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Sample records for watershed jamieson creek

  1. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  2. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  3. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  4. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  5. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  6. Fish Creek Watershed Lake Classification, NPRA, Alaska, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This study focuses on the development of a 20 attribute lake cover classification scheme for the Fish Creek Watershed (FCW), which is located in the National...

  7. EAARL Topography--Potato Creek Watershed, Georgia, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in Georgia was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  8. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1998 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    1999-12-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a few of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. 1998 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek.

  9. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  10. Developing Participatory Models of Watershed Management in the Sugar Creek Watershed (Ohio, USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Shaw Parker; Richard Moore; Mark Weaver

    2009-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershe...

  11. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1999 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2000-10-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a summary of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. Up until last year, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and was the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices are the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. However, the watershed stream evaluation team used in the watershed analysis determined that there were problems along the Pataha Creek that needed to be addressed that would add further protection to the banks and therefore a further reduction of sedimentation into the stream. 1999 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. In stream work was not addressed this year because of the costs associated with these projects and the low impact of the sediment issue concerning Pataha Creeks impact on Chinook Salmon in the Tucannon River.

  12. Research in the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Rand E. Eads; Robert R. Ziemer

    2000-01-01

    For the past four decades, researchers from the Pacific Southwest Research Station's Redwood Sciences Laboratory, in cooperation with the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, have been studying the effects of logging in the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds on the Jackson Demonstration State Forest near Fort Bragg, California. Their findings...

  13. The Caspar Creek Watersheds--a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. R. Ziemer

    1990-01-01

    Caspar Creek experimental watersheds are located on the Jackson Demonstration State Forest. Sponsors are the Pacific Southwest Research Station (PSW), USDA Forest Service, and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF). Both organizations have been working cooperatively since 1962

  14. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  15. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan: Asotin County, Washington, 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Dave

    1995-04-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ``Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ``four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity.

  16. Effects of forest management on streamflow, sediment yield, and erosion, Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth T. Keppeler; Jack Lewis; Thomas E. Lisle

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds were established in 1962 to research the effects of forest management on streamflow, sedimentation, and erosion in the rainfall-dominated, forested watersheds of north coastal California. Currently, 21 stream sites are gaged in the North Fork (473 ha) and South Fork (424 ha) of Caspar Creek. From 1971 to 1973, 65% of...

  17. Developing Participatory Models of Watershed Management in the Sugar Creek Watershed (Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Shaw Parker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

  18. Integrating local research watersheds into hydrologic education: Lessons from the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.; Aishlin, P. S.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.; Marshall, H. P.; Pierce, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    While a proliferation of instrumented research watersheds and new data sharing technologies has transformed hydrologic research in recent decades, similar advances have not been realized in hydrologic education. Long-standing problems in hydrologic education include discontinuity of hydrologic topics from introductory to advanced courses, inconsistency of content across academic departments, and difficulties in development of laboratory and homework assignments utilizing large time series and spatial data sets. Hydrologic problems are typically not amenable to "back-of-the-chapter" examples. Local, long-term research watersheds offer solutions to these problems. Here, we describe our integration of research and monitoring programs in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed into undergraduate and graduate hydrology programs at Boise State University. We developed a suite of watershed-based exercises into courses and curriculums using real, tangible datasets from the watershed to teach concepts not amenable to traditional textbook and lecture methods. The aggregation of exercises throughout a course or degree allows for scaffolding of concepts with progressive exposure of advanced concepts throughout a course or degree. The need for exercises of this type is growing as traditional lecture-based classes (passive learning from a local authoritative source) are being replaced with active learning courses that integrate many sources of information through situational factors.

  19. A baseline and watershed assessment in the Lynx Creek, Brenot Creek, and Portage Creek watersheds near Hudson's Hope, BC : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matscha, G.; Sutherland, D. [British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2005-06-15

    This report summarized a baseline monitoring program for the Lynx Creek, Brenot Creek, and Portage Creek watersheds located near Hudson's Hope, British Columbia (BC). The monitoring program was designed to more accurately determine the effects of potential coalbed gas developments in the region, as well as to assess levels of agricultural and forest harvesting, and the impacts of current land use activities on water quantity and quality. Water quality was sampled at 18 sites during 5 different flow regimes, including summer and fall low flows; ice cover; spring run-off; and high flows after a heavy summer rain event. Sample sites were located up and downstream of both forest and agricultural activities. The water samples were analyzed for 70 contaminants including ions, nutrients, metals, hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbon fractions. Results showed that while many analyzed parameters met current BC water quality guidelines, total organic carbon, manganese, cadmium, E. coli, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci often exceeded recommended guidelines. Aluminum and cobalt values exceeded drinking water guidelines. The samples also had a slightly alkaline pH and showed high conductance. A multiple barrier approach was recommended to reduce potential risks of contamination from the watersheds. It was concluded that a more refined bacteria source tracking method is needed to determine whether fecal pollution has emanated from human, livestock or wildlife sources. 1 tab., 9 figs.

  20. EPA acknowledges federal, state and local partners for Improving Water Quality in the Bear Creek Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commends the efforts of the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM) along with other federal, state and local partners for improving water quality in the Bear Creek Watershed.

  1. 2007 Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Watershed, Yamhill County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset represents LiDAR elevations acquired during a leaf-off and a leaf-on vegetative condition for the Upper Panther Creek Watershed in the Yamhill County...

  2. Prioritizing Restoration in the Hangman Creek Watershed: Predicting Baseflow through Sub-basin Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navickis-Brasch, A. S.; Fiedler, F. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes since European settlement have significantly impaired the beneficial uses of Coeur d'Alene (CDA) Tribe water bodies in the Hangman Creek watershed. The cumulative impacts have resulted in a 303 (d) designation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), extirpated the only salmon run on the reservation, and reduced tributary connectivity by isolating many native fish populations. Considering salmon were an essential part of tribal identity and cultural activities, the tribe initiated a 100-year management plan to restore the 155,000-acre portion of the Hangman Creek watershed located on the CDA reservation. The restoration management plan focuses on sustaining subsistence and cultural activities by reestablishing stream connectivity and providing sustainable aquatic habitats as well as restoring watershed processes and improving water quality. Ultimately, the restoration goal is to improve the habitat suitability of Hangman Creek for the eventual return of salmon. To accomplish these goals, it is essential to prioritize and sequence activities that most effectively support restoration. While watershed modeling provides a commonly accepted holistic approach to simulating watershed responses, it appears the effectiveness of models in predicting restoration success, particularly with respect to the effects of restoration on baseflow, have not been well documented. In addition, creating a representative watershed model capable of accounting for a watershed scale spatial and temporal variability generally requires extensive field measurements. This presents a challenge for developing a model of Hangman Creek, since the watershed is mostly ungauged with only limited data available at a few monitoring sites. Our approach to developing a restoration prioritization plan is to first model a subbasin in the watershed with similar characteristics and restoration goals, then utilize the subbasin model to project future baseflow responses in the larger

  3. Watershed management for erosion and sedimentation control Case Study: Goodwin Creek, Panola County, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Goodwin Creek watershed is located within the loessal hills of northern Mississippi, a region of high erosion risk and elevated watershed sediment yields. This manuscript combines a regional history of land management and conservation issues from the time of European settlement to present with a...

  4. Couse/Tenmile Creeks Watershed Project Implementation : 2007 Conservtion Projects. [2007 Habitat Projects Completed].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asotin County Conservation District

    2008-12-10

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on private lands within Asotin County watersheds. The Tenmile Creek watershed is a 42 square mile tributary to the Snake River, located between Asotin Creek and the Grande Ronde River. Couse Creek watershed is a 24 square mile tributary to the Snake River, located between Tenmile Creek and the Grande Ronde River. Both watersheds are almost exclusively under private ownership. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife has documented wild steelhead and rainbow/redband trout spawning and rearing in Tenmile Creek and Couse Creek. The project also provides Best Management Practice (BMP) implementation throughout Asotin County, but the primary focus is for the Couse and Tenmile Creek watersheds. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Farm Service Agency (FSA), Salmon Recovery Funding Board (SRFB), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. The Asotin Subbasin Plan identified priority areas and actions for ESA listed streams within Asotin County. Couse Creek and Tenmile Creek are identified as protection areas in the plan. The Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) has been successful in working with landowners to protect riparian areas throughout Asotin County. Funding from BPA and other agencies has also been instrumental in protecting streams throughout Asotin County by utilizing the ridge top to ridge top approach.

  5. Water quality, sources of nitrate, and chemical loadings in the Geronimo Creek and Plum Creek watersheds, south-central Texas, April 2015–March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2017-12-22

    Located in south-central Texas, the Geronimo Creek and Plum Creek watersheds have long been characterized by elevated nitrate concentrations. From April 2015 through March 2016, an assessment was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, to characterize nitrate concentrations and to document possible sources of elevated nitrate in these two watersheds. Water-quality samples were collected from stream, spring, and groundwater sites distributed across the two watersheds, along with precipitation samples and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent samples from the Plum Creek watershed, to characterize endmember concentrations and isotopic compositions from April 2015 through March 2016. Stream, spring, and groundwater samples from both watersheds were collected during four synoptic sampling events to characterize spatial and temporal variations in water quality and chemical loadings. Water-quality and -quantity data from the WWTPs and stream discharge data also were considered. Samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, nutrients, and stable isotopes of water and nitrate.The dominant land use in both watersheds is agriculture (cultivated crops, rangeland, and grassland and pasture). The upper part of the Plum Creek watershed is more highly urbanized and has five major WWTPs; numerous smaller permitted wastewater outfalls are concentrated in the upper and central parts of the Plum Creek watershed. The Geronimo Creek watershed, in contrast, has no WWTPs upstream from or near the sampling sites.Results indicate that water quality in the Geronimo Creek watershed, which was evaluated only during base-flow conditions, is dominated by groundwater, which discharges to the stream by numerous springs at various locations. Nitrate isotope values for most Geronimo Creek samples were similar, which indicates that they likely have a common source (or

  6. Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw-Swiatek Dorota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cypress knee roughness on flow resistance and discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. In this study effects of cypress knees as vegetation resistance factor on Turkey Creek watershed discharge calculation were analyzed. The Turkey Creek watershed is a 3rd order stream system draining an approximate area of 5,240 ha. It is located at 33°08' N latitude and 79°47' W longitude, approximately 60 km north-west of City of Charleston in South Carolina (USA. Turkey Creek (WS 78 is typical of other watersheds in the south Atlantic coastal plain. In the case of Turkey Creek watershed, one of the main channels and riparian floodplain vegetation contains cypress trees. Cypress trees live in moist or swampy regions along the Atlantic coastal plain. The cypress trees are characterized by the unique root system called knees that appear just above the water line, up to 1.2 m above water surface. This study is conducted to examine the effects of roughness of cypress knee as related to its shape (diameter and height on discharge estimates of the Turkey Creek watershed. Hydraulic characteristics of the cypress knees were determined by field inventory in selected cross-section along the main stream channel. The Pasche method was used to calculate the total Darcy–Weisbach friction factor in discharge capacity calculation of the study watershed. The results of this study show that the effect of vegetation shape in the Pasche approach is significant. If the variability of vegetation stem diameter is taken into consideration in the calculations, an increase by 10–32% in the values of friction coefficients occurs.

  7. Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999 Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2000-01-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority in southeastern WA. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1999. Twenty of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1999 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; thirty-eight were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as vegetative plantings (17,000 trees and shrubs) and noxious weed control. Two sediment basin constructions, 67 acres of grass seeding, and seven hundred forty-five acres of minimum till were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

  8. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : January 2000-December 2002 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2003-04-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports were implemented from calendar year 2000 through 2002 in the Pataha Creek Watershed. The Pataha Creek Watershed was selected in 1993, along with the Tucannon and Asotin Creeks, as model watersheds by NPPC. In previous years, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and were the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices were the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. Prior to 2000, several bank stabilization projects were installed but the installation costs became prohibitive and these types of projects were reduced in numbers over the following years. The years 2000 through 2002 were years where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. The Pataha Creek has steelhead in the upper reaches and native and planted rainbow trout in the mid to upper portion. Suckers, pikeminow and shiners inhabit the lower portion because of the higher water temperatures and lack of vegetation. The improvement of riparian habitat will improve habitat for the desired fish species. The lower portion of the Pataha Creek could eventually develop into spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon if some migration barriers are removed and habitat is restored. The upland projects completed during 2000 through 2002 were practices that reduce erosion from the cropland. Three-year continuous no-till projects were finishing up and the monitoring of this particular practice is ongoing. Its direct impact on soil erosion along with the economical aspects is being studied. Other practices such as terrace, waterway, sediment

  9. Walnut Creek Watershed Restoration and Water Quality Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this project is to establish a nonpoint source monitoring program in relation to the watershed habitat restoration and agricultural...

  10. Turbidity and suspended sediment in the upper Esopus Creek watershed, Ulster County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Michael R.; Siemion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were measured for 2 to 3 years at 14 monitoring sites throughout the upper Esopus Creek watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The upper Esopus Creek watershed is part of the New York City water-supply system that supplies water to more than 9 million people every day. Turbidity, caused primarily by high concentrations of inorganic suspended particles, is a potential water-quality concern because it colors the water and can reduce the effectiveness of drinking-water disinfection. The purposes of this study were to quantify concentrations of suspended sediment and turbidity levels, to estimate suspended-sediment loads within the upper Esopus Creek watershed, and to investigate the relations between SSC and turbidity. Samples were collected at four locations along the main channel of Esopus Creek and at all of the principal tributaries. Samples were collected monthly and during storms and were analyzed for SSC and turbidity in the laboratory. Turbidity was also measured every 15 minutes at six of the sampling stations with in situ turbidity probes.

  11. Okanogan Focus Watershed Salmon Creek : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, Hilary

    1999-11-01

    During FY 1999 the Colville Tribes and the Okanogan Irrigation District (OID) agreed to study the feasibility of restoring and enhancing anadromous fish populations in Salmon Creek while maintaining the ability of the district to continue full water service delivery to it members.

  12. Selenium speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed and its effects on fish diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsella, James; Melnykov, Igor; Bonetti, Sandra; Sánchez-Lombardo, Irma; Crans, Debbie C

    2017-07-01

    Se is an environmental concern as it can be toxic if present in high concentrations even though it is a dietary requirement for all animals. Se levels are a special concern in the Fountain Creek Watershed located in southeastern Colorado whose geological source is the Se-rich Pierre Shale. Segments of Fountain Creek have Se water levels that exceed the current EPA limit of 5 µg/l. In the studies described here, the effects of river water containing selenium were examined on fish populations at different sites along the Fountain Creek Watershed. Based on the hypothesis that high levels of Se present in the Creek and resident bryophytes should be an indicator of diversity in the river fish we explored the possibility that the low toxicity of the selenium could be due to speciation. A speciation analysis was conducted to determine the selenium(IV) and selenium(VI). Our results show that sites with higher ratios of the more toxic Se(IV) relative to total selenium exhibit lower fish diversity and number of fish. Our results indicate that factors, other than total Se, such as Se speciation may be involved in controlling the bioavailability and toxicity of this element to aquatic organisms in Fountain Creek.

  13. Applications of long-term watershed research to forest management in California: 50 Years of Learning from the Caspar Creek Watershed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafferata Peter; Leslie Reid

    2013-01-01

    For over 50 years, the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds, located in western Mendocino County, California, have been the site of long-term cooperative watershed research carried out by the U.S. Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station (PSW) and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE). Preliminary stream flow, suspended...

  14. Hydrology and hydrochemistry for the Rice Creek watershed of the Whiteshell Research Area, 1986--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, G.A.; Laporte, J.M.; Clarke, D.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents data and results of a hydrometeorological study carried out in the Rice Creek Watershed of the Whiteshell Research Area during 1986-90. Major water budget components, such as precipitation, runoff, groundwater, storage and evaporation, are evaluated and discussed. men annual precipitation was 544 mm, mean runoff was 101 mm, with evapo-transpiration as the residual being 443 mm. The steady-state groundwater component of the runoff is estimated to be less than 2 mm/unit area, or less than 2% of men annual basin yield. Water chemistry data for precipitation,l surface waters, and groundwaters are presented and the relative concentrations compared to provide information about sources of streamflow. Data on a major storm event that provided precipitation with an estimated return period of over 100 a are presented. Also discussed are the effects of beaver dams on the hydrology of a major tributary of the Rice Creek watershed. (auth)

  15. Effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling in the Caspar Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy A. Dahlgren

    1998-01-01

    The effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling were examined for a redwood/Douglas-fir ecosystem in the North Fork, Caspar Creek experimental watershed in northern California. Stream-water samples were collected from treated (e.g., clearcut) and reference (e.g., noncut) watersheds, and from various locations downstream from the treated...

  16. Return Spawning/Rearing Habitat to Anadromous/Resident Fish within the Fishing Creek to Legendary Bear Creek Analysis Area Watersheds; 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Jr., Emmit E. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-03-01

    This project is a critical component of currently on-going watershed restoration effort in the Lochsa River Drainage, including the Fishing (Squaw) Creek to Legendary Bear (Papoose) Creek Watersheds Analysis Area. In addition, funding for this project allowed expansion of the project into Pete King Creek and Cabin Creek. The goal of this project is working towards the re-establishment of healthy self-sustaining populations of key fisheries species (spring Chinook salmon, steelhead, bull trout, and westslope cutthroat trout) through returning historic habitat in all life stages (spawning, rearing, migration, and over-wintering). This was accomplished by replacing fish barrier road crossing culverts with structures that pass fish and accommodate site conditions.

  17. Flood Frequency Analysis of Future Climate Projections in the Cache Creek Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Trihn, T.; Ishida, K.; Jang, S.; Kavvas, E.; Kavvas, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of climate change on hydrologic flow regimes, particularly extreme events, necessitate modeling of future flows to best inform water resources management. Future flow projections may be modeled through the joint use of carbon emission scenarios, general circulation models and watershed models. This research effort ran 13 simulations for carbon emission scenarios (taken from the A1, A2 and B1 families) over the 21st century (2001-2100) for the Cache Creek watershed in Northern California. Atmospheric data from general circulation models, CCSM3 and ECHAM5, were dynamically downscaled to a 9 km resolution using MM5, a regional mesoscale model, before being input into the physically based watershed environmental hydrology (WEHY) model. Ensemble mean and standard deviation of simulated flows describe the expected hydrologic system response. Frequency histograms and cumulative distribution functions characterize the range of hydrologic responses that may occur. The modeled flow results comprise a dataset suitable for time series and frequency analysis allowing for more robust system characterization, including indices such as the 100 year flood return period. These results are significant for water quality management as the Cache Creek watershed is severely impacted by mercury pollution from historic mining activities. Extreme flow events control mercury fate and transport affecting the downstream water bodies of the Sacramento River and Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta which provide drinking water to over 25 million people.

  18. Suspended-sediment and turbidity responses to sediment and turbidity reduction projects in the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek, Watersheds, New York, 2010–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Jason; McHale, Michael R.; Davis, Wae Danyelle

    2016-12-05

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were monitored within the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek tributaries to the upper Esopus Creek in New York, the main source of water to the Ashokan Reservoir, from October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2014. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine the effects of suspended-sediment and turbidity reduction projects (STRPs) on SSC and turbidity in two of the three streams; no STRPs were constructed in the Beaver Kill watershed. During the study period, four STRPs were completed in the Stony Clove Creek and Warner Creek watersheds. Daily mean SSCs decreased significantly for a given streamflow after the STRPs were completed. The most substantial decreases in daily mean SSCs were measured at the highest streamflows. Background SSCs, as measured in water samples collected in upstream reference stream reaches, in all three streams in this study were less than 5 milligrams per liter during low and high streamflows. Longitudinal stream sampling identified stream reaches with failing hillslopes in contact with the stream channel as the primary sediment sources in the Beaver Kill and Stony Clove Creek watersheds.

  19. Hydrogeology and Ground-Water Flow in the Opequon Creek Watershed area, Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Due to increasing population and economic development in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia, water availability has become a primary concern for water-resource managers in the region. To address these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Services and the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, developed a numerical steady-state simulation of ground-water flow for the 1,013-square-kilometer Opequon Creek watershed area. The model was based on data aggregated for several recently completed and ongoing USGS hydrogeologic investigations conducted in Jefferson, Berkeley, and Morgan Counties in West Virginia and Clarke, Frederick, and Warren Counties in Virginia. A previous detailed hydrogeologic assessment of the watershed area of Hopewell Run (tributary to the Opequon Creek), which includes the USGS Leetown Science Center in Jefferson County, West Virginia, provided key understanding of ground-water flow processes in the aquifer. The ground-water flow model developed for the Opequon Creek watershed area is a steady-state, three-layer representation of ground-water flow in the region. The primary objective of the simulation was to develop water budgets for average and drought hydrologic conditions. The simulation results can provide water managers with preliminary estimates on which water-resource decisions may be based. Results of the ground-water flow simulation of the Opequon Creek watershed area indicate that hydrogeologic concepts developed for the Hopewell Run watershed area can be extrapolated to the larger watershed model. Sensitivity analyses conducted as part of the current modeling effort and geographic information system analyses of spring location and yield reveal that thrust and cross-strike faults and low-permeability bedding, which provide structural and lithologic controls, respectively, on ground-water flow, must be incorporated into the

  20. Low-flow water-quality characterization of the Gore Creek watershed, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, August 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Kirby H.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1998-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCOL) is one of 59 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study units designed to assess the status and trends of the Nation?s water quality (Leahy and others, 1990). The UCOL study unit began operation in 1994, and surface-water-quality data collection at a network of 14 sites began in October 1995 (Apodaca and others, 1996; Spahr and others, 1996). Gore Creek, which flows through Vail, Colorado, originates in pristine alpine headwaters and is designated a gold-medal trout fishery. The creek drains an area of about 102 square miles and is a tributary to the Eagle River. Gore Creek at the mouth near Minturn (site 13 in fig. 1) is one of the 14 sites in the UCOL network. This site was selected to evaluate water quality resulting from urban development and recreational land use. The Gore Creek watershed has undergone rapid land-use changes since the 1960?s as the Vail area shifted from traditional mountain ranchlands to a four-season resort community. Residential, recreational, commercial, and transportation development continues near Gore Creek and its tributaries to support the increasing permanent and tourist population of the area. Interstate 70 runs through the watershed from Vail Pass near site 14, along the eastern side of Black Gore Creek, and along the northern side of the main stem of Gore Creek to the mouth of the watershed (fig. 1). A major local concern is how increasing urbanization/recreation affects the water quality, gold-medal trout fishery, and aesthetic values of Gore Creek. An evaluation of the spatial characteristics of water quality in the watershed upstream from site 13 at the mouth of Gore Creek (fig. 1) can provide local water and land managers with information necessary to establish water policy and make land-use planning decisions to maintain or improve water quality. Historical data collected at the mouth of Gore Creek provide information about water quality resulting from land use, but a synoptic

  1. Predictive analyses of ground-water discharges in the Willow Creek Watershed, northeast Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Jack T.; Lappala, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    Ground-water discharge to Willow Creek in northeast Nebraska was predicted with a digital model of the ground-water/surface-water system. Recharge and irrigation requirements were determined with a model of the soil zone. The regional aquifer is Pliocene and Pleistocene sands and gravels. Water in the regional aquifer is unconfined in the western part of the watershed and confined in the eastern part. The confining layer is Pleistocene eolian silts with very fine sand interbeds overlying a basal clay. Where the regional aquifer is unconfined, perennial flow of Willow Creek is sustained by ground-water discharge. Where it is confined, the low hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds isolates the regional aquifer from Willow Creek. Adequate agreement between simulated and observed streamflows and water levels during 1975 and 1976 was obtained by modifying initial estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. The future perennial flow of Willow Creek was simulated by superimposing six patterns of ground-water withdrawals upon variations in recharge for a monthly climatic sequence identical with the period 1931-34. These analyses showed that the perennial monthly flows would be less than 12 cubic feet per second at least 50 percent of the time. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Roger L.; Trejo, Bonnie S.; Bauer, Marissa L.; Crayon, John J.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 ??g/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 ??g/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  3. Transport and Sources of Suspended Sediment in the Mill Creek Watershed, Johnson County, Northeast Kansas, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Fuller, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program, evaluated suspended-sediment transport and sources in the urbanizing, 57.4 mi2 Mill Creek watershed from February 2006 through June 2007. Sediment transport and sources were assessed spatially by continuous monitoring of streamflow and turbidity as well as sampling of suspended sediment at nine sites in the watershed. Within Mill Creek subwatersheds (2.8-16.9 mi2), sediment loads at sites downstream from increased construction activity were substantially larger (per unit area) than those at sites downstream from mature urban areas or less-developed watersheds. Sediment transport downstream from construction sites primarily was limited by transport capacity (streamflow), whereas availability of sediment supplies primarily influenced transport downstream from mature urban areas. Downstream sampling sites typically had smaller sediment loads (per unit area) than headwater sites, likely because of sediment deposition in larger, less sloping stream channels. Among similarly sized storms, those with increased precipitation intensity transported more sediment at eight of the nine monitoring sites. Storms following periods of increased sediment loading transported less sediment at two of the nine monitoring sites. In addition to monitoring performed in the Mill Creek watershed, sediment loads were computed for the four other largest watersheds (48.6-65.7 mi2) in Johnson County (Blue River, Cedar, Indian, and Kill Creeks) during the study period. In contrast with results from smaller watersheds in Mill Creek, sediment load (per unit area) from the most urbanized watershed in Johnson County (Indian Creek) was more than double that of other large watersheds. Potential sources of this sediment include legacy sediment from earlier urban construction, accelerated stream-channel erosion, or erosion from specific construction sites, such as stream-channel disturbance during bridge

  4. Watershed Landscape Ecology: Interdisciplinary and Field-based Learning in the Northeast Creek Watershed, Mount Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S. R.; Anderson, J.; Rajakaruna, N.; Cass, D.

    2014-12-01

    At the College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, Maine, undergraduate students have the opportunity to design their own curriculum within a major of "Human Ecology." To enable students to have early research experiences, we developed a field-based interdisciplinary program for students to learn and practice field methods in a variety of disciplines, Earth Science, Botany, Chemistry, and Wildlife Biology at three specific field sites within a single watershed on Mt. Desert Island. As the Northeast Creek watershed was the site of previous water quality studies, this program of courses enabled continued monitoring of portions of the watershed. The program includes 4 new courses: Critical Zone 1, Critical Zone 2, Wildlife Biology, and Botany. In Critical Zone 1 students are introduced to general topics in Earth Science and learn to use ArcGIS to make basic maps. In Critical Zone 2, Wildlife Biology, and Botany, students are in the field every week using classic field tools and methods. All three of these courses use the same three general field areas: two with working farms at the middle and lower portion of the watershed and one uninhabited forested property in the higher relief headwaters of the watershed. Students collect daily surface water chemistry data at five stream sites within the watershed, complete basic geologic bedrock and geomorphic mapping, conduct wildlife surveys, botanical surveys, and monitor weather patterns at each of the main sites. Beyond the class data collected and synthesized, students also complete group independent study projects at focused field sites, some of which have turned into much larger research projects. This program is an opportunity for students and faculty with varied interests and expertise to work together to study a specific field locality over multiple years. We see this model as enhancing a number of positive education components: field-based learning, teamwork, problem solving, interdisciplinary discussion, multiple faculty

  5. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management Study, Tonawanda Creek Watershed. Interim Flood Management Study. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Counties is reflected in Table B27. Mineral resources in the watershed include salt, gypsum, limestone, dolomite , and natural gas. Salt beds of the...limestone and dolomite in the Tonawanda Creek Watershed is concentrated along the Onondaga and Niagara Escarpments in Erie and Niagara Counties. Production...on the east to Erie County on the west, a distance of 165 miles. High-grade gypsum suitable for calcined building products is currently mined in

  6. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2003-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn

    2007-02-01

    The Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Lapwai Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District). Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period December 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004 include; seven grade stabilization structures, 0.67 acres of wetland plantings, ten acres tree planting, 500 linear feet streambank erosion control, two acres grass seeding, and 120 acres weed control.

  7. Continuous Turbidity Monitoring in the Indian Creek Watershed, Tazewell County, Virginia, 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of miles of natural gas pipelines are installed annually in the United States. These pipelines commonly cross streams, rivers, and other water bodies during pipeline construction. A major concern associated with pipelines crossing water bodies is increased sediment loading and the subsequent impact to the ecology of the aquatic system. Several studies have investigated the techniques used to install pipelines across surface-water bodies and their effect on downstream suspended-sediment concentrations. These studies frequently employ the evaluation of suspended-sediment or turbidity data that were collected using discrete sample-collection methods. No studies, however, have evaluated the utility of continuous turbidity monitoring for identifying real-time sediment input and providing a robust dataset for the evaluation of long-term changes in suspended-sediment concentration as it relates to a pipeline crossing. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with East Tennessee Natural Gas and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study to monitor the effects of construction of the Jewell Ridge Lateral natural gas pipeline on turbidity conditions below pipeline crossings of Indian Creek and an unnamed tributary to Indian Creek, in Tazewell County, Virginia. The potential for increased sediment loading to Indian Creek is of major concern for watershed managers because Indian Creek is listed as one of Virginia's Threatened and Endangered Species Waters and contains critical habitat for two freshwater mussel species, purple bean (Villosa perpurpurea) and rough rabbitsfoot (Quadrula cylindrical strigillata). Additionally, Indian Creek contains the last known reproducing population of the tan riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri). Therefore, the objectives of the U.S. Geological Survey monitoring effort were to (1) develop a continuous turbidity monitoring network that attempted to measure real-time changes in suspended sediment (using

  8. Development of an ecological classification system for the Cooper Creek watershed of the Chattahoochee National Forest: a first approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; Ronald B. Stephens; Erika M. Mavity; Joanne E. Baggs; James M. Wentworth; Richard D. Rightmyer; Alex J. Jaume; Brian D. Jackson; Michael P. Joyce

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 management plan for the Chattahoochee National Forest states that many future resource objectives and goals have an ecological basis. Assessment of resource needs in the Cooper Creek watershed area of the southern Appalachian Mountains of north Georgia were identified with awareness of ecological constraints and suitability. An interdisciplinary team of...

  9. The Caspar Creek watersheds: a case study of cumulative effects in a small coastal basin in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. R. Ziemer; P. H. Cafferata

    1991-01-01

    Abstract - Since 1962, the 483-ha North Fork and 424-ha South Fork of Caspar Creek in northwestern California have been used to evaluate the hydrologic impacts of road building and harvesting second-growth redwood/Douglas-fir forests. Three tributaries are serving as untreated controls. In 1985, the study was modified to evaluate the cumulative watershed effects of...

  10. Simulation of streamflow in the McTier Creek watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Golden, Heather E.; Odom, Kenneth R.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul; Bradley, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The McTier Creek watershed is located in the Sand Hills ecoregion of South Carolina and is a small catchment within the Edisto River Basin. Two watershed hydrology models were applied to the McTier Creek watershed as part of a larger scientific investigation to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River Basin. The two models are the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL) and the grid-based mercury model (GBMM). TOPMODEL uses the variable-source area concept for simulating streamflow, and GBMM uses a spatially explicit modified curve-number approach for simulating streamflow. The hydrologic output from TOPMODEL can be used explicitly to simulate the transport of mercury in separate applications, whereas the hydrology output from GBMM is used implicitly in the simulation of mercury fate and transport in GBMM. The modeling efforts were a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory. Calibrations of TOPMODEL and GBMM were done independently while using the same meteorological data and the same period of record of observed data. Two U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations were available for comparison of observed daily mean flow with simulated daily mean flow-station 02172300, McTier Creek near Monetta, South Carolina, and station 02172305, McTier Creek near New Holland, South Carolina. The period of record at the Monetta gage covers a broad range of hydrologic conditions, including a drought and a significant wet period. Calibrating the models under these extreme conditions along with the normal flow conditions included in the record enhances the robustness of the two models. Several quantitative assessments of the goodness of fit between model simulations and the observed daily mean flows were done. These included the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient

  11. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn (Nez Perce Soil and Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2006-07-01

    The ''Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Big Canyon Creek Watershed'' is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Big Canyon Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District. Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period September 1, 2004 through October 31, 2005 include; 2.7 riparian miles treated, 3.0 wetland acres treated, 5,263.3 upland acres treated, 106.5 riparian acres treated, 76,285 general public reached, 3,000 students reached, 40 teachers reached, 18 maintenance plans completed, temperature data collected at 6 sites, 8 landowner applications received and processed, 14 land inventories completed, 58 habitat improvement project designs completed, 5 newsletters published, 6 habitat plans completed, 34 projects installed, 2 educational workshops, 6 displays, 1 television segment, 2 public service announcements, a noxious weed GIS coverage, and completion of NEPA, ESA, and cultural resources requirements.

  12. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1995-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2000-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contract agreement beginning in 1996 to fund watershed restoration and enhancement actions and contribute to recovery of fish and wildlife resources and water quality in the Grande Ronde River Basin. The CTUIR's habitat program is closely coordinated with the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program and multiple agencies and organizations within the basin. The CTUIR has focused during the past 4 years in the upper portions of the Grande Ronde Subbasin (upstream of LaGrande, Oregon) on several major project areas in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek watersheds and along the mainstem Grande Ronde River. This Annual Report provides an overview of individual projects and accomplishments.

  13. Identification of subwatershed sources for chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Ballona Creek watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Jane; Bush, Steven; Ha, Simon; Stenstrom, Michael K; Lau, Sim-Lin; Suffet, I H Mel

    2011-06-01

    Santa Monica Bay forms part of the western border of the greater Los Angeles region. The Ballona Creek watershed is highly urbanized and past studies indicate that Ballona Creek is the largest source for most pollutants to Santa Monica Bay. This study evaluates the contribution of subwatersheds to PCB and chlorinated pesticide loading during wet weather flow. Fifteen storm drains from these subwatersheds were sampled during three storms during the 2005-2006 winter rainy season. A series of grab samples were taken over the duration of the storms. The suspended solids were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to calculate the runoff volume from each subwatershed to estimate pollution mass loading. There was no statistical difference among subswatersheds; however, a disproportionate mass of PCB loading came from site 5, which had no obvious sources. No specific subwatersheds were identified as key sources for chlorinated pesticides. These results may serve as a model for other locations with concerns for historic PCB and chlorinated pesticides loadings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Case history of contamination control in Hubbard Creek Reservoir watershed, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenke, A.L.

    1967-01-01

    Construction of the Hubbard Creek Reservoir began in 1962. A single U.S.G.S. hydrologic station below the present damsite indicated that water acceptable by U.S.P.H.S. standards would be impounded. An increase in chloride load was noted beginning in 1958 and continuing into 1961. Consultants were employed to ascertain the source of the contamination. The consultants' report, is established that the watershed was naturally clean and that contamination originated primarily from salt water disposal pits, improperly plugged wells, and water escaping to the surface as a result of repressuring by waterfloods. Remedial work, including plugging leaking wells, a no-pit order the watershed by the Texas Railroad Commission effective March 1, 1964, the establishment of additional U.S.G.S. hydrologic stations, and a general clean-up by the oil industry significantly reduced the chlorides reaching the reservoir. These remedial measures, however, were insufficient to reduce chlorides entering the reservoir to less than 50 ppm.

  15. Looking both ways: the Jamieson Memorial Lecture, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2007-06-01

    The Jamieson Memorial Lecture, delivered annually to the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia, commemorates the life and work of a leading Australasian neurosurgeon, Dr Kenneth Grant Jamieson (1925-1976), of Melbourne and Brisbane. He was the first specialist neurosurgeon to be appointed to the Brisbane General Hospital, the Brisbane Children's Hospital and the newly established Princess Alexandra Hospital in Queensland, jointly in 1956. He went on to serve as President of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia (1971-1973) and as a Councillor of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons from 1971 until his death. His pioneering research to study the sociophysical interplay of factors leading not only to head and spinal injury but to those causing all life-threatening trauma gave weight (from 1961) to advocacy for the introduction of breathalyser surveillance and to the compulsory wearing of seat belts in cars. In international perspective, Kenneth Jamieson was a pioneering 'accidentologist'. He was one of the first clinicians to address seriously the extraordinary burden of mortality from road trauma. He was a role model for those clinicians who came to see their professional and ethical duties extending to preventive and public health domains, both within and beyond the aegis of their chosen specialties. He saw a need for integration between the many bodies teaching resuscitation and life-support skills; at the 1975 Annual Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, he moved the motion to establish the Australian Resuscitation Council. The vigour and outreach of the Australian Resuscitation Council today remain one of his memorials. In the clinical sphere, his research centred on the early drainage of extradural haematomata and from 1962 on the operative treatment of aneurysms of the vertebral and basilar arteries. He was a dominant and leading advocate for clinical teaching in neurosurgery, particularly for more formal and sophisticated

  16. Simulation of runoff and water quality for 1990 and 2008 land use conditions in the Reedy Creek watershed, East-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Schiffer, Donna M.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data have been collected within the 177-square-mile Reedy Creek, Florida, watershed, beginning as early as 1939, but the data have not been used to evaluate relations among land use, hydrology, and water quality. A model of the Reedy Creek watershed was developed and applied to the period January 1990 to December 1995 to provide a computational foundation for evaluating the effects of future land-use changes on hydrology and water quality in the watershed. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to simulate hydrology and water quality of runoff for pervious land areas, impervious land areas, and stream reaches. Six land-use types were used to characterize the hydrology and water quality of pervious and impervious land areas in the Reedy Creek watershed: agriculture, rangeland, forest, wetlands, rapid infiltration basins, and urban areas. Hydrologic routing and water-quality reactions were simulated to characterize hydrologic and water-quality processes and the movement of runoff and its constituents through the main stream channels and their tributaries. Because of the complexity of the stream system within the Reedy Creek Improvement District (RCID) (hydraulic structures, retention ponds) and the anticipated difficulty of modeling the system, an approach of calibrating the model parameters for a subset of the gaged watersheds and confirming the usefulness of the parameters by simulating the remainder of the gaged sites was selected for this study. Two sub-watersheds (Whittenhorse Creek and Davenport Creek) were selected for calibration because both have similar land use to watersheds within the RCID (with the exception of urban areas). Given the lack of available rainfall data, the hydrologic calibration of the Whittenhorse Creek and Davenport Creek sub-watersheds was considered acceptable (for monthly data, correlation coefficients, 0.86 and 0.88, and coefficients of model-fit efficiency, 0.72 and 0

  17. Prediction of suspended-sediment concentrations at selected sites in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogner, Sr., Robert W.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mau, David P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, Colorado Water Conservation Board, Colorado Springs City Engineering, and the Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District, began a small-scale pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a computational model of streamflow and suspended-sediment transport for predicting suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the Fountain Creek watershed in Colorado. Increased erosion and sedimentation damage have been identified by the Fountain Creek Watershed Plan as key problems within the watershed. A recommendation in the Fountain Creek Watershed plan for management of the basin is to establish measurable criteria to determine if progress in reducing erosion and sedimentation damage is being made. The major objective of this study was to test a computational method to predict local suspended-sediment loads at two sites with different geomorphic characteristics in order to evaluate the feasibility of using such an approach to predict local suspended-sediment loads throughout the entire watershed. Detailed topographic surveys, particle-size data, and suspended-sediment samples were collected at two gaged sites: Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07103970), and Sand Creek above mouth at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07105600). These data were used to construct three-dimensional computational models of relatively short channel reaches at each site. The streamflow component of these models predicted a spatially distributed field of water-surface elevation, water velocity, and bed shear stress for a range of stream discharges. Using the model predictions, along with measured particle sizes, the sediment-transport component of the model predicted the suspended-sediment concentration throughout the reach of interest. These computed concentrations were used with predicted flow patterns and channel morphology to

  18. Stable hydrogen isotopic compositions in plants and animals can provide ecosystem-hydrology connections: Santeelah Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, M. L.; Newsome, S.; Graves, G.

    2013-12-01

    Connecting a watershed to its ecosystem can be accomplished with stable isotope tracers of hydrogen and oxygen at the natural abundance level. We have concentrated our study on a watershed with a significant altitudinal gradient in North Carolina. The Santeelah Creek watershed extends from 700 to 1600 m and is host to a robust population of black-throated blue warblers (Setophaga caerulescens; BTBW), which feed almost exclusively on caterpillars and small insects during their breeding and molting periods in June and July. The forests in this watershed are composed of a rich flora, including Betula, Rhododendron, Acer, Quercus, along with shrubs, ferns, and mosses. The δD of plants and insects along with creek and spring water samples provided us with background information that we extrapolated to the landscape scale. In addition, we have 13 years of δD data of feathers collected from over 500 specimens of BTBW that were collected from specific territories throughout the watershed. Variations in δD of plants within the watershed was not correlated with altitude, however, specific plant species (e.g. Betula vs. ferns) provide a direct link to the within watershed hydrology, because the δD values of plants are dependent not only on the δD of source water, but also growth temperature and the amount of evaporative transpiration. The δD values of BTBW feathers also do not vary with altitude, but vary annually and correlate with the amount of growing season and annual precipitation from the previous year when feathers were grown. While the δD of avian feathers has become a proven technique for tracing the natal origins of birds, our dataset allows us to delve further into the connections between water-primary producers-consumers-predators that will provide insight into how these analyses are truly linked to the hydrology of their environment.

  19. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations and loads in the Cache Creek watershed, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L; Alpers, Charles N; Slotton, Darell G; Suchanek, Thomas H; Ayers, Shaun M

    2004-07-05

    Concentrations and loads of total mercury and methylmercury were measured in streams draining abandoned mercury mines and in the proximity of geothermal discharge in the Cache Creek watershed of California during a 17-month period from January 2000 through May 2001. Rainfall and runoff were lower than long-term averages during the study period. The greatest loading of mercury and methylmercury from upstream sources to downstream receiving waters, such as San Francisco Bay, generally occurred during or after winter rainfall events. During the study period, loads of mercury and methylmercury from geothermal sources tended to be greater than those from abandoned mining areas, a pattern attributable to the lack of large precipitation events capable of mobilizing significant amounts of either mercury-laden sediment or dissolved mercury and methylmercury from mine waste. Streambed sediments of Cache Creek are a significant source of mercury and methylmercury to downstream receiving bodies of water. Much of the mercury in these sediments is the result of deposition over the last 100-150 years by either storm-water runoff, from abandoned mines, or continuous discharges from geothermal areas. Several geochemical constituents were useful as natural tracers for mining and geothermal areas, including the aqueous concentrations of boron, chloride, lithium and sulfate, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Stable isotopes of water in areas draining geothermal discharges showed a distinct trend toward enrichment of (18)O compared with meteoric waters, whereas much of the runoff from abandoned mines indicated a stable isotopic pattern more consistent with local meteoric water.

  20. The development of an aquatic spill model for the White Oak Creek watershed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.O.

    1996-05-01

    This study develops an aquatic spill model applicable to the White Oak Creek watershed draining the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemicals are handled and stored on the laboratory reservation. An accidental spill into the White Oak Creek watershed could contaminate downstream water supplies if insufficient dilution did not occur. White Oak Creek empties into the Clinch River, which flows into the Tennessee River. Both rivers serve as municipal water supplies. The aquatic spill model provides estimates of the dilution at sequential downstream locations along White Oak creek and the Clinch River after an accidental spill of a liquid containing a radioactively decaying constituent. The location of the spill on the laboratory is arbitrary, while hydrologic conditions range from drought to extreme flood are simulated. The aquatic spill model provides quantitative estimates with which to assess water quality downstream from the site of the accidental spill, allowing an informed decision to be made whether to perform mitigating measures so that the integrity of affected water supplies is not jeopardized.

  1. Sacaton riparian grasslands of the Sky Islands: Mapping distribution and ecological condition using state-and-transition models in Upper Cienega Creek Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron Tiller; Melissa Hughes; Gita Bodner

    2013-01-01

    Riparian grasslands dominated by Sporobolus wrightii (big sacaton) were once widely distributed in the intermountain basins of the Madrean Archipelago. These alluvial grasslands are still recognized as key resources for watershed function, livestock, and wildlife. The upper Cienega Creek watershed in SE Arizona is thought to harbor some of the region’s most extensive...

