WorldWideScience

Sample records for waters experimentally contaminated

  1. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  2. ADAPTIVE WATER SENSOR SIGNAL PROCESSING: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ONLINE CONTAMINANT WARNING SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A contaminant detection technique and its optimization algorithms have two principal functions. One is the adaptive signal treatment that suppresses background noise and enhances contaminant signals, leading to a promising detection of water quality changes at a false rate as low...

  3. Effectiveness of ceramic filters in capturing Giardia duodenalis cysts in experimentally contaminated water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Imaculada da Costa Sobrinho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is the main water-transmitted protozoan in developing countries. This study evaluated the effectiveness of ceramic filters in capturing G. duodenalis cysts and verified the porosity size needed to remove cysts from contaminated water. The study was conducted in the Laboratory of Parasitology at the University of Taubaté, where each filter unit was made by joining two Pet gallons, latex hose and a ceramic filter. Two porosity sizes were selected: 0.5-1.0 μm and 5-15 μm with or without activated carbon, and the assays were run in triplicate. Approximately 60 μL (53 cysts of G. duodenalis cysts were placed in 2 liters of distilled water. After the preparation of the contaminated water, this solution was run through the filter until the completely filtered. Afterwards, the filtrate was processed according to the methodology described by De Faria (2006, in order to concentrate parasitic elements. The results were statistically evaluated using ANOVA and Tukey tests, showing that the 0.5- 1,0 μm porosity filter candles (with and without activated carbon were able to retain 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis. This is a result significantly superior to the results obtained in the control group (p<0.05. On the other hand, for the candles with porosity of 5 15 μm, total retention occurred only in candles with activated carbon. Based upon our results, it can be concluded that, in candles with both porosity sizes with activated carbon, all filters showed a satisfactory efficacy for filtration of G. duodenalis cysts.

  4. Contaminated water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  5. Efficacy of the solar water disinfection method in turbid waters experimentally contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under real field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Couso, H; Fontán-Saínz, M; Sichel, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Ares-Mazás, E

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of the solar water disinfection (SODIS) method for inactivating Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in turbid waters using 1.5 l polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles under natural sunlight. All experiments were performed at the Plataforma Solar de Almería, located in the Tabernas Desert (Southern Spain) in July and October 2007. Turbid water samples [5, 100 and 300 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)] were prepared by addition of red soil to distilled water, and then spiked with purified C. parvum oocysts. PET bottles containing the contaminated turbid waters were exposed to full sunlight for 4, 8 and 12 h. The samples were then concentrated by filtration and the oocyst viability was determined by inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide. Results After an exposure time of 12 h (cumulative global dose of 28.28 MJ/m(2); cumulative UV dose of 1037.06 kJ/m(2)) the oocyst viabilities were 11.54%, 25.96%, 41.50% and 52.80% for turbidity levels of 0, 5, 100 and 300 NTU, respectively, being significantly lower than the viability of the initial isolate (P < 0.01). SODIS method significantly reduced the potential viability of C. parvum oocysts on increasing the percentage of oocysts that took up the dye PI (indicator of cell wall integrity), although longer exposure periods appear to be required than those established for the bacterial pathogens usually tested in SODIS assays. SODIS.

  6. Biofilm formation in an experimental water distribution system: the contamination of non-touch sensor taps and the implication for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ginny; Stevenson, David; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Parks, Simon; Ngabo, Didier; Bennett, Allan M; Walker, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    Hospital tap water is a recognised source of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. U.K. guidance documents recommend measures to control/minimise the risk of P. aeruginosa in augmented care units but these are based on limited scientific evidence. An experimental water distribution system was designed to investigate colonisation of hospital tap components. P. aeruginosa was injected into 27 individual tap 'assemblies'. Taps were subsequently flushed twice daily and contamination levels monitored over two years. Tap assemblies were systematically dismantled and assessed microbiologically and the effect of removing potentially contaminated components was determined. P. aeruginosa was repeatedly recovered from the tap water at levels above the augmented care alert level. The organism was recovered from all dismantled solenoid valves with colonisation of the ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) diaphragm confirmed by microscopy. Removing the solenoid valves reduced P. aeruginosa counts in the water to below detectable levels. This effect was immediate and sustained, implicating the solenoid diaphragm as the primary contamination source.

  7. Real-time contaminant detection and classification in a drinking water pipe using conventional water quality sensors: techniques and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Yang, Y; Haught, Roy C; Goodrich, James A

    2009-06-01

    Accurate detection and identification of natural or intentional contamination events in a drinking water pipe is critical to drinking water supply security and health risk management. To use conventional water quality sensors for the purpose, we have explored a real-time event adaptive detection, identification and warning (READiw) methodology and examined it using pilot-scale pipe flow experiments of 11 chemical and biological contaminants each at three concentration levels. The tested contaminants include pesticide and herbicides (aldicarb, glyphosate and dicamba), alkaloids (nicotine and colchicine), E. coli in terrific broth, biological growth media (nutrient broth, terrific broth, tryptic soy broth), and inorganic chemical compounds (mercuric chloride and potassium ferricyanide). First, through adaptive transformation of the sensor outputs, contaminant signals were enhanced and background noise was reduced in time-series plots leading to detection and identification of all simulated contamination events. The improved sensor detection threshold was 0.1% of the background for pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), 0.9% for free chlorine, 1.6% for total chlorine, and 0.9% for chloride. Second, the relative changes calculated from adaptively transformed residual chlorine measurements were quantitatively related to contaminant-chlorine reactivity in drinking water. We have shown that based on these kinetic and chemical differences, the tested contaminants were distinguishable in forensic discrimination diagrams made of adaptively transformed sensor measurements.

  8. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  9. Forest water contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    Forests play a key role in cleaning water. Precipitation is “'filtered” through the tree canopy and filtered again throuph the organic matter on the forest floor. The water then seeps into the subsurface to replenish the ground water. Approximately 80% of the freshwater in the United States originates in the 650 million acres (265 million hectares) of forest that...

  10. Fungi contamination of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially

  11. Organic contaminates in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, M A; Belal, M; Nomrossy, A M; Yousse, A M

    1980-01-01

    The carbon adsorption method was used for separating organic matter from large samples of drainage, river and tap water. The carbon chloroform extract (CCE) was separated into different solubility fractions and the neutral fraction was separated into aliphatic, aromatic and oxy-compounds using column chromatography. The aromatic fraction was subjected to TLC, IR and UV analysis. The pesticide endrin was present in both river and tap water at concentrations of 0.7 and 1.5 ppb, respectively.

  12. Can Phytophthora ramorum be spread with contaminated irrigation water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Seipp; T. Brand; K. Kaminski; S. Wagner; S. Werres

    2008-01-01

    In a two year study, the spread of Phytophthora ramorum with contaminated irrigation water and the survival of the pathogen in water reservoirs were studied (Werres and others 2007). In addition at the end of each experimental period root ball samples from asymptomatic plants were taken to look for contamination with P. ramorum....

  13. Hygienic characteristics of radiation situation in the water area of The Ladoga Lake during salvaging of the radioactively contaminated experimental vessel “KIT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1991, a salvage operation of the waterlogged radioactive contaminated vessel in the water area of lake Ladoga was carried out. In 1953-1954, new radiological weapons or new radiological warfare agenst were tested on this vessel. By the beginning of works, the experimental vessel was on the ooze in the half-flooded condition at a depth of 4,5-6 meters. There were approximate 2000 m3 of contaminated water and silt, mixed with oil products inside the vessel. The aims of the study are to perform:1 the hygienic assessment of radiation situation on the place of the vessel berthing before, during and after ship salvaging; 2 the radiation risk assessment for the population of the region. The assessment of the radiological situation on the board and at the place of the vessel berthing was carried out on the base of dosimetric, spectrometric and radiochemistry surveys. The gamma ray exposure rate at a height of 1 m from the superstructures and main deck outer surfaces was on average 0,14 μSv/h andit did not exceeded 0,30 μSv/h. On the place of the vessel berthing, an increasing of concentrations of Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239,240 in samples of water, bottom sediments, and algae has been determined. Object posed no radiation hazard to the population of the region. However, some inhabitants, despite the ban, visited the vessel for recreation and fishing. Their potential exposure dose could reach 0,5 mSv/y. Ship salvaging included salvage pontoon launching, ship’s bottom isolation, liquid waste pumping from the vessel to the special tanker, ship raising and dockage, liquid waste remediation, discharge of remediated water in the water area of lake Ladoga, solidification of liquid waste remained in the vessel’s rooms. Liquid waste remediation and strict radiation control of each process prohibited significant hygienic degradation of the radiation situation in the water area of the lake Ladoga. An insignificant increasing of levels

  14. Drinking water contamination and treatment techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2017-06-01

    Water is of fundamental importance for life on earth. The synthesis and structure of cell constituents and transport of nutrients into the cells as well as body metabolism depend on water. The contaminations present in water disturb the spontaneity of the mechanism and result in long/short-term diseases. The probable contaminations and their possible routes are discussed in the present review. Continued research efforts result in some processes/technologies to remove the contaminations from water. The review includes concepts and potentialities of the technologies in a comprehensible form. It also includes some meaningful hybrid technologies and promising awaited technologies in coming years.

  15. Contaminant plume configuration and movement: an experimental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencoao, A.; Reis, A.; Pereira, M. G.; Liberato, M. L. R.; Caramelo, L.; Amraoui, M.; Amorim, V.

    2009-04-01

    The relevance of Science and Technology in our daily routines makes it compulsory to educate citizens who have both scientific literacy and scientific knowledge. These will allow them to be intervening citizens in a constantly changing society. Thus, physical and natural sciences are included in school curricula, both in primary and secondary education, with the fundamental aim of developing in the students the skills, attitudes and knowledge needed for the understanding of the planet Earth and its real problems. On the other hand, teaching in Geosciences is more and more based on practical methodologies which use didactic material, sustaining teachers' pedagogical practices and facilitating students' learning tasks suggested on the syllabus defined for each school level. Themes related to exploring the different components of the Hydrological Cycle and themes related to natural environment protection and preservation, namely water resources and soil contamination by industrial and urban sewage are examples of subject matters included on the Portuguese syllabus. These topics motivated the conception and construction of experimental models for the study of the propagation of pollutants on a porous medium. The experimental models allow inducing a horizontal flux of water though different kinds of permeable substances (e.g. sand, silt), with contamination spots on its surface. These experimental activities facilitate the student to understand the flow path of contaminating substances on the saturated zone and to observe the contaminant plume configuration and movement. The activities are explored in a teaching and learning process perspective where the student builds its own knowledge through real question- problem based learning which relate Science, Technology and Society. These activities have been developed in the framework of project ‘Water in the Environment' (CV/PVI/0854) of the POCTI Program (Programa Operacional "Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação") financed

  16. Potential Well Water Contaminants and Their Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first step to protect your health and the health of your family is learning about what may pollute your source of drinking water. Potential contamination may occur naturally, or as a result of human activity.

  17. Rural methods to mitigate arsenic contaminated water

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water is one of the burning issues in the rural world. Poor public awareness program about health effects of drinking arsenic contaminated water and the rural methods to mitigate this problem poses a great threat of arsenic poisoning many people of the rural world. In this thesis, arsenic removal efficiency and the working mechanism of four rural and economical arsenic mitigation technologies i.e. solar oxidation and reduction of arsenic (SORAS), Bucket tr...

  18. Experimental contamination of margaritana margaritifera (L) (a Fresh water bivalve) by caesium 137; Contamination experimentale de margaritana margaritifera (L) (bivalve d'eau douce) par le cesium 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulquier, L.; Bovard, P.; Grauby, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The hydro biological research carried out in the Radio-Ecology Section has led the authors to study some Margaritana sampling stations situated down-stream from the Monts d'Arree nuclear power station. They describe the preservation and contamination methods used for fixing the {sup 137}Cs concentration factors in the case of Margaritana Margaritifera (L). The results of experiments carried out over a period of one hundred days show that the specific activity of the various organs is stabilized after thirty to thirty-five days. The authors have noticed a relatively low adsorption on the shell through the intermediary of micro-organisms, and a strong and rapid absorption in the soft parts. The concentration factors have values, at equilibrium, of around: 9 for the shell, 300 for all the organs, and 38 for the whole animal. A comparison of these results with work published by other authors makes it possible to draw general conclusions concerning the mechanism of {sup 137}Cs fixation by lamellibranch, as well as their capacity of fixation. (author) [French] Les etudes hydrobiologiques effectuees au sein de la Section de Radio-Ecologie ont amene les auteurs a etudier des stations de prelevement de Margaritana en aval de la Centrale Nucleaire des Monts d'Arree. Ils decrivent les methodes de conservation et de contamination utilisees pour l'etablissement des facteurs de concentration du {sup 137}Cs par Margaritana margaritifera (L). Les resultats des experimentations menees pendant cent jours montrent que les activites specifiques de la coquille et des differents organes se stabilisent au bout de trente a trente-cinq jours. Les auteurs constatent une adsorption relativement faible sur la coquille par l'intermediaire des micro-organismes et une absorption forte et rapide dans les parties molles. Les facteurs de concentration se situent, a l'equilibre, autour de: 9 pour la coquille, 300 pour l'ensemble des organes et 38 si l'on considere

  19. Elimination of gases and contamination from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, A. P.

    1970-01-01

    Filtration system with membrane type hydrophilic and hydrophobic filters gives absolute filtration with automatic venting of freed gases, and prevents backward transmission of contamination with no bacterial growth through the filters. Filter aids in degassing industrial solutions and in removing oxygen from sea water.

