consistent with observations based on the R2 and Nash- Sutcliffe fitness factors. Further, the model will be able to manage and assess the land application in that area with corresponding to proper BMPs regarding water quality management. Keywords: Water Quality Modeling; Soil and

  18. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed. (United States)

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad


    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area.

  19. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.


    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  20. Hydrologic analysis for selection and placement of conservation practices at the watershed scale (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.


    When a water body is exceeding water quality standards and a Total Maximum Daily Load has been established, conservation practices in the watershed are able to reduce point and non-point source pollution. Hydrological analysis is needed to place conservation practices in the most hydrologically sensitive areas. The selection and placement of conservation practices, however, is challenging in ungauged watersheds with little or no data for the hydrological analysis. The objective of this research is to perform a hydrological analysis for mitigation of erosion and total phosphorus in a mixed land use watershed, and to select and place the conservation practices in the most sensitive areas. The study area is the Hangman Creek watershed in Idaho and Washington State, upstream of Long Lake (WA) reservoir, east of Spokane, WA. While the pollutant of concern is total phosphorus (TP), reductions in TP were translated to total suspended solids or reductions in nonpoint source erosion and sediment delivery to streams. Hydrological characterization was done with a simple web-based tool, which runs the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for representative land types in the watersheds, where a land type is defined as a unique combination of soil type, slope configuration, land use and management, and climate. The web-based tool used site-specific spatial and temporal data on land use, soil physical parameters, slope, and climate derived from readily available data sources and provided information on potential pollutant pathways (i.e. erosion, runoff, lateral flow, and percolation). Multiple land types representative in the watershed were ordered from most effective to least effective, and displayed spatially using GIS. The methodology for the Hangman Creek watershed was validated in the nearby Paradise Creek watershed that has long-term stream discharge and monitoring as well as land use data. Output from the web-based tool shows the potential reductions for different

  1. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Laboratory at Tifton, GA:Index Site Design for the Suwannee Basin (United States)

    Bosch, D.; Strickland, T.; Sheridan, J.; Lowrance, R.; Truman, C.; Hubbard, R.; Potter, T.; Wauchope, D.; Vellidis, G.; Thomas, D.


    The Southeast Watershed Hydrology Research Center (SEWHRC) was established in 1966 by order of the U.S. Senate "to identify and characterize those elements that control the flow of water from watersheds in the southeast". A 129 sq.mi. area within the headwaters of Little River Watershed (LRW) in central south Georgia was instrumented to provide data for evaluating and characterizing Coastal Plain hydrologic processes and for development and testing of prediction methodologies for use in ungaged watersheds in regions of low topographic relief. Pesticide analytical capabilities were added in 1976, and inorganic chemistry and sediment transport research were expanded. In 1980, the Center was renamed as the Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory (SEWRL), and laboratories were constructed for nutrient analysis and soil physics. A pesticide analysis laboratory was constructed in 1987. In the early 1990s, a hydraulics laboratory was established for sediment and chemical transport studies, and research on riparian buffers was expanded. The SEWRL research program continues to focus on hydrologic and environmental concerns. Major components of the program are hydrology, pesticides behavior, buffer systems, animal waste management, erosion, remote sensing of watershed condition, and relationships between site-specific agricultural management (BMPs) and small-to-large watershed response. SEWRL's program will be expanded over the next five years to include two additional watersheds comparable in size and instrumentation to the LRW; nesting the LRW within the full Little River drainage and subsequently...all three watersheds within the full Suwannee Basin; and mapping and quantifying irrigation water removals within the Suwannee Basin. We will instrument the three intensive study watersheds and the full Suwannee Basin to provide real-time characterization of precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic flow, and water quality at a range of spatial and temporal scales. We will

  2. Heat Management Strategy Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Priebe; Dirk Gombert; Ted Bauer


    This Heat Management Trade Study was performed in 2008-2009 to expand on prior studies in continued efforts to analyze and evaluate options for cost-effectively managing SNF reprocessing wastes. The primary objective was to develop a simplified cost/benefit evaluation for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing that combines the characteristics of the waste generated through reprocessing with the impacts of the waste on heating the repository. Under consideration were age of the SNF prior to reprocessing, plutonium and minor actinide (MA) separation from the spent fuel for recycle, fuel value of the recycled Pu and MA, age of the remaining spent fuel waste prior to emplacement in the repository, length of time that active ventilation is employed in the repository, and elemental concentration and heat limits for acceptable glass waste form durability. A secondary objective was to identify and qualitatively analyze remaining issues such as (a) impacts of aging SNF prior to reprocessing on the fuel value of the recovered fissile materials, and (b) impact of reprocessing on the dose risk as developed in the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). Results of this study can be used to evaluate different options for managing decay heat in waste streams from spent nuclear fuel.

