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Sample records for watershed 2002-2003 annual

  1. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT); Rogers, Rox (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Libby, MT)

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian

  2. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

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    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  3. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

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    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  4. Forrest Ranch Management and Implementation, Annual Report 2002-2003.

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    Smith, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Through their John Day Basin Office, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Ranch during July of 2002. The property consists of two parcels located in the John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The mainstem parcel consists of 3,503 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem of the John Day River. The middle fork parcel consists of 820 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the middle fork John Day River. The Forrest Ranch Project is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. The Forrest Ranch acquisition was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by the operation of their hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Following lengthy negotiations with the BPA and property owner, the Tribes were able to conclude the acquisition of the Forrest Ranch in July of 2002. The intent of the acquisition project was to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, section 11.1, section 7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of program funding through a memorandum of agreement and annual statement of work. As early as 1997, the Tribes identified this property as a priority for restoration in the John Day basin. In 2000, the Tribes arranged an agreement with the landowner to seek funds for the acquisition of both the Middle Fork and upper Mainstem John Day River holdings of Mr. John Forrest. This property had been a priority of not only the Tribes, but of many other basin natural resource agencies. The

  5. Lake Pend Oreille Predation Research, Annual Report 2002-2003.

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    Bassista, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    During August 2002 we conducted a hydroacoustic survey to enumerate pelagic fish >406 mm in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho. The purpose of this survey was to determine a collective lakewide biomass estimate of pelagic bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and lake trout S. namaycush and compare it to pelagic prey (kokanee salmon O. nerka) biomass. By developing hydroacoustic techniques to determine the pelagic predator to prey ratio, we can annually monitor their balance. Hydroacoustic surveys were also performed during December 2002 and February 2003 to investigate the effectiveness of autumn and winter surveys for pelagic predators. The inherent problem associated with hydroacoustic sampling is the inability to directly identify fish species. Therefore, we utilized sonic tracking techniques to describe rainbow trout and lake trout habitat use during our winter hydroacoustic survey to help identify fish targets from the hydroacoustic echograms. During August 2002 we estimated there were 39,044 pelagic fish >406 mm in Lake Pend Oreille (1.84 f/ha). Based on temperature and depth utilization, two distinct groups of pelagic fish >406 mm were located during August; one group was located between 10 and 35 m and the other between 40 and 70 m. The biomass for pelagic fish >406 mm during August 2002 was 73 t (metric ton). This would account for a ratio of 1 kg of pelagic predator for every 2.63 kg of kokanee prey, assuming all pelagic fish >406 mm are predators. During our late fall and winter hydroacoustic surveys, pelagic fish >406 mm were observed at lake depths between 20 and 90 m. During late fall and winter, we tracked three rainbow trout (168 habitat observations) and found that they mostly occupied pelagic areas and predominantly stayed within the top 10 m of the water column. During late fall (one lake trout) and winter (four lake trout), we found that lake trout (184 habitat observations) utilized benthic-nearshore areas 65% of the time

  6. European Influenza Surveillance Scheme: annual report: 2002-2003 influenza season.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    EISS, de in Nederland gevestigde Europese organisatie die de verspreiding van het griepvirus in Europa in de gaten houdt, is ook alert op het opduiken van de ziekte SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome). Dit blijkt uit het onlangs verschenen EISS-jaarrapport voor het griepseizoen 2002-2003. EISS

  7. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation[s]; Stock Status of Burbot, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Hoyle, Genevieve

    2005-09-01

    The Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation Project planned to monitor burbot Lota lota movement in the winter of 2002-2003 and test a hypothesis regarding the relationship of winter flow to upstream spawning migration success. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration were unable to provide the consistent low winter flows needed to meet the experimental design criteria in that monitoring and evaluation plan (approximately 170 m{sup 3}/s from Libby Dam). Although conditions consistent with management for sustained minimum flows persisted throughout the winter, and stable low flows were maintained below Libby Dam from September 1 through November 24, 2002 (158 m{sup 3}/s average) and from January 1, 2003 until May 1 (144 m{sup 3}/s average), flows in the intervening 37 d period from November 25 to December 31 were increased significantly by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. During that important December spawning migration period for burbot, flows were well above those proposed in the monitoring and evaluation plan and peaked at 741 m{sup 3}/s on December 21, 2002. Furthermore, despite the low flow conditions for much of the winter, our capture of 10 burbot was the lowest since this investigation began in 1993, evidence that the stock is extremely depressed and the numbers of burbot are declining. We captured a single burbot in 2002-2003 that provided circumstantial evidence reproduction occurred during the winter of 2000-2001. This burbot of 352 mm TL was among the smallest captured since sampling began in 1993. Seven burbot were monitored with sonic telemetry; two of those were tagged the previous winter. The capture of a female burbot at Ambush Rock during the spawning period supports results of previous findings that low flows during winter enhances burbot migration and spawning. Sampling for larval burbot was conducted, but no larval burbot were captured.

  8. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Faler, Michael P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID); Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fish Management Division, Dayton, WA)

    2004-04-01

    We collected 279 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Tucannon River during the Spring and Fall of 2003. Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags were inserted in 191 of them, and we detected existing PIT tags in an additional 31bull trout. Thirty five of these were also surgically implanted with radio-tags, and we monitored the movements of these fish throughout the year. Fourteen radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 21 remained in the river through December 31, 2003. Four bull trout that were radio-tagged in spring 2002 were known to survive and carry their tags through the spring and/or summer of 2003. One of these fish spent the winter near river mile (RM) 13.0; the other 3 over-wintered in the vicinity of the Tucannon Hatchery between RM 34 and 36. Twenty-one radio tags from bull trout tagged in 2002 were recovered during the spring and summer, 2003. These tags became stationary the winter of 2002/2003, and were recovered between RM 11 and 55. We were unable to recover the remaining 15 tags from 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon subbasin. We observed some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. By late November and early December, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and were distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 6.4, near Lower Monumental Pool. As in 2002, we did not conduct work associated with objectives 2, 3, or 4 of this study, because we were unable to monitor migratory movement of radio-tagged bull trout into the Federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. Transmission tests of submerged ATS model F1830 radio-tags in Lower Granite Pool showed that audible detection and individual tag identification was possible at depths of 20 and 30 ft. Tests were conducted using an ATS R-4000 Receiver equipped with an &apos

  9. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  10. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

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    McGowan, Vance

    2003-08-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2002 included: (1) Implementing 1 new fencing project in the Wallowa subbasin that will protect an additional 0.95 miles of stream

  11. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Walters, Jody P.

    2004-01-01

    efforts to increase rainbow trout recruitment. North and South Callahan creeks support the largest spawning population of bull trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Idaho, so management of the watershed should consider bull trout as high priority.

  12. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.

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    Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

    2003-07-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the

  13. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Achord, Stephen; McNatt, Regan A.; Hockersmith, Eric E. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2004-04-01

    estimate survival of different wild juvenile fish stocks as they emigrate from their natal rearing areas. This study provides critical information for recovery planning, and ultimately recovery for these ESA-listed wild fish stocks. This report provides information on PIT tagging of wild chinook salmon parr in 2002 and the subsequent monitoring of these fish. Fish were monitored as they migrated through two in-stream PIT-tag monitoring systems in lower Valley Creek and at juvenile migrant traps in 2002 and 2003 as well as through interrogation systems at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams during 2003. Fish were also monitored by the PIT-tag trawl in the mouth of the Columbia River in 2003. In 2002-2003, we also continued to collect environmental data for the Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program, which was developed from 1993 to 1997. The project was designed to collect data for use in conjunction with data on parr and smolt movements to discern patterns or characteristic relationships between these movements and environmental factors. Water quality data collected consist of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, water depth, and pH measured at five monitoring stations in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho.

  14. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

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    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  15. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff, (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Creston National Fish Hatchery, Kalispell, MT)

    2004-02-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 141,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) was acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in May 2002 for this objective. We also received an additional 22,000 westslope cutthroat eggs, MO12 strain naturalized, from feral fish at Rogers Lake, Flathead County, Montana. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 95.6%. We achieved a 0.80 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring and adaptive management. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 54,000 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) was acquired from the Ennis National Fish Hatchery in December 2002 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Survival from the swim up fry stage to stocking was 99.9%. We achieved a 0.79 feed conversion this year on a new diet, Skretting ''Nutra Plus''. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to the creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually

  16. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Maroney, Joseph R. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); Shaklee, James B.; Young, Sewall F. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-01

    In 2002, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 280 bull trout and 940 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples for the next 2 years. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  17. Moses Lake Fishery Restoration Project; Factors Affecting the Recreational Fishery in Moses Lake Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

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    Burgess, Dave

    2003-11-01

    This annual report is a precursor to the final technical report we will be writing the next contract period. Consequently, this report, covering the period between September 27, 2002, and September 26, 2003, represents a progress report towards the final technical report we anticipate completing by September 26, 2004. Sample analysis and field work have progressed well and we anticipate no further delays. There are 4 objectives: (1) To quantify secondary production Moses Lake; (2) To quantify the influence of predation on target fishes in Moses Lake; (3) To quantify mortality of selected fished in Moses Lake; and (4) To assess effects of habitat changes from shoreline development and carp on the fish community in Moses Lake.

  18. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-15

    silt and provide shade; (4) annual sampling of gravel in the spawning channels to detect changes in gravel composition and sedimentation levels. Tasks associated with the second goal of the recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum are detailed in The Monitoring and Evaluation Plan for the Duncan Creek Chum Salmon Reintroduction Program. Four main questions are used to evaluate the success of this program: (1) what egg-to-fry survival rates are being achieved in the renovated channels, (2) what is the survival of the eggs and fry used in the artificial rearing program in Duncan Creek, (3) what is the survival and spawning ground distribution of adult chum salmon produced from the spawning channels and the artificial rearing program, and (4) what is the straying rate of non-program chum salmon into Duncan Creek. The monitoring portion of the Duncan M&E includes documenting and monitoring the physical attributes of the channels.

  19. Israel Seminar 2002-2003

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    Milman, Vitali D

    2004-01-01

    The Israeli GAFA seminar (on Geometric Aspect of Functional Analysis) during the years 2002-2003 follows the long tradition of the previous volumes. It reflects the general trends of the theory. Most of the papers deal with different aspects of the Asymptotic Geometric Analysis. In addition the volume contains papers on related aspects of Probability, classical Convexity and also Partial Differential Equations and Banach Algebras. There are also two expository papers on topics which proved to be very much related to the main topic of the seminar. One is Statistical Learning Theory and the other is Models of Statistical Physics. All the papers of this collection are original research papers.

  20. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Western Fisheries Research Center, Cook, WA)

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  1. Effects of Summer Flow Augmentation on the Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA); Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2003-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2002 and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2002. Peer-review publication remains a high priority of this research project, and it insures that our work meets high scientific standards. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers coauthored by personnel of project 199102900 that were written or published from 1998 to 2003.

  2. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Miller, Alan; Soupir, Jim (US Forest Service, Prairie City Ranger District, Prairie City, OR); Schwabe, Lawrence (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2003-08-01

    The Malheur River is a 306-kilometer tributary to the Snake River, which drains 12,950 square kilometers. The Malheur River originates in the Blue Mountains and flows into the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C, and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 30 centimeters in the lower reaches. Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2002. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus are considered to be cold water species and are temperature-dependant. Due to the interest of bull trout from various state and Federal agencies, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. Table 1 lists individuals that participated in the 2002 work group. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power Administration contract period starting April 1, 2002, and ending March 31, 2003. All tasks were conducted within this timeframe, and a more detailed timeframe may be referred to in each individual report.

  3. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

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    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Simmons, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the second year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The 2002 study period extended from May 18 through July 30. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The prototype system consisted of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, were aimed to illuminate a specific region directly upstream of the barge. Three light level treatments were used: 6 of 6 lights on, 3 of 6 lights on, and all lights off. These three treatment conditions were applied for an entire 24-hr day and were randomly assigned within a 3-day block throughout the study period. A seven

  4. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates

  5. DK SUPERCONDUCTING TAPE TECHNOLOGY 2002-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Storgaard; Andersen, Niels Hessel; Eriksen, Morten;

    Report on the work performed by AFM, Risø and IPL, DTU in collaboration with NST A/S and Haldor Topsøe A/S within the Danish Energy Research Program EFP, DK SUPERLEDERE I ELSEKTOREN 2002-2003......Report on the work performed by AFM, Risø and IPL, DTU in collaboration with NST A/S and Haldor Topsøe A/S within the Danish Energy Research Program EFP, DK SUPERLEDERE I ELSEKTOREN 2002-2003...

  6. Concentrations of metals and trace elements in aquatic biota associated with abandoned mine lands in the Whiskeytown National Recreation Area and nearby Clear Creek watershed, Shasta County, northwestern California, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Gibson, Jennifer K.; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2015-01-01

    Park management of the Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, in northwestern California, identified a critical need to determine if mercury (Hg) or other elements originating from abandoned mines within the Upper Clear Creek watershed were present at concentrations that might adversely affect aquatic biota living within the park. During 2002–03, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and fish, and analyzed them for Hg, cadmium, zinc, copper, and other metals and trace elements. The data from the biota, in conjunction with data from concurrent community bioassessments, habitat analyses, water quality, and concentrations of metals and trace elements in water and sediment, were used to identify contamination “hot spots.”

  7. Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge Biological Review (2002-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — 2002-2003 biological review at Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge with list of priority biological recommendations. These include need for control of invasive aquatic...

  8. MODIS 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  9. ASTER 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  10. Heliosphereic Physics Research in China:2002-2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chi; FENG Xueshang; WANG Shui

    2004-01-01

    This brief report summarized the latest advances of the heliospheric physics research in China during the period of 2002-2003, made independently by Chinese space physicists and through international collaboration. The report covers all aspects of the heliospheric physics, including theoretical studies, numerical simulation and data analysis.

  11. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairgrieve, William; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2004-04-01

    The Colville Tribal Hatchery produced 62,335 pounds of trout during the contract period, however, only 46,092 pounds were liberated to lakes and streams. The remaining production will be carried over to 2004 to be planted as larger fish into reservation waters for the lakes opener. New raceways were completed in November and brought on line in the spring. These raceways currently hold the redband rainbow brood stock and will be spawned in 2004. Efforts are continuing to capture redbands from other streams in coordination with the monitoring and evaluation program. Creel was expanded by hiring a second creel clerk to give better coverage of reservation waters by reducing travel time. Marking continues on all fish planted from CTH and refinements continue to be made. The first tag retention study has been completed and the second study is now underway to determine long term tag recognition. Lakes continue to be surveyed to complete the baseline analysis of all reservation lakes and will be completed in 2004.

  12. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Shipley, Rochelle

    2003-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. FY 2002 was used to continue seasonal fish and lakewide creel surveys and adjust methods and protocols as needed. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 meters deep, with 16-17 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until August when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-meters deep. Secchi depths ranged from 2.5-8 meters and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in October 2002 and May and July 2003 using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens (32 %) and cottid spp. (22 %) dominated the nearshore species composition in October; however, by May yellow perch (12 %) were the third most common species followed by smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (34 %) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (14 %). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during October (78 %) and May (81 %). Fish diet analysis indicated that juvenile fishes consumed primarily insects and zooplankton, while adult piscivores consumed cottids spp. and yellow perch most frequently. For FY 2002, the following creel statistics are comprehensive through August 31, 2003. The highest angling pressure occurred in June 2003, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat State Park more frequently than any other boat ramp on Banks Lake. Shore anglers used the rock jetty at Coulee City Park 76 % of the time, with highest use occurring from November through April. An estimated total of 11,915 ({+-}140 SD) smallmouth bass, 6,412 ({+-}59 SD) walleye, 5,470 ({+-}260 SD) rainbow trout, and 1,949 ({+-}118 SD) yellow perch were harvested from Banks Lake in FY 2002. Only 3 kokanee were reported in the catch during the FY 2002 creel survey. In the future, data from the seasonal surveys and creel will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  13. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  14. Landsat TM and ETM+ 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  15. Santa Fe Community College Fact Book, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This fact book offers information on Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) (Florida) for fiscal year 2001-2002. SFCC had a total enrollment of 21,932 in 2001-02. Degrees and certificates awarded in that year totaled 2,593. The total faculty was 563, with 264 full-time and 299 adjunct instructors. The college has an annual operating budget of over $50…

  16. Wind River Watershed Restoration : 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-02-01

    This report focuses on work conducted in 2000 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project. The project started in the early 1990s, and has been funded through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) since 1998. The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the Wind River subbasin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. In addition to USGS-CRRL, other BPA-funded entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To describe the activities and accomplishments of the USGS-CRRL portion of the project, we partitioned the 2000-2001 annual report into two pieces: Report A and Report B. In Report A, we provide information on flow, temperature, and habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Personnel from CRRL monitored flows at 12 sites in 2000 and 17 sites in 2001. Flow measurements were generally taken every two weeks during June through October, which allowed tracking of the descending limb of the hydrograph in late spring, through the base low flow period in summer, and the start of the ascending limb of the hydrograph in fall. We maintained a large array of water-temperature sites in the Wind River subbasin, including data from 25 thermographs in 2000 and 27 thermographs in 2001. We completed stream reach surveys on 14.0 km in 2000 and 6.1 km in 2001. Our focus for these reach surveys has been on the upper Trout Creek and upper Wind River watersheds, though some reach surveys have occurred in the Panther Creek watershed. Data generated by these reach surveys include stream width, stream gradient, large woody debris frequency, pool frequency, canopy

  17. Estonie 2002-2003 : Au seuil d'une nouvelle ere? / Antoine Chalvin, Juliette Déplanque

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Chalvin, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    Eesti sise- ja välispoliitikast ja majandusarengust aastatel 2002-2003. Eesti ja Prantsusmaa suhted. Tabel: Eesti põhilised majandusnäitajad aastatel 1995-2002. Lisad: Eesti poliitiliste sündmuste kronoloogia 2002-2003 juuni; parlamendivalimiste tulemused; valitsuse koosseis

  18. Estonie 2002-2003 : Au seuil d'une nouvelle ere? / Antoine Chalvin, Juliette Déplanque

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Chalvin, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    Eesti sise- ja välispoliitikast ja majandusarengust aastatel 2002-2003. Eesti ja Prantsusmaa suhted. Tabel: Eesti põhilised majandusnäitajad aastatel 1995-2002. Lisad: Eesti poliitiliste sündmuste kronoloogia 2002-2003 juuni; parlamendivalimiste tulemused; valitsuse koosseis

  19. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  20. Early unusual ozone loss during the Arctic winter 2002/2003 compared to other winters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Goutail

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Total column ozone reduction in the Arctic is evaluated each winter since 1993/1994 by the transport method (3-D CTM passive ozone minus measurements. The cumulative loss from 1 December to the end of the season ranges from 5–10% during warm winters like 1998/1999, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 up to 30%–32% during cold winters like 1994/1995 and 1995/1996. The 23% cumulative loss observed during the winter 2002/2003 is similar in amplitude to the 20–24% measured in 1996/1997 and 1999/2000 but the timing is different. It started unusually early in December after the occurrence of very low temperature at all stratospheric levels between 550 K and 435 K allowing PSC formation and thus chlorine activation. The early ozone loss of 2002/2003 is well captured by current 3-D CTM models.

  1. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Gretchen (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT)

    2002-07-01

    The 2001-2002 Kootenai River Network Annual Report reflects the organization's defined set of goals and objectives, and how by accomplishing these goals, we continue to meet the needs of communities and landowners throughout the Kootenai River Basin by protecting the resource. Our completed and ongoing projects throughout the watershed reflect the cooperation and support received and needed to accomplish the rehabilitation and restoration of critical habitat. They show that our mission of facilitation through collaboration with public and private interests can lead to improved resource management, the restoration of water quality and the preservation of pristine aquatic resources. Our vision to empower local citizens and groups from two states, one province, two countries and affected tribal nations to collaborate in natural resource management within the basin is largely successful due to the engagement of the basin's residents--the landowners, town government, local interest groups, businesses and agency representatives who live and work here. We are proof that forging these types of cooperative relationships, such as those exhibited by the Kootenai River subbasin planning process, leads to a sense of entitlement--that the quality of the river and its resources enriches our quality of life. Communication is essential in maintaining these relationships. Allowing ourselves to network and receive ideas and information, as well as to produce quality, accessible research data such as KRIS, shared with like organizations and individuals, is the hallmark of this facilitative organization. We are fortunate in the ability to contribute such information, and continue to strive to meet the standards and the needs of those who seek us out as a model for watershed rehabilitative planning and restoration. Sharing includes maintaining active, ongoing lines of communication with the public we serve--through our web site, quarterly newsletter, public presentations and

  2. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  3. Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Jason M. (Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA); McLellan, Jason G. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Butler, Chris (Spokane Tribe of Indians, Wellpinit, WA)

    2006-02-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of Blocked Area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the Blocked Area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. Common collection and analytical methodologies were developed in 1999. The project began addressing identified data gaps throughout the Blocked Area in 1999. Data collection of established projects and a variety of newly developed sampling projects are ongoing. Projects developed and undertaken by JSAP fisheries managers include investigations of the Pend Orielle River and its tributaries, the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation. Migration patterns of adfluvial and reservoir fish in Box Canyon Reservoir and its tributaries, a baseline assessment of Boundary Reservoir and its tributaries, ecological assessment of mountain lakes in Pend Oreille County, and assessments of streams and lakes on the Spokane Indian Reservation were completed by 2001. Assessments of the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, Spokane River below Spokane Falls, tributaries to the Pend Oreille River, small lakes in Pend Oreille County, WA, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation were conducted in 2002 and 2003. This work was done in accordance with the scope of work approved by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

  4. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2002/2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2003-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Department for neutron research, Uppsala university. The activities of the group is directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from carbon and lead at 96 MeV. The precision in the results surpasses all previous data by at least an order of magnitude. These measurements represent the highest energy in neutron scattering where the ground state has been resolved. The results show that all previous theory work has underestimated the probability for neutron scattering at the present energy by 0-30 %. A new method for measurements of absolute probabilities for neutron-induced nuclear reactions with experimental techniques only has been developed. Previously, only two such methods have been known. One student has reached his PhD exam. Two PhD students have been accepted. TSL has decided to build a new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance for these, and similar, activities. A new instrument for measurements of inelastic neutron scattering has been built, tested and found to meet the specifications. This work has been performed in collaboration with two French research groups from Caen and Nantes. The instrument is intended to be used for a series of experiments during the coming years. Previous work by the group on nuclear data for assessment of electronics reliability has lead to a new industry standard in the USA.

  5. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, Jed (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    2005-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts on private properties in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of this effort is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled nine properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and four properties on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Major accomplishments during the reporting period include the following: (1) Secured approximately $229,000 in project cost share; (2) Purchase of 46 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River to be protected perpetually for native fish and wildlife; (3) Developed three new 15 year conservation easements with private landowners; (4) Installed 3000 feet of weed barrier tarp with new plantings within project area on the mainstem Walla Walla River; (5) Expanded easement area on Couse Creek to include an additional 0.5 miles of stream corridor and 32 acres of upland habitat; (6) Restored 12 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River and 32 acres on Couse Creek to native perennial grasses; and (7) Installed 50,000+ new native plants/cuttings within project areas.

  6. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project : Management, Data and Habitat, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Melvin R.

    2002-03-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP or Project) is an all stock initiative that is responding to the need for scientific knowledge for rebuilding and maintaining naturally spawning anadromous fish stocks in both basins. The Yakama Nation, as the Lead Agency, in coordination with the co-managers, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration, the funding agency, is pursuing this. We are testing the principles of supplementation as a means to rebuild fish populations through the use of locally adapted broodstock in an artificial production program. This concept is being utilized on the Spring Chinook within the Yakima River Basin. The coho and fall chinook programs were approved and implemented in the Yakima Basin. The coho programs principle objective is to determine if naturally spawning coho populations can be reintroduced throughout their biological range in the basin. The objective of the fall chinook program is to determine if supplementation is a viable strategy to increase fall chinook populations in the Yakima subbasin. The coho and fall chinook programs are under the three step process that was established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The Klickitat subbasin management program is combined with the Yakima subbasin program. This contract includes the Klickitat Basin Coordinator and operational costs for the basin. The Klickitat Subbasin has separate contracts for Monitoring and Evaluation, Construction, and ultimately, Operation and Maintenance. In the Klickitat subbasin, we propose to use supplementation to increase populations of spring chinook and steelhead. This program is still in the developmental stages consistent with the three step process.

  7. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) to develop and propose a comprehensive fishery management plan for Lake Roosevelt. The Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project (LRHIP) was designed with goals directed towards increasing natural production while maintaining genetic integrity among current tributary stocks. The initial phase of the Lake Roosevelt Habitat Improvement Project (Phase I, baseline data collection: 1990-91) was focused on the assessment of limiting factors, including the quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other constraints. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, five streams meeting specific criteria were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation -1992-1995). Four of these projects were on the Colville Indian Reservation South Nanamkin, North Nanamkin, Louie and Iron Creeks and one Blue Creek was on the Spokane Indian Reservation. At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring-1996-2000) began. This phase assessed the changes and determined the success achieved through the improvements. Data analysis showed that passage improvements are successful for increasing habitat availability and use. The results of in-stream habitat improvements were inconclusive. Project streams, to the last monitoring date, have shown increases in fish density following implementation of the improvements. In 2000 Bridge Creek, on the Colville Reservation was selected for the next phase of improvements. Data collection, including baseline stream survey and population data collection, was carried out during 2001 in preparation for the design and implementation of stream habitat/passage improvements. Agencies cooperating on the project include the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS, Ferry County District), Ferry County Conservation District, and Ferry County. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provided project funding support and program integration assistance. A stock of redband rainbow trout, were discovered in 2001 in an isolated section of Bridge Creek above a set of waterfalls. DNA microsatellite analysis was conducted at the University of Idaho and indicated that very little if any hybridization. The targeted species in the genetic analysis was red band/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss spp.). The sub-contract is with Madison Powell and Joyce Faler at the Center for Salmonid and Freshwater Species at Risk at the University of Idaho/HFCES. DNA analysis used mitochondrial and nuclear RFLP markers along with two microsatellite loci. Sample populations were screened for detectable levels of introgressive hybridization arising from possible admixtures of hatchery coastal rainbow trout with native red band trout.

  8. Trade policies and food security: Essays from IFPRI's 2002-2003 Annual Report

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Kevin; von Braun, Joachim; Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio; Gulati, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Globalization could and should benefit developing countries. But unlike a rising tide that lifts all boats, large and small, globalization is unequal. It has fallen far short of its much-ballyhooed potential to help the world's poorest people out of poverty. Instead, a combination of policies in both rich and poor countries creates conditions for the rich to prosper and many of the poor to fall more deeply into destitution. Agricultural protectionism in rich countries enables them to skew mar...

  9. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-03-01

    We assessed the relationships between specific stream attributes and Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri distribution and biomass at 773 stream reaches (averaging 100 m in length) throughout the Upper Snake River Basin in Idaho, in an effort to identify possible limiting factors. Because limiting factors were expected to vary across the range of cutthroat trout distribution in Idaho, separate logistic and multiple regression models were developed for each of the nine major river drainages to relate stream conditions to occurrence and biomass of cutthroat trout. Adequate stream flow to measure fish and habitat existed at 566 sites, and of those, Yellowstone cutthroat trout were present at 322 sites, while rainbow trout O. mykiss (or rainbow x cutthroat hybrids) and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis occurred at 108 and 181 sites, respectively. In general, cutthroat trout presence at a specific site within a drainage was associated with a higher percentage of public property, higher elevation, more gravel and less fine substrate, and more upright riparian vegetation. However, there was much variation between drainages in the direction and magnitude of the relationships between stream characteristics and Yellowstone cutthroat trout occurrence and biomass, and in model strength. This was especially true for biomass models, in which we were able to develop models for only five drainages that explained more than 50% of the variation in cutthroat trout biomass. Sample size appeared to affect the strength of the biomass models, with a higher explanation of biomass variation in drainages with lower sample sizes. The occurrence of nonnative salmonids was not strongly related to cutthroat trout occurrence, but their widespread distribution and apparent ability to displace native cutthroat trout suggest they may nevertheless pose the largest threat to long-term cutthroat trout persistence in the Upper Snake River Basin.

  10. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Klickitat Only Monitoring and Evaluation, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Melvin; Evenson, Rolf

    2003-12-01

    The monitoring and evaluation activities described in this report were determined by consensus of the scientists from the Yakama Nation (YN). Klickitat Subbasin Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) activities have been subjected to scientific and technical review by members of YKFP's Science/Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) as part of the YKFP's overall M&E proposal. Yakama Nation YKFP project biologists have transformed the conceptual design into the tasks described. This report summarizes progress and results for the following major categories of YN-managed tasks under this contract: (1) Monitoring and Evaluation - Accurately characterize baseline available habitat and salmonid populations pre-habitat restoration and pre-supplementation. (2) EDT Modeling - Identify and evaluate habitat and artificial production enhancement options. (3) Genetics - Characterize the genetic profile of wild steelhead in the Klickitat Basin. (4) Ecological Interactions - Determine the presence of pathogens in wild and naturally produced salmonids in the Klickitat Basin and develop supplementation strategies using this information.

  11. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, James P. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-03-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 17, 2002 to September 29, 2003. A total of 3,080 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1716 adult, 617 jack, and 1,709 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 3,820 adult and 971 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 3,607 adult and 135 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 6 summer steelhead and 330 adult and 49 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,882 summer steelhead; 1161 adult, 509 jack and 1,546 subjack fall chinook; 3,704 adult and 915 jack coho; and 2,406 adult and 31 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 109 summer steelhead; 532 adult and 32 jack fall chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. In addition, 282 spring chinook were collected for the outplanting efforts in the Walla Walla Basin. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 159 days between January 27 and July 4, 2003. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 145 days and were trapped 11 days. An estimated 205 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5). Approximately 82% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened on September 16, 2002. and continued until November 1, 2002. The bypass was reopened March 3, 2003 and ran until July 3, 2003. The juvenile trap was operated by the Umatilla Passage Evaluation Project.

  12. Hood River Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    The Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The program is divided up to share responsibilities, provide efficiency, and avoid duplication. From October 2002 to September 2003 (FY 03) project strategies were implemented to monitor, protect, and restore anadromous fish and fish habitat in the Hood River subbasin. A description of the progress during FY 03 is reported here. Additionally an independent review of the entire program was completed in 2003. The purpose of the review was to determine if project goals and actions were achieved, look at critical uncertainties for present and future actions, determine cost effectiveness, and choose remedies that would increase program success. There were some immediate changes to the implementation of the project, but the bulk of the recommendations will be realized in coming years.

  13. [Analysis of individual spending on smoking based on the Brazilian Family Budget Survey, 2002-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeff, Locimara Ramos; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2010-12-01

    In order to discuss new parameters for assessing personal spending on smoking in Brazil, this study aimed to describe the population's socio-demographic characteristics and the proportions of spending on smoking. The sample included individuals that spend money on smoking, according to the Brazilian Family Budget Survey for 2002-2003, conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. In the lowest income bracket, the proportion of spending on smoking for expenses greater than the median varied negatively by as much as 10% as compared to the proportion of spending on smoking for income greater than the median. For intermediate income brackets, the two proportions were similar, and in the higher income brackets there was a reversal, with a positive difference of up to 15%. The percentage of spending on smoking doubled for all the groups with low schooling. As income and schooling increased, there was a proportional reduction in spending on smoking.

  14. Annual peak streamflow and ancillary data for small watersheds in central and western Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Glenn R.; Asquith, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of annual peak-streamflow frequency are needed for flood-plain management, assessment of flood risk, and design of structures, such as roads, bridges, culverts, dams, and levees. Regional regression equations have been developed and are used extensively to estimate annual peak-streamflow frequency for ungaged sites in natural (unregulated and rural or nonurbanized) watersheds in Texas (Asquith and Slade, 1997; Asquith and Thompson, 2008; Asquith and Roussel, 2009). The most recent regional regression equations were developed by using data from 638 Texas streamflow-gaging stations throughout the State with eight or more years of data by using drainage area, channel slope, and mean annual precipitation as predictor variables (Asquith and Roussel, 2009). However, because of a lack of sufficient historical streamflow data from small, rural watersheds in certain parts of the State (central and western), substantial uncertainity exists when using the regional regression equations for the purpose of estimating annual peak-streamflow frequency.

  15. CO{sub 2} emissions resulting of the energy in the world in 2002-2003; Emissions de CO{sub 2} dues a l'energie dans le monde en 2002-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    This document provides statistical data on the carbon dioxide emissions, corrected and not from the climate, for the years 2002-2003. The countries concerned are the following continents: north America, south America, Europe, Africa, Middle-East, Far-East, Oceania. (A.L.B.)

  16. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2004-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  17. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NPPC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  18. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2006-06-26

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  19. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2006-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  20. The Impact of Participation in Project Family Read and Kinder Camp on Children's Readiness for School, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, David J.

    This evaluation study examined changes in school readiness among 35 children who participated during the 2002-2003 fiscal year in two programs: (1) Project Family Read, an educational and parent education program operating during the school year for families of children not enrolled in regulated child care in Granville County, North Carolina; and…

  1. Third annual Walker Branch Watershed research symposium. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The methods and concepts of watershed research, originally applied in an experimental or monitoring mode to relatively small catchments, are increasingly being used at larger scales and for specific applied problems. Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US Forest Service, and other agencies and institutions participating in this symposium reflects research over a broad range of spatial scales that is being integrated through large-scale experiments along with computer modeling and graphical interfaces. These research projects address the basic atmospheric, geophysical, biogeochemical, and biological processes that regulate the responses of forested ecosystems to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stresses. Regional and global issues addressed by presentations include emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons; deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and mercury; land-use changes; biological diversity; droughts; and water quality. The reports presented in this symposium illustrate a wide range of methods and approaches and focus more on concepts and techniques than on a specific physical site. Sites and projects that have contributed research results to this symposium include Walker Branch Watershed (DOE), the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and LTER site (USFS and NSF), Great Smoky Mountains National Park (research funded by NPS, TVA, and EPRI), Imnavait Creek, Alaska (DOE), the TVA-Norris Whole-tree Facility (TVA and EPRI), and DOE`s Biomass Program.

  2. Three-dimensional Probabilistic Earthquake Location Applied to 2002-2003 Mt. Etna Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaccio, A.; Tuve', T.; Zuccarello, L.; Patane', D.; Saccorotti, G.; D'Agostino, M.

    2005-12-01

    Recorded seismicity for the Mt. Etna volcano, occurred during the 2002-2003 eruption, has been relocated using a probabilistic, non-linear, earthquake location approach. We used the software package NonLinLoc (Lomax et al., 2000) adopting the 3D velocity model obtained by Cocina et al., 2005. We applied our data through different algorithms: (1) via a grid-search; (2) via a Metropolis-Gibbs; and (3) via an Oct-tree. The Oct-Tree algorithm gives efficient, faster and accurate mapping of the PDF (Probability Density Function) of the earthquake location problem. More than 300 seismic events were analyzed in order to compare non-linear location results with the ones obtained by using traditional, linearized earthquake location algorithm such as Hypoellipse, and a 3D linearized inversion (Thurber, 1983). Moreover, we compare 38 focal mechanisms, chosen following stricta criteria selection, with the ones obtained by the 3D and 1D results. Although the presented approach is more of a traditional relocation application, probabilistic earthquake location could be used in routinely survey.

  3. Animal feed contamination by PCDDs-PCDFs in Italy in years 2002-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, R.; Diletti, G.; Torreti, L.; Benedictis, A. De; Scortichini, G. [Ist. Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell' Abruzzo e del Molise (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), are ubiquitous toxic contaminants mainly originating from thermal and incineration processes and representing a potential risk for human health. Various studies show that environmental levels have decreased during the last 20 years. In contrast to this trend several cases of specific contamination have caused high PCDD and PCDF levels in feedstuffs. It is important to monitor the dioxin contamination of feed to avoid large scale feed contamination and to decrease human exposure to dioxins. In Italy PCDDs and PCDFs monitoring has been introduced in the National Residues Surveillance Plan (NRSP) since 1999 and all relevant laboratory tests have been carried out at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e del Molise (ISO/IEC 17025 accredited), following designation by the Ministry of Health. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCDD/Fs levels and congener distribution patterns in different animal feed in Italy, collected in the period 2002-2003.

  4. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) for Predicting Annual Maximum and Annual Maximum Moving-Average Concentrations of Atrazine in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    Regression models were developed for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average concentrations of atrazine in streams using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology developed by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The current effort builds on the original WARP models, which were based on the annual mean and selected percentiles of the annual frequency distribution of atrazine concentrations. Estimates of annual maximum and annual maximum moving-average concentrations for selected durations are needed to characterize the levels of atrazine and other pesticides for comparison to specific water-quality benchmarks for evaluation of potential concerns regarding human health or aquatic life. Separate regression models were derived for the annual maximum and annual maximum 21-day, 60-day, and 90-day moving-average concentrations. Development of the regression models used the same explanatory variables, transformations, model development data, model validation data, and regression methods as those used in the original development of WARP. The models accounted for 72 to 75 percent of the variability in the concentration statistics among the 112 sampling sites used for model development. Predicted concentration statistics from the four models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentration statistics for most of the model development and validation sites. Overall, performance of the models for the development and validation sites supports the application of the WARP models for predicting annual maximum and selected annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentration in streams and provides a framework to interpret the predictions in terms of uncertainty. For streams with inadequate direct measurements of atrazine concentrations, the WARP model predictions for the annual maximum and the annual maximum moving-average atrazine concentrations can be used to characterize

  5. Stratospheric water vapour as tracer for Vortex filamentation in the Arctic winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers measured three high-resolution profiles of stratospheric water vapour above Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen during winter 2002/2003. The profiles obtained on 12 December 2002 and on 17 January 2003 provide an insight into the vertical distribution of water vapour in the core of the polar vortex. The water vapour sounding on 11 February 2003 was obtained within the vortex edge region of the lower stratosphere. Here, a significant reduction of water vapour mixing ratio was observed between 16 and 19 km. The stratospheric temperatures indicate that this dehydration was not caused by the presence of polar stratospheric clouds or earlier PSC particle sedimentation. Ozone observations on this day indicate a large scale movement of the polar vortex and show laminae in the same altitude range as the water vapour profile. The link between the observed water vapour reduction and filaments in the vortex edge region is indicated in the results of the semi-lagrangian advection model MIMOSA, which show that adjacent filaments of polar and mid latitude air can be identified above the Spitsbergen region. A vertical cross-section produced by the MIMOSA model reveals that the water vapour sonde flew through polar air in the lowest part of the stratosphere below 425 K, then passed through filaments of mid latitude air with lower water vapour concentrations, before it finally entered the polar vortex above 450 K. These results indicate that on 11 February 2003 the frost point hygrometer measured different water vapour concentrations as the sonde detected air with different origins. Instead of being linked to dehydration due to PSC particle sedimentation, the local reduction in the stratospheric water vapour profile was in this case caused by dynamical processes in the polar stratosphere.

  6. Middle Stratospheric Polar Vortex Ozone Budget during the Warming Arctic Winter, 2002-2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; LIU Chuanxi; Xuexi TIE; GAO Shouting

    2011-01-01

    The ozone budget inside the middle stratospheric polar vortex (24-36 km) during the 2002 2003 Arctic winter is studied by analyzing Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) satellite data.A comprehensive global chemical transport model (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers,MOZART-3) is used to analyze the observed variation in polar vortex ozone during the stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events.Both MIPAS measurement and MOZART-3 calculation show that a pronounced increase (26-28 DU) in the polar vortex ozone due to the SSW events.Due to the weakening of the polar vortex,the exchange of ozone mass across the edge of the polar vortex increases substantially and amounts to about 3.0 × 107 kg according to MOZART-3 calculation.The enhanced downward transport offsets about 80% of polar vortex ozone mass increase by horizontal transport.A “passive ozone” experiment shows that only ~55% of the vertical ozone mass flux in February and March can be attributed to the variation in vertical transport.It is also shown that the enhanced downward ozone above ~32 km should be attributed to the springtime photochemical ozone production.Due to the increase of air temperature,the NOx reaction rate increases by 40%-80% during the SSW events.As a rcsult,NOx catalytic cycle causes another 44% decrease in polar vortex ozone compared to the net ozone changes due to dynamical transport.It is also shown that the largest change in polar vortex ozone is due to horizontal advection by planetary waves in January 2003.

  7. Desequilíbrio entre a oferta e a demanda brasileira por pescados em 2002/2003 e 2008/2009 = Brazilian fishery supply and demand inequality in 2002/2003 and 2008/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yokoyama Sonoda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção nacional de pescados entre 2003 e 2009 aumentou em 250,54 mil t, o déficit da balança comercial bruta de pescados aumentou em 285,48 mil t, porém, não se constatou elevação do consumo domiciliar bruto de pescados no mesmo período. Este trabalho propõe um método de análise baseado no equilíbrio entre a oferta e a demanda agregada de pescados nos períodos de 2002-2003 e 2008-2009 para verificar se existe a coerência entre o crescimento da oferta e a destinação dos pescados (consumo domiciliar e fora de casa. Os cálculos indicam que enquanto os dados oficiais apontam um crescimento do consumo per capita aparente de 2 kg/hab.ano, os dados corrigidos apresentam um crescimento mais modesto (em torno de 0,6 kg/hab.ano entre os anos de 2002-2003 e 2008-2009. = Brazilian fish production between 2003 and 2009 increased by 250.54 t, gross fish trade deficit increased at 285.48t, but the household consumption of fish was flat in the same period. This paper proposes an analysis of fish aggregate supply and demand balance in the periods of 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 to check the consistency between supply growth and allocation of fish (household consumption and eating out. While official data indicate 2 kg/hab.year increases in apparent per capita fishery consumption, the corrected data shows 0.6 kg/hab.year increase between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009.

  8. Hurdles to herd immunity: Distrust of government and vaccine refusal in the US, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charlotte; Whetten, Kathryn; Omer, Saad; Pan, William; Salmon, Daniel

    2016-07-25

    High rates of nonmedical exemptions (NMEs) from required childhood vaccinations have contributed to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and pertussis. Understanding the parental decision to obtain an NME could help health professionals and public health programs improve vaccination rates in areas with high vaccine refusal. Using a 2002-2003 multi-state survey of parents of school age children (​n=2445), this study found that parental distrust of the government and of healthcare providers is a significant factor related to a number of vaccine-related beliefs and behaviors. The odds that parents who distrust the government have seen a complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) provider were 2.11 times greater than those of parents who trust the government (70.1% vs 52.6%; OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.59-2.84; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government had increased odds of trusting vaccine information from CAM providers compared to trusting parents (57.9% vs 46.3%; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.01; P<0.01). Parents who distrust the government also had increased odds of distrusting vaccine information acquired at their healthcare providers' offices (12.6% vs 4.7%; OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.64-4.24; P<0.01). Distrustful parents had increased odds of thinking government sources of information about vaccines were unreliable, categorizing the CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or local and state health departments as poor or very poor sources (distrust government vs trust government: 25.2% vs 11.7%; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.70-3.36; P<0.01; distrust healthcare providers vs trust healthcare providers: 24.4% vs 11.4%; OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.75-3.38; P<0.01). These findings indicate that distrustful parent populations may need to be reached through modalities outside of traditional government and healthcare provider communications. Research into new and more effective techniques for delivering pro-vaccine messages is warranted.

  9. Effect of variable annual precipitation and nutrient input on nitrogen and phosphorus transport from two Midwestern agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Tomer, Mark D.; James, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Precipitation patterns and nutrient inputs affect transport of nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphorus (TP) from Midwest watersheds. Nutrient concentrations and yields from two subsurface-drained watersheds, the Little Cobb River (LCR) in southern Minnesota and the South Fork Iowa River (SFIR) in northern Iowa, were evaluated during 1996–2007 to document relative differences in timings and amounts of nutrients transported. Both watersheds are located in the prairie pothole region, but the SFIR exhibits a longer growing season and more livestock production. The SFIR yielded significantly more NO3-N than the LCR watershed (31.2 versus 21.3 kg NO3-N ha− 1 y− 1). The SFIR watershed also yielded more TP than the LCR watershed (1.13 versus 0.51 kg TP ha− 1 yr− 1), despite greater TP concentrations in the LCR. About 65% of NO3-N and 50% of TP loads were transported during April–June, and < 20% of the annual loads were transported later in the growing season from July–September. Monthly NO3-N and TP loads peaked in April from the LCR but peaked in June from the SFIR; this difference was attributed to greater snowmelt runoff in the LCR. The annual NO3-N yield increased with increasing annual runoff at a similar rate in both watersheds, but the LCR watershed yielded less annual NO3-N than the SFIR for a similar annual runoff. These two watersheds are within 150 km of one another and have similar dominant agricultural systems, but differences in climate and cropping inputs affected amounts and timing of nutrient transport.

  10. Wind River Watershed Restoration 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-10

    During 2004, researchers from U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. Juvenile salmonid population surveys were conducted within select study areas throughout the subbasin. We expanded our survey coverage of the mainstem Wind River to a reach in the vicinity of Carson National Fish Hatchery to assess effects of non-indigenous Chinook on native steelhead. These efforts add to a database of habitat and fish data collected in the Wind River since 1996. This research contributes to the Wind River Restoration Project, which includes active stream habitat restoration and monitoring of adult and juvenile steelhead populations. We maintained a network of 32 thermographs in the Wind River subbasin during 2004. Additionally, Underwood Conservation District provided us with data from seven thermographs that they maintained during 2004. Thermograph data are identifying areas with chronic high water temperatures and stream sections where high rates of warming are occurring. During 2004, water temperatures at 26 thermograph sites exceeded the 16 C limit for surface waters set by the Washington Department of Ecology. Water temperatures exceeded 20 C at five sites in the Trout Creek watershed. Our thermograph dataset includes information from as early as 1996 at some sites and has become a valuable long-term dataset, which will be crucial in determining bioenergetic relationships with habitat and life-histories. We have monitored salmonid populations throughout the Wind River subbasin by electrofishing and snorkeling. We electrofished four stream sections for population estimates during 2004. In these sections, and others where we simply collected fish without a population estimate, we tagged juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon with Passive Integrated Transponder

  11. Ice Jam Flood in the Section of Shandong Province of Yellow River during 2002/2003 Winter%2002/2003年度黄河山东河段凌汛特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯新闻; 刘继雪; 刘小红

    2003-01-01

    2002/2003年度黄河山东段凌汛的主要特点是: 下游首封时间早、封河流量小、冰盖低、封河范围大, 这给预报调度增加了很大难度.从凌期的气象、水文两个方面分析了其产生的原因, 预估了其产生的后果, 并提出了相应的对策.

  12. Annual runoff assessment in arid Mediterranean watersheds under the Budyko framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Francesco; Caracciolo, Domenico; Forestieri, Angelo; Pumo, Dario; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The solution of many practical water problems is strictly connected to the availability of reliable and widespread information about runoff. The estimation of mean annual runoff and its interannual variability for any basin over a wide region, even if ungauged, would be fundamental for both water resources assessment and planning and for water quality analysis. Starting from these premises, the main aim of this work is to show how using the Budyko framework is possible to map the mean annual surface runoff and derive the pdf of the same variable in arid watersheds. As a case study, the entire island of Sicily, Italy, is here proposed. First, time series data of annual rainfall, runoff and reconstructed series of potential evapotranspiration have been combined within the Budyko curve framework in order to obtain regional rules for rainfall partitioning between evapotranspiration and runoff. Then this knowledge has been used to infer long term annual runoff at point scale by means of interpolated rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. More specifically, the long term annual runoff map has been obtained at each point of the drainage network, averaging the upstream runoff using advanced spatial analysis techniques within a GIS environment. Furthermore, two methods are here proposed to derive the distribution of annual streamflow, under the assumption of negligible inter-annual change in basin water storage. The first method uses Montecarlo simulations, combining random rainfall and potential evapotranspiration extracted from independent opportune distributions. The second method, through a simplification of the Budyko curve, analytically provides the annual streamflow distribution as the derived distribution of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. The latter allowed to derive runoff maps for assigned non exceedance probability even in non-gauged locations. For both the proposed methods, results have been tested at several gauging stations.

  13. Assessment of nonindigenous marine species in harbors and nearby coral reefs on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, 2002 - 2003 (NODC Accession 0002270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collections and observations in 2002-2003 at harbor and nearby reef sites at Nawilwili and Port Allen, Kauai; Hale O Lono and Kaunakakai, Molokai; Kahului and...

  14. Assessement of nonindigenous marine species in harbors and nearby coral reefs on Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii, 2002-2003 (NODC Accession 0002270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collections and observations in 2002-2003 at harbor and nearby reef sites at Nawilwili and Port Allen, Kauai; Hale O Lono and Kaunakakai, Molokai; Kahului and...

  15. Inspections Report 2002 - 2003; Tillsynsrapport 2002 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viidas, Josefin

    2004-10-01

    The report summarises primarily the supervision of waste management and environmental protection at the nuclear facilities that was carried out by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority in 2002 and 2003. A summary of the inspections and a description of important issues connected with the supervision of nuclear facilities are given. The inspections during 2002 focused on the investigation and coverage of the mishap related to the transport of iridium from Studsvik. The Studsvik project was initiated and the remaining supervision was temporarily given lower priority. In 2003 SSI performed two theme inspections. One focused on the handling of waste management and the other on the limitation of the effluent. Extensive supervision efforts concentrated also on Ranstad Mineral inc.

  16. Trends in spending on eating away from home in Brazil, 2002-2003 to 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to describe trends in food consumption away from home in Brazil from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 and to analyze the influence of income on this behavior. The authors used data collected by the Household Budget Surveys conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. The information analyzed in this study involves records of food and beverage purchases for consumption away from home. Trends in eating away from home were estimated for the total population and according to demographic and economic strata. The association between the share of food consumed away from home and income was studied using regression models to estimate income elasticity coefficients. The share of eating away from home increased 25% during the period, reaching 28% of total spending on food. Each 10% increase in mean per capita income leads to a 3.5% increase in the share of food consumed away from home. This suggests that income growth will result in future increases in the share of eating away from home.

  17. Trends in spending on eating away from home in Brazil, 2002-2003 to 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Claro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe trends in food consumption away from home in Brazil from 2002-2003 to 2008-2009 and to analyze the influence of income on this behavior. The authors used data collected by the Household Budget Surveys conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. The information analyzed in this study involves records of food and beverage purchases for consumption away from home. Trends in eating away from home were estimated for the total population and according to demographic and economic strata. The association between the share of food consumed away from home and income was studied using regression models to estimate income elasticity coefficients. The share of eating away from home increased 25% during the period, reaching 28% of total spending on food. Each 10% increase in mean per capita income leads to a 3.5% increase in the share of food consumed away from home. This suggests that income growth will result in future increases in the share of eating away from home.

  18. 2002-2003 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300, Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    Condor Country Consulting conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2002-2003 wet season to complete requirements of the Guidelines (USFWS 1996) used to determine the distribution of federally-listed branchiopods within the study area. The first survey was performed during the previous wet season (2001-2002). The 2002-2003 wet season survey, combined with the previous season's survey, is intended to provide LLNL with information that will assist them in determining the effects of the proposed action on federally listed branchiopods and provide information useful in the preparation of the associated environmental documentation. It is also expected to satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS. For the purpose of this report, the term branchiopod refers specifically to phyllopodous branchiopods and not cladocerans. Fairy shrimp, tadpole shrimp, and clam shrimp are all categorized as phyllopodous branchiopods and are currently the only members of the Class Branchiopoda that contain species that are listed under the federal Endangered Species Act. Although cladocerans are branchiopods and were found on the site, they are only referred to by the Order in this report because they are not the target species of this study.

  19. Income and Employment in the United States, 2002-2003 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays 2002 and 2003 per capita personal income, annual number of full-time and part-time jobs, average wage per job in dollars, population, and per...