  20. Experimental water toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrushaytis, G.P. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The problem of water toxicology and marine ectoxicology, particularly in the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the problem of creating artificial controlled marine ecosystems for the purpose of utilizing them in ecotoxicological studies and for solving problems in the intensification of bioproduction processes and predicting the functional state of water ecosystems under conditions of water pollution by toxic substances. Investigations were conducted on the effects of pesticides, phenols, and heavy metal ions on planktonic crustacea and fish. Studies were also concerned with the effect of gonadotoxic substances, including detergents, on the gametogenesis process in fish. Morphological changes in the ovicells of fish can lead to a reduction in the sensitivity of the receptor zones of the follicular casings to hormonal substances, as well as infertility.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL VISUALIZATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF VITREOUS CONTAMINATION FOLLOWING INTRAVITREAL INJECTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashizuka, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Jun; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yuzawa, Mitsuko

    2016-10-01

    To detect and quantify vitreous contamination after intravitreal injection using an experimental vitreous contamination model. Enucleated porcine eyes served as a Type 1 experimental vitreous contamination model with fluoresbrite carboxylate microspheres applied to the conjunctival surface. Saline solution (0.05 mL) was injected using a 27-, 30-, or 32-gauge (G) needle. Injection procedures were monitored using an intraocular fiber catheter. Condensed microspheres were applied to an excised sheet of porcine sclera (Type 2 experimental vitreous contamination model). Saline solution (0.05 mL) was injected from the top of an applied condensed microsphere through the sclera using a needle of one of the aforementioned gauges, and samples were then collected. The fluorescence strength of samples was measured using fluorophotometry. We visually detected fluorescent microspheres in 10/10, 9/10, and 9/10 eyes injected with 27-G, 30-G, and 32-G needles, respectively. In the experimental quantification study, values at all needle gauges were significantly higher than those of controls (P contamination directly into the eyes even when a 32-G needle is used. Furthermore, the 27-G needle carries the highest contamination risk.

  2. Nanofiltration vs. reverse osmosis for the removal of emerging organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2011-10-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) in existing water reuse facilities is a water industry standard. However, that approach may be questioned taking into consideration that "tight" NF can be equal or "better" than RO. NF can achieve the same removals of RO membranes when dealing with emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors and others). Experiments using 18 emerging contaminants were performed using membranes NF200 and NF90 at bench-scale units, and for a more complete study, results of NF and RO pilot and full-scale experiments where compared to our experimental results. The removal results showed that NF can remove many emerging contaminants. The average removal by tight NF was 82% for neutral contaminants and 97% for ionic contaminants. The average removal by RO was 85% for neutral contaminants and 99% for ionic contaminants. Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) followed by NF can effectively remove emerging contaminants with removals over 90% when loose NF membranes are used.

  3. Water contamination, land prices, and the statute of repose

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Chamblee; Carolyn A. Dehring; Craig A. Depken; Joseph R. Nicholson

    2015-01-01

    We examine how water contamination risk from an inactive hazardous waste site is capitalized into surrounding vacant land prices. After public knowledge of the first instance of off-site contamination, we find that shallow groundwater contamination potential is negatively capitalized into land prices, as is proximity to a known contaminated well. Public knowledge of...

  4. Nanomaterial-enabled Rapid Detection of Water Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shun; Chang, Jingbo; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong

    2015-10-28

    Water contaminants, e.g., inorganic chemicals and microorganisms, are critical metrics for water quality monitoring and have significant impacts on human health and plants/organisms living in water. The scope and focus of this review is nanomaterial-based optical, electronic, and electrochemical sensors for rapid detection of water contaminants, e.g., heavy metals, anions, and bacteria. These contaminants are commonly found in different water systems. The importance of water quality monitoring and control demands significant advancement in the detection of contaminants in water because current sensing technologies for water contaminants have limitations. The advantages of nanomaterial-based sensing technologies are highlighted and recent progress on nanomaterial-based sensors for rapid water contaminant detection is discussed. An outlook for future research into this rapidly growing field is also provided. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis - surface water transport for nonradioactive contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kuo-Fu

    1996-11-01

    The health risks for an individual exposed to contaminants released from SRS outfalls from 1989 to 1995 were estimated. The exposure pathways studied are ingestion of drinking water, ingestion of contaminated fish and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming. The estimated incremental risks for an individual developing cancer vary from 3.E-06 to 1.0E-05. The estimated total exposure chronic noncancer hazard indices vary from 6.E-02 to 1.E-01. The critical contaminants were ranked based on their cancer risks and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard quotients. For cancer risks, the critical contaminants released from SRS outfalls are arsenic, tetrachloroethylene, and benzene. For chronic noncarcinogenic risks, the critical contaminants released from srs outfalls are cadmium, arsenic, silver, chromium, mercury, selenium, nitrate, manganese, zinc, nickel, uranium, barium, copper, tetrachloroethylene, cyanide, and phenol. The critical pathways in decreasing risk order are ingestion of contaminated fish, ingestion of drinking water and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming.

  6. Physiological changes in Triticum durum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Lens esculenta cultivars, caused by irrigation with water contaminated with microcystins: a laboratory experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqrane, Sana; Ouahid, Youness; El Ghazali, Issam; Oudra, Brahim; Bouarab, Lahcen; del Campo, Francisca F

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a microcystin (MC)-containing extract from a cyanobacteria bloom on growth, development, mineral nutrient accumulation, and photosynthetic activity of Triticum durum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Lens esculenta cultivars. The MCs in the extract, identified by HPLC and/or mass spectrometry (MS) were: MC-RR, -LR, -YR, -(H4)YR, -WR, and -FR. Plant growth and development was tested along 30 exposure days. After this period, MC-extract caused a clear reduction in plant growth and productivity, as well as deleterious effects on development and Photosystem II activity, measured by Fv/Fm fluorescence. However, the chlorophyll (a + b) content hardly varied, and the accumulation of Na+, K+, Ca2+, P and N was enhanced. All the effects observed were plant species, MC concentration, and exposure-time dependent. Relative accumulation of each MC variant greatly varied among plant species and plant organ. The data obtained supports the idea that the use of surface water containing MCs for crop irrigation can affect both plant yield and quality, and secondly, that MC accumulation in edible plants might pose a potential risk for human and animal health, if the MC intake exceeded the recommended tolerable limits.

  7. Organics in water contamination analyzer, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The requirements which would result in identifying the components of an automatic analytical system for the analysis of specific organic compounds in the space station potable water supply are defined. The gas chromatographic system for such an analysis is limited to commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and includes the sample inlet, an ionization detector, capillary columns as well as computerized compound identification. The sampling system will be a special variation of the purge and trap Tenax mode using six-port valves and a 500 microliter water sample. Capillary columns used for the separating of contaminants will be bonded phase fused silica with a silicone stationary phase. Two detectors can be used: photoionization and far ultraviolet, since they are sensitive and compatible with capillary columns. A computer system evaluation and program with the principle of compound identification based on the retention index is presented.

  8. An Experimental Study of Contaminant Intrusion Through Pipe Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a series of experiments conducted at U.S. EPA’s Test and Evaluation Facility in 2013-2014 to study the intrusion of contaminated soil water into a pipe crack during simulated backflow events. A test rig was used consisting of a 3’ x 3’ x 3’ acrylic soil bo...

  9. Purification of contaminated water by filtration through porous glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1972-01-01

    Method for purifying water that is contaminated with mineral salts and soluble organic compounds is described. Method consists of high pressure filtration of contaminated water through stabilized porous glass membranes. Procedure for conducting filtration is described. Types of materials by percentage amounts removed from the water are identified.

  10. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, R.M.; Schweitzer, K.A.; McKinney, R.A.; Phelps, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial waters did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  11. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, R.M.; McKinney, R.A. (Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States)); Schweitzer, K.A. (Chemical Waste Management, Inc., Dartmouth, MA (United States)); Phelps, D.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial water did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  12. Thallium contamination of water in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheam, V. [National Water Research Institute Branch, Burlington, ON (Canada). Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Branch

    2001-07-01

    A highly sensitive instrument, a Laser-Excited Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer, has been developed to study thallium contamination in some important Canadian ecosystems from the Arctic (containing very low thallium concentration) to coal-related industries across Canada and even to the study of thallium toxicity in an invertebrate, Hyalella azteca. Overall, the data indicate that the coal power plants and mines contain higher thallium concentrations than the other ecosystems studied, and the eastern region has the highest Tl concentrations compared to other regions. The range of thallium concentration in ng/L for the Arctic snow and ice was between not detected and 8.4, for the Great Lakes waters 0.9 to 48, for pore waters 0.1 to 213, for western coal power plants and mines 0.1 to 1326, for central coal power plants 1.2 to 175, for eastern coal power plants and mines 0.2 to 23605, and for miscellaneous sites across Canada not detected to 4390 ng/L. Some of these high concentrations and those high ones reported in industrial wastewaters exceeded the chronic toxicity endpoints for Hyalella azteca mortality, growth and reproduction, and thus can cause serious distress to the environment. All data were integrated into a map of thallium distribution, the first one in Canada. Natural background level of thallium for the Arctic was estimated to be 0.02 to 0.03 pg/g.

  13. Bacterial contamination of water samples in Gabon, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ehrhardt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of water is a major burden in the public health setting of developing countries. We therefore assessed the quality of water samples in Gabon in 2013. The main findings were a contamination rate with coliforms of 13.5% and the detection of a possible environmental reservoir for extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria.

  14. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water standards Community water system survey CCR annual water quality reports of water systems Drinking water distribution systems ... Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance ...

  15. Evaluation of two methods in controlling dental treatment water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ritu; Puttaiah, Raghunath; Harris, Robert; Reddy, Anil

    2011-03-01

    Dental unit water systems are contaminated with biofilms that amplify bacterial counts in dental treatment water in excess of a million colony forming units per milliliter (cfu/ml). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Dental Association have agreed that the maximum allowable contamination of dental treatment water not exceed 500 cfu/ml. This study was conducted to evaluate two protocols in controlling contamination of dental unit water systems and dental treatment water. Both methods used an antimicrobial self-dissolving chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) tablet at a high concentration (50 ppm) to shock the dental unit water system biofilms initially followed by periodic exposure. To treat dental treatment source water for patient care, 3 parts per million (ppm) ClO₂ in municipal/tap water was compared to use of a citrus botanical extract dissolved in municipal water. Heterotrophic microbial counts of effluent water and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to evaluate effects of the two treatments. Results from this study indicated that both treatments were effective in controlling biofilm contamination and reducing heterotrophic plate counts water system and effects of low-grade chemicals used on composite bonding to dentin and enamel is warranted before translation from efficacy studies to common clinical use. This study provides evidence-based information of using two methods of controlling dental treatment water contamination. The study was conducted in a clinical practice setting in an active dental clinic and the results are meaningful to a clinician who is interested in providing safe dental treatment water for patient care. Dental waterline biofilms, Dental treatment water contamination control, Chlorine dioxide, Emulsifiers, Heterotrophic plate counts, Laser scanning confocal microscopy. How to cite this article: Bansal R, Puttaiah R, Harris R, Reddy A. Evaluation of Two Methods in Controlling Dental Treatment Water

  16. D-Optimal Experimental Design for Contaminant Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Baba, A. K.; Alexanderian, A.