  3. Discussion on the Landscape Pattern Change of Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin


    Evaluating the transition of landscape can understand that ecosystem processes are being influenced by disturbance. For this reason, it is essential that using appropriate mapping techniques and quantitative methods to assess landscape condition within different disturbance regimes. Landscape metrics were calculated for segmented areas of homogeneous land use in watershed to allow understanding and characterization of ecosystem.Chen-yu-lan watershed, located in the central of Taiwan, is a sensitivity area for disaster such as earthquakes and typhoons. In this study we focus on how the natural disaster affect landscape pattern. The study shows that landscape metrics can measure the effect of typhoon and earthquake disturbance regime. The analysis shows that evaluating landscape transition can contribute more detailed information for managing ecosystem.

  4. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)


    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  5. Investigating public health impacts of deer in a protected drinking water supply watershed. (United States)

    Cinque, K; Stevens, M A; Haydon, S R; Jex, A R; Gasser, R B; Campbell, B E


    The World Health Organisation's (WHO) Water Safety Plans highlight the need for preventative risk management when managing water contamination risks. As part of this approach, a management framework incorporating multiple barriers is necessary and there is a need to validate those barriers through scientific evidence. This paper reports on a study undertaken to validate the effectiveness, in terms of pathogen numbers, of having protected watersheds. The study aimed to determine if the deer population in a protected watershed carried Cryptosporidium and whether or not it was human infectious. Deer faecal samples were collected from the protected watersheds over a 12 month period and analysed using a new method, developed as part of this project, for genotyping Cryptosporidium. Early results showed the presence of Cryptosporidium, but following a refinement in the method no human infectious Cryptosporidium was detected. The results give some confidence that having protected watersheds is an effective barrier against pathogen contamination. They do not, however, imply that continued monitoring and management of the deer should cease. To maintain compliance with the Water Safety Plans, continual validation of barrier effectiveness is required.

  6. Efficiency of Evolutionary Algorithms for Calibration of Watershed Models (United States)

    Ahmadi, M.; Arabi, M.


    Since the promulgation of the Clean Water Act in the U.S. and other similar legislations around the world over the past three decades, watershed management programs have focused on the nexus of pollution prevention and mitigation. In this context, hydrologic/water quality models have been increasingly embedded in the decision making process. Simulation models are now commonly used to investigate the hydrologic response of watershed systems under varying climatic and land use conditions, and also to study the fate and transport of contaminants at various spatiotemporal scales. Adequate calibration and corroboration of models for various outputs at varying scales is an essential component of watershed modeling. The parameter estimation process could be challenging when multiple objectives are important. For example, improving streamflow predictions of the model at a stream location may result in degradation of model predictions for sediments and/or nutrient at the same location or other outlets. This paper aims to evaluate the applicability and efficiency of single and multi objective evolutionary algorithms for parameter estimation of complex watershed models. To this end, the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE-UA) algorithm, a single-objective genetic algorithm (GA), and a multi-objective genetic algorithm (i.e., NSGA-II) were reconciled with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to calibrate the model at various locations within the Wildcat Creek Watershed, Indiana. The efficiency of these methods were investigated using different error statistics including root mean square error, coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient for the output variables as well as the baseflow component of the stream discharge. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to screening model parameters that bear significant uncertainties. Results indicated that while flow processes can be reasonably ascertained, parameterization of nutrient and pesticide processes

  7. Modeling flood reduction effects of low impact development at a watershed scale. (United States)

    Ahiablame, Laurent; Shakya, Ranish


    Low impact development (LID) is a land development approach that seeks to mimic a site's pre-development hydrology. This study is a case study that assessed flood reduction capabilities of large-scale adoption of LID practices in an urban watershed in central Illinois using the Personal Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM). Two flood metrics based on runoff discharge were developed to determine action flood (43 m(3)/s) and major flood (95 m(3)/s). Four land use scenarios for urban growth were evaluated to determine the impacts of urbanization on runoff and flooding. Flood attenuation effects of porous pavement, rain barrel, and rain garden at various application levels were also evaluated as retrofitting technologies in the study watershed over a period of 30 years. Simulation results indicated that increase in urban land use from 50 to 94% between 1992 and 2030 increased average annual runoff and flood events by more than 30%, suggesting that urbanization without sound management would increase flood risks. The various implementation levels of the three LID practices resulted in 3-47% runoff reduction in the study watershed. Flood flow events that include action floods and major floods were also reduced by 0-40%, indicating that LID practices can be used to mitigate flood risk in urban watersheds. The study provides an insight into flood management with LID practices in existing urban areas.

  8. 2012 Oregon Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Study Area (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  9. Accountability to Public Stakeholders in Watershed-Based Restoration (United States)

    There is an increasing push at the federal, state, and local levels for watershed-based conservation projects. These projects work to address water quality issues in degraded waterways through the implementation of a suite of best management practices on land throughout a watersh...

  10. Development of SPAWM: selection program for available watershed models. (United States)

    Cho, Yongdeok; Roesner, Larry A


    A selection program for available watershed models (also known as SPAWM) was developed. Thirty-three commonly used watershed models were analyzed in depth and classified in accordance to their attributes. These attributes consist of: (1) land use; (2) event or continuous; (3) time steps; (4) water quality; (5) distributed or lumped; (6) subsurface; (7) overland sediment; and (8) best management practices. Each of these attributes was further classified into sub-attributes. Based on user selected sub-attributes, the most appropriate watershed model is selected from the library of watershed models. SPAWM is implemented using Excel Visual Basic and is designed for use by novices as well as by experts on watershed modeling. It ensures that the necessary sub-attributes required by the user are captured and made available in the selected watershed model.