  20. Wood export varies among decadal, annual, seasonal, and daily scale hydrologic regimes in a large, Mediterranean climate, mountain river watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, A. E.; Pasternack, G. B.; Piégay, H.; Vaughan, M. C.; Lehyan, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics that move wood through and out of watersheds are complex and not yet fully understood. In this study, climatic conditions, hydrologic responses, and watershed processes were explored to better understand variations in wood export using aerial imagery, event-based video monitoring, and field measurements from the 1097 km2 mountainous Mediterranean climate North Yuba River, California, watershed and its reservoir near the downstream outlet. Over a 30-year study period, 1985-2014, volumetric estimates of annual wood export into the reservoir, available for a subset of years, were used to investigate watershed-scale wood export dynamics. Variations in annual peak discharge explained 79% of the variance in interannual wood export, with 84% of total observed wood export (ca. > 10,000 m3 of wood per event) delivered by three discharge events of 19-year, 21.5-year, and 60-year flood recurrence intervals. Continuous video monitoring conducted during snowmelt season periods in 2010 and 2011 yielded wood discharge observations at minima 15% of statistical bankfull flow, while maximum daily discharge explained 55% of observed daily wood piece variation. No statistically significant wood discharge differences were found in snowmelt season observations, likely because of domination of the hydrograph by diurnal pulses within the seasonal cycle. A conceptual model and functional framework are introduced in support of a watershed-scale explanation of wood export, transport, and storage processes applicable to large, Mediterranean-climate, mountain watershed settings.

  1. Evaluating long-term annual sediment yield estimating potential of GIS interfaced MUSLE model on two micro-watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arekhi, Saleh

    2008-01-15

    Use of an event scale MUSLE model for obtaining accurate long-term annual sediment yield estimates from micro-watersheds was evaluated. Such estimates are extremely important for designing appropriate soil/water conserving measures. For easy extraction and inputting of model input parameters, the proposed model was interfaced to an Arc-View/Spatial Analyst geographic information system. Application of this GIS interfaced MUSLE model on two gauged (pine and oak forest) hilly micro-watersheds viz., Salla Rautella (0.47 km2) and Naula (0.42 km2), in Almora district of Uttaranchal, India showed that it could estimate annual sediment yields with absolute mean relative errors ranging between 12-14%. Even long-term average sediment yields for Salla Rautella (observed: 9.58 tons and estimated: 10.92 tons) and Naula: (Observed: 23.89 tons and estimated: 26.61 tons) micro-watersheds could be quite realistically simulated by the proposed model.

  2. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

    2003-09-01

    This study began in 1998 to assess salmonid distribution, relative abundance, genetics, and the condition of salmonid habitats in the Walla Walla River basin. Stream flows in the Walla Walla Basin continue to show a general trend that begins with a sharp decline in discharge in late June, followed by low summer flows and then an increase in discharge in fall and winter. Manual stream flow measurements at Pepper bridge showed an increase in 2002 of 110-185% from July-September, over flows from 2001. This increase is apparently associated with a 2000 settlement agreement between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the irrigation districts to leave minimum flows in the river. Stream temperatures in the Walla Walla basin were similar to those in 2001. Upper montane tributaries maintained maximum summer temperatures below 65 F, while sites in mid and lower Touchet and Walla Walla rivers frequently had daily maximum temperatures well above 68 F (high enough to inhibit migration in adult and juvenile salmonids, and to sharply reduce survival of their embryos and fry). These high temperatures are possibly the most critical physiological barrier to salmonids in the Walla Walla basin, but other factors (available water, turbidity or sediment deposition, cover, lack of pools, etc.) also play a part in salmonid survival, migration, and breeding success. The increased flows in the Walla Walla, due to the 2000 settlement agreement, have not shown consistent improvements to stream temperatures. Rainbow/steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout represent the most common salmonid in the basin. Densities of Rainbow/steelhead in the Walla Walla River from the Washington/Oregon stateline to Mojonnier Rd. dropped slightly from 2001, but are still considerably higher than before the 2000 settlement agreement. Other salmonids including; bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), and brown trout (Salmo trutta) had low densities, and limited distribution throughout the basin. A large return of adult spring chinook to the Touchet River drainage in 2001 produced higher densities of juvenile chinook in 2002 than have been seen in recent years, especially in the Wolf Fork. The adult return in 2002 was substantially less than what was seen in 2001. Due to poor water conditions and trouble getting personnel hired, spawning surveys were limited in 2002. Surveyors found only one redd in four Walla Walla River tributaries (Cottonwood Ck., East Little Walla Walla, West Little Walla Walla, and Mill Ck.), and 59 redds in Touchet River tributaries (10 in the North Fork Touchet, 30 in the South Fork Touchet, and 19 in the Wolf Fork). Bull trout spawning surveys in the upper Touchet River tributaries found a total of 125 redds and 150 live fish (92 redds and 75 fish in the Wolf Fork, 2 redds and 1 fish in the Burnt Fork, 0 redds and 1 fish in the South Fork Touchet, 29 redds and 71 fish in the North Fork Touchet, and 2 redds and 2 fish in Lewis Ck.). A preliminary steelhead genetics analysis was completed as part of this project. Results indicate differences between naturally produced steelhead and those produced in the hatchery. There were also apparent genetic differences among the naturally produced fish from different areas of the basin. Detailed results are reported in Bumgarner et al. 2003. Recommendations for assessment activities in 2003 included: (1) continue to monitor the Walla Walla River (focusing from the stateline to McDonald Rd.), the Mill Ck system, and the Little Walla Walla System. (2) reevaluate Whiskey Ck. for abundance and distribution of salmonids, and Lewis Ck. for bull trout density and distribution. (3) select or develop a habitat survey protocol and begin to conduct habitat inventory and assessment surveys. (4) summarize bull trout data for Mill Ck, South Fork Touchet, and Lewis Ck. (5) begin to evaluate temperature and flow data to assess if the habitat conditions exist for spring chinook in the Touchet River.

  3. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  4. Intestinal parasitoses and environmental factors in a rural population of Argentina, 2002-2003 Parasitosis intestinales y factores ambientales en una población rural de Argentina, 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Basualdo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 504 people and the degree of association between environmental variables and parasites found in population, soil and water in a rural area of Argentina during 2002-2003. A structured survey was used to evaluate the environmental variables and fecal-human, soil and water samples were analyzed. The prevalence of parasites was 45.4%. Most prevalent protozoa were Blastocystis hominis (27.2% and Giardia lamblia (6.9%, while the most prevalent helminth was Ascaris lumbricoides (3.8%. The analyzed environmental variables showing association (p Hemos evaluado la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en 504 personas y el grado de asociación entre las variables ambientales y los parásitos intestinales hallados en la población, el suelo y el agua de una zona rural de Argentina durante 2002-2003. Se utilizó una encuesta estructurada para relevar las variables ambientales y se examinaron muestras fecales humanas, de agua y de suelo. La prevalencia parasitaria fue de 45,4%. Los protozoos prevalentes fueron Blastocystis hominis (27,2% y Giardia lamblia (6,9%, mientras que el helminto mas prevalente fue Ascaris lumbricoides (3,8%. Las variables ambientales analizadas que mostraron asociación (p < 0,05 con la presencia de parásitos en la población fueron: casa de cartón-chapa o de madera con piso de tierra, bomba de agua domiciliaria o comunitaria, canilla fuera de la casa o pública y pozo ciego o letrina. Elementos parasitarios fueron hallados en el 82,3% de las muestras de suelo y en el 84,2% de las muestras de agua. En ambas muestras fueron hallados parásitos que también se encontraron en las personas. En este trabajo hemos hallado deficientes condiciones sanitarias asociadas con la presencia de parásitos en las personas y hemos evidenciado que el suelo y el agua contaminada fueron la fuente de esos parasitos.

  5. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  6. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and designs completed on two of the high priority culverts. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  7. Meridional overturning transports at 30°S in the Indian and Pacific Oceans in 2002-2003 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Talley, Lynne D.

    2016-08-01

    The meridional circulation and transports at 30°S in the Pacific and Indian Oceans for the years 2002-2003 and 2009 are compared, using GO-SHIP hydrographic section data with an inverse box model and several choices of constraints. Southward heat transport across the combined Indian-Pacific sections, reflecting net heating north of these sections, doubled from -0.7 ± 0.2 PW in 2002-2003 to -1.4 ± 0.1 PW in 2009 (negative sign is southward), with the increase concentrated in the Indian Ocean (∼0.6 PW compared with ∼0.2 PW in the Pacific), and was insensitive to model choices for the Indonesian Throughflow. Diagnosed net evaporation also more than doubled in the Indian Ocean, from 0.21-0.27 Sv in 2002-2003 to 0.51-0.58 in 2009, with a smaller but significant increase in net evaporation in the Pacific, from 0.06-0.08 Sv to 0.16-0.32 Sv. These increased heat and freshwater exports coincided with Indian Ocean warming, a shift in the Indian's shallow gyre overturning transport to lower densities, and an increase in southward Agulhas Current transport from 75 Sv in 2002 to 92 Sv in 2009. The Indian's deep overturn weakened from about 11 Sv in 2002 to 7 Sv in 2009. In contrast, the Pacific Ocean overturning circulation was nearly unchanged from 2003 to 2009, independent of model within the uncertainties. The East Australian Current transport decreased only slightly, from -52 Sv to -46 Sv. The southward Pacific Deep Water transport was at a higher density than the southward Indian Deep Water transport in both years and all models, similar to prior results. Estimated diapycnal diffusivity and velocity are strongly enhanced near the ocean bottom and are higher farther up in the water column in the Indian than in the Pacific, likely extending the reach of Indian Ocean overturning up to shallower depths than in the Pacific. The horizontal distribution of transports in the Pacific at all depths changed notably from 2003 to 2009, despite the stability of its meridional

  8. The Socioeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Outcomes in Uganda: School Enrolment and the Schooling Gap in 2002/2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirye, Ibrahim; Hisali, Eria

    2010-01-01

    Due to high prime-age mortality--a result of the HIV/AIDS scourge, the number of orphans in Uganda continues to rise. Using the 2002/2003 Uganda National Household Survey, this paper investigates how HIV/AIDS orphan status affects schooling enrolment and grade progression. Our results show that HIV/AIDS orphans are not significantly less likely to…

  9. Structural features of Panarea volcano in the frame of the Aeolian Arc (Italy): Implications for the 2002-2003 unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Valerio; Neri, Marco; Walter, Thomas R.

    2009-05-01

    Panarea, characterized by gas unrest in 2002-2003, is the volcanic island with the least constrained structure in the eastern-central Aeolian Arc (Italy). Based on structural measurements, we define here its deformation pattern relative to the Arc. The main deformations are subvertical extension fractures (63% of data), normal faults (25%) and dikes (12%). The mean orientation of the extension fractures and faults is ˜N38°E, with a mean opening direction of N135° ± 8°, implying extension with a moderate component of dextral shear. These data, matched with those available for Stromboli volcano (pure opening) and Vulcano, Lipari and Salina volcanoes (predominant dextral motions) along the eastern-central Arc, suggest a progressive westward rotation of the extension direction and an increase in the dextral shear. The dextral shear turns into compression in the western arc. The recent unrest at Panarea, coeval to that of nearby Stromboli, may also be explained by the structural context, as both volcanoes lie along the portion of the Arc subject to extension.

  10. Incidence of low birth weight and associated risk factors during March 2002-2003 in Tonekabon, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Hosseini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Low birth weight (LBW; birthweight 2500 g. or below is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This prospective study was conducted during March 2002 - 2003, to determine the incidence of low birth weight infants and associated risk factors in neonates born at Shahid Rajaee Hospital in Tonekabone, Iran.Materials and methods: For every LBW case, maternal age, sex, gestational age, parity, route of delivery and spacing between pregnancies of low birth weight were analyzed. For control, the first baby born before and immediately after the LBW baby who weighed more than 2500 g. at birth were analyzed.Results: The results revealed that the incidence of low birth weight was 4.2 % which is lower than population of other cities and only 0.34% (7 cases of newborns weighted 1500 g. or less. The higher incidence of low birth weight was found in the primigravid (P=0.042, in cesarean section (P=0.025 and close spacing of pregnancy (P=0.033. Maternal age and sex of baby had no significant effect on the incidence of low birth weight. There were more premature deliveries in cases than controls (P=0.000.Conclusion: According to present findings, LBW incidence of albeit in Tonekabon in comparison with other cities throught the country is at acceptable level, prevention of premature delivery and conduction of health education programs for high risk groups, especially primigravid can lower the rates.

  11. Testing our understanding of Arctic denitrification using MIPAS-E satellite measurements in winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Davies

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of gas-phase HNO3 and N2O in the polar stratosphere from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding aboard the ENVISAT satellite (MIPAS-E were made during the cold Arctic winter of 2002/2003. Vortex temperatures were unusually low in early winter and remained favourable for polar stratospheric cloud formation and denitrification until mid-January. MIPAS-E observations provide the first dataset with sufficient coverage of the polar vortex in mid-winter which enables a reasonable estimate of the timing of onset and spatial distribution of denitrification of the Arctic lower stratosphere to be performed. We use the observations from MIPAS-E to test the evolution of denitrification in the DLAPSE (Denitrification by Lagrangian Particle Sedimentation microphysical denitrification model coupled to the SLIMCAT chemical transport model. In addition, the predicted denitrification from a simple equilibrium nitric acid trihydrate-based scheme is also compared with MIPAS-E. Modelled denitrification is compared with in-vortex NOy and N2O observations from the balloon-borne MarkIV interferometer in mid-December. Denitrification was clearly observed by MIPAS-E in mid-December 2002 and reached 80% in the core of the vortex by early January 2003. The DLAPSE model is broadly able to capture both the timing of onset and the spatial distribution of the observed denitrification. A simple thermodynamic equilibrium scheme is able to reproduce the observed denitrification in the core of the vortex but overestimates denitrification closer to the vortex edge. This study also suggests that the onset of denitrification in simple thermodynamic schemes may be earlier than in the MIPAS-E observations.

  12. McKenzie River Watershed Coordination, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2003-11-01

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations and grant funds supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's (MWC) efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. Primary goals of the MWC are to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. Underpinning the goals is the MWC's baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. Objectives for FY02 included: (1) Continue to coordinate McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups to restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the middle to lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though an outreach and education program, utilizing (BPA funded) Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and Council operations.

  13. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2006-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. During this contract period work was completed on two culvert replacement projects; Doe Creek and a tributary to Meadow Creek. Additionally construction was also completed for the ditch restoration project within McComas Meadows. Monitoring for project effectiveness and trends in watershed conditions was also completed. Road decommissioning monitoring, as well as stream temperature, sediment, and discharge were completed.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESIN FROM 2002 TO 2003%2002-2003年国外不饱和聚酯树脂发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彤

    2004-01-01

    综述了2002-2003年国外不饱和聚酯树脂的基本进展、生产量及市场消费情况;同时对不饱和聚酯及其制品的研究进行了介绍,其中包括改进抗水性、低收缩性、机械性能等.

  15. Estimation of Annual Average Soil Loss, Based on Rusle Model in Kallar Watershed, Bhavani Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, S. Abdul; Aruchamy, S.; Jegankumar, R.; Ajeez, S. Abdul

    2015-10-01

    Soil erosion is a widespread environmental challenge faced in Kallar watershed nowadays. Erosion is defined as the movement of soil by water and wind, and it occurs in Kallar watershed under a wide range of land uses. Erosion by water can be dramatic during storm events, resulting in wash-outs and gullies. It can also be insidious, occurring as sheet and rill erosion during heavy rains. Most of the soil lost by water erosion is by the processes of sheet and rill erosion. Land degradation and subsequent soil erosion and sedimentation play a significant role in impairing water resources within sub watersheds, watersheds and basins. Using conventional methods to assess soil erosion risk is expensive and time consuming. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), coupled with the use of an empirical model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation- RUSLE) to assess risk, can identify and assess soil erosion potential and estimate the value of soil loss. GIS data layers including, rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodability (K), slope length and steepness (LS), cover management (C) and conservation practice (P) factors were computed to determine their effects on average annual soil loss in the study area. The final map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 398.58 t/ h-1/ y-1. Based on the result soil erosion was classified in to soil erosion severity map with five classes, very low, low, moderate, high and critical respectively. Further RUSLE factors has been broken into two categories, soil erosion susceptibility (A=RKLS), and soil erosion hazard (A=RKLSCP) have been computed. It is understood that functions of C and P are factors that can be controlled and thus can greatly reduce soil loss through management and conservational measures.

  16. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  17. The influence of watershed characteristics on spatial patterns of trends in annual scale streamflow variability in the continental U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Joshua S.; Emanuel, Ryan E.; Vose, James M.

    2016-09-01

    As human activity and climate variability alter the movement of water through the environment the need to better understand hydrologic cycle responses to these changes has grown. A reasonable starting point for gaining such insight is studying changes in streamflow given the importance of streamflow as a source of renewable freshwater. Using a wavelet assisted method we analyzed trends in the magnitude of annual scale streamflow variability from 967 watersheds in the continental U.S. (CONUS) over a 70 year period (1940-2009). Decreased annual variability was the dominant pattern at the CONUS scale. Ecoregion scale results agreed with the CONUS pattern with the exception of two ecoregions closely divided between increases and decreases and one where increases dominated. A comparison of trends in reference and non-reference watersheds indicated that trend magnitudes in non-reference watersheds were significantly larger than those in reference watersheds. Boosted regression tree (BRT) models were used to study the relationship between watershed characteristics and the magnitude of trends in streamflow. At the CONUS scale, the balance between precipitation and evaporative demand, and measures of geographic location were of high relative importance. Relationships between the magnitude of trends and watershed characteristics at the ecoregion scale exhibited differences from the CONUS results and substantial variability was observed among ecoregions. Additionally, the methodology used here has the potential to serve as a robust framework for top-down, data driven analyses of the relationships between changes in the hydrologic cycle and the spatial context within which those changes occur.

  18. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume III of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This appendices covers the following reports: (1) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1993-94 annual report; (2) Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, Supplementation Feasibility Report on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1998 technical report; and (3) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1998 annual report.

  19. South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaney, Mark D. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management

    2009-04-15

    The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment

  20. Estimação do sistema quase ideal de demanda para uma cesta ampliada de produtos empregando dados da POF de 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adrian Pintos-Payeras

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são estimadas elasticidades-preço, elasticidades-cruzadas e elasticidades-dispêndio para 27 grupos de produtos a partir dos microdados da POF de 2002-2003. Para tanto, é usada a versão não-linear do sistema quase ideal de demanda (NL-AIDS. Os parâmetros do sistema são obtidos usando uma regressão aparentemente não-relacionada com iteração (ITSUR. A maioria das elasticidades-preço para produtos alimentícios apresentou valor absoluto menor do que 1. Os produtos nãoalimentícios, de uma forma geral, tampouco apresentaram alta elasticidade-preço e as elasticidades-dispêndio foram condizentes com o esperado.This paper aimed to estimate price-elasticities, cross-elasticities and expenditure-elasticities for 27 groups of products in Brazil. Brazilian Household Budgets Research (POF 2002-2003 microdata were used on the estimations of non-linear almost ideal demand systems (NL-AIDS. The parameters used in the NL-AIDS were previously estimated using iterated seemingly unrelated regressions (ITSUR. Most of the estimations showed that price-elasticities for food products are lower than one. On the other hand, non-food products did not show high price-elasticities. Expenditure-elasticities were in accordance with previous assumptions.

  1. Out-of-phase decadal changes in boreal summer rainfall between Yellow-Huaihe River Valley and southern China around 2002/2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yao; Zhong, Zhong; Chen, Haishan; Hu, Yijia

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the decadal variability of rainfall over China in boreal summer (June-August) since the early 1990s. Results show that the rainfall experiences an abrupt decadal change at around 2002/2003. The decadal change is statistically significant and characterized by an out-of-phase pattern between southern China (SC) and the Yellow-Huaihe River Valley (YHRV). The rainfall over SC decreases during the decade 2003-2012 compared to that in the preceding decade 1993-2002. A simultaneous decadal increase in rainfall has occurred over the YHRV. Meanwhile, a significant sea surface temperature warming appears over the western Pacific Ocean and the northern Indian Ocean after 2002 on the decadal time scale. Further analysis reveals that enhanced convections are activated over the tropical regions between 130°E and 160°E and west of 80°E due to the SST anomalies, which induce the dry air in an area of anomalous subsidence located over SC and the northern South China Sea (SCS) via zonal circulation. Accompanied by the anomalous descending flow over the northern SCS, tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the SCS also experience a concurrent decadal reduction. The decrease in landfall TCs contributes to the decadal decrease in SC rainfall since 2003. Corresponding to the anomalous descending motion that is dominant south of 30°N, an anomalous moist ascending flow develops over the YHRV at around 35°N. Meanwhile, the western Pacific subtropical high becomes stronger and extends further westward during 2003-2012, leading to enhanced moisture transport by the southwesterly in the northwestern flank of subtropical high. As a result, more precipitation occurs over the YHRV. The above analysis has revealed the physical-dynamical processes involved in the decadal changes in rainfall over China. The mechanisms behind the out-of-phase pattern of rainfall changes between SC and the YHRV that occurred at 2002/2003 are explored.

  2. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn (Nez Perce Soil and Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2006-07-01

    The ''Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Big Canyon Creek Watershed'' is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Big Canyon Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District. Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period September 1, 2004 through October 31, 2005 include; 2.7 riparian miles treated, 3.0 wetland acres treated, 5,263.3 upland acres treated, 106.5 riparian acres treated, 76,285 general public reached, 3,000 students reached, 40 teachers reached, 18 maintenance plans completed, temperature data collected at 6 sites, 8 landowner applications received and processed, 14 land inventories completed, 58 habitat improvement project designs completed, 5 newsletters published, 6 habitat plans completed, 34 projects installed, 2 educational workshops, 6 displays, 1 television segment, 2 public service announcements, a noxious weed GIS coverage, and completion of NEPA, ESA, and cultural resources requirements.

  3. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume II of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This appendices covers the following reports: (1) Previous ISRP Reviews (Project 199004400) Implement Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities-Coeur d'Alene Reservation; (2) Step 1 review of the hatchery master plan (Memorandum from Mark Fritsch, Fish Production Coordinator, Draft version March 10, 2000); (3) Coeur d'Alene Tribe response to ISRP comments on Project No. 199004402; includes attachment A Water Quantity Report. This is an incomplete document Analysis of Well Yield Potential for a Portion of the Coeur d'Alene Reservation near Worley, Idaho, February 2001; (4) Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program, Rainbow Trout Feasibility Report on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation prepared by Ronald L. Peters, February 2001; (5) Coeur d'Alene Tribe response letter pursuant to the questions raised in the Step 1 review of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility from Ronald L. Peters, March 27, 2001 ; includes attachments Water quantity report (this is the complete report), Appendix A Logs for Test Wells and 1999 Worley West Park Well, letters from Ralston, Appendix B Cost of Rainbow Purchase Alternative; (6) NPPC response (memorandum from Mark Fritsch, March 28, 2001); (7) Response to NPPC (letter to Frank Cassidy, Jr., Chair, from Ernest L. Stensgar, April 18, 2001); (8) Final ISRP review (ISRP 2001-4: Mountain Columbia Final Report); (9) Response to ISRP comment (letter to Mark Walker, Director of Public Affairs, from Ronald Peters, May 7, 2001); (10) Final comments to the Fish 4 committee; (11) Scope of Work/Budget FY 2001-2004; (12) Letter from City of Worley concerning water service; (13) Letter to BPA regarding status of Step 1 package; (14) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1990 annual report; (15) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1991 annual report; and (16) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the

  4. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume I of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    provides a chronological account of previous ISRP reviews, official Coeur d'Alene fisheries program responses to a series of ISRP reviews, master planning documentation, and annual reports dating back to 1990. Collectively, the materials provided by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe in this Step-1 submission package comprehensively assesses key research, habitat improvement activities, and hatchery production issues to best protect and enhance native cutthroat trout populations and the historically and culturally important tribal fisheries they support.

  5. Minnesota Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide minor watershed delineations with major/minor watershed identifiers and names for provinces, major watersheds, and basins. Also included are watershed...

  6. Three-dimensional model study of the arctic ozone loss in 2002/2003 and comparison with 1999/2000 and 2003/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Feng

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We have used the SLIMCAT 3-D off-line chemical transport model (CTM to quantify the Arctic chemical ozone loss in the year 2002/2003 and compare it with similar calculations for the winters 1999/2000 and 2003/2004. Recent changes to the CTM have improved the model's ability to reproduce polar chemical and dynamical processes. The updated CTM uses σ-θ as a vertical coordinate which allows it to extend down to the surface. The CTM has a detailed stratospheric chemistry scheme and now includes a simple NAT-based denitrification scheme in the stratosphere.

    In the model runs presented here the model was forced by ECMWF ERA40 and operational analyses. The model used 24 levels extending from the surface to ~55 km and a horizontal resolution of either 7.5°×7.5° or 2.8°×2.8°. Two different radiation schemes, MIDRAD and the CCM scheme, were used to diagnose the vertical motion in the stratosphere. Based on tracer observations from balloons and aircraft, the more sophisticated CCM scheme gives a better representation of the vertical transport in this model which includes the troposphere. The higher resolution model generally produces larger chemical O3 depletion, which agrees better with observations.

    The CTM results show that very early chemical ozone loss occurred in December 2002 due to extremely low temperatures and early chlorine activation in the lower stratosphere. Thus, chemical loss in this winter started earlier than in the other two winters studied here. In 2002/2003 the local polar ozone loss in the lower stratosphere was ~40% before the stratospheric final warming. Larger ozone loss occurred in the cold year 1999/2000 which had a persistently cold and stable vortex during most of the winter. For this winter the current model, at a resolution of 2.8°×2.8°, can reproduce the observed loss of over 70% locally. In the warm and more disturbed winter 2003/2004 the chemical O3 loss was generally

  7. Evolution of stratospheric ozone during winter 2002/2003 as observed by a ground-based millimetre wave radiometer at Kiruna, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Raffalski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present ozone measurements from the millimetre wave radiometer installed at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (Institutet för rymdfysik, IRF in Kiruna (67.8° N, 20.4° E, 420 m asl. Nearly continuous operation in the winter of 2002/2003 allows us to give an overview of ozone evolution in the stratosphere between 15 and 55 km. In this study we present a detailed analysis of the Arctic winter 2002/2003. By means of a methodology using equivalent latitudes we investigate the meteorological processes in the stratosphere during the entire winter/spring period. During the course of the winter strong mixing into the vortex took place in the middle and upper stratosphere as a result of three minor and one major warming event, but no evidence was found for significant mixing in the lower stratosphere. Ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere during this winter was estimated by measurements on those days when Kiruna was well inside the Arctic polar vortex. The days were carefully chosen using a definition of the vortex edge based on equivalent latitudes. At the 475 K isentropic level a cumulative ozone loss of about 0.5 ppmv was found starting in January and lasting until mid-March. The early ozone loss is probably a result of the very cold temperatures in the lower stratosphere in December and the geographical extension of the vortex to lower latitudes where solar irradiation started photochemical ozone loss in the pre-processed air. In order to correct for dynamic effects of the ozone variation due to diabatic subsidence of air masses inside the vortex, we used N2O measurements from the Odin satellite for the same time period. The derived ozone loss in the lower stratosphere between mid-December and mid-March varies between 1.1±0.1 ppmv on the 150 ppbv N2O isopleth and 1.7±0.1 ppmv on the 50 ppbv N2O isopleth.

  8. Three-dimensional model study of the Arctic ozone loss in 2002/2003 and comparison with 1999/2000 and 2003/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Feng

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used the SLIMCAT 3-D off-line chemical transport model (CTM to quantify the Arctic chemical ozone loss in the year 2002/2003 and compare it with similar calculations for the winters 1999/2000 and 2003/2004. Recent changes to the CTM have improved the model's ability to reproduce polar chemical and dynamical processes. The updated CTM uses σ-θ as a vertical coordinate which allows it to extend down to the surface. The CTM has a detailed stratospheric chemistry scheme and now includes a simple NAT-based denitrification scheme in the stratosphere. In the model runs presented here the model was forced by ECMWF ERA40 and operational analyses. The model used 24 levels extending from the surface to ~55km and a horizontal resolution of either 7.5° x 7.5° or 2.8° x 2.8°. Two different radiation schemes, MIDRAD and the CCM scheme, were used to diagnose the vertical motion in the stratosphere. Based on tracer observations from balloons and aircraft, the more sophisticated CCM scheme gives a better representation of the vertical transport in this model which includes the troposphere. The higher resolution model generally produces larger chemical O3 depletion, which agrees better with observations. The CTM results show that very early chemical ozone loss occurred in December 2002 due to extremely low temperatures and early chlorine activation in the lower stratosphere. Thus, chemical loss in this winter started earlier than in the other two winters studied here. In 2002/2003 the local polar ozone loss in the lower stratosphere was ~40% before the stratospheric final warming. Larger ozone loss occurred in the cold year 1999/2000 which had a persistently cold and stable vortex during most of the winter. For this winter the current model, at a resolution of 2.8° x 2.8°, can reproduce the observed loss of over 70% locally. In the warm and more disturbed winter 2003/2004 the chemical O3 loss was generally much smaller, except above 620K where

  9. Three-dimensional model study of the Arctic ozone loss in 2002/2003 and comparison with 1999/2000 and 2003/2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, W.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Davies, S.; Sen, B.; Toon, G.; Blavier, J. F.; Webster, C. R.; Volk, C. M.; Ulanovsky, A.; Ravegnani, F.; von der Gathen, P.; Jost, H.; Richard, E. C.; Claude, H.

    2005-01-01

    We have used the SLIMCAT 3-D off-line chemical transport model (CTM) to quantify the Arctic chemical ozone loss in the year 2002/2003 and compare it with similar calculations for the winters 1999/2000 and 2003/2004. Recent changes to the CTM have improved the model's ability to reproduce polar chemical and dynamical processes. The updated CTM uses σ-θ as a vertical coordinate which allows it to extend down to the surface. The CTM has a detailed stratospheric chemistry scheme and now includes a simple NAT-based denitrification scheme in the stratosphere. In the model runs presented here the model was forced by ECMWF ERA40 and operational analyses. The model used 24 levels extending from the surface to ~55km and a horizontal resolution of either 7.5° x 7.5° or 2.8° x 2.8°. Two different radiation schemes, MIDRAD and the CCM scheme, were used to diagnose the vertical motion in the stratosphere. Based on tracer observations from balloons and aircraft, the more sophisticated CCM scheme gives a better representation of the vertical transport in this model which includes the troposphere. The higher resolution model generally produces larger chemical O3 depletion, which agrees better with observations. The CTM results show that very early chemical ozone loss occurred in December 2002 due to extremely low temperatures and early chlorine activation in the lower stratosphere. Thus, chemical loss in this winter started earlier than in the other two winters studied here. In 2002/2003 the local polar ozone loss in the lower stratosphere was ~40% before the stratospheric final warming. Larger ozone loss occurred in the cold year 1999/2000 which had a persistently cold and stable vortex during most of the winter. For this winter the current model, at a resolution of 2.8° x 2.8°, can reproduce the observed loss of over 70% locally. In the warm and more disturbed winter 2003/2004 the chemical O3 loss was generally much smaller, except above 620K where large losses occurred

  10. Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spang

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on ENVISAT has made extensive measurements of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs in the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003. A PSC detection method, based on a ratio of radiances (the cloud index, has been implemented for MIPAS and is validated in this study with respect to ground based lidar and space borne occultation measurements. A very good correspondence in PSC sighting and cloud altitude between MIPAS detections and those of other instruments is found for cloud index values less than four. Comparisons with data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III are used to show further that the sensitivity of the MIPAS detection method for this threshold value of cloud index is approximately equivalent to an extinction limit of 10−3 km−1 at 1022 nm, a wavelength used by solar occultation experiments. The MIPAS cloud index data are subsequently used to examine, for the first time with any technique, the evolution of PSCs throughout the Arctic polar vortex up to a latitude of 90° north on a near-daily basis. We find that the winter of 2002/2003 is characterised by three phases of very different PSC activity: First, an unusual, extremely cold phase in the first three weeks of December resulted in high PSC occurrence rates. This was followed by a second phase of only moderate PSC activity from 5–13 January, separated from the first phase by a minor warming event. Finally there was a third phase from February to end of March where only sporadic and mostly weak PSC events took place. The composition of PSCs during the winter period has also been examined, exploiting particularly an infra-red spectral signature which is probably characteristic of NAT. The MIPAS observations show the presence of these particles on a number of occasions in December but very rarely in January. The PSC type differentiation from MIPAS indicates that future

  11. Polar stratospheric cloud observations by MIPAS on ENVISAT: detection method, validation and analysis of the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on ENVISAT has made extensive measurements of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs in the northern hemisphere winter 2002/2003. A PSC detection method based on a ratio of radiances (the cloud index has been implemented for MIPAS and is validated in this study with respect to ground-based lidar and space borne occultation measurements. A very good correspondence in PSC sighting and cloud altitude between MIPAS detections and those of other instruments is found for cloud index values of less than four. Comparisons with data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III are used to further show that the sensitivity of the MIPAS detection method for this threshold value of cloud index is approximately equivalent to an extinction limit of 10-3km-1 at 1022nm, a wavelength used by solar occultation experiments. The MIPAS cloud index data are subsequently used to examine, for the first time with any technique, the evolution of PSCs throughout the Arctic polar vortex up to a latitude close to 90° north on a near-daily basis. We find that the winter of 2002/2003 is characterised by three phases of very different PSC activity. First, an unusual, extremely cold phase in the first three weeks of December resulted in high PSC occurrence rates. This was followed by a second phase of only moderate PSC activity from 5-13 January, separated from the first phase by a minor warming event. Finally there was a third phase from February to the end of March where only sporadic and mostly weak PSC events took place. The composition of PSCs during the winter period has also been examined, exploiting in particular an infra-red spectral signature which is probably characteristic of NAT. The MIPAS observations show the presence of these particles on a number of occasions in December but very rarely in January. The PSC type differentiation from MIPAS indicates that future comparisons of PSC

  12. Assessment of High Rates of Precocious Male Maturation in a Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Hatchery Program, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Donald; Beckman, Brian; Cooper, Kathleen

    2003-08-01

    The Yakima River Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project in Washington State is currently one of the most ambitious efforts to enhance a natural salmon population in the United States. Over the past five years we have conducted research to characterize the developmental physiology of naturally- and hatchery-reared wild progeny spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Yakima River basin. Fish were sampled at the main hatchery in Cle Elum, at remote acclimation sites and, during smolt migration, at downstream dams. Throughout these studies the maturational state of all fish was characterized using combinations of visual and histological analysis of testes, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and measurement of plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). We established that a plasma 11-KT threshold of 0.8 ng/ml could be used to designate male fish as either immature or precociously maturing approximately 8 months prior to final maturation (1-2 months prior to release as 'smolts'). Our analyses revealed that 37-49% of the hatchery-reared males from this program undergo precocious maturation at 2 years of age and a proportion of these fish appear to residualize in the upper Yakima River basin throughout the summer. An unnaturally high incidence of precocious male maturation may result in loss of potential returning anadromous adults, skewing of female: male sex ratios, ecological, and genetic impacts on wild populations and other native species. Precocious male maturation is significantly influenced by growth rate at specific times of year and future studies will be conducted to alter maturation rates through seasonal growth rate manipulations.

  13. Conceptual Spawning Habitat Model to Aid in ESA Recovery Plans for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a spawning habitat model that can be used to determine the physical habitat factors that are necessary to define the production potential for fall chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Columbia River's Hanford Reach and Snake River. This project addresses RPA 155 in the NMFS 2000 Biological Opinion: Action 155: BPA, working with BOR, the Corps, EPA, and USGS, shall develop a program to: (1) Identify mainstem habitat sampling reaches, survey conditions, describe cause-and-effect relationships, and identify research needs; (2) Develop improvement plans for all mainstem reaches; and (3) Initiate improvements in three mainstem reaches. During FY 2003 we continued to collect and analyze information on fall chinook salmon spawning habitat characteristics in the Hanford Reach that will be used to address RPA 155, i.e., items 1-3 above. For example, in FY 2003: (1) We continued to survey spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach and develop a 2-dimensional hydraulic and habitat model that will be capable of predicting suitability of fall chinook salmon habitat in the Hanford Reach; (2) Monitor how hydro operations altered the physical and chemical characteristics of the river and the hyporheic zone within fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach; (3) Published a paper on the impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon (Dauble et al. 2003). This paper was made possible with data collected on this project; (4) Continued to analyze data collected in previous years that will ultimately be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships and identify research needs that will assist managers in the improvement of fall chinook habitat quality in main-stem reaches. During FY 2004 we plan to: (1) Complete preliminary reporting and submit papers based on the results of the project through FY 2004. Although we have proposed additional analysis of data be conducted in FY 2005, we anticipate a significant number of key papers being prepared and submitted in FY 2004 which will go toward identifying the data gaps this RPA is intended to address; (2) Make available data from this project for use on Project 2003-038-00 ('Evaluate restoration potential of Snake River fall chinook salmon') which is a BPA-funded project that will start in FY 2004; and (3) Present results of our work at regional and national meetings in order to facilitate technology transfer and information sharing. The objective of this project is to define the production potential of fall chinook salmon that spawn in the Hanford Reach. We will provide fisheries and resource managers with the information they need to determine if the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is indeed healthy, and whether this population will be capable of seeding other satellite populations in the future. We will accomplish this purpose by continuing our on-going research at determining the carrying capacity of the Hanford Reach for producing fall chinook salmon under current operational scenarios, and then begin an assessment of whether the Reach is functioning as a model of a normative river as is widely believed. The product of our research will be a better understanding of the key habitat features for mainstem populations of anadromous salmonids, as well as a better understanding of the measures that must be taken to ensure long-term protection of the Hanford Reach fall chinook population. Although the project was originally funded in FY 1994, it was significantly redefined in FY 2000. At that time five tasks were proposed to accomplish the project objective. The purpose of this progress report is to briefly describe the activities that have been completed on each of the five tasks from FY 2000 through FY 2003.

  14. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Easterbrooks, John A. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-09-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) is a supplementation project sponsored by the Northwest Power Planning Council and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration. The YKFP has adopted the definition of supplementation described by Regional Assessment of Supplementation Program (1992), which is ''the use of artificial propagation in an attempt to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining the long-term fitness of the target population, and keeping the ecological and genetic impacts on nontarget populations within specified biological limits''. Recent scientific reviews of hatchery supplementation continue to highlight the experimental nature and risk of supplementation (Independent Scientific Group 1996; National Research Council 1996; Lichatowich 1999; Independent Multidisciplinary Science Team 2000; Independent Scientific Advisory Board 2003; Hatchery Scientific Review Group 2003). In addition, many of these reviews included recommendations about the best ways to operate a supplementation program. Most of these recommendations were already being done or have been incorporated into the YKFP. The objectives of the YKFP are: (1) to test the hypothesis that new supplementation techniques can be used in the Yakima River Basin to increase natural production and to improve harvest opportunities while maintaining the long-term genetic fitness of the wild and native salmonid populations and keeping adverse ecological interactions within acceptable limits (Yakima Fisheries Project Final Environment Impact Statement, 1996); (2) provide knowledge about the use of supplementation, so that it may be used to mitigate effects on anadromous fisheries throughout the Columbia River Basin; (3) to maintain and improve the quantity and productivity of salmon and steelhead habitat, including those areas made accessible by habitat improvements; (4) to ensure that Project implementation remains consistent with the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program; and (5) to implement the Project in a prudent and environmentally sound manner. Current YKFP operations have been designed to test the principles of supplementation (Busack et al. 1997). The Project's experimental design has focused on the following critical uncertainties affecting supplementation: (1) The survival and reproductive success of hatchery fish after release from the hatchery; (2) The impacts of hatchery fish as they interact with non-target species and stocks; and, (3) The effects of supplementation on the long-term genetic fitness of fish stocks. The YKFP endorses an adaptive management policy applied through a project management framework as described in the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Planning Status Report (1995), Fast and Craig (1997), and Clune and Dauble 1991. The project is managed by a Policy Group consisting of a representative of the Yakama Nation (YN, lead agency) and a representative of the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The functions of the parties are described in an MOU between the YN and the WDFW. A Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) consisting of one representative from each management entity reports to the Policy Group and provides technical input on policy and other issues. Additional committee's, such as the Monitoring Implementation and Planning Team (MIPT), serve at the discretion of STAC. The Policy Group and STAC meet periodically (usually monthly) to conduct the business of the YKFP. Although the YKFP is an all stocks initiative (BPA 1996), most effort to date has been directed at spring chinook salmon and coho salmon. This report is a compilation of the year's activities between August 1, 2002 and July 31, 2003. The Yakama Nation's portion of the YKFP is presented in another report. All findings should be considered preliminary until data collection is completed or the information is published in a peer-reviewed journal. Pearsons and Easterbrooks (2003) described last year's activities.

  15. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.; Smith, Steven G.; Zabel, Richard W. (NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Center, Seattle, WA)

    2003-07-01

    In 2002, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the tenth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags). We PIT tagged and released a total of 19,891 hatchery steelhead at Lower Granite Dam. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream from the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using a statistical model for tag-recapture data from single release groups (the ''Single-Release Model''). Primary research objectives in 2002 were to (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the migration period of yearling chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2002 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon (hatchery and wild), hatchery sockeye salmon O. nerka, hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch, and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures; details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited here. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  16. American Library Directory[TM], 2002-2003. Vol. 1: Libraries in the United States [and] Vol. 2: Libraries in Canada, Library Networks, Consortia & Schools, Organization Index, Personnel Index. 55th Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The "American Library Directory[TM] 2002-2003," in two volumes, provides access to comparative data, additional resources, and sales prospects for the United States and Canadian library communities. Containing full profiles on public, academic, government, and special libraries, the totally updated 55th edition is organized by state and city. Each…

  17. Re-emergence of Rift Valley fever virus in Barkedji (Senegal, West Africa) in 2002-2003: identification of new vectors and epidemiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Y; Sall, A A; Diallo, D; Mondo, M; Girault, L; Dia, I; Diallo, M

    2012-09-01

    The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a threat that must not be neglected, as the consequences of RVFV are dramatic, both for human and animal health. This virus is a zoonotic virus that already has demonstrated a real capacity for re-emerging after long periods of silence, as observed in Barkedji (Senegal, West Africa) in 2002. In this article we present the 2nd emergence in Barkedji after the 1st manifestation in 1993, and for the 1st time the circulation of RVFV during 2 consecutive years among mosquito populations in Senegal. As part of the entomological surveillance program undertaken since 1990 to detect circulation of the RVFV in Barkedji, 108,336 mosquitoes belonging to 34 species and 5 genera were collected in 2002-2003. Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes, previously known to be vectors of RVFV in Senegal, comprised 88.7% of the total collection. In 2002, Ae. vexans was the most abundant mosquito, followed by Cx. poicilipes; the opposite situation was observed in 2003. In 2002, 29 and 10 RVFV isolates were obtained from Cx. poicilipes (minimum infection rate [MIR] = 0.13%) and Ae. vexans (MIR = 0.02%) pools, respectively and the MIR for the 2 species were significantly different (chi2 = 34.65; df = 1, P Senegal. A significant decrease in MIR was observed from 2002 to 2003 (chi2 6.28; df = 1, P = 0.01) for Cx. poicilipes, the only species involved in the transmission during the 2 sampling years.

  18. Idaho Model Watershed Project : Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration January 1, 1997 - December 31, 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Allen; Slavin, Katie

    1998-10-28

    The Model Watershed Project was initiated in the fall of 1992 with a grant from Bonneville Power Administration. The objective of this project is to protect, enhance and restore anadromous and resident fish habitat and achieve and maintain a balance between resource protection and resource use on a holistic watershed basis.

  19. 2002 - 2003 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    1st TERM : November - December 2002   LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 November 2002 Telling the Truth with Statistics by R. Barlow / Univ. of Manchester, UK 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500     REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME 2, 3, 4, 5 December 2002 Introduction to String Theory by W. Lerche / CERN-TH 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500 The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc.) will be published in the CERN bulletin, the WWW, and by Notices before each term and for each series of lectures. Françoise Benz Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  20. 2002-2003年陕西国力足球队运动损伤情况的分析与研究%Analysis and Research on Sports Injury of Soccer Players from Shaanxi Guoli Club during 2002-2003 Soccer Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建华; 毛杰

    2004-01-01

    采用文献资料调研、运动员伤病跟踪调查、数理统计等方法,对陕西国力足球队2002-2003赛季运动损伤情况进行研究,结果表明:在两个赛季内,共有17名运动员发生了128例不同部位的损伤,占被观察人数的65.3%,78.7%的损伤发生在下肢.通过对足球运动员损伤机制的研究,旨在提出足球运动致损因素,寻找措施,减少运动员在比赛与训练中的损伤发生.

  1. Regression equations for estimation of annual peak-streamflow frequency for undeveloped watersheds in Texas using an L-moment-based, PRESS-minimized, residual-adjusted approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2009-01-01

    Annual peak-streamflow frequency estimates are needed for flood-plain management; for objective assessment of flood risk; for cost-effective design of dams, levees, and other flood-control structures; and for design of roads, bridges, and culverts. Annual peak-streamflow frequency represents the peak streamflow for nine recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 years. Common methods for estimation of peak-streamflow frequency for ungaged or unmonitored watersheds are regression equations for each recurrence interval developed for one or more regions; such regional equations are the subject of this report. The method is based on analysis of annual peak-streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations (stations). Beginning in 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation and in partnership with Texas Tech University, began a 3-year investigation concerning the development of regional equations to estimate annual peak-streamflow frequency for undeveloped watersheds in Texas. The investigation focuses primarily on 638 stations with 8 or more years of data from undeveloped watersheds and other criteria. The general approach is explicitly limited to the use of L-moment statistics, which are used in conjunction with a technique of multi-linear regression referred to as PRESS minimization. The approach used to develop the regional equations, which was refined during the investigation, is referred to as the 'L-moment-based, PRESS-minimized, residual-adjusted approach'. For the approach, seven unique distributions are fit to the sample L-moments of the data for each of 638 stations and trimmed means of the seven results of the distributions for each recurrence interval are used to define the station specific, peak-streamflow frequency. As a first iteration of regression, nine weighted-least-squares, PRESS-minimized, multi-linear regression equations are computed using the watershed

  2. Geology, tectonics, and the 2002-2003 eruption of the Semeru volcano, Indonesia: Interpreted from high-spatial resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhin, Akhmad; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gupta, Avijit; Harris, Andy J. L.; Liew, Soo Chin

    2012-02-01

    The paper illustrates the application of high-spatial resolution satellite images in interpreting volcanic structures and eruption impacts in the Tengger-Semeru massif in east Java, Indonesia. We use high-spatial resolution images (IKONOS and SPOT 5) and aerial photos in order to analyze the structures of Semeru volcano and map the deposits. Geological and tectonic mapping is based on two DEMs and on the interpretation of aerial photos and four SPOT and IKONOS optical satellite images acquired between 1996 and 2002. We also compared two thermal Surface Kinetic Temperature ASTER images before and after the 2002-2003 eruption in order to delineate and evaluate the impacts of the pyroclastic density currents. Semeru's principal structural features are probably due to the tectonic setting of the volcano. A structural map of the Tengger-Semeru massif shows four groups of faults orientated N40, N160, N75, and N105 to N140. Conspicuous structures, such as the SE-trending horseshoe-shaped scar on Semeru's summit cone, coincide with the N160-trending faults. The direction of minor scars on the east flank parallels the first and second groups of faults. The Semeru composite cone hosts the currently active Jonggring-Seloko vent. This is located on, and buttressed against, the Mahameru edifice at the head of a large scar that may reflect a failure plane at shallow depth. Dipping 35° towards the SE, this failure plane may correspond to a weak basal layer of weathered volcaniclastic rocks of Tertiary age. We suggest that the deformation pattern of Semeru and its large scar may be induced by flank spreading over the weak basal layer of the volcano. It is therefore necessary to consider the potential for flank and summit collapse in the future. The last major eruption took place in December 2002-January 2003, and involved emplacement of block-and-ash flows. We have used the 2003 ASTER Surface Kinetic Temperature image to map the 2002-2003 pyroclastic density current deposits. We

  3. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  4. Factors associated with not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia: the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Dibley, Michael John

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examined factors associated with non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia. Data from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys (IDHS) were used, providing survival information for 26,591 most recent deliveries over the five-year period prior to each survey. The main outcome variable was non-use of iron/folic acid supplements. Using logistic regression, we examined the role of external environment, predisposing, enabling, need factors, and previous utilization of other maternal care services in non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. Mothers from outer Java- Bali Region and rural areas (OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.03) had increased odds for not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. The likelihood for not using the supplements increased with the reduction of household wealth index and parental education. The odds increased amongst mothers with low autonomy on her own health care (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), high birth-rank infants, mothers with low knowledge of obstetric complications and low exposure to mass media. Enabling factors associated with increased odds for non-use of iron/folic acid supplements included mothers reporting money to pay health services (OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.13- 1.44) and distance to health services (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.40) were major problems. Our study demonstrated the importance of antenatal care as a distribution channel of the supplements. Increasing community awareness, coverage and access to health services along with strengthening counselling sessions during antenatal care and community participation in health programs are necessary to improve the uptake of iron/folic acid supplements, to increase infant survival in Indonesia.

  5. Factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia: results of Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2002/2003 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titaley Christiana R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care aims to prevent maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. In Indonesia, at least four antenatal visits are recommended during pregnancy. However, this service has been underutilized. This study aimed to examine factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Indonesia. Methods We used data from Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS 2002/2003 and 2007. Information of 26,591 singleton live-born infants of the mothers' most recent birth within five years preceding each survey was examined. Twenty-three potential risk factors were identified and categorized into four main groups, external environment, predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between all potential risk factors and underutilization of antenatal services. The Population Attributable Risk (PAR was calculated for selected significant factors associated with the outcome. Results Factors strongly associated with underutilization of antenatal care services were infants from rural areas and from outer Java-Bali region, infants from low household wealth index and with low maternal education level, and high birth rank infants with short birth interval of less than two years. Other associated factors identified included mothers reporting distance to health facilities as a major problem, mothers less exposed to mass media, and mothers reporting no obstetric complications during pregnancy. The PAR showed that 55% of the total risks for underutilization of antenatal care services were attributable to the combined low household wealth index and low maternal education level. Conclusions Strategies to increase the accessibility and availability of health care services are important particularly for communities in rural areas. Financial support that enables mothers from poor households to use health services will be beneficial. Health promotion programs targeting

  6. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  7. THE COLLECTION OF 4448 METEORITES IN GROVE MOUNTAINS,ANTARCTICA,IN 2002-2003:CONFIRMATION OF A NEW METEORITE CONCENTRATION%南极格罗夫山于2002-2003年搜集4448块陨石:新陨石富集区的证实

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琚宜太; 缪秉魁

    2005-01-01

    我国第19次南极考察队于2002-2003年在格罗夫山地区寻找陨石,共搜集了4448块陨石,其中石陨石2892块、球粒陨石1524块、碳质球粒陨石25块、无球粒陨石6块和石铁陨石1块.这次陨石调查主要沿阵风悬崖南段、中段、北段蓝冰区进行,在上述地区分别发现了41块、2684块、1721块陨石.本次考察中,在已搜寻的蓝冰区,尽管其富集程度有很大差异,但均发现了陨石,因此,格罗夫山其它尚未搜寻的蓝冰区也可能富集陨石.大部分陨石可能是风从阵风悬崖或其上方吹来的,因这些陨石质量小,分布在蓝冰的凹地或冰碛的迎风坡.而另一些质量大的陨石可能受冰川搬运至收集地点,因冰的消融而露出蓝冰表面.这些陨石的发现充分证明格罗夫山地区为南极最富集陨石的地区之一.