  2. Instream investigations in the Beaver Creek Watershed in West Tennessee, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, T.D.; Carney, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a long-term scientific investigation in 1989 to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality and the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices in the Beaver Creek watershed, West Tennessee. In 1993 as a part of this study, the USGS, in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, Shelby County Soil Conservation District, and the Tennessee Soybean Promotion Board, began an evaluation of the physical, chemical, biological and hydrological factors that affect water quality in streams and wetlands, and instream resource-management systems to treat agricultural nonpoint-source runoff and improve water quality. The purpose of this report is to present the results of three studies of stream and wetland investigations and a study on the transport of aldicarb from an agricultural field in the Beaver Creek watershed. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and an artificially constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. These two studies showed that wetlands are an effective way to improve the quality of agricultural nonpoint-source runoff. The wetlands reduced concentrations and loads of suspended sediments, nutrients, and pesticides in the streams. A third paper documents the influence of riparian vegetation on the biological structure and water quality of a small stream draining an agricultural field. A comparison of the upper reach lined with herbaceous plants and the lower reach with mature woody vegetation showed a more stable biological community structure and Water- quality characteristics in the woody reach than in the herbaceous reach. The water-quality characteristics monitored were pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance. The herbaceous reach had a greater diversity and abundance of organisms during spring and early summer, but the abundance dropped by approximately

  3. Disability Exclusion and Rights: The Life Story of Alice Jamieson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Lynch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a commonly held belief that fear of disability by society is the reason for segregation of the disabled. Although acknowledging the validity of such a belief, this paper disputes this claim as it pertains to sufferers of mental illness. Specifically it explores one woman’s development of dissociative identity disorder as a result of years of incestuous abuse. Alice Jamieson developed multiple personalities in order to survive her horrendous childhood, which ultimately caused her to live a life of segregation and social exclusion. Alice did however; experience the enabling effects of positive, supportive relationships on rare occasions throughout her childhood (with her grandfather and her adult life (with a work colleague. The telling of her story bought Alice a powerful sense of healing and has helped raise awareness of childhood sexual abuse and its devastating consequences.

  4. Agricultural Nutrient Cycling at the Strawberry Creek Watershed: Insights Into Processes Using Stable Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuss, E.; English, M. C.; Spoelstra, J.

    2009-05-01

    When nitrogen availability exceeds biological demand, excess nitrogen, especially nitrate, may subsequently pollute ground and surface water. Agricultural practices in Southern Ontario typically supplement soils with organic and inorganic nutrients to aid in crop development, and employ various management techniques to limit nutrient loss. Excess nitrogen has several potential fates, which are controlled by the net effects of numerous nitrogen cycling reactions in the soil that are often difficult to measure directly. Nitrogen cycling in soils is controlled in large part by soil moisture, as it affects microbial activity and soil redox conditions. Stable isotope geochemistry is a powerful tool that provides information on nitrogen sources and processes. This study uses crop nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios to provide insights into the net effects of soil nitrogen cycling and nitrogen fate. This research was conducted at the Strawberry Creek Watershed (SCW), an agricultural research watershed located between Kitchener-Waterloo and Guelph, Ontario. The SCW exhibits elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater, tile discharge, and the stream itself. Previous isotopic work revealed that this nitrate is largely derived from chemical fertilizer and manure applications. Field-scale hydrological processes lead to areas where the fate of applied nitrogen differs, which has an isotopic effect on the residual nitrogen that is available to plants. Results of this study indicate significant patterns in the isotopic signature of plant tissue, in both temporal and spatial scales. At the plot-scale where soil conditions are similar, there is little to no variation in foliar isotope values, but at the field-scale there appears to be a significant amount of variability related to soil moisture and nitrogen loss. This relationship can potentially provide insight into ideal conditions for nitrogen uptake efficiency. Reducing agricultural nitrogen leaching to ground and surface

  5. Diets of three species of anurans from the cache creek watershed, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Meckstroth, A.M.; Wegner, K.E.; Jennings, M.R.; Crayon, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the diets of three sympatric anuran species, the native Northern Pacific Treefrog, Pseudacris regilla, and Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog, Rana boylii, and the introduced American Bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus, based on stomach contents of frogs collected at 36 sites in 1997 and 1998. This investigation was part of a study of mercury bioaccumulation in the biota of the Cache Creek Watershed in north-central California, an area affected by mercury contamination from natural sources and abandoned mercury mines. We collected R. boylii at 22 sites, L. catesbeianus at 21 sites, and P. regilla at 13 sites. We collected both L. catesbeianus and R. boylii at nine sites and all three species at five sites. Pseudacris regilla had the least aquatic diet (100% of the samples had terrestrial prey vs. 5% with aquatic prey), followed by R. boylii (98% terrestrial, 28% aquatic), and L. catesbeianus, which had similar percentages of terrestrial (81%) and aquatic prey (74%). Observed predation by L. catesbeianus on R. boylii may indicate that interaction between these two species is significant. Based on their widespread abundance and their preference for aquatic foods, we suggest that, where present, L. catesbeianus should be the species of choice for all lethal biomonitoring of mercury in amphibians. Copyright ?? 2009 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  6. Relation between stream-water quality and geohydrology during base-flow conditions, Roberts creek watershed, Clayton County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation to determine the relation between stream water quality and geohydrology in the Roberts Creek watershed, Clayton County, Iowa, was conducted during selected base-flow periods in 1988-90. Discharge measurements were made and water samples collected for analyses of nutrients and selected herbicides in 19 subbasins along the main stem and tributaries of Roberts Creek. The areal extent of unconsolidated and bedrock units subcropping in each subbasin was quantified. The hydrologic data were correlated statistically with the geologic data to determine relations. Roberts Creek generally gained water and had larger nitrogen concentrations in subbasins in which loess and alluvial material were underlain primarily by low-permeability till and shale units. Roberts Creek generally lost water and had lower nitrate concentrations in subbasins with subcropping karstic units. Nitrogen concentrations decreased in streams underlain by the karstic units because the nitrogen removed by biological processes was not replaced by ground-water inflow. Seepage from Roberts Creek to ground water in areas of subcropping karstic carbonate rocks reduced the flow, which reduced the velocity, causing increased residence time of water in the stream. The additional residence time may allow additional time for biological processes to remove nitrogen from solution. There was no significant relation between dissolved orthophosphate or atrazine and the underlying geology.

  7. Streamflow, groundwater hydrology, and water quality in the upper Coleto Creek watershed in southeast Texas, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Goliad County Groundwater Conservation District, Victoria County Groundwater Conservation District, Pecan Valley Groundwater Conservation District, Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority, and San Antonio River Authority, did a study to examine the hydrology and stream-aquifer interactions in the upper Coleto Creek watershed. Findings of the study will enhance the scientific understanding of the study-area hydrology and be used to support water-management decisions to help ensure protection of the Evangeline aquifer and surface-water resources in the study area. This report describes the results of streamflow measurements, groundwater-level measurements, and water quality (from both surface-water and groundwater sites) collected from three sampling events (July–August 2009, January 2010, and June 2010) designed to characterize groundwater (from the Evangeline aquifer) and surface water, and the interaction between them, in the upper Coleto Creek watershed upstream from Coleto Creek Reservoir in southeast Texas. This report also provides a baseline level of water quality for the upper Coleto Creek watershed. Three surface-water gain-loss surveys—July 29–30, 2009, January 11–13, 2010, and June 21–22, 2010—were done under differing hydrologic conditions to determine the locations and amounts of streamflow recharging or discharging from the Evangeline aquifer. During periods when flow in the reaches of the upper Coleto Creek watershed was common (such as June 2010, when 12 of 25 reaches were flowing) or probable (such as January 2010, when 22 of 25 reaches were flowing), most of the reaches appeared to be gaining (86 percent in January 2010 and 92 percent in June 2010); however, during drought conditions (July 2009), streamflow was negligible in the entire upper Coleto Creek watershed; streamflow was observed in only two reaches during this period, one that receives inflow directly from Audilet Spring and

  8. Sequential Sediment Budgets in an Ungauged Watershed: Redwood Creek, Marin County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, P. W.; Stallman, J.

    2005-12-01

    Sediment budgets provide an organizing framework in fluvial geomorphology and have enormous potential in environmental management. A sediment budget approach assisted in developing strategies for restoring Big Lagoon, the wetland ecosystem at the terminus of the 22.7 km2 Redwood Creek watershed in Marin County, California. Persistence of a restored lagoon largely depends on the current sediment yield relative to the reference yield prior to European settlement. Process-based, distributed sediment budgets were constructed for several historical time periods to account for accelerated sediment production from contemporary land management practices and legacy factors stemming from past resource exploitation. Sediment production, storage, and transfer were investigated using digital terrain modeling, field reconnaissance to ascertain and validate hillslope processes, mainstem channel surveys and dendrochronology to assess trends in alluvial sediment storage, application of published process rate estimates, use of short-term and prorated stream gauging records, and sediment transport modeling to validate sediment yields into Big Lagoon. Evidence suggests that the Redwood Creek valley bottom aggraded from at least 3,500 B.P., with floodplain wetlands acting as sediment sinks (average annual sediment yield of 34 t km2 yr-1). Channel incision rapidly followed European settlement and intensive hillslope disturbances beginning around 1840 (peak yield 1921-1982 of 324 t km2 yr-1). Mainstem and large tributary valley bottoms became major sediment sources during this time and remain sources despite progressive retirement of most agricultural land use (yield 1981-2000 of 198 t km2 yr-1). Numerous issues related to data availability and resolution limited quantification of some sediment sources and resulted in potential uncertainties in estimates of yield to Big Lagoon. Historical sediment budgets, however, require more than adequate data sources, they require accurate conceptual

  9. Selenium Speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA) Correlates with Water Hardness, Ca and Mg Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsella, James S; Sánchez-Lombardo, Irma; Bonetti, Sandra J; Crans, Debbie C

    2017-04-30

    The environmental levels of selenium (Se) are regulated and strictly enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) because of the toxicity that Se can exert at high levels. However, speciation plays an important role in the overall toxicity of Se, and only when speciation analysis has been conducted will a detailed understanding of the system be possible. In the following, we carried out the speciation analysis of the creek waters in three of the main tributaries-Upper Fountain Creek, Monument Creek and Lower Fountain Creek-located in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA). There are statistically significant differences between the Se, Ca and Mg, levels in each of the tributaries and seasonal swings in Se, Ca and Mg levels have been observed. There are also statistically significant differences between the Se levels when grouped by Pierre Shale type. These factors are considered when determining the forms of Se present and analyzing their chemistry using the reported thermodynamic relationships considering Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , SeO₄ 2- , SeO₃ 2- and carbonates. This analysis demonstrated that the correlation between Se and water hardness can be explained in terms of formation of soluble CaSeO₄. The speciation analysis demonstrated that for the Fountain Creek waters, the Ca 2+ ion may be mainly responsible for the observed correlation with the Se level. Considering that the Mg 2+ level is also correlating linearly with the Se levels it is important to recognize that without Mg 2+ the Ca 2+ would be significantly reduced. The major role of Mg 2+ is thus to raise the Ca 2+ levels despite the equilibria with carbonate and other anions that would otherwise decrease Ca 2+ levels.

  10. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  11. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-58) - Asotin Creek Channel, Floodplain and Riparian Restoration (2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarde, Richard [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2001-08-07

    BPA proposes to fund an instream and riparian habitat improvement project within the Asotin Creek watershed. This portion of the ongoing restoration program within the Asotin Creek watershed is comprised of the Hendrickson instream and riparian project and the George Creek instream and riparian project. These proposed projects include improving instream and riparian habitat, reestablishing geomorphic stability and enhancing the riparian plant community, by planting riparian vegetation, fencing cattle out of the riparian area, placement of large woody debris and constructing a stream channel within the unstable George Creek. The proposal calls for the removal of up to 300 feet of existing dikes and the placement of up to 10 rock weirs and 40 J-hook veins. Instream work would also include 4,300 feet of constructed meanders and 1,000 feet of constructed oxbow lakes and sediment berms.

  12. Gore Creek watershed, Colorado : assessment of historical and current water quantity, water quality, and aquatic ecology, 1968-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Kirby H.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Driver, Nancy E.

    2001-01-01

    The historical and current (1998) water-quantity, water-quality, and aquatic-ecology conditions in the Gore Creek watershed are described as part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Town of Vail, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. Interpretation of the available water-quantity, water-quality, and aquatic-ecology data collected by various agencies since 1968 showed that background geology and land use in the watershed influence the water quality and stream biota. Surface-water nutrient concentrations generally increased as water moved downstream through the Town of Vail, but concentrations at the mouth of Gore Creek were typical when compared with national data for urban/undeveloped sites. Nitrate concentrations in Gore Creek were highest just downstream from a wastewater-treatment plant discharge, but concentrations decreased at sites farther downstream because of dilution and nitrogen uptake by algae. Recent total phosphorus concentrations were somewhat elevated when compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended level of 0.10 milligram per liter for control of eutrophication in flowing water. However, total phosphorus concentrations at the mouth of Gore Creek were relatively low when compared to a national study of phosphorus in urban land-use areas. Historically, suspended sediment associated with construction of Interstate 70 in the early 1970's has been of primary concern; however, recent data indicate that streambed aggradation of sediment originating from Interstate 70 traction sanding currently is a greater concern. About 4,000 tons of coarse sand and fine gravel is washed into Black Gore Creek each year following application of traction materials to Interstate 70 during adverse winter driving conditions. Suspended-sediment concentrations were low in Black Gore Creek; however, bedload-transport rates of as much as 4 tons per day have been measured

  13. Selenium Speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA Correlates with Water Hardness, Ca and Mg Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Carsella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental levels of selenium (Se are regulated and strictly enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA because of the toxicity that Se can exert at high levels. However, speciation plays an important role in the overall toxicity of Se, and only when speciation analysis has been conducted will a detailed understanding of the system be possible. In the following, we carried out the speciation analysis of the creek waters in three of the main tributaries—Upper Fountain Creek, Monument Creek and Lower Fountain Creek—located in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA. There are statistically significant differences between the Se, Ca and Mg, levels in each of the tributaries and seasonal swings in Se, Ca and Mg levels have been observed. There are also statistically significant differences between the Se levels when grouped by Pierre Shale type. These factors are considered when determining the forms of Se present and analyzing their chemistry using the reported thermodynamic relationships considering Ca2+, Mg2+, SeO42−, SeO32− and carbonates. This analysis demonstrated that the correlation between Se and water hardness can be explained in terms of formation of soluble CaSeO4. The speciation analysis demonstrated that for the Fountain Creek waters, the Ca2+ ion may be mainly responsible for the observed correlation with the Se level. Considering that the Mg2+ level is also correlating linearly with the Se levels it is important to recognize that without Mg2+ the Ca2+ would be significantly reduced. The major role of Mg2+ is thus to raise the Ca2+ levels despite the equilibria with carbonate and other anions that would otherwise decrease Ca2+ levels.

  14. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Basin Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    1999-07-01

    This Annual Report provides a detailed overview of watershed restoration accomplishments achieved by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and project partners in the Upper Grande Ronde River Basin under contract with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) during the period July 1, 1997 through June 30, 1998. The Contract Agreement entitled McCoy Meadows Watershed Restoration Project (Project No.96-83-01) includes habitat restoration planning, design, and implementation in two project areas--the McCoy Meadows Ranch located in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek subbasins on private land and the Mainstem Grande Ronde River Habitat Enhancement Project located on private and National Forest System lands near Bird Tract Springs along the Grande Ronde River. During the contract period, the CTUIR and partners (Mark and Lorna Tipperman, landowners), Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), and Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) initiated phase 1 construction of the McCoy Meadows Restoration Project. Phase 1 involved reintroduction of a segment of McCoy Creek from its existing channelized configuration into a historic meander channel. Project efforts included bioengineering and tree/shrub planting and protection, transporting salvaged cottonwood tree boles and limbs from offsite source to the project area for utilization by resident beaver populations for forage and dam construction materials, relocation of existing BPA/ODFW riparian corridor fencing to outer edges of meadow floodplain, establishment of pre-project photo points, and coordination of other monitoring and evaluation efforts being led by other project partners including groundwater monitoring wells, channel cross sections, water quality monitoring stations, juvenile population sampling index sites, redd surveys, and habitat surveys. Project activities also included

  15. Field and laboratory assessment of a coal processing effluent in the Leading Creek Watershed, Meigs County, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, A.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Currie, R.J. [Virginia Polytechnique Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Biology

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has not recommended water quality criteria (WQC) to protect aquatic life from elevated sodium and sulfate concentrations, such as those associated with the coal-processing effluent of Meigs County Mine No. 31. This discharge, received by a tributary of the Leading Creek Watershed (SE Ohio), had a mean specific conductivity (SC) of 8,109 (7,750-8,750) {mu}S/cm and total metal concentrations below acute WQC. The mean 48h LC50 for Ceriodaphnia dubia in the effluent was 6,713 +/- 99 {mu}S/cm; mean 48h survival was 44% for study sites downstream of the effluent. The best indicators of impairment used in this study were Ceriodaphnia fecundity, in situ Corbicula fluminea growth, EPT minus Hydropsychidae (richness and relative abundance), and relative Ephemeroptera abundance. Mayflies, reduced by more than 99% below the effluent, were absent from all but the furthest downstream study site. SC was strongly correlated with Corbicula growth and EPT minus Hydropsychidae richness, suggesting the effluent was primarily responsible for biotic impairment. The results indicated that SC levels, a measure of dissolved solids, in the Leading Creek Watershed that exceeded about to 3,700 {mu}S/cm impaired sensitive aquatic fauna.

  16. Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3

  17. Travel time analysis for a subsurface drained sub-watershed in Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff travel time, which is a function of watershed and storm characteristics, is an important parameter affecting the prediction accuracy of hydrologic models. Although, time of concentration (tc) is a most widely used time parameter, it has multiple conceptual and computational definitions. Most ...

  18. Technical review of managed underground storage of water study of the upper Catherine Creek watershed, Union County, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Because of water diversions during summer, flow in Catherine Creek, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon, is insufficient to sustain several aquatic species for which the stream is listed as critical habitat. A feasibility study for managed underground storage (MUS) in the upper Catherine Creek watershed in Union County, Oregon, was undertaken by Anderson Perry and Associates, Inc., to address the issue of low flows in summer. The results of the study were released as a report titled “Upper Catherine Creek Storage Feasibility Study for Grande Ronde Model Watershed,” which evaluated the possibility of diverting Catherine Creek streamflow during winter (when stream discharge is high), storing the water by infiltration or injection into an aquifer adjacent to the stream, and discharging the water back to the stream in summer to augment low flows. The method of MUS would be accomplished using either (1) aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) that allows for the injection of water that meets drinking-water-quality standards into an aquifer for later recovery and use, or (2) artificial recharge (AR) that involves the intentional addition of water diverted from another source to a groundwater reservoir. Concerns by resource managers that the actions taken to improve water availability for upper Catherine Creek be effective, cost-efficient, long-term, and based on sound analysis led the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to request that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent review and evaluation of the feasibility study. This report contains the results of that review. The primary objectives of the Anderson Perry and Associates study reviewed here included (1) identifying potentially fatal flaws with the concept of using AR and (or) ASR to augment the streamflow of Catherine Creek, (2) identifying potentially favorable locations for augmenting streamflow, (3) developing and evaluating alternatives for implementing AR and (or) ASR, and

  19. Impacts to Humboldt Bay NWR from forestry and dairy activities in the Salmon Creek Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The freshwater creeks, brackish water sloughs, saltwater marshes and mud flats found on the Humboldt Bay National Refuge provide habitats for at least 110 species of...

  20. Hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds

  1. Minnehaha Creek Watershed SWMM5 Model Data Analysis and Future Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Water Bodies Organization 1 SWMM5 LMCW EPA 1 HEC - RAS Minnehaha Creek and Lake Minnetonka system HEC 2 CE-QUAL-W2 Lake Minnetonka system ERDC...and adjusted as needed to adequately address project goals and priorities. SWMM5 and HEC - RAS are the recommended Tier 1 models. The current SWMM5...model is an appropriate modeling platform for modeling subbasins in the LMCW. HEC - RAS should be used to model Minnehaha Creek and the Lake Minnetonka

  2. Environmental data for the White Oak Creek/White Oak Lake watershed: Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 2779

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, C.B.; Loar, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which drains approximately 16.8 km/sup 2/ (6.5 mile/sup 2/). The waters of WOC are impounded by White Oak Dam at WOC's intersection with White Wing Road (State Route 95), 1.0 km (0.6 mile) upstream from the Clinch River. The resulting White Oak Lake (WOL) is a small, shallow impoundment, whose water level is controlled by a vertical sluice gate that remains in a fixed position during normal operations. White Oak Creek has been utilized for the discharge of treated and untreated wastes from routine operations since the Laboratory's inception. In addition, most of the more recent (1954 to date) liquid and solid low-level-waste disposal operations have been located in the drainage area of WOC. As a federally owned facility, ORNL is required to comply with all existing federal, state, and local environmental regulations regarding waste management. On July 15, 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency published final rules to incorporate changes in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 that resulted from the passage of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. As a part of the rule changes, a new Sect. 3004(u) was added. The new section requires that any facility permit issued after November 8, 1984, include planned corrective actions for all continuing releases of hazardous waste or constituents from any disposal unit at the facility, regardless of when the waste was placed at the disposal unit. This report was prepared to compile existing information on the content and quantity of hazardous substances (both radioactive and nonradioactive) in the WOC/WOL watershed and to provide background information on the geology, hydrology, and ecology of the site for use in planning future remedial actions. 109 refs., 45 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. A PCSWMM/GIS-based water balance model for the Reesor Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Li, J.; Banting, D.

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of a watershed experiencing the pressures of land-use change resulting from urban development. The study was undertaken to facilitate an understanding of the water balance of the watershed by developing and implementing watershed procedures that are to be addressed in a watershed plan. There were three components to the research: firstly, observation of the effects of spatially distributed rainfall measurements and their effect on modelling were assessed. Secondly, the model was then calibrated by observing how differing techniques can discretize both the landscape (e.g. land-use and soil type) and incoming precipitation. Finally, a modelling methodology was developed to integrate a Geographic Information System and a hydrologic model (e.g. Storm Water Management Model) in a water balance analysis on a watershed basis. Results show that, under certain conditions, kriging spatially distributed rainfall values can help predict rainfall at ungauged (virtual) sites. Discretization of a watershed was found to affect the differences between measured and generated runoff volumes; however, this can be refined with calibration. It was seen that a strong correlation between measured and predicted rainfall values did not always guarantee a strong relationship between measured and generated runoff Recommendations include the use of a longer time series of rainfall, streamflow and predicted rainfall to observe temporal variations, and the need to assess the differences in modelled rainfall values generated by various surface interpolation methods (e.g. Inverse Distance Weighting and other kriging options) currently available in GIS packages.

  4. Jamieson Meets Lucas: Eloquence and Pedagogical Model(s) in "The Art of Public Speaking."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobish, Todd S.

    2000-01-01

    Examines Kathleen Hall Jamieson's theory of "eloquence in the electronic age." Explores "The Art of Public Speaking," finding that it takes little account of the latest developments in rhetorical theory and changes in expectations of public speaking and eloquence. Suggests how public speaking texts might uphold the classical virtues of eloquence…

  5. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

  6. Physically-Based Distributed-Parameter Hydrologic Modeling of the Bull Creek Watershed, Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L. B.; Sharif, H. O.; French, R. H.

    2007-05-01

    Recent advances in computing power, data storage and the increased availability of spatially distributed data sets have encouraged research into the benefits and potential applications of physically-based, distributed hydrologic models. Physically-based, distributed parameter, structured grid models simulate watershed processes using physics-based equations, such as energy, momentum and continuity. Hydrologic parameters are specified for each grid cell within the model domain in an effort to best represent the spatial variability of watershed characteristics. The intent of this study is to contribute to the ongoing effort to evaluate the physically-based, distributing modeling approach for hydrologic study, flood forecasting and other applications. The hydrology of a partially urbanized watershed located in Austin, Texas is simulated using the physically-based, distributed parameter model Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA). GIS-based data sets, collected from publicly available sources and the City of Austin Watershed Protection Division, were processed using ArcGIS version 9.1 and the Watershed Modeling System graphical modeling environment. NEXRAD precipitation data for three significant rain events were processed and quality-controlled using rain-gauge observations. Model-generated hydrographs for these events were compared to observed flow data at a USGS flow gage located at the basin outlet.

  7. Annual hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed: Water Year 1990 (October 1989--September 1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Moore, G.K.; Watts, J.A.; Broders, C.C.; Bednarek, A.T.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes, for the Water Year 1990 (October 1989-- September 1990), the dynamic hydrologic data collected on the Whiteoak Creek (WOC) Watershed's surface and subsurface flow systems. These systems affect the quality or quantity of surface water and groundwater. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to 1. characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow system, 2. plan and assess remedial action activities, and 3. provide long-term availability of data and assure quality. Characterizing the hydrology of the WOC watershed provides a better understanding of the processes which drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identifying of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. Hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. The majority of the data summarized in this report are available from the Remedial Action Programs Data and Information Management System data base. Surface water data available within the WOC flow system include discharge and runoff, surface water quality, radiological and chemical contamination of sediments, and descriptions of the outfalls to the WOC flow system. Climatological data available for the Oak Ridge area include precipitation, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction. Information on groundwater levels, aquifer characteristics, and groundwater quality are presented. Anomalies in the data and problems with monitoring and accuracy are discussed. 58 refs., 54 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Fluvial responses to land-use changes and climatic variations within the Drury Creek watershed, southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne Orbock; Ritter, Dale F.; Kochel, R. Craig; Miller, Jerry R.

    1993-04-01

    Fluvial responses to climatic variation and Anglo-American settlement were documented for the Drury Creek watershed, southern Illinois by examining stratigraphic, geomorphic, climatic, and historical data. Regional analyses of long-term precipitation records document a period of decreasing mean annual precipitation from 1904 to about 1945, and an increasing trend in annual precipitation from 1952 to the present. The period between 1945 and 1951 experienced a large number of intense storms that resulted in high annual precipitation totals. Statistical relationships illustrate that changes in precipitation totals are transferred to the hydrologic system as fluctuations in stream discharge. Historical records of southern Illinois show that a maximum period of settlement and deforestation occurred between the 1860s and 1920s. This era ended in the 1940s when large tracts of land were revegetated in an attempt to curtail erosion which had caused extensive upland degradation. In response to hillslope erosion at least two meters of fine-grained sediments were deposited on valley floors. Average sedimentation rates, determined using decdrochronologic techniques, are estimated to be 2.11 cm/yr for the period between 1890 and 1988; rates that are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater than pre-settlement values calculated for other areas of the midwest. However, botanical data suggest that aggradation was episodic, possibly occurring during three periods characterized by greater annual precipitation. Since the 1940s, sedimentation rates have declined. Reduced rates of sedimentation are related to an episode of channel entrenchment that reduced overbank flooding. Entrenchment coincided with a period of: (1) reduced sediment yields associated with watershed revegetation and the introduction of soil conservation practices, and (2) intense storm activity that resulted in long periods of high discharge. As a result of channel incision and hillslope erosion, newly exposed bedrock in

  9. Bean creek watershed conservation tillage demonstration project. Final report, 1982-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.; Haskins, D.; Van Wagoner, T.

    1991-02-01

    The Hillsdale and Lenawee Soil Conservation Districts, to fulfill the goal of demonstrating conservation tillage practices to farmers in the watershed, used Environmental Protection Agency grant funds to purchase a John Deere 7000 Conservation planter. A truck for transporting the planter, a weigh wagon for yield testing, and a ridge till cultivator were also purchased. The equipment, and the Project Specialist became the crux of the tillage project. To demonstrate no-till planting to farmers in the watershed volunteers willing to try some no-till were sought. Using these volunteer farmers fields as demonstrations, and compiling data from them, was the major thrust of the project. Participation was excellent, and request for assistance grew steadily, as did no-till acreage both in the watershed and the entire counties involved.

  10. Prioritizing Road Treatments using the Geomorphic Roads Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) to Improve Watershed Conditions in the Wall Creek Watershed, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, K. T.; Black, T.; Clifton, C.; Luce, C.; McCune, S.; Nelson, N.

    2010-12-01

    Wall Creek, tributary to the North Fork John Day River in eastern Oregon, was identified as a priority watershed by the Umatilla National Forest for restoration in 2002. Most streams in this 518 km2 multi-ownership watershed are designated critical habitat for threatened steelhead. Eight streams are listed on the Oregon 303(d) list for elevated temperatures and excess sedimentation. Over 1000 km of public and private roads in the watershed present a major source of potential water quality and habitat impairment. We conducted a watershed-wide inventory of roads using the Geomorphic Roads Analysis and Inventory Package (GRAIP) in 2009 to quantify sediment contributions from roads to streams. GRAIP is a field and GIS-based model developed by the Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Utah State University that georeferences and quantifies road hydrologic connectivity, sediment production and delivery, mass wasting, and risk of diversion and plugging at stream crossings. Field survey and modeling produced data for 6,473 drainage locations on 726 km of road (most of the publically owned roads) quantifying the location and mass of sediment produced and delivered to streams. Findings indicate a relatively small subset of roads deliver the majority of road-produced fine sediment; 12 percent of the road length delivers 90 percent of the total fine sediment to streams. Overall fine sediment production in the watershed is relatively low (with an estimated background erosion rate of 518,000 kg/yr for the watershed) and sediment produced and delivered from the road system appears to be a modest addition. Road surfaces produce approximately 81,455 kg of fine sediment per year, with 20,976 kg/year delivered to the stream network. Fifty-nine gullies were observed, 41 of which received road runoff. Sixteen road-related landslides were also observed. The excavated volume of these features totals 3,922,000 kg which is equivalent to 175 years of fine sediment delivery at

  11. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Libby Creek (Lower Cleveland) Stabilization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-07-29

    This project is follow-up to stream stabilization activities on Libby Creek that were initiated on the Upper Cleveland reach of Libby Creek 2 years ago. BPA now proposes to fund FWP to complete channel stabilization activities on the Lower Cleveland reach of Libby Creek, reduce sediment sources, convert overwidened portions of the stream into self-maintaining channel types, use natural stream stabilization techniques, and improve wildlife migratory corridors. This lower reach is about one river mile below the upper Cleveland Reach and the proposed activities are very similar to those conducted before. The current work would be constructed in two additional phases. The first phase of the Lower Cleveland project would be completed in the fall of 2004 (9/1/04--12/31/04), to include the upper 3,100 feet. The second phase will be constructed in the fall of 2005 (9/1/05--12/31/05), to include stabilizing the remaining 6,200 feet of stream. The Cleveland reaches are a spawning and rearing tributary for resident redband trout, and resident and fluvial bull trout migrating from the Kootenai River. The planned work at the two remaining phases calls for shaping cut banks; installing root wads and tree revetments; installing channel grade control structures; planting native vegetation; and installing cross vanes constructed from rock and trees to control channel gradient. In the past, this reach of Libby Creek has been degraded by past management practices, including road building, hydraulic and dredge mining, and riparian logging. This past activity has resulted in accelerated bank erosion along a number of meander bends, resulting in channel degradation and poor fish habitat. Currently the stream channel is over-widened and shallow having limited pool habitat. The current stream channel is over-widened and shallow, having limited pool habitat.

  12. Herbicide transport trends in Goodwater Creek experimental watershed II: acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, and metribuzin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmers in the Midwestern United States continue to be reliant on soil-applied herbicides for weed control in row crop production, and herbicide contamination of surface waters. Runoff-prone watersheds remain an environmental problem. The primary objective of this study was to analyze trends in conc...

  13. Site-specific critical acid load estimates for forest soils in the Osborn Creek watershed, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevor Hobbs; Jason Lynch; Randy. Kolka

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic acid deposition has the potential to accelerate leaching of soil cations, and in turn, deplete nutrients essential to forest vegetation. The critical load concept, employing a simple mass balance (SMB) approach, is often used to model this process. In an evaluation under the U.S. Forest Service Watershed Condition Framework program, soils in all 6th level...

  14. Comparison of TOPMODEL streamflow simulations using NEXRAD-based and measured rainfall data, McTier Creek watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Westcott, Nancy E.; Hudson, Robert J.M.; Conrads, Paul; Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall is an important forcing function in most watershed models. As part of a previous investigation to assess interactions among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations in the Edisto River Basin, the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL) was applied in the McTier Creek watershed in Aiken County, South Carolina. Measured rainfall data from six National Weather Service (NWS) Cooperative (COOP) stations surrounding the McTier Creek watershed were used to calibrate the McTier Creek TOPMODEL. Since the 1990s, the next generation weather radar (NEXRAD) has provided rainfall estimates at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than the NWS COOP network. For this investigation, NEXRAD-based rainfall data were generated at the NWS COOP stations and compared with measured rainfall data for the period June 13, 2007, to September 30, 2009. Likewise, these NEXRAD-based rainfall data were used with TOPMODEL to simulate streamflow in the McTier Creek watershed and then compared with the simulations made using measured rainfall data. NEXRAD-based rainfall data for non-zero rainfall days were lower than measured rainfall data at all six NWS COOP locations. The total number of concurrent days for which both measured and NEXRAD-based data were available at the COOP stations ranged from 501 to 833, the number of non-zero days ranged from 139 to 209, and the total difference in rainfall ranged from -1.3 to -21.6 inches. With the calibrated TOPMODEL, simulations using NEXRAD-based rainfall data and those using measured rainfall data produce similar results with respect to matching the timing and shape of the hydrographs. Comparison of the bias, which is the mean of the residuals between observed and simulated streamflow, however, reveals that simulations using NEXRAD-based rainfall tended to underpredict streamflow overall. Given that the total NEXRAD-based rainfall data for the simulation period is lower than the

  15. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted fro, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain...

  16. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain to characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with surficial geology interpreted, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2007. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Surficial Geology - LIDAR �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal...

  17. Geology, Surficial, Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain characterize geomorphology, surficial geology, shallow aquifers and confining units; shape file with geomorphic map units interpreted from, Published in 2006, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geology, Surficial dataset current as of 2006. Little Contentnea Creek Watershed Geomorphology - DRG �Äö?Ñ?¨ Watershed-scale project in Middle Coastal Plain...

  18. From Mountains to Plains: The Hydrogeochemistry of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado during High- and Low-Flow Conditions 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, P. L.; Murphy, S. F.; McCleskey, R. B.; Barber, L. B.; Roth, D. A.

    2002-05-01

    A hydrogeochemical study of the Boulder Creek watershed was undertaken to evaluate natural and anthropogenic sources of solutes and the geochemical processes that affect stream chemistry. The Boulder Creek watershed, 1160 km{2}, is in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and can be delineated into five physiographic/land use regions: the headwater region (elev. 4100 to 2600 m, tundra to pine/fir forest, Precambrian and Tertiary gneisses and plutons, sparse habitation), the mountain corridor (elev. 2600 to 1750 m, ponderosa pine, Precambrian and Tertiary gneisses and plutons, small mountain communities), the urban region (elev. 1750 to 1560 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, City of Boulder), the wastewater-dominated reach (elev. 1560 to 1540 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, sewage treatment plant effluent), and the agriculture region (elev. 1540 to 1480 m, grassland, Mesozoic sedimentary units, mixed urban and agricultural). Potential anthropogenic sources of solutes include: mining (hardrock and aggregate), septic systems, highway runoff, urban wastewater, and agricultural practices. A 70 km reach of Boulder Creek (16 sites) and its major inflows (13 sites) were sampled during high- and low-flow conditions in 2000. At all sites, discharge was measured or estimated, and water samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and organic carbon. At selected sites, analyses also included a suite of pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and wastewater-derived organic compounds and the strontium isotopic composition. Stream water in the headwater region is a dilute Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4- water, and in the mountain corridor a slight increase in solutes was observed. Within the urban reach solute concentrations increased, with the most dramatic increase below the sewage treatment plant. Many constituents continue to increase in concentration through the urban/agriculture region. Similar trends were observed during high- and low-flow conditions with

  19. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross

  20. The effects of green infrastructure on exceedance of critical shear stress in Blunn Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannak, Sa'd.

    2017-10-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) has attracted city planners and watershed management professional as a new approach to control urban stormwater runoff. Several regulatory enforcements of GI implementation created an urgent need for quantitative information on GI practice effectiveness, namely for sediment and stream erosion. This study aims at investigating the capability and performance of GI in reducing stream bank erosion in the Blackland Prairie ecosystem. To achieve the goal of this study, we developed a methodology to represent two types of GI (bioretention and permeable pavement) into the Soil Water Assessment Tool, we also evaluated the shear stress and excess shear stress for stream flows in conjunction with different levels of adoption of GI, and estimated potential stream bank erosion for different median soil particle sizes using real and design storms. The results provided various configurations of GI schemes in reducing the negative impact of urban stormwater runoff on stream banks. Results showed that combining permeable pavement and bioretention resulted in the greatest reduction in runoff volumes, peak flows, and excess shear stress under both real and design storms. Bioretention as a stand-alone resulted in the second greatest reduction, while the installation of detention pond only had the least reduction percentages. Lastly, results showed that the soil particle with median diameter equals to 64 mm (small cobbles) had the least excess shear stress across all design storms, while 0.5 mm (medium sand) soil particle size had the largest magnitude of excess shear stress. The current study provides several insights into a watershed scale for GI planning and watershed management to effectively reduce the negative impact of urban stormwater runoff and control streambank erosion.

  1. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, D.M.; Ziegler, K.S.; Reece, D.K.; Watts, J.A.; Frederick, B.J.; McCalla, W.L.; Pridmore, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes, for the 12-month period January through December 1994, the available dynamic hydrologic data collected on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed as well as information collected on surface flow systems in the surrounding vicinity that may affect the quality or quantity of surface water in the watershed. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to characterize the quantity and quality of water in the surface flow system, assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities, provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance of these data, and support long-term measures of contaminant fluxes at a spatial scale to provide a comprehensive picture of watershed performance that is commensurate with future remedial actions.

  2. Influence of hydrological conditions on the Escherichia coli population structure in the water of a creek on a rural watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratajczak Mehdy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium of the gastro-intestinal tract of human and vertebrate animals, although the aquatic environment could be a secondary habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydrological conditions on the structure of the E. coli population in the water of a creek on a small rural watershed in France composed of pasture and with human occupation. Results It became apparent, after studying the distribution in the four main E. coli phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D, the presence of the hly (hemolysin gene and the antibiotic resistance pattern, that the E. coli population structure was modified not only by the hydrological conditions (dry versus wet periods, rainfall events, but also by how the watershed was used (presence or absence of cattle. Isolates of the B1 phylo-group devoid of hly and sensitive to antibiotics were particularly abundant during the dry period. During the wet period and the rainfall events, contamination from human sources was predominantly characterized by strains of the A phylo-group, whereas contamination by cattle mainly involved B1 phylo-group strains resistant to antibiotics and exhibiting hly. As E. coli B1 was the main phylo-group isolated in water, the diversity of 112 E. coli B1 isolates was further investigated by studying uidA alleles (beta-D-glucuronidase, the presence of hly, the O-type, and antibiotic resistance. Among the forty epidemiolgical types (ETs identified, five E. coli B1 ETs were more abundant in slightly contaminated water. Conclusions The structure of an E. coli population in water is not stable, but depends on the hydrological conditions and on current use of the land on the watershed. In our study it was the ratio of A to B1 phylo-groups that changed. However, a set of B1 phylo-group isolates seems to be persistent in water, strengthening the hypothesis that they may correspond to specifically adapted strains.

  3. Effects of groundwater levels and headwater wetlands on streamflow in the Charlie Creek basin, Peace River watershed, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.M.; Sacks, L.A.; Hughes, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Charlie Creek basin was studied from April 2004 to December 2005 to better understand how groundwater levels in the underlying aquifers and storage and overflow of water from headwater wetlands preserve the streamflows exiting this least-developed tributary basin of the Peace River watershed. The hydrogeologic framework, physical characteristics, and streamflow were described and quantified for five subbasins of the 330-square mile Charlie Creek basin, allowing the contribution of its headwaters area and tributary subbasins to be separately quantified. A MIKE SHE model simulation of the integrated surface-water and groundwater flow processes in the basin was used to simulate daily streamflow observed over 21 months in 2004 and 2005 at five streamflow stations, and to quantify the monthly and annual water budgets for the five subbasins including the changing amount of water stored in wetlands. Groundwater heads were mapped in Zone 2 of the intermediate aquifer system and in the Upper Floridan aquifer, and were used to interpret the location of artesian head conditions in the Charlie Creek basin and its relation to streamflow. Artesian conditions in the intermediate aquifer system induce upward groundwater flow into the surficial aquifer and help sustain base flow which supplies about two-thirds of the streamflow from the Charlie Creek basin. Seepage measurements confirmed seepage inflow to Charlie Creek during the study period. The upper half of the basin, comprised largely of the Upper Charlie Creek subbasin, has lower runoff potential than the lower basin, more storage of runoff in wetlands, and periodically generates no streamflow. Artesian head conditions in the intermediate aquifer system were widespread in the upper half of the Charlie Creek basin, preventing downward leakage from expansive areas of wetlands and enabling them to act as headwaters to Charlie Creek once their storage requirements were met. Currently, the dynamic balance between wetland

  4. Hydrology and Climatology of the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed, Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    TalC.Phsclhyrlgcibocersisofteurio-oe Creek23. Reeac 256-770 d 11.1e 0.93ec 3.0 41.0ge 9.) 70 2. Cm Arcoe strew 6.7ia elvto of02 4.0 0.96 0.0 10.0tio 16...ground from October to mid-April; the average A = ARCOS (-TM/TA) duration of snow cover in the Fairbanks area is TS = TM + TA[SIN(A)/ A] about 214 days...central Alaska streams with those for streams in pie . more temperate areas, a "variability index" is In summary, the flow-duration curves of Poker 24

  5. Ambient and potential denitrification rates in marsh soils of Northeast Creek and Bass Harbor Marsh watersheds, Mount Desert Island, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Thomas G.; Culbertson, Charles W.; Duff, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from atmospheric deposition, agricultural activities, wildlife, and domestic sources is a concern at Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island, Maine, because of the potential problems of degradation of water quality and eutrophication in estuaries. Degradation of water quality has been observed at Bass Harbor Marsh estuary in the park but only minimally in Northeast Creek estuary. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have estimated nutrient inputs to estuaries from atmospheric deposition and surface-water runoff, and have identified shallow groundwater as an additional potential source of nutrients. Previous studies at Acadia National Park have assumed that a certain fraction of the nitrogen input was removed through microbial denitrification, but rates of denitrification (natural or maximum potential) in marsh soils have not been determined. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Acadia National Park, measured in-place denitrification rates in marsh soils in Northeast Creek and in Bass Harbor Marsh watersheds during summer 2008 and summer 2009. Denitrification was measured under ambient conditions as well as after additions of inorganic nitrogen and glucose. In-place denitrification rates under ambient conditions were similar to those reported for other coastal wetlands, although they were generally lower than those reported for salt marshes having high ambient concentrations of nitrate (NO3). Denitrification rates generally increased by at least an order of magnitude following NO3 additions, with or without glucose (as the carbohydrate) additions, compared with the ambient treatments that received no nutrient additions. The treatment that added both glucose and NO3 resulted in a variety of denitrification responses when compared with the addition of NO3 alone. In most cases, the addition of glucose to a given rate of NO3 addition resulted in higher rates of denitrification. These variable responses indicate that the amount of

  6. Pesticides in groundwater in the Anacostia River and Rock Creek watersheds in Washington, D.C., 2005 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koterba, Michael T.; Dieter, Cheryl A.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the District Department of the Environment, conducted a groundwater-quality investigation to (a) determine the presence, concentrations, and distribution of selected pesticides in groundwater, and (b) assess the presence of pesticides in groundwater in relation to selected landscape, hydrogeologic, and groundwater-quality characteristics in the shallow groundwater underlying the Anacostia River and Rock Creek watersheds in Washington, D.C. With one exception, well depths were 100 feet or less below land surface. The USGS obtained or compiled ancillary data and information on land use (2001), subsurface sediments, and groundwater samples from 17 wells in the lower Anacostia River watershed from September through December 2005, and from 14 wells in the lower Anacostia River and lower Rock Creek watersheds from August through September 2008. Twenty-seven pesticide compounds, reflecting at least 19 different types of pesticides, were detected in the groundwater samples obtained in 2005 and 2008. No fungicides were detected. In relation to the pesticides detected, degradate compounds were as or more likely to be detected than applied (parent) compounds. The detected pesticides chiefly reflected herbicides commonly used in urban settings for non-specific weed control or insecticides used for nonspecific haustellate insects (insects with specialized mouthparts for sucking liquid) or termite-specific control. Detected pesticides included a combination of pesticides currently (2008) in use, banned or under highly restricted use, and some that had replaced the banned or restricted-use pesticides. The presence of banned and restricted-use pesticides illustrates their continued persistence and resistance to complete degradation in the environment. The presence of the replacement pesticides indicates the susceptibility of the surficial aquifer to contamination irrespective of the changes in the pesticides used. A

  7. Historical data review and source analysis of PCBs/Arochlors in the Lower Leon Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Heather J; Sokoly, Diana; Johnson, Drew W

    2017-02-01

    PCBs have been banned since the late 1970s, but concentrations still exist in sediments and riverine fish and continue to exceed regulatory limits which can result in negative health effects. This study looks at historical records of PCB and Arochlor concentrations in surface water, sediments, and fish tissue for the Lower Leon Creek, Bexar County in Texas. Temporal analysis on the concentrations of PCBs and Arochlors was conducted for detection and exceedance of selected screening criteria. In addition, the half-lives of select PCB congeners were calculated for 2007-2012 data to ascertain differences in PCB concentrations with their hydrophobicity. Source analysis was conducted to determine the potential contributing sources of PCB contamination using source data (landfills, outfalls, etc.) and the PCB exceedance data. For sediment and fish tissue sampling results, historic data shows high concentrations of PCB/Arochlors over the course of several decades. The historical data is characterized as being widely variable for detections in Arochlors and concentrations between years, with a dramatic drop in concentrations detected starting in 2009. Overall, the sampling locations adjacent to and downstream from the former Kelly Air Force Base have the highest concentrations of PCB/Arochlors over the longest period of time. The results of this work will aid regulatory agencies in addressing impairment.