  11. Management case study: Tampa Bay, Florida (United States)

    Morrison, Gerold; Greening, Holly; Yates, Kimberly K.; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.


    Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, is a shallow, subtropical estuary that experienced severe cultural eutrophication between the 1940s and 1980s, a period when the human population of its watershed quadrupled. In response, citizen action led to the formation of a public- and private-sector partnership (the Tampa Bay Estuary Program), which adopted a number of management objectives to support the restoration and protection of the bay’s living resources. These included numeric chlorophyll a and water-clarity targets, as well as long-term goals addressing the spatial extent of seagrasses and other selected habitat types, to support estuarine-dependent faunal guilds. Over the past three decades, nitrogen controls involving sources such as wastewater treatment plants, stormwater conveyance systems, fertilizer manufacturing and shipping operations, and power plants have been undertaken to meet these and other management objectives. Cumulatively, these controls have resulted in a 60% reduction in annual total nitrogen (TN) loads relative to earlier worse-case (latter 1970s) conditions. As a result, annual water-clarity and chlorophyll a targets are currently met in most years, and seagrass cover measured in 2008 was the highest recorded since 1950. Factors that have contributed to the observed improvements in Tampa Bay over the past several decades include the following: (1) Development of numeric, science-based water-quality targets to meet a long-term goal of restoring seagrass acreage to 1950s levels. Empirical and mechanistic models found that annual average chlorophyll a concentrations were a primary manageable factor affecting light attenuation. The models also quantified relationships between TN loads, chlorophyll a concentrations, light attenuation, and fluctuations in seagrass cover. The availability of long-term monitoring data, and a systematic process for using the data to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions, has allowed managers to track progress and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunggul Y.S.H. Nugroho


    Full Text Available Trough understanding of hydrology characteristic of watershed, water resource can be  managed for wider goals such as economic, social, and sustainainable utilization.  In fact, current watershed managements have more been focused  on erosion, sedimentation, drought, and flood control and less attention paid on fulfilling the need of upper watershed inhabitat on water yield.  The research of Micro Watershed was conducted in three Micro Watersheds as representation of priority watersheds in South Sulawesi  namely Mamasa, Saddang, and Jeneberang. The aim was to find out stream discharge pattern of those three Micro Watershed related to precipitation, landuse and its utilization potential for local community.  The results showed that the more extensive forest cover, the better water yield and the higher its utilization potential . Concerning to precipitation and water yield, the three micro watersheds have the potentially to be source of water for irigation and household consumption.

  13. Climate change impacts on water supply: implications for reservoir management in upper Sabor, northeast Portugal


    Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia; Monteiro, António T.; Azevedo, João; Nunes, João Pedro


    Climate change scenarios project warmer temperatures and less precipitation in Mediterranean watersheds. This can aggravate drought conditions, with negative impacts on water supply. Here, reservoirs may play an important role to mitigate these impacts. However, the implications of climate change are not always considered in the reservoir planning and management. This study aimed to address this issue for the Upper Sabor watershed, northeast Portugal. This is a medium watershed...

  14. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.


    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km{sup 2}, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Water quality trends in the Blackwater River watershed, West Virginia (United States)

    Smith, Jessica; Welsh, Stuart; Anderson, James T.; Fortney, Ronald H.


    An understanding of historic and current water quality is needed to manage and improve aquatic communities within the Blackwater River watershed, WV. The Blackwater River, which historically offered an excellent Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook Trout) fishery, has been affected by logging, coal mining, use of off-road vehicles, and land development. Using information-theoretic methods, we examined trends in water quality at 12 sites in the watershed for the 14 years of 1980–1993. Except for Beaver Creek, downward trends in acidity and upward trends in alkalinity, conductivity, and hardness were consistent with decreases in hydrogen ion concentration. Water-quality trends for Beaver Creek were inconsistent with the other sites and reflect ongoing coal-mining influences. Dissolved oxygen trended downward, possibly due to natural conditions, but remained above thresholds that would be detrimental to aquatic life. Water quality changed only slightly within the watershed from 1980–1993, possibly reflecting few changes in development and land uses during this time. These data serve as a baseline for future water-quality studies and may help to inform management planning.