  8. Twenty-year inter-annual trends and seasonal variations in precipitation and stream water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomas; Norton, Stephen A; Fernandez, Ivan J; Nelson, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Mean annual concentration of SO4(-2) in wet-only deposition has decreased between 1988 and 2006 at the paired watershed study at Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA (BBWM) due to substantially decreased emissions of SO(2). Emissions of NO(x) have not changed substantially, but deposition has declined slightly at BBWM. Base cations, NH4+, and Cl(-) concentrations were largely unchanged, with small irregular changes of <1 μeq L(-1) per year from 1988 to 2006. Precipitation chemistry, hydrology, vegetation, and temperature drive seasonal stream chemistry. Low flow periods were typical in June-October, with relatively greater contributions of deeper flow solutions with higher pH; higher concentrations of acid-neutralizing capacity, Si, and non-marine Na; and low concentrations of inorganic Al. High flow periods during November-May were typically dominated by solutions following shallow flow paths, which were characterized by lower pH and higher Al and DOC concentrations. Biological activity strongly controlled NO3- and K(+). They were depressed during the growing season and elevated in the fall. Since 1987, East Bear Brook (EB), the reference stream, has been slowly responding to reduced but still elevated acid deposition. Calcium and Mg have declined fairly steadily and faster than SO4(-2), with consequent acidification (lower pH and higher inorganic Al). Eighteen years of experimental treatment with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) enhanced acidification of West Bear Brook's (WB) watershed. Despite the manipulation, NH4+ concentration remained below detection limits at WB, while leaching of NO3- increased. The seasonal pattern for NO3- concentrations in WB, however, remained similar to EB. Mean monthly concentrations of SO4(-2) have increased in WB since 1989, initially only during periods of high flow, but gradually also during base flow. Increases in mean monthly concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) due to the manipulation occurred from 1989 until about 1995, during the

  9. Alternative Regression Equations for Estimation of Annual Peak-Streamflow Frequency for Undeveloped Watersheds in Texas using PRESS Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Thompson, David B.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation and in partnership with Texas Tech University, investigated a refinement of the regional regression method and developed alternative equations for estimation of peak-streamflow frequency for undeveloped watersheds in Texas. A common model for estimation of peak-streamflow frequency is based on the regional regression method. The current (2008) regional regression equations for 11 regions of Texas are based on log10 transformations of all regression variables (drainage area, main-channel slope, and watershed shape). Exclusive use of log10-transformation does not fully linearize the relations between the variables. As a result, some systematic bias remains in the current equations. The bias results in overestimation of peak streamflow for both the smallest and largest watersheds. The bias increases with increasing recurrence interval. The primary source of the bias is the discernible curvilinear relation in log10 space between peak streamflow and drainage area. Bias is demonstrated by selected residual plots with superimposed LOWESS trend lines. To address the bias, a statistical framework based on minimization of the PRESS statistic through power transformation of drainage area is described and implemented, and the resulting regression equations are reported. Compared to log10-exclusive equations, the equations derived from PRESS minimization have PRESS statistics and residual standard errors less than the log10 exclusive equations. Selected residual plots for the PRESS-minimized equations are presented to demonstrate that systematic bias in regional regression equations for peak-streamflow frequency estimation in Texas can be reduced. Because the overall error is similar to the error associated with previous equations and because the bias is reduced, the PRESS-minimized equations reported here provide alternative equations for peak-streamflow frequency estimation.

  10. The 2002/2003 radionuclide concentration in the marine environment at various distances from the Barseback nuclear power plant; La concentration de radionucleides - en 2002/2003 - dans l'environnement marin, a diverses distances de la centrale electronucleaire de Barseback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Raaf, C.L.; Mattsson, S. [Lund Univ., Malmo Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmo (Sweden)

    2008-07-15

    The activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 58}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 40}K were determined in samples of brown seaweed (Fucus) and some other marine plants using low background high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. The algae were mainly sampled in the bay just north of the Barsebaeck NPP (55.4 N, 12.6 E) in the south of Sweden to study the contamination levels in the nearest shallow waters. One aim of the study was to investigate whether the levels were high enough to expect environmental effects. Some samples were also taken at longer distances up to 130 km from the Barsebaeck NPP. Measurable levels of the neutron activation products {sup 65}Zn (up to 17 Bq/kg dw), {sup 60}Co (100-600 Bq/kg dw), {sup 58}Co (1-160 Bq/kg dw) and {sup 54}Mn (12-90 Bq/kg dw) were found in the algae samples within a distance of 5 km from the plant. The decrease in activity concentration with distance from the plant could be described by a power function with an exponent ranging from 1.4 to 2.4. This was in fair agreement with the value for a true two-dimensional dispersion model. The present-day concentrations were found to be considerably lower than in earlier studies made in the late 1970, especially for {sup 65}Zn and {sup 58}Co. The activity concentration of gamma emitting radionuclides in Fucus vesiculosus from the bay just north of Barsebaeck in the period 2002-2003 was dominated by (in order of decreasing concentration): natural {sup 40}K, {sup 60}Co from the plant, {sup 137}Cs mainly from the Chernobyl debris, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 58}Co from the plant. It is not likely that any effects from the very marginal absorbed dose contribution from the Barsebaeck NPP releases can be found even in the nearest environment. The study has also shown that the eel grass Zostera marina may be a bio indicator to use in further studies of the radiation environment in shallow water, especially for {sup 60}Co and {sup 54}Mn. (author)

  11. Prevalencia de síntomas de dermatitis atópica en niños y adolescentes en La Habana (2002-2003 Prevalence of symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children and adolescents in La Habana (2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Varona Pérez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: determinar la prevalencia de eczema atópico y describir sus características en niños y adolescentes de La Habana, así como su relación con el asma y la rinitis. Métodos: estudio transversal que aplicó la metodología ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in the Childhood adaptada al contexto nacional. Incluyó 1 803 niños (6-7 años y 3 023 adolescentes (13-14 años de población escolar urbana en los municipios Playa y Marianao, durante los años 2002-2003. La información se obtuvo a partir de entrevistas a los padres de los niños y a los adolescentes. En el análisis se utilizaron estadígrafos de frecuencia absoluta y relativa en porcentajes, odds ratio y sus intervalos de confianza al 95 %. Resultados: la prevalencia acumulada de síntomas de eczema, fue referida en aproximadamente 4 de cada 10 niños: 38,3 % (IC 33,8-42,7 y en 2 de cada 10 adolescentes: 22,5 % (IC 20,1-25,0; la prevalencia actual en los niños y adolescentes fue 22,2 % (IC 19,0-25,5 y 14,1 % (IC 12,4-16,1 respectivamente. En los primeros 2 años de vida, el 50 % de los niños inició los síntomas, que fueron más severos en 2 de cada 10 escolares. Los niños con síntomas de eczema, tuvieron hasta 4 veces más riesgo de padecer rinitis (OR 1,9 IC 95 % 1,1-3,5 o asma (OR 2,4 IC 95 % 1,6-3,6; en los adolescentes el riesgo de padecer rinitis se elevó hasta 5 (OR 2,6 IC 95 % 1,4-4,9. Conclusiones: se evidenció una alta prevalencia de dermatitis atópica y su relevancia como problema de salud. Los resultados constituyeron una línea de base para la comparación con los de otras ciudades del país y con los de otras latitudes; permitieron documentar tendencias a escala poblacional y evaluar el impacto de futuras intervenciones.Objectives: to determine the prevalence of atopic eczema and to describe its features in children and adolescents of La Habana, as well as its relation to asthma and rhinitis. Methods: a cross-sectional study was

  12. 内蒙古赤峰市兴隆沟聚落遗址2002~2003年的发掘%2002-2003 Excavation on the Settlement-site at Xinglonggou in Chifeng City, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所内蒙古第一工作队

    2004-01-01

    In 2002- 2003, the First Inner Mongolian Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, carried out two seasons of excavation on the Xinglonggou site. The work resulted in the confirmation of the first locality as a large-sized settlement of the middle Xinglongwa culture (8000-7500 BP). The significant findings in dwelling form, settlement layout, burial custom, primitive religion, economic formation and environmental archaeology represent a new type in the Xinglongwa culture. The second locality is left over from a small-sized ditch-surrounded settlement of the Hongshan culture (5500-5000 BP). Its discovery made up the gap of late Hongshan Culture sites in the prehistoric data. The third locality remains of a small-sized ditch-surrounded settlement of the Lower Xiajiadian culture (4000-3500BP), which offers new material for studying the civilizing course and early state form of the West Liaohe River valley. The excavation of the Xinglonggou site will forcefully promote the deep-going study of prehistoric archaeological cultures in Northeast China and exert active influence upon the research on Sino-Japanese cultural relations in prehistoric times.

  13. de residuos. Buenos Aires, 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Paiva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda la problemática de la gestión de los residuos sólidos domiciliarios de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Dicha gestión está regulada por un marco jurídico muy antiguo que impide la recuperación o el reciclaje en casi todas las fases del circuito de recolección, transporte y disposición final. En forma paralela a la gestión oficial, se ha extendido una vía de recolección y recuperación informal, que ha llevado a cabo algunas personas pertenecientes a los sectores más pobres de nuestra sociedad, quienes encuentran en la venta de los residuos recuperados un camino para su supervivencia diaria. En el presente artículo describimos las características de este circuito informal en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, las rutas, calles, horarios y tipos de residuos recogidos, y analizamos el fenómeno no solamente como una manifiestación de la pobreza, sino como un camino alternativo para la recolección diferenciada de los residuos sólidos de la ciudad.

  14. Socio-economic factors and use of maternal health services are associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia: secondary analysis of Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys 2002/2003 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Loh, Philips C; Prasetyo, Sabarinah; Ariawan, Iwan; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2014-01-01

    This analysis aims to examine factors associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia. Data were derived from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Information from 12,191 singleton live-born infants aged 0-23 months was used to examine factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Furthermore, information from 3,187 singleton live-born infants aged 0-5 months was used to identify factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Associations between potential predictors and study outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Our study found that infants from high household wealth-index had significantly increased odds of both delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding. Other factors associated with an increased odds of delayed initiation of breastfeeding included infants from Sumatera region (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.38-1.95), Caesarean-section deliveries (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.39-2.44) and deliveries in government-owned (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.08-1.76) and non-health facility (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.00-1.43). Other factors associated with an increased odds for non-exclusive breastfeeding included parents who were in the workforce (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.06-1.78) and mothers with obstetric complication at childbirth (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). However, the odds reduced for infants from Eastern Indonesia (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.49-0.85). Poor breastfeeding practices are associated with environmental, socio-economic, pregnancy-birthing characteristics and maternal health services factors. Efforts to promote breastfeeding practices should be conducted comprehensively to target population at risk for poor breastfeeding practices.

  15. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), River Lampreys (L. ayresi), and Western Brook Lampreys (L. richardsoni) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean {+-} SD; 1.468 {+-} 0.107 mm, N = 320) than for western brook lampreys (1.237 {+-} 0.064 mm, N = 280). An unpaired t-test showed that the difference in mean chorion diameter between species was highly significant (t = 32.788, df = 528.62, P < 0.0001). For larvae, we collected, digitized, and preserved 156 individuals from each species. Eight homologous landmarks defining a two-cell truss network with two appended triangles were selected for morphometric analyses and species discrimination. A full model discriminant analysis correctly classified 92% of the Pacific lampreys and 93% of the western brook lampreys in a classification data set. When applied to a test data set, the classification functions correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 85% of the western brook lampreys. A backward elimination discriminant analysis removed four variables from the full model, and the reduced model correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 93% of the western brook lampreys in a classification data set. The reduced model classification functions correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 85% of the western brook lampreys in a test data set. In 2001 and 2002 Pacific and western brook lampreys were artificially spawned and resulting progeny were reared in the laboratory at 10 C, 14 C, 18 C, and 22 C. The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.85 C for Pacific and 4.97 C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18 C followed by 14 C, 10 C, and 22 C, with significant differences observed between 22 C and other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook than for Pacific lampreys, although the difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Survival to hatch was significantly greater than survival to the larval stage with a difference of only 0.03. The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22 C followed by 18 C, 10 C, and 14 C, with significant differences observed between 22 C and other temperatures.

  16. Identification of larval Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata), river lampreys (L. ayresi), and western brook lampreys (L. richardsoni) and thermal requirements of early life history stages of lampreys. Annual report 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Reiche, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin (CRB) lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). We evaluated the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics for identification of larval lampreys (i.e., pigment patterns) and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stage CRB lampreys, and we determined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage CRB lampreys. Thirty-one larval lampreys were collected from locations throughout the CRB and transported to the Columbia River Research Laboratory. Lampreys were sampled at six-week intervals at which time they were identified to the species level based on current diagnostic characteristics. Sampling was repeated until lampreys metamorphosed, at which time species identification was validated based on dentition, or until they died, at which time they were preserved for genetic examination. These lampreys were sampled 30 times with two individuals metamorphosing, both of which were consistently identified, and subsequently validated, as Pacific lampreys. Of the remaining lampreys, only one was inconsistently identified (Pacific lamprey in 83% of the sampling events and western brook lamprey in 17% of the sampling events). These data suggest that pigmentation patterns do not change appreciably through time. In 2001 and 2002 we artificially spawned Pacific and western brook lampreys in the laboratory to provide material for meristic and morphometric descriptions. We collected, digitized, preserved, and measured the mean chorion diameter of Pacific and western brook lamprey embryos. Embryos ranged in development from 1 d post fertilization to just prior to hatch, and were incubated at 14 C. Mean chorion diameter was greater and more variable for Pacific lampreys (mean {+-} SD; 1.468 {+-} 0.107 mm, N = 320) than for western brook lampreys (1.237 {+-} 0.064 mm, N = 280). An unpaired t-test showed that the difference in mean chorion diameter between species was highly significant (t = 32.788, df = 528.62, P analysis correctly classified 92% of the Pacific lampreys and 93% of the western brook lampreys in a classification data set. When applied to a test data set, the classification functions correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 85% of the western brook lampreys. A backward elimination discriminant analysis removed four variables from the full model, and the reduced model correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 93% of the western brook lampreys in a classification data set. The reduced model classification functions correctly classified 91% of the Pacific lampreys and 85% of the western brook lampreys in a test data set. In 2001 and 2002 Pacific and western brook lampreys were artificially spawned and resulting progeny were reared in the laboratory at 10 C, 14 C, 18 C, and 22 C. The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.85 C for Pacific and 4.97 C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18 C followed by 14 C, 10 C, and 22 C, with significant differences observed between 22 C and other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook than for Pacific lampreys, although the difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Survival to hatch was significantly greater than survival to the larval stage with a difference of only 0.03. The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22 C followed by 18 C, 10 C, and 14 C, with significant differences observed between 22 C and other temperatures.

  17. Watershed District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Boundaries show on this map are derived from legal descriptions contained in petitions to the Kansas Secretary of State for the creation or extension of watershed...

  18. Watershed Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Investigating local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. Investigation activities promote learning in an investigations interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…

  19. USGS Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) Stewardship Plan Objectives for FY17 from The National Map - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior - The annual Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) stewardship plan is to maintain watershed boundary data through...

  20. Circumpolar polynya regions and ice production in the Arctic: results from MODIS thermal infrared imagery from 2002/2003 to 2014/2015 with a regional focus on the Laptev Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preußer, Andreas; Heinemann, Günther; Willmes, Sascha; Paul, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution MODIS thermal infrared satellite data are used to infer spatial and temporal characteristics of 17 prominent coastal polynya regions over the entire Arctic basin. Thin-ice thickness (TIT) distributions (≤ 20 cm) are calculated from MODIS ice-surface temperatures, combined with ECMWF ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data in an energy balance model for 13 winter seasons (2002/2003 to 2014/2015; November to March). From all available MODIS swath data, daily thin-ice thickness composites are computed in order to derive quantities such as polynya area and total thermodynamic (i.e., potential) ice production. A gap-filling approach is applied to account for cloud and data gaps in the MODIS composites. All polynya regions combined cover an average thin-ice area of 226.6 ± 36.1 × 103 km2 in winter. This allows for an average total winter-accumulated ice production of about 1811 ± 293 km3, whereby the Kara Sea region, the North Water polynya (both 15 %), polynyas on the western side of Novaya Zemlya (20 %), as well as scattered smaller polynyas in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (all combined 12 %) are the main contributors. Other well-known sites of polynya formation (Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea) show smaller contributions and range between 2 and 5 %. We notice distinct differences to earlier studies on pan-Arctic polynya characteristics, originating in some part from the use of high-resolution MODIS data, as the capability to resolve small-scale (> 2 km) polynyas and also large leads are increased. Despite the short record of 13 winter seasons, positive trends in ice production are detected for several regions of the eastern Arctic (most significantly in the Laptev Sea region with an increase of 6.8 km3 yr-1) and the North Water polynya, while other polynyas in the western Arctic show a more pronounced variability with varying trends. We emphasize the role of the Laptev Sea polynyas as being a major influence on Transpolar Drift characteristics through

  1. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Healthy Watersheds Protection (HWP) Share ... live in a watershed — thus watershed condition is important to everyone. Watersheds exist at different geographic scales, ...

  2. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION OF WATERSHEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubacar KANE; Pierre Y.JULIEN

    2007-01-01

    An extensive database of reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout continental United States is compiled and analyzed to determine specific degradation SD relationships as function of mean annual rainfall R, drainage area A, and watershed slope S. The database contains 1463 field measurements and specific degradation relationships are defined as function of A, R and S. Weak trends and significant variability in the data are noticeable. Specific degradation measurements are log normally distributed with respect to R, A, and S and 95% confidence intervals are determined accordingly. The accuracy of the predictions does not significantly increase as more independent variables are added to the regression analyses.

  3. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed; Anadromous Fish Habitat Restoration in the Nichols Canyon Subwatershed, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Deb (Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2002-02-01

    Big Canyon Creek historically provided quality spawning and rearing habitat for A-run wild summer steelhead in the Clearwater River subbasin (Fuller, 1986). However, high stream temperatures, excessive sediment and nutrient loads, low summer stream flows, and little instream cover caused anadromous fish habitat constraints in the creek. The primary sources of these nonpoint source pollution and habitat degradations are attributed to agricultural, livestock, and forestry practices (NPSWCD, 1995). Addressing these problems is made more complex due to the large percentage of privately owned lands in the watershed. Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (NPSWCD) seeks to assist private, tribal, county, and state landowners in implementing Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce nonpoint source pollutants, repair poorly functioning riparian zones, and increase water retention in the Nichols Canyon subwatershed. The project funds coordination, planning, technical assistance, BMP design and installation, monitoring, and educational outreach to identify and correct problems associated with agricultural and livestock activities impacting water quality and salmonid survival. The project accelerates implementation of the Idaho agricultural water quality management program within the subwatershed.

  4. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...

  5. Adopt Your Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  6. Landscape planning for agricultural non-point source pollution reduction. II. Balancing watershed size, number of watersheds, and implementation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T; Diebel, Matthew W; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs--i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds--have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from $2 to $200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km(2); and optimal expenditure ranged from $21,000 to $35,000/km(2). The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km(2). These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  7. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  8. Como o grau de desigualdade afeta a propensão marginal a consumir? Distribuição de renda e consumo das famílias no Brasil a partir dos dados das POF 2002-2003 e 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Pitombo Leite

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo visa investigar a relação entre mudanças na distribuição de renda e seus impactos na propensão marginal a consumir para a economia como um todo. Para tal, utiliza os dados das duas últimas pesquisas de orçamentos familiares (POF realizadas no Brasil, 2002-2003 e 2008-2009, tomando a renda familiar total e calculando uma variável de despesa familiar total para as duas pesquisas. São apresentados os índices de Gini para a renda familiar total e estimativas, por meio dos microdados e dos centésimos da população, para a propensão marginal a consumir agregada. É efetuado ainda o ajuste de poligonais no intuito de captar diferenças entre as propensões marginais a consumir de dois grandes grupos de renda e procede-se a manipulações contrafactuais na busca pela mensuração do impacto de efeitos redistributivos livre de outras influências sobre a propensão marginal a consumir agregada.

  9. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2002/2003/2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.Keith Dunker

    2004-10-26

    Brief introduction to Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing The Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing is an international, multidisciplinary conference covering current research in the theory and the application of computational methods in problems of biological significance. Researchers from the United States, the Asian Pacific nations and around the world gather each year at PSB to exchange research results and discuss open issues in all aspects of computational biology. PSB provides a forum for work on databases, algorithms, interfaces, visualization, modeling and other computational methods, as applied to biological problems. The data-rich areas of molecular biology are emphasized. PSB is the only meeting in the bioinformatics field with sessions defined dynamically each year in response to specific proposals from the participants. Sessions are organized by leaders in emerging areas to provide forums for publication and for discussion of research in biocomputing ''hot topics''. PSB therefore enables discussion of emerging methods and approaches in this rapidly changing field. PSB has been designated as one of the major meetings in this field by the recently established International Society for Computational Biology (see www.iscb.org). Papers and presentations are peer reviewed typically with 3 reviews per paper plus editorial oversight from the conference organizers. The accepted papers are published in an archival proceedings volume, which is indexed by PubMed, and electronically (see http://psb.stanford.edu/). Finally, given the tight schedule from submission of papers to their publication, typically 5 to 5 1/2 months, the PSB proceedings each year represents one of the most up-to-date surveys of current trends in bioinformatics.

  10. France, Italy and the 2002/2003 Iraq Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    l’Assemblée général, avec un double mandate: faire le bilan de la politique de non-prolifération et lui donner un nouvelle impulsion decisive...http://www.elysee.fr/cgi- bin/auracom/aurweb/search/file?aur_file= discours /2002/0208AM 12 White House Press Release, “President Bush, Prime...2002. http://www.elysee.fr/cgi-bin/auracom/aurweb/search/file?aur_file= discours /2002/0210AL0 15 dangerous precedent, and declared that such military

  11. Ice Engineering: Ice Jams, Winter 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    freezeup jams occurring in January. On 21 January, the National Weather Service reported a long freezeup jam on the Allegheny River that extended from... freezeup jam. Another freezeup jam, reported on 24 January, extended from Brady’s Bend up the Allegheny River about five miles to Hillville. This...large freezeup jam was still in place on 28 January (NWS 2003d). Again on 28 January, another freezeup jam was reported from Reno north for two miles

  12. District Composite Report: Sabine Parish. 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Up to six years of data (the current year and the five previous years where available) are presented in Louisiana's District Composite Reports. Each year, this report is updated by adding the most current year?s data and deleting the data that are more than six years old. Incorporating longitudinal data in the District Composite Report enables…

  13. Zimni son festivalja 2002-2003 / Niina Kotsarenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotsarenko, Niina

    2003-01-01

    Teatrifestivali "Talveöö unenägu" lavastustest - L. Noréni "Vaikne muusika" L. Hjulströmi lavastuses, V. Langose "Agamemnon ja Tyndareuse tütar" Kreeka teatri Actoriones esituses ja Tai teatri Patravardi tantsuetendus "Kogu tõde peamisest"

  14. [Enterobiasis during 2002-2003 in Perugia province: beyond diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, D; D'Annibale, M L

    2006-06-01

    Between 2002 and 2003 we examined cellophane tapes of 119 children, both symptomatic and apparently asymptomatic. Eggs of Enterobius vermicularis were observed in 13.4% of children. This helminth is the most frequent in Italy, but it is as yet unrecognized, probably due to parasitological laboratories not being consulted, resulting in incomplete epidemiological data. We recall the biological aspects of this nematode and suggest the need for sound diagnosis to ensure proper surveillance of this exclusively human infection.

  15. Land Combat Systems Industry Report, Academic Year 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    technological gap currently existing between American and European capabilities. Despite considerable consolidation, the U.S. LCS industry stands...program will serve to increase the technological gap between the United States and its allies. This widening gap will continue to create

  16. Zimni son festivalja 2002-2003 / Niina Kotsarenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotsarenko, Niina

    2003-01-01

    Teatrifestivali "Talveöö unenägu" lavastustest - L. Noréni "Vaikne muusika" L. Hjulströmi lavastuses, V. Langose "Agamemnon ja Tyndareuse tütar" Kreeka teatri Actoriones esituses ja Tai teatri Patravardi tantsuetendus "Kogu tõde peamisest"

  17. The Bill of Rights in Action, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2003-01-01

    This document includes the following issues of this journal: volume 18, number 3, Summer 2002; volume 18, number 4, Fall 2002; volume 19, number 2, Spring 2003; and volume 19, number 3, Summer 2003. The summer 2002 issue of "The Bill of Rights in Action" views problems related to victims of war. It focuses on the internment of Japanese…

  18. Earth Sciences Division Research Summaries 2002-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2003-11-01

    Research in earth and atmospheric sciences is becoming increasingly important in light of the energy, climate change, and environmental issues facing the United States and the world. The development of new energy resources other than hydrocarbons and the safe disposal of nuclear waste and greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane) are critical to the future energy needs and environmental safety of this planet. In addition, the cleanup of many contaminated sites in the U.S., along with the preservation and management of our water supply, remain key challenges for us as well as future generations. Addressing these energy, climate change, and environmental issues requires the timely integration of earth sciences' disciplines (such as geology, hydrology, oceanography, climatology, geophysics, geochemistry, geomechanics, ecology, and environmental sciences). This integration will involve focusing on fundamental crosscutting concerns that are common to many of these issues. A primary focus will be the characterization, imaging, and manipulation of fluids in the earth. Such capabilities are critical to many DOE applications, from environmental restoration to energy extraction and optimization. The Earth Sciences Division (ESD) of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is currently addressing many of the key technical issues described above. In this document, we present summaries of many of our current research projects. While it is not a complete accounting, it is representative of the nature and breadth of our research effort. We are proud of our scientific efforts, and we hope that you will find our research useful and exciting. Any comments on our research are appreciated and can be sent to me personally. This report is divided into five sections that correspond to the major research programs in the Earth Sciences Division: (1) Fundamental and Exploratory Research; (2) Nuclear Waste; (3) Energy Resources; (4) Environmental Remediation Technology; and (5) Climate Variability and Carbon Management. These programs draw from each of ESD's disciplinary departments: Microbial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Geophysics and Geomechanics, Geochemistry, and Hydrogeology and Reservoir Dynamics. Short descriptions of these departments are provided as introductory material. A list of publications for the period from January 2002 to June 2003, along with a listing of our personnel, are appended to the end of this report.

  19. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  20. Headwater management alters sources, flowpaths, and fluxes of water, carbon, and nitrogen in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S.; Mayer, P. M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Increased urbanization has altered watershed hydrology and increased nutrient pollution, leading to eutrophication and hypoxia in downstream coastal ecosystems. Due to urban stream degradation, there have been efforts to restore streams and reduce peak-flow discharges and contaminant export through stormwater management and stream restoration. However, there have been relatively few studies comparing watershed scale impacts of contrasting headwater management practices on sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients across space and time. In this study we compared sources and fluxes of water, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) along 4 watersheds of contrasting headwater management: 2 urban degraded watersheds with minimal or no stormwater management and 2 managed urban watersheds with stormwater controls and stream restoration. Surface water samples were collected biweekly at USGS gauging stations located within each watershed over 2 years. Spatially, watersheds were sampled longitudinally during 4 seasons. Sources of water, nitrate, and carbon were investigated using isotopic and spectroscopic tracer techniques. Indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) were also used to trace anthropogenic vs. natural water sources. Hydrologic flowpaths (groundwater vs. overland flow) were assessed with longitudinal synoptic surveys using stable water isotopes of H and O. Annual fluxes of water, C, and N, were estimated using the USGS program LOADEST. H and O isotope data showed that the source of stream water is primarily groundwater during summer months, with greater contributions from stormflow during winter months for all 4 watersheds. Elevated levels of indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) as well as greater "pulses" of C and N over time in the degraded vs. managed watersheds indicate potential sewage sources due to leaky sanitary sewers and greater stormdrain inputs. Unlike the managed watersheds where hydrologic flowpaths were from groundwater in headwaters, the longitudinal

  1. Watersheds in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S

    2014-01-01

    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics o...

  2. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  3. Boosted Regression Tree Models to Explain Watershed ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosted regression tree (BRT) models were developed to quantify the nonlinear relationships between landscape variables and nutrient concentrations in a mesoscale mixed land cover watershed during base-flow conditions. Factors that affect instream biological components, based on the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), were also analyzed. Seasonal BRT models at two spatial scales (watershed and riparian buffered area [RBA]) for nitrite-nitrate (NO2-NO3), total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total phosphorus (TP) and annual models for the IBI score were developed. Two primary factors — location within the watershed (i.e., geographic position, stream order, and distance to a downstream confluence) and percentage of urban land cover (both scales) — emerged as important predictor variables. Latitude and longitude interacted with other factors to explain the variability in summer NO2-NO3 concentrations and IBI scores. BRT results also suggested that location might be associated with indicators of sources (e.g., land cover), runoff potential (e.g., soil and topographic factors), and processes not easily represented by spatial data indicators. Runoff indicators (e.g., Hydrological Soil Group D and Topographic Wetness Indices) explained a substantial portion of the variability in nutrient concentrations as did point sources for TP in the summer months. The results from our BRT approach can help prioritize areas for nutrient management in mixed-use and heavily impacted watershed

  4. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  5. Watershed characteristics and water-quality trends and loads in 12 watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, John K.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Landers, Mark N.

    2014-01-01

    different sizes. A load estimation approach developed for the Gwinnett County LTTM program that incorporates storm-event composited samples was used with some minor modifications. This approach employs the commonly used regression-model method. Concentrations were modeled as a function of discharge, time, season, and turbidity to improve model predictions and reduce errors in load estimates. Total suspended solids annual loads have been identified in Gwinnett County’s Watershed Protection Plan for target performance criterion. The amount of annual runoff is the primary factor in determining the amount of annual constituent loads. Below average runoff during water years 2004–09, especially during water years 2006–08, resulted in corresponding below average loads. Variations in constituent yields between watersheds appeared to be related to various watershed characteristics. Suspended sediment (total suspended solids and suspended-sediment concentrations) along with constituents transported predominately in solid phase (total phosphorus, total organic carbon, total lead, and total zinc) and total dissolved solids typically had higher yields from watersheds that had high percentages of impervious areas or high basin slope. High total nitrogen yields were also associated with watersheds with high percentages of impervious areas. Low total nitrogen, total suspended solids, total lead, and total zinc yields appear to be associated with watersheds that have a low percentage of high-density development. Total suspended solids yields were lower in drought years, water years 2007–08, from the combined effects of less runoff and the result of fewer, lower magnitude storms, which likely resulted in less surface erosion and lower stream sediment transport.

  6. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  7. Watershed Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  8. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  9. Climate, wildfire, and erosion ensemble foretells more sediment in western USA watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Hawbaker, Todd; McVay, Jason L.; Miller, Mary Ellen; Mueller, Erich R.; Vaillant, Nicole M.; Lowe, Scott E.; Sankey, Temuulen T.

    2017-01-01

    The area burned annually by wildfires is expected to increase worldwide due to climate change. Burned areas increase soil erosion rates within watersheds, which can increase sedimentation in downstream rivers and reservoirs. However, which watersheds will be impacted by future wildfires is largely unknown. Using an ensemble of climate, fire, and erosion models, we show that post-fire sedimentation is projected to increase for nearly nine-tenths of watersheds by > 10% and for more than one-third of watersheds by > 100% by the 2041 to 2050 decade in the western USA. The projected increases are statistically significant for more than eight-tenths of the watersheds. In the western USA, many human communities rely on water from rivers and reservoirs that originates in watersheds where sedimentation is projected to increase. Increased sedimentation could negatively impact water supply and quality for some communities, in addition to affecting stream channel stability and aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Characterizing response of total suspended solids and total phosphorus loading to weather and watershed characteristics for rainfall and snowmelt events in agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven; Brooks, Wesley R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the response of total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) to influential weather and watershed variables is critical in the development of sediment and nutrient reduction plans. In this study, rainfall and snowmelt event loadings of TSS and TP were analyzed for eight agricultural watersheds in Wisconsin, with areas ranging from 14 to 110 km2 and having four to twelve years of data available. The data showed that a small number of rainfall and snowmelt runoff events accounted for the majority of total event loading. The largest 10% of the loading events for each watershed accounted for 73–97% of the total TSS load and 64–88% of the total TP load. More than half of the total annual TSS load was transported during a single event for each watershed at least one of the monitored years. Rainfall and snowmelt events were both influential contributors of TSS and TP loading. TSS loading contributions were greater from rainfall events at five watersheds, from snowmelt events at two watersheds, and nearly equal at one watershed. The TP loading contributions were greater from rainfall events at three watersheds, from snowmelt events at two watersheds and nearly equal at three watersheds. Stepwise multivariate regression models for TSS and TP event loadings were developed separately for rainfall and snowmelt runoff events for each individual watershed and for all watersheds combined by using a suite of precipitation, melt, temperature, seasonality, and watershed characteristics as predictors. All individual models and the combined model for rainfall events resulted in two common predictors as most influential for TSS and TP. These included rainfall depth and the antecedent baseflow. Using these two predictors alone resulted in an R2 greater than 0.7 in all but three individual models and 0.61 or greater for all individual models. The combined model yielded an R2 of 0.66 for TSS and 0.59 for TP. Neither the individual nor the combined models were

  11. Realities of the Watershed Management Approach: The Magat Watershed Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Elazegui, Dulce D.; Combalicer, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to showcase the experience of the Magat watershed in the implementation of the watershed management approach. Magat watershed was declared as a forest-reservation area through Proclamation No. 573 on June 26, 1969 because of its great importance to human survival and environmental balance in the region. The Magat case demonstrates the important role that ‘champions’ like the local government unit (LGU) could play in managing the country’s watersheds. With the Nueva Viscaya pro...

  12. Climate change and watershed mercury export: a multiple projection and model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Heather E; Knightes, Christopher D; Conrads, Paul A; Feaster, Toby D; Davis, Gary M; Benedict, Stephen T; Bradley, Paul M

    2013-09-01

    Future shifts in climatic conditions may impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and transport. An ensemble of watershed models was applied in the present study to simulate and evaluate the responses of hydrological and total Hg (THg) fluxes from the landscape to the watershed outlet and in-stream THg concentrations to contrasting climate change projections for a watershed in the southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Simulations were conducted under stationary atmospheric deposition and land cover conditions to explicitly evaluate the effect of projected precipitation and temperature on watershed Hg export (i.e., the flux of Hg at the watershed outlet). Based on downscaled inputs from 2 global circulation models that capture extremes of projected wet (Community Climate System Model, Ver 3 [CCSM3]) and dry (ECHAM4/HOPE-G [ECHO]) conditions for this region, watershed model simulation results suggest a decrease of approximately 19% in ensemble-averaged mean annual watershed THg fluxes using the ECHO climate-change model and an increase of approximately 5% in THg fluxes with the CCSM3 model. Ensemble-averaged mean annual ECHO in-stream THg concentrations increased 20%, while those of CCSM3 decreased by 9% between the baseline and projected simulation periods. Watershed model simulation results using both climate change models suggest that monthly watershed THg fluxes increase during the summer, when projected flow is higher than baseline conditions. The present study's multiple watershed model approach underscores the uncertainty associated with climate change response projections and their use in climate change management decisions. Thus, single-model predictions can be misleading, particularly in developmental stages of watershed Hg modeling. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  13. Watershed runoff and sediment transport impacts from management decisions using integrated AnnAGNPS and CCHE1D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation planning tools that consider all sources of erosion, sheet and rill, gully, and channels, is critical to developing an effective watershed management plan that considers the integrated effect of all practices on the watershed system. The Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source polluta...

  14. Evapotranspiration and runoff in a forest watershed, western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A.; Shimizu, T.; Miyabuchi, Y.; Ogawa, Y.

    2003-10-01

    Both water and heat balances were studied in a conifer plantation watershed in south-west Japan, within the warm-temperate East Asia monsoon area. Forest cover in the watershed consists mainly of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantations. Precipitation and runoff have been observed since 1991, so evapotranspiration can be compared with the water balance. Two meteorological observation towers were built to monitor evapotranspiration in the watershed. The annual average precipitation, amount of runoff and losses were 2166, 1243 and 923 mm, respectively. The evapotranspiration (latent heat flux) agreed well with the water balance losses. The average annual evapotranspiration at the tower built in the centre of the watershed was 902 mm; evapotranspiration at the other tower, further upslope, was 875 mm. The observed evapotranspiration was 39% to 40% of the average precipitation (2166 mm). The mean net radiation was c. 2·6 GJ m-2 year-1, and is considered a representative value of the net radiation (Rn) in coniferous plantations in this region. This region is classified in the humid zone based on the ratio of net radiation (Rn) to the energy required to evaporate the rainfall (R). The mean annual evaporation of canopy-intercepted water was 356 mm or about 15% of the average precipitation. Copyright

  15. Type and timing of stream flow changes in urbanizing watersheds in the Eastern U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina G. Hopkins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linking the type and timing of hydrologic changes with patterns of urban growth is essential to identifying the underlying mechanisms that drive declines in urban aquatic ecosystems. In six urbanizing watersheds surrounding three U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD, Boston, MA, and Pittsburgh, PA, we reconstructed the history of development patterns since 1900 and assessed the magnitude and timing of stream flow changes during watershed development. Development reconstructions indicated that the majority of watershed development occurred during a period of peak population growth, typically between 1950 and 1970. Stream flow records indicated significant increases in annual frequency of high-flow events in all six watersheds and increases in annual runoff efficiency in five watersheds. Annual development intensity during the peak growth period had the strongest association with the magnitude of changes in high-flow frequency from the pre- to post-development periods. Results suggest the timing of the peak growth period is particularly important to understanding hydrologic changes, because it can set the type of stormwater infrastructure installed within a watershed. In three watersheds there was a rapid (∼10-15 years shift toward more frequent high-flow events, and in four watersheds there was a shift toward higher runoff efficiency. Breakpoint analyses indicated these shifts occurred between 1969 and 1976 for high-flow frequency and between 1962 and 1984 for runoff efficiency. Results indicated that the timing of high-flow changes were mainly driven by the development trajectory of each watershed, whereas the timing of runoff-efficiency changes were driven by a combination of development trajectories and extreme weather events. Our results underscore the need to refine the causes of urban stream degradation to incorporate the impact of gradual versus rapid urbanization on hydrologic changes and aquatic ecosystem function, as well as to

  16. Designing for Watershed Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we describe a collaborative design initiative with three secondary school teachers to promote the use of Web-based inquiry in the context of a watershed investigation. Design interviews that focus on instructional goals and pedagogical beliefs of classroom teachers were conducted. The interview protocol used a curricular framework…

  17. Watersheds in disordered media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S. Andrade Jr.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watershedsseparating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have beenused to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes betweencountries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance,slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in awatershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arisesnaturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide,and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields suchas image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scalingproperties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a moreprofound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed andstatistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of awatershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometricaland physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificialmodel landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be ingood qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  18. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  19. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  20. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  1. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  2. Variations in tropical cyclone-related discharge in four watersheds near Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiyin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined a 60-year record of daily precipitation and river discharge related to tropical cyclones (TCs in four watersheds undergoing land use and land cover change near Houston, Texas. Results show that TCs are responsible for ∼20% of the annual maximum discharge events in the four selected watersheds. Although there are no trends in TC precipitation, increasing trends were observed in daily extreme discharge and TC-related discharge. The more developed watersheds (Whiteoak Bayou and Brays Bayou, tend to have higher extreme discharge and steeper trends in extreme discharge than the less developed watersheds (Cypress Creek. Increases in TC-related extreme discharges correspond with increases in developed land and decreases in vegetated land between 1980 and 2006. Therefore, changes in land cover/use in watersheds near Houston are a major cause of the increased flooding risk in recent years.

  3. Streamflow and Soil Moisture of Agroforestry and Grass Watersheds in Hilly Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang-Cai; TIAN Guang-Long; SHU Dong-Cai; LIN San-Yi; LIU Shu-Zhen

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted in a hilly area of Sichuan Province,Southwestern China, to compare the streamflow and soil moisture in two upland watersheds with different land use patterns. One was an agroforestry watershed, which consisted mainly of trees with alder (Alnus cremastogyne Burkill) and cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl.) planted in belts or strips with a coverage of about 46%, and the other was a grassland primarily composed of lalang grass (Imperata cylindrica var. major (Nees) C. E. Hubb.), filamentary clematis (Clematis filamentosa Dunn) and common eulaliopsis (Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C. E. Hubb) with a coverage of about 44%. Streamflow measurement with a hydrograph established at the watershed outlet showed that the average annual streamflow per 100 mm rainfall from 1983 to 1992 was 0.36 and 1.08 L s-1 km-2 for the agroforestry watershed and the grass watershed, respectively. This showed that the streamflow of the agroforestry watershed was reduced by 67% when compared to that of the grass watershed. The peak average monthly streamflow in the agroforestry watershed was over 5 times lower than that of the grass watershed and lagged by one month. In addition, the peak streamflow during a typical rainfall event of 38.3 mm in August 1986 was 37% lower in the agroforestry watershed than in the grass watershed. Results of the moisture contents of the soil samples from 3 slope locations (upper, middle and lower slopes) indicated that the agroforestry watershed maintained generally higher soil moisture contents than the grass watershed within 0-20 and 20-80 cm soil depths for the upper slope, especially for the period from May through July. For the other (middle and lower) slopes, soil moisture contents within 20-80 cm depth in the agroforestry watershed was generally lower than those in the grass watershed, particularly in September, revealing that water consumption by trees took place mainly below the plow layer. Therefore, agroforestry land use types might

  4. Hydrologic response to stormwater control measures in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin D.; McMillan, Sara K.; Clinton, Sandra M.; Jefferson, Anne J.

    2016-10-01

    Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are designed to mitigate deleterious effects of urbanization on river networks, but our ability to predict the cumulative effect of multiple SCMs at watershed scales is limited. The most widely used metric to quantify impacts of urban development, total imperviousness (TI), does not contain information about the extent of stormwater control. We analyzed the discharge records of 16 urban watersheds in Charlotte, NC spanning a range of TI (4.1-54%) and area mitigated with SCMs (1.3-89%). We then tested multiple watershed metrics that quantify the degree of urban impact and SCM mitigation to determine which best predicted hydrologic response across sites. At the event time scale, linear models showed TI to be the best predictor of both peak unit discharge and rainfall-runoff ratios across a range of storm sizes. TI was also a strong driver of both a watershed's capacity to buffer small (e.g., 1-10 mm) rain events, and the relationship between peak discharge and precipitation once that buffering capacity is exceeded. Metrics containing information about SCMs did not appear as primary predictors of event hydrologic response, suggesting that the level of SCM mitigation in many urban watersheds is insufficient to influence hydrologic response. Over annual timescales, impervious surfaces unmitigated by SCMs and tree coverage were best correlated with streamflow flashiness and water yield, respectively. The shift in controls from the event scale to the annual scale has important implications for water resource management, suggesting that overall limitation of watershed imperviousness rather than partial mitigation by SCMs may be necessary to alleviate the hydrologic impacts of urbanization.

  5. Watershed based intelligent scissors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieclawek, W; Pietka, E

    2015-07-01

    Watershed based modification of intelligent scissors has been developed. This approach requires a preprocessing phase with anisotropic diffusion to reduce subtle edges. Then, the watershed transform enhances the corridors. Finally, a roaming procedure, developed in this study, delineates the edge selected by a user. Due to a very restrictive set of pixels, subjected to the analysis, this approach significantly reduces the computational complexity. Moreover, the accuracy of the algorithm performance makes often one click point to be sufficient for one edge delineation. The method has been evaluated on structures as different in shape and appearance as the retina layers in OCT exams, chest and abdomen in CT and knee in MR studies. The accuracy is comparable with the traditional Life-Wire approach, whereas the analysis time decreases due to the reduction of the user interaction and number of pixels processed by the method.

  6. Ghana Watershed Prototype Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  7. Streamflow simulation methods for ungauged and poorly gauged watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, A.; Vasiliades, L.

    2014-07-01

    Rainfall-runoff modelling procedures for ungauged and poorly gauged watersheds are developed in this study. A well-established hydrological model, the University of British Columbia (UBC) watershed model, is selected and applied in five different river basins located in Canada, Cyprus, and Pakistan. Catchments from cold, temperate, continental, and semiarid climate zones are included to demonstrate the procedures developed. Two methodologies for streamflow modelling are proposed and analysed. The first method uses the UBC watershed model with a universal set of parameters for water allocation and flow routing, and precipitation gradients estimated from the available annual precipitation data as well as from regional information on the distribution of orographic precipitation. This method is proposed for watersheds without streamflow gauge data and limited meteorological station data. The second hybrid method proposes the coupling of UBC watershed model with artificial neural networks (ANNs) and is intended for use in poorly gauged watersheds which have limited streamflow measurements. The two proposed methods have been applied to five mountainous watersheds with largely varying climatic, physiographic, and hydrological characteristics. The evaluation of the applied methods is based on the combination of graphical results, statistical evaluation metrics, and normalized goodness-of-fit statistics. The results show that the first method satisfactorily simulates the observed hydrograph assuming that the basins are ungauged. When limited streamflow measurements are available, the coupling of ANNs with the regional, non-calibrated UBC flow model components is considered a successful alternative method to the conventional calibration of a hydrological model based on the evaluation criteria employed for streamflow modelling and flood frequency estimation.

  8. Watershed councils: it takes a community to restore a watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Rebecca Flitcroft

    2011-01-01

    Regulation alone cannot solve complex ecological problems on private lands that are managed for diverse uses. Executing coordinated restoration projects at the watershed scale is only possible with the cooperation and commitment of all stakeholders. Locally organized, nonregulatory watershed councils have proven to be a powerful method of engaging citizens from all...

  9. Geospatial tool-based morphometric analysis using SRTM data in Sarabanga Watershed, Cauvery River, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulbalaji, P.; Gurugnanam, B.

    2017-02-01

    A morphometric analysis of Sarabanga watershed in Salem district has been chosen for the present study. Geospatial tools, such as remote sensing and GIS, are utilized for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM-30 m resolution) data have been used for morphometric analysis and evaluating various morphometric parameters. The morphometric parameters of Sarabanga watershed have been analyzed and evaluated by pioneer methods, such as Horton and Strahler. The dendritic type of drainage pattern is draining the Sarabanga watershed, which indicates that lithology and gentle slope category is controlling the study area. The Sarabanga watershed is covered an area of 1208 km2. The slope of the watershed is various from 10 to 40% and which is controlled by lithology of the watershed. The bifurcation ratio ranges from 3 to 4.66 indicating the influence of geological structure and suffered more structural disturbances. The form factor indicates elongated shape of the study area. The total stream length and area of watershed indicate that mean annual rainfall runoff is relatively moderate. The basin relief expressed that watershed has relatively high denudation rates. The drainage density of the watershed is low indicating that infiltration is more dominant. The ruggedness number shows the peak discharges that are likely to be relatively higher. The present study is very useful to plan the watershed management.

  10. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; Haj, Adel; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionEastern and central Montana.Study focusFish in Northern Great Plains streams tolerate extreme conditions including heat, cold, floods, and drought; however changes in streamflow associated with long-term climate change may render some prairie streams uninhabitable for current fish species. To better understand future hydrology of these prairie streams, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and output from the RegCM3 Regional Climate model were used to simulate streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana, for a baseline period (water years 1982–1999) and three future periods: water years 2021–2038 (2030 period), 2046–2063 (2055 period), and 2071–2088 (2080 period).New hydrological insights for the regionProjected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21%) for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75%) for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15%) for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44%) for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  11. Water resources of the Sycamore Creek watershed, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, B.W.; Schumann, Herbert H.

    1969-01-01

    The Sycamore Creek watershed is representative of many small watersheds in the Southwest where much of the streamflow originates in the mountainous areas and disappears rather quickly into the alluvial deposits adjacent to the mountains. Five years of .streamflow records from the Sycamore Creek watershed show that an average annual water yield of 6,110 acre-feet was obtained from the 165 square miles (105,000 acres) of the upper hard-rock mountain area, which receives an average annual precipitation of about 20 inches. Only a small percentage of the ,annual water yield, however, reaches the Verde River as surface flow over the 9-mile reach of the alluvial channel below the mountain front. Flows must be more ,than 200 cubic feet per second to reach the river; flows less than this rate disappear into the 1,ower alluvial area and are stored temporarily in the ground-Water reservoir : most of this water is released as ground-water discharge to the Verde River at a relatively constant rate of about 4,000 acre-feet per year. Evapotranspiration losses in the lower alluvial area are controlled by the depth of the water table and averaged about 1,500 acre-feet per year.

  12. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Sarah E; Viers, Joshua H; Mount, Jeffrey F

    2010-04-01

    This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  13. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Null

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  14. Hydrologic response of the Crow Wing Watershed, Minnesota, to mid-Holocene climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; Roy, P.; Wright, H.; Gutowski, W.; Ito, E.; Winter, T.; Rosenberry, D.; Cohen, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we have integrated a suite of Holocene paleoclimatic proxies with mathematical modeling in an attempt to obtain a comprehensive picture of how watersheds respond to past climate change. A three-dimensional surface-water-groundwater model was developed to assess the effects of mid-Holocene climate change on water resources within the Crow Wing Watershed, Upper Mississippi Basin in north central Minnesota. The model was first calibrated to a 50 yr historical record of average annual surface-water discharge, monthly groundwater levels, and lake-level fluctuations. The model was able to reproduce reasonably well long-term historical records (1949-1999) of water-table and lake-level fluctuations across the watershed as well as stream discharge near the watershed outlet. The calibrated model was then used to reproduce paleogroundwater and lake levels using climate reconstructions based on pollen-transfer functions from Williams Lake just outside the watershed. Computed declines in mid-Holocene lake levels for two lakes at opposite ends of the watershed were between 6 and 18 m. Simulated streamflow near the outlet of the watershed decreased to 70% of modern average annual discharge after ???200 yr. The area covered by wetlands for the entire watershed was reduced by ???16%. The mid-Holocene hydrologic changes indicated by these model results and corroborated by several lake-core records across the Crow Wing Watershed may serve as a useful proxy of the hydrologic response to future warm, dry climatic forecasts (ca. 2050) made by some atmospheric general-circulation models for the glaciated Midwestern United States. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  15. Watershed Boundaries - MO 2015 Metro No Discharge Watersheds (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains watersheds associated with Missouri's use designations for streams listed in Table F - Metropolitan No-Discharge Streams of the Water...

  16. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  17. Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS: Development and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poerbandono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and application of a spatial tool for erosion modeling named Spatial Decision Assistance of Watershed Sedimentation (SDAS. SDAS computes export (yield of sediment from watershed as product of erosion rate and sediment delivery ratio (SDR. The erosion rate is calculated for each raster grid according to a digital elevation model, soil, rain fall depth, and land cover data using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. SDR calculation is carried out for each spatial unit. A spatial unit is the smallest sub-watershed considered in the model and generated according to the TauDEM algorithm. The size of one spatial unit is assigned by the user as the minimum number of raster grids. SDR is inversely proportional to sediment resident time and controlled by rainfall, slope, soil, and land cover. Application of SDAS is demonstrated in this paper by simulating the spatial distribution of the annual sediment yield across the Citarum watershed in the northwest of Java, Indonesia. SDAS calibration was carried out based on sediment discharge observations from the upper catchment. We considered factors for hillslope flow depth and for actual and effective rainfall duration to fit the computed sediment yield to the observed sediment discharge. The computed sediment yield agreed with the observation data with a 7% mean relative accuracy.