  8. Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2009-01-01

    The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  9. Assessment of rangeland ecosystem conditions, Salt Creek watershed and Dugout Ranch, southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Miller, M.E.; Belote, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, dry rangelands are being valued for multiple services beyond their traditional value as a forage production system. Additional ecosystem services include the potential to store carbon in the soil and plant biomass. In addition, dust emissions from rangelands might be considered an ecosystem detriment, the opposite of an ecosystem service. Dust emitted may have far-reaching impacts, for example, reduction of local air quality, as well as altering regional water supplies through effects on snowpack. Using an extensive rangeland monitoring dataset in the greater Canyonlands region (Utah, USA), we developed a method to estimate indices of the provisioning of three ecosystem services (forage production, dust retention, C storage) and one ecosystem property (nativeness), taking into account both ecosystem type and alternative states within that ecosystem type. We also integrated these four indices into a multifunctionality index. Comparing the currently ungrazed Canyonlands National Park watersheds to the adjacent Dugout Ranch pastures, we found clearly higher multifunctionality was attained in the Park, and that this was primarily driven by greater C-storage and better dust retention. It is unlikely to maximize all benefits and minimize all detriments at the same time. Some goods and services may have synergistic interactions; for example, managing for carbon storage will increase plant and biocrust cover likely lowering dust emission. Likewise, some may have antagonistic interactions. For instance, if carbon is consumed as biomass for livestock production, then carbon storage may be reduced. Ultimately our goal should be to quantify the monetary consequences of specific land use practices for multiple ecosystem services and determine the best land use and adaptive management practices for attaining multiple ecosystem services, minimizing economic detriments, and maximizing economic benefits from multi-commodity rangelands. Our technique is the first step

  10. Cache Creek mercury investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cache Creek watershed is located in the California Coastal range approximately 100 miles north of San Francisco in Lake, Colusa and Yolo Counties. Wildlife...

  11. The seasonal fluctuations and accumulation of iodine-129 in relation to the hydrogeochemistry of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, a discontinuous permafrost watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herod, Matthew N., E-mail: mattherod@gmail.com [André Lalonde AMS Lab, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Li, Tianjiao [André Lalonde AMS Lab, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Pellerin, André [Center for Geomicrobiology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 116, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Kieser, William E.; Clark, Ian D. [André Lalonde AMS Lab, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    The long lived radioisotope {sup 129}I is a uranium fission product, and an environmental contaminant of the nuclear age. Consequently, it can trace anthropogenic releases of {sup 129}I in watersheds, and has been identified as a potential means to distinguish water sources in discharge (Nimz, 1998). The purpose of this work was to identify the sources and mass input of {sup 129}I and trace the transport, partitioning and mass balance of {sup 129}I over time in a remote watershed. We monitored {sup 129}I and other geochemical and isotope tracers (e.g. δ{sup 14}C{sub DIC}, δ{sup 13}C{sub DIC}, δ{sup 2}H, δ{sup 18}O, etc.) in precipitation and discharge from the Wolf Creek Research Basin (WCRB), a discontinuous permafrost watershed in the Yukon Territory, Canada, and evaluated the use of {sup 129}I as a water end-member tracer. Radiocarbon and geochemical tracers of weathering show that discharge is comprised of (i) groundwater baseflow that has recharged under open system conditions, (ii) spring freshet meltwater that has derived solutes through closed-system interaction with saturated soils, and (iii) active layer drainage. The abundance of {sup 129}I and the {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratio correlated with geochemical tracers suggests varying contributions of these three water end-members to discharge. The {sup 129}I concentration was highest at the onset of freshet, reaching 17.4 × 10{sup 6} atoms/L, and likely reflects the lack of interaction between meltwater and organic matter at that time. This peak in {sup 129}I was followed by a decline over the summer to its lowest value. Mass balance calculations of the {sup 129}I budget show that the input to the watershed via precipitation is nearly one order of magnitude higher than the output suggesting that such arctic watersheds accumulate nearly 90% of the annual input, primarily in soil organic matter. Temporal variations in discharge {sup 129}I concentrations correlated with changes in discharge water sources

  12. Flow characterization in the Santee Cave system in the Chapel Branch Creek watershed, upper coastal plain of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy E. Edwards; Devendra M. Amatya; Thomas M. Williams; Daniel R. Hitchcock; April L. James

    2013-01-01

    Karst watersheds possess both diffuse and conduit flow and varying degrees of connectivity between surface and groundwater over spatial scales that result in complex hydrology and contaminant transport processes. The flow regime and surface-groundwater connection must be properly identified and characterized to improve management in karst watersheds with impaired water...

  13. Total mercury, methylmercury, and selected elements in soils of the Fishing Brook watershed, Hamilton County, New York, and the McTier Creek watershed, Aiken County, South Carolina, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Cannon, William F.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lowery, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is an element of on-going concern for human and aquatic health. Mercury sequestered in upland and wetland soils represents a source that may contribute to mercury contamination in sensitive ecosystems. An improved understanding of mercury cycling in stream ecosystems requires identification and quantification of mercury speciation and transport dynamics in upland and wetland soils within a watershed. This report presents data for soils collected in 2008 from two small watersheds in New York and South Carolina. In New York, 163 samples were taken from multiple depths or soil horizons at 70 separate locations near Fishing Brook, located in Hamilton County. At McTier Creek, in Aiken County, South Carolina, 81 samples from various soil horizons or soil depths were collected from 24 locations. Sample locations within each watershed were selected to characterize soil geochemistry in distinct land-cover compartments. Soils were analyzed for total mercury, selenium, total and carbonate carbon, and 42 other elements. A subset of the samples was also analyzed for methylmercury.

  14. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-95) - Libby Creek Channel Stabilization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Carl J. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-10-21

    BPA proposes to fund MFWP to construct a channel stabilization project, which would restore the dimension, pattern, and profile of 3,200 feet of Libby Creek. The project calls for shaping cut banks to a 2:1 slope, installing root wads and tree revetments; and planting and restoring native grasses and riparian shrubs along the margin of the channel. Cross vanes (constructed from rock) and trees will also be established to control channel gradient within the project area. This project is one restoration phase on Libby Creek, and was identified as important by the Libby Area Conservation District, MFWP, U.S. Forest Service, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Libby Creek is also the focus of restoration efforts based, in part, on the finding of the Montana Governor’s Bull Trout Restoration Technical Committee. This Committee identified Libby Creek as critical spawning and migratory habitat for the threatened bull trout. This project reach of Libby Creek is also rearing habitat for resident redband trout and resident and fluvial bull trout migrating from the Kootenai River.

  15. Water quality of the Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavesi Odo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P<0.01 among sampling points for the mean parameters. True color, hardness, turbidity, electric conductivity, alkalinity, pH, chemical oxygen demand and consumed oxygen explained well differences among sampling points. According to current legislation standards, water quality fitted with most of the established parameters for class 2, with exception of phosphate and iron. The high levels of total phosphorus, except in the forest spring, classified this water in an eutrophic class, even where soil and water conservation practices were considered adequate.

  16. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  17. Water quality of the Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odo Primavesi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P<0.01 among sampling points for the mean parameters. True color, hardness, turbidity, electric conductivity, alkalinity, pH, chemical oxygen demand and consumed oxygen explained well differences among sampling points. According to current legislation standards, water quality fitted with most of the established parameters for class 2, with exception of phosphate and iron. The high levels of total phosphorus, except in the forest spring, classified this water in an eutrophic class, even where soil and water conservation practices were considered adequate.

  18. Reconnaissance of ground-water quality at selected wells in the Beaver Creek watershed, Shelby, Fayette, Tipton, and Haywood counties, West Tennessee, July to August 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, A.M.; Roman-Mas, A. J.; Bennett, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    A reconnaissance of water-quality conditions of the water-table aquifer in the Beaver Creek watershed and other rural areas of Shelby, Fayette, Tipton, and Haywood Counties, Tennessee, was conducted during July and August 1992. The reconnaissance was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture and the University of Tennessee Agricultural Extension Service. The report presents data of selected water-quality constituents and properties of water samples collected from 398 domestic wells, located primarily in rural areas. Nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in water from 73 of the 398 wells. Fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria were detected in water from 21 and 118 wells, respectively.

  19. Using Landsat and a Bayesian hard classifier to study forest change in the Salmon Creek Watershed area from 1972-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, David Stone

    The Salmon Creek Watershed in Sonoma County, California, USA, is home to a variety of wildlife, and many of its residents are mindful of their place in its ecology. In the past half century, several of its native and rare species have become threatened, endangered, or extinct, most notably the once common Coho salmon and Chinook salmon. The cause of this decline is believed to be a combination of global climate change, local land use, and land cover change. More specifically, the clearing of forested land to create vineyards, as well as other agricultural and residential uses, has led to a decline in biodiversity and habitat structure. I studied sub-scenes of Landsat data from 1972 to 2013 for the Salmon Creek Watershed area to estimate forest cover over this period. I used a maximum likelihood hard classifier to determine forest area, a Mahalanobis distance soft classifier to show the software's uncertainty in classification, and manually digitized forest cover to test and compare results for the 2013 30 m image. Because the earliest images were lower spatial resolution, I also tested the effects of resolution on these statistics. The images before 1985 are at 60 m spatial resolution while the later images are at 30 m resolution. Each image was processed individually and the training data were based on knowledge of the area and a mosaic of aerial photography. Each sub-scene was classified into five categories: water, forest, pasture, vineyard/orchard, and developed/barren. The research shows a decline in forest area from 1972 to around the mid-1990s, then an increase in forest area from the mid-1990s to present. The forest statistics can be helpful for conservation and restoration purposes, while the study on resolution can be helpful for landscape analysis on many levels.

  20. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS, (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-69) - Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiering, Colleen [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2001-11-15

    BPA proposes to fund a project with the Colville Confederated Tribes that will improve spawning and rearing specifically for summer steelhead in the Omak Creek Watershed. Efforts to achieve this objective include improved livestock and forestry management and barrier removal. These techniques include exclusionary fencing, spring developments, hardened-rock crossings, road decommissioning, culvert removal and placement, riparian vegetation planting and installation of instream structures. The result of implementing these techniques will reduce fine sediment delivered to the stream channel which will result in increased hatching success of summer steelhead. Also, reestablishing riparian vegetation will provide canopy and enclose the stream channel resulting in reduced stream temperatures. Two “on-the-ground” projects are proposed for this year. One project consists of installing three instream structures and planting riparian vegetation to provide bank stability along approximately 200’ of privately owned stream bank of Omak Creek. Also a fence will be constructed to exclude the landowner’s horses. The second project consists of removal of an inadequate sized culvert (5’ diameter) and replacement with a larger bottomless arch (6’ x 12’). This project will also include seven instream structures to stabilize the stream bank both upstream and downstream of the culvert and direct flows through the center of the bottomless arch.

  1. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  2. Rainfall-runoff modeling of the Chapel Branch Creek Watershed using GIS-based rational and SCS-CN methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth N. Mihalik; Norm S. Levine; Devendra M. Amatya

    2008-01-01

    Chapel Branch Creek (CBC), located within the Town of Santee adjacent to Lake Marion in Orangeburg County, SC, is listed on the SC 2004 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies due to elevated levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), chlorophyll-a, and pH. In this study, using a GIS-based approach, two runoff modeling methods, the Rational and SCS-CN methods, have been...

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Long-Term Agroecosystem Research in the Central Mississippi River Basin: SWAT Simulation of Flow and Water Quality in the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffaut, Claire; John Sadler, E; Ghidey, Fessehaie; Anderson, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Starting in 1971, stream flow and climatologic data have been collected in the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed, which is part of the Central Mississippi River Basin (CMRB) Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) site. Since 1992, water quality and socio-economic data have complemented these data sets. Previous modeling efforts highlighted the challenges created by the presence of a claypan. Specific changes were introduced in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) (i) to better simulate percolation through and saturation above the claypan and (ii) to simulate the spatial and temporal distributions of the timing of field operations throughout the watershed. Our objectives were to document the changes introduced into the code, demonstrate that these changes improved simulation results, describe the model's parameterization, calibration, and validation, and assess atrazine [6-chloro--ethyl-'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] management practices in the hydrologic context of claypan soils. Model calibration was achieved for 1993 to 2010 at a daily time step for flow and at a monthly time step for water quality constituents. The new percolation routines ensured correct balance between surface runoff and groundwater. The temporal heterogeneity of atrazine application ensured the correct frequency of daily atrazine loads. Atrazine incorporation by field cultivation resulted in a 17% simulated reduction in atrazine load without a significant increase in sediment yields. Reduced atrazine rates produced proportional reductions in simulated atrazine transport. The model can be used to estimate the impact of other drivers, e.g., changing aspects of climate, land use, cropping systems, tillage, or management practices, in this context. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. An Environment-based Education Approach to Professional Development: A Mixed Methods Analysis of the Creeks and Kids Watershed Workshop and Its Impact on K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Tiffany Bridgette

    This research is an in-depth study of an environment-based education (EBE) professional development program titled "Creeks and Kids" that models how to employ thematic instruction about watersheds using the environment of a school and its community as a context to integrate teaching and learning about water across core subject areas. This case study investigates the EBE characteristics of the Creeks and Kids Workshop and explores how they adhere to the National Research Council's Standards for Professional Development for Teachers of Science. A mixed-methods analysis gathered qualitative data about the overall experience of teacher-participants during the Creeks and Kids Workshop and employed quantitative measures to identify evidence of success related to teachers' gains in knowledge, affect, confidence and intent to act to implement water-focused EBE curriculum in their classrooms. The findings of the study build upon existing research about what teachers need to implement EBE and their beliefs regarding what professional development should provide in relation to those needs. Qualitative results revealed that teachers need an EBE professional development program to include: 1) practical ways to integrate environmental education into their existing curricula and school settings; and, 2) direct experience with activities and field studies that are interdisciplinary, hands-on and inquiry-driven. Teacher-participants identified these characteristics as vital for them to effect a change in teaching practice and build their confidence to engage their students in EBE when they return to the classroom. Quantitative results revealed statistically significant gains across knowledge, affect, confidence and intent to act variables using the t-test statistic to compare means of participants' responses from the pre- to post-workshop questionnaires. The results of this study have broader implications for future educational research on: 1) the ways in which EBE professional

  6. The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in waters of the Lower Ballona Creek Watershed, Los Angeles County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawecki, Stephanie; Kuleck, Gary; Dorsey, John H; Leary, Christopher; Lum, Michelle

    2017-06-01

    Screening for the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) was done at the Ballona Creek and Wetlands, an urban-impacted wetland system in Los Angeles, California. The goals were (1) to assess the overall prevalence of ARB, and (2) compare differences in ARB abundance and the types of antibiotic resistance (AR) among the following sample types: lagoon water from Del Rey Lagoon, urban runoff from Ballona Creek, and water from the Ballona Wetlands (tidal water flooding in from the adjacent estuary, and ebbing out from the salt marsh). Antibiotic resistance distributions were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to develop the cumulative frequency of bacteria having resistance of up to eight antibiotics. Distributions from the environmental water samples were compared to unchlorinated secondary effluent from the Hyperion Water Reclamation Plant that was used as comparator samples likely to have an abundance of ARB. As expected, densities of total and ARB were highest in secondary effluent, followed by urban runoff. Samples of water flooding into the wetlands showed similar results to urban runoff; however, a reduction in densities of total and ARB occurred in water ebbing out of the wetlands. During preliminary work to identify ARB species, several bacterial species of relevance to human illness (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas veronii, Enterobacter cancerogenus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Staphylococcus intermedius) were isolated from sampled waters. If wetlands are a sink for ARB, construction and restoration of wetlands can help in the mediation of this human and environmental health concern.

  7. Trends in precipitation and streamwater chemistry in East Creek watershed in southwestern British Columbia, 1971–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. FELLER

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulk precipitation and streamwater in a small, undisturbed, forested watershed in southwestern British Columbia were sampled regularly and analyzed for dissolved chemical constituents from 1971 to 2008. Concentrations and fluxes of most chemicals in precipitation and streamwater have exhibited considerable yearly variation. Temporal trends, when they have occurred, have rarely been consistent for the entire 1972–2008 time period. Precipitation has exhibited a decline in electrical conductivity, a decline in NH4, inorganic-N, and total-N concentrations and fluxes since the 1980s, an increase in pH, a decline in acid H fluxes since ~1990, and a decrease in SO4 concentrations and fluxes from 1980 until the late 1990s. Streamwater has exhibited an increase in NO3 concentrations and fluxes until the late 1990s, an increase in pH and decrease in acid H fluxes since the early 1990s, a decrease in SO4 concentrations and fluxes from ~1980 until ~2000, and increases in Na and Cl concentrations and fluxes until ~2000. Critical precipitation SO4 and inorganic-N loads have probably been exceeded for most years. East Ck. watershed has continuously experienced net inflows of all forms of N and acid H, and net outflows of dissolved Si, Na, Mg, and Ca. Net inflows of inorganic forms of N and total-N have decreased since the early 1980s. Net acid H inflows have decreased since the early 1990s, while net Na and Cl outflows increased until ~2000. The contribution of nutrient cycling processes within the watershed to the changes is currently unknown.

  8. Quality of ground water around Vadnais Lake and in Lambert Creek watershed, and interaction of ground water with Vadnais Lake, Ramsey County, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Vadnais Lake is located in northern Ramsey County, Minnesota. The lake is managed by the St. Paul Water Utility for storage of municipal water supplies that are provided to residents of St. Paul and surrounding communities. In recent years, algal blooms in Vadnais Lake have caused taste and odor problems in St. Paul's municipal water supply. This problem has potentially been exacerbated by phosphorus enrichment of the lake from surface-water transport and from nutrient recycling between the lake and bottom sediments. Phosphorus loading in Vadnais Lake has been linked to increased algal growth. Surface-water drainage from supply lakes and, during wet years, from wetlands in Lambert Creek watershed, which extends over about 20 square miles east of the lake, is known to be a significant source of phosphorus. The role of ground water in the phosphorus budget of the lake was unknown. The results of this study indicate that ground-water transport of phosphorus into Vadnais Lake is a small part of the phosphorus budget of the lake.

  9. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 1 Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Remedial Investigation (RI) report is to present an analysis of the Melton Valley portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of cost-effective remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. In this RI existing levels of contamination and radiological exposure are compared to levels acceptable for future industrial and potential recreational use levels at the site. This comparison provides a perspective for the magnitude of remedial actions required to achieve a site condition compatible with relaxed access restrictions over existing conditions. Ecological risk will be assessed to evaluate measures required for ecological receptor protection. For each subbasin, this report will provide site-specific analyses of the physical setting including identification of contaminant source areas, description of contaminant transport pathways, identification of release mechanisms, analysis of contaminant source interactions with groundwater, identification of secondary contaminated media associated with the source and seepage pathways, assessment of potential human health and ecological risks from exposure to contaminants, ranking of each source area within the subwatershed, and outline the conditions that remedial technologies must address to stop present and future contaminant releases, prevent the spread of contamination and achieve the goal of limiting environmental contamination to be consistent with a potential recreational use of the site.

  10. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January--December 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, D.M.; Frederick, B.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Reece, D.K.; McCalla, W.L. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watts, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Ziegler, K.S. [Midwest Technical, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes, for the 12-month period (January through December 1993), the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily, on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed along with information collected on the surface flow systems which affect the quality or quantity of surface water. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data, an activity that contributes to the Site Investigations (SI) component of the ERP. This report provides and describes sources of hydrologic data for Environmental Restoration activities that use monitoring data to quantify and assess the impact from releases of contaminants from ORNL WAGs.

  11. Spatial Distribution of Ground-Water Recharge Estimated with a Water-Budget Method for the Jordan Creek Watershed, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, to illustrate a water-budget method for mapping the spatial distribution of ground-water recharge for a 76-square-mile part of the Jordan Creek watershed, northwest of Allentown, in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Recharge was estimated by using the Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) water-budget model for 577 landscape units in Jordan Creek watershed, delineated on the basis of their soils, land use/land cover, and mean annual precipitation during 1951-2000. The water-budget model routes precipitation falling on each landscape unit to components of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, storage, and vertical percolation (recharge) for a five-layer soil column on a daily basis. The spatial distribution of mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 for each landscape unit was mapped by the use of a geographic information system. Recharge simulated by the water-budget model in Jordan Creek watershed during 1951-2000 averaged 12.3 inches per year and ranged by landscape unit from 0.11 to 17.05 inches per year. Mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 simulated by the water-budget model was most sensitive to changes to input values for precipitation and runoff-curve number. Mean annual recharge values for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-use/land-cover classes were similar (11.2 to 12.2 inches per year) but were substantially less for high-density urban (6.8 inches per year), herbaceous wetlands (2.5 inches per year), and forested wetlands (1.3 inches per year). Recharge rates simulated for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-cover classes were similar because those land-use/land-cover classes are represented in the model with parameter values that either did not significantly affect simulated recharge or tended to have offsetting effects on recharge. For example, for landscapes with forest land

  12. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish in a region affected by historic gold mining; the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds, California, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Alpers, Charles N.; Law, Matthew A.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury that was used historically for gold recovery in mining areas of the Sierra Nevada continues to enter local and downstream water bodies, including the Sacramento Delta and the San Francisco Bay of northern California. Methylmercury is of particular concern because it is the most prevalent form of mercury in fish and is a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates at successive trophic levels within food webs. In April 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several other agencies the Forest Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture), the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California State Water Resources Control Board, and the Nevada County Resource Conservation District began a pilot investigation to characterize the occurrence and distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota in the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds of California. Biological samples consisted of semi-aquatic and aquatic insects, amphibians, bird eggs, and fish. Fish were collected from 5 reservoirs and 14 stream sites during August through October 1999 to assess the distribution of mercury in these watersheds. Fish that were collected from reservoirs included top trophic level predators (black basses, Micropterus spp.) intermediate trophic level predators [sunfish (blue gill, Lepomis macrochirus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; and black crappie, Poxomis nigromaculatus)] and benthic omnivores (channel catfish, Ictularus punctatus). At stream sites, the species collected were upper trophic level salmonids (brown trout, Salmo trutta) and upper-to-intermediate trophic level salmonids (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Boneless and skinless fillet portions from 161 fish were analyzed for total mercury; 131 samples were individual fish, and the remaining 30 fish were combined into 10 composite samples of three fish each of the same species and size class. Mercury concentrations in samples of black basses

  13. A Conceptual Model for Stream Restoration in Western New York: A Developing Case Study in the Elton Creek Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, A.; Blersch, S. S.

    2009-05-01

    The practice of ecosystem restoration is still often viewed as an "art" versus a science. This view is further fueled by the manner in which many restoration projects are identified and implemented- on a case by case basis with little documentation on the drivers of the ecosystems in question or the establishment of success criteria once the project is complete. While monitoring data may exist to quantify the existing conditions of a stream (biological, chemical, and physical), these data are not always easily translated into design criteria for restoration. Rather, most restoration designs rely upon best professional judgment by highly experienced practitioners. Various agencies in Western New York have completed numerous stream restoration projects in the region to improve in-stream habitat and address impaired streams. In order to capture these successful restoration practices in a manner that can be translated to other streams in the region and inform future restoration designs, a conceptual framework is proposed for the Western New York region. The conceptual framework will identify the ecosystem drivers in the stream riparian corridors and discuss trajectories of these ecosystems. A project site on Elton Creek near Delevan, New York has been selected as a test case for applying this conceptual framework. The focus of this paper will be on determining the drivers of the stream ecosystem through the use of rapid geomorphic assessments. The results of two rapid geomorphic assessment methods be presented and contrasted in the context of the conceptual framework.

  14. Simulation of climate change effects on streamflow, groundwater, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP in the Black Earth Creek Watershed, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Walker, John F.; Selbig, William R.; Regan, R. Steven; Leaf, Andrew T.; Saad, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A groundwater/surface-water model was constructed and calibrated for the Black Earth Creek watershed in south-central Wisconsin. The model was then run to simulate scenarios representing common societal concerns in the basin, focusing on maintaining a cold-water resource in an urbanizing fringe near its upper stream reaches and minimizing downstream flooding. Although groundwater and surface water are considered a single resource, many hydrologic models simplistically simulate feedback loops between the groundwater system and other hydrologic processes. These feedbacks include timing and rates of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, soil-zone flow, and interactions with the groundwater system; however, computer models can now routinely and iteratively couple the surface-water and groundwater systems—albeit with longer model run times. In this study, preliminary calibrations of uncoupled transient surface-water and steady-state groundwater models were used to form the starting point for final calibration of one transient computer simulation that iteratively couples groundwater and surface water. The computer code GSFLOW (Groundwater/Surface-water FLOW) was used to simulate the coupled hydrologic system; a surface-water model represented hydrologic processes in the atmosphere, at land surface, and within the soil zone, and a groundwater-flow model represented the unsaturated zone, saturated zone, and streams. The coupled GSFLOW model was run on a daily time step during water years 1985–2007. Early simulation times (1985–2000) were used for spin-up to make the simulation results less sensitive to initial conditions specified; the spin-up period was not included in the model calibration. Model calibration used observed heads, streamflows, solar radiation, and snowpack measurements from 2000 to 2007 for history matching. Calibration was performed by using the PEST parameter estimation software suite.

  15. A Hydrogeophysics Approach to Investigate Upland-Stream Connectivity on a Rangeland Hillslope in the Upper Crow Creek Watershed in Southeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, A. M.; Flinchum, B. A.; Paige, G. B.; Carr, B.; Miller, S. N.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly all streamflow at one time passes through or over a hillslope prior to reaching the stream network. Knowledge of how this water is attenuated and delayed over a variety of hillslope conditions is critical for understanding the mechanisms controlling the spatial and temporal distribution of streamflow response. In semi-arid rangeland environments, these mechanisms remain unclear. Non- invasive geophysical methods coupled with traditional hydrological tools can provide the necessary insights into the dynamics of how upland hillslopes and streams are episodically connected. We collected approximately 1.4 km of ground penetrating radar (GPR) data to characterize the subsurface structure of a rangeland hillslope in the Upper Crow Creek Watershed and identify subsurface fractures. A field study integrating variable intensity rainfall simulation with time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was then conducted on four runoff plots positioned on the hillslope, to quantify the real-time partitioning of rainfall into surface and subsurface response. Runoff varied significantly across the plots due to spatial variability in vegetation cover, with a maximum and minimum peak runoff rate of 82 mm hr-1 and 7 mm hr-1 respectively. Time-lapse ERT data suggest the potential for infiltrated water to move preferentially through fractured regions in the subsurface identified by the GPR. Conductivity probes and pressure transducers positioned in the adjacent stream showed changes in electrical conductivity and depth following rainfall applications, suggesting hillslope connectivity with fairly rapid subsurface flow. Information obtained from this study will allow us to improve our understanding of the coupling of upland hillslopes and adjacent stream networks in complex rangeland environments.

  16. An analysis of potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes in the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to assess potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes, located within the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio. The assessment was based on the criterion that water withdrawals should not appreciably affect maintenance of recreation-season pool levels in current use. To facilitate and simplify the assessment, it was assumed that historical lake operations were successful in maintaining seasonal pool levels, and that any discharges from lakes constituted either water that was discharged to prevent exceeding seasonal pool levels or discharges intended to meet minimum in-stream flow targets downstream from the lakes. It further was assumed that the volume of water discharged in excess of the minimum in-stream flow target is available for use without negatively impacting seasonal pool levels or downstream water uses and that all or part of it is subject to withdrawal. Historical daily outflow data for the lakes were used to determine the quantity of water that potentially could be withdrawn and the resulting quantity of water that would flow downstream (referred to as “flow-by”) on a daily basis as a function of all combinations of three hypothetical target minimum flow-by amounts (1, 2, and 3 times current minimum in-stream flow targets) and three pumping capacities (1, 2, and 3 million gallons per day). Using both U.S. Geological Survey streamgage data (where available) and lake-outflow data provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers resulted in analytical periods ranging from 51 calendar years for Charles Mill, Clendening, and Piedmont Lakes to 74 calendar years for Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes. The observed outflow time series and the computed time series of daily flow-by amounts and potential withdrawals were analyzed to compute and report order statistics (95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, 10th, and 5th percentiles) and means for

  17. A 3PG-based Model to Simulate Delta-13C Content in Three Tree Species in The Mica Creek Experiment Watershed, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L.; Marshall, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    3PG (Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth), a process-based physiological model of forest productivity, has been widely used and well validated. Based on 3PG, a 3PG-δ13C model to simulate δ13C content in plant tissue is built in this research. 3PG calculates carbon assimilation from utilizable absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and calculates stomatal conductance from maximum canopy conductance multiplied by physiological modifier which includes the effect of water vapor deficit and soil water. Then the equation of Farquhar and Sharkey (1982) was used to calculate δ13C content in plant. Five even-aged coniferous forest stands located near Clarkia, Idaho (47°15'N, 115°25'W) in Mica Creek Experimental Watershed, were chosen to test the model, (2 stands had been partial cut (50% canopy removal in 1990) and 3 were uncut). MCEW has been extensively investigated since 1990 and many necessary parameters needed for 3PG are readily available. Each of these sites is located near a UI Meteorological station, which recorded half-hourly climatic data since 2003. These site-specific climatic data were extend to 1991 by correlating with data from a nearby SNOTEL station (SNOwpack TELemetry, NRCS, 47°9' N, 116°16' W). Forest mensuration data were obtained form each stand using variable radius plots (VRP). Three tree species, which consist more than 95% of all trees, were parameterized for 3PG model, including: grand fir (Abies grandis Donn ex D. Don), western red cedar (Thuja plicat Donn ex D. Don a) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco). Because 4 out of 5 stands have mixed species, we also used parameters for mixed stands to run the model. To stabilize, the model was initially run under average climatic data for 20 years, and then run under the actual climatic data from 1991 to 2006. As 3PG runs in a monthly time step, monthly δ13C values were calculated first, and then yearly values were calculated by weighted

  18. Linking physical monitoring to coho and Chinook salmon populations in the Redwood Creek Watershed, California—Summary of May 3–4, 2012 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann; Torregrosa, Alicia; Woodward, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    On Thursday, May 3, 2012, a science workshop was held at the Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP) office in Arcata, California, with researchers and resource managers working in RNSP to share data and expert opinions concerning salmon populations and habitat in the Redwood Creek watershed. The focus of the workshop was to discuss how best to synthesize physical and biological data related to the freshwater and estuarine phases of salmon life cycles in order to increase the understanding of constraints on salmon populations. The workshop was hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends (S&T) Program National Park Monitoring Project (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/brdscience/ParkMonitoring.htm), which supports USGS research on priority topics (themes) identified by the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program (I&M) and S&T. The NPS has organized more than 270 parks with significant natural resources into 32 Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Networks (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/networks.cfm) that share funding and core professional staff to monitor the status and long-term trends of selected natural resources (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor). All 32 networks have completed vital signs monitoring plans (available at http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor/MonitoringPlans.cfm), containing background information on the important resources of each park, conceptual models behind the selection of vital signs for monitoring the condition of natural resources, and the selection of high priority vital signs for monitoring. Vital signs are particular physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems that represent the overall health or condition of the park, known or hypothesized effects of stressors, or elements that have important human values (Fancy and others, 2009). Beginning in 2009, the I&M program funded projects to analyze and synthesize the biotic and abiotic data generated by vital signs

  19. Characterization of water quality and suspended sediment during cold-season flows, warm-season flows, and stormflows in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds, Colorado, 2007–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa D.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2017-09-01

    From 2007 through 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, conducted a study in the Fountain and Monument Creek watersheds, Colorado, to characterize surface-water quality and suspended-sediment conditions for three different streamflow regimes with an emphasis on characterizing water quality during storm runoff. Data collected during this study were used to evaluate the effects of stormflows and wastewater-treatment effluent discharge on Fountain and Monument Creeks in the Colorado Springs, Colorado, area. Water-quality samples were collected at 2 sites on Upper Fountain Creek, 2 sites on Monument Creek, 3 sites on Lower Fountain Creek, and 13 tributary sites during 3 flow regimes: cold-season flow (November–April), warm-season flow (May–October), and stormflow from 2007 through 2015. During 2015, additional samples were collected and analyzed for Escherichia coli (E. coli) during dry weather conditions at 41 sites, located in E. coli impaired stream reaches, to help identify source areas and scope of the impairment.Concentrations of E. coli, total arsenic, and dissolved copper, selenium, and zinc in surface-water samples were compared to Colorado in-stream standards. Stormflow concentrations of E. coli frequently exceeded the recreational use standard of 126 colonies per 100 milliliters at main-stem and tributary sites by more than an order of magnitude. Even though median E. coli concentrations in warm-season flow samples were lower than median concentrations in storm-flow samples, the water quality standard for E. coli was still exceeded at most main-stem sites and many tributary sites during warm-season flows. Six samples (three warm-season flow and three stormflow samples) collected from Upper Fountain Creek, upstream from the confluence of Monument Creek, and two stormflow samples collected from Lower Fountain Creek, downstream from the confluence with Monument Creek, exceeded the acute water

  20. Optimal implementation of green infrastructure practices to minimize influences of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality: Case study in Spy Run Creek watershed, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Engel, Bernard A; Collingsworth, Paris D; Pijanowski, Bryan C

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient loading from the Maumee River watershed is a significant reason for the harmful algal blooms (HABs) problem in Lake Erie. The nutrient loading from urban areas needs to be reduced with the installation of green infrastructure (GI) practices. The Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model was used to explore the influences of land use (LU) and climate change on water quantity and quality in Spy Run Creek watershed (SRCW) (part of Maumee River watershed), decide whether and where excess phosphorus loading existed, identify critical areas to understand where the greatest amount of runoff/pollutants originated, and optimally implement GI practices to obtain maximum environmental benefits with the lowest costs. Both LU/climate changes increased runoff/pollutants generated from the watershed. Areas with the highest runoff/pollutant amount per area, or critical areas, differed for various environmental concerns, land uses (LUs), and climates. Compared to optimization considering all areas, optimization conducted only in critical areas can provide similar cost-effective results with decreased computational time for low levels of runoff/pollutant reductions, but critical area optimization results were not as cost-effective for higher levels of runoff/pollutant reductions. Runoff/pollutants for 2011/2050 LUs/climates could be reduced to amounts of 2001 LU/climate by installation of GI practices with annual expenditures of $0.34 to $2.05 million. The optimization scenarios that were able to obtain the 2001 runoff level in 2011/2050, can also reduce all pollutants to 2001 levels in this watershed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-101) - Restoration of Anadromous Fish Access to Hawley Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarde, Richard [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-01-02

    BPA proposes to fund a project to enhance fish habitat on Hawley Creek, tributary to the Lemhi River in Idaho, by leasing 7 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water per year for twenty years. The water will be dedicated to instream flow through an agreement with the water right holders and all junior water users. Due partially to irrigation withdrawals, Hawley Creek is often hydrologically disconnected from the Lemhi River. The goal of the proposed project is to leave water instream, to reconnect Hawley Creek to the Lemhi River, to improve habitat and provide passage for chinook salmon, steelhead, and bull trout, and other aquatic species.

  2. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-102) - Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program – Ellensburg Water Company/ Cooke Creek Diversion Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Shannon C. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2003-01-17

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund a canal-stream crossing and fish screen improvement project on Cooke Creek in Kittitas County, Washington. The project proposes to place the Ellensburg Water Company’s (EWC) main canal into a siphon passing underneath Cooke Creek, to build a fish screen on the EWC diversion on Cooke Creek, and to restore the Cooke Creek channel to a more natural state. The goal of this project is to improve fish habitat conditions in the Yakima River Basin and to protect ESA listed Mid-Columbia steelhead and bull trout. This project is part of the Yakima Tributary Access and Habitat Program, which works with landowners, water purveyors, and municipalities to restore fish passage to Yakima River tributaries that historically supported salmonids and to improve habitat in areas where access is restored.

  3. Proctor Creek Boone Boulevard Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Proctor Creek watershed and community, green infrastructure, the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project Conceptual Design, and the added value and application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to the project.

  4. 78 FR 26065 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow Creek Watersheds Grazing Permit Renewal... considered, the BLM must receive written comments on the Draft EIS for the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow...

  5. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  6. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  7. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  8. Identifying fecal pollution sources using 3M(™) Petrifilm (™) count plates and antibiotic resistance analysis in the Horse Creek Watershed in Aiken County, SC (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, S Michele; West, Ryan T; Yates, James R

    2014-12-01

    Sources of fecal coliform pollution in a small South Carolina (USA) watershed were identified using inexpensive methods and commonly available equipment. Samples from the upper reaches of the watershed were analyzed with 3M(™) Petrifilm(™) count plates. We were able to narrow down the study's focus to one particular tributary, Sand River, that was the major contributor of the coliform pollution (both fecal and total) to a downstream reservoir that is heavily used for recreation purposes. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 2,400 to 120,333 cfu/100 mL, with sharp increases in coliform counts observed in samples taken after rain events. Positive correlations between turbidity and fecal coliform counts suggested a relationship between fecal pollution and stormwater runoff. Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) compared antibiotic resistance profiles of fecal coliform isolates from the stream to those of a watershed-specific fecal source library (equine, waterfowl, canines, and untreated sewage). Known fecal source isolates and unknown isolates from the stream were exposed to six antibiotics at three concentrations each. Discriminant analysis grouped known isolates with an overall average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 84.3 %. A total of 401 isolates from the first stream location were classified as equine (45.9 %), sewage (39.4 %), waterfowl (6.2 %), and feline (8.5 %). A similar pattern was observed at the second sampling location, with 42.6 % equine, 45.2 % sewage, 2.8 % waterfowl, 0.6 % canine, and 8.8 % feline. While there were slight weather-dependent differences, the vast majority of the coliform pollution in this stream appeared to be from two sources, equine and sewage. This information will contribute to better land use decisions and further justify implementation of low-impact development practices within this urban watershed.

  9. Simulating mercury and methyl mercury stream concentrations at multiple scales in a wetland influenced coastal plain watershed (McTier Creek, SC, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Knightes; G.M. Davis; H.E. Golden; P.A. Conrads; P.M. Bradley; C.A. Journey

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is the toxicant responsible for the most fish advisories across the United States, with 1.1 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in streams and rivers are not well understood, in large part, because these systems are intimately linked with their surrounding watersheds and are often...

  10. Water chemistry - Thornton Creek Restoration Project Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA has designed and is currently implementing a hyporheic monitoring plan for the Thornton Creek watershed in North Seattle. This work is being conducted for...

  11. Aquatic Invertebrates - Thornton Creek Restoration Project Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA has designed and is currently implementing a hyporheic monitoring plan for the Thornton Creek watershed in North Seattle. This work is being conducted for...

  12. Historical flows for Bridge Creek above East Canal, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bridge Creek originates along the northwestern slopes of Steens Mountain. It drains an area a fraction of the size of the Blitzen River watershed (approximately 30...

  13. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  14. Using Caspar Creek flow records to test peak flow estimation methods applicable to crossing design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter H. Cafferata; Leslie M. Reid

    2017-01-01

    Long-term flow records from sub-watersheds in the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds were used to test the accuracy of four methods commonly used to estimate peak flows in small forested watersheds: the Rational Method, the updated USGS Magnitude and Frequency Method, flow transference methods, and the NRCS curve number method. Comparison of measured and calculated...

  15. Optimal selection and placement of green infrastructure to reduce impacts of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality: An application to the Trail Creek Watershed, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Theller, Lawrence O; Pijanowski, Bryan C; Engel, Bernard A

    2016-05-15

    The adverse impacts of urbanization and climate change on hydrology and water quality can be mitigated by applying green infrastructure practices. In this study, the impacts of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality in the 153.2 km(2) Trail Creek watershed located in northwest Indiana were estimated using the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for the following environmental concerns: runoff volume, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Phosphorous (TP), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), and Nitrate+Nitrite (NOx). Using a recent 2001 land use map and 2050 land use forecasts, we found that land use change resulted in increased runoff volume and pollutant loads (8.0% to 17.9% increase). Climate change reduced runoff and nonpoint source pollutant loads (5.6% to 10.2% reduction). The 2050 forecasted land use with current rainfall resulted in the largest runoff volume and pollutant loads. The optimal selection and placement of green infrastructure practices using L-THIA-LID 2.1 model were conducted. Costs of applying green infrastructure were estimated using the L-THIA-LID 2.1 model considering construction, maintenance, and opportunity costs. To attain the same runoff volume and pollutant loads as in 2001 land uses for 2050 land uses, the runoff volume, TSS, TP, TKN, and NOx for 2050 needed to be reduced by 10.8%, 14.4%, 13.1%, 15.2%, and 9.0%, respectively. The corresponding annual costs of implementing green infrastructure to achieve the goals were $2.1, $0.8, $1.6, $1.9, and $0.8 million, respectively. Annual costs of reducing 2050 runoff volume/pollutant loads were estimated, and results show green infrastructure annual cost greatly increased for larger reductions in runoff volume and pollutant loads. During optimization, the most cost-efficient green infrastructure practices were selected and implementation levels increased for greater reductions of runoff and nonpoint source pollutants

  16. Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy Crop Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cibin, Raj [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bowling, Laura [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Brouder, Sylvie [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cherkauer, Keith [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Engel, Bernard [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Frankenberger, Jane [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Goforth, Reuben [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gramig, Benjamin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Volenec, Jeffrey [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-03-24

    The overall goal of this project was to conduct a watershed-scale sustainability assessment of multiple species of energy crops and removal of crop residues within two watersheds (Wildcat Creek, and St. Joseph River) representative of conditions in the Upper Midwest. The sustainability assessment included bioenergy feedstock production impacts on environmental quality, economic costs of production, and ecosystem services.