  16. Study on the Soil Erosion Status and Prevention & Control Measures in the Slope Cropland Areas of Western Guangdong Province---A Case Study of Silun Small Watershed%粤西坡耕地区水土流失特征及防治措施--以泗纶小流域为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓远; 张凯锋; 丘保芳


    选取广东省泗纶小流域为研究区,以GIS技术为支撑,选用通用土壤流失方程( USLE )为数学模型,利用GIS技术的空间分析功能,计算降雨、植被、土壤、地形、土地利用等单因子并叠加分析,生成水土流失现状分布图。通过对区域内的土壤侵蚀强度进行分析、评价,得出影响流域水土流失的关键因子,并根据研究结果对流域内坡耕地水土流失提出相关防治措施,从而为广东省坡耕地区小流域水土流失治理提供理论支撑。%The Silun small watershed in Guangdong province was selected as the study area .Based on the spatial a-nalysis function of the GIS , the calculation and overlay analysis was conducted on the single factor of rainfall , vegeta-tion, soil, topography, land use and so on by using the Universal Soil Loss Equation ( USLE) as the mathematical models, so as to generate status maps of soil erosion .The analysis and evaluation was conducted on the soil erosion strength in the region and got the key factor of soil erosion in the watershed .In accordance with the research results, it was suggested the prevention and management measures on soil erosion of slope cropland areas within the watershed so as to provide the theory support for the soil erosion control at the small watershed in slope cropland areas of Guangdong Province .

  17. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned (United States)

    Gassman, P.W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.


    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment

  18. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management Study, Tonawanda Creek Watershed. Interim Flood Management Study. Appendices. (United States)


    T I t . ITLAAEIAI I-I caI’I 0 x4 20 3 40 IOSP 9 20 40 5~ 7 DNA WAGE RM bA, INSQUAE 4U PLT4A lii: or Izo Wi - I > :’’’4, . (.0 0’ Hi ,. TOAWND CRE...water scorpions), decapods (crayfish), ephemeropterans (mayflies), gastropods (snails), isopods, lepidopterans (water moths), megalopterans

  19. Contamination of the Sulfur River Wildlife Management Area and watershed in and near Texarkana, Arkansas and Texas (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted this study in response to the concern of local citizens that contaminants from four industrial facilities (two of which...

  20. Ecological Engineering Practices for the Reduction of Excess Nitrogen in Human-Influenced Landscapes: A Guide for Watershed Managers (United States)

    Excess nitrogen (N) in freshwater systems, estuaries, and coastal areas has well-documented deleterious effects on ecosystems. Ecological engineering practices (EEPs) may be effective at decreasing nonpoint source N leaching to surface and groundwater. However, few studies have s...

  1. Regional solid waste management study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  2. Knowledge Management Analysis: A Case Study (United States)

    Mecha, Ezi I.; Desai, Mayur S.; Richards, Thomas C.


    It is imperative for businesses to manage knowledge and stay competitive in the marketplace. Knowledge management is critical and is a key to prevent organizations from duplicating their efforts with a subsequent improvement in their efficiency. This study focuses on overview of knowledge management, analyzes the current knowledge management in…

  3. Spatio-temporal variation in stream water chemistry in a tropical urban watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Ramírez


    Full Text Available Urban activities and related infrastructure alter the natural patterns of stream physical and chemical conditions. According to the Urban Stream Syndrome, streams draining urban landscapes are characterized by high concentrations of nutrients and ions, and might have elevated water temperatures and variable oxygen concentrations. Here, we report temporal and spatial variability in stream physicochemistry in a highly urbanized watershed in Puerto Rico. The main objective of the study was to describe stream physicochemical characteristics and relate them to urban intensity, e.g., percent impervious surface cover, and watershed infrastructure, e.g., road and pipe densities. The Río Piedras Watershed in the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico, is one of the most urbanized regions on the island. The Río Piedras presented high solute concentrations that were related to watershed factors, such as percent impervious cover. Temporal variability in ion concentrations lacked seasonality, as did all other parameters measured except water temperature, which was lower during winter and highest during summer, as expected based on latitude. Spatially, stream physicochemistry was strongly related to watershed percent impervious cover and also to the density of urban infrastructure, e.g., roads, pipe, and building densities. Although the watershed is serviced by a sewage collection system, illegal discharges and leaky infrastructure are probably responsible for the elevated ion concentration found. Overall, the Río Piedras is an example of the response of a tropical urban watershed after major sewage inputs are removed, thus highlighting the importance of proper infrastructure maintenance and management of runoff to control ion concentrations in tropical streams.

  4. Book Review of Emerging Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Case Study of the Panama Canal Watershed (United States)

    This book is an outstanding contribution to our current, applied knowledge on markets of ecosystems services. In an integrated framework of study, the authors assessed the opportunities and limitations of carbon sequestration mainly via reforestation, hydrological services (water quantity and qualit...

  5. Tucannon River Temperature Study, Prepared for : Watershed Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HDR Engineering.


    This report presents the results of a temperature analysis of the Tucannon River completed for the WRIA 35 Planning Unit. The Tucannon River is located in southeastern Washington and flows approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) from the Blue Mountains to the Snake River. High water temperature in the Tucannon River has been identified as a limiting factor for salmonid fish habitat (Columbia Conservation District, 2004). Several segments of the Tucannon River are included on Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies due to temperature. Ecology is currently conducting scoping for a temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study of the Tucannon River. The WRIA 35 Planning Unit retained HDR Engineering to evaluate water temperature in the Tucannon River. The project objectives are: (1) Review recent and historic data and studies to characterize temperature conditions in the river; (2) Perform field studies and analyses to identify and quantify heating and cooling processes in the river; (3) Develop and calibrate a computer temperature model to determine the sources of heat to the Tucannon River and to predict the temperature of the river that would occur with increased natural riparian shading assuming the current river morphology; (4) Evaluate differences in river temperatures between current and improved riparian shading during the 'critical' period - low river flows and high temperatures; and (5) Determine the potential benefits of riparian shading as a mechanism to decrease river temperature.