  18. Impacts of surface water diversions for marijuana cultivation on aquatic habitat in four northwestern California watersheds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bauer

    Full Text Available Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L. cultivation has proliferated in northwestern California since at least the mid-1990s. The environmental impacts associated with marijuana cultivation appear substantial, yet have been difficult to quantify, in part because cultivation is clandestine and often occurs on private property. To evaluate the impacts of water diversions at a watershed scale, we interpreted high-resolution aerial imagery to estimate the number of marijuana plants being cultivated in four watersheds in northwestern California, USA. Low-altitude aircraft flights and search warrants executed with law enforcement at cultivation sites in the region helped to validate assumptions used in aerial imagery interpretation. We estimated the water demand of marijuana irrigation and the potential effects water diversions could have on stream flow in the study watersheds. Our results indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation has the potential to divert substantial portions of streamflow in the study watersheds, with an estimated flow reduction of up to 23% of the annual seven-day low flow in the least impacted of the study watersheds. Estimates from the other study watersheds indicate that water demand for marijuana cultivation exceeds streamflow during the low-flow period. In the most impacted study watersheds, diminished streamflow is likely to have lethal or sub-lethal effects on state- and federally-listed salmon and steelhead trout and to cause further decline of sensitive amphibian species.

  19. Decreased atmospheric sulfur deposition across the southeastern U.S.: When will watersheds release stored sulfate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Lynch, Jason A.; Cosby, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere lead to atmospheric deposition of sulfate (SO42-), which is the dominant strong acid anion causing acidification of surface waters and soils in the eastern United States (U.S.). Since passage of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments, atmospheric deposition of SO2 in this region has declined by over 80%, but few corresponding decreases in stream-water SO42- concentrations have been observed in unglaciated watersheds. We calculated SO42- mass balances for 27 forested, unglaciated watersheds from Pennsylvania to Georgia, by using total atmospheric deposition (wet plus dry) as input. Many of these watersheds still retain SO42-, unlike their counterparts in the northeastern U.S. and southern Canada. Our analysis showed that many of these watersheds should convert from retaining to releasing SO42- over the next two decades. The specific years when the watersheds crossover from retaining to releasing SO42- correspond to a general geographical pattern of later net watershed release from north to south. The single most important variable that explained the crossover year was the runoff ratio, defined as the ratio of annual mean stream discharge to precipitation. Percent clay content and mean soil depth were secondary factors in predicting crossover year. The conversion of watersheds from net SO42- retention to release anticipates more widespread reductions in stream-water SO42- concentrations in this region.

  20. Application of SWAT model for assessing effect on main functions of watershed ecosystem in Headwater, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sudjarit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is a well prediction accuracy of agricultural watershed ecosystem depends on how well model input spatial parameters describe the characteristics of watershed. The aim of this study was to assess the effects on watershed ecosystem main functions in terms of water and sediment yield. It was calibrated and validated for streamflow in the watershed to evaluate alternative management scenarios and estimate their effects on watershed functions. The goodness of the calibration results was assessed by the coefficient of determination (R2. Results indicated that the average annual rainfall and streamflow estimations were quite satisfactory. On a daily scale R2 was about 0.69 and a monthly scale was 0.97 which can be considered as acceptable. However, using for the case study of an intensive agricultural watershed ecosystem, it was shown that model versions are able to appropriately reproduce the water balance, nutrients balance, carbon balance, and energy balance. Crop yield, total streamflow and total suspended sediment (TSS losses calibration were performed using field survey information and data during 2008-2012. This study showed that SWAT model was able to apply for simulating and assessing streamflow, sediment, and nutrients successfully and can be used to study the effects of land use practices on water balance, nutrient balance, carbon balance and energy balance in the small scale of sub-watershed ecosystem as well.

  1. SIMULATIONS OF SEDIMENT YIELD AND PHOSPHORUS YIELD FROM A WATERSHED IN TAIWAN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Daw HSIEH; Wan-Fa YANG; Wen C.WANG

    2006-01-01

    Long term sediment yield and phosphorus yield from a watershed are important information for watershed management planning. Since sediment and water quality data for the streams draining a watershed are most often observed only periodically, a method is needed to extend the knowledge gained from the observed data to the rest of the observation period. In this study, it is proposed that suspended sediment load be established as a power function of stream discharge, and total phosphorus load as a power function of suspended sediment load. The propositions are applied to a watershed in Taiwan. Using suspended sediment load and total phosphorus load data, parameters for the functions are calibrated. The functions are used to simulate daily suspended sediment load and daily total phosphorus load based on observed daily stream discharges for the gauging station near the watershed outlet. Annual sediment yield and total phosphorus yield are then calculated from the simulated daily load. It is shown in this study that the intercepts of the power functions are related to watershed land use activities and can be calibrated using those data. The relations may be used to develop watershed management strategies for controlling sediment and phosphorus exports.

  2. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

  3. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  4. Estimation of runoff and sediment yield in the Redrock Creek watershed using AnnAGNPS and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsou Ming-Shu; ZHAN Xiao-yong

    2004-01-01

    Sediment has been identified as a significant threat to water quality and channel clogging that in turn may lead to river flooding. With the increasing awareness of the impairment from sediment to water bodies in a watershed, identifying the locations of the major sediment sources and reducing the sediment through management practices will be important for an effective watershed management. The annualized agricultural non-point source pollution(AnnAGNPS) model and newly developed GIS interface for it were applied in a small agricultural watershed, Redrock Creek watershed, Kansas, in this pilot study for exploring the effectiveness of using this model as a management tool. The calibrated model appropriately simulated monthly runoff and sediment yield through the practices in this study and potentially suggested the ways of sediment reduction through evaluating the changes of land use and field operation in the model for the purpose of watershed management.

  5. Watershed-Scale Cover Crops Reduce Nutrient Export From Agricultural Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, J. L.; Hanrahan, B.; Christopher, S. F.; Trentman, M. T.; Royer, T. V.; Prior, K.

    2016-12-01

    The Midwestern US has undergone extensive land use change as forest, wetlands, and prairies have been converted to agroecosystems. Today, excess fertilizer nutrients from farm fields enter Midwestern agricultural streams, which degrades both local and downstream water quality, resulting in algal blooms and subsequent hypoxic "dead zones" far from the nutrient source. We are quantifying the benefits of watershed-scale conservation practices that may reduce nutrient runoff from adjacent farm fields. Specifically, research is lacking on whether the planting of winter cover crops in watersheds currently dominated by row-crop agriculture can significantly reduce nutrient inputs to adjacent streams. Since 2013, farmers have planted cover crops on 70% of croppable acres in the Shatto Ditch Watershed (IN), and "saturation level" implementation of this conservation practice has been sustained for 3 years. Every 14 days, we have quantified nutrient loss from fields by sampling nutrient fluxes from multiple subsurface tile drains and longitudinally along the stream channel throughout the watershed. Cover crops improved stream water quality by reducing dissolved inorganic nutrients exported downstream; nitrate-N and DRP concentrations and fluxes were significantly lower in tiles draining fields with cover crops compared to those without. Annual watershed nutrient export also decreased, and reductions in N and P loss ( 30-40%) exceeded what we expected based on only a 6-10% reduction in runoff due to increased watershed water holding capacity. We are also exploring the processes responsible for increased nutrient retention, where they are occurring (terrestrial vs. aquatic) and when (baseflow vs. storms). For example, whole-stream metabolism also responded to cover crop planting, showing reduced variation in primary production and respiration in years after watershed-scale planting of cover crops. In summary, widespread land cover change, through cover crop planting, can

  6. Watershed regressions for pesticides (WARP) for predicting atrazine concentration in Corn Belt streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, can be improved for application to the U.S. Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include important watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for predicting annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. All streams used in development of WARP-CB models drain watersheds with atrazine use intensity greater than 17 kilograms per square kilometer (kg/km2). The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62 percent of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites.

  7. Baseline for Climate Change: Modeling Watershed Aquatic Biodiversity Relative to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurakis, Eugene G

    2010-10-01

    Objectives of the two-year study were to (1) establish baselines for fish and macroinvertebrate community structures in two mid-Atlantic lower Piedmont watersheds (Quantico Creek, a pristine forest watershed; and Cameron Run, an urban watershed, Virginia) that can be used to monitor changes relative to the impacts related to climate change in the future; (2) create mathematical expressions to model fish species richness and diversity, and macroinvertebrate taxa and macroinvertebrate functional feeding group taxa richness and diversity that can serve as a baseline for future comparisons in these and other watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region; and (3) heighten people’s awareness, knowledge and understanding of climate change and impacts on watersheds in a laboratory experience and interactive exhibits, through internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, a week-long teacher workshop, and a website about climate change and watersheds. Mathematical expressions modeled fish and macroinvertebrate richness and diversity accurately well during most of the six thermal seasons where sample sizes were robust. Additionally, hydrologic models provide the basis for estimating flows under varying meteorological conditions and landscape changes. Continuations of long-term studies are requisite for accurately teasing local human influences (e.g. urbanization and watershed alteration) from global anthropogenic impacts (e.g. climate change) on watersheds. Effective and skillful translations (e.g. annual potential exposure of 750,000 people to our inquiry-based laboratory activities and interactive exhibits in Virginia) of results of scientific investigations are valuable ways of communicating information to the general public to enhance their understanding of climate change and its effects in watersheds.

  8. Export and Metabolism of Carbon in Urban Watersheds: Climate Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M.; Kaushal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers export and transform globally-significant quantities of carbon from watersheds to coastal ecosystems. Urbanization and climate change influence these fluxes by altering the hydrologic regime, water temperature, and anthropogenic sources of organic matter. Here, we quantify export and metabolism of carbon in highly urbanized, coastal watersheds, and evaluate the importance of physical drivers linked to climate and land use. Using a combination of discrete-samples, continuous water quality sensors, lab experiments, and modeling, we quantified rates of DOC, DIC, and CO2 export as well as changes in DOC quality and in-stream metabolism in four highly developed watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay over three years. Annual DOC and DIC exports from the four watersheds varied from 9 to 23 and 19 to 59 Kg ha-1yr-1 respectively. The range of daily CO2 concentrations was 0.01 to 2.6mg L-1, equivalent to between 0.37 and 53% of daily DOC export across all streams and dates. All sites were net-heterotrophic for the majority of the year (NEP0) during spring and early summer. There was a significant (P<0.05) relationship between gross primary production and ecosystem respiration, suggesting that autotrophic respiration is an important fraction of ER, and labile algal biomass may influence oxygen demand downstream. Our results suggest that urban watersheds can export significant amounts of DOC, DIC, and CO2 to coastal zones. The influence of urbanization on coastal water quality and greenhouse gases may be exacerbated by climate change as temperatures and storm frequency continue to rise.

  9. Integrating operational watershed and coastal models for the Iberian Coast: Watershed model implementation - A first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, David; Campuzano, F. J.; Sobrinho, J.; Fernandes, R.; Neves, R.

    2015-12-01

    River discharges and loads are essential inputs to coastal seas, and thus for coastal seas modelling, and their properties are the result of all activities and policies carried inland. For these reasons main rivers were object of intense monitoring programs having been generated some important amount of historical data. Due to the decline in the Portuguese hydrometric network and in order to quantify and forecast surface water streamflow and nutrients to coastal areas, the MOHID Land model was applied to the Western Iberia Region with a 2 km horizontal resolution and to the Iberian Peninsula with 10 km horizontal resolution. The domains were populated with land use and soil properties and forced with existing meteorological models. This approach also permits to understand how the flows and loads are generated and to forecast their values which are of utmost importance to perform coastal ocean and estuarine forecasts. The final purpose of the implementation is to obtain fresh water quantity and quality that could be used to support management decisions in the watershed, reservoirs and also to estuaries and coastal areas. A process oriented model as MOHID Land is essential to perform this type of simulations, as the model is independent of the number of river catchments. In this work, the Mohid Land model equations and parameterisations were described and an innovative methodology for watershed modelling is presented and validated for a large international river, the Tagus River, and the largest national river of Portugal, the Mondego River. Precipitation, streamflow and nutrients modelling results for these two rivers were compared with observations near their coastal outlet in order to evaluate the model capacity to represent the main watershed trends. Finally, an annual budget of fresh water and nutrient transported by the main twenty five rivers discharging in the Portuguese coast is presented.

  10. Multiyear riparian evapotranspiration and groundwater use for a semiarid watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R.L.; Cable, W.L.; Huxman, T. E.; Nagler, P.L.; Hernandez, M.; Goodrich, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Riparian evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the surface and subsurface water balance for many semiarid watersheds. Measurement or model-based estimates of ET are often made on a local scale, but spatially distributed estimates are needed to determine ET over catchments. In this paper, we document the ET that was quantified over 3 years using eddy covariance for three riparian ecosystems along the Upper San Pedro River of southeastern Arizona, USA, and we use a water balance equation to determine annual groundwater use. Riparian evapotranspiration and groundwater use for the watershed were then determined by using a calibrated, empirical model that uses 16-day, 250-1000 m remote-sensing products for the years of 2001-2005. The inputs for the model were derived entirely from the NASA MODIS sensor and consisted of the Enhanced Vegetation Index and land surface temperature. The scaling model was validated using subsets of the entire dataset (omitting different sites or years) and its capable performance for well-watered sites (MAD=0.32 mm day-1, R2=0.93) gave us confidence in using it to determine ET over the watershed. Three years of eddy covariance data for the riparian sites reveal that ET and groundwater use increased as woody plant density increased. Groundwater use was less variable at the woodland site, which had the greatest density of phreatophytes. Annual riparian groundwater use within the watershed was nearly constant over the study period despite an on-going drought. For the San Pedro alone, the amounts determined in this paper are within the range of most recently reported values that were derived using an entirely different approach. However, because of our larger estimates for groundwater use for the main tributary of the San Pedro, the watershed totals were higher. The approach presented here can provide riparian ET and groundwater use amounts that reflect real natural variability in phreatophyte withdrawals and improve the accuracy of a

  11. Okanogan Focus Watershed Salmon Creek : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, Hilary

    1999-11-01

    During FY 1999 the Colville Tribes and the Okanogan Irrigation District (OID) agreed to study the feasibility of restoring and enhancing anadromous fish populations in Salmon Creek while maintaining the ability of the district to continue full water service delivery to it members.

  12. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G.; Munz, Carrie S. [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-04

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2006 through March 2007 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 26922. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize physical habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). Funding from USFWS was for work to contribute to a study of potential interactions between introduced Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and wild steelhead O. mykiss. Funding from LCFEG was for work to evaluate the effects of nutrient enrichment in small streams. A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2006 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  13. Wind River Watershed Restoration, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie [U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-11-10

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during the period April 2005 through March 2006 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 22095. During this period, we collected temperature, flow, and habitat data to characterize habitat condition and variation within and among tributaries and mainstem sections in the Wind River subbasin. We also conducted electrofishing and snorkeling surveys to determine juvenile salmonid populations within select study areas throughout the subbasin. Portions of this work were completed with additional funding from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Lower Columbia Fish Enhancement Group (LCFEG). A statement of work (SOW) was submitted to BPA in March 2005 that outlined work to be performed by USGS-CRRL. The SOW was organized by work elements, with each describing a research task. This report summarizes the progress completed under each work element.

  14. Soil loss estimation using GIS and Remote sensing techniques: A case of Koga watershed, Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Sewnet Gelagay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss by runoff is a severe and continuous ecological problem in Koga watershed. Deforestation, improper cultivation and uncontrolled grazing have resulted in accelerated soil erosion. Information on soil loss is essential to support agricultural productivity and natural resource management. Thus, this study was aimed to estimate and map the mean annual soil loss by using GIS and Remote sensing techniques. The soil loss was estimated by using Revised Universal Soil Equation (RUSLE model. Topographic map of 1:50,000 scale, Aster Digital Elevation Model (DEM of 20 m spatial resolution, digital soil map of 1:250,000 scale, thirteen years rainfall records of four stations, and land sat imagery (TM with spatial resolution of 30 m was used to derive RUSLE's soil loss variables. The RUSLE parameters were analyzed and integrated using raster calculator in the geo-processing tools in ArcGIS 10.1 environment to estimate and map the annual soil loss of the study area. The result revealed that the annual soil loss of the watershed extends from none in the lower and middle part of the watershed to 265 t ha−1 year−1 in the steeper slope part of the watershed with a mean annual soil loss of 47 t ha−1 year−1. The total annual soil loss in the watershed was 255283 t, of these, 181801 (71% tones cover about 6691 (24% hectare of land. Most of these soil erosion affected areas are spatially situated in the upper steepest slope part (inlet of the watershed. These are areas where Nitosols and Alisols with higher soil erodibility character (0.25 values are dominant. Hence, Slope gradient and length followed by soil erodibility factors were found to be the main factors of soil erosion. Thus, sustainable soil and water conservation practices should be adopted in steepest upper part of the study area by respecting and recognizing watershed logic, people and watershed potentials.

  15. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  16. Watershed management and the web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voinov, A.; Costanza, R. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States). Inst. for Ecological Economics

    1999-08-01

    Watershed analysis and watershed management are developing as tools of integrated ecological and economic study. They also assist decision-making at the regional scale. The new technology and thinking offered by the advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web is highly complementary to some of the goals of watershed analysis. Services delivered by the Web are open, interactive, gas, spatially distributed, hierarchical and flexible. The Web offers the ability to display information creatively, to interact with that information and to change and modify it remotely. In this way the Internet provides a much-needed opportunity to deliver scientific findings and information to stakeholders and to link stakeholders together providing for collective decision=making. The benefits fall into two major categories: methological and educational. Methodologically the approach furthers the watershed management concept, offering an avenue for practical implementation of watershed management principles. For educational purposes the Web is a source of data and insight serving a variety of needs at all levels.

  17. The Watershed Algorithm for Image Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yan; LIN Nan

    2007-01-01

    This article introduced the watershed algorithm for the segmentation, illustrated the segmation process by implementing this algorithm. By comparing with another three related algorithm, this article revealed both the advantages and drawbacks of the watershed algorithm.

  18. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 02 - HUC 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Level 02 Watersheds....

  19. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  20. European energy markets deregulation observatory. Winter 2002/2003 period; Observatoire europeen de la liberalisation des marches de l'energie Periode hiver 2002/2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-02-01

    Launched in 2002, the European energy markets deregulation observatory (EEMDO/OELME) aims at actualizing the main energy market indicators and at observing the advance of deregulation within the European countries. While for most of these markets, the deregulation of electricity has preceded the deregulation of gas, the natural gas market is at the evidence a key-market in Europe. For this reason, the 4. edition of the observatory (October 2003) takes into consideration for the first time the specific elements of gas markets, in addition to those of electricity markets. This article presents some excerpts of this last edition, published by Cap Gemini Ernst and Young, and synthesizes the present day situation of gas supplies and the conditions of network access by third parties. The informations reported in the EEMDO come from organizations like UCTE, Nordel, Eurelectric or from energy stock exchanges. (J.S.)

  1. Development and application of a comprehensive simulation model to evaluate impacts of watershed structures and irrigation water use on streamflow and groundwater: The case of Wet Walnut Creek Watershed, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramireddygari, S.R.; Sophocleous, M.A.; Koelliker, J.K.; Perkins, S.P.; Govindaraju, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive modeling study of surface and groundwater systems, including stream-aquifer interactions, for the Wet Walnut Creek Watershed in west-central Kansas. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of watershed structures and irrigation water use on streamflow and groundwater levels, which in turn affect availability of water for the Cheyenne Bottoms Wildlife Refuge Management area. The surface-water flow model, POTYLDR, and the groundwater flow model, MODFLOW, were combined into an integrated, watershed-scale, continuous simulation model. Major revisions and enhancements were made to the POTYLDR and MODFLOW models for simulating the detailed hydrologic budget for the Wet Walnut Creek Watershed. The computer simulation model was calibrated and verified using historical streamflow records (at Albert and Nekoma gaging stations), reported irrigation water use, observed water-level elevations in watershed structure pools, and groundwater levels in the alluvial aquifer system. To assess the impact of watershed structures and irrigation water use on streamflow and groundwater levels, a number of hypothetical management scenarios were simulated under various operational criteria for watershed structures and different annual limits on water use for irrigation. A standard 'base case' was defined to allow comparative analysis of the results of different scenarios. The simulated streamflows showed that watershed structures decrease both streamflows and groundwater levels in the watershed. The amount of water used for irrigation has a substantial effect on the total simulated streamflow and groundwater levels, indicating that irrigation is a major budget item for managing water resources in the watershed. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.This paper presents the results of a comprehensive modeling study of surface and groundwater systems, including stream-aquifer interactions, for the Wet Walnut Creek Watershed in west

  2. Hydrology and water quality in 13 watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia, 2001–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbach, Brent T.; Joiner, John K.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2017-02-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Gwinnett County Department of Water Resources, established a Long-Term Trend Monitoring (LTTM) program in 1996. The LTTM program is a comprehensive, long-term, water-quantity and water-quality monitoring program designed to document and analyze the hydrologic and water-quality conditions of selected watersheds in Gwinnett County, Georgia. Water-quality monitoring initially began in six watersheds and currently [2016] includes 13 watersheds.As part of the LTTM program, streamflow, precipitation, water temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity were measured every 15 minutes for water years 2001–15 at 12 of the 13 watershed monitoring stations and for water years 2010–15 at the other watershed. In addition, discrete water-quality samples were collected seasonally from May through October (summer) and November through April (winter), including one base-flow and three stormflow event composite samples, during the study period. Samples were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total organic carbon, trace elements (total lead and total zinc), total dissolved solids, and total suspended sediment (total suspended solids and suspended-sediment concentrations). The sampling scheme was designed to identify variations in water quality both hydrologically and seasonally.The 13 watersheds were characterized for basin slope, population density, land use for 2012, and the percentage of impervious area from 2000 to 2014. Several droughts occurred during the study period—water years 2002, 2007–08, and 2011–12. Watersheds with the highest percentage of impervious areas had the highest runoff ratios, which is the portion of precipitation that occurs as runoff. Watershed base-flow indexes, the ratio of base-flow runoff to total runoff, were inversely correlated with watershed impervious area.Flood-frequency estimates were computed for 13 streamgages in the study area that have 10 or more years of annual

  3. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  4. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - John Day Watershed Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-04

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the John Day Watershed Restoration Program, which includes projects to improve watershed conditions, resulting in improved fish and wildlife habitat. The project was planned and coordinated by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs through the John Day Basin Office in Prairie City, Oregon. A variety of activities will be implemented, described below. The project will involve the installation of four permanent lay flat diversions (structures) to replace temporary diversions. Two structures would be constructed in Beech Creek, one in Little Beech Creek and one in the John Day River. The structures will replace temporary pushup dams, which were constructed annually of various materials. Installation of the permanent diversion structures eliminates the stream-disturbing activities associated with annual installation of temporary structures. They also will enable fish passage in all flow conditions, an improvement over the temporary structures which can obstruct fish passage under some conditions. Five scour chains will be installed in six sites within the John Day River. The chains will be 3 feet long and consist of 1/4 inch chain. They will be buried within the streambed to monitor the movement of material in the streambed. Other activities that will be implemented include: Installation of off-site water systems in areas where fencing and revegetation projects are implemented, in order to restrict livestock access to waterways; construction of facilities to return irrigation flows to the Johns Day River, including the installation of pipe to replace failing drains or return ditches; installation of pumps to replace temporary diversions; and removal of junipers from approximately 500 acres per year by hand felling.

  5. Linear Modeling and Evaluation of Controls on Flow Response in Western Post-Fire Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, S.; Hogue, T. S.; Hay, L.

    2015-12-01

    This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed flow regimes throughout the western United States, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified subregions and determination of the impact of climate and geophysical variables in post-fire flow response. Fire events were collected through federal and state-level databases and streamflow data were collected from U.S. Geological Survey stream gages. 263 watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily flow records. For each watershed, percent changes in runoff ratio (RO), annual seven day low-flows (7Q2) and annual seven day high-flows (7Q10) were calculated from pre- to post-fire. Numerous independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, land cover, climate, burn severity, and soils data. The national watersheds were divided into five regions through K-clustering and a lasso linear regression model, applying the Leave-One-Out calibration method, was calculated for each region. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the resulting models. The regions encompassing the United States along and west of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the coastal watersheds, produced the most accurate linear models. The Pacific coast region models produced poor and inconsistent results, indicating that the regions need to be further subdivided. Presently, RO and HF response variables appear to be more easily modeled than LF. Results of linear regression modeling showed varying importance of watershed and fire event variables, with conflicting correlation between land cover types and soil types by region. The addition of further independent variables and constriction of current variables based on correlation indicators is ongoing and should allow for more accurate linear regression modeling.

  6. A framework for evaluating regional hydrologic sensitivity to climate change using archetypal watershed modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Lopez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on the development of a regional framework to evaluate hydrologic and sediment sensitivity due to predicted future climate variability using developed archetypal watersheds. The developed archetypes are quasi-synthetic watersheds that integrate observed regional physiographic features (i.e., geomorphology, land cover patterns, etc. with synthetic derivation of basin and reach networks. Each of the three regional archetypes (urban, vegetated and mixed land covers simulates satisfactory hydrologic and sediment behavior compared to historical observations (flow and sediment prior to the climate sensitivity analysis. Climate scenarios considered increasing temperature estimated from the IPCC and precipitation variability based on historical observations and expectations. Archetypal watersheds are modeled using the Environmental Protection Agency's Hydrologic Simulation Program–Fortran model (EPA HSPF and relative changes to streamflow and sediment flux are evaluated. Results indicate that the variability and extent of vegetation play a key role in watershed sensitivity to predicted climate change. Temperature increase alone causes a decrease in annual flow and an increase in sediment flux within the vegetated archetypal watershed only, and these effects are partially mitigated by the presence of impervious surfaces within the urban and mixed archetypal watersheds. Depending on extent of precipitation variability, urban and moderately urban systems can expect the largest alteration to flow regimes where high flow events are expected to become more frequent. As a result, enhanced wash-off of suspended-sediments from available pervious surfaces is expected.

  7. A network model for prediction and diagnosis of sediment dynamics at the watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sopan; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Hassan, Marwan A.; Ye, Sheng; Harman, Ciaran J.; Xu, Xiangyu

    2012-12-01

    We present a semi-distributed model that simulates suspended sediment export from a watershed in two stages: (1) delivery of sediments from hillslope and bank erosion into the river channel, and (2) propagation of the channel sediments through the river network toward the watershed outlet. The model conceptualizes a watershed as the collection of reaches, or representative elementary watersheds (REW), that are connected to each other through the river network, and each REW comprises a lumped representation of a hillslope and channel component. The flow of water along the stream network is modeled through coupled mass and momentum balance equations applied in all REWs and sediment transport within each REW is simulated through the sediment balance equations. Every reach receives sediment inputs from upstream REWs (if present) and from the erosion of adjacent hillslopes, banks and channel bed. We tested this model using 12 years (1982-1993) of high temporal resolution data from Goodwin Creek, a 21.3 km2 watershed in Mississippi, USA. The model yields good estimates of sediment export patterns at the watershed outlet, with Pearson correlation coefficient (R value) of 0.85, 0.87, and 0.95 at daily, monthly, and annual resolution, respectively. Furthermore, the model shows that the dynamics of sediment transport are controlled to a large extent by the differences in the behavior of coarse and fine sediment particles, temporary channel storage, and the spatial variability in climatic forcing. These processes have a bearing on the patterns of sediment delivery with increasing scale.

  8. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  9. Multiagent distributed watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

    2012-04-01

    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  10. Comparison of mercury mass loading in streams to atmospheric deposition in watersheds of Western North America: Evidence for non-atmospheric mercury sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Majewski, Michael S.; Alpers, Charles N.; Eckley, Chris S.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Schenk, Liam N.; Wherry, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Annual stream loads of mercury (Hg) and inputs of wet and dry atmospheric Hg deposition to the landscape were investigated in watersheds of the Western United States and the Canadian-Alaskan Arctic. Mercury concentration and discharge data from flow gauging stations were used to compute annual mass loads with regression models. Measured wet and modeled dry deposition were compared to annual stream loads to compute ratios of Hg stream load to total Hg atmospheric deposition. Watershed land uses or cover included mining, undeveloped, urbanized, and mixed. Of 27 watersheds that were investigated, 15 had some degree of mining, either of Hg or precious metals (gold or silver), where Hg was used in the amalgamation process. Stream loads in excess of annual Hg atmospheric deposition (ratio > 1) were observed in watersheds containing Hg mines and in relatively small and medium-sized watersheds with gold or silver mines, however, larger watersheds containing gold or silver mines, some of which also contain large dams that trap sediment, were sometimes associated with lower load ratios (< 0.2). In the non-Arctic regions, watersheds with natural vegetation tended to have low ratios of stream load to Hg deposition (< 0.1), whereas urbanized areas had higher ratios (0.34–1.0) because of impervious surfaces. This indicated that, in ecosystems with natural vegetation, Hg is retained in the soil and may be transported subsequently to streams as a result of erosion or in association with dissolved organic carbon. Arctic watersheds (Mackenzie and Yukon Rivers) had a relatively elevated ratio of stream load to atmospheric deposition (0.27 and 0.74), possibly because of melting glaciers or permafrost releasing previously stored Hg to the streams. Overall, our research highlights the important role of watershed characteristics in determining whether a landscape is a net source of Hg or a net sink of atmospheric Hg.

  11. Comparison of mercury mass loading in streams to atmospheric deposition in watersheds of Western North America: Evidence for non-atmospheric mercury sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph; Majewski, Michael S; Alpers, Charles N; Eckley, Chris S; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Schenk, Liam; Wherry, Susan

    2016-10-15

    Annual stream loads of mercury (Hg) and inputs of wet and dry atmospheric Hg deposition to the landscape were investigated in watersheds of the Western United States and the Canadian-Alaskan Arctic. Mercury concentration and discharge data from flow gauging stations were used to compute annual mass loads with regression models. Measured wet and modeled dry deposition were compared to annual stream loads to compute ratios of Hg stream load to total Hg atmospheric deposition. Watershed land uses or cover included mining, undeveloped, urbanized, and mixed. Of 27 watersheds that were investigated, 15 had some degree of mining, either of Hg or precious metals (gold or silver), where Hg was used in the amalgamation process. Stream loads in excess of annual Hg atmospheric deposition (ratio>1) were observed in watersheds containing Hg mines and in relatively small and medium-sized watersheds with gold or silver mines, however, larger watersheds containing gold or silver mines, some of which also contain large dams that trap sediment, were sometimes associated with lower load ratios (<0.2). In the non-Arctic regions, watersheds with natural vegetation tended to have low ratios of stream load to Hg deposition (<0.1), whereas urbanized areas had higher ratios (0.34-1.0) because of impervious surfaces. This indicated that, in ecosystems with natural vegetation, Hg is retained in the soil and may be transported subsequently to streams as a result of erosion or in association with dissolved organic carbon. Arctic watersheds (Mackenzie and Yukon Rivers) had a relatively elevated ratio of stream load to atmospheric deposition (0.27 and 0.74), possibly because of melting glaciers or permafrost releasing previously stored Hg to the streams. Overall, our research highlights the important role of watershed characteristics in determining whether a landscape is a net source of Hg or a net sink of atmospheric Hg.

  12. Are watershed and lacustrine controls on planktonic N2 fixation hierarchically structured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J Thad; Doyle, Robert D; Prochnow, Shane J; White, Joseph D

    2008-04-01

    N2 fixation can be an important source of N to limnetic ecosystems and can influence the structure of phytoplankton communities. However, watershed-scale conditions that favor N2 fixation in lakes and reservoirs have not been well studied. We measured N2 fixation and lacustrine variables monthly over a 19-month period in Waco Reservoir, Texas, USA, and linked these data with nutrient-loading estimates from a physically based watershed model. Readily available topographic, soil, land cover, effluent discharge, and climate data were used in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to derive watershed nutrient-loading estimates. Categorical and regression tree (CART) analysis revealed that lacustrine and watershed correlates of N2 fixation were hierarchically structured. Lacustrine conditions showed greater predictive capability temporally. For instance, low NO3(-) concentration (27 degrees C) in the reservoir were correlated with the initiation of N2 fixation seasonally. When lacustrine conditions were favorable for N2 fixation, watershed conditions appeared to influence spatial patterns of N2 fixation within the reservoir. For example, spatially explicit patterns of N2 fixation were correlated with the ratio of N:P in nutrient loadings and the N loading rate, which were driven by anthropogenic activity in the watershed and periods of low stream flow, respectively. Although N2 fixation contributed <5% of the annual N load to the reservoir, 37% of the N load was derived from atmospheric N2 fixation during summertime when stream flow in the watershed was low. This study provides evidence that watershed anthropogenic activity can exert control on planktonic N2 fixation, but that temporality is controlled by lacustrine conditions. Furthermore, this study also supports suggestions that reduced inflows may increase the propensity of N2-fixing cyanobacterial blooms in receiving waters of anthropogenically modified landscapes.

  13. Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination (R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.

  14. Combine the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) with sediment geochemistry to evaluate diffuse heavy metal loadings at watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Shan, Yushu; Geng, Xiaojun

    2014-09-15

    Assessing the diffuse pollutant loadings at watershed scale has become increasingly important when formulating effective watershed water management strategies, but the process was seldom achieved for heavy metals. In this study, the overall temporal-spatial variability of particulate Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni losses within an agricultural watershed was quantitatively evaluated by combining SWAT with sediment geochemistry. Results showed that the watershed particulate heavy metal loadings displayed strong variability in the simulation period 1981-2010, with an obvious increasing trend in recent years. The simulated annual average loadings were 20.21 g/ha, 21.75 g/ha, 47.35 g/ha and 21.27 g/ha for Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni, respectively. By comparison, these annual average values generally matched the estimated particulate heavy metal loadings at field scale. With spatial interpolation of field loadings, it was found that the diffuse heavy metal pollution mainly came from the sub-basins dominated with cultivated lands, accounting for over 70% of total watershed loadings. The watershed distribution of particulate heavy metal losses was very similar to that of soil loss but contrary to that of heavy metal concentrations in soil, highlighting the important role of sediment yield in controlling the diffuse heavy metal loadings.

  15. Watershed boundaries for the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2016-01-01

    The National Water Quality Network (NWQN) for Rivers and Streams includes 113 surface-water river and stream sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Program (NWQP). The NWQN represents the consolidation of four historical national networks: the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project, the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), the National Monitoring Network (NMN), and the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN). The NWQN includes 22 large river coastal sites, 41 large river inland sites, 30 wadeable stream reference sites, 10 wadeable stream urban sites, and 10 wadeable stream agricultural sites. In addition to the 113 NWQN sites, 3 large inland river monitoring sites from the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds (Co-op) program are also included in this annual water-quality reporting Web site to be consistent with previous USGS studies of nutrient transport in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. This data release contains geo-referenced digital data and associated attributes of watershed boundaries for 113 NWQN and 3 Co-op sites. Two sites, "Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet, LA"; 07381590, and "Lower Atchafalaya River at Morgan City, LA"; 07381600, are outflow distributaries into the Gulf of Mexico. Watershed boundaries were delineated for the portion of the watersheds between "Red River near Alexandria, LA"; 07355500 and "Atchafalaya River at Melville, LA"; 07381495 to the two distributary sites respectively. Drainage area was undetermined for these two distributary sites because the main stream channel outflows into many smaller channels so that streamflow is no longer relative to the watershed area. NWQN watershed boundaries were derived from the Watershed Boundary Dataset-12-digit hydrologic units (WBD-12). The development of the WBD-12 was a coordinated effort between the United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS), the USGS, and the Environmental

  16. Annual Site Environmental Report: 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuckolls, H.; /SLAC

    2006-04-19

    for overseeing hazardous materials and waste management at SLAC. The CUPA made facility enforcement inspections of SLAC in August and September of 2003. These inspections covered SLAC's hazardous materials and waste management, business plan, California Accidental Release Prevention Program (CalARP), and tiered permitting/permit-by-rule programs. No notices of violation were issued as a result of either inspection. (3) Stormwater and Industrial Wastewater--SLAC operates its industrial and sanitary wastewater management program in compliance with established permit conditions; 2003 was the seventh consecutive year the program operated without any NOVs issued by regulators. SLAC actively pursues projects to reduce flow to the wastewater system, and through a variety of measures, has managed to keep its facility-wide wastewater discharge constant during a period in which many new connections were made to the system. SLAC continues to make the transition to a new facility-wide sanitary sewer flow-monitoring scheme, and made substantial progress towards completing the project during 2003. SLAC discharges stormwater with the potential to come into contact with industrial activities. SLAC has an extensive monitoring program in place at the eight discharge locations where the greatest potential for contact exists. During the 2002-2003 wet season, SLAC met all the requirements of its monitoring plan, with the exception of consistent sample collection within the first hour of discharge. For the eleventh consecutive year, the surface water program operated in 2003 without receiving any NOVs from program regulators. After expenditures of more than $1 million, SLAC was nearly complete with its Unauthorized Stormwater Connection Project at year-end; only 32 connections (less than 10 percent of the original total) remained to be replumed. SLAC actively pursued several other BMP-related performance improvements during the year. (4) Hazardous Materials Program--Although SLAC has

  17. Effects of converting sagebrush cover to grass on the hydrology of small watersheds at Boco Mountain, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusby, Gregg C.

    1979-01-01

    Changes in runoff and sediment yield caused by changing sagebrush cover to grass cover were studied at four small watersheds in western Colorado during a 9-year period, from 1965 to 1978. Measurements of runoff and sediment yield from the four watersheds were made for 8 years, at which time two watersheds were plowed and seeded to beardless bluebunch wheatgrass. The same measurements were then continued for an additional 6 years. Measurements indicated that conversion to grass caused a reduction in runoff from summer rainstorms of about 75 percent. Runoff from spring snowmelt increased about 12 percent, and annual runoff from treated watersheds decreased about 20 percent when compared to control watersheds. Sediment yield from the seeded watersheds was reduced by about 80 percent; most of this reduction is related to the decrease in runoff from summer rainstorms. The size of barren interspaces between plants was reduced on the converted water- sheds to about 30 percent of those on the untreated watersheds. Linear regression analysis indicates that a reduction of 38 percent in the amount of bare soil resulting from planting grass would result in a decrease of 73 percent in sediment concentration.

  18. Physio-climatic controls on vulnerability of watersheds to climate and land use change across the U. S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Ankit; Singh, Riddhi

    2016-11-01

    Understanding how a watershed's physio-climatic characteristics affect its vulnerability to environmental (climatic and land use) change is crucial for managing these complex systems. In this study, we combine the strengths of recently developed exploratory modeling frameworks and comparative hydrology to quantify the relationship between watershed's vulnerability and its physio-climatic characteristics. We propose a definition of vulnerability that can be used by a diverse range of water system managers and is useful in the presence of large uncertainties in drivers of environmental change. This definition is related to adverse climate change and land use thresholds that are quantified using a recently developed exploratory modeling approach. In this way, we estimate the vulnerability of 69 watersheds in the United States to climate and land use change. We explore definitions of vulnerability that describe average or extreme flow conditions, as well as others that are relevant from the point of view of instream organisms. In order to understand the dominant controls on vulnerability, we correlate these indices with watershed's characteristics describing its topography, geology, drainage, climate, and land use. We find that mean annual flow is more vulnerable to reductions in precipitation in watersheds with lower average soil permeability, lower baseflow index, lower forest cover, higher topographical wetness index, and vice-versa. Our results also indicate a potential mediation of climate change impacts by regional groundwater systems. By developing such relationships across a large range of watersheds, such information can potentially be used to assess the vulnerability of ungauged watersheds to uncertain environmental change.

  19. Abstração inicial da precipitação em microbacia hidrográfica com escoamento efêmero Initial abstraction of small watersheds of ephemeral flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. de Mello

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso do método CN (Curve Number em bacias hidrográficas no Brasil é comum, porém sua precisão pode ser questionável, em especial para bacias com escoamento efêmero, onde as respostas hidrológicas possuem comportamento diferenciado. Este trabalho objetiva estudar as abstrações iniciais das precipitações ocorridas em uma microbacia hidrográfica com escoamento efêmero, propondo um modelo para cálculo da lâmina de abstração, que é uma das variáveis de entrada do método CN. Foram analisados 25 eventos de chuva-escoamento durante o ano hidrológico 2002/2003, determinando-se os valores da abstração inicial para cada evento e, pelo método CN, o armazenamento potencial da microbacia. A abstração (lâmina e tempo foi correlacionada a variáveis hidrológicas, comprovando a influência destas no seu valor. O modelo foi gerado por regressão múltipla linear em função das variáveis hidrológicas. As características estatísticas do modelo permitem o seu emprego. A razão entre a lâmina de abstração e o armazenamento potencial produziu resultados que mostram uma constante bastante inferior ao valor de 0,2 sugerido pelo método CN, encontrando-se valor médio de 0,0155, além de alta variabilidade nos valores desta constante (0 a 0,081, revelando não ser possível uma boa estimativa da abstração baseada apenas no armazenamento potencial do solo.The curve number - CN Method (SCS-USDA is widely applied for small watersheds in Brazil, although its precision can be questionable, specially for small watersheds of ephemeral flood that are different from watersheds of perennial flood. The objective of this work is to study the initial abstraction of watershed of ephemeral flood and suggest a mathematical model to calculate this parameter which is an important variable of CN-Method. In all 25 events of rainfall-runoff evaluated during the hydrologic year 2002/2003 in order to determine the initial abstraction values for each

  20. Retrospective Analysis of Low Flows at Headwater Watersheds in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutchkova, D. D.; Miller, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding summer low-flow variability and change in the mountainous West has important implications for water allocations downstream and for maintaining water availability for drinking water supply, reservoir storage, industrial, agricultural, and ecological needs. Wildfires and insect infestations are classical disturbance hydrology topics. It is unclear, however, what are their effects on streamflow and in particular low-flows, when vegetation disturbances are overlapping in time and combined with highly variable and potentially changing local climate. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to quantify changes in low-flows resulting from disturbance in headwater streams. Here we present a retrospective analysis based on: (1) 49-75 complete water years (wy) of daily streamflow data (USGS) for 14 high-elevation headwater watersheds with varying areas (60-1730 km2, 86-100% of watershed area >2000masl) and evergreen forest cover (15-82%), (2) 25-36 complete wy of daily snow-water equivalent accumulation (SWE) and precipitation data from Wyoming SNOTEL stations, (3) burned area boundaries for 20wy (MTBS project), (4) aerial surveys by R1, R2, R4 Forest Service Regions for 18wy (data on tree mortality). We quantify the change in various low-flow characteristics (e.g. post-snowmelt baseflow, Q90 and Q95, 3-,7-, 30- and 90-day annual minima etc.) while accounting for local inter- and multi-annual climate variability by using SWE accumulation data, as it integrates both temperature and precipitation changes. Our approach differs from typical before-after field-based investigation for paired watersheds, as it provides a synthesis over large temporal and spatial scales, resulting in spectrum of possible hydrologic responses due to varying disturbance severity. Quantifying the changes in low-flows and low-flow variability will improve our understanding and will facilitate water management and planning at local state-wide level.

  1. Changes in lakes water volume and runoff over ungauged Sahelian watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, L.; Grippa, M.; Hiernaux, P.; Peugeot, C.; Mougin, E.; Kergoat, L.

    2016-09-01

    A large part of the Sahel consists of endorheic hydrological systems, where reservoirs and lakes capture surface runoff during the rainy season, making water available during the dry season. Monitoring and understanding the dynamics of these lakes and their relationships to the ecohydrological evolution of the region is important to assess past, present and future changes of water resources in the Sahel. Yet, most of Sahelian watersheds are still ungauged or poorly gauged, which hinders the assessment of the water flows feeding the lakes and the overall runoff over their watershed. In this paper, a methodology is developed to estimate water inflow to lakes for ungauged watersheds. It is tested for the Agoufou lake in the Gourma region in Mali, for which in situ water height measurements and surface areas estimations by remote sensing are simultaneously available. A Height-Volume-Area (HVA) model is developed to relate water volume to water height and lake surface area. This model is combined to daily evaporation and precipitation to estimate water inflow to the lake, which approximates runoff over the whole watershed. The ratio between annual water inflow and precipitation increases over the last sixty years as a result of a significant increase in runoff coefficient over the Agoufou watershed. The method is then extended to derive water inflow to three other Sahelian lakes in Mauritania and Niger. No in situ measurements are available and lake surface areas estimation by remote sensing is the only source of information. Dry season surface area changes and estimated evaporation are used to select a suited VA relationship for each case. It is found that the ratio between annual water inflow and precipitation has also increased in the last 60 years over these watersheds, although trends at the Mauritanian site are not statistically significant. The remote sensing approach developed in this study can be easily applied to recent sensors such as Sentinel-2 or Landsat-8

  2. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  3. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  4. Watershed Fact Sheet: Improving Utah's Water Quality, Upper Bear River Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Watershed of the Bear River Basin extends from the river's headwaters to Pixley Dam in Wyoming. This is the largest watershed in the Bear River Basin, with an area of about 2,000 square miles.

  5. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  6. Weathering, landscape equilibrium, and carbon in four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter H in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Robert F.; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program research in eastern Puerto Rico involves a double pair-wise comparison of four montane river basins, two on granitic bedrock and two on fine-grained volcaniclastic bedrock; for each rock type, one is forested and the other is developed. A confounding factor in this comparison is that the developed watersheds are substantially drier than the forested (runoff of 900–1,600 millimeters per year compared with 2,800–3,700 millimeters per year). To reduce the effects of contrasting runoff, the relation between annual runoff and annual constituent yield were used to estimate mean-annual yields at a common, intermediate mean-annual runoff of 1,860 millimeters per year. Upon projection to this intermediate runoff, the ranges of mean-annual yields among all watersheds became more compact or did not substantially change for dissolved bedrock, sodium, silica, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, and calcium. These constituents are the primary indicators of chemical weathering, biological activity on the landscape, and atmospheric inputs; the narrow ranges indicate little preferential influence by either geology or land cover. The projected yields of biologically active constituents (potassium, nitrate, ammonium ion, phosphate), and particulate constituents (suspended bedrock and particulate organic carbon) were considerably greater for developed landscapes compared with forested watersheds, consistent with the known effects of land clearing and human waste inputs. Equilibrium rates of combined chemical and physical weathering were estimated by using a method based on concentrations of silicon and sodium in bedrock, river-borne solids, and river-borne solutes. The observed rates of landscape denudation greatly exceed rates expected for a dynamic equilibrium, except possibly for the forested watershed on volcaniclastic rock. Deforestation and agriculture can explain the accelerated physical

  7. A Study of the Climate Change during 21st Century over Peninsular Malaysia Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvas, M. L.; Ercan, A.; Ishida, K.; Chen, Z. R.; Jang, S.; Amin, M. Z. M.; Shaaban, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    15 coarse-resolution (150 - 300 km) climate projections for the 21st century by 3 different coupled land-atmosphere-ocean GCMs (ECHAM5 of the Max Planck Institute of Meteorology of Germany, CCSM3 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) of the United States, and MRI-CGCM2.3.2 of the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan) under 4 different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, A2, A1FI) were dynamically downscaled at hourly intervals by a regional hydro-climate model of Peninsular Malaysia (RegHCM-PM) that consisted of Regional Atmospheric Model MM5 that was coupled with WEHY watershed hydrology model over Peninsular Malaysia (PM), at the scale of the hillslopes of 13 selected watersheds (Batu Pahat, Johor, Muda, Kelang, Kelantan, Linggi, Muar, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, Dungun, Kemaman and Kuantan) and 12 selected intervening coastal regions in order to assess the impact of climate change on the climate conditions at the selected watersheds and coastal regions of PM. From the downscaled climate projections it can be concluded that the mean annual precipitation gradually increases toward the end of the 21st century over each of the 13 watersheds and the 12 coastal regions. The basin-average mean annual temperature increases in the range of 2.50C - 2.950C over PM during the 2010 -2100 period when compared to the 1970-2000 historical period. The ensemble average basin-average annual potential evapotranspiration increases gradually throughout the 21st century over all watersheds.

  8. VARIABILITY IN SOILS AND VEGETATION ASSOCIATED WITH HARVESTER ANT (POGONOMYRMEX RUGOSUS) NESTS ON A CHIHUAHUAN DESERT WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) nests on the density and cover of spring annual plants and on soil characteristics were measured at three locations characterized by different soils and dominant vegetation on a desert watershed. There were few differences in ve...

  9. Landscape characterization for watershed management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Jackson, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schwartz, P.M. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Streams and rivers serve as integrators of terrestrial landscape characteristics and as recipients of pollutants from both the atmosphere and the land; thus, large rivers are especially good indicators of cumulative impacts. Landscape ecologists seek to better understand the relationships between landscape structure and ecosystem processes at various spatial scales. Understanding how scale, both data resolution and geographic extent, influences landscape characterization and how terrestrial processes affect water quality are critically important for model development and translation of research results from experimental watersheds to management of large drainage basins. Measures of landscape structure are useful to monitor change and assess the risks it poses to ecological resources. Many studies have shown that the proportion of different land uses within a watershed can account for some of the variability in surface water quality. Hunsaker and Levine showed that both proportion of land uses and the spatial pattern of land uses is important for characterizing and modeling water quality; however, proportion consistently accounted for the most variance (40% to 86%) across a range of watershed sizes (1000 to 1.35 million ha). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is performing a demonstration of its Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) for the Mid-Atlantic Region. One activity, the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment, is designed as a collaborative initiative between EPA`s Office of Research and Development and EPA`s Region III.

  10. State factor relationships of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen losses from unpolluted temperate forest watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, S.S.; Hedin, L.O.

    2007-01-01

    We sampled 100 unpolluted, old-growth forested watersheds, divided among 13 separate study areas over 5 years in temperate southern Chile and Argentina, to evaluate relationships among dominant soil-forming state factors and dissolved carbon and nitrogen concentrations in watershed streams. These watersheds provide a unique opportunity to examine broad-scale controls over carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in the absence of significant human disturbance from chronic N deposition and land use change. Variations in the ratio dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to nitrogen (DON) in watershed streams differed by underlying soil parent material, with average C:N = 29 for watersheds underlain by volcanic ash and basalt versus C:N = 73 for sedimentary and metamorphic parent materials, consistent with stronger adsorption of low C:N hydrophobic materials by amorphous clays commonly associated with volcanic ash and basalt weathering. Mean annual precipitation was related positively to variations in both DOC (range: 0.2-9.7 mg C/L) and DON (range: 0.008-0.135 mg N/L) across study areas, suggesting that variations in water volume and concentration may act synergistically to influence C and N losses across dry to wet gradients in these forest ecosystems. Dominance of vegetation by broadleaf versus coniferous trees had negligible effects on organic C and N concentrations in comparison to abiotic factors. We conclude that precipitation volume and soil parent material are important controls over chemical losses of dissolved organic C and N from unpolluted temperate forest watersheds. Our results raise the possibility that biotic imprints on watershed C and N losses may be less pronounced in naturally N-poor forests than in areas impacted by land use change and chronic N deposition. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Simulation of surface runoff in the Wujiang River watershed based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Congguo; LIU Congqiang

    2007-01-01

    Surface runoff in the Wujiang River watershed was simulated by a GIS-based method using precipitation, hydrology data, and land-use data. The volume of surface runoff is chiefly controlled by climates, topographical characteristics and types of land use at the watershed. Five subwatersheds that can represent the whole watershed were chosen and their average annual precipitation, average annual surface runoff and current land use were calculated respectively in the grid model of the Wujiang River watershed based on the climate and hydrology data from 1965 to 2000 and the land-use data acquired in the year of 2000. Surface runoff is assumed to be a function of precipitation and land use and the multiple regression tool is used to determine the relationship between surface runoff, precipitation and present land use. Thus, the rainfall-runoff model for each land-use type has been established. When calibrating these models, the results show that the percent errors are all below 7%, which indicates that the accuracy of this simulation is high.

  12. Watershed regressions for pesticides (warp) models for predicting atrazine concentrations in Corn Belt streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, are improved for application to the United States (U.S.) Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62% of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites. Model predictions were within a factor of 5 of the observed concentration statistic for over 90% of the model-development sites. The WARP-CB residuals and uncertainty are lower than those of the National WARP model for the same sites. Although atrazine-use intensity is the most important explanatory variable in the National WARP models, it is not a significant variable in the WARP-CB models. The WARP-CB models provide improved predictions for Corn Belt streams draining watersheds with atrazine-use intensities of 17 kg/km2 of watershed area or greater.