  17. Stream dissolved organic matter bioavailability and composition in watersheds underlain with discontinuous permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly L. Balcarczyk; Jeremy B. Jones; Rudolf Jaffe; Nagamitsu Maie

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of permafrost on dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition in Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW), a watershed underlain with discontinuous permafrost, in interior Alaska. The stream draining the high permafrost watershed had higher DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations, higher DOCDON and greater specific...

  18. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  19. Estimates of natural streamflow at two streamgages on the Esopus Creek, New York, water years 1932 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Gazoorian, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Streamflow in the Esopus Creek watershed is altered by two major watershed management activities carried out by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection as part of its responsibility to maintain a water supply for New York City: (1) diversion of water from the Schoharie Creek watershed to the Esopus Creek through the Shandaken Tunnel, and (2) impoundment of the Esopus Creek by a dam that forms the Ashokan Reservoir and subsequent release through the Catskill Aqueduct. Stakeholders in the Catskill region are interested and concerned about the extent to which these watershed management activities have altered streamflow, especially low and high flows, in the Esopus Creek. To address these concerns, natural (in the absence of diversion and impoundment) daily discharge from October 1, 1931, to September 30, 2012, was estimated for the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages at Coldbrook (station number 01362500), downstream of the Shandaken Tunnel discharge, and at Mount Marion (01364500), downstream of the Ashokan Reservoir.

  20. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  1. Simulated Water Budgets and Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interactions in Bushkill and Parts of Monocacy Creek Watersheds, Northampton County, Pennsylvania -- A Preliminary Study With Identification of Data Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Pennsylvania and is underlain by Paleozoic bedrock covered with remnants of pre-Wisconsinan glacial drift. The oldest rocks are gneisses of...documenting the response of the watershed to climate and land-use changes. Continuous monitor- ing captures events, such as storms, that are impossible

  2. Wildfire impacts on stream sedimentation: re-visiting the Boulder Creek Burn in Little Granite Creek, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Ryan; Kathleen Dwire

    2012-01-01

    In this study of a burned watershed in northwestern Wyoming, USA, sedimentation impacts following a moderately-sized fire (Boulder Creek burn, 2000) were evaluated against sediment loads estimated for the period prior to burning. Early observations of suspended sediment yield showed substantially elevated loads (5x) the first year post-fire (2001), followed by less...

  3. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  4. Water Quality of Peralta and Courtland Creek Oakland, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A.; Zhen, K. L.; Ponce, X.; Johnson, A.; Varela, N.; Quintero, D.; Hernandez, G.; Oghogho, E.

    2014-12-01

    Authors: Allan Ahumada, Aminah Butler, Mellany Davis, Yarely Guzman, Micah Johnson, Xochitl Ponce, Kim Zhen Abstract: Beginning in the summer of 2012 and continuing to the present time our group has been assessing the water quality of Courtland Creek, which flows from Northeast to Southwest in East Oakland, California. During the summer of 2014 we began assessing the water quality at nearby Peralta Creek to compare the health of Courtland Creek with another one within the same watershed. In making our assessment we have analyzed samples collected from three different sites along both creeks for Nitrate, Phosphate, and Ammonia concentration levels. Additionally, we conducted benthic macroinvertebrate surveys at one site along each creek. Preliminary results indicate that nitrate levels in Courtland Creek waters are very high, which we believe is the result of human and animal waste entering into the creek. There were also unusually high levels of Phosphate and Ammonia detected in creek waters. Such high concentrations were noted in a past study and in an attempt to address this problem we initiated a native plant restoration project at one particular site located at the intersection of Courtland and Thompson avenues. This effort has resulted in a reduction in levels of Nitrate, Phosphate and Ammonia. The average levels of these compounds in waters collected near the restoration site were lower than those found in samples collected at other sites. However, they are still well above levels that are harmful to invertebrates and fish. Nitrate, Phosphate and Ammonia concentration levels in samples collected from Peralta Creek were significantly lower than those collected from Courtland Creek. For example, the maximum level of nitrate detected in Courtland Creek waters was 50 PPM while the maximum found in Peralta Creek waters was 15 PPM. We have concluded that the observed high levels of various compounds are the result of animal waste and human feces spilling directly

  5. The Effect of Water Management and Land Use Practices on the Restoration of Lee Vining and Rush Creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vorster; G. Mathias Kondolf

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes water management and land use practices in the Rush and Lee Vining Creek watersheds and evaluates the effect they have had on the stream environment. The management practices will continue to have effects on the flow regime and consequently habitat conditions on lower Lee Vining and Rush Creeks. The implications of existing and potential management...

  6. Spatial Variations In The Fate And Transport Of Metals In A Mining-Influenced Stream, North Fork Clear Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Fork Clear Creek (NFCC) receives acid-mine drainage (AMD) from multiple abandoned mines in the Clear Creek Watershed. Point sources of AMD originate In the Black Hawk/Central City region of the stream. Water chemistry also is influenced by several non-point sources of AMD,...

  7. Fine sediment sources in coastal watersheds with uplifted marine terraces in northwest Humboldt County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Sungnome Madrone; Andrew P. Stubblefield

    2012-01-01

    Erosion in the Mill and Luffenholtz Creek watersheds in Humboldt County, California, with their extensive clay soils, can lead to high turbidity levels in receiving bodies of water, increasing the costs of treating water for domestic water supplies. Detailed road and erosion surveys and monitoring of suspended sediment, discharge, and turbidity levels in Mill Creek (3....

  8. Watershed District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Boundaries show on this map are derived from legal descriptions contained in petitions to the Kansas Secretary of State for the creation or extension of watershed...

  9. Evidence of Streamflow and Sediment Effects on Juvenile Coho and Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Lagunitas Creek and San Geronimo Creek, Marin County, California

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Joanie; Diver, Sibyl; Hwan, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Lagunitas Creek and San Geronimo Creek in Marin County, California provide some of the best habitat for endangered coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the southern part of their range, making it a priority for local and federal agencies to collect habitat and biological data throughout the watershed. For this paper, we synthesized numerous years of existing data, including flow, sediment conditions, endangered coho salmon densities, and one year (2001) of macroinvertebrate biological asses...

  10. Concentration-discharge relationships during an extreme event: Contrasting behavior of solutes and changes to chemical quality of dissolved organic material in the Boulder Creek Watershed during the September 2013 flood: SOLUTE FLUX IN A FLOOD EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, Garrett P. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Rock, Nathan D. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Gabor, Rachel S. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Pitlick, John [Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Tfaily, Malak [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; McKnight, Diane M. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA

    2017-07-01

    During the week of September 10-17, 2013, close to 20 inches of rain fell across Boulder County, Colorado, USA. This rainfall represented a 1000-year event that caused massive hillslope erosion, landslides, and mobilization of sediments. The resultant stream flows corresponded to a 100-year flood. For the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC-CZO), this event provided an opportunity to study the effect of extreme rainfall on solute concentration-discharge relationships and biogeochemical catchment processes. We observed base cation and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at two sites on Boulder Creek following the recession of peak flow. We also isolated three distinct fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for chemical characterization. At the upper site, which represented the forested mountain catchment, the concentrations of the base cations Ca, Mg and Na were greatest at the peak flood and decreased only slightly, in contrast with DOC and K concentrations, which decreased substantially. At the lower site within urban corridor, all solutes decreased abruptly after the first week of flow recession, with base cation concentrations stabilizing while DOC and K continued to decrease. Additionally, we found significant spatiotemporal trends in the chemical quality of organic matter exported during the flood recession, as measured by fluorescence, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and FTICR-MS. Similar to the effect of extreme rainfall events in driving landslides and mobilizing sediments, our findings suggest that such events mobilize solutes by the flushing of the deeper layers of the critical zone, and that this flushing regulates terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages during the flow recession.

  11. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

  12. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  13. Annual evapotranspiration of a forested wetland watershed, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl Trettin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, hydro-meteorological data collected from 1 964 to 1 9 76 on an approximately 5, 000 ha predominantly forested coastal watershed (Turkey Creek) at the Francis Marion National Forest near Charleston, SC were analyzed to estimate annual evapotranspiration (E T) using four different empirical methods. The first one, reported by Zhang et a/. (2001), that...

  14. Hydrology, phosphorus, and suspended solids in five agricultural streams in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Watersheds, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Baumgart, Paul D.; Fermanich, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay to characterize water quality in agricultural streams in the Fox/Wolf watershed in northeastern Wisconsin and provide information to assist in the calibration of a watershed model for the area. Streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended solids data were collected between October 1, 2003, and September 30, 2006, in five streams, including Apple Creek, Ashwaubenon Creek, Baird Creek, Duck Creek, and the East River. During this study, total annual precipitation was close to the 30-year normal of 29.12 inches. The 3-year mean streamflow was highest in the East River (113 ft3/s), followed by Duck Creek (58.2 ft3/s), Apple Creek (26.9 ft3/s), Baird Creek (12.8 ft3/s), and Ashwaubenon Creek (9.1 ft3/s). On a yield basis, during these three years, the East River had the highest flow (0.78 ft3/s/mi2), followed by Baird Creek (0.61 ft3/s/mi2), Apple Creek (0.59 ft3/s/mi2), Duck Creek (0.54 ft3/s/mi2), and Ashwaubenon Creek (0.46 ft3/s/mi2). The overall median total suspended solids (TSS) concentration was highest in Baird Creek (73.5 mg/L), followed by Apple and Ashwaubenon Creeks (65 mg/L), East River (40 mg/L), and Duck Creek (30 mg/L). The median total phosphorus (TP) concentration was highest in Ashwaubenon Creek (0.60 mg/L), followed by Baird Creek (0.47 mg/L), Apple Creek (0.37 mg/L), East River (0.26 mg/L), and Duck Creek (0.22 mg/L).

  15. San Mateo Creek Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  16. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  17. Predicting the spatial distribution of Lonicera japonica, based on species occurrence data from two watersheds in Western Kentucky and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongjiao Liu; Hao Jiang; Robin Zhang; Kate S. He

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of most invasive plants is poorly documented and studied. This project examined and compared the spatial distribution of a successful invasive plant, Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), in two similar-sized but ecologically distinct watersheds in western Kentucky (Ledbetter Creek) and western Tennessee (Panther Creek)....

  18. National Dam Inspection Program. SCS PA 477 (NDS I.D. Number PA 00720, DER I.D. Number 6-457), Delaware River Basin, Tributary of Mill Creek. Berks County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    is one of three dams built on the Kaercher Creek Watershed to provide flood protection to the Borough of Hamburg. 2 g. Design and Construction History...two single-purpose flood control dams and one multi-purpose dam which form the protection for the Kaercher Creek Watershed. Congress approved the...P1A""S - - _ _ 13 %;t- SCALE -r. KAERCHER CREEK WATERSHED PROJE FLOODWATER RETARDING DAM PA-47? AL 191(1- OFfitSERKS COUNTY,. PENNSYLVANA *1 tw( i

  19. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, P.W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment

  20. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  1. Simulation of partially saturated - saturated flow in the Caspar Creek E-road groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason C. Fisher

    2000-01-01

    Abstract - Over the past decade, the U.S. Forest Service has monitored the subsurface hillslope flow of the E-road swale. The swale is located in the Caspar Creek watershed near Fort Bragg, California. In hydrologic year 1990 a logging road was built across the middle section of the hillslope followed by a total clearcut of the area during the following year....

  2. Channel incision and suspended sediment delivery at Caspar Creek, Mendocino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Dewey; Thomas E. Lisle; Leslie M. Reid

    2003-01-01

    Tributary and headwater valleys in the Caspar Creek watershed,in coastal Mendocino County, California,show signs of incision along much of their lengths.An episode of incision followed initial-entry logging which took place between 1860 and 1906. Another episode of incision cut into skid-trails created for second-entry logging in the 1970's.

  3. Environmental Assessment for the Bear Creek Dam and Lake Project Master Plan, South Platte River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    restoration effort. Under this monitoring program, the BCWA monitored flow and limited chemistry from March 2006 through 2010 in Coyote Gulch...Community Resources Vince Casteel – Department of Planning and Public Works Alan Searcy – Stormwater Quality Coordinator/Bear Creek Watershed

  4. Coyote Creek (San Diego County) Management and Restoration at Anza-Borrego Desert State Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    David H. Van Cleve; Lyann A. Comrack; Wier Harold A.

    1989-01-01

    Coyote Creek, along with its associated watershed in Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, is an extremely rich riparian system in the Colorado Desert of California. It provides habitat for the least Bell's vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus), is used as a critical summer watering site for the peninsular bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis cremnobates), and was...

  5. Mtwapa Creek, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: trophic ecology, fish, Mtwapa, Kenya. Abstract—~The trophic status of common fish species in Mtwapa creek on the Kenyan coast was studied. Both the qualitative and quantitative spectra ... Selar crumenophthalmus fed mainly on fish scales. Polychaetes were an important diet for Gerres oyena and Leiognalhus.

  6. Development of the Internet Watershed Educational Tool (InterWET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Parson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Watershed educational and informational efforts have largely neglected to inform one important group of decision-makers: local government officials. The Internet Watershed Educational Tool (InterWET was developed to help inform local officials about water resources, using as a case study the Spring Creek Watershed in central Pennsylvania. Utilizing the "microworlds" concept, InterWET consists of a set of web pages that present water resource issues and components from different perspectives. Specifically, the components of surface runoff, groundwater flow, detached and delivered sediment, in-stream nutrients, and fish populations are presented from the perspectives of a researcher, a conservationist, and a local official. In addition to informing local officials, InterWET can also be used as a stand-alone informational resource or as part of larger watershed educational efforts.

  7. Cattaraugus Creek Study, New York, Final Feasibility Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    tributaries of the creek include Clear Creek at Arcade, Elton Creek, Buttermilk Creek, Spring Brook, Spooner Creek, South Branch Cattaraugus Creek, and Clear...Indian Reservation. The main tributaries of the creek include Clear Creek at Arcade, Elton Creek, Buttermilk Creek, Spring Brook, Spooner Creek, South...Page 1 Basin Map 2 2 Major Community Centers and Areas of Unique Consideration 9 3 Prime Farmland Map 14 4 Soil Productivity for Agricultural Use 15

  8. Dynamics of Potamopyrgus antipodarum infestations and seasonal water temperatures in a heavily used recreational watershed in intermountain North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.; James, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Following the discovery of New Zealand mudsnails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, in the Silver Creek watershed in Idaho, we investigated the distribution and dynamics of the snail populations over two years in field surveys. Despite extensive fishing and recreational activities in the watershed, the infestations appeared limited in extent. As with other published studies, densities of P. antipodarum were highest during summer months, but the distribution in Silver Creek was patchy. We found that near-to-below freezing winter water temperatures in localized reaches of the watershed were related to reduced populations or lack of detection. Distributions observed in winter were associated with regions of groundwater releases, or downstream of impoundments that dampened the temperature extremes observed in locations elsewhere in the watershed. We speculate that the population has remained restricted because thermal conditions are not conducive to year-round survival and growth. However, these relationships could be altered with watershed alterations or global climate change.

  9. TERRAIN DATA, DELANEY CREEK WATERSHED, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  10. SMEX02 Watershed Vegetation Sampling Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the vegetation parameters stand density, plant height, phenological stage, ground cover, green and dry biomass, row spacing, stem and leaf...

  11. SMEX02 Watershed Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set combines data for several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters include bulk density, gravimetric and...

  12. Flood Control. Bassett Creek Watershed, Hennepin County, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    adverse aesthetic and biologi - cal impact on the area. The aesthetic qualities of the area would be severely impacted on. Tree planting and landscaping...14~: v aqa . -- v m 3Z )56k. aC 0 5. - c~a . . a w v o A ’ ’ . ’ 9 4~- w .1 14 %.U .4 aZ4..C 5 o. c. g44. IL 2 1 " 2S a ’a’ I0 3 . - a~~~~ ra So*C.5

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Flood Control Strategies in Contrasting Urban Watersheds and Implications for Houston's Future Flood Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, A.; Juan, A.; Bass, B. J.; Bedient, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years the Greater Houston Region has been hit by a series of severe storms that exceeded the 100-yr recurrence interval. Most notable are the 2015 Memorial Day (May 25-26) and the 2016 Tax Day (April 18) storms, which caused widespread riverine flooding that damaged thousands of properties and debilitated the region's traffic and commercial activities for extended periods. This situation is discouraging, considering that further urban development in the Houston Region will likely exacerbate the flooding impact of future severe storms. Questions arise regarding the efficacy of implemented flood control solutions and the long-term viability of current flood management strategies, especially in heavily impacted watersheds such as Brays Bayou and Cypress Creek. To better understand the effectiveness and limitations of current flood reduction solutions in the Greater Houston Region, this study evaluates the hydrodynamic responses and flood impacts of Brays Bayou watershed and Cypress Creek watershed from the afore-mentioned storm events. Brays Bayou watershed is fully developed with extremely limited options for future flood control projects, while Cypress Creek still has significant portions of undeveloped land that could be utilized for flood mitigation purposes. In order to simulate watershed responses at the time of the storms, the hydrologic model HEC-HMS and unsteady hydraulic model HEC-RAS are used. Additionally, this study evaluates the effectiveness of recently-completed flood control projects in Brays Bayou watershed and proposed flood control strategies in Cypress Creek watershed by conducting a scenario analysis of each watershed. This analysis includes a pre- and post-implementation scenario that represents watershed conditions prior to and after implementation of flood control measures for each watershed. This study demonstrates the benefits and shortcomings of current implemented and proposed flood control projects, and identifies vulnerable

  14. Watershed Management Partnership Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 19, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers signed the Watershed Management Partnership Agreement to promote watershed health, economic sustainability and community vitality through effective manageme

  15. Managing Watersheds with WMOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) allows water-resource managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices for cost-effectiveness in achieving watershed or water utilities management goals.

  16. Adopt Your Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  17. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide critical services, such as clean drinking water, productive fisheries, and outdoor recreation, that support our economies, ... Watershed Assessments Integrated Assessment of Watershed Condition Protection Projects and Partnerships Additional Resources Main menu Environmental Topics ...

  18. Living on the edge : climate change and salmon in Lang Creek, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quilty, E.J.; Hudson, P.M.B.; Farahmand, T. [Aquatic Informatics Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Details of a study investigating the Lang Creek watershed in British Columbia (BC) were presented. The watershed provides drinking water for nearly 20,000 people and is a substantial fisheries resource. The objectives of the study were to evaluate recent impacts of warm stream temperatures to salmonids as well as to estimate the impacts of climate change on future salmonid populations. In addition, the study forecasted the impacts of climate warming and climatic cycles on future stream temperatures, and developed water temperature objectives for the protection of drinking water and aquatic life. Exposure based risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the effect of high stream summer temperatures in Lang Creek from 1998 to 2004. Results suggested that the fish in the watershed were vulnerable to any habitat or water quality deterioration in the lakes and tributaries, to reduced summer flows in the tributaries and to further warming in the mainstem. The impacts of global warming over the last 80 years were estimated. The forecasts suggested that high summer temperatures in the 2020s are likely to cause high mortalities to any salmon populations present in the upper regions of Lang Creek. By the 2040s, high mortalities are likely to occur even during cool years. In lower Lang Creek, temperatures are forecasted to approach but remain below lethal thresholds in the 2080s. It was concluded that chronic impacts to salmon and trout are likely already occurring in Lang Creek, and will become more significant with climate change. Recommendations include a continuation of the thermistor monitoring program; a limitation of land development in certain areas; a diversion of cooler water from lakes in the the creek during summer months; a reduction in flows over the Haslam Lake weir and the setting of water temperature objectives. 75 refs., 12 tabs., 47 figs.

  19. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and...

  20. 78 FR 36743 - Adoption of Final Environmental Assessment (UT-040-09-03) Prepared for the Upper Kanab Creek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Adoption of Final Environmental Assessment (UT-040-09-03) Prepared... or postmarked concerning the adoption of this EA at the address below until July 19, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments concerning the adoption of the Kanab Creek Watershed Vegetation Management...

  1. Preliminary report of progress on the stream ecology phase of the Caspar Creek project, June to December, 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. DeWitt

    1965-01-01

    During the summer, orientation surveys were carried out and initial plans for the conduct of the project were completed. Generally, the plans are for the investigation of the short and long-term effects of logging and associated activities on the nature, the ecology, and the productivity of one branch (the south fork) of Caspar Creek. The north fork watershed is not to...

  2. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek, North Dakota: an isotopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. R.; Mushet, D. M.; Alexander, L. C.; Christensen, J.; Leibowitz, S. G.; Neff, B. P.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Rugh, W.; Vanderhoof, M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, which is dominated by prairie potholes. During a wetter-than-normal decade, Pipestem Creek exhibited an evaporated water signal that had approximately half the isotopic enrichment signal found in most evaporatively-enriched pothole wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from upstream towards downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporative enrichment. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 43 to 2653 ha of open water contributing to streamflow over time, and varied primarily with the amount of discharge. The average value (just over 600 ha) was well above the surface area of Pipestem Creek network (245 ha). This indicated that prairie pothole wetlands were important sources of stream flow in Pipestem Creek throughout the summer, as well as during snowmelt. This also demonstrated that at the lowest flows, the stream itself became disconnected from headwater stream reaches. We believe that this dynamic connectivity between pothole wetlands and Pipestem Creek occurred primarily when evaporatively-enriched water stored in pothole wetlands spilled to the stream during precipitation events.

  3. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  5. FECAL SOURCE TRACKING BY ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE ANALYSIS ON A RURAL WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Turkey Creek watershed located in northwestern Oklahoma, sustains approximately 40000 head of livestock. In addition, the stream receives partially-treated municipal waste from various towns. E. coli was enumerated quarterly and counts beyond EPA limit were found in spring an...

  6. Riparian Restoration and Watershed Management: Some Examples from the California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel Marcus

    1989-01-01

    Managing and restoring watersheds often involves recreation of riparian habitats. The natural functions of riparian forest natural to slow flood water, stabilize stream banks and trap sediments can be used in restoring disturbed creek systems. The State Coastal Conservancy's wetland enhancement program is preserving wetlands on the California coast through repair...

  7. Sediment production in a coastal watershed: legacy, land use, recovery, and rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth T. Keppeler

    2012-01-01

    Sediment production has been measured for nearly half a century at the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds. Examination of this sediment record provides insights into the relative magnitudes and durations of sediment production from management practices including road construction, selection harvest and tractor skidding, and later road decommissioning. The 424-ha...

  8. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene... Land Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e. Name of Project: Rio Hydroelectric... President-- Operations, Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

  9. Westi Among Da Eesti / Robert Alan Jamieson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jamieson, Robert Alan

    2004-01-01

    8.-15. maini 2004 toimus Käsmus rahvusvaheline luuletõlkimise töötuba "Literature beyond borders", mille korraldas Eesti Kirjanduse Teabekeskus rahvusvahelise kirjandusprojekti Literature Across Frontiers toel

  10. Variations in tropical cyclone-related discharge in four watersheds near Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiyin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined a 60-year record of daily precipitation and river discharge related to tropical cyclones (TCs in four watersheds undergoing land use and land cover change near Houston, Texas. Results show that TCs are responsible for ∼20% of the annual maximum discharge events in the four selected watersheds. Although there are no trends in TC precipitation, increasing trends were observed in daily extreme discharge and TC-related discharge. The more developed watersheds (Whiteoak Bayou and Brays Bayou, tend to have higher extreme discharge and steeper trends in extreme discharge than the less developed watersheds (Cypress Creek. Increases in TC-related extreme discharges correspond with increases in developed land and decreases in vegetated land between 1980 and 2006. Therefore, changes in land cover/use in watersheds near Houston are a major cause of the increased flooding risk in recent years.

  11. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  12. Near Real-Time Sensing of Clear Creek Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J. V.; Just, C. L.; Papanicolaou, A.; Schnoor, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The transport of sediments, nutrients, and fecal bacteria from agricultural runoff through a watershed can have deleterious effects on receiving streams. It can impair aquatic ecosystems and cause excessive export of nutrients downstream, which can contribute to hypoxia. The ability to sense sediment and nutrient concentrations with high temporal resolution in near real-time could greatly improve our ability to understand processes which affect downstream water quality. Observations by sensors placed in streams can relay measurements to databases, and data mining can be used to glean information from streaming data for statistical and mathematical assimilation. Results from models can be used to provide advanced warning of harmful events and/or implement remedial measures. The goal of this research is to use the initial station of the Environmental Field Facility located in Clear Creek, Iowa to study processes and relationships which are essential to modeling water quality throughout the entire watershed. This station consists of several components including data loggers, telemetry hardware, and water quality sensors. Measurements collected at this field facility include conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and turbidity. The measurements can be used as inputs to water quality models at the hillslope scale. This data will also provide estimates of other parameters that cannot be obtained in near real-time, and will improve our understanding of fundamental biogeochemical processes which dictate water quality in Clear Creek.

  13. Occurrence and endocrine effects of agrichemicals in a small Nebraska, USA, watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K; Abbott, Kelty I; Cowman, Tim; Kolok, Alan S

    2011-10-01

    The Bow Creek watershed (Nebraska, USA) is dominated by the production of beef cattle and row crops; therefore, surface waters are likely to receive runoff containing steroid hormones and pesticides. The goal of the present study was to determine the occurrence and endocrine effects of agrichemicals in this watershed. To accomplish this, four sites within the watershed-Pearl, Bow, and East Bow Creeks and a site at the confluence with the Missouri River-were selected. In June of 2008, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed at each site, whereas in June of 2009, water and sediment samples were collected. Caged fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were deployed at all of the selected sites in both years. Analysis of these samples revealed that steroid hormones were not present; however, pesticides were present in POCIS extracts and water samples. In general, the amount of pesticides was higher in POCIS retrieved from Pearl and Bow Creeks than in POCIS from East Bow Creek and the confluence. This variation between sites appeared to be related to row crop density, as row crop land cover surrounding the Pearl and Bow Creek sites was higher than that surrounding the East Bow and confluence sites. To determine the endocrine effects of agrichemicals within this watershed, the hepatic mRNA expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor α (ERα), as well as the gonadal expression of P450 aromatase A, was determined for the caged minnows. Females deployed at East Bow Creek and the confluence experienced decreases in the expression of ERα, suggesting that these females had been defeminized; however, this defeminization could not be attributed to any of the pesticides detected at these sites. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  14. Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project: Clean Creeks, Healthy Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  15. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  16. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  17. Evaluating natural gas development impacts on stream ecosystems in an Upper Colorado River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J. M.; Bern, C.; Schmidt, T. S.; McDougal, R. R.; Clark, M. L.; Stricker, C. A.; Wolf, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Oil and gas development in the western United States is increasingly placing at odds the management of two critical natural resources: fossil fuels and water. Muddy Creek, part of the Upper Colorado River watershed, is a semi-arid catchment in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem. Muddy Creek flows throughout the year and includes both perennial and ephemeral tributaries. Primary land use includes livestock grazing, oil and gas development, and recreational activities. A multi-discipline study has been initiated to determine potential impacts of the projected increase of coal bed natural gas development. Hundreds of permits for drilling co-produced waters have been issued, but low energy prices have slowed development. A watershed assessment was conducted in 2010 to determine areas within the watershed that are more susceptible to mobilization of trace elements that occur in soils forming on marine shales. Soil, stream sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for major elements and a suite of trace elements, with arsenic and selenium identified as potential elements of concern. A study of benthic and riparian invertebrates is being conducted to evaluate the uptake of these elements into the food web at targeted locations in the Muddy Creek watershed. Continued work will address sources of salinity to Muddy Creek, and ultimately to the Upper Colorado River. Impacts from energy development can include mobilization of naturally occurring sulfate salts through soil disturbance. Formation waters currently discharged to the surface from two failed wells within the watershed will be evaluated for their contribution to salinity, as well as dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen species, and trace elements, to the Upper Colorado River. Upon completion, this study will provide a baseline that can assist in land-use management decisions as oil and gas extraction expands in the Upper Colorado River watershed.

  18. Biological Stream Survey of Lower Esopus Creek, Catskill Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. K.; Chowdhury, S. H.; Hughes, N. J.; Halton, C. R.; Putnam, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Spillovers and releases from the Ashokan Reservoir into the Lower Esopus Creek have been observed to increase discharge, water level, and turbidity. Concerns about these effects on drinking water quality and stream ecology have spurred debate between the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYC DEP) and citizens living within the Esopus Creek watershed. This study was designed to assess Lower Esopus Creek health, compare current conditions to those in 2007, and identify controlling factors in benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) distribution. Samples were collected, twice in July, at seven sites below the reservoir, six sites along Lower Esopus Creek and one on Sawkill creek (a tributary to Esopus Creek). Data was collected under both normal flow conditions and after a storm event. BMI and water samples were collected at each site. The BMI samples were collected, stored, and evaluated according to the 2009 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC) protocol for Biological Monitoring of Surface Waters in New York State. Physical habitat and water chemistry parameters were also measured in the field. During this sampling period, the same methods were used at seven sites in the Stony Clove Creek and its tributaries. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis due to the small sample size and non-random nature of the sampling. The results showed no significant differences in BMI populations between normal and high flow conditions, or between 2007 and 2011. BMI population, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, current, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were not significantly correlated to distance downstream from the reservoir. BMI population was significantly correlated to TDS and DO, but was not significantly correlated to turbidity. There are no significant longitudinal trends in Lower Esopus Creek; therefore stream ecology is probably more affected by local conditions than by impoundment effects from the Ashokan Reservoir.

  19. Applying Physically Representative Watershed Modelling to Assess Peak and Low Flow Response to Timber Harvest: Application for Watershed Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, R. J.; Anderson, A.; Silins, U.; Craig, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Forest harvesting, insects, disease, wildfire, and other disturbances can combine with climate change to cause unknown changes to the amount and timing of streamflow from critical forested watersheds. Southern Alberta forest and alpine areas provide downstream water supply for agriculture and water utilities that supply approximately two thirds of the Alberta population. This project uses datasets from intensely monitored study watersheds and hydrological model platforms to extend our understanding of how disturbances and climate change may impact various aspects of the streamflow regime that are of importance to downstream users. The objectives are 1) to use the model output of watershed response to disturbances to inform assessments of forested watersheds in the region, and 2) to investigate the use of a new flexible modelling platform as a tool for detailed watershed assessments and hypothesis testing. Here we applied the RAVEN hydrological modelling framework to quantify changes in key hydrological processes driving peak and low flows in a headwater catchment along the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The model was applied to simulate the period from 2006 to 2011 using data from the Star Creek watershed in southwestern Alberta. The representation of relevant hydrological processes was verified using snow survey, meteorological, and vegetation data collected through the Southern Rockies Watershed Project. Timber harvest scenarios were developed to estimate the effects of cut levels ranging from 20 to 100% over a range of elevations, slopes, and aspects. We quantified changes in the timing and magnitude of low flow and high flow events during the 2006 to 2011 period. Future work will assess changes in the probability of low and high flow events using a long-term meteorological record. This modelling framework enables relevant processes at the watershed scale to be accounted in a physically robust and computational efficient manner. Hydrologic

  20. Water quality trading opportunities in two sub-watersheds in the northern Lake Okeechobee watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    For decades, the increase of nutrient enrichment has threatened the ecological integrity and economic sustainability of many rivers, lakes, and coastal waters, including Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Water quality trading programs have been an area of active development to both, reduce nutrient pollution and minimize abatement costs. The objective of this study was to apply a comprehensive modeling framework, integrating a hydrologic-water quality model with an economic model, to assess and compare the cost-effectiveness of a water quality trading program over a command-and-control approach in order to reduce phosphorus loadings to Lake Okeechobee. The Upper Kissimmee (UK) and Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough (TCNS) sub-watersheds, identified as major sources of total phosphorus (TP) loadings to the lake, were selected for this analysis. The effect of different caps on the market potential was assessed while considering four factors: the least-cost abatement solutions, credit prices, potential cost savings, and credit supply and demand. Hypothetical trading scenarios were also developed, using the optimal caps selected for the two sub-watersheds. In both sub-watersheds, a phosphorus credit trading program was less expensive than the conventional command-and-control approach. While attaining cost-effectiveness, keeping optimal credit prices, and fostering market competition, phosphorus reduction targets of 46% and 32% were selected as the most appropriate caps in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds, respectively. Wastewater treatment facilities and urban areas in the UK, and concentrated animal feeding operations in the TCNS sub-watershed were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas improved pastures were identified as the major credit sellers in both sub-watersheds. The estimated net cost savings resulting from implementing a phosphorus trading program in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds were 76% ($ 34.9 million per

  1. Developing flood-inundation maps for Johnson Creek, Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewall, Adam J.; Beal, Benjamin A.

    2017-04-14

    ) data collected in 2014 to delineate water-surface extents for each of the eight modeled stages. The availability of flood-inundation maps in conjunction with real-time data from the USGS streamgages along Johnson Creek and forecasted hydrographs from the National Weather Service Northwest River Forecast Center will provide residents of the watershed and emergency management personnel with valuable information that may aid in flood response, including potential evacuations, road closures, and mitigation efforts. In addition, these maps may be used for post-flood recovery efforts.

  2. Statistical Analysis and water Quality Modeling for a Drinking Water Source Watershed for the City of Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, A.; Bedient, P.; Vieux, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    Water quality is a problem in Lake Houston, the primary source of drinking water for the City of Houston, due to pollutant loads coming from the influent watersheds, including Cypress Creek. Water quality issues in the watershed that are of concern for the lake include nutrient enrichment bacterial impairment, both of which present operational challenges for the drinking water treatment plant operations. Statistical analysis of the historic water quality data was developed in order to understand the source characterization and seasonality of the watershed. Multivariate analysis including principal component, cluster, and discriminant analysis provided a unique seasonal assessment of the watershed leading to refined loading curves have been analyzed using data collected by the USGS at 3 sites in Cypress Creek with corresponding City of Houston water quality data at the sites for the past 5 years to characterize the behavior of the pollutant source and watershed. A VfloTM hydrologic model from Vieux & Assoc., Inc for the watershed of the influent stream Cypress Creek was developed to predict the watershed flows into Lake Houston. A distributed model of a large scale watershed, it uses finite element analysis to solve the kinematic wave equation. The model incorporates land use relationships to predict runoff from Radar rainfall data. Continuous VfloTM was run for storm events and the distributed discharge of the watershed simulated. From the spatial discharge output, nutrient wash-off and convective transport was simulated. The simulated nutrient transport was then compared to storm sampling data at a downstream location to assess the water quality model and determine needed future refinements.

  3. A Corresponding Study of Water Quality Evaluation of the Pasquotank Watershed in Northeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J.; Walthall, S.; McKenzie, R.; Dixon, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Pasquotank River Watershed covers 450 sq miles in the Coastal Plain of NE North Carolina. It flows from the Great Dismal Swamp at the VA/NC border into the Albemarle Sound. The watershed provides a transition between spawning grounds and waters of the Albemarle Sound. Forested swamp wetlands border much of the waterways. Increased agricultural and urban development has greatly affected water quality during recent years. Test were completed along the tributaries and the river itself, adding to the previously data from 2011, 2013, and 2014. Streams tested were the Newbegun Creek, Knobbs Creek, Areneuse Creek, Mill Dam Creek, and Sawyers Creek. These streams cover a large area of the watershed and provide a wide variety of shore development from swampland and farmland to industrial development. Samples were tested for pH, salinity, total dissolved solids, and conductivity. Air/water temperature, dissolved oxygen, wind speed/direction, and turbidity/clarity measurements were taken in the field. The results were placed into an online database and correlated to the location of the sample using Google Maps®. Analysis tools were developed to compare the data from all years. Excel spreadsheets were developed to look more closely at individual points and tests for each point. This database was connected to a data visualization page utilizing Google Maps®. The results show variations for the individual water quality scores, but the overall water quality score for all the tested water sources remained at a comparable level from previous years. Mill Dam Creek rose above the previous three scores of 48 (2011), 47 (2013), and 49 (2014) and achieved a medium water quality score of 57. Areneuse Creek improved in water quality with a medium water quality score of 60. Sawyers Creek became the lowest scoring waterway tested at 35. Knobbs Creek decreased from previous years with a water quality score of 42. For a fourth consecutive testing year, Newbegun Creek fell within the

  4. Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek, 2008 Annual Report : February 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasher, Rhonda; Fisher, Christopher [Colville Confederated Tribes

    2009-06-09

    During the 2008 season, projects completed under BPA project 2000-100-00 included installation of riparian fencing, maintenance of existing riparian fencing, monitoring of at-risk culverts and installation of riparian vegetation along impacted sections of Omak Creek. Redd and snorkel surveys were conducted in Omak Creek to determine steelhead production. Canopy closure surveys were conducted to monitor riparian vegetation recovery after exclusion of cattle since 2000 from a study area commonly known as the Moomaw property. Additional redd and fry surveys were conducted above Mission Falls and in the lower portion of Stapaloop Creek to try and determine whether there has been successful passage at Mission Falls. Monitoring adult steelhead trying to navigate the falls resulted in the discovery of shallow pool depth at an upper pool that is preventing many fish from successfully navigating the entire falls. The Omak Creek Habitat and Passage Project has worked with NRCS to obtain additional funds to implement projects in 2009 that will address passage at Mission Falls, culvert replacement, as well as additional riparian planting. The Omak Creek Technical Advisory Group (TAG) is currently revising the Omak Creek Watershed Assessment. In addition, the group is revising strategy to focus efforts in targeted areas to provide a greater positive impact within the watershed. In 2008 the NRCS Riparian Technical Team was supposed to assess areas within the watershed that have unique problems and require special treatments to successfully resolve the issues involved. The technical team will be scheduled for 2009 to assist the TAG in developing strategies for these special areas.

  5. Bioassessment of Black Creek, Holmes County, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Physical, chemical and biological components at four stations on Black Creek and one station on Harland Creek (reference site), Holmes County, Mississippi were...

  6. The Clear Creek Envirohydrologic Observatory: From Vision Toward Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, C.; Muste, M.; Kruger, A.

    2007-12-01

    As the vision of a fully-functional Clear Creek Envirohydrologic Observatory comes closer to reality, the opportunities for significant watershed science advances in the near future become more apparent. As a starting point to approaching this vision, we focused on creating a working example of cyberinfrastructure in the hydrologic and environmental sciences. The system will integrate a broad range of technologies and ideas: wired and wireless sensors, low power wireless communication, embedded microcontrollers, commodity cellular networks, the internet, unattended quality assurance, metadata, relational databases, machine-to-machine communication, interfaces to hydrologic and environmental models, feedback, and external inputs. Hardware: An accomplishment to date is "in-house" developed sensor networking electronics to compliment commercially available communications. The first of these networkable sensors are dielectric soil moisture probes that are arrayed and equipped with wireless connectivity for communications. Commercially available data logging and telemetry-enabled systems deployed at the Clear Creek testbed include a Campbell Scientific CR1000 datalogger, a Redwing 100 cellular modem, a YA Series yagi antenna, a NP12 rechargeable battery, and a BP SX20U solar panel. This networking equipment has been coupled with Hach DS5X water quality sondes, DTS-12 turbidity probes and MicroLAB nutrient analyzers. Software: Our existing data model is an Arc Hydro-based geodatabase customized with applications for extraction and population of the database with third party data. The following third party data are acquired automatically and in real time into the Arc Hydro customized database: 1) geophysical data: 10m DEM and soil grids, soils; 2) land use/land cover data; and 3) eco-hydrological: radar-based rainfall estimates, stream gage, streamlines, and water quality data. A new processing software for data analysis of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP

  7. Diversity of the Sediment Microbial Community in the Aha Watershed (Southwest China) in Response to Acid Mine Drainage Pollution Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Tangfu; Sun, Min; Dong, Yiran; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Enzong; Tang, Song; Li, Jiwei

    2015-08-01

    Located in southwest China, the Aha watershed is continually contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) produced from upstream abandoned coal mines. The watershed is fed by creeks with elevated concentrations of aqueous Fe (total Fe > 1 g/liter) and SO4 (2-) (>6 g/liter). AMD contamination gradually decreases throughout downstream rivers and reservoirs, creating an AMD pollution gradient which has led to a suite of biogeochemical processes along the watershed. In this study, sediment samples were collected along the AMD pollution sites for geochemical and microbial community analyses. High-throughput sequencing found various bacteria associated with microbial Fe and S cycling within the watershed and AMD-impacted creek. A large proportion of Fe- and S-metabolizing bacteria were detected in this watershed. The dominant Fe- and S-metabolizing bacteria were identified as microorganisms belonging to the genera Metallibacterium, Aciditerrimonas, Halomonas, Shewanella, Ferrovum, Alicyclobacillus, and Syntrophobacter. Among them, Halomonas, Aciditerrimonas, Metallibacterium, and Shewanella have previously only rarely been detected in AMD-contaminated environments. In addition, the microbial community structures changed along the watershed with different magnitudes of AMD pollution. Moreover, the canonical correspondence analysis suggested that temperature, pH, total Fe, sulfate, and redox potentials (Eh) were significant factors that structured the microbial community compositions along the Aha watershed. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  9. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Chase

    2016-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Projected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21% for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75% for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15% for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44% for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  10. Conewago Stream Teams - including youth in watershed restoration creates local watershed connections, prompts community service, and increases water literacy in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Fetter; Sanford Smith; Matt Royer

    2016-01-01

    Youth in Pennsylvania’s Dauphin, Lebanon, and Lancaster Counties were invited to be part of a unique opportunity: a chance to learn, hands-on, about the water in their own community and how their daily lives impact that water. This is the mission of the 4-H Stream Teams program, which was piloted within the Conewago Creek Watershed and surrounding communities in 2010-...

  11. Observational changes to the natural flow regime in Lee Creek in relation to altered precipitation patterns and its implication for fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Michael R.; Long, James M.; Turton, Donald J.

    2015-01-01

    The natural flow regime is important for structuring streams and their resident ichthyofauna and alterations to this regime can have cascading consequences. We sought to determine if changes in hydrology could be attributed to changes in precipitation in a minimally altered watershed (Lee Creek). The stream flow regime was analyzed using Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) software, and data from a nearby climate station were used to summarize concurrent precipitation patterns. We discovered that Lee Creek hydrology had become flashier (i.e., increased frequency of extreme events of shorter duration) since 1992 coincident with changes in precipitation patterns. Specifically, our results show fewer but more intense rain events within the Lee Creek watershed. Our research provides evidence that climate-induced changes to the natural flow regime are currently underway and additional research on its effects on the fish community is warranted.

  12. Remote sensing as a tool for watershed-wide estimation of net solar radiation and water loss to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, S.; Thomas, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a study intended to develop a general remote sensing-aided cost-effective procedure to estimate watershed-wide water loss to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration and to estimate net solar radiation over the watershed. Evapotranspiration estimation employs a basic two-stage two-phase sample of three information resolution levels. Net solar radiation is taken as one of the variables at each level of evapotranspiration modeling. The input information for models requiring spatial information will be provided by Landsat digital data, environmental satellite data, ground meteorological data, ground sample unit information, and topographic data. The outputs of the sampling-estimation/data bank system will be in-place maps of evapotranspiration on a data resolution element basis, watershed-wide evapotranspiration isopleths, and estimates of watershed and subbasin total evapotranspiration with associated statistical confidence bounds. The methodology developed is being tested primarily on the Spanish Creek Watershed Plumas County, California.

  13. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...