  6. Hydrologic Effects of Brush Management in Central Texas (United States)

    Banta, J. R.; Slattery, R.


    Encroachment of woody vegetation into traditional savanna grassland ecosystems in central Texas has largely been attributed to land use practices of settlers, most notably overgrazing and fire suppression. Implementing brush management practices (removing the woody vegetation and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area), could potentially change the hydrology in a watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several local, State, and Federal cooperators, studied the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. Two adjacent watersheds of 104 and 159 hectares were used in a paired study. Rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration (Bowen ratio method), and water quality data were collected in both watersheds. Using a hydrologic mass balance approach, rainfall was allocated to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but estimated as the residual of the hydrologic mass balance. After hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for 3 years, approximately 80 percent of the woody vegetation (ashe juniper) was selectively removed from the 159 hectare watershed (treatment watershed). Brush management was not implemented in the other (reference) watershed. Hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for six years after brush management implementation. The resulting data were examined for differences in the hydrologic budget between the reference and treatment watersheds as well as between pre- and post-brush management periods to assess effects of the treatment. Preliminary results indicate there are differences in the hydrologic budget as well as water quality between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods.

  7. Valuing investments in sustainable land management using an integrated modelling framework to support a watershed conservation scheme in the Upper Tana River, Kenya (United States)

    Hunink, Johannes E.; Bryant, Benjamin P.; Vogl, Adrian; Droogers, Peter


    We analyse the multiple impacts of investments in sustainable land use practices on ecosystem services in the Upper Tana basin (Kenya) to support a watershed conservation scheme (a "water fund"). We apply an integrated modelling framework, building on previous field-based and modelling studies in the basin, and link biophysical outputs to economic benefits for the main actors in the basin. The first step in the modelling workflow is the use of a high-resolution spatial prioritization tool (Resource Investment Optimization System -- RIOS) to allocate the type and location of conservation investments in the different subbasins, subject to budget constraints and stakeholder concerns. We then run the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the RIOS-identified investment scenarios to produce spatially explicit scenarios that simulate changes in water yield and suspended sediment. Finally, in close collaboration with downstream water users (urban water supply and hydropower) we link those biophysical outputs to monetary metrics, including: reduced water treatment costs, increased hydropower production, and crop yield benefits for upstream farmers in the conservation area. We explore how different budgets and different spatial targeting scenarios influence the return of the investments and the effectiveness of the water fund scheme. This study is novel in that it presents an integrated analysis targeting interventions in a decision context that takes into account local environmental and socio-economic conditions, and then relies on detailed, process-based, biophysical models to demonstrate the economic return on those investments. We conclude that the approach allows for an analysis on different spatial and temporal scales, providing conclusive evidence to stakeholders and decision makers on the contribution and benefits of the land-based investments in this basin. This is serving as foundational work to support the implementation of the Upper Tana-Nairobi Water Fund

  8. Hydrogeochemical cycling and chemical denudation in the Fort River Watershed, central Massachusetts: An appraisal of mass-balance studies (United States)

    Yuretich, Richard F.; Batchelder, Gail L.


    The Fort River watershed in central Massachusetts receives precipitation with a composition similar to that in Hubbard Brook (New Hampshire), yet the average stream water chemistry is substantially different, showing higher pH and TDS. This is largely a function of bedrock and surficial geology, and chemical differences among small streams within the Fort River watershed are apparently controlled by the composition and thickness of the prevailing surficial cover. The surficial deposits determine groundwater and surface water flow paths, thereby affecting the resultant contact time with mineral matter and the chemistry of the runoff. Despite the rural setting, over 95% of the annual sodium and chloride in the streams comes from road salt; after correcting for this factor, cation denudation rates are about equal to those at Hubbard Brook. However, silica removal is occurring at a rate more than 30% greater in the Fort River. When climatic conditions in Hubbard Brook and Fort River are normalized, weathering rates appear consistently higher in the Fort River, reflecting differences in weathering processes (i.e., cation exchange and silicate breakdown) and hydrogeology. Because of uncertainties in mechanisms of cation removal from watersheds, the silica denudation rate may be a better index of weathering intensity.