  13. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  14. Sensitivity of Regional Hydropower Generation to the Projected Changes in Future Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, S. C.; Naz, B. S.; Gangrade, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower is a key contributor to the renewable energy portfolio due to its established development history and the diverse benefits it provides to the electric power systems. With the projected change in the future watershed hydrology, including shift of snowmelt timing, increasing occurrence of extreme precipitation, and change in drought frequencies, there is a need to investigate how the regional hydropower generation may change correspondingly. To evaluate the sensitivity of watershed storage and hydropower generation to future climate change, a lumped Watershed Runoff-Energy Storage (WRES) model is developed to simulate the annual and seasonal hydropower generation at various hydropower areas in the United States. For each hydropower study area, the WRES model use the monthly precipitation and naturalized (unregulated) runoff as inputs to perform a runoff mass balance calculation for the total monthly runoff storage in all reservoirs and retention facilities in the watershed, and simulate the monthly regulated runoff release and hydropower generation through the system. The WRES model is developed and calibrated using the historic (1980-2009) monthly precipitation, runoff, and generation data, and then driven by a large set of dynamically- and statistically-downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate projections to simulate the change of watershed storage and hydropower generation under different future climate scenarios. The results among different hydropower regions, storage capacities, emission scenarios, and timescales are compared and discussed in this study.

  15. Time lags in watershed-scale nutrient transport: an exploration of dominant controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2017-08-01

    Unprecedented decreases in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition together with increases in agricultural N-use efficiency have led to decreases in net anthropogenic N inputs in many eastern US and Canadian watersheds as well as in Europe. Despite such decreases, N concentrations in streams and rivers continue to increase, and problems of coastal eutrophication remain acute. Such a mismatch between N inputs and outputs can arise due to legacy N accumulation and subsequent lag times between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. In the present study, we quantified such lag times by pairing long-term N input trajectories with stream nitrate concentration data for 16 nested subwatersheds in a 6800 km2, Southern Ontario watershed. Our results show significant nonlinearity between N inputs and outputs, with a strong hysteresis effect indicative of decadal-scale lag times. The mean annual lag time was found to be 24.5 years, with lags varying seasonally, likely due to differences in N-delivery pathways. Lag times were found to be negatively correlated with both tile drainage and watershed slope, with tile drainage being a dominant control in fall and watershed slope being significant during the spring snowmelt period. Quantification of such lags will be crucial to policy-makers as they struggle to set appropriate goals for water quality improvement in human-impacted watersheds.

  16. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  17. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  18. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  19. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

  20. Linking Watershed Nitrogen Sources with Nitrogen Dynamics in Rivers of Western Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, D. J.; Compton, J.; Goodwin, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    We constructed contemporary nitrogen (N) budgets for 25 river basins in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon, USA, to improve the understanding of how recent trends in human-driven N loading have influenced riverine N dynamics in the region. Nearly 20% of WRB stream length is currently in fair or poor condition because of high N concentrations. Additionally, nitrate contamination of drinking water affects at least 8,000 people in the WRB. We hypothesized that 1) the majority of N inputs in the WRB would originate from agricultural activities in lowland portions of watersheds, 2) annual riverine N yield (kg/ha/yr) would correspond to annual per area watershed N inputs, and 3) riverine N yields would be seasonal and highest during winter due to the region's Mediterranean climate. We calculated average annual N inputs for each study basin by summing newly available datasets describing spatially explicit N inputs of synthetic fertilizer, atmospheric deposition, crop biological N2 fixation, biological N2 fixation by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), livestock manure, and point sources for the period 1996 - 2007. Annual and seasonal riverine N exports were estimated with the USGS model LOADEST calibrated to N concentration data collected during the study period. We estimated that two-thirds of total N input to the WRB study basins in the 2000s came from synthetic fertilizer application. Nearly all fertilizer application occurred on the lowlands near watershed mouths. We found a wide range of riverine N yields from the study basins, ranging from one to 70 kg N/ha/yr. Across the study basins, N export was more strongly correlated to fertilizer application rates than to percent of agricultural area in the watershed. Low watershed N yields reflected a high proportion of watershed area in the forested Cascade Mountain Range, which received low N inputs mainly from atmospheric deposition. N yields from study basins were strongly seasonal, with at least 50%, and

  1. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  2. Community-Based Integrated Watershed Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qianxiang; Kennedy N.logbokwe; Li Jiayong

    2005-01-01

    Community-based watershed management is different from the traditional natural resources management. Traditional natural resources management is a way from up to bottom, but the community-based watershed management is from bottom to up. This approach focused on the joining of different stakeholders in integrated watershed management, especially the participation of the community who has been ignored in the past. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the important basic definitions, concepts and operational framework for initiating community-based watershed management projects and programs as well as some successes and practical challenges associated with the approach.

  3. Physical characterization of a watershed through GIS: a study in the Schmidt stream, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, D R; Plangg, R; Tundisi, J G; Quevedo, D M

    2015-12-01

    .83%), Native Forest + Rural Anthropic + Secondary Vegetation + Forestry (43.81%), Urban Anthropic/Urban Area (39.85%), and also Urban Anthropic/Expansion areas (3.01%). Mean annual rainfall is 1337 mm, maximum temperatures range from 10.5°C to 41.6°C and minimum temperatures range from -1.80°C and 26°C, weak winds, occasionally over 5 m/s. Conducting an environmental assessment in this watershed is essential for environmental and land management. However, these assessments are not conducted in all watersheds and, when they are, their frequency is not sufficiency to allow for continuous monitoring, in order to model and predict scenarios, with a view to adopt medium and long-term measures for environmental protection.

  4. Mercury in Indiana watersheds: retrospective for 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Baker, Nancy T.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Egler, Amanda L.; Lampe, David C.

    2010-01-01

    exceeded the 0.3 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methylmercury criterion in 12.4 percent of the 1,731 samples. The median wet-weight concentration in the fish-tissue samples was 0.13 mg/kg, and the maximum was 1.07 mg/kg. A coarse-scale analysis of all fish-tissue data in each watershed and a fine-scale analysis of data within 5 kilometers (km) of the downstream end of each watershed showed similar results overall. Mercury concentrations in fish-tissue samples were highest in the White River watershed in southern Indiana and the Fall Creek watershed in central Indiana. In fish-tissue samples within 5 km of the downstream end of a watershed, the USEPA methylmercury criterion was exceeded by 45 percent of mercury concentrations from the White River watershed and 40 percent of the mercury concentration from the Fall Creek watershed. A clear relation between mercury concentrations in fish-tissue samples and methylmercury concentrations in water was not observed in the data from watersheds in Indiana. Average annual atmospheric mercury wet-deposition rates were mapped with data at 156 locations in Indiana and four surrounding states for 2001-2006. These maps revealed an area in southeastern Indiana with high mercury wet-deposition rates-from 15 to 19 micrograms per square meter per year (ug/m2/yr). Annual atmospheric mercury dry-deposition rates were estimated with an inferential method by using concentrations of mercury species in air samples at three locations in Indiana. Mercury dry deposition-rates were 5.6 to 13.6 ug/m2/yr and were 0.49 to 1.4 times mercury wet-deposition rates. Total mercury concentrations were detected in 96 percent of 402 samples of wastewater effluent from 50 publicly owned treatment works in the watersheds; the median concentration was 3.0 ng/L, and the maximum was 88 ng/L. When these concentrations were compared to Indiana water-quality criteria for mercury, 12 percent exceeded the 12-n

  5. Evaluating the SWAT's snow hydrology over a Northern Quebec watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troin, M.; Caya, D.

    2012-12-01

    The snowmelt is an important component of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT[1]) model's hydrology when applied in snowy watersheds where spring flows are dominated by snow melting. However, little is known about its performance in modeling Nordic environments and its accuracy with respect to operational snowmelt models because most studies were conducted in rainfall-runoff catchments. To fill this gap in SWAT's knowledge, we aim to evaluate its performance for simulating a snowy Nordic catchment streamflow with comparison to the Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR[2]) model. SSARR is one of the selected operational models by the Snow Hydrology Guide as valuable tool for snowmelt runoff simulation (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 1989). In the Côte Nord region of Quebec, most of the streamflow come from snowmelt in watersheds. Understanding the interactions among snow accumulation, snowmelt and streamflow generation is a challenge for water resources management in Quebec, since this province is the Canada's leader in hydroelectric energy production. The selected snow-covered watershed, namely the Outardes Basin, presents extreme climatic conditions. Few examples of model calibration in this Nordic environment exist because of the scarcity of reliable data. The basin has the interest of being well instrumented providing a comprehensive dataset to implement SWAT over this Nordic watershed. The evaluation indicates that SWAT has a good performance in simulating the daily, monthly, seasonal and annual mean discharges with low volume biases over the calibration and validation periods. The predominantly spring snow-melting generated streamflow is simulated with a good accuracy for both its magnitude and its timing. Seasonal snowpack plays an important role in defining the hydrologic regime where the accumulated snowmelt runoff contributes to 64% of the annual runoff. When we compared SWAT's results to SSARR, comparable performances in

  6. Modeling and sediment study in the watershed Medjerda, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotti, Fatma; Mahé, Gil; Habaieb, Hamadi; Dieulin, Claudine; Hermassi, Taoufik

    2015-04-01

    Water projects have experienced a major expansion in the late 1980s, and we now have sufficient perspective to assess their actual performance and their socio-environmental impacts (Payan, 2007). This study focuses on the great watershed of Tunisia namely Medjerda which has an area of about 23,600 km2. In the main river of Medjerda some dams have been created for water retention: Sidi Salem Dam (the largest in the country), El Aroussia dam, and others on tributaries Mellegue Bouhertma, Siliana, Beni Mtir, Lakhemess and Kasseb. Since the construction of dams, essentially Sidi Salem and Siliana, the Medjerda river has undergone significant changes in morphology. The monitoring of the flow of the major hydrological stations in the pre-estuarine zone downstream from Sidi Salem dam is used to measure the impact of the constructions on hydrological regimes: reduction in average rates, reduction in volumes sold, altered seasonal pattern, and most of all reduction of the sediment transport, which the highest values are related to extreme events. In this context, the balance of sediment monitoring appears indispensable for the quantification of sediment transport at the outlet. Our approach is to calculate a specific flow rate relative to the area of the basin for every structure built in the Medjerda watershed, from the information available on transport and sedimentation rates known, combined with contours of each sub watershed. There are about ten dams spread throughout Medjerda watershed. The methodology is primarily developed for the Mellegue dam because we have at this station a long data set from 1955 until 2005. Other stations will be studied later on. The main objective of this study is to provide a series of annual variation of theoretical contributions. These calculated values will be compared with the actual measured sedimentary series. Two cores in the sediments of the pre-estuarine area are performed to determine past variability in sediment inputs over a time

  7. Watershed scale impacts of bioenergy, landscape changes, and ecosystem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet; Cibin, Raj; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, high US gasoline prices and national security concerns have prompted a renewed interest in alternative fuel sources to meet increasing energy demands, particularly by the transportation sector. Food and animal feed crops, such as corn and soybean, sugarcane, residue from these crops, and cellulosic perennial crops grown specifically to produce bioenergy (e.g. switchgrass, Miscanthus, mixed grasses), and fast growing trees (e.g. hybrid poplar) are expected to provide the majority of the biofeedstock for energy production. One of the grand challenges in supplying large quantities of grain-based and lignocellulosic materials for the production of biofuels is ensuring that they are produced in environmentally sustainable and economically viable manner. Feedstock selection will vary geographically based on regional adaptability, productivity, and reliability. Changes in land use and management practices related to biofeedstock production may have potential impacts on water quantity and quality, sediments, and pesticides and nutrient losses, and these impacts may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. We have made many improvements in the currently available biophysical models (e.g. Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT model) to evaluate sustainability of energy crop production. We have utilized the improved model to evaluate impacts of both annual (e.g. corn) and perennial bioenergy crops (e.g. Miscanthus and switchgrass at) on hydrology and water quality under the following plausible bioenergy crop production scenarios: (1) at highly erodible areas; (2) at agriculturally marginal areas; (3) at pasture areas; (4) crop residue (corn stover) removal; and (5) combinations of above scenarios. Overall results indicated improvement in water quality with introduction of perennial energy crops. Stream flow at the watershed outlet was reduced under energy crop production scenarios and ranged between 0.3% and 5% across scenarios. Erosion and sediment

  8. Chapter B. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Responses of Streams to Increasing Watershed Urbanization in the Piedmont Ecoregion of Georgia and Alabama, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, M. Brian; Calhoun, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program?s effort to assess the physical, chemical, and biological responses of streams to urbanization, 30 wadable streams were sampled near Atlanta, Ga., during 2002?2003. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural factors such as geology, altitude, and climate while representing a range of urban development. A multimetric urban intensity index was calculated using watershed land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables that are highly correlated with population density. The index was used to select sites along a gradient from low to high urban intensity. Response variables measured include stream hydrology and water temperature, instream habitat, field properties (pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity), nutrients, pesticides, suspended sediment, sulfate, chloride, Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations, and characterization of algal, invertebrate and fish communities. In addition, semipermeablemembrane devices (SPMDs)?passive samplers that concentrate hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)?were used to evaluate water-quality conditions during the 4 weeks prior to biological sampling. Changes in physical, chemical, and biological conditions were evaluated using both nonparametric correlation analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and associated comparisons of dataset similarity matrices. Many of the commonly reported effects of watershed urbanization on streams were observed in this study, such as altered hydrology and increases in some chemical constituent levels. Analysis of water-chemistry data showed that specific conductance, chloride, sulfate, and pesticides increased as urbanization increased. Nutrient concentrations were not directly correlated to increases in development, but were inversely correlated to percent forest in the watershed. Analyses of SPMD-derived data showed that

  9. Linking the watershed to the schoolshed: teaching sustainable development in K-12 with the Chester RIver Watershed Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembanis, A. C.; Levin, D.; Seidel, J.

    2012-12-01

    (developed by Levin) engage students in the building and testing of buoys to monitor the environment. Additional hands on science activities include the Levin developed ROVs-in-a-bucket project that Trembanis has incorporated into the University of Delaware high school summer science camp TIDE (Teaching an Interest in Delaware's Estuary) http://www.ceoe.udel.edu/tide/ in which 12-15 high school students annually participate in groups working to design, build, and operate a simple remotely operated vehicle in a series of real work simulation activities such as responding to an oil spill. The new CRW network will be the focus for formal and informal learning partnerships between schools in the watershed. Professional development opportunities for Chester River watershed teachers focus on the use of sensors, utilization of GIS in the classroom, and other resources that become available as shared teaching resources. Federal, state, regional, and local users in government, private industry, and educational venues from grades k-16 will be able to observe the trends and learn together the most prudent ways to sustain and conserve natural resources.

  10. Physical Habitat Characteristics on the North Fork Shenandoah River, VA in 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was collected with a PLGR government-issue GPS, and through manual measurement in the field. Points were gathered while canoeing along the North Fork...

  11. Contrôle des Circuits Auxiliaires des PFW (arrêt machines 2002/2003)

    CERN Document Server

    Ottaviani, J

    2003-01-01

    Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installées sur les pôles des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unité d aimant et constituées d un circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant désiré selon le cycle magnétique utilisé) et de circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (boucles de tour et pick-up brasés sur les enroulements). Pendant la variation du champ magnétique de l aimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux courants de Foucault dans la chambre à vide. Chaque année, pendant l arrêt machine, on vérifie si les caractéristiques des circuits auxiliaires correspondent aux normes (mesures des résistances des boucles de tours, résistances entre pick-up et isolation des circuits) afin de faire un suivi. Les 404 PFW sont ainsi vérifiées. Dans cette note, on ne relèvera que les PFW ayant des défauts (valeurs hors tolérances, boucles ouvertes ou en court-circuit, déf...

  12. Reconstruyendo redes, repensando espacios: experiencias migrantes de argentinos en Madrid (2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los proyectos migratorios implican importantes cambios en la articulación de los espacios sociales. No sólo porque las redes se amplían a nuevos contactos y amistades en el lugar de radicación sino también porque las antiguas relaciones con quienes se quedan en el lugar de procedencia entran en un proceso de transformación. En esta contribución utilizamos la historia oral para acercarnos a las experiencias de un grupo de argentinos que vino a establecerse a Madrid a raíz de la crisis de 2001. Indagamos en la reconstrucción de sus redes sociales en destino y en la manera en que comienzan a repensar sus vínculos con Argentina.___________________ABSTRACT:The migratory projects carry important changes in the articulation of the social spaces. Not only because the networks widen to include new contacts and friendships, also because the old relations in the origin country begin a transformation process. This paper uses the oral history to examine the experiences of a group of Argentines settled in Madrid as a result of the crisis of 2001. It investigates the reconstruction of their social networks in destination and how they rethink their links to Argentina.

  13. Arrow Lakes Reservoir Fertilization Experiment; Years 4 and 5, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report presents the fourth and fifth year (2002 and 2003, respectively) of a five-year fertilization experiment on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The goal of the experiment was to increase kokanee populations impacted from hydroelectric development on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The impacts resulted in declining stocks of kokanee, a native land-locked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), a key species of the ecosystem. Arrow Lakes Reservoir, located in southeastern British Columbia, has undergone experimental fertilization since 1999. It is modeled after the successful Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. The amount of fertilizer added in 2002 and 2003 was similar to the previous three years. Phosphorus loading from fertilizer was 52.8 metric tons and nitrogen loading from fertilizer was 268 metric tons. As in previous years, fertilizer additions occurred between the end of April and the beginning of September. Surface temperatures were generally warmer in 2003 than in 2002 in the Arrow Lakes Reservoir from May to September. Local tributary flows to Arrow Lakes Reservoir in 2002 and 2003 were generally less than average, however not as low as had occurred in 2001. Water chemistry parameters in select rivers and streams were similar to previous years results, except for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations which were significantly less in 2001, 2002 and 2003. The reduced snow pack in 2001 and 2003 would explain the lower concentrations of DIN. The natural load of DIN to the Arrow system ranged from 7200 tonnes in 1997 to 4500 tonnes in 2003; these results coincide with the decrease in DIN measurements from water samples taken in the reservoir during this period. Water chemistry parameters in the reservoir were similar to previous years of study except for a few exceptions. Seasonal averages of total phosphorus ranged from 2.11 to 7.42 {micro}g/L from 1997 through 2003 in the entire reservoir which were indicative of oligo-mesotrophic conditions. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations have decreased in 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. These results indicate that the surface waters in Arrow Lakes Reservoir were approaching nitrogen limitation. Results from the 2003 discrete profile series indicate nitrate concentrations decreased significantly below 25 {micro}g/L (which is the concentration where nitrate is considered limiting to phytoplankton) between June and July at stations in Upper Arrow and Lower Arrow. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (weight:weight) were also low during these months indicating that the surface waters were nitrogen deficient. These results indicated that the nitrogen to phosphorus blends of fertilizer added to the reservoir need to be fine tuned and closely monitored on a weekly basis in future years of nutrient addition. Phytoplankton results shifted during 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. During 2002, there was a co-dominance of potentially 'inedible' diatoms (Fragilaria spp. and Diatoma) and 'greens' (Ulothrix). Large diatom populations occurred in 2003 and these results indicate it may be necessary to alter the frequency and amounts of weekly loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in future years to prevent the growth of inedible diatoms. Zooplankton density in 2002 and 2003, as in previous years, indicated higher densities in Lower Arrow than in Upper Arrow. Copepods and other Cladocera (mainly tiny specimens such as Bosmina sp.) had distinct peaks, higher than in previous years, while Daphnia was not present in higher numbers particularly in Upper Arrow. This density shift in favor to smaller cladocerans was mirrored in a weak biomass increase. In Upper Arrow, total zooplankton biomass decreased from 1999 to 2002, and in 2003 increased slightly, while in Lower Arrow the biomass decreased from 2000-2002. In Lower Arrow the majority of biomass was comprised of Daphnia throughout the study period except in 2002, while in Upper Arrow the total biomass was comprised of copepods from 2000-2003.

  14. The prevalance of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes in Limburg 2002-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen JWB van der; Vries A de; Chu ML; Stortelder V; Mulder JL; Lezenne Coulander C de; Teunis P; MGB

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a survey carried out between January 2002 and March 2003 to determine the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the province of Limburg, the Netherlands. Echinococcus multilocularis is the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis, a very

  15. 2002/2003 IfSAR data for Southern California: Digital Elevation Model (NAVD88)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of topographic elevation point data derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR)...

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: 2-Year R-DAS (NSDUH-2002-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file includes data from the 2002 through 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) survey. The only variables included in the data file are ones that...

  17. Encuesta nacional sobre emigración internacional de guatemaltecos 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, Víctor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza la Encuesta nacional de hogares para medir la emigración internacional de guatemaltecos de la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones (OIM, la cual interrelaciona a todos los elementos que intervienen y explican las causas y las consecuencias del fenómeno migratorio en Guatemala. El tema central de la investigación se refiere a la cuantificación de los flujos migratorios, en términos de volumen de estos flujos, identificación del lugar de origen de los migrantes y el lugar de destino en el extranjero, sus características socioeconómicas, con especial énfasis en el empleo que tenían antes de migrar y su inserción en el mercado laboral externo. El estudio empieza con la presentación de un perfil sociodemográfico de los hogares que tienen familiares en el extranjero. Un hallazgo importante en este ámbito, es que se rompe el paradigma que siempre se ha sostenido: que los hogares expulsores de migrantes son los que generalmente se encuentran en estado de pobreza. O que son los más pobres de los pobres los que emigran. El presente estudio demuestra lo contrario. De acuerdo con el análisis, afirma que la magnitud de las remesas anuales estimadas para el año 2003, representan el 8 % del Producto interno bruto -PIB-. Su importancia económica para el país en comparación con los ingresos de divisas por exportaciones, según los volúmenes reportados por el Banco de Guatemala, es innegable. El volumen de las remesas representa 86% del ingreso de divisas por concepto de todas las exportaciones FOB del país. Concluye que la información de la Encuesta nacional representará sin duda una valiosa herramienta para la gestión migratoria principalmente por ser un país emisor, así como de tránsito y destino de migrantes internacionales. Además es un instrumento que le permitirá dar respuesta a las exigencias de información en el ámbito nacional e internacional.

  18. Seroprevalence survey of zoonoses in Extremadura, southwestern Spain, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asencio, Maria Angeles; Herraez, Oscar; Tenias, Jose Maria; Garduño, Eugenio; Huertas, Maria; Carranza, Rafael; Ramos, Julian Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Our aims were to determine the seroprevalence rates for the most common types of zoonosis among the population of Extremadura (southwestern Spain) and to identify the associated risk factors. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey to collect information on family background and the habits of people residing in Extremadura between 2002 and 2003. Antibodies to Brucella were determined by Rose Bengal staining and a standard tube agglutination test; a titer of 1/80 was considered to be positive. Antibody titers for spotted fever, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis were determined by enzyme-immunoassays. Independent risk factors identified were age (younger age for brucellosis), male gender (brucellosis, spotted fever, and toxoplasmosis), occupation and contact with animals (brucellosis and spotted fever for those in contact with goats, hydatidosis for those in contact with sheep, leishmaniasis for those in contact with dogs, and toxoplasmosis for those in contact with cats and pigs), and consuming contaminated food (brucellosis by eating fresh cheese, hydatidosis by eating homemade sausages, and toxoplasmosis by eating pork). Except for leishmaniasis, the other zoonoses were more prevalent in rural areas, and, with the exception of brucellosis, they were all more prevalent in Badajoz. The distribution of zoonoses in Extremadura was strongly influenced by keeping livestock and eating habits. Thus, brucellosis was more prevalent in Caceres (associated with cheese consumption), while toxoplasmosis (pork consumption) and spotted fever (from hunting) were more common in Badajoz.

  19. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction; 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Wildlife Management Program, Olympia, WA)

    2004-02-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of June 2002-September 2003. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2002 and 2003 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. In 2002, 27 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored until they nested. Four more females carrying old transmitters were also monitored; only one of these transmitters lasted through the nesting season. In 2003, 30 females were monitored. Twenty-three of the females monitored in 2002 nested and produced 84 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in fall 2002 and reared in captivity at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in the head-start program. Twenty-seven of the turtles monitored in 2003 nested. Six of the turtles nested twice, producing a total of 33 nests. The nests will be checked in September and October 2003 for hatchlings. Of 121 head-started juvenile western pond turtles collected in the Columbia Gorge during the 2001 nesting season, 119 were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2002, and 2 held over for additional growth. Of 86 turtles reared in the head-start program at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos fall 2002 through summer 2003, 67 were released at sites in the Columbia Gorge in summer of 2003, and 15 held over for more growth. Fifty-nine juveniles were released at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge in July 2002, and 51 released there in July 2003. Sixteen of those released in 2002 and 16 released in 2003 were instrumented with radio transmitters and monitored for varying amounts of time for survival and habitat use between the time of release and August 2003, together with juveniles from the 2001 release which were monitored from June 2001 through August 2003, and juveniles from the 2000 release which were monitored from August 2000 through August 2003. The number of functioning transmitters varied due to transmitter failures and detachments, and availability of replacement transmitters, as well as opportunities to recapture turtles. By August 15, 2003, a total of 39 turtles were being monitored: 6 from the 2000 release, 8 from the 2001 release, 10 from the 2002 release, and 15 from the 2003 release. During the 2002 field season trapping effort, 280 turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 236 previously head-started turtles. During the 2003 trapping season, 349 turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge; 304 of these had been head-started. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual re-sightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 160 individual painted turtles captured in 2002 and 189 painted turtles captured in 2003 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native population. Eight female painted turtles were monitored by telemetry during the 2002 nesting season; 4 nests were recorded for these animals, plus 35 nests located incidentally. Preferred habitat for nesting was identified based on the telemetry results, to be considered in anticipating future turtle habitat needs and in management planning at Pierce NWR. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding supported activities in the Columbia River Gorge from June 2002 through September 2003.

  20. Keck Observations of the 2002-2003 Jovian Ring Plane Crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Pater, I; Showalter, M R; Macintosh, B A

    2007-11-29

    We present new observations of Jupiter's ring system at a wavelength of 2.2 {micro}m obtained with the 10-m W. M. Keck telescopes on three nights during a ring plane crossing: UT 19 December 2002, and 22 and 26 January 2003. We used conventional imaging, plus adaptive optics on the last night. Here we present detailed radial profiles of the main ring, halo and gossamer rings, and interpret the data together with information extracted from radio observations of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation. The main ring is confined to a 800-km-wide annulus between 128,200 and 129,000 km, with a {approx} 5000 km extension on the inside. The normal optical depth is 8 x 10{sup -6}, 15% of which is provided by bodies with radii a {approx}> 5 cm. These bodies are as red as Metis. Half the optical depth, {tau} {approx} 4 x 10{sup -6}, is attributed to micron-sized dust, and the remaining {tau} {approx} 3 x 10{sup -6} to grains tens to hundreds of {micro}m in size. The inward extension consists of micron-sized (a {approx}< 10 {micro}m) dust, which probably migrates inward under Poynting-Robertson drag. The inner limit of this extension falls near the 3:2 Lorentz resonance (at orbital radius r = 122,400 km), and coincides with the outer limit of the halo. The gossamer rings appear to be radially confined, rather than broad sheets of material. The Amalthea ring is triangularly shaped, with a steep outer dropoff over {approx} 5000 km, extending a few 1000 km beyond the orbit of Amalthea, and a more gradual inner dropoff over 15,000-20,000 km. The inner edge is near the location of the synchronous orbit. The optical depth in the Amalthea ring is {approx} 5 x 10{sup -7}, up to 20% of which is comprised of macroscopic material. The optical depth in the Thebe ring is a factor of 3 smaller.

  1. Health care provider knowledge and practices regarding folic acid, United States, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer L; Abelman, Stephen M; Fassett, Elizabeth M; Stone, Cheryl E; Petrini, Joann R; Damus, Karla; Mulinare, Joseph

    2006-09-01

    To assess health care providers (HCP) knowledge and practices regarding folic acid (FA) use for neural tube defect (NTD) prevention. Two identical surveys were conducted among 611 obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) and family/general physicians (FAM/GENs) (2002), and 500 physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), certified nurse midwives (CNMs), and registered nurses (2003) to ascertain knowledge and practices regarding FA. For analysis, T-tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used. Universally, providers knew that FA prevents birth defects. Over 88% knew when a woman should start taking folic acid for the prevention of NTDs; and over 85% knew FA supplementation beyond what is available in the diet is necessary. However, only half knew that 50% of all pregnancies in the United States are unplanned. Women heard information about multivitamins or FA most often during well woman visits in obstetrical/gynecology (ob/gyn) practice settings (65%), and about 50% of the time during well woman visits in family/general (fam/gen) practice settings and 50% of the time at gynecology visits (both settings). Among all providers, 42% did not know the correct FA dosage (400 mug daily). HCPs taking multivitamins were more than twice as likely to recommend multivitamins to their patients (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.27 95%, Confidence Interval [CI] 1.75-2.94). HCPs with lower income clients (OR 1.49, CI 1.22-1.81) and HCPs with practices having more than 10% minorities (OR 1.46, CI 1.11-1.92) were more likely to recommend supplements. NPs in ob/gyn settings were most likely and FAM/GENs were least likely to recommend supplements (OR 3.06, CL 1.36-6.90 and OR 0.64, CL 0.45-0.90 respectively). Knowledge about birth defects and the necessity of supplemental FA was high. Increasing knowledge about unintended pregnancy rates and correct dosages of FA is needed. The strongest predictor for recommending the use of FA supplements was whether the provider took a multivitamin.

  2. Vortex-averaged Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Christensen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A total ozone depletion of 68±7 Dobson units between 380 and 525K from 10 December 2002 to 10 March 2003 is derived from ozone sonde data by the vortex-average method, taking into account both diabatic descent of the air masses and transport of air into the vortex. When the vortex is divided into three equal-area regions, the results are 85±9DU for the collar region (closest to the edge, 52±5DU for the vortex centre and 68±7DU for the middle region in between centre and collar. Our results compare well with other studies: We find good agreement with ozone loss deduced from SAOZ data, with results inferred from POAM III observations and with results from tracer-tracer correlations using HF as the long-lived tracer. We find a higher ozone loss than that deduced by tracer-tracer correlations using CH4. We have made a careful comparison with Match results: The results were recalculated using a common time period, vortex edge definition and height interval. The two methods generally compare very well, except at the 475K level which exhibits an unexplained discrepancy.

  3. Public Community Support and Involvement around Vandellos ITER (EISS-Vandellos 2002/2003). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sola, R.; Prades, A.; Riba, D.; Doval, E.; Munoz, J.; Garay, A.; Viladrich, C.

    2006-07-01

    The Report summarizes a year and a half research on the social perception and expectations regarding the possible siting of ITER in Vandellos carried out in the framework of the European ITER Site Studies (EISS). The aims were to examine the needs and preferences in terms of public information and communication; to explore the risks and benefits the community links to the Centre; and to analyse the local expectations concerning public participation. A methodological strategy integrating qualitative methodologies [semi-structured interviews to key informants at the local level, and to key research groups in the surrounding area, together with a focus group with local opinion leaders], and quantitative techniques [Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) applied to a sample of 400 participants] was implemented. The local community has lived with complex and high risk facilities for decades, thus local people has a strong familiarity with technological and energy production systems, but no experience with large research installations. In such a context the global opinion towards the possibility of hosting ITER was clearly favourable, and linked to a strong demand in terms of public information and participation. (Author) 19 refs.

  4. ゴシック文学研究書誌 2002-2003

    OpenAIRE

    金崎, 茂樹; カナサキ, シゲキ; Shigeki, KANASAKI

    2014-01-01

    This is a follow-up to my previous paper, titled "Selected Bibliography of Criticism on Gothic Literature since 2000: Annotation and Commentary," the main aim of which was to select some of the remarkable criticism of the Gothic since 2000, to provide additional commentary, and to show the academic trend in this genre. In this paper the following three books are selected and annotated: Dani Cavallaro's The Gothic Vision: Three Centuries of Horror, Terror and Fear (2002), Avril Horner's Europe...

  5. 2002/2003 IfSAR data for Southern California: Radar Reflectance Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of topographic elevation point data derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR)...

  6. Consumo de alcohol, riesgo de alcoholismo y alcoholismo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2002-2003.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Herrán

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Para cuantificar el consumo usual de alcohol (CA, las kilocalorías derivadas del CA, el riesgo de alcoholismo (RA según la prueba CAGE y las variables relacionadas se realizó un estudio descriptivo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, durante los años 2002 y 2003. Materiales y métodos: Ciento ocho sujetos entre 18 y 60 años registraron diariamente y durante doce semanas su consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Se aplicaron encuestas biológicas, sociodemográficas, dietarias y la prueba de CAGE. Mediante regresión lineal y binomial se establecieron las variables relacionadas con el CA y RA. Resultados: El CA (g semanal fue de 83.5 IC (77.6, 89.3, ajustado por edad, escolaridad e índice de masa corporal (IMC de 108.7 IC (100.1, 117.3 para hombres y de 55.5 IC (53.4, 57.6 para mujeres, (p Conclusiones: Las estimaciones del consumo usual de alcohol sirven para establecer equivalencias en futuros estudios. La prevalencia de uso y de abuso aumentó en la última década. Por la frecuencia de consumo y la cantidad consumida, el alcohol se considera como un tóxico en esta población. Son necesarias investigaciones con nuevos métodos para comprender el CA y el RA.

  7. Consumo de alcohol, riesgo de alcoholismo y alcoholismo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Herrán

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Para cuantificar el consumo usual de alcohol (CA, las kilocalorías derivadas del CA, el riesgo de alcoholismo (RA según la prueba CAGE y las variables relacionadas se realizó un estudio descriptivo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, durante los años 2002 y 2003. Materiales y métodos: Ciento ocho sujetos entre 18 y 60 años registraron diariamente y durante doce semanas su consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Se aplicaron encuestas biológicas, sociodemográficas, dietarias y la prueba de CAGE. Mediante regresión lineal y binomial se establecieron las variables relacionadas con el CA y RA. Resultados: El CA (g semanal fue de 83.5 IC (77.6, 89.3, ajustado por edad, escolaridad e índice de masa corporal (IMC de 108.7 IC (100.1, 117.3 para hombres y de 55.5 IC (53.4, 57.6 para mujeres, (p<0.001. Según CAGE, 14.8% IC (8.0, 21.6 de la población, 22.6% IC (11.3, 34.0 de los hombres y 7.3% IC (2.9, 14.2 de las mujeres se clasifican en riesgo alto de alcoholismo (p<0.001. La ingesta de energía asociada con el CA por ocasión es de 778.2 kilocalorías IC (717.5, 838.9. No se encontró relación entre el CA y el IMC. El sexo se relacionó con el CA (p<0.001. Ninguna variable biológica, sociodemográfica o dietaria se relacionó con el RA. Conclusiones: Las estimaciones del consumo usual de alcohol sirven para establecer equivalencias en futuros estudios. La prevalencia de uso y de abuso aumentó en la última década. Por la frecuencia de consumo y la cantidad consumida, el alcohol se considera como un tóxico en esta población. Son necesarias investigaciones con nuevos métodos para comprender el CA y el RA.

  8. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment; Years 11 and 12, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report examines the results from the eleventh and twelfth years (2002 and 2003) of the Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. Experimental fertilization has occurred with an adaptive management approach since 1992 in order to restore productivity lost as a result of upstream dams. One of the main objectives of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are a main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Kootenay Lake is located between the Selkirk and Purcell mountains in southeastern British Columbia. It has an area of 395 km2, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to Kootenay Lake in 2002 and 2003 was similar to that added from 1992 to 1996. After four years of decreased fertilizer loading (1997 to 2000), results indicated that kokanee populations had declined, and the decision was made to increase the loads again in 2001. The total load of fertilizer in 2002 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 206.7 tonnes of nitrogen. The total fertilizer load in 2003 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 240.8 tonnes of nitrogen. Additional nitrogen was added in 2003 to compensate for nitrogen depletion in the epilimnion. The fertilizer was applied to a 10 km stretch in the North Arm from 3 km south of Lardeau to 3 km south of Schroeder Creek. The maximum surface water temperature in 2002, measured on July 22, was 22 C in the North Arm and 21.3 C in the South Arm. In 2003, the maxima were recorded on August 5 at 20.6 C in the North Arm and on September 2 at 19.7 C in the South Arm. The maximum water temperature in the West Arm was 18.7 C on September 2, 2003. Kootenay Lake had oxygen-saturated water throughout the sampling season with values ranging from about 11-16 mg/L in 2002 and 2003. In both years, Secchi depth followed the expected pattern for an oligo-mesotrophic lake of decreasing in May, June, and early July, concurrent with the spring phytoplankton bloom, and clearing again as the summer progressed. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-11 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 2-21 {micro}g/L in 2003. With average TP values generally in the range of 3-10 {micro}g/L, Kootenay Lake is considered to be an oligotrophic to oligo-mesotrophic lake. Total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) followed the same seasonal trends as TP in 2002 and 2003 and ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L in 2002 and from 2-10 {micro}g/L in 2003. Total nitrogen (TN) ranged from 90-380 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 100-210 {micro}g/L in 2003. During both the 2002 and 2003 sampling seasons, TN showed an overall decline in concentration with mid-summer and fall increases at some stations, which is consistent with previous years results. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations showed a more pronounced declining trend over the sampling season compared with TN, corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being used by phytoplankton during summer stratification. DIN ranged from 7-176 {micro}g/L in 2002 and from 8-147 {micro}g/L in 2003. During 2003, discrete depth sampling occurred, and a more detailed look at the nitrate concentrations in the epilimnion was undertaken. There was a seasonal decline in nitrate concentrations, which supports the principle of increasing the nitrogen loading and the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio during the fertilizer application period. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations in Kootenay Lake were in the range of 1.4-5.1 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 0.5-4.9 {micro}g/L in 2003. Over the sampling season, Chl a at North Arm stations generally increased in spring corresponding with the phytoplankton bloom, decreased during the summer, and increased again in the fall with mixing of the water column. The trend was similar, but less pronounced, at South Arm stations in these years, and spring Chl a concentrations were lower. During 2002, total algal biomass averaged during June, July and August was lower in the North

  9. Identification of Outpatient Urinary Pathogens and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern in Ahwaz, Iran 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad saeed Saraj

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common syndrom in community, especially in females. The object of this study is to determine the prevalence of most common Bacteria causing UTI and Antibiogram pattern respectively in Ahwas population. Materials & methods: In this retrospective descriptive study we gathered all urine culture results from lab centers. Results: From 48850 cases, 34360 (70.34% and 14490 (29.66% were females and males, respectively. The most frequent pathogens were E.coli (46.29%, S.saprophyticus (25.8% and Klebsiella (16.93%. Enterobacter, Proteus citrobacter, Pseudomonas and S.epidermidis were consisted the remainder of causes. The most Susceptible Antibiotics for the most prevalent pathogens, were: Nalidixic Acid, Vancomycine, and Nitrofurantoin, respectively. Conclusion: This pattern is similar to that mentioned in textbooks and published reports from other cities in Iran.

  10. Encuesta nacional sobre emigración internacional de guatemaltecos 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Lozano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza la Encuesta Nacional de Hogares para medir la emigración internacional de guatemaltecos de la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones (OIM, la cual interrelaciona a todos los elementos que intervienen y explican las causas y las consecuencias del fenómeno migratorio en Guatemala. El tema central de la investigación se refiere a la cuantificación de los flujos migratorios, en términos de volumen de estos flujos, identificación del lugar de origen de los migrantes y el lugar de destino en el extranjero, sus características socioeconómicas, con especial énfasis en el empleo que tenían antes de migrar y su inserción en el mercado laboral externo. El estudio empieza con la presentación de un perfil sociodemográfico de los hogares que tienen familiares en el extranjero. Un hallazgo importante en este ámbito, es que se rompe el paradigma que siempre se ha sostenido: que los hogares expulsores de migrantes son los que generalmente se encuentran en estado de pobreza. O que son los más pobres de los pobres los que emigran. El presente estudio demuestra lo contrario. De acuerdo con el análisis, afirma que la magnitud de las remesas anuales estimadas para el año 2003, representan el 8 % del Producto interno bruto -PIB-. Su importancia económica para el país en comparación con los ingresos de divisas por exportaciones, según los volúmenes reportados por el Banco de Guatemala, es innegable. El volumen de las remesas representa 86% del ingreso de divisas por concepto de todas las exportaciones FOB del país. Concluye que la información de la Encuesta nacional representará sin duda una valiosa herramienta para la gestión migratoria principalmente por ser un país emisor, así como de tránsito y destino de migrantes internacionales. Además es un instrumento que le permitirá dar respuesta a las exigencias de información en el ámbito nacional e internacional.

  11. Exploration and excavation of shipwrecks in Goa and adjoining waters 2002-2003

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    . After ascertaining the distribution of objects, positions were taken by Global Positioning System (GPS). This survey marks systematic approach for exploration of shipwrecks in shallow as well as deep waters off Goa....

  12. The Conceptualisation of the European Union in Polish Public Discourse, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbierska-Sawala, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Based on recent theoretical insights into the conceptual role of metaphors, this paper investigates figurative discourse in the current conceptualisation of the European Union (EU) in Polish. The metaphorical expressions found in the data present a cline of conventionality, and many of them display processes analysed by Lakoff and Turner (1989),…

  13. Formation of solid particles in synoptic-scale Arctic PSCs in early winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Larsen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC have been observed in early winter (December 2002 during the SOLVE II/Vintresol campaign, both from balloons carrying comprehensive instrumentation for measurements of chemical composition, size distributions, and optical properties of the particles, as well as from individual backscatter soundings from Esrange and Sodankylä. The observations are unique in the sense that the PSC particles seem to have formed in the early winter under synoptic temperature conditions and not being influenced by mountain lee waves. A sequence of measurements during a 5-days period shows a gradual change between liquid and solid type PSCs with the development of a well-known sandwich structure. It appears that all PSC observations show the presence of a background population of solid particles, occasionally mixed in with more dominating liquid particles. The measurements have been compared with results from a detailed microphysical and optical simulation of the formation processes. Calculated extinction(indices are in good agreement with SAGE-III measurements from the same period. Apparently the solid particles are controlled by the synoptic temperature history while the presence of liquid particles is controlled by the local temperatures at the time of observation. The temperature histories indicate that the solid particles are nucleated above the ice frost point, and a surface freezing mechanism for this is included in the model. Reducing the calculated freezing rates by a factor 10–20, the model is able to simulate the observed particle size distributions and reproduce observed HNO3 gas phase concentrations.

  14. Formation of solid particles in synoptic-scale Arctic PSCs in early winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Larsen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC have been observed in early winter (December 2002 during the SOLVE II/Vintersol campaign, both from balloons carrying comprehensive instrumentation for measurements of chemical composition, size distributions, and optical properties of the particles, as well as from individual backscatter soundings from Esrange and Sodankylä. The observations are unique in the sense that the PSC particles seem to have formed in the early winter under synoptic temperature conditions and not being influenced by mountain lee waves. A sequence of measurements during a 5-days period shows a gradual change between liquid and solid type PSCs with the development of a well-known sandwich structure. It appears that all PSC observations show the presence of a background population of solid particles, occasionally mixed in with more optically dominating liquid particles. The measurements have been compared with results from a detailed microphysical and optical simulation of the formation processes. Calculated extinctions are in good agreement with SAGE-III measurements from the same period. Apparently the solid particles are controlled by the synoptic temperature history while the presence of liquid particles is controlled by the local temperatures at the time of observation. The temperature histories indicate that the solid particles are nucleated above the ice frost point, and a surface freezing mechanism for this is included in the model. Reducing the calculated freezing rates by a factor 10-20, the model is able to simulate the observed particle size distributions and reproduce observed HNO3 gas phase concentrations.

  15. Consumo de alcohol, riesgo de alcoholismo y alcoholismo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2002-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Fernando Herrán; María Fernanda Ardila

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: Para cuantificar el consumo usual de alcohol (CA), las kilocalorías derivadas del CA, el riesgo de alcoholismo (RA) según la prueba CAGE y las variables relacionadas se realizó un estudio descriptivo en Bucaramanga, Colombia, durante los años 2002 y 2003. Materiales y métodos: Ciento ocho sujetos entre 18 y 60 años registraron diariamente y durante doce semanas su consumo de bebidas alcohólicas. Se aplicaron encuestas biológicas, sociodemográficas, dietarias y la prueba de CAGE. Med...

  16. HIV-surveys bij hoog-risicogroepen in Rotterdam 2002-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen MG van; Beuker RJ; Brito O de; Goetz H; Koster M de; Al Taqatqa W; Zwart O de; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2005-01-01

    Er bestaat een potentieel risico op verspreiding van HIV en SOA vanuit hoog-risicogroepen naar de rest van de bevolking in Nederland. Dit blijkt uit de eerste HIV-survey die is uitgevoerd in Rotterdam. Hierbij is gevonden dat de HIV-prevalentie onder prostituees 7% is, onder injecterende druggeb

  17. HIV-surveys bij hoog-risicogroepen in Rotterdam 2002-2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen MG van; Beuker RJ; Brito O de; Goetz H; Koster M de; Al Taqatqa W; Zwart O de; Laar MJW van de; GGD Rotterdam e.o.; CIE

    2005-01-01

    There is a potential risk for further spread of HIV and STI from high risk groups into the general population in the Netherlands. These are the main conclusions of the first HIV survey among high risk groups in Rotterdam. Among commercial sex workers (CSW) the HIV prevalence is 7%, 10% among injecti

  18. Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment; Years 11 and 12, Technical Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, E.

    2007-02-01

    This report examines the results from the eleventh and twelfth years (2002 and 2003) of the Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. Experimental fertilization has occurred with an adaptive management approach since 1992 in order to restore productivity lost as a result of upstream dams. One of the main objectives of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are a main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Kootenay Lake is located between the Selkirk and Purcell mountains in southeastern British Columbia. It has an area of 395 km2, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to Kootenay Lake in 2002 and 2003 was similar to that added from 1992 to 1996. After four years of decreased fertilizer loading (1997 to 2000), results indicated that kokanee populations had declined, and the decision was made to increase the loads again in 2001. The total load of fertilizer in 2002 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 206.7 tonnes of nitrogen. The total fertilizer load in 2003 was 47.1 tonnes of phosphorus and 240.8 tonnes of nitrogen. Additional nitrogen was added in 2003 to compensate for nitrogen depletion in the epilimnion. The fertilizer was applied to a 10 km stretch in the North Arm from 3 km south of Lardeau to 3 km south of Schroeder Creek. The maximum surface water temperature in 2002, measured on July 22, was 22 C in the North Arm and 21.3 C in the South Arm. In 2003, the maxima were recorded on August 5 at 20.6 C in the North Arm and on September 2 at 19.7 C in the South Arm. The maximum water temperature in the West Arm was 18.7 C on September 2, 2003. Kootenay Lake had oxygen-saturated water throughout the sampling season with values ranging from about 11-16 mg/L in 2002 and 2003. In both years, Secchi depth followed the expected pattern for an oligo-mesotrophic lake of decreasing in May, June, and early July, concurrent with the spring phytoplankton bloom, and clearing again as the summer progressed. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-11 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 2-21 {micro}g/L in 2003. With average TP values generally in the range of 3-10 {micro}g/L, Kootenay Lake is considered to be an oligotrophic to oligo-mesotrophic lake. Total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) followed the same seasonal trends as TP in 2002 and 2003 and ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L in 2002 and from 2-10 {micro}g/L in 2003. Total nitrogen (TN) ranged from 90-380 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 100-210 {micro}g/L in 2003. During both the 2002 and 2003 sampling seasons, TN showed an overall decline in concentration with mid-summer and fall increases at some stations, which is consistent with previous years results. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations showed a more pronounced declining trend over the sampling season compared with TN, corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being used by phytoplankton during summer stratification. DIN ranged from 7-176 {micro}g/L in 2002 and from 8-147 {micro}g/L in 2003. During 2003, discrete depth sampling occurred, and a more detailed look at the nitrate concentrations in the epilimnion was undertaken. There was a seasonal decline in nitrate concentrations, which supports the principle of increasing the nitrogen loading and the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio during the fertilizer application period. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations in Kootenay Lake were in the range of 1.4-5.1 {micro}g/L in 2002 and 0.5-4.9 {micro}g/L in 2003. Over the sampling season, Chl a at North Arm stations generally increased in spring corresponding with the phytoplankton bloom, decreased during the summer, and increased again in the fall with mixing of the water column. The trend was similar, but less pronounced, at South Arm stations in these years, and spring Chl a concentrations were lower. During 2002, total algal biomass averaged during June, July and August was lower in the North Arm than the South Arm. This was the first time this occurred since the commencement of the North Arm fertilization experiment. Results in 2002 indicated Kootenay lake continues to be a diatom dominated lake (80 to 89% of the total average biomass). The overall trend observed throughout the 2003 sampling season was one of a slight decline in algal biomass from the North Arm stations towards those in the South Arm. Kootenay Lake continued to be a diatom-dominated lake (76-83% of total average biomass). Synedra spp. and some Asterionella, as in the previous three years, dominated the early biomass increase in 2003, but the peak biomass in July was largely due to Tabellaria.

  19. Monitoraggio virologico dellíinfluenza in Emilia Romagna nellíinverno 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Affanni

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: è stata organizzata su base regionale la sorveglianza virologica dell’influenza, al fine di verificare la comparsa e diffusione di virus influenzali nella popolazione ed individuare eventuali nuove varianti.

    Metodi: la sorveglianza si è basata sulle segnalazioni di ILI (influenza like illness da parte di 28 medici sentinella distribuiti in diverse città della regione (Parma, Modena, Ravenna, Bologna, Forlì, Rimini, Piacenza; la raccolta dei campioni, iniziata nella quarantaseiesima settimana del 2002, si è protratta fino alla diciassettesima settimana del 2003. I virus isolati in cellule MDCK (e/o PCR sono stati identificati con reazioni di IEA e quindi inviati all’ ISS per una più precisa caratterizzazione antigenica. Risultati: dai 220 tamponi faringei eseguiti sono stati isolati 49 ceppi virali (pari al 22,3%; di questi 39 sono risultati essere H3N2, 8 H1N1, ed 1 di tipo B; uno dei virus isolati è risultato appartenere al nuovo ceppo H1N2 recentemente isolato in altre aree del mondo. Cinque dei virus isolati provenivano da soggetti vaccinati.

    Conclusioni: per quanto le segnalazioni di ILI siano iniziate precocemente nella stagione, il primo isolamento virale ed il picco di massima circolazione dei virus sono risultati tardivi in Emilia Romagna (rispettivamente: 5° e 10° settimana 2003. L’epidemia influenzale, sia come segnalazioni di ILI sia come isolamenti virali, non ha raggiunto i livelli degli anni precedenti (1,2. Nel corso della stagione hanno circolato, tra gli H3N2, diversi tipi e varianti virali di ceppi antigenicamente correlati ai virus A/New York/55/01 e A/Panama/2007/99. Tranne un caso tutti i virus sono stati isolati in giovani adulti confermando dati provenienti da altre regioni.

  20. Contribution of Leaf Litter to Nutrient Export during Winter Months in an Urban Residential Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Anika R; Finlay, Jacques C; Hobbie, Sarah E; Janke, Benjamin D; Worm, Adam C; Kemmitt, Kathrine L

    2017-03-03

    Identification of nonpoint sources of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in urban systems is imperative to improving water quality and better managing eutrophication. Winter contributions and sources of annual N and P loads from urban watersheds are poorly characterized in northern cities because monitoring is often limited to warm-weather periods. To determine the winter export of N and P, we monitored stormwater outflow in a residential watershed in Saint Paul, Minnesota during 2012-2014. Our data demonstrate that winter melt events contribute a high percentage of annual N and P export (50%). We hypothesized that overwintering leaf litter that is not removed by fall street sweeping could be an important source to winter loads of N and P. We estimated contributions of this source by studying decomposition in lawns, street gutters, and catch basins during two winters. Rates of mass and N loss were negligible during both winters. However, P was quickly solubilized from decomposing leaves. Using mass balances and estimates of P leaching losses, we estimated that leaf litter could contribute 80% of winter total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) loading in this watershed (∼40% of annual TDP loading). Our work indicates that urban trees adjacent to streets likely represent a major source of P pollution in northern cities. Management that targets important winter sources such as tree leaves could be highly effective for reducing P loading and may mitigate eutrophication in urban lakes and streams in developed cities.