    2016-12-01

    Contaminant source identification seeks to estimate the release history of a conservative solute given point concentration measurements at some time after the release. This can be mathematically expressed as an inverse problem, with a linear observation operator or a parameter-to-observation map, which we tackle using a Bayesian approach. Acquisition of experimental data can be laborious and expensive. The goal is to control the experimental parameters - in our case, the sparsity of the sensors, to maximize the information gain subject to some physical or budget constraints. This is known as optimal experimental design (OED). D-optimal experimental design seeks to maximize the expected information gain, and has long been considered the gold standard in the statistics community. Our goal is to develop scalable methods for D-optimal experimental designs involving large-scale PDE constrained problems with high-dimensional parameter fields. A major challenge for the OED, is that a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the D-optimality criterion requires repeated evaluation of objective function and gradient involving the determinant of large and dense matrices - this cost can be prohibitively expensive for applications of interest. We propose novel randomized matrix techniques that bring down the computational costs of the objective function and gradient evaluations by several orders of magnitude compared to the naive approach. The effect of randomized estimators on the accuracy and the convergence of the optimization solver will be discussed. The features and benefits of our new approach will be demonstrated on a challenging model problem from contaminant source identification involving the inference of the initial condition from spatio-temporal observations in a time-dependent advection-diffusion problem.

  17. Numerical modeling and experimental analysis of volatile contaminant removal from vertical flow filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Biase, C.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical flow filters (unplanted) and vertical flow constructed wetlands (planted), simple and inexpensive technologies to treat effectively volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contaminated water, consist of containers filled with granular material which is intermittently fed with contaminated water.

  18. A Water Security Handbook: Planning for and Responding to Drinking Water Contamination Threats and Incidents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... This Water Security Handbook was developed by the U.S. EPA to help you, the water utility official, protect your water system and respond effectively to threats and contamination incidents involving your water system...

  19. Disinfection of contaminated water by using solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslake, Laurie F; Connolly, Daniel J; Menon, Vilas; Duncanson, Catriona M; Rojas, Ricardo; Tavakoli, Javad

    2004-02-01

    Contaminated water causes an estimated 6 to 60 billion cases of gastrointestinal illness annually. The majority of these cases occur in rural areas of developing nations where the water supply remains polluted and adequate sanitation is unavailable. A portable, low-cost, and low-maintenance solar unit to disinfect unpotable water has been designed and tested. The solar disinfection unit was tested with both river water and partially processed water from two wastewater treatment plants. In less than 30 min in midday sunlight, the unit eradicated more than 4 log10 U (99.99%) of bacteria contained in highly contaminated water samples. The solar disinfection unit has been field tested by Centro Panamericano de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ciencias del Ambiente in Lima, Peru. At moderate light intensity, the solar disinfection unit was capable of reducing the bacterial load in a controlled contaminated water sample by 4 log10 U and disinfected approximately 1 liter of water in 30 min.

  20. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Contaminants in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photocatalytic treatment of organics, including regulated and contaminants of emerging concern, has been an important area of this field. Details are provided on the mechanism of degradation, reaction intermediates, kinetics, and nanointerfacial adsorption phenomena. The degradat...

  1. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  2. Crude oil contamination of plastic and copper drinking water pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangning; Andry, Stephane; Yaputri, Jessica; Kelly, Devin; Ladner, David A; Whelton, Andrew J

    2017-10-05

    This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of plastic (i.e., PEX, HDPE and CPVC) and copper pipes to short-term contamination by crude oil. Pipes were exposed to highly and slightly contaminated drinking water for the typical duration of Do Not Use drinking water orders. PEX pipes sorbed and desorbed the greatest amount of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), whereas copper pipes were less susceptible to contamination. For benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) quantified in water, only benzene exceeded its health based maximum contaminant level (MCL). The MCL was exceeded for copper pipe on day 3, for CPVC pipe through day 9, and PEX and HDPE pipes through day 15. The BTEX compound concentration in water after the pipes were returned to service depended on the initial crude oil concentration, material type, and exposure duration. Total organic carbon (TOC) measurement was not helpful in detecting oil contaminated water. Except BTEX, trimethylbenzene isomers and a couple of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with and without MCLs were also detected desorbing from PEX-A pipe. Oil contaminated water must be thoroughly characterized and pipe type will influence the ability of drinking water levels to return to safe limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial contamination of hemodialysis water in three randomly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-05

    associated adverse reactions with high-flux membranes and microbial contamination of liquid bicarbonate concentrate. Contrib Nephrol. 1988;62:24-34. 21. Coulliette AD, Arduino MJ. Hemodialysis and water quality. Semin Dial.

  4. Removal of metal ions from contaminated water using agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    As the world population grows, there is a growing awareness that our environment is getting more polluted. Clean water is becoming a critical issue for many parts of the world for human, animal and agricultural use. Filtration systems to clean our air and water are a growing industry. There are many approaches to removing contaminates from our water supply ranging from...

  5. Contamination of boreholes water by 76 pesticides molecules in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user2

    Analysis campaign of underground water was done in 2010 on five boreholes water samples situated in agricultural cotton zone. ... contamination of the underground water by pesticides were those areas where the cotton faming is practiced. Keywords: Kérou ..... center, Richardson, Texas, pp.87-89. Hani K, Narcisse A, ...

  6. Drinking Water Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards) are legally enforceable standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards...

  7. Factors Responsible for Domestic Water Contamination | Idika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many deaths occurring in the developing countries are due to water borne diseases which are usually associated with water related behaviour such as improper disposal of faecal material as well as improper storage of water. This study was therefore designed to identify the factors that influenced domestic water ...

  8. Removal of fluoride contamination in water by three aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Sukalpa; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation, popularly known as 'green technology' has been employed in the present investigation to examine the potential of fluoride removal from water by some aquatic plants. Fluoride contamination in drinking water is very much prevalent in different parts of the world including India. Batch studies were conducted using some aquatic plants e.g., Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, and Spirodela polyrhiza which profusely grow in natural water bodies. The experimental data exhibited that all the above three aquatic floating macrophytes could remove fluoride to some relative degree of efficiency corresponding to initial concentration of fluoride 3, 5, 10, 20 mg/l after 10 days exposure time. Result showed that at lower concentration level i.e., 3 mg/L removal efficiency of Pistia stratiotes (19.87%) and Spirodela polyrhiza (19.23%) was found to be better as compared to Eichhornia crassipes (12.71%). Some of the physiological stress induced parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, total protein, catalase, and peroxidase were also studied to explore relative damage within the cell. A marginal stress was imparted among all the plants for lower concentration values (3 mg/L), whereas at 20 mg/l, maximum damage was observed.

  9. PARASITIC CONTAMINATION OF WELLS DRINKING WATER IN MAZANDARAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yousefi ، H. Ziaei hezarjaribi ، A. A. Enayati ، R. A. Mohammadpoor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a direct relation between the prevalence of some parasitic diseases and the presence of those etiologic agents in water. The purpose of this research was to determine the contamination rate of wells drinking water to parasites in Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. 989 water samples were randomly taken based on the population of towns and number of health centers from 12 cities of Mazandaran province and transferred to the laboratory in sterile containers. Water samples were then filtered and analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Direct method and Gram staining procedure were used to identify the parasites. If cryptosporidium was seen, floatation (sheather’s sugar and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method were performed. Parasites count was undertaken using McMaster counting slide (0.3 mL. 197 out of 989 water samples were contaminated with different parasites. From 197 contaminated samples, 20 different types of parasites were separated of which 53 (26.9% were pathogenic, 100 (50.8% non pathogenic, and 44 non-infective stages of parasites. Distance between wells and sources of contamination, type of water distribution systems, city and chlorination status had significantly statistical relationship with contamination prevalence (p<0.001. According to the results and considering the direct correlation between safe water and human health, proper implementation of providing hygienic drinking water should be enforced.

  10. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  11. Diving in Contaminated Water: Health Risk Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    of carbon and hydrogen. They can be in the form of small volatile molecules (natural gas) or in the form of large heavy molecules (coal). Solvent...Acrylonitrile • - Carbon tetrachloride • - Cresol • - Chlordane 6 DRDC Toronto TR 2006-126 • - Dichloropropane • - Epichlorohydrin...C. (1998) – Bilan massique des contaminants chimiques dans le fleuve Saint-Laurent, Environnement Canada, Région du Québec, Centre Saint-Laurent

  12. Nanofiltration vs. reverse osmosis for the removal of emerging organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) in existing water reuse facilities is a water industry standard. However, that approach may be questioned taking into consideration that "tight" NF can be equal or "better" than RO. NF can achieve the same removals of RO membranes when dealing with emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors and others). Experiments using 18 emerging contaminants were performed using membranes NF200 and NF90 at bench-scale units, and for a more complete study, results of NF and RO pilot and fullscale experiments where compared to our experimental results. The removal results showed that NF can remove many emerging contaminants. The average removal by tight NF was 82% for neutral contaminants and 97% for ionic contaminants. The average removal by RO was 85% for neutral contaminants and 99% for ionic contaminants. Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) followed by NF can effectively remove emerging contaminants with removals over 90% when loose NF membranes are used. © 2011 2011 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  13. Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiifi Baidoo

    Trace Metal Contamination in Water from Abandoned Mining and Non-Mining areas in the Northern Parts of the Ashanti. Gold Belt, Ghana. C. Tay1* and F. W. Y. Momade2. 1 CSIR-Water Research ...... within the Ashanti gold belt is gold recovery using mercury amalgamation as practiced by small- scale miners. Evidence of ...

  14. Monitoring bacterial faecal contamination in waters using multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of sanitary quality or faecal pollution in water is currently based on quantifying some bacterial indicators such as Escherichia coli and faecal enterococci. Using a multiplex real-time PCR assay for faecal enterococci and Bacteroides spp., the detection of faecal contamination in non-treated water can be done in a ...

  15. Assessment of ground water contamination in Erode District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water contamination and the effect of the tanneries and dyeing industries effluents on Erode District, Tamil Nadu. Ten (10) sampling locations were selected in and around industries. The water samples were collected from the selected sampling points. The samples ...

  16. Heavy metal contamination in stream water and sediments of gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of stream water and sediments in the gold mining area of Atakunmosa West local Government, Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve villages of prominence in illegal gold mining were selected for the study covering dry and wet seasons of 2012. Stream water ...

  17. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded...

  18. Arsenic contamination levels in drinking water sources in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a public health problem all over the World especially in mining areas. The study herein reported assessed the concentration levels of arsenic in some drinking water sources in the mining areas in the Lake Victoria Basin and investigated the potential for its removal by adsorption ...

  19. Analysis of phthalate esters contamination in drinking water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimum condition method was successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. The concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP in drinking water samples were below allowable levels, while the DEHP concentration in three samples was found to be greater than the ...

  20. Contaminations Of Heavy Metals In Water And Hemichromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Co and Cr exceeding WHO limits for some months. The findings reveal that the water and the fish (H. fasciatus) are contaminated and not fit for drinking and consumption by humans. Keywords: Heavy metals, water, fish, seasonality, distribution coefficients, burrow pit, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Tropical Freshwater Biology Vol.

  1. Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines For Selected Contaminants. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Construction of the International Space Station (ISS)a multinational effort began in 1999. In its present configuration, the ISS is expected to carry a crew of three to six astronauts for up to 180 days (d). Because the space station is a closed and complex environment, some contamination of its internal atmosphere and water system is unavoidable. Several hundred chemical contaminants are likely to be found in the closed-loop atmosphere and recycled water of the ISS. To protect space crews from contaminants in potable and hygiene water, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance on how to develop water exposure guidelines and subsequently review NASA's development of the exposure guidelines for specific chemicals.

  2. Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2014-12-01

    Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases.

  3. Contamination event detection using multiple types of conventional water quality sensors in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuming; Che, Han; Smith, Kate; Chen, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Early warning systems are often used to detect deliberate and accidental contamination events in a water system. Conventional methods normally detect a contamination event by comparing the predicted and observed water quality values from one sensor. This paper proposes a new method for event detection by exploring the correlative relationships between multiple types of conventional water quality sensors. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using data from contaminant injection experiments in a laboratory. Results from these experiments demonstrated the correlative responses of multiple types of sensors. It was observed that the proposed method could detect a contamination event 9 minutes after the introduction of lead nitrate solution with a concentration of 0.01 mg L(-1). The proposed method employs three parameters. Their impact on the detection performance was also analyzed. The initial analysis showed that the correlative response is contaminant-specific, which implies that it can be utilized not only for contamination detection, but also for contaminant identification.