  14. Agricultural conservation planning framework: 1. Developing multipractice watershed planning scenarios and assessing nutrient reduction potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, M D; Porter, S A; Boomer, K M B; James, D E; Kostel, J A; Helmers, M J; Isenhart, T M; McLellan, E

    2015-05-01

    Spatial data on soils, land use, and topography, combined with knowledge of conservation effectiveness, can be used to identify alternatives to reduce nutrient discharge from small (hydrologic unit code [HUC]12) watersheds. Databases comprising soil attributes, agricultural land use, and light detection and ranging-derived elevation models were developed for two glaciated midwestern HUC12 watersheds: Iowa's Beaver Creek watershed has an older dissected landscape, and Lime Creek in Illinois is young and less dissected. Subsurface drainage is common in both watersheds. We identified locations for conservation practices, including in-field practices (grassed waterways), edge-of-field practices (nutrient-removal wetlands, saturated buffers), and drainage-water management, by applying terrain analyses, geographic criteria, and cross-classifications to field- and watershed-scale geographic data. Cover crops were randomly distributed to fields without geographic prioritization. A set of alternative planning scenarios was developed to represent a variety of extents of implementation among these practices. The scenarios were assessed for nutrient reduction potential using a spreadsheet approach to calculate the average nutrient-removal efficiency required among the practices included in each scenario to achieve a 40% NO-N reduction. Results were evaluated in the context of the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy, which reviewed nutrient-removal efficiencies of practices and established the 40% NO-N reduction as Iowa's target for Gulf of Mexico hypoxia mitigation by agriculture. In both test watersheds, planning scenarios that could potentially achieve the targeted NO-N reduction but remove Cover crops and nutrient removal wetlands were common to these scenarios. This approach provides an interim technology to assist local watershed planning and could provide planning scenarios to evaluate using watershed simulation models. A set of ArcGIS tools is being released to enable

  15. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  16. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ketelle, Richard [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year research project undertaken to better understand the nature and magnitude of mercury (Hg) fluxes in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). This project addresses the requirements of Action Plan 1 in the 2011 Oak Ridge Reservation-wide Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Five Year Review (FYR). The Action Plan is designed to address a twofold 2011 FYR issue: (1) new information suggests mobilization of mercury from the upper and lower EFPC streambeds and stream banks is the primary source of mercury export during high-flow conditions, and (2) the current Record of Decision did not address the entire hydrologic system and creek bank or creek bed sediments. To obtain a more robust watershed-scale understanding of mercury sources and processes in lower EFPC (LEFPC), new field and laboratory studies were coupled with existing data from multiple US Department of Energy programs to develop a dynamic watershed and bioaccumulation model. LEFPC field studies for the project focused primarily on quantification of streambank erosion and an evaluation of mercury dynamics in shallow groundwater adjacent to LEFPC and potential connection to the surface water. The approach to the stream bank study was innovative in using imagery from kayak floats’ surveys from the headwaters to the mouth of EFPC to estimate erosion, coupled with detailed bank soil mercury analyses. The goal of new field assessments and modeling was to generate a more holistic and quantitative understanding of the watershed and the sources, flux, concentration, transformation, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg). Model development used a hybrid approach that dynamically linked a spreadsheet-based physical and chemical watershed model to a systems dynamics, mercury bioaccumulation model for key fish species. The watershed model tracks total Hg and MeHg fluxes and concentrations by examining upstream inputs, floodplain

  17. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  18. Fluctuating Asymmetry in Two Common Freshwater Fishes as a Biological Indicator of Urbanization and Environmental Stress within the Middle Chattahoochee Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Lutterschmidt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Deviations in bilateral symmetry or fluctuating asymmetry of an organism may result under environmental stressors that reduce developmental homeostasis and stability. Anthropogenic stressors such as increased urbanization can negatively impact environmental quality of aquatic ecosystems. Researchers have stressed the value in finding easy, accurate and inexpensive methods for assessing potential stress within ecosystems. Here we use fluctuating asymmetry (FA as a useful quantitative tool in assessing the environmental quality and potential urban-based stressors within eight creeks of the Bull and Upatoi Creeks Watershed within the larger watershed of the Middle Chattahoochee. Using Geographic Information System (GIS, we characterize land-use patterns and a decreasing urbanization gradient as related to each creek’s eastward position from Columbus, Georgia. We collected two common fishes (redbreast sunfish; Lepomis auritus and bluegill; Lepomis macrochirus, measured both metric and meristic traits and investigated if the degree of FA in these two common fishes correlated with the urbanization gradient across creeks. We found significant differences in FA among creeks with one of the highest FA measures for the most urban creek. Principal component analysis (PCA scores of urbanization and water chemistry were regressed against FA scores. We found no significant relationship between urbanization and FA nor environmental water chemistry and FA among creeks. We comment on the use of FA as a potential response variable and biological indicator of environmental stress within this watershed.

  19. Backwaters of Makupa Creek, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acid 8 mL was used for elution to strip the metals from the resin. Certified samples SLEW—Z and. NASS-5, from the National Research Council of. Canada were ..... sediment Fe enrichment factors (EF) at the Makupa creek backwaters, indicating its remobilization. Humic and fluvic acid mobilization did not have a significant ...

  20. A Sediment Budget Case Study: Comparing Watershed Scale Erosion Estimates to Modeled and Empirical Sediment Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavitt, B.; O'Connor, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Lumber Company Habitat Conservation Plan requires watershed analyses to be conducted on their property. This paper summarizes a portion of that analysis focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates coupled with downstream sediment routing in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Watershed scale erosion sources from hillslopes, roads, and channel banks were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. Recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield that a community watershed group collected with technical assistance from the US Forest Service were used to validate the resulting sediment budget. Bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek, provided another check on the sediment budget. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study generated sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments. Ongoing monitoring of sediment sources coupled with sediment routing models and reach scale field data allows for predictions to be made regarding in-channel sediment storage.

  1. National Dam Inspection Program. SCS PA-476 (NDS-I.D. Number PA 00719, DER I.D. Number 6-456), Delaware River Basin, Tributary of Mill Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    dam is flood control. This structure is one of three dams built in the Kaercher Creek Watershed to provide flood protection for the Borough of Hamburg...Water is also used for irrigation on the farm adjacent to the reservoir. g. Design and Construction History. The Kaercher Creek Watershed project...A..D jfdf ta.-. A7_ WXW Bla’ = 1aU. 79 w~~~~[1-- eiw wj ,Ul S"lF U*"-11 WV A4V*T 5- - -ow?" .~V L - * £. AV lfIAr Atrm rUw’wF lo w rjo KAERCHER

  2. Simulating Multi-Scale Mercury Fate and Transport in a Coastal Plain Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightes, C. D.; Davis, G. M.; Golden, H. E.; Conrads, P. A.; Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.1 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in streams and rivers are not well understood, in large part, because these systems are intimately linked with their surrounding watersheds and are often highly spatially variable. In this study, we applied a linked watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling (N, C, and Hg) model (VELMA, Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment) to simulate daily flow, fluxes, and soil and stream concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at multiple spatial scales in McTier Creek, a Coastal Plain watershed within the Edisto River basin of South Carolina, USA. Our goals were to (1) calibrate and simulate Hg fate and transport processes at a focused reach scale (0.1 km2) and (2) assess how representative the reach-scale parameters and processes are when multi-scale watershed information is included in Hg cycling simulations. Thus, reach-scale parameterization was applied to multi-scaled watersheds, including two headwater sub-watersheds (28 km2 and 25 km2) nested within the McTier Creek watershed (79 km2), to evaluate model performance and how well reach-scale parameterization and processes characterize nested watersheds with increasing drainage areas. The current VELMA simulations suggest that stream water column THg concentration predictions perform reasonably well at different scales based on reach-scale calibrations, but the model simulations of MeHg reach, sub-watershed, and watershed stream concentrations are out-of-phase with observed MeHg concentrations. This result suggests that processes governing MeHg loading to the main channel may be under-represented in the current model structure and underscores the complexity of simulating MeHg dynamics in watershed models. This work supports the importance of hydrology in

  3. SWAT Model Prediction of Phosphorus Loading in a South Carolina Karst Watershed with a Downstream Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Manoj K. Jha; Thomas M. Williams; Amy E. Edwards; Daniel R.. Hitchcock

    2013-01-01

    The SWAT model was used to predict total phosphorus (TP) loadings for a 1555-ha karst watershed—Chapel Branch Creek (CBC)—which drains to a lake via a reservoir-like embayment (R-E). The model was first tested for monthly streamflow predictions from tributaries draining three potential source areas as well as the downstream R-E, followed by TP loadings using data...

  4. Stream geomorphic and habitat data from a baseline study of Underwood Creek, Wisconsin, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Benjamin M.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Blount, James D.

    2015-12-07

    Geomorphic and habitat data were collected along Underwood Creek as part of a larger study of stream water quality conditions in the greater Milwaukee, Wisconsin, area. The data were collected to characterize baseline physical conditions in Underwood Creek prior to a potential discharge of wastewater return flow to the stream from the city of Waukesha, Wis. Geomorphic and habitat assessments were conducted in the summer and fall of 2012 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. The assessments used a transect based, reach scale assessment at a total of eight reaches—six reaches along Underwood Creek and two reaches along the Menomonee River upstream and downstream of its confluence with Underwood Creek. The reach scale assessment was an updated version of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program habitat assessment integrated with an intensive geomorphic assessment. Channel cross sections and longitudinal profiles were surveyed along each of the eight reaches, and discharge and water temperature were measured. Additionally, a geomorphic river walk-through was completed along a 10 kilometer reach that spanned the individual assessment reaches and the sections of channel between them. The assessments and river walk-through described channel and bank stability, channel shape and size, sediment and riparian conditions along these areas of Underwood Creek and the Menomonee River. Since the time of the data collection, focus has turned to other Lake Michigan tributary watersheds for possible Waukesha return-flow discharges; however, the data collected for this effort remains a valuable asset for the baseline characterization, design, and prioritization of planned stream rehabilitation activities in Underwood Creek. The data files presented in this report include a variety of formats including geographic information system files, spreadsheets, photos, and scans of field forms.

  5. Watershed Central: A New Gateway to Watershed Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many communities across the country struggle to find the right approaches, tools and data to in their watershed plans. EPA recently posted a new Web site called "Watershed Central, a “onestop" tool, to help watershed organizations and others find key resources to protect their ...

  6. The ecotoxicological recovery of Ely Creek and tributaries (Lee County, VA) after remediation of acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mathew L; Cherry, Donald S; Currie, Rebecca J; Zipper, Carl E

    2012-04-01

    The Ely Creek watershed (Lee County, VA) was determined in 1995 to be the most negatively affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) within the Virginia coalfield. This determination led the US Army Corps of Engineers to design and build passive wetland remediation systems at two major AMD seeps affecting Ely Creek. This study was undertaken to determine if ecological recovery had occurred in Ely Creek. The results indicate that remediation had a positive effect on all monitoring sites downstream of the remediated AMD seeps. At the site most impacted by AMD, mean pH was 2.93 prior to remediation and improved to 7.14 in 2004. Benthic macroinvertebrate surveys revealed that one AMD influenced site had increased taxa richness from zero taxa in 1997 to 24 in 2004. While in situ testing of Asian clams resulted in zero survival at five of seven AMD influenced sites prior to remediation, some clams survived at all sites after. Clam survival was found to be significantly less than upstream references at only two sites, both downstream of un-mitigated AMD seeps in 2004. An ecotoxicological rating (ETR) system that combined ten biotic and abiotic parameters was developed as an indicator of the ecological status for each study site. A comparison of ETRs from before and after remediation demonstrated that all sites downstream of the remediation had experienced some level of recovery. Although the remediation has improved the ecological health of Ely Creek, un-mitigated AMD discharges are still negatively impacting the watershed.

  7. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  8. PINE CREEK ROADLESS AREA, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.; Denton, David K.

    1984-01-01

    Examination of the Pine Creek Roadless Area, Oregon indicates that there is little likelihood for the occurrence of energy or metallic mineral resources in the area. No mines or mineral prospects were identified during the investigation. Although nearby parts of Harney Basin are characterized by higher than normal heat flow, indicating that the region as a whole may have some as yet undefined potential for the occurrence of the geothermal energy resources, no potential for this resource was identified in the roadless area.

  9. Haights Creek RPM Pipe Failures

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, Haights Creek Irrigation Company replaced 730 linear feet of 24- and 27-inch-diameter RPM (reinforced plastic mortar) pipe because of several failures. Bureau of Reclamation personnel examined the pipe before and after exhumation, the surrounding soil conditions, and measured diametral deflections. Major longitudinal cracks in the pipe invert appear to be the result of hard spots in the pipe foundation. Some of these hard spots were caused from mounding, or using a mound of soil u...

  10. Trout Creek Mountain project, Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Hatfield, Doc; Hatfield, Connie

    1995-01-01

    The Trout Creek Mountain experience is an example of how the land and the people can win by building bridges of understanding and common interest between concerned constituencies. Love of the land, its natural resources, and realization of a need for changing grazing practices to reverse the degradation of riparian areas were the common interests that caused environmentalists, ranchers, the BLM, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to work togethe...

  11. Orofino Creek Passage Project Biological and Engineering Feasibility Report: Completion Report 1988.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1988-10-01

    If implemented, the Orofino Creek Passage Project will provide adult fish passage at barrier waterfalls on Orofino Creek, Idaho, and give anadromous salmonids access to upstream habitat. Anadromous fish are currently blocked at Orofino Falls, 8.3 km above the stream's confluence with the Clearwater River. This report summarizes results of a study to determine the potential for increasing natural production of summer steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) in the Orofino Creek drainage by enhancing adult fish passage. Data on fish habitat, migration barriers, stream temperatures and fish populations in the drainage were collected during 1987 and provided a basis for estimating the potential for self-sustaining anadromous salmonid production above Orofino Falls. Between 84.7 and 103.6 km of currently inaccessible streams would be available to anadromous fish following project implementation, depending on the level of passage enhancement above Orofino Falls. These streams contain habitat of poor to good quality for anadromous salmonids. Low summer flows and high water temperatures reduce habitat quality in lower mainstem Orofino Creek. Several streams in the upper watershed have habitat that is dominated by brook trout and may be poorly utilized by steelhead or salmon. 32 refs., 20 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Drainage network structure and hydrologic behavior of three lake-rich watersheds on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, C.D.; Whitman, M.S.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Kemnitz, R.; Grosse, G.; Urban, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds draining the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska are dominated by permafrost and snowmelt runoff that create abundant surface storage in the form of lakes, wetlands, and beaded streams. These surface water elements compose complex drainage networks that affect aquatic ecosystem connectivity and hydrologic behavior. The 4676 km2 Fish Creek drainage basin is composed of three watersheds that represent a gradient of the ACP landscape with varying extents of eolian, lacustrine, and fluvial landforms. In each watershed, we analyzed 2.5-m-resolution aerial photography, a 5-m digital elevation model, and river gauging and climate records to better understand ACP watershed structure and processes. We show that connected lakes accounted for 19 to 26% of drainage density among watersheds and most all channels initiate from lake basins in the form of beaded streams. Of the > 2500 lakes in these watersheds, 33% have perennial streamflow connectivity, and these represent 66% of total lake area extent. Deeper lakes with over-wintering habitat were more abundant in the watershed with eolian sand deposits, while the watershed with marine silt deposits contained a greater extent of beaded streams and shallow thermokarst lakes that provide essential summer feeding habitat. Comparison of flow regimes among watersheds showed that higher lake extent and lower drained lake-basin extent corresponded with lower snowmelt and higher baseflow runoff. Variation in baseflow runoff among watersheds was most pronounced during drought conditions in 2007 with corresponding reduction in snowmelt peak flows the following year. Comparison with other Arctic watersheds indicates that lake area extent corresponds to slower recession of both snowmelt and baseflow runoff. These analyses help refine our understanding of how Arctic watersheds are structured and function hydrologically, emphasizing the important role of lake basins and suggesting how future lake change may impact hydrologic

  13. Stream Physical Characteristics Impact Habitat Quality for Pacific Salmon in Two Temperate Coastal Watersheds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Fellman

    Full Text Available Climate warming is likely to cause both indirect and direct impacts on the biophysical properties of stream ecosystems especially in regions that support societally important fish species such as Pacific salmon. We studied the seasonal variability and interaction between stream temperature and DO in a low-gradient, forested stream and a glacial-fed stream in coastal southeast Alaska to assess how these key physical parameters impact freshwater habitat quality for salmon. We also use multiple regression analysis to evaluate how discharge and air temperature influence the seasonal patterns in stream temperature and DO. Mean daily stream temperature ranged from 1.1 to 16.4°C in non-glacial Peterson Creek but only 1.0 to 8.8°C in glacial-fed Cowee Creek, reflecting the strong moderating influence glacier meltwater had on stream temperature. Peterson Creek had mean daily DO concentrations ranging from 3.8 to 14.1 mg L(-1 suggesting future climate changes could result in an even greater depletion in DO. Mean daily stream temperature strongly controlled mean daily DO in both Peterson (R2=0.82, P<0.01 and Cowee Creek (R2=0.93, P<0.01. However, DO in Peterson Creek was mildly related to stream temperature (R2=0.15, P<0.01 and strongly influenced by discharge (R2=0.46, P<0.01 on days when stream temperature exceeded 10°C. Moreover, Peterson Creek had DO values that were particularly low (<5.0 mg L(-1 on days when discharge was low but also when spawning salmon were abundant. Our results demonstrate the complexity of stream temperature and DO regimes in coastal temperate watersheds and highlight the need for watershed managers to move towards multi-factor risk assessment of potential habitat quality for salmon rather than single factor assessments alone.

  14. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-02-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  15. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Western Fisheries Research Center, Cook, WA)

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  16. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

  17. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  18. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    This project addresses existing habitat conditions, fish population status, and restoration priority sites within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed, a sub-basin of the White Salmon River. Our partners in this project are the United States Geological Service (USGS), and the Yakama Indian Nation (YIN). Underwood Conservation District (UCD) is involved in the project via accomplishment of water quality monitoring, sampling for stable isotopes, and characterization of the watershed geomorphology. These work items are part of an effort to characterize the stream and riparian habitat conditions in Rattlesnake Creek, to help guide habitat and fish restoration work. Water chemistry and temperature information is being collected both on Rattlesnake Creek, and on other tributaries and the main stem of the White Salmon River. Information on the entire system enables us to compare results obtained from Rattlesnake Creek with the rest of the White Salmon system. Water chemistry and temperature data have been collected in a manner that is comparable with data gathered in previous years. The results from data gathered in the 2001-2002 performance period are reported in appendix A at the end of this 2002-2003 report. Additional work being conducted as part of this study includes; an estimate of salmonid population abundance (YIN and USGS); a determination of fish species composition, distribution, and life history (YIN and USGS), and a determination of existing kinds, distribution, and severity of fish diseases (YIN and USGS). The overall objective is to utilize the above information to prioritize restoration efforts in Rattlesnake Creek.

  19. Effectiveness of timber harvesting BMPs: monitoring spatial and temporal dynamics of dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus in a low-gradient watershed, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram DaSilva; Y. Jun Xu; George Ice; John Beebe; Richard Stich

    2012-01-01

    To test effectiveness of Louisiana’s voluntary best management practices (BMPs) at preventing water quality degradation from timber harvesting activities, a study with BACI design was conducted from 2006 through 2010 in the Flat Creek Watershed, north-central Louisiana. Water samples for nutrient analyses and measurements of stream flow and of in-stream dissolved...

  20. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  1. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  2. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS2) hydrologic models. The application of these two models allows AGWA to conduct hydrologic modeling and watershed assessments at multiple temporal and spatial scales. AGWA’s current outputs are runoff (volumes and peaks) and sediment yield, plus nitrogen and phosphorus with the SWAT model. AGWA uses commonly available GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both models. Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the individual model requirements. The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then executed, and the results are imported back into AGWA for visualization. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitigation activities can be focused. AGWA also has tools to apply an array of best management practices. There are currently two versions of AGWA available; AGWA 1.5 for

  3. Watersheds in disordered media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S. Andrade Jr.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watershedsseparating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have beenused to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes betweencountries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance,slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in awatershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arisesnaturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide,and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields suchas image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scalingproperties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a moreprofound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed andstatistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of awatershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometricaland physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificialmodel landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be ingood qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  4. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  5. Baseline for Climate Change: Modeling Watershed Aquatic Biodiversity Relative to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurakis, Eugene G

    2010-10-01

    Objectives of the two-year study were to (1) establish baselines for fish and macroinvertebrate community structures in two mid-Atlantic lower Piedmont watersheds (Quantico Creek, a pristine forest watershed; and Cameron Run, an urban watershed, Virginia) that can be used to monitor changes relative to the impacts related to climate change in the future; (2) create mathematical expressions to model fish species richness and diversity, and macroinvertebrate taxa and macroinvertebrate functional feeding group taxa richness and diversity that can serve as a baseline for future comparisons in these and other watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region; and (3) heighten people’s awareness, knowledge and understanding of climate change and impacts on watersheds in a laboratory experience and interactive exhibits, through internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, a week-long teacher workshop, and a website about climate change and watersheds. Mathematical expressions modeled fish and macroinvertebrate richness and diversity accurately well during most of the six thermal seasons where sample sizes were robust. Additionally, hydrologic models provide the basis for estimating flows under varying meteorological conditions and landscape changes. Continuations of long-term studies are requisite for accurately teasing local human influences (e.g. urbanization and watershed alteration) from global anthropogenic impacts (e.g. climate change) on watersheds. Effective and skillful translations (e.g. annual potential exposure of 750,000 people to our inquiry-based laboratory activities and interactive exhibits in Virginia) of results of scientific investigations are valuable ways of communicating information to the general public to enhance their understanding of climate change and its effects in watersheds.

  6. Geospatial Modeling of Watershed Quality as an Indicator for Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, R.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of urbanization of rural Tennessee counties on environmental quality and human health and wellbeing has not been well studied, especially in the context of water quality. Between 2015 and 2025, Williamson County, TN is projected to see the strongest rate of population growth in the region, expanding by 33.7 percent. Water quality directly affects the condition of soils, vegetation, and other life forms that depend on water for survival, and therefore is a valid indicator of environmental health. Current reliable data is available on less than half (47%) of waterways in Tennessee. GIS is applied to model the impact of urbanization on rural communities within the Mill Creek watershed in Williamson County, Tennessee. Water quality measurements are integrated with data identifying urbanization and other land development influences assessed over a previous decades in order to identify influences of environmental change impacts on the watershed. The study examines the threat of urbanization to soils, vegetation and other related natural resources as well as the distance of farm areas, pasture grazing, cattle access and manure runoff, construction and landscaping to collection systems leading into the watershed. Combining spatial analysis with water quality interpretation helped to identify and display potential causes and sources of Mill Creek Watershed pollution as well as vulnerable locations susceptible to risk of declining environmental health.

  7. Report on the Watershed Monitoring Program at the Paducah Site January-December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    Watershed Monitoring of Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks has been conducted since 1987. The monitoring was conducted by the University of Kentucky between 1987 and 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of monitoring are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for DOE protect and maintain the use of Little Bayour and Big Bayou creeks for frowth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota. The watershed (biological) monitoring discussed in this report was conducted under DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. Future monitoring will be conducted as required by the Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) in March 1998. A draft Watershed Monitoring Program plan was approved by the Kentucky Division of Water and will be finalized in 1999. The DOE permit also requires toxicity monitoring of one continuous outfall and of three intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The Watershed Monitoring Program for the Paducah Site during calendar year 1998 consisted of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of fish communities. This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from january 1998 to December 1998, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  8. Regional rainfall-runoff relations for simulation of streamflow for watersheds in Du Page County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, James J.; Melching, Charles S.

    1998-01-01

    Rainfall and streamflow data collected from July 1986 through September 1993 were utilized to calibrate and verify a continuous-simulation rainfall-runoff model for three watersheds (11.8--18.0 square miles in area) in Du Page County. Classification of land cover into three categories of pervious (grassland, forest/wetland, and agricultural land) and one category of impervious subareas was sufficient to accurately simulate the rainfall-runoff relations for the three watersheds. Regional parameter sets were obtained by calibrating jointly all parameters except fraction of ground-water inflow that goes to inactive ground water (DEEPFR), interflow recession constant (IRC), and infiltration (INFILT) for runoff from all three watersheds. DEEPFR and IRC varied among the watersheds because of physical differences among the watersheds. Two values of INFILT were obtained: one representing the rainfall-runoff process on the silty and clayey soils on the uplands and lake plains that characterize Sawmill Creek, St. Joseph Creek, and eastern Du Page County; and one representing the rainfall-runoff process on the silty soils on uplands that characterize Kress Creek and parts of western Du Page County. Regional rainfall-runoff relations, defined through joint calibration of the rainfall-runoff model and verified for independent periods, presented in this report, allow estimation of runoff for watersheds in Du Page County with an error in the total water balance less than 4.0 percent; an average absolute error in the annual-flow estimates of 17.1 percent with the error rarely exceeding 25 percent for annual flows; and correlation coefficients and coefficients of model-fit efficiency for monthly flows of at least 87 and 76 percent, respectively. Close reproduction of the runoff-volume duration curves was obtained. A frequency analysis of storm-runoff volume indicates a tendency of the model to undersimulate large storms, which may result from underestimation of the amount of

  9. Multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Dispersion of White Oak Creek Contaminants in the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platfoot, J.H.; Wendel, M.W.; Williams, P.T.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the simulation of the dispersion and dilution of dissolved or finely suspended contaminants entering the Clinch river from White Oak Creek. The work is accomplished through the application of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. This study assumes that contaminants originating in the White Oak Creed watershed, which drains Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will eventually reach the mouth of White Oak Creek and be discharged into the clinch River. The numerical model was developed to support the analysis of the off-site consequences of releases from the ORNL liquid low-level waste system. The system contains storage tanks and transfer lines in Bethel Valley and Melton Valley. Under certain failure modes, liquid low-level waste could be released to White Oak Creek or Melton Branch to White Oak Creek and eventually be discharged to the Clinch River. Since the Clinch River has unrestricted access by the public and water usage from the Clinch River is not controlled by the Department of Energy, such a liquid low-level waste spill would create the possibility of public exposure to the contaminant. This study is limited to the dispersion of the contaminants downstream of the confluence of White Oak Creek.

  10. SANDY CREEK ROADLESS AREA, MISSISSIPPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Boyd R.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    The Sandy Creek Roadless Area includes about 3. 7 sq mi in the southeastern part of Adams County, Mississippi. On the basis of a mineral survey, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas. It is possible that wells drilled deep enough to penetrate the older reservoirs will encounter significant quantities of oil and natural gas in the roadless area. The deposits of gravel, sand, and clay present in the area could be utilized in the construction industry, but similar deposits elsewhere are much closer to available markets.

  11. 33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at...

  12. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Durham Creek. 117.929 Section 117.929 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of...

  14. 33 CFR 117.401 - Trail Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trail Creek. 117.401 Section 117.401 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Indiana § 117.401 Trail Creek. (a) The draw of the Franklin...

  15. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  16. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  17. Currents and siltation at Dharamtar creek, Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Kolhatkar, V.M.; Fernandes, A.A.

    Hydrographic data collected in Dharamtar Creek during 1976-77 have been analysed. This showed that the waters in the Creek are well mixed and the salinity varied with the tide. The tidal currents are found to be generally strong. The distribution...

  18. Remediation scenarios for attenuating peak flows and reducing sediment transport in Fountain Creek, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Fulton, John W.; Williams, Cory A.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Fountain Creek Watershed, Flood Control and Greenway District assessed remediation scenarios to attenuate peak flows and reduce sediment loads in the Fountain Creek watershed. To evaluate these strategies, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) hydrologic and hydraulic models were employed. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers modeling system HEC-HMS (Hydrologic Modeling System) version 3.5 was used to simulate runoff in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, associated with storms of varying magnitude and duration. Rain-gage precipitation data and radar-based precipitation data from the April 28–30, 1999, and September 14–15, 2011, storm events were used in the calibration process for the HEC-HMS model. The curve number and lag time for each subwatershed and Manning's roughness coefficients for each channel reach were adjusted within an acceptable range so that the simulated and measured streamflow hydrographs for each of the 12 USGS streamgages approximated each other. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers modeling system HEC-RAS (River Analysis System) versions 4.1 and 4.2 were used to simulate streamflow and sediment transport, respectively, for the Fountain Creek watershed generated by a particular storm event. Data from 15 USGS streamgages were used for model calibration and 7 of those USGS streamgages were used for model validation. The calibration process consisted of comparing the simulated water-surface elevations and the cross-section-averaged velocities from the model with those surveyed in the field at the cross section at the corresponding 15 and 7 streamgages, respectively. The final Manning’s roughness coefficients were adjusted between –30 and 30 percent at the 15 calibration streamgages from the original left, right, and channel-averaged Manning's roughness coefficients upon completion of calibration. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers modeling system HEC

  19. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  20. Effects of urbanization on groundwater evolution in an urbanizing watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D.; Banner, J. L.; Bendik, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Jollyville Plateau Salamander (Eurycea tonkawae), a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, is endemic to springs and caves within the Bull Creek Watershed of Austin, Texas. Rapid urbanization endangers known populations of this salamander. Conservation strategies lack information on the extent of groundwater contamination from anthropogenic sources in this karst watershed. Spring water was analyzed for strontium (Sr) isotopes and major ions from sites classified as "urban" or "rural" based on impervious cover estimates. Previous studies have shown that the 87Sr/86Sr value of municipal water is significantly higher than values for natural streamwater, which are similar to those for the Cretaceous limestone bedrock of the region's watersheds. We investigate the application of this relationship to understanding the effects of urbanization on groundwater quality. The use of Sr isotopes as hydrochemical tracers is complemented by major ion concentrations, specifically the dominant ions in natural groundwater (Ca and HCO3) and the ions associated with the addition of wastewater (Na and Cl). To identify high priority salamander-inhabited springs for water quality remediation, we explore the processes controlling the chemical evolution of groundwater such as municipal water inputs, groundwater-soil interactions, and solution/dissolution reactions. 87Sr/86Sr values for water samples from within the watershed range from 0.70760 to 0.70875, the highest values corresponding to sites located in the urbanized areas of the watershed. Analyses of the covariation of Sr isotopes with major ion concentrations help elucidate controls on spring water evolution. Springs located in rural portions of the watershed have low 87Sr/86Sr, high concentrations of Ca and HCO3, and low concentrations of Na and Cl. This is consistent with small inputs of municipal water. Three springs located in urban portions of the watershed have high 87Sr/86Sr, low Ca and HCO3, and

  1. 77 FR 10960 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Snake Creek, Islamorada, FL AGENCY... of Snake Creek Bridge, mile 0.5, across Snake Creek, in Islamorada, Florida. The regulation is set... Sheriff's Office has requested a temporary modification to the operating schedule of Snake Creek Bridge in...

  2. Redbank and Fancher Creeks, California: General Design Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Creek, flows under the Enterprise Canal to Marion and Alluvial Avenues, where it has to be pumped into Dry Creek. i- Dog Creek. - Dog Creek runoff...Engineering Research Center, (1977); Shore Protection Manual - 1977 Edition; 8. Donovan , N.C. and Bornstein, A.E., 1978, Uncertainties in Seismic Risk

  3. Simulated wetland conservation-restoration effects on water quantity and quality at watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xixi; Shang, Shiyou; Qu, Zhongyi; Liu, Tingxi; Melesse, Assefa M; Yang, Wanhong

    2010-07-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), enhanced by the hydrologic equivalent wetland (HEW) concept developed by Wang [Wang, X., Yang, W., Melesse, A.M., 2008. Using hydrologic equivalent wetland concept within SWAT to estimate streamflow in watersheds with numerous wetlands. Trans. ASABE 51 (1), 55-72.], can be a best resort. However, there is a serious lack of information about simulated effects using this kind of integrated modeling approach. The objective of this study was to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota. The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes and wetland characteristics (e.g., size and morphology) to be accurately represented in the models. The loss of the first 10-20% of the wetlands in the Minnesota study area would drastically increase the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN). On the other hand, the justifiable reductions of the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, TP, and TN in the Manitoba study area may require that 50-80% of the lost wetlands be restored. Further, the comparison between the predicted restoration and conservation effects revealed that wetland conservation seems to deserve a higher priority

  4. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis for pesticide transport in watershed-scale water quality modeling using SWAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhang Minghua, E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.ed [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated for hydrology conditions in an agricultural watershed of Orestimba Creek, California, and applied to simulate fate and transport of two organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. The model showed capability in evaluating pesticide fate and transport processes in agricultural fields and instream network. Management-oriented sensitivity analysis was conducted by applied stochastic SWAT simulations for pesticide distribution. Results of sensitivity analysis identified the governing processes in pesticide outputs as surface runoff, soil erosion, and sedimentation in the study area. By incorporating sensitive parameters in pesticide transport simulation, effects of structural best management practices (BMPs) in improving surface water quality were demonstrated by SWAT modeling. This study also recommends conservation practices designed to reduce field yield and in-stream transport capacity of sediment, such as filter strip, grassed waterway, crop residue management, and tailwater pond to be implemented in the Orestimba Creek watershed. - Selected structural BMPs are recommended for reducing loads of OP pesticides.

  5. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    developed by the National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. During 2010, the USGS used the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) to create a hydrologic model for the Lake Michigan Basin to assess the probable effects of climate change on future groundwater and surface-water resources. The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) model and the Analysis of Flows In Networks of CHannels (AFINCH) program also were used to support USGS GLRI projects that required estimates of streamflows throughout the Great Lakes Basin. This information on existing watershed models, along with an assessment of geologic, soils, and land-use data across the Great Lakes Basin and the identification of problems that exist in selected tributary watersheds that could be addressed by a watershed model, was used to identify three watersheds in the Great Lakes Basin for future modeling by the USGS. These watersheds are the Kalamazoo River Basin in Michigan, the Tonawanda Creek Basin in New York, and the Bad River Basin in Wisconsin. These candidate watersheds have hydrogeologic, land-type, and soil characteristics that make them distinct from each other, but that are representative of other tributary watersheds within the Great Lakes Basin. These similarities in the characteristics among nearby watersheds will enhance the usefulness of a model by improving the likelihood that parameter values from a previously modeled watershed could reliably be used in the creation of a model of another watershed in the same region. The software program Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF) was selected to simulate the hydrologic, sedimentary, and water-quality processes in these selected watersheds. HSPF is a versatile, process-based, continuous-simulation model that has been used extensively by the scientific community, has the ongoing technical support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and USGS, and provides a means to evaluate the

  6. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park II...

  7. Nutrients, Select Pesticides, and Suspended Sediment in the Karst Terrane of the Sinking Creek Basin, Kentucky, 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.

    2010-01-01

    headwaters station; mean daily flows at the headwater station were, therefore, estimated using a mathematical record-extension technique known as the Maintenance of Variance-Extension, type 1 (MOVE.1). The estimation of mean daily streamflows introduced a large amount of uncertainty into the loads and yields estimates at the headwater station. Total estimated loads of select (five most commonly detected) pesticides from the Sinking Creek Basin were about 0.01 to 1.2 percent of the estimated application, indicating pesticides possibly are retained within the watershed. Mean annual loads [(in/lb)/yr] for nutrients and suspended sediment were estimated at the two Sinking Creek mainstem sampling stations. The relation between estimated and measured instantaneous loads of nitrite plus nitrate at the Sinking Creek near Lodiburg station indicate a reasonably tight distribution over the range of loads. The model for loads of nitrite plus nitrate at the Sinking Creek at Rosetta station indicates small loads were overestimated and underestimated. Relations between estimated and measured loads of total phosphorus and orthophosphate at both Sinking Creek mainstem stations showed similar patterns to the loads of nitrite plus nitrate at each respective station. The estimated mean annual load of suspended sediment is about 14 times larger at the Sinking Creek near Lodiburg station than at the Sinking Creek near Rosetta station. Estimated yields of nutrients and suspended sediment increased from the headwater to downstream monitoring stations on Sinking Creek. This finding suggests that sources of nutrients and suspended sediment are not evenly distributed throughout the karst terrane of the Sinking Creek Basin. Yields of select pesticides generally were similar from the headwater to downstream monitoring stations. However, the estimated yield of atrazine was about five times higher at the downstream station on Sinking Creek than at the headwater station on Sinking Creek.

  8. Watershed councils: it takes a community to restore a watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Rebecca Flitcroft

    2011-01-01

    Regulation alone cannot solve complex ecological problems on private lands that are managed for diverse uses. Executing coordinated restoration projects at the watershed scale is only possible with the cooperation and commitment of all stakeholders. Locally organized, nonregulatory watershed councils have proven to be a powerful method of engaging citizens from all...

  9. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  10. Quantifying Hillslope to Watershed Erosional Response Following Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, S.; Pierson, F. B.; Williams, C. J.; Brooks, E. S.; Pierce, J. L.; Roehner, C.

    2016-12-01

    The frequency and severity of wildfires is increasing across western US sagebrush steppe rangelands as the result of warming climate conditions and invasive plant species. Following wildfire, the soil surface is left with little vegetation, exposing it to erosion by wind and water. Erosion following wildfires is a concern among land managers due to the threat it poses to resources, infrastructure, and human health. Most post-fire erosion research has used artificial rainfall. This study uses natural rainfall and a network of silt fences to quantify hillslope to watershed scale erosion response following the 2015 Soda Fire that burned 113,300 ha in southwestern Idaho and southeastern Oregon. In this study, we will evaluate the drivers of erosion over multiple spatial scales and assess the recovery of vegetation and soil water repellency for a two year period post-fire. We installed a network of silt fences over long and short hillslope distances and in swales within a 130 ha catchment within the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho, USA. The overall study design consists of thirty silt fences spanning north and south facing aspects, an existing weir measuring watershed streamflow and sediment discharge, and two meteorological stations. The erosional response following the fire was mainly driven by wind and snowmelt. The swales produced the most sediment compared to the long and short hillslopes. On the south facing aspect the long and short hillslopes did not produce any sediment whereas on the north facing aspect the swales produced the most sediment. This presentation summarizes these preliminary first year hydrologic and erosion responses. The results provide data for determining the drivers for erosion at different spatial scales, advance understanding of post-fire hillslope to watershed erosional responses, and offer insight into recovery of vegetation and soil water repellency post-fire. This study will aid land management agencies

  11. Coastal Fog Sustains Summer Baseflow in Northern Californian Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M.; Dufour, A.; Leonardson, R.; Thompson, S. E.; Dawson, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Mediterranean climate of Northern California imposes significant water stress on ecosystems and water resources during the dry summer months. During summer, frequently the only water inputs occur as occult precipitation, in the form of fog and dew. In this study, we characterized the role of coastal fog, a dominant feature of Northern Californian coastal ecosystems and a widespread phenomenon associated with deep marine upwelling in west coast, arid, and Mediterranean climates worldwide. We monitored fog occurrence and intensity, throughfall following canopy interception of fog, soil moisture, streamflow, and meteorological variables, and made visual observations of the spatial extent of fog using time-lapse imagery in Upper Pilarcitos Creek Watershed (managed by San Francisco Public Utilities Commission as part of the San Francisco area water supply). We adopted a stratified sampling design that captured the watershed's elevation gradient, forest-edge versus interior locations, and different vegetation cover. The point-scale observations of throughfall inputs and transpiration suppression, estimated from the Penman equation, were upscaled using such watershed features and the observed fog "footprint" identified from the time-lapse images. When throughfall input and fog-induced transpiration suppression were incorporated into the operational watershed model, they improved estimates of summer baseflow, which remained persistently higher than could be explained without the fog effects. Fog, although providing relatively small volumetric inputs to the water balance, appears to offer significant relief of water stress throughout the terrestrial and aquatic components of the coastal Californian ecosystem and thus should be accounted for when assessing water stress availability in dry ecosystems.

  12. WATERSHED SELECTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION USING MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Francisco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Anhumas creek watershed, in the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, is degraded also as a result of unplanned land use of its riparian zones, considered Permanent Preservation Areas (APP. Therefore, river flow is unstable, promoting frequent flood damages, besides the lack of several environmental functions of its APPs. Environmental recovery of a degraded area requires a comprehensive effort, often multidisciplinary. Multicriterial analysis is a tool which allows gathering a diversity of attributes of the studied subject, weighing and valuating them, helping in the decision making effort. This work aims to apply two methods of multicriteria analysis to optimize the selection of a watershed for an environmental recovery study of APPs in the Anhumas watershed. The Anhumas watershed was divided in 7 sub-basins aiming the selection of one of those to implement an environmental planning study and to establish and rank areas that should be prioritized for recovery. Thirteen environmental criteria were selected for application of multicriteria analysis using the methods of Compromise Programming (PC and Cooperative Game Theory (CGT. Relevance of each criterion to the analysis was given by a questionnaire answered by specialists. Basin selection results showed no difference neither between PC and CGT nor between mean or mode used to standardize weights given by specialists. Multicriteria analysis was effective, but allowed enough flexibility for the decision maker (DM to adjust undesired analysis distortions. After DM adjustments, the priority basins were ranked as basins 4 > 7 > 5 > 6 > 2 > 3 > 1. Important procedures when carrying out such an analysis were to avoid conceptual overlapping among different criteria, to implement appropriate value judgment for each criterion and to use decision maker expertise to supplement weights obtained with specialists.

  13. Application of risk-based multiple criteria decision analysis for selection of the best agricultural scenario for effective watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi Sabbaghian, Reza; Zarghami, Mahdi; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Sharifi, Mohammad Bagher; Herman, Matthew R; Daneshvar, Fariborz

    2016-03-01

    Effective watershed management requires the evaluation of agricultural best management practice (BMP) scenarios which carefully consider the relevant environmental, economic, and social criteria involved. In the Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) process, scenarios are first evaluated and then ranked to determine the most desirable outcome for the particular watershed. The main challenge of this process is the accurate identification of the best solution for the watershed in question, despite the various risk attitudes presented by the associated decision-makers (DMs). This paper introduces a novel approach for implementation of the MCDM process based on a comparative neutral risk/risk-based decision analysis, which results in the selection of the most desirable scenario for use in the entire watershed. At the sub-basin level, each scenario includes multiple BMPs with scores that have been calculated using the criteria derived from two cases of neutral risk and risk-based decision-making. The simple additive weighting (SAW) operator is applied for use in neutral risk decision-making, while the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) and induced OWA (IOWA) operators are effective for risk-based decision-making. At the watershed level, the BMP scores of the sub-basins are aggregated to calculate each scenarios' combined goodness measurements; the most desirable scenario for the entire watershed is then selected based on the combined goodness measurements. Our final results illustrate the type of operator and risk attitudes needed to satisfy the relevant criteria within the number of sub-basins, and how they ultimately affect the final ranking of the given scenarios. The methodology proposed here has been successfully applied to the Honeyoey Creek-Pine Creek watershed in Michigan, USA to evaluate various BMP scenarios and determine the best solution for both the stakeholders and the overall stream health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mercury and selenium in fish of Fountain Creek, Colorado (USA): possible sources and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, D R; Herrmann, S J; Carsella, J S; McGarvy, C M; Foutz, H P; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Gregorich, J M; Turner, J A; Vanden Heuvel, B D

    2016-01-01

    Fountain Creek in Colorado USA is a major tributary that confluences with the Arkansas River at Pueblo, Colorado, the result being the tributary's influence on Arkansas River water quality affecting down-stream users. In a previous study, we found that bryophytes (aquatic plants) accumulated selenium in Fountain Creek watershed and this finding prompted us to investigate the extent of the metalloid in the whole-body tissues of fish. One hundred 11 fish (six species) were collected and analyzed for Se by inductively-coupled plasma emission mass spectrometry. Analysis of all analytical data also showed mercury in all of the fish whole bodies and selected tissues. There was a general increase in selenium but a decrease in mercury in fish with downstream travel-distance. The highest whole-body selenium was in Pueblo, Colorado (3393 µg/kg, dry weight; 906 µg/kg, wet weight); the highest mercury in fish was in the Monument Creek tributary north of Colorado Springs, Colorado (71 µg/kg, dry weight; 19 µg/kg, wet weight). In four tissues of 11 female fish captured, selenium was highest in the livers at eight sites but highest in the ovaries at three sites. Mercury was highest in the epaxial muscle at all sites. Selenium availability could be due to the watershed lithology and land uses; however, mercury could be carried by atmospheric deposition from coal-fired power plants and historic mining activities. Selenium in fish tissues and water samples were compared to U.S. national water quality criteria.