  1. Rainfall Variability in the Huangfuchuang Watershed and Its Relationship with ENSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Dede Baddoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomenon within the Huangfuchuan watershed, one of the major first-order sub-basins in the middle region of the Yellow River, has not clearly been established. Consequently, the co-varying relationships between rainfall and El Niño/La Niña spanning the period 1954 to 2010 are investigated. Trends and step changes in annual rainfall are investigated with the Mann-Kendall and the distribution free cumulative sum (CUSUM tests. Wavelet transforms are employed to perform spectral analysis of temporal variations in rainfall rates within the watershed. Cross wavelet and wavelet coherence transforms are used to study localized co-varying relationships between rainfall and ENSO index. Results from statistical tests indicate that rainfall in the Huangfuchuan watershed is declining, although not significantly. In addition, wavelet coherency and cross wavelet analysis, and comparison of the extracted dominant annual rainfall and 2–7 year ENSO signals demonstrate that ENSO events impact Huangfuchuan rainfall with El Niño corresponding to rainfall decline and La Niña to rainfall increment with a semiannual to annual lag.

  2. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  3. Watershed: A Successful Voyage into Integrative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark

    This book describes a "whole learning" approach to education called the Watershed Program, which stresses integrated curriculum and experiential learning. Each chapter begins with an episode from the history of eastern Pennsylvania along the Brandywine River, used as an analogy to problems faced by the teachers in the Watershed program.…

  4. Segmentation by watersheds : definition and parallel implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    The watershed algorithm is a method for image segmentation widely used in the area of mathematical morphology. In this paper we first address the problem of how to define watersheds. It is pointed out that various existing definitions are not equivalent. In particular we explain the differences betw

  5. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...

  6. Uncertainty Consideration in Watershed Scale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed scale hydrologic and water quality models have been used with increasing frequency to devise alternative pollution control strategies. With recent reenactment of the 1972 Clean Water Act’s TMDL (total maximum daily load) component, some of the watershed scale models are being recommended ...

  7. Retrospect and prospect of watershed hydrological model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.CHEN; Z.F.YANG; 等

    2001-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the development of watershed hydrological models,COnventional Hydrological Model,Grey Hydrological Model,Digital Hydrological Model and Intelligent Hydrological Model are analyzed.The Frameworks of Fuzzy Cognitive Hydrological Model and Integrated Digital Watershed Hydrological Model are presented.

  8. Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kerr

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

  9. Prioritization of sub-watersheds based on morphometric analysis using geospatial technique in Piperiya watershed, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandniha, Surendra Kumar; Kansal, Mitthan Lal

    2017-03-01

    Hydrological investigation and behavior of watershed depend upon geo-morphometric characteristics of catchment. Morphometric analysis is commonly used for development of regional hydrological model of ungauged watershed. A critical valuation and assessment of geo-morphometric constraints has been carried out. Prioritization of watersheds based on water plot capacity of Piperiya watershed has been evaluated by linear, aerial and relief aspects. Morphometric analysis has been attempted for prioritization for nine sub-watersheds of Piperiya watershed in Hasdeo river basin, which is a tributary of the Mahanadi. Sub-watersheds are delineated by ArcMap 9.3 software as per digital elevation model (DEM). Assessment of drainages and their relative parameters such as stream order, stream length, stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and compactness ratio has been calculated separately for each sub-watershed using the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial techniques. Finally, the prioritized score on the basis of morphometric behavior of each sub-watershed is assigned and thereafter consolidated scores have been estimated to identify the most sensitive parameters. The analysis reveals that stream order varies from 1 to 5; however, the first-order stream covers maximum area of about 87.7 %. Total number of stream segment of all order is 1,264 in the watershed. The study emphasizes the prioritization of the sub-watersheds on the basis of morphometric analysis. The final score of entire nine sub-watersheds is assigned as per erosion threat. The sub-watershed with the least compound parameter value was assigned as highest priority. However, the sub-watersheds has been categorized into three classes as high (4.1-4.7), medium (4.8-5.3) and low (>5.4) priority on the basis of their maximum (6.0) and minimum (4.1) prioritized score.

  10. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of turbidity, sediment concentration and load across nested scales in an urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, J. T.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    In a highly regulated area such as the Chesapeake Bay watershed, suspended sediment is a matter of primary concern. However, there are few continuous sediment-concentration records available to quantify urban sediment loads. Near real-time turbidity and discharge data have been collected continuously for more than three years at six stream gages representing three nested watershed scales (1-2 sq km, 5-6 sq km, 14 sq km) in the highly impervious Dead Run watershed, located in Baltimore County, MD. Suspended sediment point samples have been collected for multiple storm events at five of the six sites, to establish provisional relationships between turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations. Using these calculated relationships and USGS discharge data, we can quantify sediment loads at each station. Turbidity-discharge relationships vary both spatially and temporally, highlighting the extreme heterogeneity of an urban watershed. Spatially, relationships change from headwaters to mouth, potentially suggesting a variation in sediment sources. Temporally, relationships change both seasonally and annually. The lowest turbidity values are consistently seen in the fall, while values in winter, spring, and summer display a high inter-annual variability. Sediment loads and yields calculated for four representative storms are compared across nested watershed scales to assess evidence for sources or sinks at different locations within the drainage network. Yields at the mouth of the watershed (DRKR) for large storms were higher than an area-weighted average of the two contributing sites (DR3, DR4), potentially suggesting additional source areas of sediment within the watershed. This highlights the ability of near real-time data to assist in developing more effective approaches in mitigating sediment transport by helping to identifying consistent trends, locations of hot spots, and patterns of sediment arrival.

  12. Payments for watershed services: opportunities and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Ivan

    2007-08-15

    Many nations have found that regulatory approaches to land and water management have limited impact. An alternative is to create incentives for sound management - under mechanisms known as payments for ecosystem services. It is a simple idea: people who look after ecosystems that benefit others should be recognised and rewarded. In the case of watersheds, downstream beneficiaries of wise upstream land and water use should compensate the stewards. To be effective these 'payments for watershed services' must cover the cost of watershed management. In developing countries, they might also aid local development and reduce poverty. But new research shows that the problems in watersheds are complex and not easily solved. Payments for watershed services do not guarantee poverty reduction and cannot replace the best aspects of regulation.

  13. Measuring environmental sustainability of water in watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Erich T; Little, John C

    2013-08-06

    Environmental sustainability assessment is a rapidly growing field where measures of sustainability are used within an assessment framework to evaluate and compare alternative actions. Here we argue for the importance of evaluating environmental sustainability of water at the watershed scale. We review existing frameworks in brief before reviewing watershed-relevant measures in more detail. While existing measures are diverse, overlapping, and interdependent, certain attributes that are important for watersheds are poorly represented, including spatial explicitness and the effect of natural watershed components, such as rivers. Most studies focus on one or a few measures, but a complete assessment will require use of many existing measures, as well as, perhaps, new ones. Increased awareness of the broad dimensions of environmental sustainability as applied to water management should encourage integration of existing approaches into a unified assessment framework appropriate for watersheds.

  14. Comparisons of watershed sulfur budgets in southeast Canada and northeast US: New approaches and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.J.; Lovett, G.; Bailey, S.; Beall, F.; Burns, D.; Buso, D.; Clair, T.A.; Courchesne, F.; Duchesne, L.; Eimers, C.; Fernandez, I.; Houle, D.; Jeffries, D.S.; Likens, G.E.; Moran, M.D.; Rogers, C.; Schwede, D.; Shanley, J.; Weathers, K.C.; Vet, R.

    2011-01-01

    Most of eastern North America receives elevated levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur (S) that result from anthropogenic SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Atmospheric S deposition has acidified sensitive terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in this region; however, deposition has been declining since the 1970s, resulting in some recovery in previously acidified aquatic ecosystems. Accurate watershed S mass balances help to evaluate the extent to which atmospheric S deposition is retained within ecosystems, and whether internal cycling sources and biogeochemical processes may be affecting the rate of recovery from decreasing S atmospheric loads. This study evaluated S mass balances for 15 sites with watersheds in southeastern Canada and northeastern US for the period 1985 to 2002. These 15 sites included nine in Canada (Turkey Lakes, ON; Harp Lake, ON; Plastic Lake, ON; Hermine, QC; Lake Laflamme, QC; Lake Clair, QC; Lake Tirasse, QC; Mersey, NS; Moosepit, NS) and six in the US (Arbutus Lake, NY; Biscuit Brook, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH; Cone Pond, NH; Bear Brook Watershed, ME). Annual S wet deposition inputs were derived from measured bulk or wet-only deposition and stream export was obtained by combining drainage water fluxes with SO42- concentrations. Dry deposition has the greatest uncertainty of any of the mass flux calculations necessary to develop accurate watershed balances, and here we developed a new method to calculate this quantity. We utilized historical information from both the US National Emissions Inventory and the US (CASTNET) and the Canadian (CAPMoN) dry deposition networks to develop a formulation that predicted SO2 concentrations as a function of SO2 emissions, latitude and longitude. The SO2 concentrations were used to predict dry deposition using relationships between concentrations and deposition flux derived from the CASTNET or CAPMoN networks. For the year 2002, we compared the SO2

  15. Goddard DEVELOP Students: Using NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program is an Earth Science research internship, operating under NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Each spring, summer, and fall, DEVELOP interns form teams to investigate Earth Science related issues. Since the Fall of 2003, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been home to one of 10 national DEVELOP teams. In past terms, students completed a variety of projects related to the Applied Sciences Applications of National Priority, such as Public Health, Natural Disasters, Water Resources, and Ecological Forecasting. These projects have focused on areas all over the world, including the United States, Africa, and Asia. Recently, Goddard DEVELOP students have turned their attention to a local environment, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed is a complex and diverse ecosystem, spanning approximately 64,000 square miles. The watershed encompasses parts of six states: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. The Bay itself is the biggest estuary in the United States, with over 100,000 tributaries feeding into it. The ratio of fresh water to salt water varies throughout the Bay, allowing for a variety of habitats. The Bay s wetlands, marshes, forests, reefs, and rivers support more than 3,600 plant and animal species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and crabs. The Bay is also commercially significant. It is ranked third in the nation in fishery catch, and supplies approximately 500 million pounds of seafood annually. In addition to its abundant flora and fauna, the Chesapeake Bay watershed is home to approximately 16.6 million people, who live and work throughout the watershed, and who use its diverse resources for recreational purposes. Over the past several decades, the population throughout the watershed has increased rapidly, resulting in land use changes, and ultimately decreasing the health of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Over the

  16. The Walnut Gulch - Santa Rita Wildland Watershed-Scale LTAR Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Heilman, P.; Scott, R. L.; Nearing, M. A.; Moran, M. S.; Nichols, M.; Vivoni, E. R.; Archer, S. R.; Biederman, J.; Naito, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    The 150 km2 Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW), a Long-Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) site, near Tombstone, Arizona was established in 1953 by the USDA-ARS Southwest Watershed Research Center in Tucson. It is one of the most intensively instrumented semiarid experimental watersheds in the world with elevation ranging from 1220 to 1950 m with mean annual temperature and precipitation equal to 17.7°C and 312 mm. Desert shrubs dominate the lower two thirds of the watershed and grasses the upper third. Spatial variation in precipitation is measured with a network of 88 weighing-type recording rain gauges. Surface runoff is quantified over a range of scales (0.002 to 0.06 km2) to characterize interactions between rainfall intensity, soils and vegetation at nine sub-watersheds. Channel network processes and rainfall spatial variability are studied using 11 nested watersheds (2 to 150 km2). Sediment from the small sub-watersheds is sampled. Meteorological, soil moisture and temperature, and energy/water/CO2 flux measurements are made within two vegetation/soil complexes. Parallel investigations dating back to 1974 have also been conducted on eight small experimental watersheds at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) 80 km west of Walnut Gulch. In contrast to the creosote bush-grass WGEW, the mesquite-grass SRER is publicly owned, which ensures control and consistent reporting of management for research purposes. A key LTAR objective is to contrast a "business as usual" to an alternate management strategy presumed to have the potential of significantly improving forage and livestock production and diversification of ecosystem services. Consequently, a new ARS-U. of Arizona-Arizona State U. partnership will assess the watershed-scale impacts of brush management, a common land use practice typically applied in conjunction with livestock grazing, on a suite of ecosystem services at the SRER including provisioning (forage production, water yield), supporting

  17. SWAT hydrologic model parameter uncertainty and its implications for hydroclimatic projections in snowmelt-dependent watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficklin, Darren L.; Barnhart, Bradley L.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of climate change on water resources have been studied extensively throughout the world through the use of hydrologic models coupled with General Circulation Model (GCM) output or climate sensitivity scenarios. This paper examines the effects of hydrologic model parameterization uncertainty or equifinality, where multiple unique hydrologic model parameter sets can result in adequate calibration metrics, on hydrologic projections from downscaled GCMs for three snowmelt-dependent watersheds (upper reaches of the Clearwater, Gunnison, and Sacramento River watersheds) in the western United States. The hydrologic model used in this study is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and is calibrated for discharge at the watershed outlet in each watershed. Despite achieving similar calibration metrics, a majority of hydrologic projections of average annual streamflow during the 2080s were statistically different, with differences in magnitude and direction (increase or decrease) compared to historical annual streamflows. At the average monthly time-scale, a majority of the hydrologic projections varied in peak streamflow timing, peak streamflow magnitude, summer streamflows, as well as overall increases or decreases compared to the historical monthly streamflows. Snowmelt projections from the SWAT model also widely varied, both in depth and snowmelt peak timing, for all watersheds. Since a large portion of the runoff-producing regions in the western United States is snowmelt-dependent, this has large implications for the prediction of the amount and timing of streamflow in the coming century. This paper shows that hydrologic model parameterizations that give similar adequate calibration metrics can lead to statistically significant differences in hydrologic projections under climate change. Therefore, researchers and water resource managers should account for this uncertainty by assembling ensemble projections from both multiple parameter sets and GCMs.

  18. Sediment source identification and load prediction in a mixed-use Piedmont watershed, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarney-Castle, Kerry; Childress, Tristan M; Heaton, Christian R

    2016-10-28

    Many streams in the Piedmont region of the southeastern United States transport a disproportionately large amount of suspended sediment in response to moderately increased streamflows. Transport and deposition of excess sediment affect the stability of the channel and the health of the biological community; therefore, identifying the main source(s) of sediment and assessing the relationships between source, transport, and streamflow are critical to aquatic life and habitat management, dynamic equilibrium preservation, and development of feasible mitigation scenarios. The objectives of this study were to: (1) predict the annual suspended sediment yield and (2) identify significant contributing upland sources of sediment in the Lawsons Fork Creek basin, a 217 km(2) mixed-use watershed in the South Carolina Piedmont. A regularly monitored cross-section located in the downstream reach was equipped with a passive sediment sampler, gage-height recorder, and sediment tiles. Streamflow and sediment concentration were measured over a 24-month period under variable hydrologic regimes. Results indicated that the average annual sediment yield (168 t/km(2)/yr) is significantly higher than yields documented in Piedmont watersheds of comparable size. To identify and prioritize sources of sediment contribution, stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) were used as tracers. Source material was compared with suspended sediment near the watershed outlet (target material) and SIAR, a Bayesian Inference model, was used to estimate source apportionment. Results of this source study indicate that approximately 60% of the total sediment load in the water column during high flow events is derived from stream bank erosion. Findings are consistent with observed unstable stream bank conditions in the watershed. This study supports the use of a dual-isotopic fingerprinting approach in tandem with traditional sediment monitoring as a cost-effective method to identify and

  19. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  20. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin; Banks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  1. 湟水流域输沙特征分析%Analysis of Sediment Transport Characteristics in Huangshui Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俭

    2001-01-01

    With water collection area of 15 432 km2 within Qinghai province,Huangshui watershed is one of the main sediment yield region in the upper and middle Yellow River, from which 20.4 million tons of sediment is delivered into the Yellow River every year. Runoff is produced largely in the period of June to September each year in the watershed that makes up 53% of annual runoff yield; the area in the lower reach of the river makes up 41.1% of the total watershed,producing 42.4% of the annual runoff in total watershed.The area in the upper reach of the river accounts for 58.8% of the total watershed,but with only 21.6% of annual sediment yield of the watershed total.The sediment from the area of lower reach each year is 16 million tons,accounting for 78.4% of annual watershed total. There are frequent disastrous phenomenon in the watershed, rainfall and heat resources distribution not suitable for plant growth,which leads to degradation of vegetation in large areas.Beside natural disaster,frquent human economic activities are main reasons for severe soil and water loss in the lower reach areas.%湟水青海省境内面积15 342km2,是黄河中上游地区主要产沙区之一,年输入黄河泥沙2040万t。流域径流主要产生于6~9月,占年径流总量的53%;下游地区面积占流域总面积的41.2%,年径流量占流域年径流总量的42.4%。上游地区面积占全流域面积的58.8%,年输沙量仅占全流域年输沙量的21.6%;下游地区年输沙量1 600万t,占流域年输沙总量的78.4%。流域内灾害性天气频繁,水热配置不利于植物生长,大面积植被退化,人类经济活动频繁等,是导致下游地区水土流失严重的主要原因。

  2. Different seasonality of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed in Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S.; Youssef, M. A.; Richards, R. P.; Liu, J.; Baker, D. B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Land use/land cover is a critical factor affecting temporal dynamics of nitrate export from watersheds. Based on a long-term (>30 years) water quality monitoring program in the Western Lake Erie area, United States, this study compared seasonal variation of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed. A seasonality index was adapted to quantitatively characterize seasonal variation of nitrate export from the two watersheds. Results showed that monthly nitrate concentrations from the two watersheds exhibited different seasonal variation. Seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading for the agricultural watershed is approximately 3 times of that from the urbanized watershed and the difference is statistically significant (p export from the two watersheds were mainly attributed to their distinct nitrogen sources, physical and biogeochemical settings. The declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the agricultural watershed could be partially caused by historical climate change in the study region, especially increased temperature during winter. Urbanization could be one key factor contributing to the declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the urbanized watershed. Information derived from this study have practical implications for developing proper management practices to mitigate nitrate pollution in Midwestern United States.

  3. Is Recovery of Forest Soils from Acidic Deposition Accelerating Watershed Release of Atmospherically Deposited Nitrogen Accumulated over Past Decades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G. B.; Sabo, R.; Scanga, S. E.; Momen, B.

    2016-12-01

    The trend of decreasing atmospheric N deposition in the northeastern U.S. has accelerated since 2000, leading to the possibility that surface water concentrations of NO3 and its acidifying effects would also decrease. Decreases of NO3 in lakes have been observed in regions such as the Adirondacks of NY, but these decreases were linked to increased productivity within the lakes. Less information is available on changes in NO3 concentrations in streams and watershed export of N. In a previous analysis, monitoring from 2000-2012 of the North and South Tributary watersheds of Buck Creek, in the western Adirondack region, showed no trends in annual watershed NO3 export, despite a decline in atmospheric N deposition. Surveys of 64 Adirondack streams also showed no overall change in NO3 concentrations between 2004 and 2014. Following on these studies, controls of N retention in the Buck Creek watersheds were investigated with data on tree growth, soil chemistry, stream flow, and stream chemistry. Tree measurements showed little change in basal area from 2000-2015 in the North Watershed (+ 0.8 percent) and an increase (+16 percent) in the South Watershed; results inconsistent with decreased N retention by vegetation. However, large decreases in Al and stable or increasing Ca were measured in O horizons of these watersheds (1997- 2009/10, North; 1998-2014, South), as the soils responded to long-term decreases in acidic deposition. Past increases in Al and decreases in Ca from acidic deposition have been linked to slowed decomposition rates. The lower Al concentrations and higher Ca availability measured at Buck Creek may have led to increased decomposition rates, providing an explanation for the sustained watershed export of N since 2000. These results suggest a possible legacy effect of atmospheric N deposition that is reversing as these ecosystems recover from acidic deposition.

  4. Watershed-scale evaluation of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model in the Lake Tahoe basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Erin S.; Dobre, Mariana; Elliot, William J.; Wu, Joan Q.; Boll, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Forest managers need methods to evaluate the impacts of management at the watershed scale. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) has the ability to model disturbed forested hillslopes, but has difficulty addressing some of the critical processes that are important at a watershed scale, including baseflow and water yield. In order to apply WEPP to forested watersheds, we developed and assessed new approaches for simulating streamflow and sediment transport from large watersheds using WEPP. We created specific algorithms to spatially distribute soil, climate, and management input files for all the subwatersheds within the basin. The model enhancements were tested on five geologically and climatically diverse watersheds in the Lake Tahoe basin, USA. The model was run with minimal calibration to assess WEPP's ability as a physically-based model to predict streamflow and sediment delivery. The performance of the model was examined against 17 years of observed snow water equivalent depth, streamflow, and sediment load data. Only region-wide baseflow recession parameters related to the geology of the basin were calibrated with observed streamflow data. Close agreement between simulated and observed snow water equivalent, streamflow, and the distribution of fine (20 μm) sediments was achieved at each of the major watersheds located in the high-precipitation regions of the basin. Sediment load was adequately simulated in the drier watersheds; however, annual streamflow was overestimated. With the exception of the drier eastern region, the model demonstrated no loss in accuracy when applied without calibration to multiple watersheds across Lake Tahoe basin demonstrating the utility of the model as a management tool in gauged and ungauged basins.

  5. MAPPING WATERSHED INTEGRITY FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is sensitive to watershed alteration by human activities. Flotemersch and others (2015), defined watershed integrity (WI) as the “capacity of a watershed to support and maint...

  6. Atmospheric deposition and watershed nitrogen export along an elevational gradient in the Catskill Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G.B.; Lovett, Gary M.; Baevsky, Y.H.

    2000-01-01

    Cumulative effects of atmospheric N deposition may increase N export from watersheds and contribute to the acidification of surface waters, but natural factors (such as forest productivity and soil drainage) that affect forest N cycling can also control watershed N export. To identify factors that are related to stream-water export of N, elevational gradients in atmospheric deposition and natural processes were evaluated in a steep, first-order watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York, from 1991 to 1994. Atmospheric deposition of SO4/2-, and probably N, increased with increasing elevation within this watershed. Stream-water concentrations of SO4/2- increased with increasing elevation throughout the year, whereas stream-water concentrations of NO3/- decreased with increasing elevation during the winter and spring snowmelt period, and showed no relation with elevation during the growing season or the fall. Annual export of N in stream water for the overall watershed equaled 12% to 17% of the total atmospheric input on the basis of two methods of estimation. This percentage decreased with increasing elevation, from about 25% in the lowest subwatershed to 7% in the highest subwatershed; a probable result of an upslope increase in the thickness of the surface organic horizon, attributable to an elevational gradient in temperature that slows decomposition rates at upper elevations. Balsam fir stands, more prevalent at upper elevations than lower elevations, may also affect the gradient of subwatershed N export by altering nitrification rates in the soil. Variations in climate and vegetation must be considered to determine how future trends in atmospheric deposition will effect watershed export of nitrogen.

  7. Impacts of deforestation on water balance components of a watershed on the Brazilian East Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizete dos Reis Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian East coast was intensely affected by deforestation, which drastically cut back the original biome. The possible impacts of this process on water resources are still unknown. The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the impacts of deforestation on the main water balance components of the Galo creek watershed, in the State of Espírito Santo, on the East coast of Brazil. Considering the real conditions of the watershed, the SWAT model was calibrated with data from 1997 to 2000 and validated for the period between 2001 and 2003. The calibration and validation processes were evaluated by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and by the statistical parameters (determination coefficient, slope coefficient and F test of the regression model adjusted for estimated and measured flow data. After calibration and validation of the model, new simulations were carried out for three different land use scenarios: a scenario in compliance with the law (C1, assuming the preservation of PPAs (permanent preservation areas; an optimistic scenario (C2, which considers the watershed to be almost entirely covered by native vegetation; and a pessimistic scenario (C3, in which the watershed would be almost entirely covered by pasture. The scenarios C1, C2 and C3 represent a soil cover of native forest of 76, 97 and 0 %, respectively. The results were compared with the simulation, considering the real scenario (C0 with 54 % forest cover. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.65 and 0.70 for calibration and validation, respectively, indicating satisfactory results in the flow simulation. A mean reduction of 10 % of the native forest cover would cause a mean annual increase of approximately 11.5 mm in total runoff at the watershed outlet. Reforestation would ensure minimum flows in the dry period and regulate the maximum flow of the main watercourse of the watershed.

  8. Streamflow allocation in arid watersheds: a case study in Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. He

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a framework for allocating water resources among the upper, middle, and lower reaches of arid watersheds to meet the multiple demands for water, including rehabilitation of downstream ecosystem. The framework includes: (1 hydrologic simulation of distribution of water resources in the study watershed; (2 development of water allocation criteria; and (3 implementation of the water allocation plan. The advantages of the proposed framework are: (1 spatial integration; (2 multiple objectives; (3 incorporation of local needs through participatory decision making; and (4 dynamic evaluation.

    The framework was applied to the Heihe watershed, a large inland (terminal lake watershed with a drainage area of over 128 000 km2 in Northwestern China. Simulation of the daily river flows for the period of 1990–2000 by the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model shows that Qilian Mountain in the upper reach produced most of the runoff in the watershed, and the increased withdrawals of water for agricultural irrigation, industrial development, and municipal supplies at the middles reach oasis reduced the annual mean discharge by approximately 0.18 × 109 m3 over the simulation period, making the middle reach unable to deliver the mandated amount of 0.95 × 109 m3 water downstream by the State Council, under normal climatic conditions. Changes in land use practices need to be implemented to achieve the mandated water allocation plan. The paper suggests that a participatory watershed planning approach involving multiple stakeholders in the water allocation process be undertaken to address key questions regularly, including how much water should be allocated to what uses and for whom and at what price?

  9. Water resources of the Rock River watershed, southwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.W.; Broussard, W.L.; Farrell, D.F.; Felsheim, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    This Hydrologic Atlas is one of series describing the 39 watershed units in Minnesota. The 1,750 sq mi in the Rock River watershed are glaciated upland plain including all of Rock County and parts of Pipestone, Murray, Lincoln, Nobles and Jackson Counties. The average annual water budget shows 25.8 inches precipitation, 3.1 inches surface runoff and 22.7 inches evapotranspiration. Water use in million gallons for 1970 was 3 ,333 ground water and 274 surface water. Domestic supplies accounted for 37 percent livestock 37 percent, and industrial 26 percent of total use. All 18 municipalities use ground water, mostly from glacial drift, seven use water from Precambrian aquifers. Precipitation recharges ground water through glacial deposits. Water-table and potentiometric maps and section show ground-water movement. Highest streamflow results from snowmelt and spring rains followed by recession in flow through summer, fall, and winter. Surface water and ground water are both very hard. Surface water and water from surficial and shallow drift aquifers generally range from 450 to 1,000 mg/liter dissolved-solids concentrations. Water from deep drift and from bedrock generally exceeds 1,000 mg/liter dissolved-solids concentration except where Precambiian quartzite aquifers underlie pre-Wisconsin drift. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Water and nonpoint source pollution estimation in the watershed with limited data availability based on hydrological simulation and regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiliang, Wang; Zening, Wu; Caihong, Hu; Xinzhong, Du

    2015-09-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is considered as the main reason for water quality deterioration; thus, to quantify the NPS loads reliably is the key to implement watershed management practices. In this study, water quality and NPS loads from a watershed with limited data availability were studied in a mountainous area in China. Instantaneous water discharge was measured through the velocity-area method, and samples were taken for water quality analysis in both flood and nonflood days in 2010. The streamflow simulated by Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) from 1995 to 2013 and a regression model were used to estimate total annual loads of various water quality parameters. The concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were much higher during the flood seasons, but the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) were lower during the flood seasons. Nevertheless, only TP concentration was positively correlated with the flow rate. The fluctuation of annual load from this watershed was significant. Statistical results indicated the significant contribution of pollutant fluxes during flood seasons to annual fluxes. The loads of TP, TN, NH3-N, and NO3-N in the flood seasons were accounted for 58-85, 60-82, 63-88, 64-81% of the total annual loads, respectively. This study presented a new method for estimation of the water and NPS loads in the watershed with limited data availability, which simplified data collection to watershed model and overcame the scale problem of field experiment method.

  11. Arctic hydrology and meteorology. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, D.L.

    1988-12-31

    The behavior of arctic ecosystems is directly related to the ongoing physical processes of heat and mass transfer. Furthermore, this system undergoes very large fluctuations in the surface energy balance. The buffering effect of both snow and the surface organic soils can be seen by looking at the surface and 40 cm soil temperatures. The active layer, that surface zone above the permafrost table, is either continually freezing or thawing. A large percentage of energy into and out of a watershed must pass through this thin veneer that we call the active layer. Likewise, most water entering and leaving the watershed does so through the active layer. To date, we have been very successful at monitoring the hydrology of Imnavait Creek with special emphasis on the active layer processes. The major contribution of this study is that year-round hydrologic data are being collected. An original objective of our study was to define how the thermal and moisture regimes within the active layer change during an annual cycle under natural conditions, and then to define how the regime will be impacted by some imposed terrain alteration. Our major analysis of the hydrologic data sets for Imnavait Creek have been water balance evaluations for plots during snowmelt, water balance for the watershed during both rainfall and snowmelt, and the application of a hydrologic model to predict the Imnavait Creek runoff events generated by both snowmelt and rainfall.

  12. Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, W.H.; Senay, G.B.; Singh, A.

    2008-01-01

    As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.

  13. Woody plant encroachment reduces annual runoff and shifts runoff mechanisms in the tallgrass prairie, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lei; Zou, Chris B.; Stebler, Elaine; Will, Rodney E.

    2017-06-01

    Woody plant encroachment into semiarid and subhumid rangelands is a global phenomenon with important hydrological implications. Observational and experimental results reported both increases and decreases in annual runoff for encroached watersheds and little is known regarding the underlying runoff generation mechanisms. To systematically study the effect of woody plant encroachment on runoff generation processes, seven experimental watersheds were instrumented in 2010, three on grassland sites and four on adjacent sites that were heavily encroached by eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the southern Great Plains, USA. Results showed that the runoff coefficient was 1.4 ± 0.6% in eastern redcedar encroached watersheds, significantly lower than 4.4 ± 0.7% in grassland watersheds for the four water years from 2011 to 2014. Eastern redcedar encroachment resulted in reduction of both surface and subsurface flows and the magnitude of reduction depended on annual precipitation. While there were nearly equal contributions between overland flow and subsurface flow, 87% of the total runoff from grassland watersheds occurred under saturated or nearly saturated soil condition, while 86% of runoff under encroached watersheds was generated under unsaturated soil condition, suggesting a shift from saturation excess overland flow to infiltration excess overland flow. These results permitted reconciliation of observed difference of streamflow responses associated with Juniperus spp. encroachment in the region and provided insights to better predict change in water resources under vegetation changes in subhumid regions of the south-central USA.

  14. Modeling flood reduction effects of low impact development at a watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiablame, Laurent; Shakya, Ranish

    2016-04-15

    Low impact development (LID) is a land development approach that seeks to mimic a site's pre-development hydrology. This study is a case study that assessed flood reduction capabilities of large-scale adoption of LID practices in an urban watershed in central Illinois using the Personal Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM). Two flood metrics based on runoff discharge were developed to determine action flood (43 m(3)/s) and major flood (95 m(3)/s). Four land use scenarios for urban growth were evaluated to determine the impacts of urbanization on runoff and flooding. Flood attenuation effects of porous pavement, rain barrel, and rain garden at various application levels were also evaluated as retrofitting technologies in the study watershed over a period of 30 years. Simulation results indicated that increase in urban land use from 50 to 94% between 1992 and 2030 increased average annual runoff and flood events by more than 30%, suggesting that urbanization without sound management would increase flood risks. The various implementation levels of the three LID practices resulted in 3-47% runoff reduction in the study watershed. Flood flow events that include action floods and major floods were also reduced by 0-40%, indicating that LID practices can be used to mitigate flood risk in urban watersheds. The study provides an insight into flood management with LID practices in existing urban areas.

  15. Analysis of livelihood security: a case study in the Kali-Khola watershed of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, B S; Grant, M

    2007-10-01

    This paper examines household livelihoods in highland and lowland communities of the Kali-Khola agricultural watershed in western Nepal on the basis of economic, ecological and social security indicators. Significant differences were found in soil fertility status, pests and diseases management, risk and uncertainties, use of agrochemicals and access to social services. No remarkable variations were found in crop diversification, annual agricultural income and food sufficiency. However, uncertainty and risk in agricultural production is relatively low in highland communities. The findings reveal that agriculture production alone is not a viable livelihood option for agricultural watershed communities in Nepal. The households growing crops with hired labour have relatively sustainable livelihoods in Nepal's agricultural watersheds. Insufficient agricultural land, insufficient working manpower within a family, and lack of access to ecological agricultural services are prime factors in being livelihood insecure in agricultural watershed communities. Therefore, long-term policies and plans need to be developed for the empowerment of local farmers and to support rural livelihoods with adaptable and flexible income-generating strategies, resilient resource management institutions and enhancement of knowledge, skills and social capital.

  16. The Fate and Transport of Glyphosate and AMPA into Surface Waters of Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, R.; Kalkhoff, S.; Capel, P.; Gregoire, C.

    2010-12-01

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops, but is particularly heavily used on crops which are genetically modified to be glyphosate tolerant: predominately soybeans, corn, potatoes, and cotton. Glyphosate is used extensively in almost all agricultural areas of the United States, and annual application has increased from less than 10,000 Mg in 1992 to more than 80,000 Mg in 2007. The greatest areal use is in the Midwest where glyphosate is applied on genetically modified corn and soybeans. Although use is increasing, the characterization of glyphosate transport on the watershed scale is lacking. Glyphosate, and its degradate AMPA [aminomethylphosphoric acid], was frequently detected in the surface waters of four agricultural watersheds. The load as a percent of use of glyphosate ranged from 0.009 to 0.86 percent and can be related to three factors: source strength, hydrology, and flowpath. Glyphosate use within a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water at the part per billion level; however watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff, and a flowpath that does not include transport through the soil.

  17. Drought intensity and spatial variability in Gabes Watershed, south-eastern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemai Sabrine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronological series of monthly and annual precipitation data recorded in Gabes Watershed, south-eastern Tunisia, were analyzed. The study is based on the standardized precipitation index (SPI values, computed for 10 rainfall stations over the period 1987–2012, which corresponds to an observatory period of 25 hydrologic years (from September to August. The results obtained show a great variability in SPI values. The historical evolution of the SPI made it possible to define the periods of excess and deficit, corresponding to wet and dry periods respectively. The wet years were found to be 1989–1990, 1995–1996 and 2006–2007 while the dry years were 1987–1988, 1996–1997, 2000–2001, 2001–2002, 2007–2008, 2008–2009 and 2009–2010. This clearly shows alternating wet and dry periods, but with drought episodes taking prevalence over rainy fronts throughout the study period. Indeed, a high tendency towards a drop in precipitation and important sequences of drought were observed. Spatial variability of drought throughout Gabes Watershed was examined by geostatistical analysis of SPI, as drought and rainfall distribution vary with latitude, longitude, topography and proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained showed that, compared to coastal and southern areas, drought was observed to be more important in the West and the North of Gabes Watershed. The SPI showed that moderate droughts are generally more frequent than severe or extreme droughts in most of the Watershed.

  18. Using GIS-based distributed soil loss modeling and morphometric analysis to prioritize watershed for soil conservation in Bago river basin of Lower Myanmar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kay Thwe HLAING; Shigeko HARUYAMA; Maung Maung AYE

    2008-01-01

    Bago River is an important river in Myanmar. Although shorter than other rivers, it has its own river system, and people along the river rely heavily on it for their daily lives. The upper part of the watershed has changed rapidly from dosed forest to open forest land in the 1990s. Since the recent degradation of the forest environment, annual flooding has become worse during the rainy season in Bago City. This paper aims at determining soil conser-vation prioritization of watershed based on soil loss due to erosion and morphometric analysis in the Bago Watershed by integrating remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. In this study, soil erosion of the Bago watershed was determined using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Such factor maps as rainfall, soil erodibility, slope length gradient, and crop management were compiled as input parameters for the modeling; and the soil loss from 26 sub-watersheds were estimated. Then, the soil erosion maps of the Bago watershed for 2005 were developed. The resulting Soil Loss Tolerance Map could be utilized in developing watershed management planning, forestry management planning, etc.

  19. An analysis of watershed hydrological double mass curve based on elasticity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzhao; Ning, Tingting; Lin, Wen; Cheng, Liping; Han, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    The method of double mass curve (DMC) is often used in the analysis of the consistency of hydro-meteorological factors and their inter-annual variations. The trend and slope of DMC are the focus of general concern. By taking the DMC of annual precipitation-runoff in a watershed as an example, this paper analyzed the characteristics of DMC variations by means of the elasticity index obtained by the curve slope divided by the ratio of accumulated runoff to accumulated precipitation at corresponding location. Using a year as a time step, the index was further simplified to be the ratio of annual runoff coefficient to the runoff coefficient averaged over the period from starting year to computing year. An elasticity index greater than, less than, or equal to one indicated rising, decline, or stability of average annual runoff coefficient, respectively. Variation trend of elasticity index was analyzed to extract the information on the years with significant change and then, dominant factors and their impacts could be enquired further. The Jinghe River is located in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, being the largest tributary of the Weihe River. The elasticity index was used to analyze the DMC of annual precipitation-runoff on the scale of water year for the Jinghe River watershed from 1961 to 2012 and the two years of 1971 and 1997 were first chosen as the years showing abrupt changes. The elasticity indices in three periods separated by the two years in the past 50 years averaged 1.08, 0.89 and 0.64 and annual runoff coefficients, 0.08, 0.07 and 0.05, respectively. The human activities disturbing underlying surface were found to be the important factor responsible for the remarkable decline of runoff coefficient. The large-scale comprehensive control of soil erosion and the adjustment of landuse structure had made some achievements in the recent twenty years. However, their disturbing effects on underlying surface interacted with the impacts of climate change

  20. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  1. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project is an interagency effort to increase public awareness of the common reedgrass problem, demonstrate effective control...

  2. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds includes the drainages of the Northwest River, the North Landing River, and Back Bay in the southeastern corner of Virginia. Common reedgrass...

  3. Tribal boundaries in the Nass watershed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterritt, N. J; Marsden, S; Galois, R; Grant, P.R; Overstall, R

    1998-01-01

    Tribal Boundaries in the Nass Watershed makes an important contribution to our understanding on how First Nations traditionally establish their rights to territory and to how these rights are played...

  4. Watershed Boundaries, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  5. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  6. Comparing groundwater recharge and base flow in the Bukmoongol small-forested watershed, Korea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E A Combalicer; S H Lee; S Ahn; D Y Kim; S Im

    2008-10-01

    Groundwater recharge and base flow using different investigated methods are simulated in the 15-ha Bukmoongol small-forested watershed located at the southern part of Korea.The WHAT system, PART,RORA,PULSE,BFI,and RAP software are used to estimate groundwater recharge or base flow and base flow index from the measured stream flow.Results show that about 15 –31 per cent of annual rainfall might be contributed for base flow.The watershed groundwater recharge proportions are computed to about 10 –21 per cent during the wet period and 23 –32 per cent for the remainder periods.Mean annual base flow indices vary from 0.25 to 0.76 estimated using different methods. However,the study found out that all methods were significantly correlated with each other.The similarity of various methods is expressed as a weighted relationship provided by the matrix product from the principal component analysis.Overall,the BFI and WHAT software appeared consistent in estimating recharge or base flow,and base flow index under Korea ’s conditions.The case study recommends the application of different models to other watersheds as well as in low-lying areas where most observation groundwater wells are located with available stream flow data.

  7. Estimation model of soil freeze-thaw erosion in Silingco watershed wetland of Northern Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bo; Yu, Huan

    2013-01-01

    The freeze-thaw (FT) erosion is a type of soil erosion like water erosion and wind erosion. Limited by many factors, the grading evaluation of soil FT erosion quantities is not well studied. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the evaluation indices of soil FT erosion, we for the first time utilized the sensitivity of microwave remote sensing technology to soil moisture for identification of FT state. We established an estimation model suitable to evaluate the soil FT erosion quantity in Silingco watershed wetland of Northern Tibet using weighted summation method of six impact factors including the annual FT cycle days, average diurnal FT phase-changed water content, average annual precipitation, slope, aspect, and vegetation coverage. Finally, with the support of GIS, we classified soil FT erosion quantity in Silingco watershed wetland. The results showed that soil FT erosion are distributed in broad areas of Silingco watershed wetland. Different soil FT erosions with different intensities have evidently different spatial and geographical distributions.

  8. Sediment and Nutrient Contributions from Subsurface Drains and Point Sources to an Agricultural Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Ball Coelho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Excess sediment and nutrients in surface waters can threaten aquatic life. To determine the relative importance of subsurface drainage as a pathway for movement of sediment and nutrients to surface waters, loading from various tile systems was compared to that from sewage treatment plants (STP within the same watershed. Movement through tiles comprised 1 to 8% of estimated total (overland plus tile annual sediment loading from the respective areas drained by the tile. Load during the growing season from five closed drain- age systems without surface inlets averaged 5 kg sediment/ha, 0.005 kg dissolved reactive P (DRP/ha, 0.003 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.8 kg NO3-N/ha; and from two open drainage systems with surface inlets averaged 14 kg sediment/ha, 0.03 kg DRP/ha, 0.04 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.1 kg NO3-N/ha. The eight STP contributed about 44 530 kg suspended sediments, 3380 kg total P, 1340 kg NH4-N, and 116 900 kg NO3-N to the watershed annually. Drainage systems added less NH4-N and P, but more NO3-N and suspended solids to surface waters than STP. Tile drainage pathways for NO3-N, STP in the case of P, and overland pathways for sediment are indicated as targets to control loading in artificially drained agricultural watersheds.

  9. Blob Objects Analysis Using Watershed Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for overlapping or touching blob object ( particles ) segmentation. It is based on the watershed transformation, one of the most powerful image analysis tools provided by mathematical morphology. In this method, we first build the distance function of the blob image, and then extract the regional minima as markers, and finally the watershed transformation is performed. The applications of this algorithm illustrated using the examples of red blood cell segmentation and broken medicine pill detection.

  10. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  11. Annual Site Environmental Report: 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuckolls, H.; /SLAC

    2006-04-19

    for overseeing hazardous materials and waste management at SLAC. The CUPA made facility enforcement inspections of SLAC in August and September of 2003. These inspections covered SLAC's hazardous materials and waste management, business plan, California Accidental Release Prevention Program (CalARP), and tiered permitting/permit-by-rule programs. No notices of violation were issued as a result of either inspection. (3) Stormwater and Industrial Wastewater--SLAC operates its industrial and sanitary wastewater management program in compliance with established permit conditions; 2003 was the seventh consecutive year the program operated without any NOVs issued by regulators. SLAC actively pursues projects to reduce flow to the wastewater system, and through a variety of measures, has managed to keep its facility-wide wastewater discharge constant during a period in which many new connections were made to the system. SLAC continues to make the transition to a new facility-wide sanitary sewer flow-monitoring scheme, and made substantial progress towards completing the project during 2003. SLAC discharges stormwater with the potential to come into contact with industrial activities. SLAC has an extensive monitoring program in place at the eight discharge locations where the greatest potential for contact exists. During the 2002-2003 wet season, SLAC met all the requirements of its monitoring plan, with the exception of consistent sample collection within the first hour of discharge. For the eleventh consecutive year, the surface water program operated in 2003 without receiving any NOVs from program regulators. After expenditures of more than $1 million, SLAC was nearly complete with its Unauthorized Stormwater Connection Project at year-end; only 32 connections (less than 10 percent of the original total) remained to be replumed. SLAC actively pursued several other BMP-related performance improvements during the year. (4) Hazardous Materials Program--Although SLAC has

  12. Climate change and watershed mercury export in a Coastal Plain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Golden; Christopher D. Knightes; Paul A. Conrads; Toby D. Feaster; Gary M. Davis; Stephen T. Benedict; Paul M. Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in climatic conditions may affect variations in watershed processes (e.g., hydrological, biogeochemical) and surface water quality across a wide range of physiographic provinces, ecosystems, and spatial scales. How such climatic shifts will impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and hydrologically-driven Hg transport is a significant concern.

  13. Simulating cold-region hydrology in an intensively drained agricultural watershed in Manitoba, Canada, using the Cold Regions Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Marcos R. C.; Wilson, Henry F.; Vanrobaeys, Jason; Pomeroy, John W.; Fang, Xing; The Red-Assiniboine Project Biophysical Modelling Team

    2017-07-01

    Etrophication and flooding are perennial problems in agricultural watersheds of the northern Great Plains. A high proportion of annual runoff and nutrient transport occurs with snowmelt in this region. Extensive surface drainage modification, frozen soils, and frequent backwater or ice-damming impacts on flow measurement represent unique challenges to accurately modelling watershed-scale hydrological processes. A physically based, non-calibrated model created using the Cold Regions Hydrological Modelling platform (CRHM) was parameterized to simulate hydrological processes within a low slope, clay soil, and intensively surface drained agricultural watershed. These characteristics are common to most tributaries of the Red River of the north. Analysis of the observed water level records for the study watershed (La Salle River) indicates that ice cover and backwater issues at time of peak flow may impact the accuracy of both modelled and measured streamflows, highlighting the value of evaluating a non-calibrated model in this environment. Simulations best matched the streamflow record in years when peak and annual discharges were equal to or above the medians of 6.7 m3 s-1 and 1.25 × 107 m3, respectively, with an average Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.76. Simulation of low-flow years (below the medians) was more challenging (average NSE stream discharge generation.

  14. Rainfall and runoff regime in the Golema reka watershed on the territory of the hunting ground Valnište

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinov Stanimir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fenced hunting ground "Valnište" covers 410 ha on the slopes of the mountain Čemernik, in the Municipality Crna Trava. The hunting ground is situated in the Golema Reka watershed. Rainfall and runoff regime in the Golema Reka watershed were researched in order to create a hydrological base with the data on rainfall, available water resources and maximal discharges. Average annual rainfall design value for the watershed is 860. 14 mm. The highest monthly rainfall occurs in June and May, and the lowest in September and October. As there are no measured data, runoff regime was determined based on the method of parameter hydrology. The following calculation results are adopted for the maximal discharge: Q1000=19,0 m3·s-1 i Q100=10,90 m3·s-1. The adopted value of mean annual specific discharge (runoff module is MQ=16,0 l·s-1·km-2.The study results of rainfall and runoff regime in the Golema Reka watershed show that hydrological conditions are favorable for the development of hunting and hunting tourism.

  15. Pre-development conditions to assess the impact of growth in an urbanizing watershed in Northern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Godrej, Adil N.; Grizzard, Thomas J.

    2016-09-01

    Pre-development conditions are an easily understood state to which watershed nonpoint nutrient reduction targets may be referenced. Using the pre-development baseline, a "developed-excess" measure may be computed for changes due to anthropogenic development. Developed-excess is independent of many geographical, physical, and hydrological characteristics of the region and after normalization by area may be used for comparison among various sub-sets of the watershed, such as jurisdictions or land use types. We have demonstrated this method by computing pre-development nitrogen and phosphorus loads entering the Occoquan Reservoir from its tributary watershed in Northern Virginia. The pre-development loads in this study were computed using the calibrated water quality models for the period 2002-2007. Current forest land was used as a surrogate for pre-development land use conditions for the watershed and developed-excess was estimated for fluvial loads of Total Inorganic Nitrogen (TIN) and Orthophosphate-Phosphorus (OP) by subtracting simulated predevelopment loads from observed loads. It was observed that within the study period (2002-2007), the average annual developed-excess represented about 30% of the TIN and OP average annual loads exported to the reservoir. Comparison of the two disturbed land use types, urban and agricultural, showed that urban land uses exported significantly more excess nonpoint nutrient load per unit area than agricultural land uses.

  16. Exploring calibration strategies of SEDD model in two olive orchard watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet Marimón, Maria; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José A.

    2016-04-01

    To optimize soil conservation strategies in catchments, an accurate diagnosis of areas contributing to soil erosion using models such as SEDD (Ferro and Minacapilly, 1995) is required. In this study, different calibration strategies of the SEDD model were explored in two commercial olive microcatchments in Spain, Setenil (6.7 ha) and Conchuela (8 ha) monitored for 6 years. The main objectives were to calibrate the model to the study watersheds with different environmental characteristics, soil management ways, and runoff conditions, and to evaluate the temporal variability of the sediment delivery ratio (SDR) at the event and annual scales. The calibration used five different erosivity scenarios with different weights of precipitation components and concentrated flow. To optimize the calibration, biweekly and annual C-RUSLE values and the weight of the travel times of the different watershed morphological units were evaluated. The SEDD model was calibrated successfully in the Conchuela watershed, whereas poor adjustments were found for the Setenil watershed. In Conchuela, the best calibration scenarios were associated with concentrated flow, while the erosivity of Setenil was only rain-dependent. Biweekly C-RUSLE values provided suitable, consistent results in Conchuela where soil moisture over the year. In contrast, there were no appreciable improvements between annual and biweekly C-RUSLE values in Setenil, probably due to the narrower variation interval. The analysis of the SDR function justified the grouping of the different β values according to their sign (positive or negative) as a calibration strategy in Setenil. The medians of these groups of events allowed them to be adjusted (E = 0.7; RMSE = 6.4). In the Conchuela watershed, this variation in the model calibration produced only minor improvements to an adjustment which was already good. The sediment delivery ratios (SDR) in both watersheds indicate very dynamic sediment transport. The mean annual SDR

  17. Health diagnoses of ecosystems subject to a typical erosion environment in Zhifanggou watershed ,north-west China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Quanhou; LIU Guobin; XUE Sha; LAN Xue; ZHAI Sheng; TIAN Junliang; WANG Guoliang

    2007-01-01

    Ecosystem health is the object of water and soil conservation and ecological building in loess hilly areas under erosion environment.Using principles of ecosystem health quantitative assessment and diagnosis index selection,17 factors were considered from three aspects:resource and environmental capacity,social and economic impact,and ecological services.An evaluation index system on ecosystem health was established for a small watershed under erosion conditions.Mean-square deviation was employed to determine the weight of each factor and then step-up multilayer synthesis with linear weighting function was used to build a two-level hierarchy and collection index health consultation model.The health dynamics of the ecosystem in the small watershed under erosion conditions was analyzed.Results show that the watershed ecosystem is relatively stable and has an increasing annual fluctuation (0.370 in 1985 to 0.573 in 2003) for the health index.This increasing trend indicates an adeqluately strong ability for sustainable development.At the same time,obstacles and advantages to the watershed ecosystem health were studied by introducing the concepts of obstacle degree and advantage,and path analysis method,considering the real economic optimal level as the uppermost goal.Finally,suggestions on ecological building were provided as a scientific basis for ecosystem rehabilitation in the small watershed.