  4. Anaerobic microbiological method of cleaning water contaminated by metallurgical slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Леонідівна Дан

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental protection and rational use of water resources is one of the most important problems of environmental policy in Ukraine. This problem in Mariupol is particularly acute as metallurgical and coke industries cause significant damage to adjacent water bodies (the Kalchyk, the Kalmius and coastal zone of the Sea of Azov. One of the most harmful components of wastewater of these enterprises are sulfide-containing compounds. These compounds in water can cause great harm to both human health and the environment. For example, in 1999 the main city enterprises (AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS and ILYICH IRON AND STEEL WORKS discharged 885,0 million m³ of wastewater (including 403,9 million m³ of polluted waste water into water bodies. The slag dumps and landfills in close proximity to the sea form a source of dangerous pollution, because contaminated water infiltration washed out here in the groundwater and surface water, get into the Sea of Azov later on. There are 97 mg/l of sulfides in the protective dam of AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS, what exceeds the standards (MPC = 10 mg/l. It makes it possible for us to put forward biochemical purification processes. Anaerobic microbiological method proposed in the article has several advantages (compact hardware design, a minimum amount of activated sludge and lack of energy consumption for aeration over the existing wastewater treatment (chemical, mechanical, biological. The experimental procedure consisted in introducing the medium to be purified purified into microbial communities of high concentration (Thiobacillus «X», Thiobacillus concretivorus, which assimilated organic substances of the medium as a primary energy source. The kinetics of sulfide compounds removal by means of anaerobic microbiological method was considered. The effectiveness of wastewater treatment with changing purification process conditions has been also assessed (concentration of sulfides, reactor type, p

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of ozone as a sanitizer for fish experimentally contaminated with Salmonella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle de Bem Luiz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonellosis is a major public health problem related to food contamination and ensuing food poisoning. Brazilian resolution RDC nº 12/2001 of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA established the absence of Salmonella in 25 g of fish for consumption. However, the significant increase in the occurrence of fish contamination by Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria shows that the currently applied strategies are not sufficient and that, in addition to the implementation of good health practices, the application of new sanitizer technologies in the fish industry is also necessary. In this context, the present study evaluated the effectiveness of ozone in an aqueous medium as a sanitizer for Salmonella contaminated fish. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and five replicates, giving a total of 40 experimental units. Each sample consisted of three fishes, totalizing 120 fishes. The treatments consisted of different combinations of temperature and water-dissolved ozone (O3 concentrations (21 °C × 0.35 ppm; 20 °C × 0.45 ppm; 21 °C × 0.60 ppm; 20 °C × 0.80 ppm; 19 °C × 1.7 ppm; 6 × 5.1 ppm; 4 °C × 7.2 ppm; and 2 °C × 9.1 ppm. Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui samples were experimentally infected with Salmonella typhymurium (ATCC 14028 and immersed in water with the different treatments. After three minutes, the fish samples were collected and subjected to qualitative Salmonella analyses. The ozone tests were not efficient in eradicating Salmonella under the experimental conditions presented here, indicating the need for the identification of effective sanitizers in order to meet the determinations of Brazilian law.

  6. Contribution to surface water contamination understanding by pesticides and pharmaceuticals, at a watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Stéphanie; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-12-04

    This study aims at understanding the presence of regulated and emerging micropollutants, particularly pesticides and pharmaceuticals, in surface water, regarding spatial and temporal influences at a watershed scale. The study of relations between micropollutants and other water quality and hydroclimatic parameters was carried out from a statistical analysis on historical and experimental data of different sampling sites from the main watershed of Brittany, western France. The outcomes point out the influence of urban and rural areas of the watershed as well as the impact of seasons on contamination variations. This work contributes to health risk assessment related to surface water contamination by micropollutants. This approach is particularly interesting in the case of agricultural watersheds such as the one studied, where more than 80% of surface water is used to produce drinking water.

  7. Contribution to Surface Water Contamination Understanding by Pesticides and Pharmaceuticals, at a Watershed Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Piel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at understanding the presence of regulated and emerging micropollutants, particularly pesticides and pharmaceuticals, in surface water, regarding spatial and temporal influences at a watershed scale. The study of relations between micropollutants and other water quality and hydroclimatic parameters was carried out from a statistical analysis on historical and experimental data of different sampling sites from the main watershed of Brittany, western France. The outcomes point out the influence of urban and rural areas of the watershed as well as the impact of seasons on contamination variations. This work contributes to health risk assessment related to surface water contamination by micropollutants. This approach is particularly interesting in the case of agricultural watersheds such as the one studied, where more than 80% of surface water is used to produce drinking water.

  8. CYANOTOXINS: NEW GENERATION OF WATER CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacteria, more commonly known as blue-green algae, are found worldwide in various aquatic environments as well as in water distribution systems (Atikovic 2003; Carmichael 1994; Madigan et al. 2003). Blooms of cyanobacteria have recently become spatially and temporally more p...

  9. Drinking Water Contamination Due To Lead-based Solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, N.; Bartelt, E.; Cuff, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    The presence of lead in drinking water creates many health hazards. Exposure to lead-contaminated water can affect the brain, the central nervous system, blood cells, and kidneys, causing such problems as mental retardation, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke, and death. One way in which lead can contaminate our water supply is through the use of lead solder to join pipes. Lead solder was widely used in the past because of its ease of application as well as its low cost. Lead contamination in residential areas has previously been found to be a particularly serious problem in first-draw samples, of water that has sat stagnant in pipes overnight. To investigate the time-dependence of drinking water lead contamination, we analyzed samples taken hourly of water exposed to lead solder. While our preliminary data was insufficient to show more than a rough correlation between time of exposure and lead concentration over short periods (1-3 hours), we were able to confirm that overnight exposure of water to lead-based solder results in the presence high levels of lead. We also investigated other, external factors that previous research has indicated contribute to increased concentrations of lead. Our analysis of samples of lead-exposed water at various pH and temperatures suggests that these factors can be equally significant in terms of their contribution to elevated lead concentration levels. In particular, water that is slightly corrosive appears to severely impact the solubility of lead. As this type of water is common in much of the Northeast United States, the presence of lead-based solder in residential areas there is especially problematic. Although lead-based solder has been banned since the 1980s, it remains a serious concern, and a practical solution still requires further research.

  10. Hydrogeological investigation of ground water arsenic contamination in south Calcutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Mukherjee, A

    1999-01-26

    Typical clinical symptoms of acute arsenic poisoning have been detected in 1000 residents near a factory in P.N. Mitra Lane, Behala, South Calcutta, located in a thickly populated area manufacturing copper acetoarsenite (Paris-Green) an arsenical pesticide for the past 25 years. Soil around the effluent dumping point of the factory was exceptionally contaminated, with arsenic, copper and chromium concentrations of 20,100-35,500 mg kg-1, 33,900-51,100 mg kg-1 and 5300-5510 mg kg-1. Arsenic and copper concentrations in bore-hole soils collected up to a depth of 24.4 m at the effluent dumping point, decreased with depth. Arsenous acid, arsenic acid, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were detected in bore-hole soils up to a depth of 1.37 m, after which only inorganic arsenical compounds were present. A positive correlation was established between arsenic and copper authenticated the Paris-Green waste disposal site as the source of contamination. Mechanism of ground water contamination from this disposal site had been probed by a systematic hydrogeological survey and the arsenic content of the tube-well waters in the surrounding areas. Hydraulic conductivity was maximum in the central part. The site for disposal of the effluent was a ditch located in the zone of discharge. Sparingly soluble Paris-Green cumulatively deposited in the waste disposal site is decomposed by micro-organisms to water-soluble forms and finally percolated to underground aquifers along with rain water through the discharge zone. The contaminant is currently moving towards WNW with ground water flow and the residents in the direction of encroaching contamination are insecure due to penetration of the contaminant.

  11. Method of removing arsenic and other anionic contaminants from contaminated water using enhanced coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.; Khandaker, Nadim R.

    2006-11-21

    An improved water decontamination process comprising contacting water containing anionic contaminants with an enhanced coagulant to form an enhanced floc, which more efficiently binds anionic species (e.g., arsenate, arsenite, chromate, fluoride, selenate, and borate, and combinations thereof) predominantly through the formation of surface complexes. The enhanced coagulant comprises a trivalent metal cation coagulant (e.g., ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate) mixed with a divalent metal cation modifier (e.g., copper sulfate or zinc sulfate).

  12. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Daud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan.

  13. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, M K; Nafees, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Bajwa, Raees Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Deeba, Farah; Murad, Waheed; Malook, Ijaz; Zhu, Shui Jin

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan.

  14. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Bajwa, Raees Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Arshad, Muhammad Umair; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Deeba, Farah; Murad, Waheed; Malook, Ijaz

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remaining 80% of population is forced to use unsafe drinking water due to the scarcity of safe and healthy drinking water sources. The primary source of contamination is sewerage (fecal) which is extensively discharged into drinking water system supplies. Secondary source of pollution is the disposal of toxic chemicals from industrial effluents, pesticides, and fertilizers from agriculture sources into the water bodies. Anthropogenic activities cause waterborne diseases that constitute about 80% of all diseases and are responsible for 33% of deaths. This review highlights the drinking water quality, contamination sources, sanitation situation, and effects of unsafe drinking water on humans. There is immediate need to take protective measures and treatment technologies to overcome unhygienic condition of drinking water supplies in different areas of Pakistan. PMID:28884130

  15. Water Contaminant Mitigation in Ionic Liquid Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David; Ziemer, John

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate system and operational requirements are needed in order to ensure mission success without unnecessary cost. Purity requirements applied to thruster propellants may flow down to materials and operations as well as the propellant preparation itself. Colloid electrospray thrusters function by applying a large potential to a room temperature liquid propellant (such as an ionic liquid), inducing formation of a Taylor cone. Ions and droplets are ejected from the Taylor cone and accelerated through a strong electric field. Electrospray thrusters are highly efficient, precise, scaleable, and demonstrate low thrust noise. Ionic liquid propellants have excellent properties for use as electrospray propellants, but can be hampered by impurities, owing to their solvent capabilities. Of foremost concern is the water content, which can result from exposure to atmosphere. Even hydrophobic ionic liquids have been shown to absorb water from the air. In order to mitigate the risks of bubble formation in feed systems caused by water content of the ionic liquid propellant, physical properties of the ionic liquid EMI-Im are analyzed. The effects of surface tension, material wetting, physisorption, and geometric details of the flow manifold and electrospray emitters are explored. Results are compared to laboratory test data.

  16. Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station is a closed and complex environment, so some contamination of its internal atmosphere and water system is expected. To protect space crews from contaminants in potable and hygiene water, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide guidance on how to develop water exposure guidelines and review NASA s development of the exposure guidelines for specific chemicals. NASA selects water contaminants for which spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) will be established; this involves identifying toxicity effects relevant to astronauts and calculating exposure concentrations on the basis of those end points. SWEGs are established for exposures of 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 days. This report is the second volume in the series, Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Chemicals. SWEG reports for acetone, alkylamines, ammonia, barium, cadmium, caprolactam, formate, formaldehyde, manganese, total organic carbon, and zinc are included in this report. The committee concludes that the SWEGs developed for these chemicals are scientifically valid based on the data reviewed by NASA and are consistent with the NRC (2000) report, Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines. SWEG reports for additional chemicals will be presented in a subsequent volume.

  17. Metallic and Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water of Cankiri, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Caylak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safe and good quality drinking water is very important for human health. Water provides some heavy metals, such as As, B, Cd, Cn, Cr, Cu, F, Cl, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Sn. These are undesirable substances dangerous to human health and cause chronic diseases and various cancers. Coliform bacteria are a commonly used bacterial indicator of sanitary quality of water. E. coli, total coliform and enterococci have been used as indicators of possible sewage contamination might pose a health risk. In this study, water samples were taken from thirty different waterworks in Cankiri, Turkey and metallic and microbial contaminants were investigated. In the drinking tap water samples have been found at concentrations exceeding the Turkish regulations (As and free Cl and the WHO guidelines (As and B. Our results also indicate that significant microbiological contaminations were found above the guidelines for drinking waters given by the WHO, because of the fact that in the distribution of water is not appropriate.