  15. Stream Physical Characteristics Impact Habitat Quality for Pacific Salmon in Two Temperate Coastal Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Jason B; Hood, Eran; Dryer, William; Pyare, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Climate warming is likely to cause both indirect and direct impacts on the biophysical properties of stream ecosystems especially in regions that support societally important fish species such as Pacific salmon. We studied the seasonal variability and interaction between stream temperature and DO in a low-gradient, forested stream and a glacial-fed stream in coastal southeast Alaska to assess how these key physical parameters impact freshwater habitat quality for salmon. We also use multiple regression analysis to evaluate how discharge and air temperature influence the seasonal patterns in stream temperature and DO. Mean daily stream temperature ranged from 1.1 to 16.4°C in non-glacial Peterson Creek but only 1.0 to 8.8°C in glacial-fed Cowee Creek, reflecting the strong moderating influence glacier meltwater had on stream temperature. Peterson Creek had mean daily DO concentrations ranging from 3.8 to 14.1 mg L(-1) suggesting future climate changes could result in an even greater depletion in DO. Mean daily stream temperature strongly controlled mean daily DO in both Peterson (R2=0.82, Psalmon were abundant. Our results demonstrate the complexity of stream temperature and DO regimes in coastal temperate watersheds and highlight the need for watershed managers to move towards multi-factor risk assessment of potential habitat quality for salmon rather than single factor assessments alone.

  16. Global perspective of watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth N. Brooks; Karlyn Eckman

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of watershed management in moving towards sustainable natural resource and agricultural development. Examples from 30 field projects and six training projects involving over 25 countries are presented to illustrate watershed management initiatives that have been implemented over the last half of the 20th century. The level of success has...

  17. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as Whiteoak'' Creek).

  18. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as ``Whiteoak`` Creek).

  19. Solid sample locations for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  20. Exit and Paradise Creek Fluvial Features, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset presents a delineation of the maximum extent of fluvial occupation detectable from vegetation patterns at Exit and Paradise Creeks in Kenai Fjords...

  1. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    weight) with marked increased from harbour to the creek region suggests substantial mercury input in the head region. Chemical extraction by hydrogen peroxide indicated that more than 70% of mercury was leachable and probably organically bound...

  2. Habitat--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  3. Folds--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  4. Bathymetry--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Scott Creek, California. The raster data file is included in...

  5. Rattlesnake Creek Management Program 12-year review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rattlesnake Creek Partnership (Partnership) was formed over 18 years ago to cooperatively develop and implement solutions to water resource problems within the...

  6. Faults--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  7. Bioassessment of Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Physical, chemical and biological components at five stations on Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi were evaluated using Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP)...

  8. Contours--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  9. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  10. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Fate and Removal in Urban Stormwater at the Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfand, J.; Hogue, T. S.; Luthy, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Urban stormwater is a major cause of water quality impairment, resulting in surface waters that fail to meet water quality standards and support their designated uses. Of the many stormwater pollutants, fecal indicator bacteria are particularly important to track because they are directly linked to pathogens which jeopardize public health; yet, their fate and transport in urban stormwater is poorly understood. Monitoring fecal bacteria in stormwater is possible, but due to the high variability of fecal indicators both spatially and temporally, single grab or composite samples do not fully capture fecal indicator loading. Models have been developed to predict fecal indicator bacteria at the watershed scale, but they are often limited to agricultural areas, or areas that receive frequent rainfall. Further, it is unclear whether best management practices (BMPs), such as bioretention or engineered wetlands, are able to reduce bacteria to meet water quality standards at watershed outlets. This research seeks to develop a model to predict fecal indicator bacteria in urban stormwater in a semi-arid climate at the watershed scale. Using the highly developed Ballona Creek watershed (89 mi2) located in Los Angeles County as a case study, several existing mechanistic models are coupled with a hydrologic model to predict fecal indicator concentrations (E. coli, enterococci, fecal coliform, and total coliform) at the outfall of Ballona Creek watershed, Santa Monica Bay. The hydrologic model was developed using InfoSWMM Sustain, calibrated for flow from WY 1998-2006 (NSE = 0.94; R2 = 0.95), and validated from WY 2007-2015 (NSE = 0.93; R2 = 0.95). The developed coupled model is being used to predict fecal indicator fate and transport and evaluate how BMPs can be optimized to reduce fecal indicator loading to surface waters and recreational beaches.

  11. A Method for Spatially Explicit Representation of Sub-watershed Sediment Yield, Southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Derek B.; Leverich, Glen; Downs, Peter W.; Dusterhoff, Scott; Araya, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    We present here a method to integrate geologic, topographic, and land-cover data in a geographic information system to provide a fine-scale, spatially explicit prediction of sediment yield to support management applications. The method is fundamentally qualitative but can be quantified using preexisting sediment-yield data, where available, to verify predictions using other independent data sets. In the 674-km2 Sespe Creek watershed of southern California, 30 unique "geomorphic landscape units" (GLUs, defined by relatively homogenous areas of geology, hillslope gradient, and land cover) provide a framework for discriminating relative rates of sediment yield across this landscape. Field observations define three broad groupings of GLUs that are well-associated with types, relative magnitudes, and rates of erosion processes. These relative rates were then quantified using sediment-removal data from nearby debris basins, which allow relatively low-precision but robust calculations of both local and whole-watershed sediment yields, based on the key assumption that minimal sediment storage throughout most of the watershed supports near-equivalency of long-term rates of hillslope sediment production and watershed sediment yield. The accuracy of these calculations can be independently assessed using geologically inferred uplift rates and integrated suspended sediment measurements from mainstem Sespe Creek, which indicate watershed-averaged erosion rates between about 0.6-1.0 mm year-1 and corresponding sediment yields of about 2 × 103 t km-2 year-1. A spatially explicit representation of sediment production is particularly useful in a region where wildfires, rapid urban development, and the downstream delivery of upstream sediment loads are critical drivers of both geomorphic processes and land-use management.

  12. Wind River Watershed Restoration : 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-02-01

    This report focuses on work conducted in 2000 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project. The project started in the early 1990s, and has been funded through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) since 1998. The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the Wind River subbasin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. In addition to USGS-CRRL, other BPA-funded entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To describe the activities and accomplishments of the USGS-CRRL portion of the project, we partitioned the 2000-2001 annual report into two pieces: Report A and Report B. In Report A, we provide information on flow, temperature, and habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Personnel from CRRL monitored flows at 12 sites in 2000 and 17 sites in 2001. Flow measurements were generally taken every two weeks during June through October, which allowed tracking of the descending limb of the hydrograph in late spring, through the base low flow period in summer, and the start of the ascending limb of the hydrograph in fall. We maintained a large array of water-temperature sites in the Wind River subbasin, including data from 25 thermographs in 2000 and 27 thermographs in 2001. We completed stream reach surveys on 14.0 km in 2000 and 6.1 km in 2001. Our focus for these reach surveys has been on the upper Trout Creek and upper Wind River watersheds, though some reach surveys have occurred in the Panther Creek watershed. Data generated by these reach surveys include stream width, stream gradient, large woody debris frequency, pool frequency, canopy

  13. North Fork Caspar Creek stream biology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheal S. Parker

    1991-01-01

    Timber harvesting is one of the most widespread land-uses in forested watersheds throughout western North America. It has long been recognized that timber removal, primarily through clearcutting, may have significant impacts on some environmental conditions within streams draining forested watersheds. It is also clear that logging related impacts are highly variable...

  14. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    2000-02-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes

  15. Mapping soils in two watersheds using legacy data and extrapolation for similar surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Procópio Pelegrino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Existing soil maps (legacy data associated with digital mapping techniques are alternatives to obtain information at lower costs, however, tests are required to do it more efficiently. This study had as objectives to compare different methods to extract information from detailed scale soil maps using decision trees for mapping soil classes at two watersheds in Minas Gerais, validate these maps in the field and use the best method to extrapolate information to larger areas, also validating these maps of larger areas. Detailed soil maps of Vista Bela creek (VBW and Marcela creek (MCW watersheds were used as source of information. Seven methods to extract information from maps were compared: the whole polygon, eliminating 20 and 40 m from the polygon boundaries, and with buffers around the sampled points with radii of 25 m, 50 m, 75 m, and 100 m. The Classification and Regression Trees (CART algorithm was employed to create decision trees and enable creation of soil maps. Accuracy was assessed through overall accuracy and kappa index. The best method was used to extrapolate information to larger areas and maps were validated. The best methods for VCW and MCW were, respectively, eliminating 20 m from polygon edges and buffer of 25 m of radii from points. Maps for larger areas were obtained using these methods. Removing uncertainty areas from legacy soil maps contribute to better modeling and prediction of soil classes. Information generated in this work allowed for validated extrapolation of soil maps for regions surrounding the watersheds.

  16. Floodplain trapping and cycling compared to streambank erosion of sediment and nutrients in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Jaimie; Noe, Gregory; Hupp, Cliff R.; Gellis, Allen; Schenk, Edward R.

    2018-01-01

    Floodplains and streambanks can positively and negatively influence downstream water quality through interacting geomorphic and biogeochemical processes. Few studies have measured those processes in agricultural watersheds. We measured inputs (floodplain sedimentation and dissolved inorganic loading), cycling (floodplain soil nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P] mineralization), and losses (bank erosion) of sediment, N, and P longitudinally in stream reaches of Smith Creek, an agricultural watershed in the Valley and Ridge physiographic province. All study reaches were net depositional (floodplain deposition > bank erosion), had high N and P sedimentation and loading rates to the floodplain, high soil concentrations of N and P, and high rates of floodplain soil N and P mineralization. High sediment, N, and P inputs to floodplains are attributed to agricultural activity in the region. Rates of P mineralization were much greater than those measured in other studies of nontidal floodplains that used the same method. Floodplain connectivity and sediment deposition decreased longitudinally, contrary to patterns in most watersheds. The net trapping function of Smith Creek floodplains indicates a benefit to water quality. Further research is needed to determine if future decreases in floodplain deposition, continued bank erosion, and the potential for nitrate leaching from nutrient-enriched floodplain soils could pose a long-term source of sediment and nutrients to downstream rivers.

  17. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 1: Methods for Increasing Forest Cover in a Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2005-01-01

    This manual is one in a three-part series on using trees to protect and restore urban watersheds. A brief description of each part follows. Part 1: Methods for Increasing Forest Cover in a Watershed introduces the emerging topic of urban watershed forestry. This part also presents new methods for the watershed planner or forester to systematically measure watershed...

  18. A conceptual framework of agricultural land use planning with BMP for integrated watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Honghai; Altinakar, Mustafa S

    2011-01-01

    Land use planning is an important element of the integrated watershed management approach. It not only influences the environmental processes such as soil and stream bed erosion, sediment and nutrient concentrations in streams, quality of surface and ground waters in a watershed, but also affects social and economic development in that region. Although its importance in achieving sustainable development has long been recognized, a land use planning methodology based on a systems approach involving realistic computational modeling and meta-heuristic optimization is still lacking in the current practice of integrated watershed management. The present study proposes a new approach which attempts to combine computational modeling of upland watershed processes, fluvial processes and modern heuristic optimization techniques to address the water-land use interrelationship in its full complexity. The best land use allocation is decided by a multi-objective function that minimizes sediment yields and nutrient concentrations as well as the total operation/implementation cost, while the water quality and the production benefits from agricultural exploitation are maximized. The proposed optimization strategy considers also the preferences of land owners. The runoff model AnnAGNPS (developed by USDA), and the channel network model CCHE1D (developed by NCCHE), are linked together to simulate sediment/pollutant transport process at watershed scale based on any assigned land use combination. The greedy randomized adaptive Tabu search heuristic is used to flip the land use options for finding an optimum combination of land use allocations. The approach is demonstrated by applying it to a demonstrative case study involving USDA Goodwin Creek experimental watershed located in northern Mississippi. The results show the improvement of the tradeoff between benefits and costs for the watershed, after implementing the proposed optimal land use planning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Asotin Creek originates from a network of deeply incised streams on the slopes of the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The watershed drains an area of 322 square miles that provides a mean annual flow of 74 cfs. The geomorphology of the watershed exerts a strong influence on biologic conditions for fish within the stream. Historic and contemporary land-use practices have had a profound impact on the kind, abundance, and distribution of anadromous salmonids in the watershed. Fish habitat in Asotin Creek and other local streams has been affected by agricultural development, grazing, tilling practices, logging, recreational activities and implementation of flood control structures (Neilson 1950). The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed in 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories: (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were: (1) create more pools, (2) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (3) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (4) increase fencing to limit livestock access. All of these actions, in combination with other activities identified in the Plan, are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, increase the amount of available fish habitat (adult and juvenile) and protect private property. Evaluation work described within this report was to document the success or failure of the program regarding the first two items listed (increasing pools and LOD). Beginning in 1996, the ACCD, with cooperation from local landowners and funding from Bonneville Power Administration began constructing instream

  20. Part 1: Principles of Urban Watershed Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2005-01-01

    Conserving forests in a watershed? This manual introduces the emerging topic of urban watershed forestry and presents new methods for systematically measuring watershed forest cover and techniques for maintaining or increasing this cover. The audience for this manual includes the local watershed planner or forester.

  1. Constraining groundwater discharge in a large watershed: Integrated isotopic, hydraulic, and thermal data from the Canadian shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Novakowski, Kent; Cook, Peter G.; Kyser, T. Kurt

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the pattern and rate of groundwater discharge in a large, regulated fractured rock watershed using novel and standard methods that are independent of base flow recession. Understanding the rate and pattern of groundwater discharge to surface water bodies is critical for watershed budgets, as a proxy for recharge rates, and for protecting the ecological integrity of lake and river ecosystems. The Tay River is a low-gradient, warm-water river that flows over exposed and fractured bedrock or a thin veneer of coarse-grained sediments. Natural conservative (δ2H, δ18O, Cl, and specific conductance), radioactive (222Rn), and thermal tracers are integrated with streamflow measurements and a steady state advective model to delimit the discharge locations and quantify the discharge fluxes to lakes, wetlands, creeks, and the Tay River. The groundwater discharge rates to most surface water body types are low, indicating that the groundwater and surface water system may be largely decoupled in this watershed compared to watersheds underlain by porous media. Groundwater discharge is distributed across the watershed rather than localized around lineaments or high-density zones of exposed brittle fractures. The results improve our understanding of the rate, localization, and conceptualization of discharge in a large, fractured rock watershed. Applying hydraulic, isotopic, or chemical hydrograph separation techniques would be difficult because the groundwater discharge "signal" is small compared to the "background" surface water inflows or volumes of the surface water bodies. Although this study focuses on a large watershed underlain by fractured bedrock, the methodology developed is transferable to any large regulated or unregulated watershed. The low groundwater discharge rates have significant implications for the ecology, sustainability, and management of large, crystalline watersheds.

  2. Increasing a Community's Knowledge about Drought, Watershed Ecosystems, and Water Quality Through Educational Activities Added to Coastal Cleanup Day Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, R.; Allen, L.; Cole, P.; Rho, C.

    2016-12-01

    International Coastal Cleanup Day, held each September, is an effective campaign to bring volunteers together to clean trash from beaches and waterways and document results. Over 500,000 participants cleared over 9 million pounds of trash in 2015. To build on the enthusiasm for this event, the city of Livermore, California's Water Resource Department, the Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District, Livermore Area Recreation and Parks Department created a water education program to embed within the city's Coastal Cleanup Day events. Goals of the education program are to increase awareness of the local watershed and its geographic reach, impacts of climate change and drought on local water supplies, pollution sources and impacts of local pollution on the ocean, positive impacts of a recent plastic bag ban, water quality assessment, and action steps citizens can take to support a healthy watershed. Volunteers collect and test water samples (when water is in the creek) using modified GLOBE and World Water Monitoring Day protocols. Test results are uploaded to the World Water Monitoring Day site and documented on the program web site. Volunteers report that they did not know about watersheds, impacts of local pollution, and water quality components before the education program. Volunteers are encouraged to adopt a creek spot for one year, and continue to collect and document trash. High school and middle school science classes added the water quality testing into curriculum, and regularly visit creek sites to clean the spots and monitor habitats. Each year for the past five years, about 300 volunteers have worked on creek clean-up events, 20 have adopted creek sites, and collected over 4,000 gallons of trash annually. As a result of these efforts, sites have been downgraded from a trash hot spot of concern. Strategies will be shared to expand an established (or start a new) Coastal Cleanup Day event into a successful watershed and climate awareness citizen science

  3. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  4. Land Use/Cover Change in highly urbanized watershed and impact to flood responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, Y.; Dou, P.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid Land Use/Cover Change LUCC is the direct and observed change induced by human activities. In the highly urbanized area, the LUCC rate could increase a few times in the small creeks in newly developed regions. One of the inverse impact of this change to the watershed flooding is the increasing of the impervious surface rate due to urbanization, this has been particularly observed in the developing countries, such as China. The increased impervious surface reduces the rainfall infiltration to the soil, and causes more surface flow. The impervious surface, which is usually the paved surface, will also speed up the surface flow velocity, thus shortening the concentration time and higher peak flow. To study this phenomena, this paper first estimated the LUCC of Chebei Creek, a small watershed in Guangzhou City, the capital city of Guangdong Province, which observed the rapidest urbanization in China. 13 LandSat TM imageries from 1987 to 2016 were collected at roughly every 3 years to estimate LUCC in Chebei Creek, the results constitute of a series of dataset with 13 members, and change pattern was analyzed based on these results. Hydrological processes were simulated by employing Liuxihe Model, a physically based distributed model that could be used in ungauged basins. The design precipitation processes at different frequencies are proposed and used as the input to drive the hydrological simulation. Flood response changes, including the event runoff volume, the peak flow and concentration time were analyzed based on the simulation results. Significant changes have been detected, such as the peak flow increase a few times depending on the design frequencies. Parameter uncertainty of the hydrological model is explored as there is no observed hydrological data to optimize the parameters, the result shows some kind of uncertainty control is needed. Finally the adaptation measures were proposed to mitigate the negative impact of LUCC on watershed flood.

  5. Stream Nitrate Concentrations Diverge at Baseflow and Converge During Storms in Watersheds with Contrasting Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, R. O.; Wollheim, W. M.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Cook, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Management of non-point sources is challenging because it requires adequate quantification of non-point fluxes that are highly dynamic over time. Most fluxes occur during storms and are difficult to characterize with grab samples alone in flashy, urban watersheds. Accurate and relatively precise measurements using in situ sensor technology can quantify fluxes continuously, avoiding the uncertainties in extrapolation of infrequently collected grab samples. In situ nitrate (NO3-N) sensors were deployed simultaneously from April to December 2013 in two streams with contrasting urban land uses in an urbanizing New Hampshire watershed (80 km2). Nitrogen non-point fluxes and temporal patterns were evaluated in Beards Creek (forested: 50%; residential: 24%; commercial/institutional/transportation: 7%; agricultural: 6%) and College Brook (forested: 35%; residential: 11%; commercial/institutional/transportation: 20%; agricultural: 17%). Preliminary data indicated NO3-N concentrations in Beards Creek (mean: 0.37 mg/L) were lower than College Brook (mean: 0.60 mg/L), but both streams exhibited rapid increases in NO3-N during the beginning of storms followed by overall dilution. While baseflow NO3-N was greater in College Brook than Beards Creek, NO3-N at the two sites consistently converged during storms. This suggests that standard grab sampling may overestimate fluxes in urban streams, since short-term dilution occurred during periods of highest flow. Analyzing NO3-N flux patterns in smaller urban streams that are directly impacted by watershed activities could help to inform management decisions regarding N source controls, ultimately allowing an assessment of the interactions of climate variability and management actions.

  6. The anti-estrogenic activity of sediments from agriculturally-intense watersheds: Assessment using in vivo and in vitro assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K.; Conoan, Nicholas H.; Cox, Marc B.; Sangster, Jodi L.; Balsiger, Heather A.; Bridges, Andrew A.; Cowman, Tim; Knight, Lindsey A.; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Kolok, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether sediments from agriculturally-intense watersheds can act as a potential source of anti-estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compounds. The specific objectives of the current study were to determine 1) whether female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) experience alterations in endocrine function when exposed to sediments collected from agriculturally-intense watersheds and 2) if these sediments display anti-estrogenic activity in an in vitro assay. In addition, sediment samples were analyzed for the presence of steroid hormones and pesticides associated with local agricultural practices. To accomplish this, sediments and water were collected from three sites within two agriculturally-intense Nebraska watersheds (Bow Creek and the Elkhorn River). In 2009, minnows were exposed to sediment and/or water collected from the two Bow Creek sites (East Bow Creek and the Confluence) in the laboratory, while in 2010, minnows were exposed to sediment and/or water from East Bow Creek, the Confluence and the Elkhorn River. Following the 7-d exposure period, the hepatic mRNA expression of two-estrogen responsive genes, estrogen receptor α (ERα) and vitellogenin (Vtg) was determined. In 2009, females exposed to Confluence sediments, in the presence of laboratory water or Confluence water, experienced significant reductions in ERα expression relative to unexposed and Confluence water-exposed females. The defeminization of these females suggests the presence of a biologically-available anti-estrogenic compound in sediments collected from this site. In 2010, sediments were assessed for anti-estrogenic activity on days 0 and 7 of the exposure period using a four-hour yeast estrogen screen. Lipophilic extracts (LEs) of day 0 sediments collected from the Confluence and the Elkhorn River induced significant reductions in the estrogenic reporter activity of treated yeast cultures suggesting the presence of a lipophilic anti

  7. The anti-estrogenic activity of sediments from agriculturally intense watersheds: assessment using in vivo and in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin Jeffries, Marlo K; Conoan, Nicholas H; Cox, Marc B; Sangster, Jodi L; Balsiger, Heather A; Bridges, Andrew A; Cowman, Tim; Knight, Lindsey A; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Kolok, Alan S

    2011-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether sediments from agriculturally intense watersheds can act as a potential source of anti-estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compounds. The specific objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) experience alterations in endocrine function when exposed to sediments collected from agriculturally intense watersheds and (2) if these sediments display anti-estrogenic activity in an in vitro assay. In addition, sediment samples were analyzed for the presence of steroid hormones and pesticides associated with local agricultural practices. To accomplish this, sediments and water were collected from three sites within two agriculturally intense Nebraska watersheds (Bow Creek and the Elkhorn River). In 2009, minnows were exposed to sediment and/or water collected from the two Bow Creek sites (East Bow Creek and the Confluence) in the laboratory, while in 2010, minnows were exposed to sediment and/or water from East Bow Creek, the Confluence and the Elkhorn River. Following the 7-day exposure period, the hepatic mRNA expression of two-estrogen responsive genes, estrogen receptor α (ERα) and vitellogenin (Vtg) was determined. In 2009, females exposed to Confluence sediments, in the presence of laboratory water or Confluence water, experienced significant reductions in ERα expression relative to unexposed and Confluence water-exposed females. The defeminization of these females suggests the presence of a biologically available anti-estrogenic compound in sediments collected from this site. In 2010, sediments were assessed for anti-estrogenic activity on days 0 and 7 of the exposure period using a 4-h yeast estrogen screen. Lipophilic extracts (LEs) of day 0 sediments collected from the Confluence and the Elkhorn River induced significant reductions in the estrogenic reporter activity of treated yeast cultures suggesting the presence of a lipophilic anti

  8. FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

    2001-10-31

    The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1

  9. A Peek into 'Alamogordo Creek'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 On its 825th Martian day (May 20, 2006), NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity stopped for the weekend to place its instrument arm onto the soil target pictured here, dubbed 'Alamogordo Creek.' Two views from the panoramic camera, acquired at about noon local solar time, are at the top. Below them is a close-up view from the microscopic imager. At upper left, a false-color view emphasizes differences among materials in rocks and soil. It combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. At upper right is an approximately true-color rendering made with the panoramic camera's 600-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters. The microscopic-imager frame covers the area outlined by the white boxes in the panoramic-camera views, a rectangle 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. As Opportunity traverses to the south, it is analyzing soil and rocks along the way for differences from those seen earlier. At this site, the soil contains abundant small spherical fragments, thought to be hematite-rich concretions, plus finer-grained basaltic sand. Most of the spherical fragments seen in the microscopic image are smaller than those first seen at the rover's landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' some five kilometers (3.1 miles) to the north. However, a few larger spherical fragments and other rock fragments can also be seen in the panoramic-camera images.

  10. Organic Carbon Export From a Mixed Land Use Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, B. J.; Harbor, J. M.; Filley, T. R.

    2002-12-01

    Changes in land cover and land use for the purpose of agricultural production have long been implicated as significant contributors of nonpoint source pollution and subsequent local and regional water quality problems. In addition to changes in sediment and nutrient export from disturbed ecosystems, carbon export can also be influenced by such changes in land use and land cover. In order to gain insight into the influence of land use on organic carbon export we have initiated a molecular and stable carbon isotope study of dissolved, colloidal and particulate organic matter collected monthly and during storm events from locations in Big Pine Creek watershed, a mixed land use watershed located in West-Central Indiana. Water samples were separated into coarse particulate organic matter, colloidal organic matter, and dissolved organic matter with glass fiber filters and cross flow ultrafiltration. The organic matter from these samples is being characterized by molecular and stable isotope techniques to determine regional source by the use diagnostic lignin monomer distributions extracted via alkaline cupric oxide oxidation and tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis. Ongoing analysis will investigate how differences in land use and/or land management practices may influence the extent and nature of carbon export from terrestrial systems.

  11. Third annual Walker Branch Watershed research symposium. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The methods and concepts of watershed research, originally applied in an experimental or monitoring mode to relatively small catchments, are increasingly being used at larger scales and for specific applied problems. Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US Forest Service, and other agencies and institutions participating in this symposium reflects research over a broad range of spatial scales that is being integrated through large-scale experiments along with computer modeling and graphical interfaces. These research projects address the basic atmospheric, geophysical, biogeochemical, and biological processes that regulate the responses of forested ecosystems to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stresses. Regional and global issues addressed by presentations include emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons; deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and mercury; land-use changes; biological diversity; droughts; and water quality. The reports presented in this symposium illustrate a wide range of methods and approaches and focus more on concepts and techniques than on a specific physical site. Sites and projects that have contributed research results to this symposium include Walker Branch Watershed (DOE), the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and LTER site (USFS and NSF), Great Smoky Mountains National Park (research funded by NPS, TVA, and EPRI), Imnavait Creek, Alaska (DOE), the TVA-Norris Whole-tree Facility (TVA and EPRI), and DOE`s Biomass Program.

  12. Exit and Paradise Creek Drainage Area Boundaries, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains drainage area boundaries for Exit Creek and Paradise Creek in Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska. A drainage area boundary identifies the land...

  13. Geology of the Quartz Creek Pegmatite District, Gunnison County Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer H.; Trites, A.F.

    1952-01-01

    The Quartz Creek pegmatite district includes an area about 29 square miles in the vicinity of Quartz Creek in Gunnison County,. Colo. This area contains 1,803 pegmatites that are intruded into pre-Cambrian rocks.

  14. Preliminary Biotic Survey of Cane Creek, Calhoun County, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A biotic survey of Cane Creek (Calhoun County, AL) was completed in the Fall (1992) and Winter (1993) at six sites within Cane Creek to determine the effects of...

  15. Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge contaminant survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of a baseline contaminant survey of all National Wildlife Refuges (NWR) in Missouri, fish were collected at the Squaw Creek NWR from Davis and Squaw creeks...

  16. Watershed and longitudinal monitoring events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold Harbert; Steven Blackburn

    2016-01-01

    Georgia Adopt-A-Stream partners annually with many organizations, universities and watershed groups to conduct sampling events with volunteers at a watershed level. These monitoring events range from one-day snapshots to week-long paddle trips. One-day sampling events, also called “Blitzs,” River Adventures and River Rendezvous, generally target 20-50 sites within a...

  17. Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

  18. 2013 Bridge Creek, OR 4-Band Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In March 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by Woolpert, Inc. (Woolpert) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and digital imagery in...

  19. Floods on White Rock Creek above White Rock Lake at Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clarence R.

    1963-01-01

    The White Rock Creek watershed within the city limits of Dallas , Texas, presents problems not unique in the rapid residential and industrial development encountered by many cities throughout the United States. The advantages of full development of the existing area within a city before expanding city boundaries, are related to both economics and civic pride. The expansion of city boundaries usually results in higher per capital costs for the operation of city governments. Certainly no responsible city official would oppose reasonable development of watersheds and flood plains and thus sacrifice an increase in tax revenue. Within the words "reasonable development" lies the problem faced by these officials. They are aware that the natural function of a stream channel, and its associated flood plain is to carry away excess water in time of flood. They are also aware that failure to recognize this has often led to haphazard development on flood plains with a consequent increase in flood damages. In the absence of factual data defining the risk involved in occupying flood plains, stringent corrective and preventative measures must be taken to regulate man's activities on flood plains to a point beyond normal precaution. Flood-flow characteristics in the reach of White Rock Creek that lies between the northern city boundary of Dallas and Northwest Highway (Loop 12) at the upper end of White Rock Lake, are presented in this report. Hydrologic data shown include history and magnitude of floods, flood profiles, outlines of areas inundated by three floods, and estimates of mean velocities of flow at selected points. Approximate areas inundated by floods of April 1942 and July 1962 along White Rock Creek and by the flood of October 1962 along Cottonwood Creek, Floyd Branch, and Jackson Branch, are delineated on maps. Greater floods have undoubtedly occurred in the past but no attempt is made to show their probable overflow limits because basic data on such floods could not

  20. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Year-End Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments of the McKenzie River Focus Watershed Council (MWC) in the areas of coordination and administration during Fiscal Year 2000. Coordination and administration consist of prioritization and planning for projects; project management and implementation; procurement of funding for long-term support of the Council; and watershed education/outreach program for residents and local schools. Key accomplishments in the area of project planning include coordinating: monthly Council and executive committee meetings; staffing the Upper Willamette Spring Chinook Working Group; staffing the water quality technical committee; and guiding education and stewardship projects. Key accomplishments in the area of project management include the completion of the McKenzie-Willamette Confluence Assessment; securing funds for project planning in the confluence area; near completion of the BPA funded McKenzie sub-basin assessment; development of a framework for a McKenzie Watershed Conservation Strategy; an evaluation of Council's monitoring programs - ambient water quality, storm-event water quality, Tier III water quality, and macroinvertebrate monitoring. The Council, in cooperation with the McKenzie River Cooperative, completed habitat enhancements in the Gate Creek and Deer Creek sub-watersheds. This partnership recently submitted Bring Back the Natives grant for initiation of projects in other McKenzie tributaries. The Council will also be working with a local business to develop a river-side riparian enhancement and native landscaping project on the lodge grounds. This will serve as a demonstration project for blending fish and wildlife habitat concerns with maintaining grounds for business opportunities. Accomplishments in the area of procurement of funding included developing the FY2000 Scope of Work and budget for approval by the Council and BPA; providing quarterly budget and work program progress reports to the Council; and securing

  1. SPECIAL MINING MANAGEMENT ZONE - CLEAR CREEK, IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Esparza, Leon E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys, a substantiated resource potential for sediment-hosted cobalt-copper-gold-silver deposits has been identified in the Elkhorn and upper Garden Creek areas of the Special Mining Management Zone - Clear Creek, Idaho. Areas of favorable host rock, but with less strong evidence of mineralization, were classified as having probable resource potential for the same kind of deposit. A probable resource potential for porphyry-type copper-molybdenum deposits is assigned to areas along Clear Creek and upper Squaw Gulch based on the presence of extensive stockwork fracturing and alteration of the nonporphyritic granite, introduced disseminated magnetite, and the close proximity of known Tertiary plutons. The nature of the geologic terrain makes the occurrence of organic fuels on geothermal resources extremely unlikely.

  2. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-11-14

    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  3. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Dolores J.

    1980-01-01

    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  4. Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation Project ECOLOGICAL STUDY 1998 Biological monitoring program

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, L.; Haowen, Yin

    1998-01-01

    Suzhou Creek, flowing through the central parts of Shanghai, is heavy polluted by sewage, metals and organic micro pollutants. Due to the pollution, lower parts of the creek have virtually no life of fish or macro-invertebrates, and the other biological communities are totally disturbed. Even at upstream sections the flora and fauna suffer from pollution. During the last decade the contamination has been slightly reduced in the creek. A biological monitoring program was designed for the creek...

  5. Flood-inundation maps for Indian Creek and Tomahawk Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Arin J.; Studley, Seth E.

    2016-01-25

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile upper reach of Indian Creek from College Boulevard to the confluence with Tomahawk Creek, a 3.9-mile reach of Tomahawk Creek from 127th Street to the confluence with Indian Creek, and a 1.9-mile lower reach of Indian Creek from the confluence with Tomahawk Creek to just beyond the Kansas/Missouri border at State Line Road in Johnson County, Kansas, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Overland Park, Kansas. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages on Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas. Near real time stages at these streamgages may be obtained on the Web from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites.Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated for each reach by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the streamgages. The hydraulic models were then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; 17 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and 14 water-surface profiles for Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas, for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the next interval above the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood level (500-year recurrence interval). The

  6. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet Estuary,...

  7. Flora and Fauna of Abiala Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria | OLALEYE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abiala creek is a typical aquatic weed infested creek in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Examination of the aquatic vegetation revealed seven weed species dominated by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solm - Laub. The presence of these aquatic weeds negatively affected the plankton species diversity in the creek.

  8. Bedload and nearbed detritus transport in a tidal saltmarsh creek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemminga, M.A.; Cattrijsse, A.; Wielemaker, A.

    1996-01-01

    Bedload and nearbed transport of coarse (>1 mm) detritus particles were investigated in a tidal creek of a salt marsh in the Westerschelde estuary (south-west Netherlands). Using a fyke net positioned on the creek bottom, hourly transport through the creek was measured during 14 flood-ebb cycles in

  9. Microsatellite analyses of Alameda Creek Rainbow/Steelhead trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Fountain, Monique C.

    1999-01-01

    Microsatellite genetic diversity found in Alameda Creek rainbow trout support a close genetic relationship with coastal trout found in Lagunitas Creek, Marin County, California. No significant genotypic or allelic frequencies associations could be drawn among Alameda Creek trout and fish collected from the four primary rainbow trout hatchery strains in use in California, Whitney, Mount Shasta, Coleman, and Hot Creek strains, indeed, genetic distance analyses (δμ2) supported genetic separation among Alameda Creek trout and hatchery trout with greater than 50% bootstrap values in 1000 replicate neighbor-joining trees. Fish collected for this study from Palo Seco and Sheppard Creeks shared allelic frequencies with both the fish in Alameda Creek and those found in Scott Creek in Santa Cruz County. Fish collected in Horseshoe Creek or San Lorenzo Creek (Alameda County) did not share this unique genetic relationship between Alameda Creek fish and putative wild coastal trout. These two streams had allelic frequencies similar to some hatchery trout strains and to wild trout captured in the Central Valley. These data suggest that there are two possible steelhead ESUs using the tributaries of San Francisco Bay (one coastal and one Central Valley) or that hatchery trout supplementation has impacted some, but not all streams with a subsequent loss of locally adapted genetic characteristics. These data support the implementation of conservation management of rainbow trout in the Alameda Creek drainage as part of the central California coastal steelhead ESU.

  10. 77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD... across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. The proposed change will alter the... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4 between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. This change would require the...

  11. 77 FR 73967 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD... highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. The... Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 5201). The rulemaking concerned would...

  12. Use of Sediment Budgets for Watershed Erosion Control Planning: A Case Study From Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M.; McDavitt, W.

    2002-05-01

    Erosion, sedimentation and peak flow increases caused by forest management for commercial timber production may negatively affect aquatic habitat of endangered anadromous fish such as coho salmon ({\\ it O. kisutch}). This paper summarizes a portion of a Watershed Analysis study performed for Pacific Lumber Company, Scotia, CA, focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates and downstream sediment routing and water quality in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Hillslope, road and bank erosion, channel sedimentation and sediment rates were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. The resulting sediment budget was validated through comparison using recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield collected by a community watershed group at a downstream monitoring site with technical assistance from the US Forest Service. Another check on the sediment budget was provided by bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study provide sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments for use in the TMDL process. The sediment budget also identifies the most significant sediment sources and suggests a framework within which effective erosion control strategies can be developed.

  13. Impacts of deforestation on water balance components of a watershed on the Brazilian East Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizete dos Reis Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian East coast was intensely affected by deforestation, which drastically cut back the original biome. The possible impacts of this process on water resources are still unknown. The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the impacts of deforestation on the main water balance components of the Galo creek watershed, in the State of Espírito Santo, on the East coast of Brazil. Considering the real conditions of the watershed, the SWAT model was calibrated with data from 1997 to 2000 and validated for the period between 2001 and 2003. The calibration and validation processes were evaluated by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and by the statistical parameters (determination coefficient, slope coefficient and F test of the regression model adjusted for estimated and measured flow data. After calibration and validation of the model, new simulations were carried out for three different land use scenarios: a scenario in compliance with the law (C1, assuming the preservation of PPAs (permanent preservation areas; an optimistic scenario (C2, which considers the watershed to be almost entirely covered by native vegetation; and a pessimistic scenario (C3, in which the watershed would be almost entirely covered by pasture. The scenarios C1, C2 and C3 represent a soil cover of native forest of 76, 97 and 0 %, respectively. The results were compared with the simulation, considering the real scenario (C0 with 54 % forest cover. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.65 and 0.70 for calibration and validation, respectively, indicating satisfactory results in the flow simulation. A mean reduction of 10 % of the native forest cover would cause a mean annual increase of approximately 11.5 mm in total runoff at the watershed outlet. Reforestation would ensure minimum flows in the dry period and regulate the maximum flow of the main watercourse of the watershed.

  14. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  15. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  16. Water resources of the English River, Old Mans Creek, and Clear Creek basins in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwob, H.H.

    1964-01-01

    The surface and ground water resources of a 991 square mile area comprising the drainage basins of English River, Old Mans Creek and Clear Creek are presented. These basins lie to the west and southwest of Iowa City, Iowa, and all three streams are tributary to the Iowa River. The area is comprised of rolling uplands with relatively broad valleys and is devoted mainly to agriculture and livestock farming.

  17. How Fern Creek Is Beating Goliath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Margaret; Galatowitsch, Patrick; Hefferin, Keri; Highland, Shanita

    2013-01-01

    The "David" is Fern Creek Elementary, a small urban school in Orlando, Florida, that serves an overwhelmingly disadvantaged student population. The "Goliaths" are the mountains of problems that many inner-city students face--poverty, homelessness, mobility, instability, limited parent involvement, and violent neighborhood…

  18. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  19. Assessing the Impact of a Combined Sewer Separation Project on Water Quality in Blackwater Creek, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, K.; Warren, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    necessary to determine the effects of the CSS project on stream health, especially since the CSS project has not been completed in all of the relevant areas in the lower Blackwater Creek watershed. This research is ongoing as part of the Environmental Science undergraduate curriculum.

  20. SIR2005-5073_CBRWM_watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is an ArcGIS dataset depicting watershed segments in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and adjacent states of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia,...

  1. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 02 - HUC 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Level 02 Watersheds....

  2. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) version 2 is a decision support tool designed to facilitate integrated water management by communities at the small watershed scale. WMOST allows users to look across management options in stormwater (including green i...

  3. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  4. Hydrologic Data for Deep Creek Lake and Selected Tributaries, Garrett County, Maryland, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Davies, William J.; Gellis, Allen C.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; McPherson, Wendy S.; Soeder, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Deep Creek Lake, a bathymetric survey of the lake bottom was conducted in 2007. The data collected were used to generate a bathymetric map depicting depth to the lake bottom from a full pool elevation of 2,462 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929). Data were collected along about 90 linear miles across the lake using a fathometer and a differentially corrected global positioning system. As part of a long-term monitoring plan for all surface-water inputs to the lake, streamflow data were collected continuously at two stations constructed on Poland Run and Cherry Creek. The sites were selected to represent areas of the watershed under active development and areas that are relatively stable with respect to development. Twelve months of discharge data are provided for both streams. In addition, five water-quality parameters were collected continuously at the Poland Run station including pH, specific conductance, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Water samples collected at Poland Run were analyzed for sediment concentration, and the results of this analysis were used to estimate the annual sediment load into Deep Creek Lake from Poland Run. To determine sedimentation rates, cores of lake-bottom sediments were collected at 23 locations. Five of the cores were analyzed using a radiometric-dating method, allowing average rates of sedimentation to be estimated for the time periods 1925 to 2008, 1925 to 1963, and 1963 to 2008. Particle-size data from seven cores collected at locations throughout the study area were analyzed to provide information on the amount of fine material in lake-bed sediments. Groundwater levels were monitored continuously in four wells and weekly in nine additional wells during October, November, and December of 2008. Water levels were compared to recorded lake levels and precipitation during the same period to determine the effect of lake-level drawdown and recovery on the adjacent aquifer systems. Water use in the Deep Creek Lake

  5. Peak discharge, flood frequency, and peak stage of floods on Big Cottonwood Creek at U.S. Highway 50 near Coaldale, Colorado, and Fountain Creek below U.S. Highway 24 in Colorado Springs, Colorado, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Stevens, Michael R.; Mommandi, Amanullah; Khan, Aziz R.

    2017-12-14

    period of 1 year, or the 1-year storm), which is a statistically common (high probability) storm. The Big Cottonwood Creek site is downstream from the Hayden Pass Fire burn area, which dramatically altered the hydrology of the watershed and caused this statistically rare (low probability) flood from a statistically common (high probability) storm. The peak flood stage at the cross section closest to the U.S. Highway 50 culvert was 6,438.32 feet (ft) above the North American Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88).The August 29, 2016, flood at the Fountain Creek site had an estimated annual exceedance probability of 0.5505 (return period equal to the 1.8-year flood). The August 29, 2016, flood event was caused by a precipitation event having an annual exceedance probability of 1.0 (return period of 1 year, or the 1-year storm). The peak stage during this flood at the cross section closest to the U.S. Highway 24 bridge was 5,832.89 ft (NAVD 88).Slope-area indirect discharge measurements were carried out at the Big Cottonwood Creek and Fountain Creek sites to estimate peak discharge of the August 23, 2016, flood and August 29, 2016, flood, respectively. The USGS computer program Slope-Area Computation Graphical User Interface was used to compute the peak discharge by adding the surveyed cross sections with Manning roughness coefficient assignments to the high-water marks. The Manning roughness coefficients for each cross section were estimated in the field using the Cowan method.

  6. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  7. Cloud GIS Based Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediroğlu, G.; Colak, H. E.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service) and DAAS (Data as a Service). We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries). We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes), Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  8. Bassett Creek Watershed, Hennepin County, Minnesota. Feasibility Report for Flood Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    occurring to the industries located in the area. The existing low head rock dam in this reach would be replaced by a concrete . ogee weir at the...rn.... ~~h~rtnote sith th tooll te K e-port toosr. .t -,.., ’. h. e sle,-td pint inoolor t lou ut" rtg ’n -. k -nia 4.. . Punk , I hosseni reek P-1ar...natural obstructions (stumps, brush. 1. Co nt acknowledged. logs, rock , vegetation and irs by-products) in and 4. RporI revised no reflect comest. a

  9. Effects of Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors on Water Quality in the Rock Creek Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    geology , and public utilities. It allows public health professionals to combine risk factors, demographics, and changes in environmental...ZIOIS’lm: ()001s10;: 900 IS’ I OZ WOI SI OZ Pl hll~ IOZ l::<~l~ I •)Z K•,.,l~ IO ;:: 1;::w~1oz. SI n()~ Io ~ SIN1i;10;: ZI <-.ll!. IO <: (.o’lW...IOZ. <x 1(J1l~ 1 nz I,. O( IOS ’ I ()(, I lSfl~ I tlZ 8ZSO!) Io ;: SZ~ISIOZ ZZ80SIOZ h!SO~IOZ 9!SOSIOZ (!SOS I oz OISOSIOZ L080SIOZ t’OSOS

  10. Bassett Creek Watershed, Hennepin County, Minnesota. Feasibility Report for Control. Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    angling reports indicate very little fishing pressure. Local reports indicate that fishing is done primarily by children . A possible reason for this is... PILATE H-10 1200 1200 1000 1000 Cedar Lake Road Highwy 55 at Wirth Parl Main Stem Main Stem i00 600 400 1 400 20 6 00 = 0 0 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 0 3 6 9...to the &wan.t. Crook "ter- c Cho 00pert. dshod through IWA’ 1tiaMel Weathor Srvice Potoor Office In ammolls. Itr. . APPINDIX 2-5 Anxiety CeMto as the

  11. An eco-hydrological project on Turkey Creek watershed, South Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Carl Trettin

    2008-01-01

    The low-gradient, forested wetland landscape of the southeastern United States’ Coastal Plain represents an important eco-hydrologic system, yet there is a very little information available on the region’s ecological, hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Long-term hydrologic monitoring can provide the information needed to understand basic hydrologic processes...