  18. Use of the soil and water assessment tool to scale sediment delivery from field to watershed in an agricultural landscape with topographic depressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendinger, James E; Murphy, Marylee S; Ulrich, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    For two watersheds in the northern Midwest United States, we show that landscape depressions have a significant impact on watershed hydrology and sediment yields and that the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has appropriate features to simulate these depressions. In our SWAT models of the Willow River in Wisconsin and the Sunrise River in Minnesota, we used Pond and Wetland features to capture runoff from about 40% of the area in each watershed. These depressions trapped considerable sediment, yet further reductions in sediment yield were required for calibration and achieved by reducing the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cropping-practice (P) factor to 0.40 to 0.45. We suggest terminology to describe annual sediment yields at different conceptual spatial scales and show how SWAT output can be partitioned to extract data at each of these scales. These scales range from plot-scale yields calculated with the USLE to watershed-scale yields measured at the outlet. Intermediate scales include field, upland, pre-riverine, and riverine scales, in descending order along the conceptual flow path from plot to outlet. Sediment delivery ratios, when defined as watershed-scale yields as a percentage of plot-scale yields, ranged from 1% for the Willow watershed (717 km) to 7% for the Sunrise watershed (991 km). Sediment delivery ratios calculated from published relations based on watershed area alone were about 5 to 6%, closer to pre-riverine-scale yields in our watersheds. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Effects of changes in land use and land cover on sediment discharge of runoff in a typical watershed in the hill and gully loess region of northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming ZHANG; Xinxiao YU; Sihong WU; Wenhong CAO

    2008-01-01

    Land use plays a much more important role than other factors, such as climate, soil properties, topo-graphic features, vegetation coverage, human activities and others, in affecting soil erosion and sediment discharge. In order to understand the effects of changes in land use on sediment discharge and to provide a theoretical basis for land use planning, management and ecological restoration, we used the controlled Qiaozidong watershed and the uncontrolled Qiaozixi watershed in the third sub-region of the Loess Plateau as examples and analyzed the effects of land use and land cover on the discharge of sediments. The results show that the impact of land use and land cover on the annual amount of sediment discharge is significant. Compared with the uncontrolled watershed during similar periods, the amount of sediment discharged from the con-trolled watershed was reduced by 44%, 75% and 86%, respectively, in wet, normal and dry years. In the controlled watershed, compared with the period from 1986 to 1994, the amount of sediments discharged was less during the period from 1995 to 2004. The impact of land use and land cover on sediment discharge demonstrated characteristics of seasonal fluctuation. The effects of sediment reduction in the controlled watershed were greater than those in the uncontrolled watershed in May and September. In the con-trolled watershed, the reduction effect coincided with the distribution of rainfall. The amount of discharged flood sediments is closely correlated with rainfall, rainfall intens-ity in a 60 min period and the volume of flood. The rain-storm-runoff process and the rainstorm-sediment discharge process demonstrate that land cover has a strong regulatory and control function in the flood process and sediment discharge in rainstorms. For the controlled water-shed, given the same precipitation frequency distribution, the average amount of sediment discharged during the land use period from 1995 to 2004 was less than that during the

  20. Quantifying the hydrological responses to climate change in an intact forested small watershed in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guo-Yi; Wei, Xiaohua; Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Huang, Yuhui; Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhang, Qianmei; Liu, Juxiu; Meng, Ze; Wang, Chunlin; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Shizhong; Tang, Xu-Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Responses of hydrological processes to climate change are key components in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) assessment. Understanding these responses is critical for developing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies for sustainable water resources management and protection of public safety. However, these responses are not well understood and little long-term evidence exists. Herein, we show how climate change, specifically increased air temperature and storm intensity, can affect soil moisture dynamics and hydrological variables based on both long-term observation and model simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in an intact forested watershed (the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve) in Southern China. Our results show that, although total annual precipitation changed little from 1950 to 2009, soil moisture decreased significantly. A significant decline was also found in the monthly 7-day low flow from 2000 to 2009. However, the maximum daily streamflow in the wet season and unconfined groundwater tables have significantly increased during the same 10-year period. The significant decreasing trends on soil moisture and low flow variables suggest that the study watershed is moving towards drought-like condition. Our analysis indicates that the intensification of rainfall storms and the increasing number of annual no-rain days were responsible for the increasing chance of both droughts and floods. We conclude that climate change has indeed induced more extreme hydrological events (e.g. droughts and floods) in this watershed and perhaps other areas of Southern China. This study also demonstrated usefulness of our research methodology and its possible applications on quantifying the impacts of climate change on hydrology in any other watersheds where long-term data are available and human disturbance is negligible.

  1. Private sector embedded water risk: Merging the corn supply chain network and regional watershed depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Brauman, K. A.; Schmitt, J.; Goodkind, A. L.; Smith, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity in US corn farming regions is a significant risk consideration for the ethanol and meat production sectors, which comprise 80% of all US corn demand. Water supply risk can lead to effects across the supply chain, affecting annual corn yields. The purpose of our study is to assess the water risk to the US's most corn-intensive sectors and companies by linking watershed depletion estimates with corn production, linked to downstream companies through a corn transport model. We use a water depletion index as an improved metric for seasonal water scarcity and a corn sourcing supply chain model based on economic cost minimization. Water depletion was calculated as the fraction of renewable (ground and surface) water consumption, with estimates of more than 75% depletion on an annual average basis indicating a significant water risk. We estimated company water risk as the amount of embedded corn coming from three categories of water stressed counties. The ethanol sector had 3.1% of sourced corn grown from counties that were more than 75% depleted while the beef sector had 14.0%. From a firm perspective, Tyson, JBS, Cargill, the top three US corn demanding companies, had 4.5%, 9.6%, 12.8% of their sourced corn respectively, coming from watersheds that are more than 75% depleted. These numbers are significantly higher than the global average of 2.2% of watersheds being classified as more than 75% depleted. Our model enables corn using industries to evaluate their supply chain risk of water scarcity through modeling corn sourcing and watershed depletion, providing the private sector a new method for risk estimation. Our results suggest corn dependent industries are already linked to water scarcity risk in disproportionate amounts due to the spatial heterogeneity of corn sourcing and water scarcity.

  2. Lessons From Watershed-Based Climate Smart Agricultural Practices In Jogo-Gudedo Watershed Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is therefore watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry agriculture pasture and soil water management with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre MARC has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research PAR was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation SWC area enclosure Agroforestry AF Conservation Tillage CT energy saving stove drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit meetings trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture

  3. Classification and flow prediction in a data-scarce watershed of the Equatorial Nile region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Kileshye Onema

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous developments and investigations in flow prediction are of interest in watershed hydrology especially where watercourses are poorly gauged and data are scarce like in most parts of Africa. Thus, this paper reports on two approaches to generate local monthly runoff of the data-scarce Semliki watershed. The Semliki River is part of the upper drainage of the Albert Nile. With an average annual local runoff of 4.622 km3, the Semliki watershed contributes up to 20% of the flows of the White Nile. The watershed was sub-divided in 21 subcatchments (S3 to S23; eight physiographic attributes from remotely sensed acquired datasets and limited ground information were generated for each subcatchments and used to forecast monthly volumes. One ordination technique, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA and the tree clustering analysis of the landform attributes was performed to study the data structure and spot physiographic similarities between subcatchments. The PCA revealed the existence of two major groups of subcatchments. Multi-linear and polynomial regressions were the two modeling approaches used to predict the long-term monthly mean of discharges for the two types of subcatchments identified in the Semliki watershed. The ranges of multiple R, the multiple R2, and the adjusted R2 for the multi-linear and the polynomial models were, respectively 0.96–0.99; 0.93–0.99 and 0.92–0.99. The linearity assumption provided less accurate predictions.

  4. Modeling suspended sediment transport and assessing the impacts of climate change in a karstic Mediterranean watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzaki, S D; Giannakis, G V; Efstathiou, D; Nikolaidis, N P; Sibetheros, I Α; Karatzas, G P; Zacharias, I

    2015-12-15

    Mediterranean semi-arid watersheds are characterized by a climate type with long periods of drought and infrequent but high-intensity rainfalls. These factors lead to the formation of temporary flow tributaries which present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours and high erosion rates with significant sediment transport. Modeling of suspended sediment concentration in such watersheds is of utmost importance due to flash flood phenomena, during which, large quantities of sediments and pollutants are carried downstream. The aim of this study is to develop a modeling framework for suspended sediment transport in a karstic watershed and assess the impact of climate change on flow, soil erosion and sediment transport in a hydrologically complex and intensively managed Mediterranean watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was coupled with a karstic flow and suspended sediment model in order to simulate the hydrology and sediment yield of the karstic springs and the whole watershed. Both daily flow data (2005-2014) and monthly sediment concentration data (2011-2014) were used for model calibration. The results showed good agreement between observed and modeled values for both flow and sediment concentration. Flash flood events account for 63-70% of the annual sediment export depending on a wet or dry year. Simulation results for a set of IPCC "A1B" climate change scenarios suggested that major decreases in surface flow (69.6%) and in the flow of the springs (76.5%) take place between the 2010-2049 and 2050-2090 time periods. An assessment of the future ecological flows revealed that the frequency of minimum flow events increases over the years. The trend of surface sediment export during these periods is also decreasing (54.5%) but the difference is not statistically significant due to the variability of the sediment. On the other hand, sediment originating from the springs is not affected significantly by climate change.

  5. Statistical downscaling of meteorological time series and climatic projections in a watershed in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göncü, S.; Albek, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, meteorological time series from five meteorological stations in and around a watershed in Turkey were used in the statistical downscaling of global climate model results to be used for future projections. Two general circulation models (GCMs), Canadian Climate Center (CGCM3.1(T63)) and Met Office Hadley Centre (2012) (HadCM3) models, were used with three Special Report Emission Scenarios, A1B, A2, and B2. The statistical downscaling model SDSM was used for the downscaling. The downscaled ensembles were put to validation with GCM predictors against observations using nonparametric statistical tests. The two most important meteorological variables, temperature and precipitation, passed validation statistics, and partial validation was achieved with other time series relevant in hydrological studies, namely, cloudiness, relative humidity, and wind velocity. Heat waves, number of dry days, length of dry and wet spells, and maximum precipitation were derived from the primary time series as annual series. The change in monthly predictor sets used in constructing the multiple regression equations for downscaling was examined over the watershed and over the months in a year. Projections between 1962 and 2100 showed that temperatures and dryness indicators show increasing trends while precipitation, relative humidity, and cloudiness tend to decrease. The spatial changes over the watershed and monthly temporal changes revealed that the western parts of the watershed where water is produced for subsequent downstream use will get drier than the rest and the precipitation distribution over the year will shift. Temperatures showed increasing trends over the whole watershed unparalleled with another period in history. The results emphasize the necessity of mitigation efforts to combat climate change on local and global scales and the introduction of adaptation strategies for the region under study which was shown to be vulnerable to climate change.

  6. Holistic impact assessment and cost savings of rainwater harvesting at the watershed scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R. Ghimire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the impacts of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting (RWH systems in three watersheds within the Albemarle-Pamlico river basin (southeastern U.S. using life cycle assessment (LCA and life cycle cost assessment. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA categories included energy demand, fossil fuel, metals, ozone depletion, global warming, acidification, smog, blue and green water use, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and human health effects. Building upon previous LCAs of near-optimal domestic and agricultural RWH systems in the region, we scaled functional unit LCIA scores for adoption rates of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% and compared these to conventional municipal water and well water systems. In addition to investigating watershed-scale impacts of RWH adoption, which few studies have addressed, potential life cycle cost savings due to reduced cumulative energy demand were scaled in each watershed for a more comprehensive analysis. The importance of managing the holistic water balance, including blue water (surface/ground water, green water (rainwater use, and annual precipitation and their relationship to RWH are also addressed. RWH contributes to water resource sustainability by offsetting surface and ground water consumption and by reducing environmental and human health impacts compared to conventional sources. A watershed-wide RWH adoption rate of 25% has a number of ecological and human health benefits including blue water use reduction ranging from 2–39 Mm3, cumulative energy savings of 12–210 TJ, and reduced global warming potential of 600–10,100 Mg CO2 eq. Potential maximum lifetime energy cost savings were estimated at $5M and $24M corresponding to domestic RWH in Greens Mill and agricultural RWH in Back Creek watersheds.

  7. Modeling land-based nitrogen loads from groundwater-dominated agricultural watersheds to estuaries to inform nutrient reduction planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yefang; Nishimura, Peter; van den Heuvel, Michael R.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Crane, Cindy S.; Xing, Zisheng; Raymond, Bruce G.; Thompson, Barry L.

    2015-10-01

    active hydrometric stations indicated that stream base flow could be prorated for nitrate load calculation from the nearest gauging station in the absence of discharge measurements. Annual nitrate losses, including aquifer long-term storage, denitrification, and riparian plant uptake were estimated to be 0.8 mg N L-1, corresponding to 3.4 kg N ha-1. The maximum and median base flow nitrate loads to the estuaries from among the 27 calibration watersheds were predicted to be 28.4 and 8.7 kg N ha-1 respectively with a root mean square error (RMSE) as 2.3 kg N ha-1. From among the 75 watersheds selected for model verification, the maximum and median base flow nitrate loads to the estuaries were estimated to be 29 and 5.5 kg N ha-1 respectively with RMSE as 2.6 kg N ha-1. At the estuaries with nitrate loads above the medians, the predominant nitrate sources (75-98%) were derived from the potato rotation lands, highlighting the importance of N use management with potato production for water quality restoration; nitrate load derived from atmospheric N deposits was estimated to account for 3.6-13% of annual nitrate loads in watersheds with nitrate loads exceeding the median values. The application of the model to nutrient reduction planning in the Southwest River watershed implies that a significant change on cropping practices has to be made in order to mitigate the anoxic events in this highly impacted agricultural watershed.

  8. Community DECISIONS: stakeholder focused watershed planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Darrell; Pease, James; Wolfe, Mary Leigh; Zobel, Christopher; Osorio, Javier; Cobb, Tanya Denckla; Evanylo, Greg

    2012-12-15

    Successful watershed planning can be enhanced by stakeholder involvement in developing and implementing plans that reflect community goals and resource limitations. Community DECISIONS (Community Decision Support for Integrated, On-the-ground Nutrient Reduction Strategies) is a structured decision process to help stakeholders evaluate strategies that reduce watershed nutrient imbalances. A nutrient accounting algorithm and nutrient treatment database provide information on nutrient loadings and costs of alternative strategies to reduce loadings. Stakeholders were asked to formulate goals for the North Fork Shenandoah River Watershed in Virginia and select among strategies to achieve those goals. The Vector Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to rank strategies. Stakeholders preferred a Maximum strategy that included point source upgrades, riparian buffers, no-till corn silage, wheat cover, and bioretention filters in developed areas. Participants generally agreed that the process helped improve communication among stakeholders, was helpful for watershed planning, and should be used for TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) planning. Participants suggested more attention be paid to ensuring that all relevant issues are addressed and all information needed to make decisions is available. Watershed planning should provide stakeholders with clear scientific information about physical and socioeconomic processes. However, planning processes must give stakeholders adequate time to consider issues that may not have been addressed by existing scientific models and datasets.

  9. Simulation of streamflow, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge in the lower San Antonio River Watershed, South-Central Texas, 2000-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Joy S.; Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority, the Evergreen Underground Water Conservation District, and the Goliad County Groundwater Conservation District, configured, calibrated, and tested a watershed model for a study area consisting of about 2,150 square miles of the lower San Antonio River watershed in Bexar, Guadalupe, Wilson, Karnes, DeWitt, Goliad, Victoria, and Refugio Counties in south-central Texas. The model simulates streamflow, evapotranspiration (ET), and groundwater recharge using rainfall, potential ET, and upstream discharge data obtained from National Weather Service meteorological stations and USGS streamflow-gaging stations. Additional time-series inputs to the model include wastewater treatment-plant discharges, withdrawals for cropland irrigation, and estimated inflows from springs. Model simulations of streamflow, ET, and groundwater recharge were done for 2000-2007. Because of the complexity of the study area, the lower San Antonio River watershed was divided into four subwatersheds; separate HSPF models were developed for each subwatershed. Simulation of the overall study area involved running simulations of the three upstream models, then running the downstream model. The surficial geology was simplified as nine contiguous water-budget zones to meet model computational limitations and also to define zones for which ET, recharge, and other water-budget information would be output by the model. The model was calibrated and tested using streamflow data from 10 streamflow-gaging stations; additionally, simulated ET was compared with measured ET from a meteorological station west of the study area. The model calibration is considered very good; streamflow volumes were calibrated to within 10 percent of measured streamflow volumes. During 2000-2007, the estimated annual mean rainfall for the water-budget zones ranged from 33.7 to 38.5 inches per year; the estimated annual mean rainfall for the entire

  10. Land protection plan : Bear River Watershed Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is establishing a conservation area for the Bear River watershed in Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. The Bear River Watershed...

  11. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 04 - HUC 08 - Majors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of 81 watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Major Watersheds....

  12. How Sustainable is Participatory Watershed Development in India?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.; Soest, van D.P.; Bulte, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    Watershed conservation is widely recognized as a major strategy for rural development throughout the developing world. In India, the apparent success of participatory approaches to watershed development resulted in a decentralization of project planning, implementation, and management to local

  13. US Forest Service Watershed Condition Class and Assessment Status 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The map contains the Watershed Condition Class and assessment status for the assessment year of 2011. The layer is symbolized by the Watershed Condition Class for...

  14. Information Management for the Watershed Approach in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of interviews with leaders and key participants in the statewide watershed approach activities in the State of Washington. Additionally, there are reviews of Washington’s statewide watershed activities in a case study fashion.

  15. Statistical Comparisons of watershed scale response to climate change in selected basins across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John; Moradkhani, Hamid; Hay, Lauren; Markstrom, Steve

    2011-01-01

    In an earlier global climate-change study, air temperature and precipitation data for the entire twenty-first century simulated from five general circulation models were used as input to precalibrated watershed models for 14 selected basins across the United States. Simulated daily streamflow and energy output from the watershed models were used to compute a range of statistics. With a side-by-side comparison of the statistical analyses for the 14 basins, regional climatic and hydrologic trends over the twenty-first century could be qualitatively identified. Low-flow statistics (95% exceedance, 7-day mean annual minimum, and summer mean monthly streamflow) decreased for almost all basins. Annual maximum daily streamflow also decreased in all the basins, except for all four basins in California and the Pacific Northwest. An analysis of the supply of available energy and water for the basins indicated that ratios of evaporation to precipitation and potential evapotranspiration to precipitation for most of the basins will increase. Probability density functions (PDFs) were developed to assess the uncertainty and multimodality in the impact of climate change on mean annual streamflow variability. Kolmogorov?Smirnov tests showed significant differences between the beginning and ending twenty-first-century PDFs for most of the basins, with the exception of four basins that are located in the western United States. Almost none of the basin PDFs were normally distributed, and two basins in the upper Midwest had PDFs that were extremely dispersed and skewed.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Xixi Watershed of Jinjiang Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun RONG; Jiqiang ZHANG; Yang SHI

    2016-01-01

    The SWAT model was applied to analyze the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of non-point source pollution loads and the difference of pollution loads of different land use types in Xixi Watershed of Jinjiang Basin. The results showed that both yearly nitrogen and phosphorus pollution loads were evenly distributed during 1973 to 1979,the annual TN pollution from non-point source was 1530 t,or 6. 3 kg / ha,and the annual TP pollution from non-point source was 270 t,or 1. 1 kg / ha during 1973 to 1979 in the watershed. Considerable differences were identified on both monthly nitrogen and phosphorus pollution loads. The TN and TP pollution loads during the flood season( from April to September) accounted for 76. 2% and 75. 8% of the annual load respectively. There were great differences in both TN and TP pollution loads of different land use types in the study area,and the pollution load of both farmland and orchard was higher than that of the other land use types. TN and TP pollution loads of farmland accounted for 66% and 83% of total watershed. There was a great spatial difference in the nonpoint source pollution load of the study area. The critical source areas of non-point source pollution are mainly located at Guanqiao Town,Longmen Town,Changkeng Town,Shangqing Town and Dapu Town,where the efforts of controlling pollution should be made.

  17. Assessment of Runoff and Sediment Yields Using the AnnAGNPS Model in a Three-Gorge Watershed of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Nan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion has been recognized as one of the major threats to our environment and water quality worldwide, especially in China. To mitigate nonpoint source water quality problems caused by soil erosion, best management practices (BMPs and/or conservation programs have been adopted. Watershed models, such as the Annualized Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant Loading model (AnnAGNPS, have been developed to aid in the evaluation of watershed response to watershed management practices. The model has been applied worldwide and proven to be a very effective tool in identifying the critical areas which had serious erosion, and in aiding in decision-making processes for adopting BMPs and/or conservation programs so that cost/benefit can be maximized and non-point source pollution control can be achieved in the most efficient way. The main goal of this study was to assess the characteristics of soil erosion, sediment and sediment delivery of a watershed so that effective conservation measures can be implemented. To achieve the overall objective of this study, all necessary data for the 4,184 km2 Daning River watershed in the Three-Gorge region of the Yangtze River of China were assembled. The model was calibrated using observed monthly runoff from 1998 to 1999 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.94 and R2 of 0.94 and validated using the observed monthly runoff from 2003 to 2005 (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency of 0.93 and R2 of 0.93. Additionally, the model was validated using annual average sediment of 2000–2002 (relative error of −0.34 and 2003–2004 (relative error of 0.18 at Wuxi station. Post validation simulation showed that approximately 48% of the watershed was under the soil loss tolerance released by the Ministry of Water Resources of China (500 t·km−2·y−1. However, 8% of the watershed had soil erosion of exceeding 5,000 t·km−2

  18. Application of watershed modeling system (WMS) for integrated management of a watershed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Ali; Gurel, Melike; Baloch, Mansoor Ahmed; Dikerler, Teoman; Varol, Evren; Akbulut, Neslihan; Tanik, Aysegul

    2006-01-01

    Watershed models, that enable the quantification of current and future pollution loading impacts, are essential tools to address the functions and conflicts faced in watershed planning and management. In this study, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) version 7.1 was used for the delineation of boundaries of Koycegiz Lake-Dalyan Lagoon watershed located in the southwest of Turkey at the Mediterranean Sea coast. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was created for one of the major streams of the watershed, namely, Kargicak Creek by using WMS, and DEM data were further used to extract stream networks and delineate the watershed boundaries. Typical properties like drainage areas, characteristic length and slope of sub-drainage areas have also been determined to be used as model inputs in hydrological and diffuse pollution modeling. Besides, run-off hydrographs for the sub-drainages have been calculated using the Rational Method, which produces valuable data for calculating the time variable inflow and input pollution loads to be further utilized in the future water quality models of the Creek. Application of WMS in the study has shown that, it is capable to visualize the results in establishing watershed management strategies.

  19. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng

    2017-03-03

    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world.

  20. Modeling the effects of climate change on water, sediment, and nutrient yields from the Maumee River watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke K. Cousino

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Moderate climate change scenarios reduced annual flow (up to −24% and sediment (up to −26% yields, while a more extreme scenario showed smaller flow reductions (up to −10% and an increase in sediment (up to +11%. No-till practices had a negligible effect on flow but produced 16% lower average sediment loads than scenarios using current watershed conditions. At high implementation rates, no-till practices could offset any future increases in annual sediment loads, but they may have varied seasonal success. Regardless of future climate change intensity, increased remediation efforts will likely be necessary to significantly reduce HABs in Lake Erie's WB.

  1. Watershed modeling and monitoring for assessing nutrient ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation for the American Water Works Association Water Sustainability Conference. The presentation highlights latest results from water quality trading research conducted by ORD using the East Fork Watershed in Southwestern Ohio as a case study. The watershed has a nutrient enrichment problem that is creating harmful algal blooms in a reservoir used for drinking water and recreation. Innovative modeling and monitoring is combined to understand how to best manage this water quality problem and costs associated with this endeavor. The presentation will provide an overview of the water quality trading feasibility research. The research includes the development and evaluation of innovative modeling and monitoring approaches to manage watersheds for nutrient pollution using a whole systems approach.

  2. Watershed Boundaries, Watershed Boundaries, Published in 2002, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale as of 2002. It is described as 'Watershed Boundaries'. Data by this publisher are often...

  3. Conservation tillage in dryland agriculture impacts watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wie, J. B.; Adam, J. C.; Ullman, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryDryland (non-irrigated) crop production in semi-arid regions requires sufficient water storage in the soil profile to ensure adequate plant available water, particularly in areas where the majority of annual precipitation occurs during the non-growing season. Producers can increase soil water storage through the adoption of best management practices (BMPs) for tillage and crop residue management. The objective of this study was to assess our hypothesis that watershed-wide adoption of no-till (NT) farming would decrease winter water losses and increase early growing season plant available water as compared with conventional tillage (CT) methods. We analyzed water storage potential under assumed full-scale adoption of NT and CT cropping practices in the Palouse region of eastern Washington State by applying the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM) with modifications to represent the physical changes to infiltration, evaporation, and runoff that result from tillage management. DHSVM yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency (NSE) for streamflow of 0.69 for the watershed-scale simulations over the Palouse River basin, which falls within the NSE ranges reported for DHSVM (0.57-0.91). Surface temperature predictions resulted in an NSE of 0.60, and the model was able to predict the soil state (frozen or unfrozen) 81% of the time. Simulated soil moisture was approximately 50% greater under widespread adoption of CT versus NT management during the majority of the winter months. Predicted volumetric soil moisture content for April 1, 2005 was 29% and 34% under CT and NT management, respectively. This difference in winter and spring soil moisture was caused primarily by decreased evaporation under NT, with minimal effects resulting from changes in infiltration. Two simple crop yield estimation methods indicated that increased spring soil moisture under NT management may result in a 21-26% wheat yield increase. We concluded that NT has the potential to

  4. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajeet Chaubey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ≤ NS ≤ 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

  5. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: Theoretical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  6. Guiding principles for management of forested, agricultural, and urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W.J. Williard

    2015-01-01

    Human actions must be well planned and include consideration of their potential influences on water and aquatic ecosystems - such consideration is the foundation of watershed management. Watersheds are the ideal land unit for managing and protecting water resources and aquatic health because watersheds integrate the physical, biological and chemical processes within...

  7. The Chena River Watershed Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    ER D C/ CR R EL T R -1 2 -1 The Chena River Watershed Hydrology Model C ol d R eg io n s R es ea rc h an d E n gi n ee ri n g La...14 Table 6. Estimated monthly ET using Hargreaves method and pan...using water balance method A generalized water balance for the Chena River watershed can be written as mS P S ET R     (3) where P

  8. Characterization of suspended solids and total phosphorus loadings from small watersheds in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven R.; Graczyk, David J.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the daily, monthly, and yearly distribution of contaminant loadings and streamflow can be critical for the successful implementation and evaluation of water-quality management practices. Loading data for solids (suspended sediment and total suspended solids) and total phosphorus and streamflow data for 23 watersheds were summarized for four ecoregions of Wisconsin: the Driftless Area Ecoregion, the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion, the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregion, and the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains Ecoregion. The Northern Lakes and Forests and the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregions were combined into one region for analysis due to a lack of sufficient data in each region. Urban watersheds, all located in the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains, were analyzed separately from rural watersheds as the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region. Results provide information on the distribution of loadings and streamflow between base flow and stormflow, the timing of loadings and streamflow throughout the year, and information regarding the number of days in which the majority of the annual loading is transported. The average contribution to annual solids loading from stormflow periods for the Driftless Area Ecoregion was 84 percent, the Northern Lakes and Forests/North Central Hardwoods region was 71 percent, the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 70 percent, and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 90 percent. The average contributions to annual total phosphorus loading from stormflow periods were 72, 49, 61, and 76 percent for each of the respective regions. The average contributions to annual streamflow from stormflow periods are 20, 23, 31, and 50 percent for each of the respective regions. In all regions, the most substantial loading contributions for solids were in the late winter (February through March), spring (April through May), and

  9. Improving AVSWAT Stream Flow Simulation by Incorporating Groundwater Recharge Prediction in the Upstream Lesti Watershed, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Rahayuningtyas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The upstream Lesti watershed is one of the major watersheds of East Java in Indonesia, covering about 38093 hectares. Although there are enough water resources to meet current demands in the basin, many challenges including high spatial and temporal variability in precipitation from year to year exist. It is essential to understand how the climatic condition affects Lesti River stream flow in each sub basin. This study investigated the applicability of using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT with the incorporation of groundwater recharge prediction in stream flow simulation in the upstream Lesti watershed. Four observation wells in the upstream Lesti watershed were used to evaluate the seasonal and annual variations in the water level and estimate the groundwater recharge in the deep aquifer. The results show that annual water level rise was within the 2800 - 5700 mm range in 2007, 3900 - 4700 mm in 2008, 3200 - 5100 mm in 2009, and 2800 - 4600 mm in 2010. Based on the specific yield and the measured water level rise, the area-weighted groundwater predictions at the watershed outlet are 736, 820.9, 786.7, 306.4 mm in 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010, respectively. The consistency test reveals that the R-square statistical value is greater than 0.7, and the DV (% ranged from 32 - 55.3% in 2007 - 2010. Overall, the SWAT model performs better in the wet season flow simulation than the dry season. It is suggested that the SWAT model needs to be improved for stream flow simulation in tropical regions.

  10. EFFECTS OF HYDROGEOMORPHIC REGION, WATERSHED STORAGE, AND FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON WATERSHED EXPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbidity was highest for South Shore streams overall, but exhibited a significant HGM x storage x fragmentation effect, with highest levels observed in South Shore low storage/high fragmentation watersheds.

  11. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions at the soil-atmosphere interface in forested watersheds of the US Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Joshua; Vidon, Philippe; Gross, Jordan; Beier, Colin; Caputo, Jesse; Mitchell, Myron

    2016-05-01

    Although anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O) are unequivocally tied to climate change, natural systems such as forests have the potential to affect GHG concentration in the atmosphere. Our study reports GHG emissions as CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO2eq fluxes across a range of landscape hydrogeomorphic classes (wetlands, riparian areas, lower hillslopes, upper hillslopes) in a forested watershed of the Northeastern USA and assesses the usability of the topographic wetness index (TWI) as a tool to identify distinct landscape geomorphic classes to aid in the development of GHG budgets at the soil atmosphere interface at the watershed scale. Wetlands were hot spots of GHG production (in CO2eq) in the landscape owing to large CH4 emission. However, on an areal basis, the lower hillslope class had the greatest influence on the net watershed CO2eq efflux, mainly because it encompassed the largest proportion of the study watershed (54 %) and had high CO2 fluxes relative to other land classes. On an annual basis, summer, fall, winter, and spring accounted for 40, 27, 9, and 24 % of total CO2eq emissions, respectively. When compared to other approaches (e.g., random or systematic sampling design), the TWI landscape classification method was successful in identifying dominant landscape hydrogeomorphic classes and offered the possibility of systematically accounting for small areas of the watershed (e.g., wetlands) that have a disproportionate effect on total GHG emissions. Overall, results indicate that soil CO2eq efflux in the Archer Creek Watershed may exceed C uptake by live trees under current conditions.

  12. Modeling sediment and nitrogen export from a rural watershed in eastern Canada using the soil and water assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees Ahmad, Hafiz M; Sinclair, Andrew; Jamieson, Rob; Madani, Ali; Hebb, Dale; Havard, Peter; Yiridoe, Emmanuel K

    2011-01-01

    Watershed simulation models can be used to assess agricultural nonpoint-source pollution and for environmental planning and improvement projects. However, before application of any process-based watershed model, the model performance and reliability must be tested with measured data. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool version 2005 (SWAT2005) was used to model sediment and nitrogen loads from the Thomas Brook Watershed, which drains a 7.84 km rural landscape in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, Canada. The Thomas Brook SWAT model was comprised of 28 subbasins and 265 hydrologic response units, most of them containing agricultural land use, which is the main nonpoint nitrogen source in the watershed. Crop rotation schedules were incorporated into the model using field data collected within Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices program. Model calibration (2004-2006) and validation (2007-2008) were performed on a monthly basis using continuous stream flow, sediment, and nitrogen export measurements. Model performance was evaluated using the coefficient of determination, Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBIAS) statistics. Study results show that the model performance was satisfactory (NSE > 0.4; > 0.5) for stream flow, sediment, nitrate-nitrogen, and total nitrogen simulations. Annual corn, barley, and wheat yields were also simulated well, with PBIAS values ranging from 0.3 to 7.2%. This evaluation of SWAT demonstrated that the model has the potential to be used as a decision support tool for agricultural watershed management in Nova Scotia.

  13. Watershed Scale Impacts of Stormwater Green Infrastructure on Hydrology and Nutrient Fluxes in the Mid-Atlantic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Pennino, M. J.; McDonald, R.

    2015-12-01

    Stormwater green infrastructure (SGI), including rain gardens, detention ponds, bioswales, and green roofs, is being implemented in cities across the globe to help reduce flooding, decrease combined sewer overflows, and lessen pollutant transport to streams and rivers. Despite the increasing use of urban SGI, there is much uncertainty regarding the cumulative effects of multiple SGI projects on hydrology and water quality at the watershed scale. To assess the cumulative effects of SGI, major cities across the mid-Atlantic were selected based on availability of SGI, water quality, and stream flow data. The impact of SGI was evaluated by comparing similar watersheds, with and without SGI or by assessing how long-term changes in SGI impact hydrologic and water quality metrics over time. Most mid-Atlantic cities have a goal of achieving 10-75% SGI by 2030. Of these cites, Washington D.C. currently has the highest density of SGI (15.5%), while Philadelphia, PA and New York, NY have the lowest (0.14% and 0.28%, respectively). When comparing watersheds of similar size and percent impervious surface cover, watersheds with lower amounts of SGI, on average, show up to 40% greater annual total nitrogen and 75% greater total phosphorus loads and show flashier hydrology (as indicated by 35% greater average peak discharge, 26% more peak discharge events per year, and 21% higher peak-to-volume ratio) compared to watersheds with higher amounts of SGI. However, for cities with combined sewer systems (e.g. Washington, D.C. and Philadelphia, PA), there was no relationship between the level of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and the amount of SGI, indicating the level of SGI may not yet be sufficient to reduce CSOs as intended. When comparing individual watersheds over time, increases in SGI show no significant effect on the long-term trends in nutrient loads or hydrologic variables, potentially being obscured by the larger effect of interannual variability.

  14. Contributions of human activities to suspended sediment yield during storm events from a small, steep, tropical watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, A. M.; Biggs, T. W.

    2016-07-01

    Suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and yields (SSY) were measured during storm and non-storm periods from undisturbed and human-disturbed portions of a small (1.8 km2), mountainous watershed that drains to a sediment-stressed coral reef. Event-wise SSY (SSYEV) was calculated for 142 storms from measurements of water discharge (Q), turbidity (T), and SSC measured downstream of three key sediment sources: undisturbed forest, an aggregate quarry, and a village. SSC and SSYEV were significantly higher downstream of the quarry during both storm- and non-storm periods. The human-disturbed subwatershed (10.1% disturbed) accounted for an average of 87% of SSYEV from the watershed. Observed sediment yield (mass) to the coast, including human disturbed subwatersheds, was 3.9× the natural background. Specific SSY (mass/area) from the disturbed quarry area was 49× higher than from natural forest compared with 8× higher from the village area. Similar to mountainous watersheds in semi-arid and temperate climates, SSYEV from both the undisturbed and disturbed watersheds correlated closely with maximum event discharge (Qmax), event total precipitation and event total Q, but not with the Erosivity Index. Best estimates of annual SSY varied by method, from 45 to 143 tons/km2/yr from the undisturbed subwatershed, 441-598 tons/km2/yr from the human-disturbed subwatershed, and 241-368 tons/km2/yr from the total watershed. Sediment yield was very sensitive to disturbance; the quarry covers 1.1% of the total watershed area, but contributed 36% of SSYEV. Given the limited access to gravel for infrastructure development, sediment disturbance from local aggregate mining may be a critical sediment source on remote islands in the Pacific and elsewhere. Identification of erosion hotspots like the quarry using rapid, event-wise measures of suspended sediment yield will help efforts to mitigate sediment stress and restore coral reefs.

  15. Recovery of central Appalachian forested watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; James N. Kochendenfer [sic

    2014-01-01

    The Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) was established to conduct research in forest and watershed management in the central Appalachians. The 1868-ha FEF, located south of Parsons, West Virginia, is administered by the Northern Research Station of the USDA Forest Service and provides a valuable point of comparison with the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory (CHL), located in...

  16. The Implementation of a Parallel Watershed Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, A.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a parallel watershed algorithm is described. The algorithm is implemented on a multiple instruction multiple data (MIMD) ring-architecture using a single program multiple data (SPMD) approach using an asynchronous message passing interface and simulated shared mem

  17. Modeling global nutrient export from watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Bouwman, L.; Seitzinger, S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe how global models can be used to analyze past and future trends in nutrient export from watersheds and how such models can be used to analyze causes and effects of coastal eutrophication. Future nutrient inputs to coastal waters may be higher than today, and nutrient ratios may depart fr

  18. A mean field approach to watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Mark; Porporato, Amilcare

    2016-04-01

    Mean field theory (also known as self-consistent field theory) is commonly used in statistical physics when modeling the space-time behavior of complex systems. The mean field theory approximates a complex multi-component system by considering a lumped (or average) effect for all individual components acting on a single component. Thus, the many body problem is reduced to a one body problem. For watershed hydrology, a mean field theory reduces the numerous point component effects to more tractable watershed averages, resulting in a consistent method for linking the average watershed fluxes to the local fluxes at each point. We apply this approach to the spatial distribution of soil moisture, and as a result, the numerous local interactions related to lateral fluxes of soil water are parameterized in terms of the average soil moisture. The mean field approach provides a basis for unifying and extending common event-based models (e.g. Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method) with more modern semi-distributed models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, the Probability Distributed (PDM) model, and TOPMODEL). We obtain simple equations for the fractions of the different source areas of runoff, the spatial variability of runoff, and the average runoff value (i.e., the so-called runoff curve). The resulting space time distribution of soil moisture offers a concise description of the variability of watershed fluxes.

  19. 36 CFR 251.35 - Petersburg watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal employees, holders of Forest Service contracts, or Forest Service agents; (2) The operation, maintenance, and improvement of the municipal water system by Federal and State officials and employees of the... Ranger. (d) Unauthorized entrance upon lands within the watershed is subject to punishment as provided...

  20. The effects of cumulative forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2, situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada, has been severely disturbed by both logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area had been attacked by MPB and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance, with consideration of hydrological recovery following various types of disturbance (wildfire, logging and MPB infestation, cumulated over space and time in the watershed. The cumulative ECA peaked at 62.2% in 2009. A combined approach of statistical analysis (i.e. time series analysis and graphic method (modified double mass curve was employed to evaluate the impacts of forest disturbance on hydrology. Our results showed that severe forest disturbance significantly increased annual mean flow. The average increment in annual mean flow caused by forest disturbance was 48.4 mm yr−1, while the average decrease in annual mean flow caused by climatic variability during the same disturbance period was 35.5 mm yr−1. The opposite changes in directions and magnitudes clearly suggest an offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability, with the absolute influential strength of forest disturbance (57.7% overriding that from climate variability (42.3%. Forest disturbance also produced significant positive effects on low flow and dry season (fall and winter mean flow. Implications of our findings for future forest and water resources management are discussed in the context of long-term watershed sustainability.

  1. The cumulative effects of forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Wei, X.

    2012-03-01

    The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2) situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada has been severely disturbed by both human-being logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area was attacked by MPB) and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA) was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance with consideration of hydrological recovery following various types of disturbances (wildfire, logging and MPB infestation) cumulated over space and time in the studied watershed. The cumulative ECA was up to 62.2% in 2009. A combined approach of statistical analysis (time series analysis) with modified double mass curve was employed to evaluate the impacts of forest disturbance on hydrology. Our results showed that severe forest disturbance significantly increased annual mean flow. The average increment in annual mean flow caused by forest disturbance was 48.4 mm yr-1, while the average decrease in annual mean flow caused by climatic variability during the same disturbance period was -35.5 mm yr-1. The opposite change directions and magnitudes clearly suggest offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability, with the absolute influential strength of forest disturbance (57.7%) overriding that from climate variability (42.3%). Forest disturbances also produced significant positive effect on low flow and dry season (fall and winter) mean flow. Implications of our findings for future forest and water resources management are discussed in the context of long-term watershed sustainability.

  2. The cumulative effects of forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2 situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada has been severely disturbed by both human-being logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area was attacked by MPB and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance with consideration of hydrological recovery following various types of disturbances (wildfire, logging and MPB infestation cumulated over space and time in the studied watershed. The cumulative ECA was up to 62.2% in 2009. A combined approach of statistical analysis (time series analysis with modified double mass curve was employed to evaluate the impacts of forest disturbance on hydrology. Our results showed that severe forest disturbance significantly increased annual mean flow. The average increment in annual mean flow caused by forest disturbance was 48.4 mm yr−1, while the average decrease in annual mean flow caused by climatic variability during the same disturbance period was −35.5 mm yr−1. The opposite change directions and magnitudes clearly suggest offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability, with the absolute influential strength of forest disturbance (57.7% overriding that from climate variability (42.3%. Forest disturbances also produced significant positive effect on low flow and dry season (fall and winter mean flow. Implications of our findings for future forest and water resources management are discussed in the context of long-term watershed sustainability.

  3. The effects of cumulative forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Wei, X.

    2012-07-01

    The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2), situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada, has been severely disturbed by both logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area had been attacked by MPB) and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA) was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance, with consideration of hydrological recovery following various types of disturbance (wildfire, logging and MPB infestation), cumulated over space and time in the watershed. The cumulative ECA peaked at 62.2% in 2009. A combined approach of statistical analysis (i.e. time series analysis) and graphic method (modified double mass curve) was employed to evaluate the impacts of forest disturbance on hydrology. Our results showed that severe forest disturbance significantly increased annual mean flow. The average increment in annual mean flow caused by forest disturbance was 48.4 mm yr-1, while the average decrease in annual mean flow caused by climatic variability during the same disturbance period was 35.5 mm yr-1. The opposite changes in directions and magnitudes clearly suggest an offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability, with the absolute influential strength of forest disturbance (57.7%) overriding that from climate variability (42.3%). Forest disturbance also produced significant positive effects on low flow and dry season (fall and winter) mean flow. Implications of our findings for future forest and water resources management are discussed in the context of long-term watershed sustainability.

  4. Identification and prioritization of subwatersheds for land and water management in Tekeze dam watershed, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidane Welde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation and/or soil erosion are huge problems that have threatened many reservoirs in the Northern Ethiopian highlands, particularly in the Tekeze dam watershed. This study has been conducted to identify and prioritize the most sensitive subwatersheds with the help of a semi-distributed watershed model (SWAT 2009 for improved management of reservoir sedimentation mitigating strategies at the watershed level. SWAT 2009 was chosen for this study due to its ability to produce routed sediment yield and identify principal sediment source areas at the selected point of interest. Based on a digital elevation model (DEM the catchment was divided in to 47 subwatersheds using the dam axis as the main outlet. By overlaying land use, soil and slope of the study area, the subwatersheds were further divided in to 690 hydrological response units (HRUs. Model calibration (for the period of January 1996 to December 2002 and validation (for the period of January 2003 to December 2006 were carried out for stream flow rate and sediment yield data observed at Emba madre gage station. The results of model performance evaluation statistics for both stream flow and sediment yield shows that the model has a high potential in estimation of stream flow and sediment yield. Tekeze dam watershed has mean annual stream flow of 137.74 m3/s and annual sediment yield of 15.17 t/ha/year. Out of the 47 subwatersheds, 13 subwatersheds (mostly located in the north eastern and north western part of the catchment were prioritized. The maximum sediment outflow of these 13 subwatersheds, ranges from 18.49 to 32.57 t/ha/year and are characterized dominantly by cultivated land, shrub land & bare land with average land slope ranging from 7.9 to15.2% and with the dominant soil type of Eutric cambisols. These results can help to formulate and implement effective, appropriate and sustainable watershed management which in turn can help in sustaining the reservoir storage capacity of

  5. Watershed-scale Hydrology and Water Quality Impact of Switchgrass Intercropping in Southern Managed Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chescheir, G. M.; Birgand, F.; Allen, E.; Bennett, E.; Carter, T.; Dobbs, N.; Muwamba, A.; Amatya, D. M.; Youssef, M.; Nettles, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The use of marginal land for cellulosic biofuel crop production is an attractive solution to preserve agricultural land for food production. The space available between rows of young loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees offers enough light to support growth of biofuel crops for several years. A five year field study was conducted to assess the hydrology and water quality impacts of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) intercropping with pine trees in watersheds of the southeastern US. Paired-watershed studies were replicated in Mississippi and Alabama on upland sites, and in North Carolina on a flat lowland site. In each state, the impact of switchgrass intercropping was assessed from differences in water and nutrient yields from contiguous 20-40 ha watersheds established as: conventional young pine plantation, switchgrass intercropped in young pine plantation, switchgrass only, and mid-rotation mature pine plantation. A total of 14 watersheds were equipped with continuous flow monitoring stations, flow proportional water samplers, groundwater wells, soil moisture sensors and weather stations. Data collection continued through a two year pre-treatment period, a one year treatment period when field operations were conducted to establish switchgrass, and a two year post-treatment period when the established switchgrass was fertilized and harvested annually. Our results showed that significant increases in total suspended solids (TSS) and nitrogen (N) loading occurred during the treatment periods at the upland sites in MS and AL. During the post treatment periods, TSS and N loading decreased to levels near those observed in pretreatment. At the lowland site, only nitrogen loading was increased during the treatment period. Concentrations of TSS at the lowland site were two orders of magnitude lower than those observed at the upland sites and were not significantly affected by the treatment. Inherent flow variability between watersheds within sites made detection of subtle

  6. Emerging Technologies for Ecohydrological Studies during the North American Monsoon in a Chihuahuan Desert Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, R. C.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mendez-Barroso, L. A.; Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Saripalli, S.

    2010-12-01

    Monsoonal systems are due to seasonal shifts in atmospheric circulation that may result in a large fraction of the annual precipitation falling within a few months. The North American Monsoon System (NAMS) contributes approximately 55% of the annual rainfall in the New Mexico Chihuahuan Desert during the summer period. Relatively frequent storm events during the NAMS result in increased soil moisture that drive greater soil microbial activity and increased ecosystem primary productivity. During severe storms, runoff production can lead to flood events that recharge the subsurface through channel losses. In this study, we present preliminary results from a network of soil, channel, and atmospheric monitoring equipment in a small watershed (~0.05 km2) located in the Jornada Experimental Range (JER) near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Using the instrument network, we characterize the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall (5 rain gauges), soil moisture and temperature (16 profile locations), and channel runoff (4 flumes) within the watershed during the summer of 2010. In addition, we utilize CO2, H2O, and energy flux measurements by an eddy covariance tower to quantify the seasonal changes in land-atmosphere exchanges. These coordinated, spatially-distributed observations are complemented by the novel use of two Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms for watershed characterization. Using a small airplane (the MLB BAT 3), we obtained a set of very high-resolution images (~7 cm) and created an orthomosaic to characterize vegetation cover and species prior to the NAMS and after full canopy development. Several instrument packages (optical, stereo and LIDAR) on board a SR30 UAV Electric helicopter also provide detailed information on the watershed, including a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). The conjunctive use of these datasets will allow for unprecedented analysis of how the onset and progression of the NAMS affects water, energy and carbon fluxes in a

  7. Approaches to stream solute load estimation for solutes with varying dynamics from five diverse small watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbach, Brent T.; Burns, Douglas A.; Shanley, James B.; Yanai, Ruth D.; Bae, Kikang; Wild, Adam; Yang, Yang; Yi, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Estimating streamwater solute loads is a central objective of many water-quality monitoring and research studies, as loads are used to compare with atmospheric inputs, to infer biogeochemical processes, and to assess whether water quality is improving or degrading. In this study, we evaluate loads and associated errors to determine the best load estimation technique among three methods (a period-weighted approach, the regression-model method, and the composite method) based on a solute's concentration dynamics and sampling frequency. We evaluated a broad range of varying concentration dynamics with stream flow and season using four dissolved solutes (sulfate, silica, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon) at five diverse small watersheds (Sleepers River Research Watershed, VT; Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH; Biscuit Brook Watershed, NY; Panola Mountain Research Watershed, GA; and Río Mameyes Watershed, PR) with fairly high-frequency sampling during a 10- to 11-yr period. Data sets with three different sampling frequencies were derived from the full data set at each site (weekly plus storm/snowmelt events, weekly, and monthly) and errors in loads were assessed for the study period, annually, and monthly. For solutes that had a moderate to strong concentration–discharge relation, the composite method performed best, unless the autocorrelation of the model residuals was <0.2, in which case the regression-model method was most appropriate. For solutes that had a nonexistent or weak concentration–discharge relation (modelR2 < about 0.3), the period-weighted approach was most appropriate. The lowest errors in loads were achieved for solutes with the strongest concentration–discharge relations. Sample and regression model diagnostics could be used to approximate overall accuracies and annual precisions. For the period-weighed approach, errors were lower when the variance in concentrations was lower, the degree of autocorrelation in the concentrations was

  8. Integrated Resource Management at a Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur

  9. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  10. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  11. Assessment of terrain slope influence in SWAT modeling of Andean watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, C.; Pérez-Foguet, A.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrological processes in the Andean Region are difficult to model. Large range of altitudes involved (from over 4000 meters above sea level, masl, to zero) indicates the high variability of rainfall, temperature and other climate variables. Strong runoff and extreme events as landslides and floods are the consequence of high slopes of terrain, especially in the upper part of the basins. Strong seasonality of rain and complex ecosystems (vulnerable to climate changes and anthropogenic activities) helps these processes. Present study focuses in a particular watershed from Peruvian Andes, the Jequetepeque River. The distributed watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is applied to model run-off and sediments transport through the basin with data from 1997 to 2006. Specifically, the study focuses in the assessment of the influence of considering terrain slope variation in the definition of Hydrographical Response Units within SWAT. The Jequetepeque watershed (4 372.5 km2) is located in the north part of Peru. River flows east to west, to the Pacific Ocean. Annual average precipitation ranges from 0 to 1100 mm and altitude from 0 to 4188 masl. The "Gallito Ciego" reservoir (400 masl) separates upper-middle part from lower part of the watershed. It stores water for supplying the people from the big cities on the coast and for extensive agriculture uses. Upper-middle part of the watershed covers 3564.8 km2. It ranges from 400 to 4188 masl in no more that 80 km, with slopes up to 20%. Main activities are agricultural and livestock and mining and about 80% of the population are rural. Annual mean temperature drops from 25.4 °C at the reservoir to less than 4 °C in the upper part. Also the highest rainfall variability is found in the upper-middle part of the watershed. Erosion produced by extreme events like 1997/98 "el Niño" Phenomenon is silting the reservoir faster than expected. Moreover, anthropogenic activities like agriculture and

  12. Imbalance of Nature due to Contaminant Loads in the Culiacan River Watershed, Sinaloa, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Páez, F.; Ley-Aispuro, E.

    2013-05-01

    The Culiacan River discharges runoff from a large agricultural watershed into the wetlands at Ensenada de Pabellones ranked as a priority marine region of Mexico due to its high biodiversity and the economic importance of its fishing resources. This research estimated potential contaminant loads for BOD5, TSS, N and P from stormwater runoff and associated land use in the watershed. Previous studies had demonstrated the imbalance of nature due to land use change causing contamination by heavy metals, pesticides, sediment, phosphorus and eutrophication (Lopez and Osuna, 2002; Green and Paez, 2004, Gonzalez et al., 2006; Osuna et al., 2007). The methodology included: Characterizing the watershed according to land use, soil, vegetation, annual runoff and population density by sub-watershed; estimating the potential contaminant load and annual average concentrations of contaminants using the PLOAD program, comparing the result with monitored contaminant concentrations; and identifying the impact of pollutant loads in the watershed and coastal ecosystems and proposing management strategies to reduce or reverse the imbalance of nature caused by contamination in the Culiacan River watershed. Calculated contaminant loads in tonne/year were 13,682.4 of BOD5; 503,621.8 of TSS; 5,975.7 of N and 1,789.1 of P. The Tamazula and Humaya rivers watersheds provide 72% of the total load of BOD5, 68.5% of TSS, 77.6% of N and 62.7% of P discharged to the wetlands. Monitored results include: 89% of temperature observations were above 21°C, which is stressful to aquatic life due to a subsequent decrease in dissolved oxygen; 100% of the observations of P exceeded the ecological criteria for water quality; 71.5% of the observations for DO from 2001 to 2011, were above the ecological criteria for protection of aquatic life and 91.5% met the criteria for use in drinking water; 100% of the observations for BOD5 values remained in the range of Excellent to Good; 22% of the observations for the

  13. Modeling Economic Impacts of Environmental Flows in California's Yuba River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, D. E.; Yarnell, S.; Viers, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    reduces total hydropower generation and revenues by limiting diversions for hydropower. However, imposing environmental flow requirements to more closely mimic the natural flow regime, including spring snowmelt flows, results in much greater hydropower reductions due to reduced operational flexibility. Regulating reservoirs can preserve some components of the natural flow regime, but are not able to compensate for anticipated climate change-induced reductions in total annual flows. The general model is useful for making quantitative and qualitative assessments of potential new environmental flow requirements. With some key improvements, such as considering sub-weekly ramping rates, and adaptation for use elsewhere, the model can provide insights to water resources decision-makers about impacts of imposing different environmental flow conditions on watershed-scale water management schemes.