  18. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Jennifer L; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine

    2015-07-23

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant's reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer's efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  19. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Banach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  20. Microbial transformations of azaarenes in creosite-contaminated soil and ground water: Laboratory and field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Updegraff, D.M.; Bennett, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Azaarenes or aromatic nitrogen heterocycles are a class of compounds found in wood-preservative wastes containing creosote. The fate and movement of these compounds in contaminated aquifers is not well understood. Water-quality studies in an aquifer contaminated with creosote near Pensacola, Florida, indicated that ground water was contaminated with several azaarenes and their oxygenated and alkylated derivatives, suggesting that these oxygenated compounds may be products of microbial transformation reactions. Accordingly, laboratory studies were designed to investigate the fate of these compounds. Under aerobic conditions, soil pseudomonads isolated from creosote-contaminated soil converted quinoline to 2(1H)quinoline that subsequently was degraded to unknown products. A methanogenic consortium isolated from an anaerobic sewage digestor, in presence of ground-water and creosote-contaminated soil, converted quinoline, isoquinoline, and 4-methylquinoline to their respective oxygenated analogs. In addition, N-, C-, and O-methylated analogs of oxygenated azaarenes were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in aerobic cultures. Under the experimental conditions, 2-methylquinoline was biorefractory. Presence of similar biotransformation products in anaerobic cultures and contaminated ground water from the Pensacola site provided further evidence that these compounds indeed were mivrobial transformation products. Stable isotope labeling studies indicated that the source of the oxygen atom for this hydroxylation reaction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was water. A mechanism was proposed for this hydroxylation reaction. Whereas parent azaarenes are biodegradable in both anaerobic and aerobic zones, oxygenated and alkylated analogs are more biorefractory and, hence, persistent in anaerobic zones of contaminated aquifers.

  1. Wautersia: The Contingency Water Container Bacterial Contamination Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkedi, Brienne; Labuda, Laura; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    The Orbiter delivers water to the International Space Station (ISS) in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs) on each flight to the ISS. These CWCs are routinely sampled during each mission to verify the quality of the delivered water. Of the 5 samples returned on STS118/ 13A.1 in August 2007, two exhibited microbial growth exceeding potable water acceptability limits and historical data by orders of magnitude . The microbe was identified as Wautersia species and an investigation was launched to find the source of the contamination. Since then, samples collected on subsequent flights indicated additional CWCs had the same bacteria, as well as several on-orbit systems. An investigation was launched to try to find and address the source of the bacterial contamination. This paper will discuss how Wautersia was found, what Wautersia is, the investigation, and resolution.

  2. Water pinch analysis for water and wastewater minimization in Tehran oil refinery considering three contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadnejad, Shahin; Ataei, Abtin; Nabi Bidhendi, Gholam Reza; Mehrdadi, Naser; Ebadati, Fatemeh; Lotfi, Fatemeh

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to find an appropriate way to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries due to high rate of water consumption. For this purpose, Tehran oil refinery has been well studied. In this research, three key contaminants including suspended solid, hardness as well as COD have been considered to analyze the water network. In addition, the potential of water reuse was studied for all methods. These key contaminants once were analyzed separately as a single contaminant and the amount of required freshwater was calculated for them. In this stage, amount of freshwater was reduced to about 60.9 (17%), 203 (59.7%) and 143 m(3)/h (42.5%) in terms of suspended solids, hardness, and COD, respectively. Water minimization within operations for suspended solids is less than two others. Therefore, this is a limiting contaminant and can be selected as a key contaminant. In the next stage, three contaminants were analyzed two by two based on their mass transfer. Results show that, in the targeting for minimization based on the suspended solids and hardness, the amount of required water is reduced to 142.74 m(3)/h or 42%. This amount for suspended solids and COD is equal to 86.3 m(3)/h (26%) and for COD and hardness is 124 m(3)/h (37%). Analyzing the methods shows that the method based on the double contaminant gives more precise results rather than single contaminant.

  3. sessment of ground water contamination in Erode District, Tamilnadu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... SO4, Na, CO3 and HCO3. The present investigation shows a constant variation in different parameters in different locations. So it is highly important to take periodical monitoring of the ground water quality in this region for future sustainability. Key words: Erode district, Tamilnadu, contamination assessment, tanneries and ...

  4. Ground water arsenic contamination: A local survey in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  5. Effective bioreduction of hexavalent chromium–contaminated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective bioreduction of hexavalent chromium–contaminated water in fixed-film bioreactors. ... reduction was evident. This is the first up-scaled, effective demonstration of a biological chromium(VI) bioremediation system in South Africa. Keywords: Bioreduction, fixed-film reactor, hexavalent chromium, microbial diversity ...

  6. Preliminary assessment of the contamination of the marine water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facing the problem of the pollution of the watery ecosystems world-wide, a preliminary assessment of the contamination of marine environment was performed on samples of water and fish coming from the Atlantic Ocean on the coasts of Cotonou. Aluminium (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) ...

  7. Assessment of the contamination of fresh water ecosystems by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed reports and records of the contamination of fresh water ecosystem by pesticides and herbicides in irrigated rice fields and their effects on fish production. It highlights pesticides and herbicides application in agriculture in view of the transfer and degradation processes. The pesticides often remain ...

  8. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: Toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that ZnSO4 was significantly toxic to the fish only after 96 hours. Co-contamination of the water with both toxicants was found to ameliorate the toxic effects of ZnSO4 significantly. The metal chelating property of glyphosate may be responsible for the observed attenuation of toxicity in the fish in Group ...

  9. Bacterial contamination of hemodialysis water in three randomly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-05

    Nov 5, 2015 ... E-mail: yok8t@yahoo.com. Bacterial contamination of hemodialysis water in ... processed, patients can develop septicemia or endotoxemia either directly or indirectly. Consequence of microbial .... conducted in six centers in Lagos,[16] Escherichia coli was the commonly isolated bacteria perhaps due to the ...

  10. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provide emergency supplies of clean water to any locality confronted with a source of contaminated water... interests to provide normal supplies of water. (9) State, tribal, and local governments must make full use... interests are responsible for restoration of the routine supply of clean drinking water, including...

  11. Assessing Inhalation Exposures Associated with Contamination Events in Water Distribution Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Davis

    Full Text Available When a water distribution system (WDS is contaminated, short-term inhalation exposures to airborne contaminants could occur as the result of domestic water use. The most important domestic sources of such exposures are likely to be showering and the use of aerosol-producing humidifiers, i.e., ultrasonic and impeller (cool-mist units. A framework is presented for assessing the potential effects of short-term, system-wide inhalation exposures that could result from such activities during a contamination event. This framework utilizes available statistical models for showering frequency and duration, available exposure models for showering and humidifier use, and experimental results on both aerosol generation and the volatilization of chemicals during showering. New models for the times when showering occurs are developed using time-use data for the United States. Given a lack of similar models for how humidifiers are used, or the information needed to develop them, an analysis of the sensitivity of results to assumptions concerning humidifier use is presented. The framework is applied using network models for three actual WDSs. Simple models are developed for estimating upper bounds on the potential effects of system-wide inhalation exposures associated with showering and humidifier use. From a system-wide, population perspective, showering could result in significant inhalation doses of volatile chemical contaminants, and humidifier use could result in significant inhalation doses of microbial contaminants during a contamination event. From a system-wide perspective, showering is unlikely to be associated with significant doses of microbial contaminants. Given the potential importance of humidifiers as a source of airborne contaminants during a contamination event, an improved understanding of the nature of humidifier use is warranted.

  12. Effects of Crude Oil Contaminated Water On Haematocrit and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were allowed access to rat feed and tap water ad libitum for two weeks acclimatization. Different concentrations of crude oil (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) were mixed with tap water and served to five experimental groups. The sixth group received 100% tap water and served as control. The study lasted for 28 days after which ...

  13. Intentional and inadvertent chemical contamination of food, water, and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCKay, Charles; Scharman, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    Numerous examples of chemical contamination of food, water, or medication have led to steps by regulatory agencies to maintain the safety of this critical social infrastructure and supply chain. Identification of contaminant site is important. Environmental testing and biomonitoring can define the nature and extent of the event and are useful for providing objective information, but may be unavailable in time for clinical care. Clinical diagnosis should be based on toxidrome recognition and assessment of public health implications. There are several resources available to assist and these can be accessed through regional poison control centers or local/state public health departments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ground Water Arsenic Contamination: A Local Survey in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Rahman, Md Samiur; Iqubal, Md Asif; Ali, Mohammad; Niraj, Pintoo Kumar; Anand, Gautam; Kumar, Prabhat; Abhinav; Ghosh, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In the present times, arsenic poisoning contamination in the ground water has caused lots of health-related problems in the village population residing in middle Gangetic plain. In Bihar, about 16 districts have been reported to be affected with arsenic poisoning. For the ground water and health assessment, Simri village of Buxar district was undertaken which is a flood plain region of river Ganga. In this study, 322 water samples were collected for arsenic estimation, and their results were analyzed. Furthermore, the correlation between arsenic contamination in ground water with depth and its distance from river Ganga were analyzed. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation and total variation present in a set of data was analyzed through one-way analysis of variance. The difference among mean values has been analyzed by applying Dunnett's test. The criterion for statistical significance was set at P Halwa Patti and Doodhi Patti strips were the most affected strips with high-arsenic concentration in hand pumps. Furthermore, a correlation between the arsenic concentration with the depth of the hand pumps and the distance from the river Ganga was also a significant study. The present study concludes that in Simri village there is high contamination of arsenic in ground water in all the strips. Such a huge population is at very high risk leading the village on the verge of causing health hazards among them. Therefore, an immediate strategy is required to combat the present problem.

  15. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique Md; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, M Sirajul; Arnold, Benjamin F; Johnston, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Livestock ownership and microbial contamination of drinking-water: Evidence from nationally representative household surveys in Ghana, Nepal and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Hill, Allan G.; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Wright, Jim A.

    2018-01-01

    Highlights • Owning livestock can increase the risk of drinking-water contamination. • Large livestock were associated with water contamination in Ghana and Bangladesh. • Poultry were associated with drinking-water contamination in Bangladesh. • Livestock were not significantly correlated with water contamination in Nepal. • Livestock excreta should be considered for the prevention of water contamination.

  17. Review of advanced methods for treating radioactive contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubourg, M. [CARBONE 14, 78 - Le Mesnil Saint Denis (France)

    2002-07-01

    The accidental release of large quantities of radionuclide after a nuclear accident tends to contaminate the groundwater system of rivers and lakes by the transfer of the main radionuclides such as Cesium 137, Strontium 90 or Cobalt 60, Ruthenium 106 and others (including transuranic radionuclides, such as: Pu 239, Pu 240, Am 241..). The aim of this paper is to review the possible solutions for the removal of these contaminants from large quantities of water. the use of crown ethers for the selective removal of strontium 90 such as the di-cyclohexyl 18 crown 6 which is able to remove with 90% of efficiency the strontium. the use of zeolites for the removal of Cesium 137. On larger scale the use of electromagnetic filtration technology is able to process in a relatively short time large quantities of water by using a seeding system of resin coated metallic magnetic particles to enhance the filtering efficiency under cold conditions. Examples of efficiencies and results obtained on loops at a fairly large will be given in this paper, theses examples show rather high efficiency of removal even at low concentration of contaminants (a few ppb: part per billion). Examples of water treatment concepts will be also given for treatment of contaminated surface water and to treat large groundwater applications. Major applications could be implemented on various sites namely in Russia (Karatchai lake) or in Belarus and Ukraine. The magnetic filtration is not a new concept but with the use of various selective adsorbing treatment particles, this concept has been proven so effective that dissolved metals in process water have been reduced to level in the very low ppb range. (authors)

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  19. 78 FR 55694 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming AGENCY... review of the draft research report titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion...

  20. 77 FR 19012 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...] Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Agency policy or views. Eastern Research Group, Inc., an EPA contractor for external peer review, will...

  1. Solar or UVA-Visible Photocatalytic Ozonation of Water Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Fernando J; Rey, Ana

    2017-07-14

    An incipient advanced oxidation process, solar photocatalytic ozonation (SPO), is reviewed in this paper with the aim of clarifying the importance of this process as a more sustainable water technology to remove priority or emerging contaminants from water. The synergism between ozonation and photocatalytic oxidation is well known to increase the oxidation rate of water contaminants, but this has mainly been studied in photocatalytic ozonation systems with lamps of different radiation wavelength, especially of ultraviolet nature (UVC, UVB, UVA). Nowadays, process sustainability is critical in environmental technologies including water treatment and reuse; the application of SPO systems falls into this category, and contributes to saving energy and water. In this review, we summarized works published on photocatalytic ozonation where the radiation source is the Sun or simulated solar light, specifically, lamps emitting radiation to cover the UVA and visible light spectra. The main aspects of the review include photoreactors used and radiation sources applied, synthesis and characterization of catalysts applied, influence of main process variables (ozone, catalyst, and pollutant concentrations, light intensity), type of water, biodegradability and ecotoxicity, mechanism and kinetics, and finally catalyst activity and stability.