  12. Unit Hydrograph Peaking Analysis for Goose Creek Watershed in Virginia: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    utilized maximum peaking factor value of 1.5. Although by definition the PMP does not have a return period, it is nonetheless a useful exercise. The...Pradhan, N. R, C. W. Downer, and B. E. Johnson. 2014. A physics based hydrologic modeling approach to simulate non-point source pollution for the

  13. Bassett Creek Watershed, Hennepin County, Minnesota. Feasibility Report for Flood Control. Main Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    this area is rather poor because of runoff from the surrounding area. Aquatic plant and animal species are almost nonexistent in this arts . 2.08 Fruen...stress in the crowns of openings. Over a period of time, the crowns of tunnels assume a " gothic arch" form or even a convexly curved "tented" profile

  14. Biological Inventory Cape La Croix Creek Watershed, Cape Girardeau County, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    7: tiv) and the spotted skunk (SptiZo- gale putorius) are obvious pests to mnn and animals because of their defensive, offensive spraying . The scent...r prudent to develop thle No rth1 Park si te as an act iv ity- orit-nt ed park with. baseball, tennis , arnd other designated areas provi dd. The... REPEl CATES TAXA 1 M ,EAN TOTAL NUMBER O: INDIVIMIJAIS 4407 3030 3717.5 ’Entries rcpresent nudwtr of ji I, ccr. per liter; "+" present in

  15. SMEX02 Watershed Vitel Network Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters include soil moisture, temperature, conductivity,...

  16. Assessing the potential for conservation tillage: a case study in the Maple Creek Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosper, H.R.; Erickson, M.W.; Hoover, H.

    1983-01-01

    A case study of the selected areas shows about 95 percent of the soils are suitable for all forms of conservation tillage. Critical erosion areas are lands of 12 to 13 percent slope. These lands comprise one-fourth of the land but contribute over half the total sediment. Preharvest costs are shown for four tillage methods. Labor, energy and other inputs for reduced, no-till and conventional tillage are compared for nonirrigated corn production.

  17. SMEX02 Vegetation Water Content, Iowa Regional and Walnut Creek Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is part of the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) project, which is associated with the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing...

  18. SMEX02 Watershed Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek, Iowa, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set combines data for several parameters measured for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). Data were collected in crop fields, using a variety of...

  19. A Contaminants Survey of Three Lentic Systems within the Cypress Creek Watershed, Texas, 1993 - 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1993, a study was initiated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, Texas, Field Office to determine organic and metal contaminant levels within three...

  20. Unit Hydrograph Peaking Analysis for Goose Creek Watershed in Virginia: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    nautical) 1,852 meters miles (U.S. statute) 1,609.347 meters miles per hour 0.44704 meters per second mils 0.0254 millimeters ounces (U.S. fluid ...nrcs/detail/soils/survey/ geo /?cid=nrcs142p2_053631). The probable maximum precipitation (PMP) estimates was obtained from the Hydrometeorological

  1. The Natural and Cultural Environmental Resources of the Aquilla Creek Watershed, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-11-01

    Shinners Annual Aster Aster texanus Burgess Texas Aster Avena sativa L. Oats Bothriochloa saccharoides (Sw.) Rydb. var. longi- paniculata (Gould) Gould...Warbler U R F,Wd- Dendroica dominica: Yellow-throated Warbler* U R F,Wd- Dendroica pensylvanica: Chestnut-sided Warbler C R F,Th- Dendroica castanea : Bay

  2. Using Economic Incentives to Manage Stormwater Runoff in the Shepherd Creek Watershed, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities nationwide are facing increased responsibility for controlling stormwater runoff, and, subsequently, rising costs of stormwater management. In this report we describe and test a methodology that can be used by communities to focus limited budgets on the most efficien...

  3. Irondequoit Creek Watershed New York, Final Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    to the project (LO) and the sufficiency of in- formation (1). Thank you for the opportunity to comment. Sincerely yours, Anne Norton Miller, Directo i... methodo the full impact of a development might not be known until after the development is a fact. Therefore, we support your efforts to collect data to

  4. SMEX02 Sliced Core Soil Moisture Data, Walnut Creek Watershed, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes sliced soil core moisture data collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02), conducted during June and July 2002 in the Walnut...

  5. Estimated nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the Fish Creek watershed, Teton County, Wyoming, 2009–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Sando, Roy; MacDonald, Michael J.; Girard, Carlin E.

    2016-12-15

    Nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are essential for plant and animal growth and nourishment, but the overabundance of bioavailable nitrogen and phosphorus in water can cause adverse health and ecological effects. It is generally accepted that increased primary production of surface-water bodies because of high inputs of nutrients is now the most important polluting effect in surface water in the developed world.

  6. Emerging tools and technologies in watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Phillip Guertin; Scott N. Miller; David C. Goodrich

    2000-01-01

    The field of watershed management is highly dependent on spatially distributed data. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made toward the capture, storage, and use of spatial data. Emerging tools and technologies hold great promise for improving the scientific understanding of watershed processes and are already revolutionizing watershed research....

  7. Characterization of toxic conditions above Wilson's Creek National Battlefield Park, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, T.S.; Nimmo, D.W.R.; Tessari, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Wilson's Creek has an extensive history of toxicity from both point and nonpoint sources. Seven-day chronic daphnid (Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays identified one toxic site in the Wilson's Creek watershed. Procedures for the characterization phase of a Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) were modified for chronic assessment and performed on four water samples from the toxic site. The characterization involved chemical/physical alterations of samples, combined with bioassays, to help in identification of the class(es) of toxicants; followed by chemical analyses. To help understand the additivity of mixtures, toxic units were derived. Successive samples contained concentrations of copper, cadmium, nickel and zinc that literature values describe as being chronically toxic to daphnids. Summed chronic toxic units for these values greatly exceeded ambient toxic units, and more than accounted for observed toxicity. Substantial fluctuations in water quality occurred over the five sampling periods of the characterization studies and a Test of Methods, June through August, 1991. This variability illustrates the difficulty in detecting and documenting nonpoint sources of pollution. Tests using living organisms, in conjunction with toxicity identification methods, on samples taken over time appear to be appropriate for detecting acute and chronic toxicity in areas impacted by intermittent point and nonpoint-source toxicity.

  8. Identifying linkages between land use, geomorphology, and aquatic habitat in a mixed-use watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Susan K; Montagne, Cliff; Jones, Clain A; McGlynn, Brian L

    2008-11-01

    The potential impacts of land use on large woody debris (LWD) were examined in Sourdough Creek Watershed, a rapidly growing area encompassing Bozeman, Montana, USA. We identified six land classes within a 250 m buffer extending on either side of Sourdough Creek and assessed aquatic habitat and geomorphologic variables within each class. All LWD pieces were counted, and we examined 14 other variables, including undercut bank, sinuosity, and substrate composition. LWD numbers were generally low and ranged from 0 to 8.2 pieces per 50 m of stream. Linear regression showed that LWD increased with distance from headwaters, riparian forest width, and sinuosity in four of the six land classes. Statistically significant differences between land classes for many aquatic habitat and geomorphologic variables indicated the impacts of different land uses on stream structure. We also found that practices such as active wood removal played a key role in LWD abundance. This finding suggests that managers should prioritize public education and outreach concerning the importance of in-stream wood, especially in mixed-use watersheds where wood is removed for either aesthetic reasons or to prevent stream flooding.

  9. Test of newly developed conceptual hydrological model for simulation of rain-on-snow events in forested watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-min QU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual hydrological model that links the Xin’anjiang hydrological model and a physically based snow energy and mass balance model, described as the XINSNOBAL model, was developed in this study for simulating rain-on-snow events that commonly occur in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The resultant model was applied to the Lookout Creek Watershed in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon, and its ability to simulate streamflow was evaluated. The simulation was conducted at 24-hour and one-hour time scales for the period of 1996 to 2005. The results indicated that runoff and peak discharge could be underestimated if snowpack accumulation and snowmelt under rain-on-snow conditions were not taken into account. The average deterministic coefficient of the hourly model in streamflow simulation in the calibration stage was 0.837, which was significantly improved over the value of 0.762 when the Xin’anjiang model was used alone. Good simulation performance of the XINSNOBAL model in the WS10 catchment, using the calibrated parameter of the Lookout Creek Watershed for proxy-basin testing, demonstrates that transplanting model parameters between similar watersheds can provide a useful tool for discharge forecasting in ungauged basins.

  10. Grande Ronde Model Watershed Project; Dark Canyon Riparian Exclosure, Completion Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuck, Todd

    2003-03-01

    The Baker Field Office, Vale District Bureau of Land Management (BLM) submitted a project proposal for funding in 2002 through the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program (GRMWP). The project consisted of constructing two riparian exclosures to prevent livestock grazing in the riparian areas of Dark Canyon and Meadow Creek. The BLM completed the NEPA documentation and supplied the fencing materials. Funding from BPA through the GRMWP was used to complete the construction of the two exclosures. This project was completed in the fall of 2002. The project area is located in Union County, Oregon on BLM managed land adjacent to Dark Canyon and Meadow Creek, T. 3. S., R. 35 E., Section 24 and 25. Section 24 is along Dark Canyon Creek and section 25 is along Meadow Creek. Approximately 0.4 miles of stream would be protected from grazing with the construction of the two exclosures. A two person crew was hired to construct a four-strand barbed wire fence. The fence enclosed the riparian area on both sides of each creek so that no grazing would occur within the riparian area on BLM managed land. Total fence length is approximately 1.25 miles. Materials consisted of metal fence posts, barbed wire, rockjacks, fence stays, and 2 x 4's. The fence was constructed in the fall of 2002. The riparian area is effectively excluded from livestock grazing at this time. The construction of the exclosures should enhance riparian vegetation, increase bank stability, and improve riparian and in-stream habitat by exclusion of livestock in the riparian areas. Monitoring will ensure that the exclosures continues to be effective. Annual monitoring will include photo-points and compliance checks during the grazing season by BLM personnel. The BLM will submit a monitoring report, which includes the results of the annual monitoring, to the GRMWP in years 2005 and 2007. The exclosures do cross the creeks so maintenance may be needed on occasion, especially after high flow events in the creeks

  11. Multiagent distributed watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

    2012-04-01

    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  12. Watershed Boundaries, Frederick County, Maryland, watershed management areas that extend to the topographic watershed divide. Watersheds were developed from catchment delineations (2008) by dissolving catchments within larger drainage areas that were previously defined by Fre, Published in 2008, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Frederick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Watershed Boundaries dataset current as of 2008. Frederick County, Maryland, watershed management areas that extend to the topographic watershed divide. Watersheds...

  13. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2002-03-01

    This report summarizes the second year of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) enumeration project on Skookumchuck Creek in southeastern British Columbia. An enumeration fence and traps were installed on the creek from September 6th to October 12th 2001 to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 273 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length and weight were determined for all bull trout captured. In total, 39 fish of undetermined sex, 61 males and 173 females were processed through the fence. An additional 19 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 12th. Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout enumerated during this project was 292 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and kokanee (O. nerka). A total of 143 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground in two different locations (river km 27.5-30.5, and km 24.0-25.5) on October 3rd. The majority of redds (n=132) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past five years. The additional 11 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Buhl Creek, and Skookumchuck Creek at three locations suggested that water temperatures were within the temperature range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  14. Environmental setting, water budget, and stream assessment for the Broad Run watershed, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotto, Peter J.; Reif, Andrew G.; Olson, Leif E.

    2005-01-01

    The Broad Run watershed lies almost entirely in West Bradford Township, Chester County, Pa., and drains 7.08 square miles to the West Branch Brandywine Creek. Because of the potential effect of encroaching development and other stresses on the Broad Run watershed, West Bradford Township, the Chester County Water Resources Authority, and the Chester County Health Department entered into a cooperative study with the U.S. Geological Survey to complete an annual water budget and stream assessment of overall conditions. The annual water budget quantified the basic parameters of the hydrologic cycle for the climatic conditions present from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2004. These water-budget data identified immediate needs and (or) deficits that were present within the hydrologic cycle during that period, if present; however, an annual water budget encompassing a single year does not identify long-term trends. The stream assessment was conducted in two parts and assessed the overall condition of the watershed, an overall assessment of the fluvial-geomorphic conditions within the watershed and an overall assessment of the stream-quality conditions. The data collected will document present (2004) conditions and identify potential vulnerabilities to future disturbances. For the annual period from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2004, determination of an annual water budget indicated that of the 67.8 inches of precipitation that fell on the Broad Run watershed, 38.8 inches drained by way of streamflow to the West Branch Brandywine Creek. Of this 38.8 inches of streamflow, local-minimum hydrograph separation techniques determined that 7.30 inches originated from direct runoff and 31.5 inches originated from base flow. The remaining precipitation went into ground-water storage (1.71 inches) and was lost to evapotranspiration (27.3 inches). Ground-water recharge for this period-35.2 inches-was based on these values and an estimated ground-water evapotranspiration rate of 2 inches

  15. Nitrous oxide fluxes at Cobb Mill Creek marsh on the eastern shore of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, C. S.; Scanlon, T. M.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations are increasing at a rate unaccounted for with current detection methods and modeled budgets. Fertilizer nitrate (NO3-) additions in coastal watersheds could potentially lead to significant increases in N2O emissions from salt marsh ecosystems when naturally rapid microbial processes are subject to high levels of nitrate in stream and ground water. We employ a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer (TGA) connected to a portable flow-through chamber to study N2O emissions at Cobb Mill Creek marsh, which drains a small agricultural watershed in Oyster, VA. Spatial variability of fluxes is determined by deploying the chamber at 12 sites across the marsh during exposure at low tide. Temporal variability is captured by deploying the chamber over a range of tidal regimes. Using these fluxes, we determine the spatial variability of N2O emissions (according to NO3- availability and degree of wetting which varies according to elevation), elucidate the factors that drive temporal variation of N2O emissions, and compare N2O fluxes from vegetated and non-vegetated areas of the marsh. Insight into the driving forces behind the pulsed nature of N2O emissions from salt water marshes can be used to improve modeled N2O budgets.

  16. Relationship between land use classification and grass shrimp Palaemonetes spp. population metrics in coastal watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugomah, James W; Key, P B; West, J B; Shea, N R; McDaniel, S; Pennington, P L; Fulton, M H

    2014-06-01

    Estuaries in the southeastern USA have experienced increased loading of contaminants from nonpoint source runoff as well as changes in habitat (e.g., loss of wetlands) due to urbanization. These changes may pose significant risks to estuarine fauna, including crustaceans. Several studies have shown relationships between land use classification and levels of stress in estuarine populations. The grass shrimp of the genus Palaemonetes is one of the dominant species found in estuarine tidal creeks, accounting for more than 50 % of all macropelagic fauna. Grass shrimp populations were sampled monthly for 3 years at six estuarine creeks on Kiawah Island, SC. Creek watersheds were estimated using National Aerial Photograph Program color infrared and low-altitude true color aerial photography combined with in situ differentially corrected global positioning system mapping of engineered features. Land classifications delineated included water, marsh, buildings, roads, and lawns. Pairwise comparisons for grass shrimp densities among sites showed significant differences on an annual and seasonal basis. Significant relationships (p land class variables and grass shrimp density were identified both annually and seasonally. These findings suggest an influence of land use on Palaemonetes spp. populations.

  17. Geochemical and biological controls on trace metal transport in an acid mine impacted watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Thomas W

    2006-06-01

    Water samples collected in an acid mine impacted watershed indicated that the concentrations of dissolved trace metals were diurnally influenced by mineral saturation, which is controlled primarily by pH and water temperature. Measurements taken suggested that these variations only occur at sample locations immediately downstream from the confluence of acidic and alkaline waters. It is at these locations where initial mineral precipitation occurred and where subtle changes in solubility were most affected, increasing trace metal removal when both the rate of photosynthesis (influencing pH in headwaters) and water temperature were at a maximum. The role of iron photoreduction (increased midday production of ferrous iron) on overall Cu, Mn, and Zn transport was also evaluated, but found to be inconclusive. Iron photoreduction may however influence adsorption and/or coprecipitation of trace metals through associated changes in oxidation state, solubility, and mineralogy of various iron colloids, which are produced upon the neutralization of acidic, metal enriched water. Furthermore, measured values of copper and zinc were compared to relative USEPA chronic criterion for exposure to continuous concentration (CCC) of metals by the calculation of a "toxicity unit" (TU). It was found that average values of both copper and zinc only exceeded the CCC (TU>1) in the acid mine-impacted Leona Creek. In general, zinc toxicity decreased while copper toxicity increased downstream of the confluence of the mine impacted Leona Creek and background Lion Creek (sampled at Lake Aliso), indicating a significant source of zinc in upstream, non mine-impacted samples.

  18. Discover a Watershed: The Everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, George B.; And Others

    This publication is designed for both classroom teachers and nonformal educators of young people in grades 6 through 12. It can provide a 6- to 8-week course of study on the watershed with students participating in activities as they are ordered in the guide, or activities may be used in any order with educators selecting those appropriate for the…

  19. 10 Watershed Disturbance.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The Atewa Range Forest Reserve in the Eastern Region of Ghana is a very important watershed which serves three important river systems - the Densu, Ayensu and Birim, all in southern Ghana. Widespread degradation of the forest reserve .... chewing stick (for brushing the teeth). A large proportion of the respondents also ...

  20. Modeled and measured linkages between glaciers, permafrost and hydrology in a subarctic watershed, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaedeke, A.; Liljedahl, A. K.; O'Neel, S.; Douglas, T. A.; Gatesman, T.; Daanen, R. P.; Zhang, J.; Campbell, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrological processes in subarctic, mountainous, glacierized watersheds are highly variable (seasonally and spatially) and are particularly vulnerable to climate change. Here, we combine field measurements and hydrological modeling to address the effects of altered glacier melt on lowland runoff, regional groundwater recharge/storage and permafrost distribution. Jarvis Creek watershed (630 km2), a headwater basin of the Tanana River (12,000 km2), in semi-arid Interior Alaska serves as our study area. The process-based, spatially distributed hydrological model WaSiM was utilized to simulate all aspects of the water cycle, including glacier melt, dynamic glacier coverage, seasonal soil freeze and thaw and permafrost. Downscaled regional climate scenarios force WaSiM for long-term climate change impact assessment. Field measurements (differential runoff, glacier mass balance, end-of-winter snow depths, soil temperature, and meteorology) are used to parameterize, calibrate and validate WaSiM. Our field measurements and modeling results indicate that Jarvis Creek, which is fed by on average 1/3 glacier runoff during summer, loses considerable amount of runoff to the regional aquifer. The aquifer, in turn, feeds the larger scale river system (Tanana River) throughout the year, which is especially prominent during winter when all overland runoff ceases and surface waters are covered with ice. Measured annual runoff increased from the nearby Gulkana Glacier during the last 50 years, which is consistent with an 11% decrease in glacier coverage (1950-2010) within the Tanana River basin. Glacier runoff is likely to continue to increase until glaciers recede to higher and cooler elevation. The changes in glacier runoff do not only affect the headwater streams (Jarvis Creek), but also the larger scale hydrological regime such as aquifer storage and release, long-term trends in winter baseflow of Tanana River and permafrost distribution.

  1. Comparison of mineral weathering and biomass nutrient uptake in two small forested watersheds underlain by quartzite bedrock, Catoctin Mountain, Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Price, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    To quantify chemical weathering and biological uptake, mass-balance calculations were performed on two small forested watersheds located in the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province in north-central Maryland, USA. Both watersheds, Bear Branch (BB) and Fishing Creek Tributary (FCT), are underlain by relatively unreactive quartzite bedrock. Such unreactive bedrock and associated low chemical-weathering rates offer the opportunity to quantify biological processes operating within the watershed. Hydrologic and stream-water chemistry data were collected from the two watersheds for the 9-year period from June 1, 1990 to May 31, 1999. Of the two watersheds, FCT exhibited both higher chemical-weathering rates and biomass nutrient uptake rates, suggesting that forest biomass aggradation was limited by the rate of chemical weathering of the bedrock. Although the chemical-weathering rate in the FCT watershed was low relative to the global average, it masked the influence of biomass base-cation uptake on stream-water chemistry. Any differences in bedrock mineralogy between the two watersheds did not exert a significant influence on the overall weathering stoichiometry. The difference in chemical-weathering rates between the two watersheds is best explained by a larger proportion of reactive phyllitic layers within the bedrock of the FCT watershed. Although the stream gradient of BB is about two-times greater than that of FCT, its influence on chemical weathering appears to be negligible. The findings of this study support the biomass nutrient uptake stoichiometry of K1.0Mg1.1Ca0.97 previously determined for the study site. Investigations of the chemical weathering of relatively unreactive quartzite bedrock may provide insight into critical zone processes.

  2. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  3. Holistic impact assessment and cost savings of rainwater harvesting at the watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R. Ghimire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the impacts of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH systems in three watersheds within the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin (southeastern U.S. using life cycle assessment (LCA and life cycle cost assessment. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA categories included energy demand, fossil fuel, metals, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification, smog, blue and green water use, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and human health effects. Building upon previous LCAs of near-optimal domestic and agricultural RWH systems in the region, we scaled functional unit LCIA scores for adoption rates of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% and compared these to conventional municipal water and well water systems. In addition to investigating watershed-scale impacts of RWH adoption, which few studies have addressed, potential life cycle cost savings due to reduced cumulative energy demand were scaled in each watershed for a more comprehensive analysis. The importance of managing the holistic water balance, including blue water (surface/ground water, green water (rainwater use, and annual precipitation and their relationship to RWH are also addressed. RWH contributes to water resource sustainability by offsetting surface and ground water consumption and by reducing environmental and human health impacts compared to conventional sources. A watershed-wide RWH adoption rate of 25% has a number of ecological and human health benefits including blue water use reduction ranging from 2–39 Mm3, cumulative energy savings of 12–210 TJ, and reduced global warming potential of 600–10,100 Mg CO2 eq. Potential maximum lifetime energy cost savings were estimated at $5M and $24M corresponding to domestic RWH in Greens Mill and agricultural RWH in Back Creek watersheds.

  4. Documentary Research of the Sugar Creek Basin,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    oif ii,ied atfter thle abli~ltiorn of siasett as an -. Chailotte. VICTORIA, 16010 Trhe Plano . c - -- pruinint-rit :Irea I-t oirey famnily J’civ-utc...lS RY (OtNIY pie of F’ederal tarmot inise - Ici afe, riot niiii’iaib/e .,IIKCI, Davidsoir College catnprr. I1849 Mount Glileadi vicinity. TOWN CR(EEK

  5. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  6. A Bayesian Uncertainty Framework for Conceptual Snowmelt and Hydrologic Models Applied to the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.; Marshall, L.

    2007-12-01

    Probability Distributed Model (PDM), developed by Moore (1985). We implement the modeling framework in Stringer Creek watershed in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (TCEF), Montana. The snowmelt-driven watershed offers that additional challenge of modeling snow accumulation and melt and current efforts are aimed at developing a temperature- and radiation-index snowmelt model. Auxiliary data available from within TCEF's watersheds are used to support in the understanding of information value as it relates to predictive performance. Because the model is based on lumped parameters, auxiliary data are hard to incorporate directly. However, these additional data offer benefits through the ability to inform prior distributions of the lumped, model parameters. By incorporating data offering different information into the uncertainty assessment process, a cross-validation technique is engaged to better ensure that modeled results reflect real process complexity.

  7. Understanding the Chloride Regime of a Midwest Mixed-Land-Use Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Zeiger, S. J.; Hooper, L. W.

    2014-12-01

    Short and long-term exposure to elevated chloride (Cl) concentrations in receiving waters can affect mortality of aquatic organisms (e.g. fish, invertebrates) and alter aquatic biological community structure. Unfortunately, there remains a general lack of quantitative information pertaining to Cl regimes under a variety of land-use types and flow conditions. Hinkson Creek, located in Boone County, Missouri, was placed on the Missouri Department of Natural Resources 303(d) list of impaired waters in 1998 due to multiple stressors including Cl. A 4-yr study was initiated in 2010 to better understand the loading and persistence of Cl in Hinkson Creek and related implications for stream restoration. Using a scale-nested experimental watershed study design (n = 5 gauging sites), observed mean and maximum daily Cl was 25.0 and 247.7, 55.7 and 351.4, 78.1 and 1167.8, 74.7 and 1021.8 and 71.0 and 941.4 mg/l at forested, agricultural, suburban, and urban (n=2) gauging sites, respectively. Average daily flow was 0.75, 0.90, 1.40, 1.98, and 3.18 m3/s in forested, agricultural, suburban, and urban gauging sites, respectively. Daily Cl loading estimates were 1620, 4350, 9470, 12800 and 19400 kg/day for forested agricultural, rural, suburban, and urban gauging sites, respectively. Results indicate that current winter deicing practices by municipalities and homeowners in the HCW are contributing to year-round elevated chloride concentrations. This finding holds holding important implications for watershed management, aquatic ecosystem health, and stream restoration in the HCW and other developing mixed-land-use watersheds of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB) and elsewhere.

  8. Assessment of conservation practices in the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed, southwestern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed encompasses about 813 square kilometers of rural farm land in Caddo, Custer, and Washita Counties in southwestern Oklahoma. The Fort Cobb Reservoir and six stream segments were identified on the Oklahoma 1998 303(d) list as not supporting designated beneficial uses because of impairment by nutrients, suspended solids, sedimentation, pesticides, and unknown toxicity. As a result, State and Federal agencies, in collaboration with conservation districts and landowners, started conservation efforts in 2001 to decrease erosion and transport of sediments and nutrients to the reservoir and improve water quality in tributaries. The U.S. Department of Agriculture selected the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in 2003 as 1 of 14 benchmark watersheds under the Conservation Effectiveness Assessment Project with the objective of quantifying the environmental benefits derived from agricultural conservation programs in reducing inflows of sediments and phosphorus to the reservoir. In November 2004, the Biologic, Geographic, Geologic, and Water Disciplines of the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Agricultural Research Service, Grazinglands Research Laboratory in El Reno, Oklahoma, began an interdisciplinary investigation to produce an integrated publication to complement this program. This publication is a compilation of 10 report chapters describing land uses, soils, geology, climate, and water quality in streams and the reservoir through results of field and remote sensing investigations from 2004 to 2007. The investigations indicated that targeting best-management practices to small intermittent streams draining to the reservoir and to the Cobb Creek subwatershed may effectively augment efforts to improve eutrophic to hypereutrophic conditions that continue to affect the reservoir. The three major streams flowing into the reservoir contribute nutrients causing eutrophication, but minor streams draining cultivated fields near the

  9. Spatial and temporal variation of stream chemistry associated with contrasting geology and land-use patterns in the Chesapeake Bay watershed—Summary of results from Smith Creek, Virginia; Upper Chester River, Maryland; Conewago Creek, Pennsylvania; and Difficult Run, Virginia, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth E.; Denver, Judith M.; Langland, Michael J.; Webber, James S.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hively, W. Dean; Clune, John W.

    2016-11-17

    Despite widespread and ongoing implementation of conservation practices throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed, water quality continues to be degraded by excess sediment and nutrient inputs. While the Chesapeake Bay Program has developed and maintains a large-scale and long-term monitoring network to detect improvements in water quality throughout the watershed, fewer resources have been allocated for monitoring smaller watersheds, even though water-quality improvements that may result from the implementation of conservation practices are likely to be first detected at smaller watershed scales.In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey partnered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to initiate water-quality monitoring in four selected small watersheds that were targeted for increased implementation of conservation practices. Smith Creek watershed is an agricultural watershed in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia that is dominated by cattle and poultry production, and the Upper Chester River watershed is an agricultural watershed on the Eastern Shore of Maryland that is dominated by row-cropping activities. The Conewago Creek watershed is an agricultural watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania that is characterized by mixed agricultural activities. The fourth watershed, Difficult Run, is a suburban watershed in northern Virginia that is dominated by medium density residential development. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal variations in water chemistry and suspended sediment in these four relatively small watersheds that represent a range of land-use patterns and underlying geology to (1) characterize current water-quality conditions in these watersheds, and (2) identify the dominant sources, sinks, and transport processes in each watershed.The general study design involved two components. The first included intensive routine water-quality monitoring at an existing streamgage within each study

  10. Microsatellite analyses of San Franciscuito Creek rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    Microsatellite genetic diversity found in San Francisquito Creek rainbow trout support a close genetic relationship with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from another tributary of San Francisco Bay, Alameda Creek, and coastal trout found in Lagunitas Creek, Marin County, California. Fish collected for this study from San Francisquito Creek showed a closer genetic relationship to fish from the north-central California steelhead ESU than for any other listed group of O. mykiss. No significant genotypic or allelic frequency associations could be drawn between San Francisquito Creek trout and fish collected from the four primary rainbow trout hatchery strains in use in California, i.e. Whitney, Mount Shasta, Coleman, and Hot Creek hatchery fish. Indeed, genetic distance analyses (δµ2) supported separation between San Francisquito Creek trout and all hatchery trout with 68% bootstrap values in 1000 replicate neighbor-joining trees. Not surprisingly, California hatchery rainbow trout showed their closest evolutionary relationships with contemporary stocks derived from the Sacramento River. Wild collections of rainbow trout from the Sacramento-San Joaquin basin in the Central Valley were also clearly separable from San Francisquito Creek fish supporting separate, independent ESUs for two groups of O. mykiss (one coastal and one Central Valley) with potentially overlapping life histories in San Francisco Bay. These data support the implementation of management and conservation programs for rainbow trout in the San Francisquito Creek drainage as part of the central California coastal steelhead ESU.

  11. South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaney, Mark D. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management

    2009-04-15

    The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment

  12. Hydrogeology of the Ramapo River-Woodbury Creek valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Orange County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system and surrounding watershed areas was investigated within a 23-mile long, fault-controlled valley in eastern Orange County, New York. Glacial deposits form a divide within the valley that is drained to the north by Woodbury Creek and is drained to the south by the Ramapo River. Surficial geology, extent and saturated thickness of sand and gravel aquifers, extent of confining units, bedrock-surface elevation beneath valleys, major lineaments, and the locations of wells for which records are available were delineated on an interactive map.

  13. Watershed Assessment with Beach Microbial Source Tracking and Outcomes of Resulting Gull Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kelly D; Gruber, Steve; Vondrak, Mary; Crumpacker, Andrea

    2016-09-20

    Total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation at a southern California beach involved ultraviolet treatment of watershed drainage that provided >97% reduction in fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations. However, this pollutant control measure did not provide sufficient improvement of beach water quality, prompting further assessment. Investigation included microbial source tracking (MST) for human, gull, and canine fecal sources, monitoring of enterococci and fecal coliform, and measurement of chemical and physical water quality parameters for samples collected from watershed, groundwater, and beach sites, including a beach scour pond and tidal creek. FIB variability remained poorly modeled in regression analysis. However, MST revealed correlations between FIB and gull source tracking markers, leading to recommendations to manage gulls as a pollutant source. Beach conditions were followed for three years after implementation of a best management practice (BMP) to abate gulls using a falconry program for the beach and an upland landfill. The gull abatement BMP was associated with improved beach water quality, and this appears to be the first report of falconry in the context of TMDL implementation. Overall, MST data enabled management action despite an inability to fully model FIB dynamics in the coupled watershed-beach system.

  14. Evaluating expected outcomes of acid remediation in an intensively mined Appalachian watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew S; Merovich, George T; Petty, J Todd; Gutta, J Brady

    2017-07-01

    Assessments of watershed-based restoration efforts are rare but are essential for the science of stream restoration to advance. We conducted a watershed scale assessment of Abram Creek before and after implementation of a watershed-based plan designed to maximize ecological recovery from acid mine drainage (AMD) impairment. We surveyed water chemistry, physical habitat, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish community structure in three stream types: AMD-impacted (14 streams), AMD-treated (13 streams), and unimpaired reference (4 streams). We used in-stream measurements to quantify ecological loss from AMD, the amount of ecological recovery expected through remediation, and the observed degree of post-treatment recovery. Sites impaired by AMD improved in water quality with AMD treatment. Dissolved metals and acidity declined significantly in treated streams, but sulfate and specific conductance did not. Likewise, sites impaired by AMD improved in bio-condition scores with AMD treatment. EPT genera increased significantly but were lower compared to unimpaired streams. We found fish at nine treated sites that had none before treatment. Community-level analyses indicated improved but altered assemblages with AMD treatment. Analysis of pre-treatment conditions indicated that only 30% of the historic fishery remained. Remediation was expected to recover 66% of the historic fishery value, and assessment of post-treatment conditions indicates that 52% of the historic fishery has been recovered after 3 years. Developing expected endpoints for restoration outcomes provides a tool to objectively evaluate successes and can guide adaptive management strategies.

  15. Assessment of Water-Quality Conditions in Fivemile Creek in the Vicinity of the Fivemile Creek Greenway, Jefferson County, Alabama, 2003-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Amy C.; Robinson, John A.; Redmond, Jymalyn E.; Bradley, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    The watershed of Fivemile Creek (FMC), a tributary to the Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River, is located north of Birmingham, Alabama. Areas that have been previously coal-mined border the creek, and portions of the upper watershed have been and are currently (2007) being used for industrial and urban uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Tarrant, the Freshwater Land Trust, and the Jefferson County Commission, conducted a water-quality assessment of 12 sites along FMC during 2003?2005. Water samples were analyzed for basic physical and chemical properties and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, fecal indicator bacteria, organic wastewater compounds, pesticides, trace elements, and semivolatile organic compounds. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for concentrations of trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Benthic invertebrate communities were evaluated for taxonomic composition and relation to water-quality conditions. Nutrient concentrations in the FMC watershed reflect the influences of natural and anthropogenic sources. Concentrations of total nitrogen in all samples and total Kjeldahl nitrogen in at least one sample each collected from FMC at Hewitt Park, FMC below Springdale Road, FMC at Lewisburg, FMC near Republic, FMC at Brookside, and FMC at Linn Crossing exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ecoregion nutrient criteria. Total phosphorus concentrations in about 58 percent of all samples were above the ecoregion nutrient criteria. Concentrations of chlorophyll a, an indicator of algal biomass, in the FMC watershed were below the appropriate USEPA ecoregion criteria. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations occasionally exceeded criteria established by the Alabama Department of Environmental Management (ADEM) and the USEPA to protect human health and aquatic life. Median fecal-coliform concentrations equaled or exceeded USEPA criteria at four of the six sites with multiple samples

  16. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  17. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and Bacterial Source Tracking for Development of the fecal coliform Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Accotink Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Accotink Creek, in Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Accotink Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Accotink Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Accotink Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Accotink Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed

  18. Quasi-Empirical and Spatio-Temporal Vulnerability Modeling of Environmental Risks Posed to a Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Papia Faustina

    Water quality assessment is crucial in investigating impairment within agricultural watersheds. Seasonal and spatial variations on land can directly affect the adjoining riverine systems. Studies have revealed that agricultural activities are often major contributors to altering water quality of surface waters. A common means of addressing this issue is through the establishment and monitoring the health of riparian vegetation buffers along those areas of stream channels that would be most susceptible to the threat. Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a means by which impaired areas can be identified, so that subsequent action toward the establishment of riparian zones can be taken. Modeling the size and rate of land use and land cover (LULC) change is an effective method of projecting localized impairment. This study presents an integrated model utilizing Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP), Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations, and geospatial analyses to address areas of impairment within the Pipestem Creek watershed, a part of the Missouri Watershed James Sub-region of North Dakota, USA. The rate and direction of LULC change was analyzed through this model and its impact on the ambient water and soil quality was studied. Tasseled Cap Greenness Index (TCGI) was used to determine the loss of forested land within the watershed from 1976 to 2015. Research results validated temporal and spatial relations of LULC dynamics to nutrient concentrations especially those that would be noted at the mouth of the watershed. It was found that the levels of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) were much higher for the years 2014 to 2016 with a discernible increased localized alkalizing effect within the watershed. Fallow areas were seen to produce significant amounts of sediment loads from the sub-watershed. LULC distribution from 2007 to 2015 show that it is possible to project future land use change patterns. About 89.90% likelihood of increment in

  19. Modeling soil erosion in a watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuza, R.

    1999-01-01

    Most erosion models have been developed based on a plot scale and have limited application to a watershed due to the differences in aerial scale. In order to address this limitation, a GIS-assisted methodology for modeling soil erosion was developed using PCRaster to predict the rate of soil erosion at watershed level; identify the location of erosion prone areas; and analyze the impact of landuse changes on soil erosion. The general methodology of desktop modeling or soil erosion at watershe...

  20. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  1. Characterization of Water Quality and Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities In Angora Creek Following the June 2007 Angora Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A. A.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Herbst, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    The Angora Fire began June 2007 in the Upper Truckee River watershed of the Lake Tahoe Basin and burned 1254ha with 76% of the watershed considered high to moderate burn severity. Here we present water quality data and estimates of benthic macroinvertebrate populations in Angora Creek, for the first two years following the burn. Specifically, areas above, within, and below the burned area were monitored to determine nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity in stream water. The responses of benthic populations were monitored for two consecutive summers after the fire. The fire resulted in increased concentrations of water quality constituents relative to an 11-year pre-fire monitoring record on Angora Creek. Precipitation following the fire was low, and this may have attenuated the loss of nutrients and sediments by erosion. A distinct seasonal pattern was observed in nutrient concentrations in Angora Creek, with higher levels during the wet season and storm events. This was particularly evident for nitrate, followed by total nitrogen/total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), soluble reactive phosphorus, and total phosphorus. The highly elevated nitrate concentrations measured in the first year after the fire (101±22 µg N/L, mean±SE) declined to 34±9 µg N/L by the end of the second, comparable to baseline data (see Table 1). TKN, TN and phosphorus showed no clear signs of reduction to their lower, pre-fire concentrations within the first two years of monitoring. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities showed shifts in community structure indicative of habitat alteration. Post-fire communities were composed of more generalist feeders, however diversity remained high. Relatively high diversity may be related to increased stream water temperature, solar radiation, and periphyton quality. This study provides important information on the short-term recovery of forests and streams to major wildfire

  2. Mercury Contributions from Flint Creek and other Tributaries to the Upper Clark Fork River in Northwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, H.; Young, M.; Staats, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Methylmercury contamination in biota is a major factor diminishing the environmental quality of the Upper Clark Fork River (CFR), e.g. by triggering human consumption limits of fish. The CFR is subject to one of the largest Superfund cleanup projects in the US, but remediation and restoration is currently focused exclusively on other mining-related contaminants (As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd), which may be counterproductive with respect to the bio-availability of mercury, for example by creation of wetlands along mercury-contaminated reaches of the river. The identification and elimination of Hg sources is an essential step toward reducing the methylmercury exposure in the biota of the CFR watershed because a strong correlation exists between total mercury levels in river sediment and methylmercury levels in aquatic life. We analyzed duplicate samples from the top sediment layer of the main stem and significant tributaries to the Clark Fork River along a 240 km reach between Butte, MT and downstream of the Missoula Valley. Mercury concentrations were 1.3 × 1.6 (mean × SD, n = 35) in the main stem. Concentrations in tributaries varied widely (0.02 to 85 mg/kg) and seemed only loosely related to the number of historic precious metal mines in the watershed. In the upper reach of the CFR, elevated Hg levels are likely caused by residual contaminated sediments in the flood plain. Levels tend to decrease downstream until Drummond, MT, where Flint Creek contributes a significant amount of mercury, causing Hg levels in the main stem CFR to increase from 0.7 to 4 mg/kg. Levels continue to decrease downstream. Flint Creek is the single largest contributor of Hg to the CFR. Detailed sampling of the main stem Flint Creek and tributaries (26 sites) showed extremely high levels in two tributaries (22 to 85 mg/kg) where historic milling operations were located. Elimination of these point sources may be accomplished comparatively economically and may significantly reduce mercury levels in

  3. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions at the soil-atmosphere interface in forested watersheds of the US Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Joshua; Vidon, Philippe; Gross, Jordan; Beier, Colin; Caputo, Jesse; Mitchell, Myron

    2016-05-01

    Although anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O) are unequivocally tied to climate change, natural systems such as forests have the potential to affect GHG concentration in the atmosphere. Our study reports GHG emissions as CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO2eq fluxes across a range of landscape hydrogeomorphic classes (wetlands, riparian areas, lower hillslopes, upper hillslopes) in a forested watershed of the Northeastern USA and assesses the usability of the topographic wetness index (TWI) as a tool to identify distinct landscape geomorphic classes to aid in the development of GHG budgets at the soil atmosphere interface at the watershed scale. Wetlands were hot spots of GHG production (in CO2eq) in the landscape owing to large CH4 emission. However, on an areal basis, the lower hillslope class had the greatest influence on the net watershed CO2eq efflux, mainly because it encompassed the largest proportion of the study watershed (54 %) and had high CO2 fluxes relative to other land classes. On an annual basis, summer, fall, winter, and spring accounted for 40, 27, 9, and 24 % of total CO2eq emissions, respectively. When compared to other approaches (e.g., random or systematic sampling design), the TWI landscape classification method was successful in identifying dominant landscape hydrogeomorphic classes and offered the possibility of systematically accounting for small areas of the watershed (e.g., wetlands) that have a disproportionate effect on total GHG emissions. Overall, results indicate that soil CO2eq efflux in the Archer Creek Watershed may exceed C uptake by live trees under current conditions.

  4. Mercury at the Oat Hill Extension Mine and James Creek, Napa County, California: Tailings, Sediment, Water, and Biota, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowey, Aaron J.; Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The Oat Hill Extension (OHE) Mine is one of several mercury mines located in the James Creek/Pope Creek watershed that produced mercury from the 1870's until 1944 (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1965). The OHE Mine developed veins and mineralized fault zones hosted in sandstone that extended eastward from the Oat Hill Mine. Waste material from the Oat Hill Mine was reprocessed at the OHE Mine using gravity separation methods to obtain cinnabar concentrates that were processed in a retort. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management requested that the U.S. Geological Survey measure and characterize mercury and other chemical constituents that are potentially relevant to ecological impairment of biota in tailings, sediment, and water at the OHE Mine and in the tributaries of James Creek that drain the mine area (termed Drainage A and B) (Figs. 1 and 2). This report summarizes such data obtained from sampling of tailings and sediments at the OHE on October 17, 2003; water, sediment, and biota from James Creek on May 20, 2004; and biota on October 29, 2004. These data are interpreted to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential ecological impact of the mine on the James Creek watershed. The mine tailings are unusual in that they have not been roasted and contain relatively high concentrations of mercury (400 to 1200 ppm) compared to unroasted waste rock at other mines. These tailings have contaminated a tributary to James Creek with mercury primarily by erosion, on the basis of higher concentration of mercury (780 ng/L) measured in unfiltered (total mercury, HgT) spring water flowing from the OHE to James Creek compared to 5 to 14 ng/L HgT measured in James Creek itself. Tailing piles (presumably from past Oat Hill mine dumping) near the USBLM property boundary and upstream of the main OHE mine drainage channel (Drainage A; Fig. 2) also likely emit mercury, on the basis of their mercury composition (930 to 1200 ppm). The OHE spring water is likely an

  5. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  6. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  7. Copepod composition, abundance and diversity in Makupa Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The taxonomic composition, abundance and spatio-temporal distribution of copepods were analysed from monthly zooplankton samples collected in Makupa creek and Mombasa Harbour (Makupa creek was until recently subjected to considerable dumping of domestic and industrial waste). At least 51 copepod species ...