  14. Hydrological and environmental controls of the stream nitrate concentration and flux in a small agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Xu, J. F.; Yin, W.; Ai, L.; Fang, N. F.; Tan, W. F.; Yan, F. L.; Shi, Z. H.

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate exports from diffuse sources constitute a major cause of eutrophication and episodic acidification in inland aquatic systems, and remedial action requires the identification of the influencing factors associated with these nitrate exports. This paper examines the combined effects of watershed complexity on nitrate concentration and flux in terms of the hydrological and environmental factors in heterogeneous nested subwatersheds in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Area (DRA), China. We established 15 sampling sites in the main stream and tributaries and conducted biweekly sampling in 2008-2012 to monitor the nitrate exports. The hydrological and environmental indices within the watershed were divided into subwatersheds and considered as potential influencing factors. In consideration of the high co-linearity of these influencing factors, we used partial least squares regression (PLSR) to determine the associations between the stream nitrate concentration or flux and 26 selected watershed characteristics. The number of components was unequal for the nitrate concentration and flux models. The optimal models explained 66.4%, 60.0% and 59.9% of the variability in nitrate concentration and 74.7%, 67.1% and 58.0% of the variability in nitrate flux annually, in the dry season, and in the wet season, respectively. According to the variable importance in the projection (VIP) values, the dominant first-order factors for the nitrate concentration were as follows: the areal percentages of agricultural, forest and residential areas; followed by the slope; the largest patch index (LPI); the flow path gradient (FPG); the slope gradient variance (SGV); and the splitting index (SPLIT). In addition to these factors, the runoff coefficient (RC), flashiness index (FI), and patch density (PD) affected the changes in the nitrate flux. This study illustrates the influence of hydrological and environmental factors on seasonal water quality and can serve as guidelines for better watershed

  15. Spatial distribution of water erosion risk in a watershed with eucalyptus and Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Cesar Avanzi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of water erosion occurs in watersheds throughout the world and it is strongly affected by anthropogenic influences. Thus, the knowledge of these processes is extremely necessary for planning of conservation efforts. This study was performed in an experimental forested watershed in order to predict the average potential annual soil loss by water erosion using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and a Geographic Information System (GIS, and then compared with soil loss tolerance. All the USLE factors were generated in a distributed approach employing a GIS tool. The layers were multiplied in the GIS framework in order to predict soil erosion rates. Results showed that the average soil loss was 6.2 Mg ha-1 yr-1. Relative to soil loss tolerance, 83% of the area had an erosion rate lesser than the tolerable value. According to soil loss classes, 49% of the watershed had erosion less than 2.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1. However, about 8.7% of the watershed had erosion rates greater than 15 Mg ha-1 yr-1, being mainly related to Plinthosol soil class and roads, thus requiring special attention for the improvement of sustainable management practices for such areas. Eucalyptus cultivation was found to have soil loss greater than Atlantic Forest. Thus, an effort should be made to bring the erosion rates closer to the native forest. Implementation of the USLE model in a GIS framework was found to be a simple and useful tool for predicting the spatial variation of soil erosion risk and identifying critical areas for conservation efforts.

  16. Sources of suspended-sediment flux in streams of the chesapeake bay watershed: A regional application of the sparrow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, J.W.; Ator, S.W.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the sources and transport of fluvial suspended sediment in nontidal streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed and vicinity. We applied SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes, which spatially correlates estimated mean annual flux of suspended sediment in nontidal streams with sources of suspended sediment and transport factors. According to our model, urban development generates on average the greatest amount of suspended sediment per unit area (3,928 Mg/km2/year), although agriculture is much more widespread and is the greatest overall source of suspended sediment (57 Mg/km2/year). Factors affecting sediment transport from uplands to streams include mean basin slope, reservoirs, physiography, and soil permeability. On average, 59% of upland suspended sediment generated is temporarily stored along large rivers draining the Coastal Plain or in reservoirs throughout the watershed. Applying erosion and sediment controls from agriculture and urban development in areas of the northern Piedmont close to the upper Bay, where the combined effects of watershed characteristics on sediment transport have the greatest influence may be most helpful in mitigating sedimentation in the bay and its tributaries. Stream restoration efforts addressing floodplain and bank stabilization and incision may be more effective in smaller, headwater streams outside of the Coastal Plain. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association. No claim to original U.S. government works.

  17. Increasing N Retention in Coastal Plain Agricultural Watersheds

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    Kenneth W. Staver

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, N availability has limited agricultural production as well as primary production in coastal waters. Prior to the middle of the last century, N available for grain production generally was limited to that supplied by previous legume crops, released from soil organic matter, or returned to the soil in animal wastes. The development of infrastructure to produce relatively low-cost inorganic N fertilizers eliminated the need to focus management of the entire agricultural system on increasing soil N availability. Increased N availability has contributed to dramatic increases in agricultural production but also has led to increased losses of both N and C from agricultural systems. N losses from cropland have been linked to increased algal production in the Chesapeake Bay, with N loss from cropland estimated to be the primary N input to the Bay from Coastal Plain regions of the watershed. The decade-long effort to reduce these losses has focused on reducing agricultural N use, but this strategy has yet to yield apparent reductions in N loadings to Coastal Plain tributaries. Although nitrate leaching losses are often attributed to inefficient use of N inputs, soil nitrate data indicate that both corn and soybeans can utilize nearly all available soil nitrate during periods of active growth. However, both crops tend to stop utilizing nitrate before mineralization has ceased, resulting in a late season buildup of root zone nitrate levels and significant leaching losses even when no N was applied. Reducing nitrate losses due to the inherent N inefficiency of summer annual grain crops will require the addition of winter annual crops to rotations or changes in weed management approaches that result in plant N uptake capacity being more closely matched to soil microbial N processes.

  18. Diagnostic Systems Approach to Watershed Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L

    2001-02-23

    The water quality of discharge from the surface water system is ultimately dictated by land use and climate within the watershed. Water quality has vastly improved from point source reduction measures, yet, non-point source pollutants continue to rise. 30 to 40% of rivers still do not meet water quality standards for reasons that include impact from urban storm water runoff, agricultural and livestock runoff, and loss of wetlands. Regulating non-point source pollutants proves to be difficult since specific dischargers are difficult to identify. However, parameters such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) limit the amounts of chlorination due to simultaneous disinfection by-product formation. The concept of watershed management has gained much ground over the years as a means to resolve non-point source problems. Under this management scheme stakeholders in a watershed collectively agree to the nature and extent of non-point sources, determine water quality causes using sound scientific approaches, and together develop and implement a corrective plan. However, the ''science'' of watershed management currently has several shortcomings according to a recent National Research Council report. The scientific component of watershed management depends on acquiring knowledge that links water quality sources with geographic regions. However, there is an observational gap in this knowledge. In particular, almost all the water quality data that exists at a utility are of high frequency collected at a single point over a long period of time. Water quality data for utility purposes are rarely collected over an entire watershed. The potential is high, however, for various utilities in a single watershed to share and integrate water quality data, but no regulatory incentives exist at this point. The only other available water quality data originate from special scientific studies. Unfortunately these data rarely have long-term records and are usually tailored to

  19. Streamflow simulation by a watershed model using stochastically generated weather in New York City watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, R.; Acharya, N.; Gelda, R.; Owens, E. M.; Frei, A.; Schneiderman, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have reported increasing trends in total precipitation, and in the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events in the West of Hudson (WOH) watersheds of the New York City (NYC) water supply. The potential effects of these changes may pose challenges for both water quality (such as increased sediment and nutrient loading) and quantity (such as reservoir storage and management). The NYC Dept. of Environmental Protection Climate Change Integrated Modeling Project (CCIMP) is using "bottom-up" or vulnerability based methods to explore climate impacts on water resources. Stochastic weather generators (SWGs) are an integral component of the bottom-up approach. Previous work has identified and evaluated the skill of alternative stochastic weather generators of varying complexity for simulating the statistical characteristics of observed minimum and maximum daily air temperature and occurrence and amount of precipitation. This evaluation focused on the skill in representing extreme streamflow event probabilities across NYC West of Hudson (WOH) watersheds. Synthetic weather time series from the selected (skewed normal) SWG were used to drive the Generalized Watershed Loading Function (GWLF) watershed model for a 600 year long period to simulate daily streamflows for WOH watersheds under a wide range of hydrologic conditions. Long-term average daily streamflows generated using the synthetic weather time series were comparable to values generated using observed long-term (1950-2009) weather time series. This study demonstrates the ability of the selected weather generator to adequately represent the hydrologic response in WOH watersheds with respect to the total, peak, and seasonality in streamflows. Future application of SWGs in NYC watersheds will include generating multiple scenarios of changing climate to evaluate water supply system vulnerability and selection of appropriate adaptation measures.

  20. Social Exclusion in Watershed Development: Evidence From the Indo-German Watershed Development Project in Maharashtra

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    Eshwer Kale

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social exclusion is context-specific and there is no uniform paradigm of exclusion across the world. This paper attempts to analyse exclusion of resource-poor groups in watershed development programmes in the Indian context. It aims to explore excluded community groups from the perspective of people’s equal opportunity and equal access to newly generated economic benefits in watershed development programmes. The paper also traces the determinant factors responsible for denial and exclusion of resource-poor groups and describes the detailed processes involved in their exclusion from institutional and livelihood opportunities in watershed programmes. At the same time, the paper also explores suggestions and views of resource-poor groups about their meaningful social inclusion in watershed programme. The Gadiwat Indo-German Watershed Development Project in Aurangabad district in the State of Maharashtra is studied in detail in terms of its social, economic and political realities through mix-method and multi-stakeholder approaches. The key findings of the paper are that landownership, caste, gender, membership in village institutions and/or watershed institutions or close relationship with members, as well as the limitations of the programme guidelines, are the major determinants of institutional inclusion and the extent of resulting economic benefits. The exclusion of resource-poor groups mainly takes the form of their exclusion from institutional representation. In order to promote meaningful social inclusion of resource-poor groups, there is need for a more livelihood-oriented focus and their equal representation and participation in watershed institutions.

  1. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1995-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2000-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contract agreement beginning in 1996 to fund watershed restoration and enhancement actions and contribute to recovery of fish and wildlife resources and water quality in the Grande Ronde River Basin. The CTUIR's habitat program is closely coordinated with the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program and multiple agencies and organizations within the basin. The CTUIR has focused during the past 4 years in the upper portions of the Grande Ronde Subbasin (upstream of LaGrande, Oregon) on several major project areas in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek watersheds and along the mainstem Grande Ronde River. This Annual Report provides an overview of individual projects and accomplishments.

  2. Rationalization of Altitudinal Precipitation Profiles in a Data-Scarce Glacierized Watershed Simulation in the Karakoram

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    Xiaolei Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the scarcity of field observations and geodetic measurements in catchments in the Karakoram Mountains in Western China, obtaining precipitation data for the high mountains involves large uncertainties and difficulties. In this study, we used a functional relationship between the annual glacier accumulation and summer temperature at the equilibrium line altitude (ELA to derive precipitation lapse rates (PLAPSs in a data-scarce watershed. These data were used in a modified Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model with a glacier module to simulate glacio-hydrological processes in the Yarkant River basin in the Karakoram. The PLAPS based on the widely-used grid datasets considerably underestimated precipitation, yielding an unreasonable watershed water balance and inaccurate glacier changes. However, the ELA-based PLAPS improved the simulation significantly. In the Yarkant River basin, the annual precipitation reached a peak of 800–1000 mm at approximately 5300 m a.s.l. The model simulations indicated that the contributions of glacier melt and ice melt to total runoff were 52% and 31%, respectively. Moreover, a significant precipitation increase and a non-significant temperature increase during the melt season may be the major reasons for the decreased ice melt and slower glacier shrinkage on the northern slope of the Karakoram during the period of 1968–2007.

  3. Climate change impact assessment on hydrology of a small watershed using semi-distributed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Brij Kishor; Gosain, A. K.; Paul, George; Khare, Deepak

    2016-02-01

    This study is an attempt to quantify the impact of climate change on the hydrology of Armur watershed in Godavari river basin, India. A GIS-based semi-distributed hydrological model, soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) has been employed to estimate the water balance components on the basis of unique combinations of slope, soil and land cover classes for the base line (1961-1990) and future climate scenarios (2071-2100). Sensitivity analysis of the model has been performed to identify the most critical parameters of the watershed. Average monthly calibration (1987-1994) and validation (1995-2000) have been performed using the observed discharge data. Coefficient of determination (R2 ), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (ENS) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the model performance. Calibrated SWAT setup has been used to evaluate the changes in water balance components of future projection over the study area. HadRM3, a regional climatic data, have been used as input of the hydrological model for climate change impact studies. In results, it was found that changes in average annual temperature (+3.25 °C), average annual rainfall (+28 %), evapotranspiration (28 %) and water yield (49 %) increased for GHG scenarios with respect to the base line scenario.

  4. Climate change impact assessment on hydrology of a small watershed using semi-distributed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Brij Kishor; Gosain, A. K.; Paul, George; Khare, Deepak

    2017-07-01

    This study is an attempt to quantify the impact of climate change on the hydrology of Armur watershed in Godavari river basin, India. A GIS-based semi-distributed hydrological model, soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) has been employed to estimate the water balance components on the basis of unique combinations of slope, soil and land cover classes for the base line (1961-1990) and future climate scenarios (2071-2100). Sensitivity analysis of the model has been performed to identify the most critical parameters of the watershed. Average monthly calibration (1987-1994) and validation (1995-2000) have been performed using the observed discharge data. Coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (ENS) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the model performance. Calibrated SWAT setup has been used to evaluate the changes in water balance components of future projection over the study area. HadRM3, a regional climatic data, have been used as input of the hydrological model for climate change impact studies. In results, it was found that changes in average annual temperature (+3.25 °C), average annual rainfall (+28 %), evapotranspiration (28 %) and water yield (49 %) increased for GHG scenarios with respect to the base line scenario.

  5. Assessment of climate change impacts on hydrology and water quality with a watershed modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuzhou; Ficklin, Darren L; Liu, Xiaomang; Zhang, Minghua

    2013-04-15

    The assessment of hydrologic responses to climate change is required in watershed management and planning to protect water resources and environmental quality. This study is designed to evaluate and enhance watershed modeling approach in characterizing climate change impacts on water supply and ecosystem stressors. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was selected as a base model, and improved for the CO2 dependence of potential evapotranspiration and stream temperature prediction. The updated model was applied to quantify the impacts of projected 21st century climate change in the northern Coastal Ranges and western Sierra Nevada, which are important water source areas and aquatic habitats of California. Evapotranspiration response to CO2 concentration varied with vegetation type. For the forest-dominated watersheds in this study, only moderate (1-3%) reductions on evapotranspiration were predicted by solely elevating CO2 concentration under emission scenarios A2 and B1. Modeling results suggested increases in annual average stream temperature proportional to the projected increases in air temperature. Although no temporal trend was confirmed for annual precipitation in California, increases of precipitation and streamflow during winter months and decreases in summers were predicted. Decreased streamflow during summertime, together with the higher projected air temperature in summer than in winter, would increase stream temperature during those months and result in unfavorable conditions for cold-water species. Compared to the present-day conditions, 30-60 more days per year were predicted with average stream temperature >20°C during 2090s. Overall, the hydrologic cycle and water quality of headwater drainage basins of California, especially their seasonality, are very sensitive to projected climate change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Linking soil erosion to onsite financial cost: lessons from watersheds in the Blue Nile basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Erkossa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in three watersheds (Dapo, Meja and Mizewa in the Ethiopian part of the Blue Nile Basin to estimate the onsite cost of soil erosion using the productivity change approach, in which crop yield reduction due to plant nutrients lost with the sediment and runoff has been analyzed. For this purpose, runoff measurement and sampling was conducted during the main rainy season of 2011 at the outlet of two to three sub watersheds in each watershed. The sediment concentration of the runoff, and nitrogen and phosphorus content of the runoff and sediment were determined. Crop response functions were developed for the two plant nutrients based on data obtained from the nearest Agricultural Research Centers. The response functions were used to estimate crop yield reduction as a result of the lost N and P assuming there is no compensation through fertilization. The results show a significant yield reduction and resultant financial loss to the farmers. Considering only grain yield of maize (Zea mays, farmers at Dapo annually lose about 220 and USD 150 ha-1 due to the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. In view of the importance of the crop residues including as feed, the loss can be even greater. The study demonstrated that in addition to the long-term deterioration of land quality, the annual financial loss suffered by farmers is substantial. Therefore, on farm soil and water conservation measures that are suitable in biophysical and socio-economic terms in the landscapes and beyond need to be encouraged.

  7. Concentrations, loads, and yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor watershed, New Jersey, 1989-2011, at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Wieben, Christine M.; Lathrop, Richard G.; Nicholson, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations, loads, and yields of nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) were calculated for the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor (BB-LEH) watershed for 1989–2011 at annual and seasonal (growing and nongrowing) time scales. Concentrations, loads, and yields were calculated at three spatial scales: for each of the 81 subbasins specified by 14-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUC-14s); for each of the three BB-LEH watershed segments, which coincide with segmentation of the BB-LEH estuary; and for the entire BB-LEH watershed. Base-flow and runoff values were calculated separately and were combined to provide total values. Available surface-water-quality data for all streams in the BB-LEH watershed for 1980–2011 were compiled from existing datasets and quality assured. Precipitation and streamflow data were used to distinguish between water-quality samples that were collected during base-flow conditions and those that were collected during runoff conditions. Base-flow separation of hydrographs of six streams in the BB-LEH watershed indicated that base flow accounts for about 72 to 94 percent of total flow in streams in the watershed. Base-flow mean concentrations (BMCs) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for each HUC-14 subbasin were calculated from relations between land use and measured base-flow concentrations. These relations were developed from multiple linear regression models determined from water-quality data collected at sampling stations in the BB-LEH watershed under base-flow conditions and land-use percentages in the contributing drainage basins. The total watershed base-flow volume was estimated for each year and season from continuous streamflow records for 1989–2011 and relations between precipitation and streamflow during base-flow conditions. For each year and season, the base-flow load and yield were then calculated for each HUC-14 subbasin from the BMCs, total base-flow volume, and drainage area. The watershed

  8. Spatial and temporal estimation of soil loss for the sustainable management of a wet semi-arid watershed cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejani, R; Rao, K V; Osman, M; Srinivasa Rao, Ch; Reddy, K Sammi; Chary, G R; Pushpanjali; Samuel, Josily

    2016-03-01

    The ungauged wet semi-arid watershed cluster, Seethagondi, lies in the Adilabad district of Telangana in India and is prone to severe erosion and water scarcity. The runoff and soil loss data at watershed, catchment, and field level are necessary for planning soil and water conservation interventions. In this study, an attempt was made to develop a spatial soil loss estimation model for Seethagondi cluster using RUSLE coupled with ARCGIS and was used to estimate the soil loss spatially and temporally. The daily rainfall data of Aphrodite for the period from 1951 to 2007 was used, and the annual rainfall varied from 508 to 1351 mm with a mean annual rainfall of 950 mm and a mean erosivity of 6789 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) year(-1). Considerable variation in land use land cover especially in crop land and fallow land was observed during normal and drought years, and corresponding variation in the erosivity, C factor, and soil loss was also noted. The mean value of C factor derived from NDVI for crop land was 0.42 and 0.22 in normal year and drought years, respectively. The topography is undulating and major portion of the cluster has slope less than 10°, and 85.3% of the cluster has soil loss below 20 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land varied from 2.9 to 3.6 t ha(-1) year(-1) in low rainfall years to 31.8 to 34.7 t ha(-1) year(-1) in high rainfall years with a mean annual soil loss of 12.2 t ha(-1) year(-1). The soil loss from crop land was higher in the month of August with an annual soil loss of 13.1 and 2.9 t ha(-1) year(-1) in normal and drought year, respectively. Based on the soil loss in a normal year, the interventions recommended for 85.3% of area of the watershed includes agronomic measures such as contour cultivation, graded bunds, strip cropping, mixed cropping, crop rotations, mulching, summer plowing, vegetative bunds, agri-horticultural system, and management practices such as broad bed furrow, raised sunken beds, and harvesting available water

  9. Nutrient cycle of planted forest of Pinus tabulaeformis in the Miyun Reservoir Watershed, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihai LIU; Xinxiao YU

    2009-01-01

    We studied the nutrient cycle of a planted for-est ofPinus tabulaeformis in the Miyun Reservoir Water-shed, Beijing. Results show that the total biomass of P.tabulaeformis stands at age 29 in the experimental area is 92627 kg/hm2, and the total nutrient store is 695.17 kg/hm2 including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), kalium (K), calium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). The sequence of their contents in different organs was given as follows: needle > branch >trunk > root. The annual amount of 85.37 kg/hm2 of five nutrient elements were assimilated by P. tabulaeformis,about 0.34% of the total store in soil, and 3.30% of available nutrient store in soil depth from 0 to 30 cm. The nutrient annual retention is 35.92 kg/hm2, annual returning 49.46kg/hm2, the rain input 26.04kg/hm2 to the five nutrient elements. The parameter absorption coefficient,utilization coefficient, cycle coefficient and turnover period were cited to describe the nutrient elements cycle characteristic of the planted forest ecosystem of P.tabulaeformis. The absorption coefficient is the ratio of plant nutrient element content to soil nutrient element content, and its sequence of five nutrient elements was given as follows: N > P > K > Ca > Mg. Utilization coef-ficient is the ratio of the nutrient element annual uptake amount to the nutrient element storage in standing crops,and its sequence of five nutrient elements was: Mg > K >P > N > Ca. The big utilization coefficient means more nutrients stored in the plant. The cycle coefficient is the ratio of the nutrient element annual return amount to the nutrient element annual uptake amount, its sequence:Ca > N > P > K > Mg. Turnover period is the ratio of the nutrient storage in the crops to the annual returning, its sequence: Mg > K > P > N > Ca.

  10. Impact of land use and land cover change on the water balance of a large agricultural watershed: Historical effects and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Jha, M.K.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Gassman, P.W.; Wolter, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last century, land use and land cover (LULC) in the United States Corn Belt region shifted from mixed perennial and annual cropping systems to primarily annual crops. Historical LULC change impacted the annual water balance in many Midwestern basins by decreasing annual evapotranspiration (ET) and increasing streamflow and base flow. Recent expansion of the biofuel industry may lead to future LULC changes from increasing corn acreage and potential conversion of the industry to cellulosic bioenergy crops of warm or cool season grasses. In this paper, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to evaluate potential impacts from future LULC change on the annual and seasonal water balance of the Raccoon River watershed in west-central Iowa. Three primary scenarios for LULC change and three scenario variants were evaluated, including an expansion of corn acreage in the watershed and two scenarios involving expansion of land using warm season and cool season grasses for ethanol biofuel. Modeling results were consistent with historical observations. Increased corn production will decrease annual ET and increase water yield and losses of nitrate, phosphorus, and sediment, whereas increasing perennialization will increase ET and decrease water yield and loss of nonpoint source pollutants. However, widespread tile drainage that exists today may limit the extent to which a mixed perennial-annual land cover would ever resemble pre-1940s hydrologic conditions. Study results indicate that future LULC change will affect the water balance of the watershed, with consequences largely dependent on the future LULC trajectory. ?? 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. [Impact of changes in land use and climate on the runoff in Liuxihe Watershed based on SWAT model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu-zhi; Zhang, Zheng-dong; Meng, Jin-hua

    2015-04-01

    SWAT model, an extensively used distributed hydrological model, was used to quantitatively analyze the influences of changes in land use and climate on the runoff at watershed scale. Liuxihe Watershed' s SWAT model was established and three scenarios were set. The calibration and validation at three hydrological stations of Wenquan, Taipingchang and Nangang showed that the three factors of Wenquan station just only reached the standard in validated period, and the other two stations had relative error (RE) 0.8 and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency valve (Ens) > 0.75, suggesting that SWAT model was appropriate for simulating runoff response to land use change and climate variability in Liuxihe watershed. According to the integrated scenario simulation, the annual runoff increased by 11.23 m3 x s(-1) from 2001 to 2010 compared with the baseline period from 1991 to 2000, among which, the land use change caused an annual runoff reduction of 0.62 m3 x s(-1), whereas climate variability caused an annual runoff increase of 11.85 m3 x s(-1). Apparently, the impact of climate variability was stronger than that of land use change. On the other hand, the scenario simulation of extreme land use showed that compared with the land use in 2000, the annual runoff of the farmland scenario and the grassland scenario increased by 2.7% and 0.5% respectively, while that of the forest land scenario were reduced by 0.7%, which suggested that forest land had an ability of diversion closure. Furthermore, the scenario simulation of climatic variability indicated that the change of river runoff correlated positively with precipitation change (increase of 11.6% in annual runoff with increase of 10% in annual precipitation) , but negatively with air temperature change (reduction of 0.8% in annual runoff with increase of 1 degrees C in annual mean air temperature), which showed that the impact of precipitation variability was stronger than that of air temperature change. Therefore, in face of climate

  12. Watershed Ecohydrology: How Do Vegetation Patterns and Climate Affect Watershed Storage and Connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippgen, F.; McGlynn, B. L.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Topography and soils have long been recognized as mediators of runoff source areas, but the effect of vegetation patterns on subsurface throughflow is less well understood. While numerous studies have shown that vegetation removal generally leads to increases in streamflow, few studies have examined the intersection between patterns of evapotranspiration and topographically driven patterns of throughflow generation and connectivity. We applied a parsimonious but spatially distributed watershed modeling framework (WECOH: Watershed ECOHydrology Model) to a snow dominated watershed in central Montana to elucidate how different vegetation scenarios and climate forcing can affect the temporal evolution of storage distributions and watershed connectivity. We derived spatially distributed snowmelt and rainfall input from two NRCS SNOTEL sites located in the experimental watershed and actual evapotranspiration from a co-located eddy-covariance tower. We generated different vegetation scenarios to simulate forest harvesting and compared streamflow response, spatial distribution of storage, and runoff source areas across scenarios. Our work aims at better understanding how the intersection of vegetation and topography mediates hydrologic response.

  13. Developing Participatory Models of Watershed Management in the Sugar Creek Watershed (Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Shaw Parker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

  14. Update of Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) for Predicting Atrazine Concentration in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Regression models for predicting atrazine concentrations in streams were updated by incorporating refined annual atrazine-use estimates and by adding an explanatory variable representing annual precipitation characteristics. The updated Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models enable improved predictions of specific pesticide-concentration statistics for unmonitored streams. for unmonitored streams. Separate WARP regression models were derived for selected percentiles (5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th and 95th), annual mean, annual maximum, and annual maximum moving-average (21-, 60-, and 90-day durations) concentration statistics. Development of the regression models involved the same model-development data, model-validation data, and regression methods as those used in the original development of WARP. The original WARP models were based on atrazine-use estimates from either 1992 or 1997. This update of the WARP models incorporates annual atrazine-use estimates. In addition, annual precipitation data were evaluated as potential explanatory variables. as potential explanatory variables. The updated WARP models include the same five explanatory variables and transformations that were used in the original WARP models, including the new annual atrazine-use data. The models also include a sixth explanatory variable, total precipitation during May and June of the year of sampling. The updated WARP models account for as much as 82 percent of the variability in the concentration statistics among the 112 sites used for model development, whereas previous WARP models accounted for no more than 77 percent. Concentration statistics predicted by the 95th percentile, annual mean, annual maximum and annual maximum moving-average concentration models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentration statistics for most of the model development and validation sites. Overall, performance of the models for the development and validation sites supports

  15. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... concentration facilitated conservation of entire ecosystems. We investigate the benefits that accrued through dynamic linkages of the hydrological cycle and groundwater aquifer system. This provides a clear example of the need to consider integrated watershed effects, industrial structure, and linkages...... in groundwater recharge levels from these activities, with a lower bound benefit–cost ratio of 7.1–18.2. This lower-bound excludes returns from such high value, yet controversial to measure, amenities as species preservation....

  16. Thermodynamic watershed hydrological model: Constitutive relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The representative elementary watershed (REW) approach proposed by Reggiani et al. was the first attempt to develop scale adaptable equations applicable directly at the macro scale. Tian et al. extended the initial definition of REW for simulating the energy related processes, and re-organized the deriving procedure of balance equations so that additional sub-regions and substances could be easily incorpo-rated. The resultant ordinary differential equation set can simulate various hydro-logical processes in a physically reasonable way. However, constitutive and geo-metric relationships have not been developed for Tian et al.’s equation set, which are necessary for the thermodynamic watershed hydrological model to apply in hydrological modeling practice. In this work, the constitutive equations for mass exchange terms and momentum exchange terms were developed as well as geo-metric relationships. The closed ordinary differential equation set with nine equa-tions was finally obtained.

  17. Thermodynamic watershed hydrological model: Constitutive relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN FuQiang; HU HePing; LEI ZhiDong

    2008-01-01

    The representative elementary watershed (REW) approach proposed by Reggiani et al. Was the first attempt to develop scale adaptable equations applicable directly at the macro scale. Tian et al. Extended the initial definition of REW for simulating the energy related processes, and re-organized the deriving procedure of balance equations so that additional sub-regions and substances could be easily incorpo- rated. The resultant ordinary differential equation set can simulate various hydro- logical processes in a physically reasonable way. However, constitutive and geo- metric relationships have not been developed for Tian et al.'s equation set, which are necessary for the thermodynamic watershed hydrological model to apply in hydrological modeling practice. In this work, the constitutive equations for mass exchange terms and momentum exchange terms were developed as well as geo- metric relationships. The closed ordinary differential equation set with nine equations was finally obtained.

  18. Contribution of winter fluxes to the annual CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions from freshwater marshes in the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wetlands at the interface of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are intensive sites for mineralization of organic matter,but the contribution of winter season fluxes of CH4, CO2 and N2O from wetland ecosystems to annual budgets is poorly known. By using the static opaque chamber and GC techniques, fluxes of CH4, CO2 and N2O at two freshwater marshes in the Sanjiang Plain were measured during the winter seasons of 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 with contrasting snow conditions and flooding regimes. The results showed that there were significant interannual and spatial differences in CH4, CO2 and N2O fluxes. The Carex lasiocarpa marsh emitted more CH4 and CO2 while absorbed less N2O than the Deyeuxia angustifolia marsh during the winter seasons. Over the winter season,emissions of CH4, CO2 and N2O ranged from 0.42 to 2.41 gC/m2, from 24.13 to 50.16 gC/m2, and from -25.20 to -148.96 mgN/m2,respectively. The contributions of winter season CH4 and CO2 emission to the annual budgets were 2.32%-4.62% and 22.17%-27.97%, respectively. Marshes uptake N2O during the freezing period, while release N2O during the thawing period. The winter uptake equaled to 13.70%-86.69% of the growing-season loss. We conclude that gas exchange between soil/snow and the atmosphere in the winter season contributed greatly to the annual budgets and cannot be ignored in a cool temperate freshwater marsh in Northeast China.

  19. Development of SPAWM: selection program for available watershed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yongdeok; Roesner, Larry A

    2014-01-01

    A selection program for available watershed models (also known as SPAWM) was developed. Thirty-three commonly used watershed models were analyzed in depth and classified in accordance to their attributes. These attributes consist of: (1) land use; (2) event or continuous; (3) time steps; (4) water quality; (5) distributed or lumped; (6) subsurface; (7) overland sediment; and (8) best management practices. Each of these attributes was further classified into sub-attributes. Based on user selected sub-attributes, the most appropriate watershed model is selected from the library of watershed models. SPAWM is implemented using Excel Visual Basic and is designed for use by novices as well as by experts on watershed modeling. It ensures that the necessary sub-attributes required by the user are captured and made available in the selected watershed model.

  20. Application of a virtual watershed in academic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Horn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models of watersheds often represent complex systems which are difficult to understand regarding to their structure and dynamics. Virtual watersheds, i.e. watersheds which exist only in the virtual reality of a computer system, are an approach to simplify access to this real-world complexity. In this study we present the virtual watershed KIELSHED-1, a 117 km2 v-shaped valley with grassland on a "Cambisol" soil type. Two weather scenarios are delivered with the watershed: a simplified artificial weather scenario based on long-term data of a German weather station as well as an unmodified data record. The input data and parameters are compiled according to the conventions of the SWAT 2000 hydrological model. KIELSHED-1 is mainly used for education, and illustrative application examples, i.e. calculation of water balance, model calibration, development of land use scenarios, give an insight to the capabilities of the virtual watershed.

  1. Payments for watershed services: Opportunities and realities

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, I.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record "Many nations have found that regulatory approaches to land and water management have a limited impact. An alternative is to create incentives for sound management under mechanisms known as payments for ecosystem services. It is a simple idea: people who look after ecosystems that benefit others should be recognised and rewarded. In the case of watersheds, downstream beneficiaries of wise upstream land and water use should compensate the stewards. To be effective, thes...

  2. Watershed modeling at the Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vache, Kellie [Oregon State University

    2015-04-29

    The overall goal of the work was the development of a watershed scale model of hydrological function for application to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The primary outcomes is a grid based hydrological modeling system that captures near surface runoff as well as groundwater recharge and contributions of groundwater to streams. The model includes a physically-based algorithm to capture both evaporation and transpiration from forestland.

  3. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  4. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  5. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  6. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  7. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Citizen participation in collaborative watershed partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Brandi; Koontz, Tomas M

    2008-02-01

    Collaborative efforts are increasingly being used to address complex environmental problems, both in the United States and abroad. This is especially true in the growing field of collaborative watershed management, where diverse stakeholders work together to develop and advance water-quality goals. Active citizen participation is viewed as a key component, yet groups often struggle to attract and maintain citizen engagement. This study examined citizen participation behavior in collaborative watershed partnerships by way of a written survey administered to citizen members of 12 collaborative watershed groups in Ohio. Results for the determination of who joins such groups were consistent with the dominant-status model of participation because group members were not demographically representative of the broader community. The dominant-status model, however, does not explain which members are more likely to actively participate in group activities. Instead, individual characteristics, including political activity, knowledge, and comfort in sharing opinions with others, were positively correlated with active participation. In addition, group characteristics, including government-based membership, rural location, perceptions of open communication, perceptions that the group has enough technical support to accomplish its goals, and perceived homogeneity of participant opinions, were positively correlated with active participation. Overall, many group members did not actively participate in group activities.

  20. Cycling of Organoarsenic Compounds in Agricultural Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Chambers, D. B.; White, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The use of the organoarsenical roxarsone, added to poultry feed to increase weight gain, results in elevated arsenic concentrations (10-50 mg/kg) in poultry litter. This litter is extensively applied to crop fields and pastures, both as a fertilizer and as a waste disposal technique, in agricultural regions. Using a combination of field sampling and laboratory experiments, we investigated the sources and sinks of arsenic within soils and natural waters in an agricultural watershed in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, USA, an area of intense poultry production. Surface, ground, and soil waters were collected in an instrumented field site to examine arsenic and other litter-derived species in different hydrologic compartments and different settings within the field site. We collected soil cores of the Frederick series, common in the Shenandoah Valley, from several areas experiencing different litter application histories in the valley to examine relationships between arsenic and physico-chemical properties of the soils. Last, we conducted a series of batch experiments to examine adsorption and biotransformation characteristics of roxarsone within Ap and Bt soil horizons of the Frederick soils. Results of these combined studies document a complex yet intriguing cycling of arsenic through the watershed, which will provide useful information for management of poultry litter in agricultural watersheds.

  1. Trade-offs among ecosystem services in a typical Karst watershed, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yichao; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Luo, Guangjie; Xu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, most research results on ecosystem services in Karst areas are limited to a single function of an ecosystem service. Few scholars conduct a comparative study on the mutual relationships among ecosystem services, let alone reveal the trade-off and synergic relationships in typical Karst watershed. This research aims to understand and quantitatively evaluate the relationships among ecosystem services in a typical Karst watershed, broaden the depth and width of trade-off and synergic relationships in ecosystem services and explore a set of technical processes involved in these relationships. With the Shibantang Karst watershed in China as the research site, we explore the trade-off and synergic relationships of net primary productivity (NPP), water yield, and sediment yield by coupling Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA), and simulating and evaluating these three ecosystem services between 2000 and 2010. Results of this study are as follows. (1) The annual average water yield decreased from 528mm in 2000 to 513mm in 2010, decreasing by 2.84%. (2) The annual average sediment yield decreased from 26.15t/ha in 2000 to 23.81t/ha in 2010, with an average annual reduction of 0.23t/ha. (3) The annual average NPP increased from 739.38gCm(-2)a(-1) in 2000 to 746.25gCm(-2)a(-1) in 2010, increasing by 6.87gCm(-2)a(-1) . (4) Water yield and sediment yield are in a synergic relationship. The increase of water yield can accumulate the soil erosion amount. NPP is in a trade-off relationship with water yield and sediment yield. The improvement of NPP is good for decreasing water yield and soil erosion amount and increasing soil conservation amount. This study provides policy makers and planners an approach to develop an integrated model, as well as design mapping and monitoring protocols for land use change and ecosystem service assessments.

  2. Predicting Watershed Ecosystems Through Targeted Local Land Use Policies

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Land-use change is arguably the most pervasive socioeconomic force driving the change and degradation of watershed ecosystems. This paper combines an econometric model of land use choice with three models of watershed health indicators (conventional water pollution, toxic water pollution, and the number of aquatic species at risk) to examine the effects of land use policies on watershed ecosystems through their effect on land use choice. The analysis is conducted using parcel-level data from ...

  3. Assessing the short- and long-term effects of land development on watershed erosion and sediment delivery to marine ecosystems of the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Gray, S. C.; Sears, W.; Brooks, G.; Larson, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout history, significant portions of the native vegetation of many Caribbean islands were replaced by cropland. Even though most islands eventually underwent reforestation, sediment yields and deposition rates appear to be higher now than throughout the past millennia, and this suggests that coral reef systems are experiencing an unprecedented level of sediment-related stress. Given the present-day emphasis on erosion control projects to restore coral reefs of the US Caribbean, it is of utmost importance to develop a quantitative understanding of the effects of both land development and watershed restoration activities on sediment delivery at various spatio-temporal scales. Efforts to measure contemporary erosion, sediment delivery and deposition rates have been conducted on the island of St. John-USVI since 2009. Sediment yields under natural conditions from the small (<10 km2) watersheds in this dry sub-tropical setting are between 1 and 10 Mg km-2 yr-1. Current sediment yields are 2 - 50 times higher than background depending on unpaved road network abundance and characteristics. Our efforts indicate that a watershed restoration program implemented in 2010-2011 within the 13-km2 Coral Bay watershed resulted in the reduction of annual sediment delivery rates from 445 Mg yr-1 to 327 Mg yr-1. Marine sedimentation rates of terrigenous materials based on sediment trap data were 6 - 24 times greater below developed watersheds relative to undeveloped catchments and were consistent with spatial comparisons of modeled sediment yields. At sites located within reef systems, total and silt deposition rates during sampling periods with major storms exceeded rates shown to harm corals more frequently in developed areas. Terrigenous sedimentation rates during periods with equivalent storms were reduced following watershed restoration. These results suggest that targeted watershed restoration may be effective in reducing sedimentation where land development and sediments

  4. Interacting Watershed Size and Landcover Influences on Habitat and Biota of Lake Superior Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands are important contributors to the productivity and biodiversity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake - watershed connection. This study explores how strength of connection to the watershed (represented by watershed size and wetland morphological ty...

  5. Simulating Daily and Sub-daily Water Flow in Large, Semi-arid Watershed Using SWAT: A Case Study of Nueces River Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassam, S.; Ren, J.

    2015-12-01

    Runoff generated during heavy rainfall imposes quick, but often intense, changes in the flow of streams, which increase the chance of flash floods in the vicinity of the streams. Understanding the temporal response of streams to heavy rainfall requires a hydrological model that considers meteorological, hydrological, and geological components of the streams and their watersheds. SWAT is a physically-based, semi-distributed model that is capable of simulating water flow within watersheds with both long-term, i.e. annually and monthly, and short-term (daily and sub-daily) time scales. However, the capability of SWAT in sub-daily water flow modeling within large watersheds has not been studied much, compare to long-term and daily time scales. In this study we are investigating the water flow in a large, semi-arid watershed, Nueces River Basin (NRB) with the drainage area of 16950 mi2 located in South Texas, with daily and sub-daily time scales. The objectives of this study are: (1) simulating the response of streams to heavy, and often quick, rainfall, (2) evaluating SWAT performance in sub-daily modeling of water flow within a large watershed, and (3) examining means for model performance improvement during model calibration and verification based on results of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The results of this study can provide important information for water resources planning during flood seasons.

  6. Veterinary pharmaceutical contamination in mixed land use watersheds: from agricultural headwater to water monitoring watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrézic, A; Jardé, E; Soulier, A; Carrera, L; Marengue, E; Cailleau, A; Le Bot, B

    2017-12-31

    Veterinary pharmaceuticals, widely used in intensive livestock production, may contaminate surface waters. Identifying their sources and pathways in watersheds is difficult because i) most veterinary pharmaceuticals are used in human medicine as well and ii) septic or sewer wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can release pharmaceuticals into surface water, even in agricultural headwater watersheds. This study aimed to analyze the spatiotemporal variability of animal-specific, mixed-use, and human-specific pharmaceuticals, from agricultural headwaters with intensive livestock production and a WWTP to a watershed used for Water Framework Directive monitoring. Grab sampling was performed during one hydrological year upstream and downstream from a WWTP and at three dates in seven nested watersheds with areas of 1.9-84.1km(2). Twenty pharmaceuticals were analyzed. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected at all sampling dates upstream and downstream from the WWTP and at concentrations higher than those of human-specific pharmaceuticals. The predominance of animal-specific and mixed-use pharmaceuticals vs. human-specific pharmaceuticals observed at these sampling points was confirmed at the other sampling points. Animal-specific pharmaceuticals were detected mainly during runoff events and periods of manure spreading. A large percentage of mixed-use pharmaceuticals could come from animal sources, but it was difficult to determine. Mixed-use and human-specific pharmaceuticals predominated in the largest watersheds when runoff decreased. In areas of intensive livestock production, mitigation actions should focus on agricultural headwater watersheds to decrease the number of pathways and the transfer volume of veterinary pharmaceuticals, which can be the main contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrological responses to climate change in Mt. Elgon watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Musau

    2015-03-01

    New Hydrological Insights for the Region: Comparison between the simulated baseline and future streamflow shows that in the Koitobos and Kimilili watersheds, August to December streamflow is likely to be highly altered. In the Kuywa watershed, March to June flows is likely to change considerably due to climate change. Major streamflow changes are likely in March to June and August to November in the Rongai watershed. Projected changes differed between the four watersheds despite their proximity, indicating different sensitivities to climate change and uncertainty about the potential hydrological impacts of climate change in the area.

  8. An approach to measure parameter sensitivity in watershed hydrologic modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Abstract Hydrologic responses vary spatially and temporally according to watershed characteristics. In this study, the hydrologic models that we developed earlier...

  9. Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental ResultS (WATERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental Results (WATERS) is an integrated information system for the nation's surface waters connecting Office of...

  10. Water quality trading opportunities in two sub-watersheds in the northern Lake Okeechobee watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2017-03-25

    For decades, the increase of nutrient enrichment has threatened the ecological integrity and economic sustainability of many rivers, lakes, and coastal waters, including Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Water quality trading programs have been an area of active development to both, reduce nutrient pollution and minimize abatement costs. The objective of this study was to apply a comprehensive modeling framework, integrating a hydrologic-water quality model with an economic model, to assess and compare the cost-effectiveness of a water quality trading program over a command-and-control approach in order to reduce phosphorus loadings to Lake Okeechobee. The Upper Kissimmee (UK) and Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough (TCNS) sub-watersheds, identified as major sources of total phosphorus (TP) loadings to the lake, were selected for this analysis. The effect of different caps on the market potential was assessed while considering four factors: the least-cost abatement solutions, credit prices, potential cost savings, and credit supply and demand. Hypothetical trading scenarios were also developed, using the optimal caps selected for the two sub-watersheds. In both sub-watersheds, a phosphorus credit trading program was less expensive than the conventional command-and-control approach. While attaining cost-effectiveness, keeping optimal credit prices, and fostering market competition, phosphorus reduction targets of 46% and 32% were selected as the most appropriate caps in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds, respectively. Wastewater treatment facilities and urban areas in the UK, and concentrated animal feeding operations in the TCNS sub-watershed were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas improved pastures were identified as the major credit sellers in both sub-watersheds. The estimated net cost savings resulting from implementing a phosphorus trading program in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds were 76% ($ 34.9 million per

  11. Statewide Watershed Protection and Local Implementation: A Comparison of Washington, Minnesota, and Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In 1991 EPA embraced the watershed protection approach for environmental management. EPA defines watershed protection as â a strategy for effectively protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems and protecting human health.â To encourage statewide watershed protection, EPA developed the â Statewide Watershed Protection Approachâ document, which is designed to aid states in developing their own watershed protection program. The watershed protection approach is n...

  12. Methods for interfacing IPCC climate change scenarios with higher resolution watershed management models in the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Z. M.; MacAlister, C.; Fuka, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    As much as 90% of the Nile River flow that reaches Egypt originates in the Highlands of the Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin. This imbalance in water availability poses a threat to water security in the region, and could be severely impacted by projected climate change. This analysis coupled hydrodynamic/watershed models with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR4 climate change scenarios to assess the potential impact on water resources and sediment dynamics. Specific AR4 scenarios include the A1B, B1, B2 and COMMIT, which were used to force the baseline hydrodynamic models calibrated against 1979-2011 streamflow for 20 sub-watersheds in the Tana and Beles basins. Transfer functions were developed to distribute the model parameters from the calibrated sub-watersheds to un-gauged portions of the basins based on a similarity index of hydrologic response units. We analyzed the scenario in two manners: first we ran all of the seven individual Global Circulation Model results in the IPCC AR4 report though our watershed models to asses the potential spread of climate change predictions; then we assessed the mean value produced for each IPCC AR4 scenario to better estimate convergence. Results indicate that the Tana basin is expected to experience an increase in mean annual flow. The Beles basin is predicted to experience a small decrease in mean annual flow. Sediment concentrations in the Tana basin increase proportionally more than the flow increase. Interestingly, and perhaps counter to what might be expected for a decrease in flow in the Beles basin, sediment concentrations increase.

  13. Hydrological responses of a watershed to historical land use evolution and future land use scenarios under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Quilbé

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Watershed runoff is closely related to land use but this influence is difficult to quantify. This study focused on the Chaudière River watershed (Québec, Canada and had two objectives: (i to quantify the influence of historical agricultural land use evolution on watershed runoff; and (ii to assess the effect of future land use evolution scenarios under climate change conditions (CC. To achieve this, we used the integrated modeling system GIBSI. Past land use evolution was constructed using satellite images that were integrated into GIBSI. The general trend was an increase of agricultural land in the 80's, a slight decrease in the beginning of the 90's and a steady state over the last ten years. Simulations showed strong correlations between land use evolution and water discharge at the watershed outlet. For the prospective approach, we first assessed the effect of CC and then defined two opposite land use evolution scenarios for the horizon 2025 based on two different trends: agriculture intensification and sustainable development. Simulations led to a wide range of results depending on the climatologic models and gas emission scenarios considered, varying from a decrease to an increase of annual and monthly water discharge. In this context, the two land use scenarios induced opposite effects on water discharge and low flow sequences, especially during the growing season. However, due to the large uncertainty linked to CC simulations, it is difficult to conclude that one land use scenario provides a better adaptation to CC than another. Nevertheless, this study shows that land use is a key factor that has to be taken into account when predicting potential future hydrological responses of a watershed.

  14. Spatiotemporal variation of watershed health propensity through reliability-resilience-vulnerability based drought index (case study: Shazand Watershed in Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative response of the watershed health to climate variability is of critical importance for watershed managers. However, existing studies seldom considered the impact of climate variability on watershed health. The present study therefore aimed to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of reliability (Rel), resilience (Res) and vulnerability (Vul) indicators in node years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 in connection with Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for 24 sub-watersheds in the Shazand Watershed of Markazi Province in Iran. The analysis was based on rainfall variability as one of the main climatic drivers. To achieve the study purposes, the monthly rainfall time series of eight rain gauge stations distributed across the watershed or neighboring areas were analyzed and corresponding SPIs and Rel ResVul indicators were calculated. Ultimately, the spatial variation of SPI oriented Rel ResVul was mapped for the study watershed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The average and standard deviation of SPI-Rel ResVul index for the study years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 was obtained 0.240±0.025, 0.290±0.036, 0.077±0.0280 and 0.241±0.081, respectively. In overall, the results of the study proved the spatiotemporal variations of SPI-Rel ResVul watershed health index in the study area. Accordingly, all the sub-watersheds of the Shazand Watershed were grouped in unhealthy and very unhealthy conditions in all the study years. For 1986 and 1998 all the sub-watersheds were assessed in unhealthy status. Whilst, it declined to very unhealthy condition in 2008 and then some 75% of the watershed ultimately referred again to unhealthy and the rest still remained under very unhealthy conditions in 2014. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. STUDY OF RUNOFF IN UNDA WATERSHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATRIA WAHYU 0ETOM0

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When rain falls on the earth, it just does not sit there, it starts moving according to the laws of gravity. A portion of the precipitation seeps into the ground to replenish Earth's groundwater. Most of it flows downhill as runoff. Runoff is extremely important in that not only does it keep rivers and lakes full of water, but it also changes the landscape by the action of erosion. The purpose and objective in this study are to estimate the conditions of land cover of Unda Watershed based on the results of image processing, to estimate the monthly average runoff and discharge in outlet of Unda Watershed from 1999 to 2003. The research location is in Unda Watershed. This watershed lies in Province of Bali which has wide 233.1 km2 (23.310 Ha (Balai Wilayah Sungai Bali-Penida. Administratively this watershed lies in 3 Regencies that are Karangasem, Klungkung and Bangli Regency. Mostly the region lies in the Karangasem Regency. In this research, the monthly rainfall data employed to generate the runoff process. Analyze of contour map from topography map obtained the watershed area, physical parameter of river and concentration time. In this research used monthly average rainf all data (from 1999 to 2003 from Pempatan, Besakih, Singarata, Sidemen, Klungkung, Telengan, Rain Gauge Station and Polygon Thiesen method employed to analyze the datas. Apart of rainfall, there are a number of site specific factors which have a direct bearing on the occurrence and volume of runoff, they are soil type, land cover and slope. The soil types in this research area are all Regosol, this soil mapping does not need to be overlayed in obtaining the land unit. Analyze of land cover was employed by Supervised Classification method. By image processing obtained land cover of Unda Watershed estimated consists of 38.129 km2 of forest area (16.357°Ai, 19.122 km2 of grassland area (8.203%, 100.991 km2 of farmland area (43.325%, 62-412 km2 of area housing (26.775%, 2.625 km2

  16. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  17. CSIR Annual report 1993

    CSIR Research Space (