  2. Perchlorate Contamination of Drinking Water: Regulatory Issues and Legislative Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-16

    contaminated. The FDA found perchlorate in roughly 90% of lettuce samples (average levels ranged from 11.9 ppb to 7.7 ppb for lettuces ), and in 101...and Adult Men and Women Living in the United States,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in Environmental Health Perspectives, December 2006...the amounts typically observed in water supplies.5 However, a 2006 study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of a representative

  3. Biochemical response of ouda sheep to water contaminated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of was conducted to assess the biochemical response of sheep to water contaminated with NPK 15-15-15 inorganic fertilizer. Twenty (20) growing ouda rams between 10 and 13 months old with an average live weight of 20.01 ± 0.35 kg were used in the trial that lasted for 21 days. The animals were divided into ...

  4. Modeling of coastal water contamination in Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, S P; Rosman, P.C.C.; Álvarez Díaz, César; Schetini, C.A.F.; Souza,R. O. de; R.H.S.F. Vieira

    2015-01-01

    An important tool in environmental management projects and studies due to the complexity of environmental systems, environmental modeling makes it possible to integrate many variables and processes, thereby providing a dynamic view of systems. In this study the bacteriological quality of the coastal waters of Fortaleza (Brazil) was modeled considering multiple contamination sources. Using the software SisBaHiA, the dispersion of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli from three sources...

  5. In-Situ Detection of Contaminant Plumes in Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    of Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory In-Situ Detection of Contaminant Plumes in Ground Water W. Rudott Setz August 1990 U S APMY...immunochemnical methodis for system (Inmanect al. 1989). Another attractiv : approach tetryl. benizene. dieldrin and paria-chloroptienylm.-th- is to us. a...not been any further work on cyanide. censt complexes. Of the important metal mo conuamni- The Office of Naval Research has recently made the nairts

  6. Modeling of coastal water contamination in Fortaleza (Northeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S P; Rosman, P C C; Alvarez, C; Schetini, C A F; Souza, R O; Vieira, R H S F

    2015-01-01

    An important tool in environmental management projects and studies due to the complexity of environmental systems, environmental modeling makes it possible to integrate many variables and processes, thereby providing a dynamic view of systems. In this study the bacteriological quality of the coastal waters of Fortaleza (a state capital in Northeastern Brazil) was modeled considering multiple contamination sources. Using the software SisBaHiA, the dispersion of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli from three sources of contamination (local rivers, storm drains and submarine outfall) was analyzed. The models took into account variations in bacterial decay due to solar radiation and other environmental factors. Fecal pollution discharged from rivers and storm drains is transported westward by coastal currents, contaminating strips of beach water to the left of each storm drain or river. Exception to this condition only occurs on beaches protected by the breakwater of the harbor, where counterclockwise vortexes reverse this behavior. The results of the models were consistent with field measurements taken during the dry and the rainy season. Our results show that the submarine outfall plume was over 2 km from the nearest beach. The storm drains and the Maceió stream are the main factors responsible for the poor water quality on the waterfront of Fortaleza. The depollution of these sources would generate considerable social, health and economic gains for the region.

  7. Cleaning Surface Particle Contamination with Ultrapure Water (UPW) Megasonic Flow on Genesis Array Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Calaway, Michael J.; Hittle, J. D.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The hard landing experienced by the Genesis sample return capsule breached the science canister containing the solar wind collectors. This impact into the damp lakebed contaminated collector surfaces with pulverized collector and spacecraft materials and Utah sediment and brine residue. The gold foil, polished aluminum, and bulk metallic glass remained intact, but the solar wind bulk and regime-specific array collectors were jarred loose from their frames and fractured into greater than 10,000 specimens. After a year of investigation and cleaning experimentation, the Genesis Science Team determined that array collectors had 4 classes of contaminants: particles, molecular film, submicron inorganic particulate ("aerosol"), and pre-launch surface contamination. We discuss here use of megasonically energized ultrapure water (UPW) for removing particulate debris from array collector fragments.

  8. Contamination levels of domestic water sources in Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental design was adopted, where water samples derived from four different sources i.e. from treated surface water, deep boreholes, wash boreholes and harvested rainwater were tested in the laboratory for pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium ...

  9. 78 FR 2396 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... contamination, based on resident complaints about smells, tastes, and adverse changes in water quality of their...

  10. 77 FR 3770 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... report titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming'' (FRL-9506-7; 76 FR... ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' is available via the Internet on the EPA...

  11. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  12. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC DYES FROM CONTAMINATED WATER USING COFE2O4 /REDUCED GRAPHENE OXIDE NANOCOMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sakhaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, lots of materials such as active carbon, iron, manganese, zirconium, and metal oxides have been widely used for removal of dyes from contaminated water. Among these, ferrite nanoparticle is an interesting magnetic material due to its moderate saturation magnetization, excellent chemical stability and mechanical hardness. Graphene, a new class of 2D carbonaceous material with atom thick layer features, has attracted much attention recently due to its high specific surface area. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO has also been of great interest because of its unique properties, which are similar to those of graphene, such as specific surface area, making it an ideal candidate for dye removal. Thus far, few works have been carried out on the preparation of CoFe2O4-rGO composite and its applications in removal of contaminants from water. In this paper, CoFe2O4 reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite was fabricated using hydrothermal process. During the hydrothermal process, the reduction of graphene oxide and growth of CoFe2O4 simultaneously occurred on the carbon basal planes under the conditions generated in the hydrothermal system. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy contaminant and UV-Vis spectroscopy as the analytical method. The experimental results suggest that this material has great potential for treating Congo red contaminated water.

  13. Sperm motility, fertilization, and larval development of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen in copper-contaminated water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robie Allan Bombardelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of copper-contaminated water on sperm motility, fertilization, and embryonic and larval development of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen. A randomized experimental design with five treatments and four replicates was used. Two experiments were carried out: (1 controlled fertilization was performed under different levels of copper contamination and egg hatching was performed in clean water; and (2 copper-contaminated water was used for both fertilization and hatching assays. The time of sperm motility and sperm motility rates linearly decreased with increasing copper concentration in the water. Fertilization and hatching rates were also affected when the concentrations of copper in the water were above 0.0979 mg Cu+2 L-1 and 0.0331 mg Cu+2 L-1, respectively. Gamete exposure to levels between 15 mg Cu+2 L-1 and 60 mg Cu+2 L-1 for short periods of time negatively affected sperm motility, oocyte fertilization, and egg hatching rates. In addition, when gametes and embryos were exposed at levels above 0.03 mg Cu+2 L-1 during long periods of time, egg hatching rates were reduced, and at levels between 0.05 mg Cu+2 L-1 and 0.20 mg Cu+2 L-1 the number of abnormal larvae increased.

  14. Simplified analysis of contaminant rejection during ground- and surface water nanofiltration under the information collection rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellam, S; Taylor, J S

    2001-07-01

    A simple, closed-form analytical expression based on the homogenous solution diffusion model is derived for contaminant removal during nanofiltration (NF) of ground and surface water. Solute permeation and back-diffusion coefficients were used as fitting parameters to model rejection characteristics of four thin-film composite NF membranes under conditions typical of drinking water NF. Nonlinear fits of the model to experimental data suggests that the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA)'s Information Collection Rule protocol for bench-scale studies could be improved to obtain greater precision of the mass transfer coefficients. The model was found to fit rejection data for several water treatment contaminants including total organic carbon, precursors to total organic halide, four trihalomethanes and nine haloacetic acids containing chlorine and bromine, calcium and total hardness, alkalinity and conductivity. The simplified approach to mass transfer calculations from multisolute systems suggests that feed water recovery has a stronger influence on contaminant rejection than permeate flux. Evidence for coupled transport of divalent inorganic ions is also presented. Even though the model developed does not account for ion coupling and cannot be applied in a purely predictive mode, it can assist in the better design and interpretation of data obtained from site-specific pilot-scale water treatment NF studies conducted in support of plant design.

  15. Experimental demonstration of water based tunable metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odit, Mikhail; Kapitanova, Polina; Andryieuski, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A simple dynamically tunable metasurface (two-dimensional metamaterial) operating at microwave frequencies is developed and experimentally investigated. Conceptually, the simplicity of the approach is granted by reconfigurable properties of unit cells partially filled with distilled water....... The transmission spectra of the metasurface for linear and circular polarizations of the incident wave were experimentally measured under the metasurface rotation around a horizontal axis. The changes in the transmission coefficient magnitude up to 8 dB at 1.25 GHz are reported while rotating the metasurface...

  16. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  17. Barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Pedro A.; Salgado, Maria Antónia; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    The use of barnacles as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters worldwide is reviewed as a critique compilation of the reported studies and presents resume-tables of available data for future reference. The barnacle body reflects both short and long-term metal level environmental variations and the metal bioaccumulation occurs mainly in their granules (relatively inactive pools). The barnacle body is considered as good biomonitoring material and different barnacle species could bioaccumulate metal concentration ranges of 40-153,000 μg/g of Zn, 20-22,230 μg/g de Fe, 1.5-21,800 μg/g of Cu, 5.9-4742 μg/g of Mn, 0.1-1000 μg/g of Pb, 0.7-330 μg/g of Cd, 0.4-99 μg/g of Ni and 0.2-49 μg/g of Cr. However, as the plates ('shells') of barnacle exoskeletons can be affected by metal levels in coastal waters, mainly in their composition and morphology, they are not considered good biomonitoring material. Despite this, the use of a specific barnacle species or group of species in a specific region must firstly be carefully validated and the interpretation of the contaminant bioaccumulation levels should involve specific environmental variations of the region, physiological parameters of the barnacle species and the relationship between the potential toxicity of the contaminant for the environment and their significance for the barnacle species. Barnacles, particularly a widespread cosmopolitan species such as Amphibalanus amphitrite, have a great potential as biomonitors of anthropogenic contamination in coastal waters and have been used worldwide, including Europe (United Kingdom, Turkey, Poland, Croatia, Spain and Portugal), Asia (India and China), Oceania (Australia), North America (Florida, Massachusetts and Mexico) and South America (Brazil). The use of barnacle species as biomonitors of metal contamination in coastal waters is considered an important and valuable tool to evaluate and predict the ecological quality of an ecosystem.

  18. Experimental Flat-Field for Correction of XRT Contamination Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D. E.; Fox, J. L.; Kankelborg, C.

    2012-08-01

    Beginning in mid-2007, the XRT images are marred by dark spots due to beads of congealed contaminant. While programs are available for improving the cosmetic appearance of the images, no method has yet been demonstrated for a quantitative correction. We have employed a flatfielding method developed for MSU's MOSES sounding rocket payload, in an attempt to restore capabilities for quantitative photometry in the affected pixels. Initial results are encouraging; characterization of the uncertainties in the photometric correction are ongoing. We report on the degree to which this flatfielding attempt has been successful.

  19. Why Do People Stop Treating Contaminated Drinking Water with Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) is a simple method designed to treat microbiologically contaminated drinking water at household level. This article characterizes relapse behavior in comparison with continued SODIS use after a 7-month nonpromotion period. In addition, different subtypes among relapsers and continuers were assumed to diverge mainly…

  20. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  1. Correlation between nitrate contamination and ground water pollution potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shafiul H; Kehew, Alan E; Passero, Richard N

    2003-01-01

    AQUIPRO, a PC-based method, was used to assess aquifer vulnerability using digital water well logs. The AQUIPRO model is a parameter/factor weighting system for rating the pollution potential of an aquifer. This method uses the well depth, as well as the clay and partial clay thickness in a well, to generate pollution potential scores. In this model, aquifer protection increases as the AQUIPRO vulnerability scores increase and ground water pollution potential decreases. Computerized water well records of 2435 domestic wells with partial chemistry data were used to determine the ground water pollution potential of Kalamazoo County, Michigan. Theoretically, low AQUIPRO pollution potential scores should have more frequent occurrences of ground water contamination events than areas with high AQUIPRO scores with similar land-use, well construction, and well densities. The relative AQUIPRO scores were compared with the frequency of occurrences of nitrate-N in ground water wells. The average nitrate-N concentrations within each relative AQUIPRO vulnerability scores category were also compared. The results indicate that domestic wells containing 5 mg/L or more nitrate-N showed a positive correlation between the frequency of occurrences of nitrate-N and relative decrease of AQUIPRO (r2 = 0.99) vulnerability scores. In other words, as the ground water pollution potential increases, the occurrence frequency of nitrate-N also increases. Furthermore, the results show that as the relative AQUIPRO (r2 = 0.96) vulnerability scores decrease, the mean nitrate-N concentrations also increase.