  9. Combine the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) with sediment geochemistry to evaluate diffuse heavy metal loadings at watershed scale. (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Shan, Yushu; Geng, Xiaojun


    Assessing the diffuse pollutant loadings at watershed scale has become increasingly important when formulating effective watershed water management strategies, but the process was seldom achieved for heavy metals. In this study, the overall temporal-spatial variability of particulate Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni losses within an agricultural watershed was quantitatively evaluated by combining SWAT with sediment geochemistry. Results showed that the watershed particulate heavy metal loadings displayed strong variability in the simulation period 1981-2010, with an obvious increasing trend in recent years. The simulated annual average loadings were 20.21 g/ha, 21.75 g/ha, 47.35 g/ha and 21.27 g/ha for Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni, respectively. By comparison, these annual average values generally matched the estimated particulate heavy metal loadings at field scale. With spatial interpolation of field loadings, it was found that the diffuse heavy metal pollution mainly came from the sub-basins dominated with cultivated lands, accounting for over 70% of total watershed loadings. The watershed distribution of particulate heavy metal losses was very similar to that of soil loss but contrary to that of heavy metal concentrations in soil, highlighting the important role of sediment yield in controlling the diffuse heavy metal loadings.

  10. Ecological Environment Problems in Minjiang River Watershed within Sanming City and Their Sustainable Control Strategies%三明市境内闽江流域生态环境问题及其可持续治理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文以三明市为例,分析了三明市境内闽江流域基本情况和存在问题,依据流域生态治理的原则,提出三明市境内闽江流域生态治理的对策,旨在为流域的生态治理提供决策参考依据。%In this paper a case study of Sanming City was made and the basic information of Minjiang River Watershed within the city and existing problems were analyzed. Some strategies for ecological management of Minjiang River Watershed within the city were put forward based on watershed ecological management principles with the aim of providing decision-making reference for ecological management of the watershed.

  11. A watershed-based adaptive knowledge system for developing ecosystem stakeholder partnerships (United States)

    Lin, Hebin; Thornton, Jeffrey A.; Shadrin, Nickolai


    This study proposes a Watershed-based Adaptive Knowledge System (WAKES) to consistently coordinate multiple stakeholders in developing sustainable partnerships for ecosystem management. WAKES is extended from the institutional mechanism of Payments for Improving Ecosystem Services at the Watershed-scale (PIES-W). PIES-W is designed relating to the governance of ecosystem services fl ows focused on a lake as a resource stock connecting its infl owing and outfl owing rivers within its watershed. It explicitly realizes the values of conservation services provided by private land managers and incorporates their activities into the public organizing framework for ecosystem management. It implicitly extends the "upstream-to-downstream" organizing perspective to a broader vision of viewing the ecosystems as comprised of both "watershed landscapes" and "marine landscapes". Extended from PIES-W, WAKES specifies two corresponding feedback: Framework I and II. Framework I is a relationship matrix comprised of three input-output structures of primary governance factors intersecting three subsystems of a watershed with regard to ecosystem services and human stakeholders. Framework II is the Stakeholder-and-Information structure channeling five types of information among four stakeholder groups in order to enable the feedbacks mechanism of Framework I. WAKES identifies the rationales behind three fundamental information transformations, illustrated with the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and the Strategic Action Program of the Bermejo River Binational Basin. These include (1) translating scientific knowledge into public information within the Function-and-Service structure corresponding to the ecological subsystem, (2) incorporating public perceptions into political will within the Service- and- Value structure corresponding to the economic subsystem, and (3) integrating scientific knowledge, public perceptions and political will into management options within the Value

  12. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)


    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  13. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)


    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and designs completed on two of the high priority culverts. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  14. Management and climate change in coastal Oregon forests: The Panther Creek Watershed as a case study (United States)

    The highly productive forests of the Oregon Coast Range Mountains have been intensively harvested for many decades, and recent interest has emerged in the potential for removing harvest residue as a source of renewable woody biomass energy. However, the long-term consequences of ...

  15. Wastewater Management Study for Cleveland-Akron Metropolitan and Three Rivers Watershed Areas. VIII. Public Involvement (United States)


    4I County Commissioner SOURS , EDWARD J., County Commissioner, Sandusky County (j SPEECE, MELVIN & JUNE, Rt. $1, Attica, Ohio Teacher & Landmark, Inc...much concerned about your farm, and I am too, but I am also concerned in another , aspect of this thing. We’re spending an awful lot of dough ’r for

  16. Long-term water repellency in organic olive orchards in the Cànyoles River watershed. The impact of land management (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Neris, Jonay


    Soil water repellency is being researched in many enviroments of the world due to the fact that after two decades of intense investigations we found that soil water repellency is a soil property that can be found at any ecosystem (Atanassava and Doerr, 2011; Goebel et al., 2011; Mataix-Solera et al., 2013; Roper et al., 2013; Young et al., 2013; Badía-Villas et al., 2014; Jordán et al., 2014; Whelan et al., 2014). Soil water repellency inhibits or delays infiltration, encourage surface runoff but also the preferential flow in cracks and other macropores (Arye et al., 2011; Jordán et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2011; Spohn and Rilling, 2012; García-Moreno et al., 2013; Hallin et al., 2013). Water repellency has been found in many soil types and it is present after forest fire, on forested land and also in agriculture soils (Granjed et al., 2013; Bodí et al., 2012; García Orenes et al., 2013; Jordán et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Dlapa et al., 2013; González-Peñaloza et al., 2012; López Garrido et al., 2012; León et al., 2013; Hewelke et al., 2014; Santos et al., 2014; Kröpfl et al., 2013). This paper show the measurements caried out by means of the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method in olive plantation in the Cànyoles watershed in Eastern Spain. Conservation practices applied such as no-tillage, manure addition, application of herbicides may contribute to increase soil organic matter and, hence, soil water repellency, and this is unknow under Mediterranean type ecosystems. The effect of long-term addition of plant residues and organic manure, no-tillage and no chemical fertilization (MNT), annual addition of plant residues and no-tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no-tillage (H), and conventional tillage (CT) on soil water repellency in Mediterranean calcareous citrus-cropped soils (Eastern Spain) has been studied. Water repellency was observed in MNT soils, which may be attributed to the input of hydrophobic organic