  8. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the...

  9. Total Hydrocarbon (THC) of the Lower Kolo Creek in Otuogidi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic wild life and habitats are affected by pollution through physical contact, absorption and inhalation. This study was carried out to investigate the THC values of lower Kolo creek in Otuogidi Bayelsa State – Nigeria for 12 months. THC of sediment and water covering wet and dry season obtained from the creek were ...

  10. 33 CFR 117.163 - Islais Creek (Channel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Islais Creek (Channel). 117.163 Section 117.163 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.163 Islais Creek (Channel). (a) The...

  11. Utilizing Creeks for Integrated Rural Coastal Development of Ilaje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural communities in the country are blessed with resources which need to be exploited to achieve rural development. This study examines the Utilization of Creeks for Integrated Coastal Development of Ilaje Area of Nigeria. The primary goal of the study is to carry out inventory on creek resources and how best it could be ...

  12. Effects of brush management on the hydrologic budget and water quality in and adjacent to Honey Creek State Natural Area, Comal County, Texas, 2001-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Edwards Region Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative, the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, the San Antonio River Authority, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, Texas Parks and Wildlife, the Guadalupe Blanco River Authority, and the San Antonio Water System, evaluated the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in and adjacent to the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. By removing the ashe juniper and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area as a brush management conservation practice, the hydrology in the watershed might change. Using a simplified mass balance approach of the hydrologic cycle, the incoming rainfall was distributed to surface water runoff, evapotranspiration, or groundwater recharge. After hydrologic data were collected in adjacent watersheds for 3 years, brush management occurred on the treatment watershed while the reference watershed was left in its original condition. Hydrologic data were collected for another 6 years. Hydrologic data include rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and water quality. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured but potential groundwater recharge was calculated using a simplified mass balance approach. The resulting hydrologic datasets were examined for differences between the watersheds and between pre- and post-treatment periods to assess the effects of brush management. The streamflow to rainfall relation (expressed as event unit runoff to event rainfall relation) did not change between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods. The daily evapotranspiration rates at the reference watershed and treatment watershed sites exhibited a seasonal cycle during the pre- and post-treatment periods, with intra- and interannual variability. Statistical analyses indicate the mean

  13. Evaluating the accotink creek restoration project for improving water quality, in-stream habitat, and bank stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, S.D.; Selvakumar, A.; Hyer, K.; O'Connor, T.

    2007-01-01

    Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy metals) to receiving waters. To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff as well as to minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land-use practices directly impact urban streams. Stream flows in urbanized watersheds increase in magnitude as a function of impervious area and can result in degradation of the natural stream channel morphology affecting the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the stream. Stream bank erosion, which also increases with increased stream flows, can lead to bank instability, property loss, infrastructure damage, and increased sediment loading to the stream. Increased sediment loads may lead to water quality degradation downstream and have negative impacts on fish, benthic invertebrates, and other aquatic life. Accotink Creek is in the greater Chesapeake Bay and Potomac watersheds, which have strict sediment criteria. The USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and USGS (United States Geological Survey) are investigating the effectiveness of stream restoration techniques as a BMP to decrease sediment load and improve bank stability, biological integrity, and in-stream water quality in an impaired urban watershed in Fairfax, Virginia. This multi-year project continuously monitors turbidity, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature, as well as biological and chemical water quality parameters. In addition, physical parameters (e.g., pebble counts, longitudinal and cross sectional stream surveys) were measured to assess geomorphic changes associated with the restoration. Data

  14. Comparative Analysis of Bank Erosion and Bed Sediment Remobilization With Watershed Sediment Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, L. M.; Miller, A. J.; Welty, C.

    2006-05-01

    Urbanization has altered the hydrologic regime of Valley Creek, a tributary of the Schuylkill River west of Philadelphia, PA. Initial reconnaissance suggested that urban development in the watershed was associated with increased sediment flux through the 3.7 kilometer portion of Valley Creek that runs through Valley Forge National Historical Park before its confluence with the Schuylkill River. A study was conducted between September 2003 and January 2006 to obtain baseline inventories and monitor sediment transport and storage. Field methods included cross-section and bankline surveys after significant storm events (one of which was the second highest discharge on record for Valley Creek; 77.3 m3/s), pebble counts and volumetric barrel samples to measure the particle size distribution of the streambed, the use of a slide hammer to measure depth of the mobile layer, and tracer gravels to determine the sediment particle sizes mobilized as a function of discharge. A suspended sediment station installed at the USGS gage just upstream of the park boundary includes a YSI turbidity optical sensor calibrated to suspended-sediment concentrations collected by an ISCO sampler. Sediment load estimates were compiled based on turbidity data collected at 15-minute intervals between July 2005 and January 2006 and preliminary USGS unit values flow records for the period 1 February 2005-31 January 2006. Suspended sediment yield for the watershed was estimated at 40 tons/km2/yr. This estimate is much lower than originally believed based on sediment yields from nearby watersheds in the region, which range from 66 to 344 tons/km2/yr. Sediment loads from measured bank erosion sites within the park were used to estimate the amount of sediment derived from bank erosion along the channel network upstream of the park boundary. Calculated values range from two-thirds to twice the annual suspended sediment load. Although bank erosion appears to be a potentially dominant source of sediment by

  15. Monitor and Protect Wigwam River Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir : Summary of the Skookumchuck Creek Bull Trout Enumeration Project, Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, James S.; Baxter, Jeremy

    2001-02-01

    An enumeration fence and traps were installed on Skookumchuck Creek from September 7 th to October 16 th to enable the capture of post-spawning bull trout emigrating out of the watershed. During the study period, a total of 252 bull trout were sampled through the enumeration fence. Length, weight, and sex were determined for all but one of the 252 bull trout captured. In total, one fish of undetermined sex, 63 males and 188 females were processed through the fence. A total of 67 bull trout were observed on a snorkel survey prior to the fence being removed on October 16 th . Coupled with the fence count, the total bull trout count during this project was 319 fish. Several other species of fish were captured at the enumeration fence including westslope cutthroat trout, Rocky Mountain whitefish, kokanee, sucker, and Eastern brook trout. Redds were observed during ground surveys in three different locations (river km 27.5- 28.5, km 29-30, and km 24-25). The largest concentration of redds were noted in the upper two sections which have served as the index sections over the past four years. A total of 197 bull trout redds were enumerated on the ground on October 4 th . The majority of redds (n=189) were observed in the 3.0 km index section (river km 27.5-30.5) that has been surveyed over the past four years. The additional 8 redds were observed in a 1.5 km section (river km 24.0-25.5). Summary plots of water temperature for Bradford Creek, Sandown Creek, Skookumchuck Creek at km 39.5, and Skookumchuck Creek at the fence site suggested that water temperatures were within the range preferred by bull trout for spawning, egg incubation, and rearing.

  16. Comparison of total mercury and methylmercury cycling at five sites using the small watershed approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.B.; Alisa, Mast M.; Campbell, D.H.; Aiken, G.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Hunt, R.J.; Walker, J.F.; Schuster, P.F.; Chalmers, A.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Peters, N.E.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Clow, D.W.; Shafer, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The small watershed approach is well-suited but underutilized in mercury research. We applied the small watershed approach to investigate total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) dynamics in streamwater at the five diverse forested headwater catchments of the US Geological Survey Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. At all sites, baseflow THg was generally less than 1 ng L-1 and MeHg was less than 0.2 ng L-1. THg and MeHg concentrations increased with streamflow, so export was primarily episodic. At three sites, THg and MeHg concentration and export were dominated by the particulate fraction in association with POC at high flows, with maximum THg (MeHg) concentrations of 94 (2.56) ng L-1 at Sleepers River, Vermont; 112 (0.75) ng L-1 at Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico; and 55 (0.80) ng L-1 at Panola Mt., Georgia. Filtered (tracked THg so that each site had a fairly constant MeHg/THg ratio, which ranged from near zero at Andrews to 15% at the low-relief, groundwater-dominated Allequash Creek, Wisconsin. Allequash was the only site with filtered MeHg consistently above detection, and the filtered fraction dominated both THg and MeHg. Relative to inputs in wet deposition, watershed retention of THg (minus any subsequent volatilization) was 96.6% at Allequash, 60% at Sleepers, and 83% at Andrews. Icacos had a net export of THg, possibly due to historic gold mining or frequent disturbance from landslides. Quantification and interpretation of Hg dynamics was facilitated by the small watershed approach with emphasis on event sampling. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Upland and in-stream controls on baseflow nutrient dynamics in tile-drained agroecosystem watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, William I.; King, Kevin; Williams, Mark R.

    2018-01-01

    In landscapes with low residence times (e.g., rivers and reservoirs), baseflow nutrient concentration dynamics during sensitive timeframes can contribute to deleterious environmental conditions downstream. This study assessed upland and in-stream controls on baseflow nutrient concentrations in a low-gradient, tile-drained agroecosystem watershed. We conducted time-series analysis using Empirical mode decomposition of seven decade-long nutrient concentration time-series in the agricultural Upper Big Walnut Creek watershed (Ohio, USA). Four tributaries of varying drainage areas and three main-stem sites were monitored, and nutrient grab samples were collected weekly from 2006 to 2016 and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). Statistically significant seasonal fluctuations were compared with seasonality of baseflow, watershed characteristics (e.g., tile-drain density), and in-stream water quality parameters (pH, DO, temperature). Findings point to statistically significant seasonality of all parameters with peak P concentrations in summer and peak N in late winter-early spring. Results suggest that upland processes exert strong control on DRP concentrations in the winter and spring months, while coupled upland and in-stream conditions control watershed baseflow DRP concentrations during summer and early fall. Conversely, upland flow sources driving streamflow exert strong control on baseflow NO3-N, and in-stream attenuation through transient and permanent pathways impacts the magnitude of removal. Regarding TN and TP, we found that TN was governed by NO3-N, while TP was governed by DRP in summer and fluvial erosion of P-rich benthic sediments during higher baseflow conditions. Findings of the study highlight the importance of coupled in-stream and upland management for mitigating eutrophic conditions during environmentally sensitive timeframes.

  18. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-06-12

    Bonneville Dam and those spawning in Hamilton and Hardy creeks. Response to the federal ESA listing has been primarily through direct-recovery actions: reducing harvest, hatchery supplementation using local broodstock for populations at catastrophic risk, habitat restoration (including construction of spawning channels) and flow agreements to protect spawning and rearing areas. Both state and federal agencies have built controlled spawning areas. In 1998, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) began a chum salmon supplementation program using native stock on the Grays River. This program was expanded during 1999 - 2001 to include reintroduction into the Chinook River using eggs from the Grays River Supplementation Program. These eggs are incubated at the Grays River Hatchery, reared to release size at the Sea Resources Hatchery on the Chinook River, and the fry are released at the mouth of the Chinook River. Native steelhead, chum, and coho salmon are present in Duncan Creek, and are recognized as subpopulations of the Lower Gorge population, and are focal species in the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board (LCFRB) plan. Steelhead, chum and coho salmon that spawn in Duncan Creek are listed as Threatened under the ESA. Duncan Creek is classified by the LCFRB plan as a watershed for intensive monitoring (LCFRB 2004). This project was identified in the 2004 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) revised Biological Opinion (revised BiOp) to increase survival of chum salmon, 'BPA will continue to fund the program to re-introduce Columbia River chum salmon into Duncan Creek as long as NOAA Fisheries determines it to be an essential and effective contribution to reducing the risk of extinction for this ESU'. (USACE et al. 2004, page 85-86). The Governors Forum on Monitoring and Salmon Recovery and Watershed Health recommends one major population from each ESU have adult and juvenile monitoring. Duncan Creek chum salmon are identified in this plan to be

  19. Coho Salmon Habitat in a Changing Environment-Green Valley Creek, Graton, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M. D.; Kobor, J. S.; Sherwood, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Green Valley Creek (GVC) is a small (101 sq km) aquatic habitat refugium in the Russian River watershed (3,840 sq km) in coastal northern California. Coho salmon (Onchorhynchus kisutch) is endangered per the Federal Endangered Species Act, and GVC is one stream where coho have persisted. Fish surveys in GVC have found high species diversity, growth rates, and over-summer survival. The upper portion of GVC comprises a principal tributary (20 sq km) that provides spawning and rearing habitat for coho. The second principal tributary, Atascadero Creek, is comparable in size, but has few fish. Atascadero Creek and lower GVC have broad, densely vegetated floodplains. A Recovery Plan for the Central Coastal California coho Evolutionarily Significant Unit has been developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), which applies to the Russian River and its tributaries. Cooperative research regarding fish populations and habitat, a captive breeding and release program for native coho salmon, and efforts to plan for and restore habitat are ongoing. These regional efforts are particularly active in GVC, and participants include NMFS, the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District, the California Coastal Conservancy, the University of California Cooperative Extension, and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, among others. Our research focuses on hydrologic, geomorphic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the watershed in relation to aquatic habitat. Natural watershed factors contributing to habitat for coho include proximity to the coastal summer fog belt with cool temperatures, the Wilson Grove Formation aquifer that maintains dry season stream flow, and structural geology favorable for active floodplain morphology. Human impacts include water use and agriculture and rural residential development. Historic human impacts include stream clearing and draining of wetlands and floodplain for agriculture, which likely

  20. Different seasonality of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed in Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S.; Youssef, M. A.; Richards, R. P.; Liu, J.; Baker, D. B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Land use/land cover is a critical factor affecting temporal dynamics of nitrate export from watersheds. Based on a long-term (>30 years) water quality monitoring program in the Western Lake Erie area, United States, this study compared seasonal variation of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed. A seasonality index was adapted to quantitatively characterize seasonal variation of nitrate export from the two watersheds. Results showed that monthly nitrate concentrations from the two watersheds exhibited different seasonal variation. Seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading for the agricultural watershed is approximately 3 times of that from the urbanized watershed and the difference is statistically significant (p pollution in Midwestern United States.

  1. Screening Level Assessment of Metal Concentrations in Streambed Sediments and Floodplain Soils within the Grand Lake Watershed in Northeastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Ean M; Bridge, Cas F; Garvin, Meredith S

    2017-04-01

    Metal releases have been received by the Grand Lake watershed from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) since the mid 1800s. To address data gaps in metal distributions in the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, streambed sediment and floodplain soil was sampled on various streams. The water toxicity thresholds to support sediment quality assessments in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), Missouri, Oklahoma, and Kansas. Draft Final Technical Report. Volume I: Text. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Prepared by MacDonald Environmental Sciences Ltd., U.S. Geological Survey, and CH2M Hill, Nanaimo, 2009). Toxicity risks to plant populations were also assessed by comparing soil metal concentrations to Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs). It was found that the survival and/or biomass of benthic invertebrates was highly impacted at Tar Creek, highly to moderately impacted at Spring River and Elm Creek, and unimpacted at Lost Creek and Grand Lake as a result of sediment metal concentrations. It also was found that soil metal concentrations were likely sufficient to impact plant populations at all streams. Within the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, the majority of environmental studies, remediation, and restoration efforts by local, state, and federal agencies have been primarily focused within the Tar Creek Superfund Site (TCSS) boundary. Importantly, the findings of this study highlighted the downstream extent of metals contamination as well as the resulting potential toxicities to benthic invertebrates and plants that is present outside of the TCSS boundary. Because the Oklahoma portion of the watershed comprises the jurisdictional lands of ten tribes, these results emphasized the potential tribal loss of use of benthic invertebrates and plants due to their decline in population as a result of metal toxicity. These overall findings provide an important basis for future data needs in assessing metal

  2. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation, erosion...

  3. Tree response to experimental watershed acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.K. Jensen; E.J. Holzmueller; P.J. Edwards; M. Thomas-Van Gundy; D.R. DeWalle; K.W.J. Williard

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Eastern USA are threatened by acid deposition rates that have increased dramatically since industrialization. We utilized two watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia to examine long-term effects of acidification on ecological processes. One watershed has been treated with ammonium sulfate (approximately twice the ambient...

  4. Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kerr

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

  5. Cumulative watershed effects: a research perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1989-01-01

    A cumulative watershed effect (CWE) is any response to multiple land-use activities that is caused by, or results in, altered watershed function. The CWE issue is politically defined, as is the significance of particular impacts. But the processes generating CWEs are the traditional focus of geomorphology and ecology, and have thus been studied for decades. The CWE...

  6. Segmentation by watersheds : definition and parallel implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    The watershed algorithm is a method for image segmentation widely used in the area of mathematical morphology. In this paper we first address the problem of how to define watersheds. It is pointed out that various existing definitions are not equivalent. In particular we explain the differences

  7. Prioritization of sub-watersheds based on morphometric analysis using geospatial technique in Piperiya watershed, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandniha, Surendra Kumar; Kansal, Mitthan Lal

    2017-03-01

    Hydrological investigation and behavior of watershed depend upon geo-morphometric characteristics of catchment. Morphometric analysis is commonly used for development of regional hydrological model of ungauged watershed. A critical valuation and assessment of geo-morphometric constraints has been carried out. Prioritization of watersheds based on water plot capacity of Piperiya watershed has been evaluated by linear, aerial and relief aspects. Morphometric analysis has been attempted for prioritization for nine sub-watersheds of Piperiya watershed in Hasdeo river basin, which is a tributary of the Mahanadi. Sub-watersheds are delineated by ArcMap 9.3 software as per digital elevation model (DEM). Assessment of drainages and their relative parameters such as stream order, stream length, stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and compactness ratio has been calculated separately for each sub-watershed using the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial techniques. Finally, the prioritized score on the basis of morphometric behavior of each sub-watershed is assigned and thereafter consolidated scores have been estimated to identify the most sensitive parameters. The analysis reveals that stream order varies from 1 to 5; however, the first-order stream covers maximum area of about 87.7 %. Total number of stream segment of all order is 1,264 in the watershed. The study emphasizes the prioritization of the sub-watersheds on the basis of morphometric analysis. The final score of entire nine sub-watersheds is assigned as per erosion threat. The sub-watershed with the least compound parameter value was assigned as highest priority. However, the sub-watersheds has been categorized into three classes as high (4.1-4.7), medium (4.8-5.3) and low (>5.4) priority on the basis of their maximum (6.0) and minimum (4.1) prioritized score.

  8. Ecological Health and Water Quality Assessments in Big Creek Lake, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, L. M.; Frey, J. W.; Jones, J. B.; Maki, A. E.; Brozen, M. W.; Malik, S.; Allain, M.; Mitchell, B.; Batina, M.; Brooks, A. O.

    2008-12-01

    Big Creek Lake (aka J.B. Converse Reservoir) serves as the water supply for the majority of residents in Mobile County, Alabama. The area surrounding the reservoir serves as a gopher tortoise mitigation bank and is protected from further development, however, impacts from previous disasters and construction have greatly impacted the Big Creek Lake area. The Escatawpa Watershed drains into the lake, and of the seven drainage streams, three have received a 303 (d) (impaired water bodies) designation in the past. In the adjacent ecosystem, the forest is experiencing major stress from drought and pine bark beetle infestations. Various agencies are using control methods such as pesticide treatment to eradicate the beetles. There are many concerns about these control methods and the run-off into the ecosystem. In addition to pesticide control methods, the Highway 98 construction projects cross the north area of the lake. The community has expressed concern about both direct and indirect impacts of these construction projects on the lake. This project addresses concerns about water quality, increasing drought in the Southeastern U.S., forest health as it relates to vegetation stress, and state and federal needs for improved assessment methods supported by remotely sensed data to determine coastal forest susceptibility to pine bark beetles. Landsat TM, ASTER, MODIS, and EO-1/ALI imagery was employed in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), as well as to detect concentration of suspended solids, chlorophyll and water turbidity. This study utilizes NASA Earth Observation Systems to determine how environmental conditions and human activity relate to pine tree stress and the onset of pine beetle invasion, as well as relate current water quality data to community concerns and gain a better understanding of human impacts upon water resources.

  9. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV.

  10. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 6: Appendix G -- Baseline ecological risk assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix G contains ecological risks for fish, benthic invertebrates, soil invertebrates, plants, small mammals, deer, and predator/scavengers (hawks and fox). This risk assessment identified significant ecological risks from chemicals in water, sediment, soil, and shallow ground water. Metals and PCBs are the primary contaminants of concern.

  11. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  12. Hydrologic research on instrumented watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1970-01-01

    The successful research man is the one who asks himself the right question. Research must go on primarily in the mind and only secondarily in the physical and biological world. It is only too easy to confuse the choice of a proper tool and the choice of a proper question. Some tools are quite unsuited to certain questions and some questions cannot be answered without the appropriate tool.There has been in recent years a large amount of discussion about whether the high costs and the extensive time period required for experimental watershed* research is really worth the investment. Recent discussions of this matter have cited as major criticisms of the instrumented basin that they are expensive, they leak water, they are unrepresentative, they produce changes too small for detection, and it is difficult to transfer the results. (See Hewlett, Lull, and Reinhart, 1969.) These are all questions worth talking about, but in one sense they tend to obscure the main issue. The main issue is what do we want to learn? If we can decide what it is we want to know, then we can logically ask ourselves what is the best way of going about obtaining that knowledge. It is in this context that we are most likely to place the experimental watershed in a useful and logical position in a classification of research methods.

  13. Scaling up watershed model parameters--Flow and load simulations of the Edisto River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Benedict, Stephen T.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Conrads, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Edisto River is the longest and largest river system completely contained in South Carolina and is one of the longest free flowing blackwater rivers in the United States. The Edisto River basin also has fish-tissue mercury concentrations that are some of the highest recorded in the United States. As part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River basin, analyses and simulations of the hydrology of the Edisto River basin were made with the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL). The potential for scaling up a previous application of TOPMODEL for the McTier Creek watershed, which is a small headwater catchment to the Edisto River basin, was assessed. Scaling up was done in a step-wise process beginning with applying the calibration parameters, meteorological data, and topographic wetness index data from the McTier Creek TOPMODEL to the Edisto River TOPMODEL. Additional changes were made with subsequent simulations culminating in the best simulation, which included meteorological and topographic wetness index data from the Edisto River basin and updated calibration parameters for some of the TOPMODEL calibration parameters. Comparison of goodness-of-fit statistics between measured and simulated daily mean streamflow for the two models showed that with calibration, the Edisto River TOPMODEL produced slightly better results than the McTier Creek model, despite the significant difference in the drainage-area size at the outlet locations for the two models (30.7 and 2,725 square miles, respectively). Along with the TOPMODEL hydrologic simulations, a visualization tool (the Edisto River Data Viewer) was developed to help assess trends and influencing variables in the stream ecosystem. Incorporated into the visualization tool were the water-quality load models TOPLOAD, TOPLOAD-H, and LOADEST

  14. Didymosphenia geminata in the Upper Esopus Creek: Current Status, Variability, and Controlling Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Daniel George

    Full Text Available In May of 2009, the bloom-forming diatom Didymosphenia geminata was first identified in the Upper Esopus Creek, a key tributary to the New York City water-supply and a popular recreational stream. The Upper Esopus receives supplemental flows from the Shandaken Portal, an underground aqueduct delivering waters from a nearby basin. The presence of D. geminata is a concern for the local economy, water supply, and aquatic ecosystem because nuisance blooms have been linked to degraded stream condition in other regions. Here we ascertain the extent and severity of the D. geminata invasion, determine the impact of supplemental flows from the Portal on D. geminata, and identify potential factors that may limit D. geminata in the watershed. Stream temperature, discharge, and water quality were characterized at select sites and periphyton samples were collected five times at 6 to 20 study sites between 2009 and 2010 to assess standing crop, diatom community structure, and density of D. geminata and all diatoms. Density of D. geminata ranged from 0-12 cells cm(-2 at tributary sites, 0-781 cells cm(-2 at sites upstream of the Portal, and 0-2,574 cells cm(-2 at sites downstream of the Portal. Survey period and Portal (upstream or downstream each significantly affected D. geminata cell density. In general, D. geminata was most abundant during the November 2009 and June 2010 surveys and at sites immediately downstream of the Portal. We found that D. geminata did not reach nuisance levels or strongly affect the periphyton community. Similarly, companion studies showed that local macroinvertebrate and fish communities were generally unaffected. A number of abiotic factors including variable flows and moderate levels of phosphorous and suspended sediment may limit blooms of D. geminata in this watershed.

  15. Didymosphenia geminata in the Upper Esopus Creek: Current Status, Variability, and Controlling Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Scott Daniel; Baldigo, Barry Paul

    2015-01-01

    In May of 2009, the bloom-forming diatom Didymosphenia geminata was first identified in the Upper Esopus Creek, a key tributary to the New York City water-supply and a popular recreational stream. The Upper Esopus receives supplemental flows from the Shandaken Portal, an underground aqueduct delivering waters from a nearby basin. The presence of D. geminata is a concern for the local economy, water supply, and aquatic ecosystem because nuisance blooms have been linked to degraded stream condition in other regions. Here we ascertain the extent and severity of the D. geminata invasion, determine the impact of supplemental flows from the Portal on D. geminata, and identify potential factors that may limit D. geminata in the watershed. Stream temperature, discharge, and water quality were characterized at select sites and periphyton samples were collected five times at 6 to 20 study sites between 2009 and 2010 to assess standing crop, diatom community structure, and density of D. geminata and all diatoms. Density of D. geminata ranged from 0-12 cells cm(-2) at tributary sites, 0-781 cells cm(-2) at sites upstream of the Portal, and 0-2,574 cells cm(-2) at sites downstream of the Portal. Survey period and Portal (upstream or downstream) each significantly affected D. geminata cell density. In general, D. geminata was most abundant during the November 2009 and June 2010 surveys and at sites immediately downstream of the Portal. We found that D. geminata did not reach nuisance levels or strongly affect the periphyton community. Similarly, companion studies showed that local macroinvertebrate and fish communities were generally unaffected. A number of abiotic factors including variable flows and moderate levels of phosphorous and suspended sediment may limit blooms of D. geminata in this watershed.

  16. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  17. Chemical data and lead isotopic compositions in stream-sediment samples from the Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Unruh, Dan M.; Church, Stan E.

    1999-01-01

    Metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana, have been evaluated for their environmental effects as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey Abandoned Mine Lands Project. Many mine and prospect waste dumps, and mill wastes are located in the drainage basins of Basin Creek, Cataract Creek, and High Ore Creek, the three major tributaries to the Boulder River in the study area. Throughout the study area, mine-waste material has been transported into and down streams, where it mixes with and becomes incorporated into the bed sediments. In some locations, waste material was placed by mine operators directly in stream channels, and has been transported downstream forming fluvial tailings deposits along the stream banks. Water quality and aquatic habitat have been affected by acid generation and toxic-metal mobility during snowmelt and storm water runoff events. Colloids formed by the raising of pH downstream from these mine sites sorb metals contributing to the high concentrations observed in both bed and suspended sediments within the watershed. This report presents geochemical data for bed sediments from 67 sites and lead isotope data for 59 sites. Also included are geochemical data for seven suspended-sediment samples, and one smelter slag sample. 

  18. Water-Quality Conditions of Chester Creek, Anchorage, Alaska, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Roy L.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    Between October 1998 and September 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program evaluated the water-quality conditions of Chester Creek, a stream draining forest and urban settings in Anchorage, Alaska. Data collection included water, streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and aquatic organisms samples from urban sites along the stream. Urban land use ranged from less than 1 percent of the basin above the furthest upstream site to 46 percent above the most downstream site. Findings suggest that water quality of Chester Creek declines in the downstream direction and as urbanization in the watershed increases. Water samples were collected monthly and during storms at a site near the stream's mouth (Chester Creek at Arctic Boulevard) and analyzed for major ions and nutrients. Water samples collected during water year 1999 were analyzed for selected pesticides and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined monthly during calendar year 2000. During winter, spring, and summer, four water samples were collected at a site upstream of urban development (South Branch of South Fork Chester Creek at Tank Trail) and five from an intermediate site (South Branch of South Fork Chester Creek at Boniface Parkway). Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate in water increased in the downstream direction. Nitrate concentrations were similar at the three sites and all were less than the drinking-water standard. About one-quarter of the samples from the Arctic Boulevard site had concentrations of phosphorus that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guideline for preventing nuisance plant growth. Water samples collected at the Arctic Boulevard site contained concentrations of the insecticide carbaryl that exceeded the guideline for protecting aquatic life. Every water sample revealed a low concentration of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene

  19. Stream profile analysis using a step backwater model for selected reaches in the Chippewa Creek basin in Medina, Wayne, and Summit Counties, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, David E.; Ebner, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the Chippewa Subdistrict of the Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District, performed hydrologic and hydraulic analyses for selected reaches of three streams in Medina, Wayne, Stark, and Summit Counties in northeast Ohio: Chippewa Creek, Little Chippewa Creek, and River Styx. This study was done to facilitate assessment of various alternatives for mitigating flood hazards in the Chippewa Creek basin. StreamStats regional regression equations were used to estimate instantaneous peak discharges approximately corresponding to bankfull flows. Explanatory variables used in the regression equations were drainage area, main-channel slope, and storage area. Hydraulic models were developed to determine water-surface profiles along the three stream reaches studied for the bankfull discharges established in the hydrologic analyses. The HEC-RAS step-backwater hydraulic analysis model was used to determine water-surface profiles for the three streams. Starting water-surface elevations for all streams were established using normal depth computations in the HEC-RAS models. Cross-sectional elevation data, hydraulic-structure geometries, and roughness coefficients were collected in the field and (along with peak-discharge estimates) used as input for the models. Reach-averaged reductions in water-surface elevations ranged from 0.11 to 1.29 feet over the four roughness coefficient reduction scenarios.

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for the Bear Creek Valley Boneyard/Burnyard Accelerated Action Project, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the Bear Creek Valley Watershed Remedial Investigation, the Boneyard/Burnyard was identified as the source of the largest releases of uranium into groundwater and surface water in Bear Creek Valley. The proposed action for remediation of this site is selective excavation and removal of source material and capping of the remainder of the site. The schedule for this action has been accelerated so that this is the first remedial action planned to be implemented in the Bear Creek Valley Record of Decision. Additional data needs to support design of the remedial action were identified at a data quality objectives meeting held for this project. Sampling at the Boneyard/Burnyard will be conducted through the use of a phased approach. Initial or primary samples will be used to make in-the-field decisions about where to locate follow-up or secondary samples. On the basis of the results of surface water, soil, and groundwater analysis, up to six test pits will be dug. The test pits will be used to provide detailed descriptions of source materials and bulk samples. This document sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in this project. This document also contains the health and safety plan, quality assurance project plan, waste management plan, data management plan, implementation plan, and best management practices plan for this project as appendices.

  1. A proposed international watershed research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    An “International Watershed Research Network” is to be an initial project of the Sino-U. S. Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection. The Network will provide a fundamental database for research personnel of the Centers, as well as of the global research community, and is viewed as an important resource for their successful operation. Efforts are under way to (a) identify and select candidate watersheds, (b) develop standards and protocols for data collection and dissemination, and (c) specify other data sources on erosion, sediment transport, hydrology, and ancillary information of probable interest and use to participants of the Centers. The initial focus of the Network will be on water-deficient areas. Candidate watersheds for the Network are yet to be determined although likely selections include the Ansai Research Station, northern China, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. The Network is to be patterned after the Vigil Network, an open-ended group of global sites and small drainage basins for which Internet-accessible geomorphic, hydrologic, and biological data are periodically collected or updated. Some types of data, using similar instruments and observation methods, will be collected at all watersheds selected for the Network. Other data from the watersheds that may reflect individual watershed characteristics and research objectives will be collected as well.

  2. Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ``site,`` data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

  3. A fine-scale assessment of using barriers to conserve native stream salmonids: a case study in Akokala Creek, Glacier National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; S. T. Kalinowski,; Landguth, Erin L.; C. C. Downs,; J. Tohtz,; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Biologists are often faced with the difficult decision in managing native salmonids of where and when to install barriers as a conservation action to prevent upstream invasion of nonnative fishes. However, fine-scale approaches to assess long-term persistence of populations within streams and watersheds chosen for isolation management are often lacking. We employed a spatially-explicit approach to evaluate stream habitat conditions, relative abundance, and genetic diversity of native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) within the Akokala Creek watershed in Glacier National Park- a population threatened by introgressive hybridization with nonnative rainbow trout (O. mykiss) from nearby sources. The systematic survey of 24 stream reaches showed broad overlap in fish population and suitable habitat characteristics among reaches and no natural barriers to fish migration were found. Analysis of population structure using 16 microsatellite loci showed modest amounts of genetic diversity among reaches, and that fish from Long Bow Creek were the only moderately distinct genetic group. We then used this information to assess the potential impacts of three barrier placement scenarios on long-term population persistence and genetic diversity. The two barrier placement scenarios in headwater areas generally failed to meet general persistence criteria for minimum population size (2,500 individuals, Ne = 500), maintenance of long-term genetic diversity (He), and no population subdivision. Conversely, placing a barrier near the stream mouth and selectively passing non-hybridized, migratory spawners entering Akokala Creek met all persistence criteria and may offer the best option to conserve native trout populations and life history diversity. Systematic, fine-scale stream habitat, fish distribution, and genetic assessments in streams chosen for barrier installation are needed in conjunction with broader scale assessments to understand the potential impacts of

  4. A Comprehensive Land-Use/Hydrological Modeling System for Scenario Simulations in the Elbow River Watershed, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekara, Gayan Nishad; Farjad, Babak; Gupta, Anil; Qiao, Ying; Delaney, Patrick; Marceau, Danielle J.

    2014-02-01

    The Elbow River watershed in Alberta covers an area of 1,238 km2 and represents an important source of water for irrigation and municipal use. In addition to being located within the driest area of southern Canada, it is also subjected to considerable pressure for land development due to the rapid population growth in the City of Calgary. In this study, a comprehensive modeling system was developed to investigate the impact of past and future land-use changes on hydrological processes considering the complex surface-groundwater interactions existing in the watershed. Specifically, a spatially explicit land-use change model was coupled with MIKE SHE/MIKE 11, a distributed physically based catchment and channel flow model. Following a rigorous sensitivity analysis along with the calibration and validation of these models, four land-use change scenarios were simulated from 2010 to 2031: business as usual (BAU), new development concentrated within the Rocky View County (RV-LUC) and in Bragg Creek (BC-LUC), respectively, and development based on projected population growth (P-LUC). The simulation results reveal that the rapid urbanization and deforestation create an increase in overland flow, and a decrease in evapotranspiration (ET), baseflow, and infiltration mainly in the east sub-catchment of the watershed. The land-use scenarios affect the hydrology of the watershed differently. This study is the most comprehensive investigation of its nature done so far in the Elbow River watershed. The results obtained are in accordance with similar studies conducted in Canadian contexts. The proposed modeling system represents a unique and flexible framework for investigating a variety of water related sustainability issues.

  5. Shoals and valley plugs in the Hatchie River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural land use and gully erosion have historically contributed more sediment to the streams of the Hatchie River watershed than those streams can carry. In 1970, the main sedimentation problem in the watershed occurred in the tributary flood plains. This problem motivated channelization projects (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1970). By the mid-1980's, concern had shifted to sedimentation in the Hatchie River itself where channelized tributaries were understood to contribute much of the sediment. The Soil Conservation Service [Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) since 1996] estimated that 640,000 tons of bedload (sand) accumulates in the Hatchie River each year and identified roughly the eastern two-thirds of the watershed, where loess is thin or absent, as the main source of sand (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1986a). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the West Tennessee River Basin Authority (WTRBA), conducted a study of sediment accumulation in the Hatchie River and its tributaries. This report identifies the types of tributaries and evaluates sediment, shoal formation, and valley-plug problems. The results presented here may contribute to a better understanding of similar problems in West Tennessee and the rest of the southeastern coastal plain. This information also will help the WTRBA manage sedimentation and erosion problems in the Hatchie River watershed.The source of the Mississippi section of the Hatchie River is in the sand hills southwest of Corinth, Mississippi (fig. 1). This section of the Hatchie River flows northward in an artificial drainage canal, gathering water from tributary streams that also are channelized. The drainage canal ends 2 miles south of the Tennessee State line. The Tennessee section of the Hatchie River winds north and west in a meandering natural channel to the Mississippi River. Although most of the Hatchie River tributaries are also drainage canals, the river's main stem has kept most of

  6. The Impact of Fire on Mercury Cycling in Watershed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, S.; Mendez, C.; Hogue, T.; Jay, J.

    2006-12-01

    Mercury methylation is a process by which the less-toxic inorganic mercury is transformed into methylmercury (MeHg). MeHg is a potent neurotoxin with a strong tendency to biomagnify within the food chain. Limited studies suggest that wildfires change the soil characteristics and contribute to Hg transport and possibly methylation in downstream ecosystems. We propose that post-fire Hg cycling can be related to various soil properties and burn characteristics. In order to better understand the effects of wildfires on Hg cycling, studies were undertaken within a burned watershed and a neighboring unburned site, Malibu Creek and Cold Creek, respectively. Soil sampling of the burned and control (unburned) regions were composed of 25 square foot grids with nine equidistant sampling points. Sediment samples for soil sieve analysis were collected at all grid points to determine the particle size distribution of the fine and coarse grain aggregates. Total Hg sediments were collected from the three middle points of the grid at two soil horizons to provide a vertical profile. Total Hg concentrations of the sediment samples were measured using the Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA80). Initial analysis of the soil profiles reveals a decrease in Hg concentration at the soil surface (89 percent loss). Preliminary results indicate sites with the lowest concentration of Hg are characterized by a higher percentage of finer grain aggregates. Runoff from the first post-fire storm was extremely turbid and dark gray in color due to high levels of suspended solids (3980 mg/L). Total Hg concentrations in unfiltered and filtered samples (0.2 micron) were 196 and 4.7 ng/L, respectively, compared to the control which had unfiltered and filtered Hg levels of 6.1 and 2.3 ng/L, respectively, and 450 mg/L total suspended solids. The concentration of Hg on the particles was six times higher than the Hg content of suspended particles at the control site. Results also show much stronger partitioning

  7. Land Acquisition Priority Plan for Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan discusses land acquisition priorities for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The proposed alternatives...

  8. Diurnal variation of zooplankton in Malad creek, Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    Variation in zooplankton biomass and composition in relation to the prevailing hydrographical conditions was studied for 24 h in Malad Creek, Bombay, Maharashtra, India, which was highly polluted by sewage. The adverse effect of pollution was more...

  9. Ecology of phytoplankton from Dharmatar Creek, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    Phytoplankton pigment, cell count and species diversity wee studied at five locations in Dharamtar Creek during September 1984 to November 1985. Chemical parameters indicated a healthy system free of any environmental stress. The water...

  10. Bowdoin NWR : Information on Beaver Creek flow 1936-1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a timeline of Beaver Creek flows, near Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, from 1936 to 1986. Parts Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lie within...

  11. Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative: Fiscal year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during fiscal year 1997. The report begins with an introduction...

  12. Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: January through April, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  14. Water quality of the Swatara Creek Basin, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarren, Edward F.; Wark, J.W.; George, J.R.

    1964-01-01

    The Swatara Creek of the Susquehanna River Basin is the farthest downstream sub-basin that drains acid water (pH of 4.5 or less) from anthracite coal mines. The Swatara Creek drainage area includes 567 square miles of parts of Schuylkill, Berks, Lebanon, and Dauphin Counties in Pennsylvania.To learn what environmental factors and dissolved constituents in water were influencing the quality of Swatara Creek, a reconnaissance of the basin was begun during the summer of 1958. Most of the surface streams and the wells adjacent to the principal tributaries of the Creek were sampled for chemical analysis. Effluents from aquifers underlying the basin were chemically analyzed because ground water is the basic source of supply to surface streams in the Swatara Creek basin. When there is little runoff during droughts, ground water has a dominating influence on the quality of surface water. Field tests showed that all ground water in the basin was non-acidic. However, several streams were acidic. Sources of acidity in these streams were traced to the overflow of impounded water in unworked coal mines.Acidic mine effluents and washings from coal breakers were detected downstream in Swatara Creek as far as Harper Tavern, although the pH at Harper Tavern infrequently went below 6.0. Suspended-sediment sampling at this location showed the mean daily concentration ranged from 2 to 500 ppm. The concentration of suspended sediment is influenced by runoff and land use, and at Harper Tavern it consisted of natural sediments and coal wastes. The average daily suspended-sediment discharge there during the period May 8 to September 30, 1959, was 109 tons per day, and the computed annual suspended-sediment load, 450 tons per square mile. Only moderate treatment would be required to restore the quality of Swatara Creek at Harper Tavern for many uses. Above Ravine, however, the quality of the Creek is generally acidic and, therefore, of limited usefulness to public supplies, industries and

  15. BackscatterB [7125]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  16. BackscatterC [SWATH]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  17. BackscatterA [8101]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  18. Biotic health of Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge is in the process of converting over 5,000 acres of agricultural land back to native prairie and savanna. The refuge will...

  19. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge [Narrative report: September - December 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by...

  20. [Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: January through April, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1960. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Narrative report Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge: January - April, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  2. Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: January through April, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1958. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. [Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: January through April, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1961. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. Recreational Fishing Plan : Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Recreational Fishing Plan for Cypress Creek NWR. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, information about conformance with statutory...

  5. St. Catherine Creek NWR Hunting Season Harvest Totals

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data summaries from hunting that occurs on St. Catherine Creek NWR. Reports include summarized harvest and hunter effort data and basic analysis of these data.

  6. Erosion and deposition for Fanno Creek, Oregon 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began investigating the sources and sinks of organic matter in Fanno Creek, a tributary of the Tualatin River, Oregon....

  7. Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Pond Creek NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  8. Aerial photo mosaic of Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  9. St. Catherine Creek NWR Bird Point Count Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data collected during bird point counts at St. Catherine Creek NWR using the Lower Mississippi Valley Joint Venture protocol for forest dwelling birds.

  10. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  11. Estimation of sockeye and coho salmon escapement in Mortensens creek

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A fixed picket weir was operated on Mortensens Creek from 1 July to 26 October 2001. Coho salmon Onchorynchus kisutch was the most abundant species counted through...

  12. St. Catherine Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on St. Catherine Creek NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  13. Tidal flow characteristics at Kasheli (Kalwa/ Bassein creek), Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Tidal flow characteristics of waters at Kasheli, connected to the sea through Thane and Bassein Creeks in Bombay, Maharashtra, India are investigated based on tide and current observations carried out in 1980-81. The results establish that the tidal...

  14. Zooplankton composition in Dharamtar creek adjoining Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    bedoti was the true inhabitant. In general zooplankton production indicated 1.5 fold increase towards the upper reaches of the creek where salinity variations were drastic. A more diversified faunal assemblage of oceanic and neritic species characterised...

  15. Sediment contaminant assessment for Shoal Creek, Lawrence County, Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment samples were collected from ten locations along Shoal Creek and analyzed for l9 metals and 20 organochlorine compounds. For the organic analyses,...

  16. Survey of breeding birds Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of the second annual survey of breeding birds of Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge conducted in 1995. This series of...

  17. Dry Creek Rancheria Wastewater Treatment Plant; Proposed NPDES Permit Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing a notice of proposed action under the Clean Water Act to issue a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit No. CA0005241 to: Dry Creek Rancheria Band of Pomo Indians.

  18. St. Catherine Creek NWR Deer Hunt Harvest Data Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data summaries from deer hunts that occur on St. Catherine Creek NWR. Reports include summarized deer harvest data and basic analysis of these data.

  19. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  20. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is included in...