  2. Muddying the Waters: A New Area of Concern for Drinking Water Contamination in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Healy Profitós

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In urban Maroua, Cameroon, improved drinking water sources are available to a large majority of the population, yet this water is frequently distributed through informal distribution systems and stored in home containers (canaries, leaving it vulnerable to contamination. We assessed where contamination occurs within the distribution system, determined potential sources of environmental contamination, and investigated potential pathogens. Gastrointestinal health status (785 individuals was collected via health surveys. Drinking water samples were collected from drinking water sources and canaries. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were evaluated and molecular detection was performed to measure human-associated faecal marker, HF183; tetracycline-resistance gene, tetQ; Campylobacter spp.; and Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between microbial contamination and gastrointestinal illness. Canari samples had higher levels of contamination than source samples. HF183 and tetQ were detected in home and source samples. An inverse relationship was found between tetQ and E. coli. Presence of tetQ with lower E. coli levels increased the odds of reported diarrhoeal illness than E. coli levels alone. Further work is warranted to better assess the relationship between antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and other pathogens in micro-ecosystems within canaries and this relationship’s impact on drinking water quality.

  3. Muddying the waters: a new area of concern for drinking water contamination in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profitós, Jessica M Healy; Mouhaman, Arabi; Lee, Seungjun; Garabed, Rebecca; Moritz, Mark; Piperata, Barbara; Tien, Joe; Bisesi, Michael; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-11-28

    In urban Maroua, Cameroon, improved drinking water sources are available to a large majority of the population, yet this water is frequently distributed through informal distribution systems and stored in home containers (canaries), leaving it vulnerable to contamination. We assessed where contamination occurs within the distribution system, determined potential sources of environmental contamination, and investigated potential pathogens. Gastrointestinal health status (785 individuals) was collected via health surveys. Drinking water samples were collected from drinking water sources and canaries. Escherichia coli and total coliform levels were evaluated and molecular detection was performed to measure human-associated faecal marker, HF183; tetracycline-resistance gene, tetQ; Campylobacter spp.; and Staphylococcus aureus. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between microbial contamination and gastrointestinal illness. Canari samples had higher levels of contamination than source samples. HF183 and tetQ were detected in home and source samples. An inverse relationship was found between tetQ and E. coli. Presence of tetQ with lower E. coli levels increased the odds of reported diarrhoeal illness than E. coli levels alone. Further work is warranted to better assess the relationship between antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and other pathogens in micro-ecosystems within canaries and this relationship's impact on drinking water quality.

  4. Management of contaminated bone grafts: an experimental in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooe, W; Steinberg, B

    1996-07-01

    This study tested various protocols for bone decontamination after bacterial contact to determine if these treatments altered bone structure. Femurs from five Sprague-Dawley rats were sectioned and separated into eight groups. These were contaminated in a broth containing Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Subsequently, the groups were treated with eight different decontamination regimens. A Scheffe's Grouping test was used to statistically compare the bacterial counts after each treatment protocol. Treatment with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and 4% alcohol, Neosporin, cefazolin, and saline solution had little effect on bacterial growth. However, povidone-iodine, autoclaving, and ethyl alcohol with ethanol did significantly decrease the bacterial colony counts from the bone specimens. The autoclave and ethyl alcohol/ethanol induced changes in bony histologic examination. Results suggested that povidone-iodine decontaminates bone specimens without altering histologic conditions. Determination of successful grafting of bone treated with this protocol is required before its recommendation for clinical use.

  5. [Investigation on contamination of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water and environmental water in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; He, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Qian; Ma, Xiao-Jiang; Cai, Li

    2010-12-30

    To understand the contamination status of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia lamblia in drinking water, source water and environmental water in Shanghai. All water samples collected from drinking water, source water and environmental water were detected by a procedure of micromembrane filtration, immune magnetic separation (IMS), and immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were not found in 156 samples of the drinking water including finished water, tap water, or pipe water for directly drinking in communities. Among 70 samples either source water of water plants (15 samples), environmental water from Huangpu River(25), canal water around animal sheds(15), exit water from waste-water treatment plants(9), or waste water due to daily life(6), Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 1(6.7%), 2(8.0%), 7(46.7%), 1(11.1%), and 1(16.7%) samples, respectively; and Giardia cysts were detected in 1(6.7%), 3(12.0%), 6 (40.0%), 2(22.2%), and 2(33.3%), respectively. The positive rate of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was 17.1% (12/70) and 20.0% (14/70), respectively. No Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts have been detected in drinking water, but found in source water and environmental water samples in Shanghai.

  6. 75 FR 39935 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Web Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Web dialogue. The discussion topics for this Web dialogue are focused on the first of the four... contaminants as group(s). The proposed discussion topics are: Addressing Drinking Water Contaminants as Groups... AGENCY RIN 2040-AD94 Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)--Notice of Web Dialogue AGENCY...

  7. Proceedings of the Radionuclide Contamination in Water Resources Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J H; Duisebayev, B; Janecky, D R; Knapp, R; Rosenburg, N D; Smith, D K; Tompson, A F B; Tyupkina, O; Veselov, V V

    2001-07-26

    A workshop entitled ''Radionuclide Contamination in Water Resources'' was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan from Tuesday 29 May through Friday 1 June. This workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and three organizations from the Republic of Kazakhstan: the Institute of Nonproliferation, the Institute of Hydrogeology and Hydrophysics, and KazAtomProm. Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, three national laboratories, and 13 different organizations from the Republic of Kazakhstan attended the workshop. A complete list of attendees, the workshop program, and information on the background and motivation for this workshop are provided in this report. The objective of the workshop was to identify critical problems, discover what is known about the problems related to radionuclide contamination of groundwater resources, form collaborative teams, and produce a small number proposals that both address further characterization and assess risk via contaminant fate and transport modeling. We plan to present these proposals to U.S. government agencies and international sponsors for funding.

  8. Trace element hydrochemistry indicating water contamination in and around the Yangbajing geothermal field, Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Wang, Yanxin

    2009-10-01

    Thirty-eight water samples were collected at Yangbajing to investigate the water contamination resulting from natural geothermal water discharge and anthropogenic geothermal wastewater drainage. The results indicate that snow or snow melting waters, Yangbajing River waters and cold groundwaters are free from geothermal water-related contamination, whereas Zangbo river waters are contaminated by geothermal wastewaters. Moreover, there may exist geothermal springs under the riverbed of a tributary stream of Zangbo River as shown by its Cd, Li, Mo and Pb concentrations. The efforts made in this study show trace element hydrochemistry can well indicate water quality degradation related to geothermal water exploitation.

  9. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water

  10. Contamination of hospital tap water: the survival and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on conventional and 'antimicrobial' outlet fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, C F; Moore, G; Thompson, K-A; Webb, J; Walker, J T

    2017-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections have been linked to contaminated hospital taps, highlighting the potential for tap outlet fittings (OF) to harbour biofilm. P. aeruginosa may be transferred to OFs via contaminated cleaning cloths. Suggested interventions include flushing regimens and alternative OF designs. To investigate the transfer of P. aeruginosa from a contaminated cleaning cloth to conventional and 'antimicrobial/antibiofilm' OFs and to determine whether this contamination persists and/or leads to contamination of tap water. Microfibre cloths contaminated with P. aeruginosa (108 cfu/mL) were used to wipe four different types of OF [one of conventional design (OF-A) and three marketed as 'antimicrobial' and/or 'antibiofilm' (OF- B, -C and -D)]. OFs were inserted into an experimental water distribution system for up to 24 h. Survival was assessed by culture. Single and multiple water samples were collected and cultured for P. aeruginosa. The median number of P. aeruginosa transferred from cloth to OF was 5.7 × 105 cfu (OF-A), 1.9 × 106 cfu (OF-B), 1.4 × 105 cfu (OF-C) and 2.9 × 106 cfu (OF-D). Numbers declined on all OFs during the 24 h period with log reductions ranging from 3.5 (OF-C) to 5.2 (OF-B; P > 0.05). All water samples delivered immediately after OF contamination contained P. aeruginosa at ≥10 cfu per 100 mL. Contamination of water delivered from OF-A persisted despite continued flushing. Water delivered from OF-B did not contain P. aeruginosa beyond the first flush. Contaminated cleaning cloths may transfer P. aeruginosa to OFs, leading to contamination of tap water. Although not removing the potential for contamination, 'antimicrobial/antibiofilm' OFs may prevent P. aeruginosa from continually contaminating water delivered from the outlet. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of Arsenazo III contaminated heavy water stored at Darlington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A., E-mail: sriram.s@kinectrics.com [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Williams, D., E-mail: denny.williams@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, Bowmanville, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) has accumulated over 48 drums of chemistry laboratory waste arising from analysis of heavy water (D{sub 2}O). Several organic, including Arsenazo III, and inorganic contaminants present in these drums results in high total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity. These drums have not been processed due to uncertainties related to clean-up of Arsenazo III contaminated heavy water. This paper provides details of chemical characterization as well as bench scale studies performed to demonstrate the feasibility of treating the downgraded D{sub 2}O to the stringent target specifications of <1 ppm TOC and <0.1mS/m conductivity, required for feed to the Station Upgrading Plant (SUP). Both ionic organic species such as glycolate, acetate and formate as well as neutral organics such as acetone, methanol and ethylene glycol were detected in all the samples. Morpholine and propylene glycol were detected in one sample. Arsenazo III was determined to be not a major contaminant (maximum 8.4 ppm) in these waste drums, compared to the other organic contaminants present. Various unit processes such as pH adjustment, granular activated carbon (GAC), ion exchange resin (IX), UV-peroxide oxidation (UV-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatments, nanofiltration (NF) as well as reverse osmosis (RO) were tested on a bench scale both singly as well as in various combinations to evaluate their ability to achieve the stringent target conductivity and TOC specifications. Among the various bench scale tests evaluated, the successive processing train used at DNGS and consisting of GAC+IX+UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}+IX (polishing) unit operations was found to meet target specifications for both conductivity and TOC. Unit processes comprising (GAC+IX) and (RO-double pass + GAC+IX) met conductivity targets but failed to meet TOC specifications. The results of GAC+IX tests clearly emphasize the importance of using low flow rates for successful reduction in both conductivity as

  12. Experimental design of diffusion and desorption of contaminant in heterogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guannan; Crimi, Michelle; Fowler, Kathleen; Fu, Xiaojing

    2011-01-01

    Storage of contaminants in low permeability media (LPM) presents a great challenge for prediction of remediation effectiveness and efficiency. The reason lies in the contaminants' complex behaviors within heterogeneous media. Both interparticle and intraparticle diffusion contribute to the difficulty of precise site assessment. Sorption of contaminants--especially within LPM--may sequester the contaminants from active treatment, while desorption over a long period of time leads to contaminant release from storage and consequent re-contamination. Research has been conducted toward better understanding of contaminant diffusion and sorption/desorption processes to better predict contaminant response to site treatment. However, most of the research has been carried out within homogeneous media, while real scenarios in environmental problems feature media whose permeability and other characteristics vary significantly over the treatment volume. Further, few efforts have combined the interparticle/intraparticle diffusion and sorption/desorption processes together. This research aims at a feasible experimental design of diffusion and desorption of contaminant in heterogeneous media to address the gaps in previous research. A 2-D experimental system was designed to evaluate interparticle/intraparticle diffusion processes of trichloroethylene (TCE) in heterogeneous media. The 2-D system was modified to include organic matter in media for simulation of sorption/desorption processes. Results of the research will improve the understanding of how these different transport processes act together within heterogeneous media. Results will also allow for the evaluation of the impact of contaminant mass transport from within low permeability media at a potential treatment site and can support the development of mathematical tools/models combining interparticle/intraparticle and sorption/desorption processes. Such a model will promote more accurate site assessment and provide more

  13. Water contamination and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrients, bacteria, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminates have degraded water quality of the Harlem River. The Harlem River is a natural straight connected to the Hudson River and the East River, and it has been used for navigation and boating. Water samples have been collected and analyzed from 2011 to 2013. Phosphorus, ammonia, turbidity, fecal coliform, E.Coli., and enterococcus all exceed regulated levels for New York City waters. There is only one wastewater treatment plant (Wards Island WWTP) that serves this river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge raw sewage into the river during storms in spring and summer. Commercial fishing is banned, .however, individuals still fish. While some fishermen catch and release, it is likely some fish are consumed, creating concern for the environmental health of the community along the river. Storm water runoff, CSOs, and wastewater effluents are major pollutant sources of PCB 11 (3,3' dichlorobiphenyl), nutrient and bacteria. Nutrients, bacteria levels and their spatial/temporal variations were analyzed, and PCB analysis is underway. This data is a critical first step towards improving the water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River.