  17. Groundwater pollution of post-mined phosphate rock in Tuojiang watershed (Sichuan, China) (United States)

    changwen, ye


    Phosphate rock is the source of phosphorus used to make phosphatic fertilizers, essential for growing the food needed by humans in the world today and in the future. The erosion and eluviation on exposed phosphrite layer and overburden in the phosphate rock areas result in the releasing of fluoride and phosphorus and groundwater polluting. Meanwhile, the waste water and untreated mineral waste residue in the beneficiation and mining operations are also main source of pollution. The un-restored post-mined phosphate rock areas in Tuojiang watershed is large scale. The investigation of the amounts of pollutants releasing from mined lands and transporting by runoffs was conducted. The releasing and transporting amounts of pollutants were calculated according to the results of column leaching studies and acreages of exposed phosphrite layers and overburdens. In conclusion, phosphorus mining activity is an important non-point source of groundwater contamination of Tuojiang watershed.Study about the management and engineering measurement can be carried out according to the non-point source: agriculture, Pollution, Phosphorous mine and chemical plant. The study can provide the practical consultation and help making the decision about the management and treatment of groundwater resource in Tuojiang watershed. Keywords: Tuojiang watershed; Groundwater pollution; Losing process; Fluorine; Phosphorus

  18. Comparative analysis of integrated water resources management models and instruments in South America: case studies in Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel dos Santos


    Full Text Available Brazil and Colombia are rich in terms of water supply, ranking as world leaders in the supply of water resources. Despite this, both countries have problems of relative scarcity of this vital liquid in highly populated areas with much economic activity. Establishing policies and legal environmental standards has long tradition in both countries. However, although there are provisions and instruments for water management at the water basin level, these do not necessarily follow the conceptual development of integrated water resources management (IWRM. As a result, the two countries have partially implemented IWRM elements but with different characteristics both in its structure and instrumentality. In Colombia the State Government, through the Regional Environmental Corporations, implements IWRM (concessions, fee for water use, pollution rate, basin plans, etc, with no formal involvement of civil society management. In Brazil, however, IWRM management structure and tools are decentralized and participatory, as are the Water Basin Committees, entities where the State Government, municipalities and users participate, those with the greatest weight in water management. In Brazil, however, this model is not yet implemented in all watersheds. Thus, the aim of this paper is to compare the institutional and legal aspects of water management models in Brazil and Colombia with regard to the integrated water management concept. For the latter, we worked with a case study for each country regarding Nima River watershed (Colombia and Tietê Jacaré (Brazil.

  19. An enhanced Bayesian fingerprinting framework for studying sediment source dynamics in intensively managed landscapes (United States)

    Abban, B.; (Thanos) Papanicolaou, A. N.; Cowles, M. K.; Wilson, C. G.; Abaci, O.; Wacha, K.; Schilling, K.; Schnoebelen, D.


    An enhanced revision of the Fox and Papanicolaou (hereafter referred to as "F-P") (2008a) Bayesian, Markov Chain Monte Carlo fingerprinting framework for estimating sediment source contributions and their associated uncertainties is presented. The F-P framework included two key deterministic parameters, α and β, that, respectively, reflected the spatial origin attributes of sources and the time history of eroded material delivered to and collected at the watershed outlet. However, the deterministic treatment of α and β is limited to cases with well-defined spatial partitioning of sources, high sediment delivery, and relatively short travel times with little variability in transport within the watershed. For event-based studies in intensively managed landscapes, this may be inadequate since landscape heterogeneity results in variabilities in source contributions, their pathways, delivery times, and storage within the watershed. Thus, probabilistic treatments of α and β are implemented in the enhanced framework to account for these variabilities. To evaluate the effects of the treatments of α and β on source partitioning, both frameworks are applied to the South Amana Subwatershed (SASW) in the U.S. midwest. The enhanced framework is found to estimate mean source contributions that are in good agreement with estimates from other studies in SASW. The enhanced framework is also able to produce expected trends in uncertainty during the study period, unlike the F-P framework, which does not perform as expected. Overall, the enhanced framework is found to be less sensitive to changes in α and β than the F-P framework, and, therefore, is more robust and desirable from a management standpoint.

  20. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds? (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.


    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  1. Traditional and Host-Associated Fecal Indicator Bacterial Patterns in Southern California Watersheds: Field Source Identification Studies and Laboratory Microcosms Investigating Presence and Persistence in Water and Sediments (United States)

    Mika, Kathryn Beth

    Overall, recreational beach water quality remains an issue of concern in Southern California and across the globe. Many factors come into play when determining water quality, including physical issues such as the myriad sources that contribute pollution to the site and financial and political issues that control the way water quality is monitored and determined. Current national regulations require the monitoring of fecal indicator bacteria in order to determine recreational water quality. However, it is also important to identify biological and geographical sources of pollution to consistently impaired locations. A commonly applied approach to meet the goals of source identification is to sample sites that have been high in FIB for further study. A tiered approach such as this, however, assumes a correlation between FIB and the sources of interest in the watershed. The research described in this dissertation tests this assumption in two Southern California watersheds, Santa Monica Canyon and Ventura Harbor. In both cases, a tiered approach to sampling using FIB as a first tier to guide sampling would have failed to identify sources of human fecal pollution (as identified by the presence of the human-associated Bacteroides marker HF183). Every watershed is a distinct environment that has different potential sources of bacteria and many factors contributing to the persistence of the bacteria. Rather than attempting to apply an indicator that has worked as a first tier in other watersheds, it would be better to have as a first tier an in-depth study of the watershed using historical data or local experts to provide information on the most likely sources of pollution in the watershed. Using this information it would be possible to design a study using FIB and one or more source-associated parameters to identify specific sources of pollution in the watershed. In addition, sampling FIB and other parameters such as HF183 allow the application of other microbial source

  2. Fort Cobb Reservoir Watershed, Oklahoma and Thika River Watershed, Kenya Twinning Pilot Project (United States)

    Moriasi, D.; Steiner, J.; Arnold, J.; Allen, P.; Dunbar, J.; Shisanya, C.; Gathenya, J.; Nyaoro, J.; Sang, J.


    Nairobi. A dam was constructed in 1994 with a water reservoir of 70 million m3. Thika River also supplies water to Masinga Reservoir to supply the seven forks dams, which together supply 75% of the nation's electricity. The quantity of water in rivers and reservoirs is decreased due to sedimentation while water quality is degraded by sediments, and sediment-borne nutrients and pesticides. The focus of this pilot twinning project is watershed erosion and reservoir sedimentation assessment. This will be accomplished by (1) a rapid watershed/catchment erosion assessment using ground based measurements and remote sensing/GIS techniques, 2) use of Acoustic Profiling Systems (APS) for reservoir sedimentation measurement studies, and 3) advanced water quality modeling using the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model. Data acquired will be used for sediment transport modeling to1) determine sediment "hot spots" and management practices that will minimize sediments into reservoirs in order to 2) maintain the reservoirs on which many farmers depend for their livelihood and a cleaner environment. This project will provide an opportunity for 1) sharing knowledge and experience among the stakeholders, 2) building capacity through formal and informal education opportunities through reciprocal hosting of decision makers and water experts, and 3) technology transfer of pilot results with recommended management practices to reduce reservoir sedimentation rates.

  3. Surface runoff from manured cropping systems assessed by the paired-watershed method, part 1: P, N, and sediment transport (United States)

    Transport of P, N, and sediment via runoff from crop fields can contribute to degradation of surface waters. We established a paired-watershed study in central Wisconsin to evaluate surface runoff losses of nutrients, sediment, and pathogens from different manure/crop/tillage management systems for ...

  4. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  5. Watershed Planning Basins (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Wahyuningrum


    Full Text Available Population growth leads to water scarcity in terms of both quality and quantity. Agricultural and urban watersheds potentially produce more pollutantsthan forested area. It is considered that forested area has potential in storing and protecting water supply in such a way that water distribution and quality can be guaranteed. The objective of  the study was to determine the relationship between the percentages of forested area in a watershed with the water quality. Thestudy was conducted in 2010in GrojokanSewu Sub-watershed, Karanganyar District, Central Java. Using GIS (Geographic Information System, this sub-watershedwas divided into four sub-sub-watershedswith different percentages of forested areas. Water samples were collected in each sub-sub-watershedto find out the relationship between the forested area and the total dissolvedsolids, turbidity, sodium, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate and organic matters. The statistical analysis indicates relationships in quadratic form between sodium, nitrite, TDS, sulfate and organic matters with the percentage of  forested area (R2=0.99, R2=0.99, R2=0.98, R2=0.95 and R2=0.77, respectively. The relationships are different from those of turbidity and nitrate that have low R2 (R2=0.28 and R2=0.36 values. It implies that the forested area is capable to reduce sodium, nitrite, TDS, sulfate and organic matters, and thus water pollutants can be reduced by forest formation as it can filter water through retention of sediments and nutrients.

  7. Contaminant Sources in Stream Water of a Missouri Claypan Watershed (United States)

    Peters, G. R.; Liu, F.; Lerch, R. N.; Lee, H.


    Elevated concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and herbicides in stream water have degraded water qu