  14. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN DRINKING WATER: AN ASSESSMENT FOR TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem BİLİCİ ÇALIŞKAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the most abundant elements in the earth's crust and classified as a non-metal or a metalloid. Arsenic is toxic and carcinogen and in the environment occurs from both natural and anthropogenic sources. In the aqueous environment inorganic arsenic appears commonly in forms of arsenite (As(III and arsenate (As(V. pH, redox potential, and the presence of complexing ions such as ions of sulfur, iron, and calcium determine the arsenic valence and speciation. Because of the naturally occurring arsenic contamination in groundwater in many parts of the world many people have faced with risk of arsenic poisoning. In Turkey especially in the west regions, natural water sources contained much higher levels of arsenic than maximum contaminated level (MCL set (10 ?g/L were determined. In this study, arsenic problem and its reasons in Turkey were investigated. For this purpose, arsenic analyses were carried out and higher levels of arsenic than MCL was detected in some regions of Izmir. High levels of arsenic in these natural waters were considered to be associated with the dissolution of some minerals and rock formation.

  15. Experimental and AI-based numerical modeling of contaminant transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourani, Vahid; Mousavi, Shahram; Sadikoglu, Fahreddin; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-10-01

    This study developed a new hybrid artificial intelligence (AI)-meshless approach for modeling contaminant transport in porous media. The key innovation of the proposed approach is that both black box and physically-based models are combined for modeling contaminant transport. The effectiveness of the approach was evaluated using experimental and real world data. Artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) were calibrated to predict temporal contaminant concentrations (CCs), and the effect of noisy and de-noised data on the model performance was evaluated. Then, considering the predicted CCs at test points (TPs, in experimental study) and piezometers (in Myandoab plain) as interior conditions, the multiquadric radial basis function (MQ-RBF), as a meshless approach which solves partial differential equation (PDE) of contaminant transport in porous media, was employed to estimate the CC values at any point within the study area where there was no TP or piezometer. Optimal values of the dispersion coefficient in the advection-dispersion PDE and shape coefficient of MQ-RBF were determined using the imperialist competitive algorithm. In temporal contaminant transport modeling, de-noised data enhanced the performance of ANN and ANFIS methods in terms of the determination coefficient, up to 6 and 5%, respectively, in the experimental study and up to 39 and 18%, respectively, in the field study. Results showed that the efficiency of ANFIS-meshless model was more than ANN-meshless model up to 2 and 13% in the experimental and field studies, respectively.

  16. Simulation of external contamination into water distribution systems through defects in pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, P. A.; Mora, J. J.; García, F. J.; López, G.

    2009-04-01

    Water quality can be defined as a set of properties (physical, biological and chemical) that determine its suitability for human use or for its role in the biosphere. In this contribution we focus on the possible impact on water distribution systems quality of external contaminant fluids entering through defects in pipes. The physical integrity of the distribution system is a primary barrier against the entry of external contaminants and the loss in quality of the treated drinking water, but this integrity can be broken. Deficiencies in physical and hydraulic integrity can lead into water losses, but also into the influx of contaminants through pipes walls, either through breaks coming from external subsoil waters, or via cross connections coming from sewerage or other facilities. These external contamination events (the so called pathogen intrusion phenomenon) can act as a source of income by introducing nutrients and sediments as well as decreasing disinfectant concentrations within the distribution system, thus resulting in a degradation of the distribution water quality. The objective of this contribution is to represent this pathogen intrusion phenomenon. The combination of presence of defects in the infrastructures (equipment failure), suppression and back-siphonage and lack of disinfection is the cause of propagation of contamination in the clean current of water. Intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms has been studied and registered even in well maintained services. Therefore, this situation can happen when negative pressure conditions are achieved in the systems combined with the presence of defects in pipes nearby the suppression. A simulation of the process by which the external fluids can come inside pipes across their defects in a steady-state situation will be considered, by using different techniques to get such a successful modeling, combining numerical and experimental simulations. The proposed modeling process is based on experimental and

  17. Residential tap water contamination following the Freedom Industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Andrew J; McMillan, LaKia; Connell, Matt; Kelley, Keven M; Gill, Jeff P; White, Kevin D; Gupta, Rahul; Dey, Rajarshi; Novy, Caroline

    2015-01-20

    During January 2014, an industrial solvent contaminated West Virginia’s Elk River and 15% of the state population’s tap water. A rapid in-home survey and water testing was conducted 2 weeks following the spill to understand resident perceptions, tap water chemical levels, and premise plumbing flushing effectiveness. Water odors were detected in all 10 homes sampled before and after premise plumbing flushing. Survey and medical data indicated flushing caused adverse health impacts. Bench-scale experiments and physiochemical property predictions showed flushing promoted chemical volatilization, and contaminants did not appreciably sorb into cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe. Flushing reduced tap water 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) concentrations within some but not all homes. 4-MCHM was detected at unflushed (<10 to 420 μg/L) and flushed plumbing systems (<10 to 96 μg/L) and sometimes concentrations differed among faucets within each home. All waters contained less 4-MCHM than the 1000 μg/L Centers for Disease Control drinking water limit, but one home exceeded the 120 μg/L drinking water limit established by independent toxicologists. Nearly all households refused to resume water use activities after flushing because of water safety concerns. Science based flushing protocols should be developed to expedite recovery, minimize health impacts, and reduce concentrations in homes when future events occur.

  18. A real time method of contaminant classification using conventional water quality sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuming; Che, Han; Smith, Kate; Chang, Tian

    2015-05-01

    Early warning systems are often used to detect deliberate and accidental contamination events in a water source. After contamination detection, it is important to classify the type of contaminant quickly to provide support for implementation of remediation attempts. Conventional methods commonly rely on laboratory-based analysis or qualitative geometry analysis, which require long analysis time or suffer low true positive rate. This paper proposes a real time contaminant classification method, which discriminates contaminants based on quantitative analysis. The proposed method utilizes the Mahalanobis distance of feature vectors to classify the type of contaminant. The performance and robustness of the proposed method were evaluated using data from contaminant injection experiments and through an uncertainty analysis. An advantage of the proposed method is that it can classify the type of contaminant in minutes with no significant compromise on true positive rate. This will facilitate fast remediation response to contamination events in a water system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Emerging contaminants of public health significance as water quality indicator compounds in the urban water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amrita; He, Yiliang; Jekel, Martin; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The contamination of the urban water cycle (UWC) with a wide array of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) increases with urbanization and population density. To produce drinking water from the UWC requires close examination of their sources, occurrence, pathways, and health effects and the efficacy of wastewater treatment and natural attenuation processes that may occur in surface water bodies and groundwater. This paper researches in details the structure of the UWC and investigates the routes by which the water cycle is increasingly contaminated with compounds generated from various anthropogenic activities. Along with a thorough survey of chemicals representing compound classes such as hormones, antibiotics, surfactants, endocrine disruptors, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, X-ray contrast media, pesticides and metabolites, disinfection-by-products, algal toxins and taste-and-odor compounds, this paper provides a comprehensive and holistic review of the occurrence, fate, transport and potential health impact of the emerging organic contaminants of the UWC. This study also illustrates the widespread distribution of the emerging organic contaminants in the different aortas of the ecosystem and focuses on future research needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiative transfer model for contaminated slabs : experimental validations

    CERN Document Server

    Andrieu, François; Schmitt, Bernard; Douté, Sylvain; Brissaud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a set of spectro-goniometric measurements of different water ice samples and the comparison with an approximated radiative transfer model. The experiments were done using the spectro-radiogoniometer described in Brissaud et al. (2004). The radiative transfer model assumes an isotropization of the flux after the second interface and is fully described in Andrieu et al. (2015). Two kind of experiments were conducted. First, the specular spot was closely investigated, at high angular resolution, at the wavelength of $1.5\\,\\mbox{\\mu m}$, where ice behaves as a very absorbing media. Second, the bidirectional reflectance was sampled at various geometries, including low phase angles on 61 wavelengths ranging from $0.8\\,\\mbox{\\mu m}$ to $2.0\\,\\mbox{\\mu m}$. In order to validate the model, we made a qualitative test to demonstrate the relative isotropization of the flux. We also conducted quantitative assessments by using a bayesian inversion method in order to estimate the parameters (e.g. sampl...

  1. [Assessment of risk of contamination of drinking water for the health of children in Tula region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu I; Liapina, N V

    2013-01-01

    The hygienic analysis of centralized drinking water supply in Tula region has been performed Thepriority contaminants of drinking water have been detected On the basis of risk assessment methodology non-carcinogenic health risks to the child population was calculated. A direct relationship between the incidence of some diseases in childhood population and pollution by chemical contaminants of drinking water has been established.

  2. Contamination of diuron in coastal waters around Malaysian Peninsular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hassan Rashid; Arifin, Marinah Mohd; Sheikh, Mohammed Ali; Shazili, Noor Azhar Mohamed; Bakari, Said Suleiman; Bachok, Zainudin

    2014-08-15

    The use of antifouling paints to the boats and ships is one among the threats facing coastal resources including coral reefs in recent decades. This study reports the current contamination status of diuron and its behaviour in the coastal waters of Malaysia. The maximum concentration of diuron was 285 ng/L detected at Johor port. All samples from Redang and Bidong coral reef islands were contaminated with diuron. Temporal variation showed relatively high concentrations but no significant difference (P>0.05) during November and January (North-East monsoon) in Klang ports (North, South and West), while higher levels of diuron were detected during April, 2012 (Inter monsoon) in Kemaman, and Johor port. Although no site has shown concentration above maximum permissible concentration (430 ng/L) as restricted by the Dutch Authorities, however, long term exposure studies for environmental relevance levels of diuron around coastal areas should be given a priority in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Monitoring of Free Water and Particulate Contamination of F-24 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF CONTENTS MONITORING OF FREE WATER AND PARTICULATE CONTAMINATION OF F-24 FUEL INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 480...14. ABSTRACT A study was conducted on the contaminant detection methods of fuel sensors which are capable of quantifying both free water (0...of free water contamination from fuel particle counts. 4.1 CO-SOLVENT TESTING PROFILE The system was operated at approximately 105.7 GPM. The Jet A

  4. A complex network theory approach for optimizing contamination warning sensor location in water distribution networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nazempour, Rezvan; Monfared, Mohammad Ali Saniee; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water for human health and well-being is crucial. Accidental and intentional water contamination can pose great danger to consumers. Optimal design of a system that can quickly detect the presence of contamination in a water distribution network is very challenging for technical and operational reasons. However, on the one hand improvement in chemical and biological sensor technology has created the possibility of designing efficient contamination detection systems. On the other hand...

  5. Transfer of Listeria innocua from contaminated compost and irrigation water to lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Usall, J; Viñas, I; Solsona, C; Abadias, M

    2011-05-01

    Many foodborne outbreaks of some pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella or Listeria have been associated with the consumption of contaminated vegetables. Contaminated manure and polluted irrigation water are probable vehicles for the pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the potential transfer of Listeria innocua from soil fertilized with contaminated compost or irrigated with contaminated water to the edible parts of lettuce grown on these soils together with its survival in lettuce and in soil under field conditions during two different seasons. Moreover, its survival on lettuce sprinkled with contaminated irrigation water was evaluated. L. innocua survived in soil samples for 9 weeks at high concentrations, 10(5) cfu gdw(-1) in fall and 10(3) cfu gdw(-1) in spring. Pathogen survived better in fall, indicating an important influence of temperature and humidity. L. innocua population in lettuce leaves was very high on lettuce leaves after sprinkling, but decreased to undetectable levels at field conditions. There was also transfer of L. innocua from soil contaminated with compost or irrigated with contaminated water to lettuce leaves, mainly to the outer ones. Survival profiles of L. innocua on lettuce and soil samples contaminated either by application of contaminated compost or surface irrigation water was similar. Our results indicated that contaminated compost and contaminated irrigation water can play an important role in the presence of foodborne pathogens on vegetables. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hospital washbasin water: risk of Legionella-contaminated aerosol inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassier, P; Landelle, C; Reyrolle, M; Nicolle, M C; Slimani, S; Etienne, J; Vanhems, P; Jarraud, S

    2013-12-01

    The contamination of aerosols by washbasin water colonized by Legionella in a hospital was evaluated. Aerosol samples were collected by two impingement technologies. Legionella was never detected by culture in all the (aerosol) samples. However, 45% (18/40) of aerosol samples were positive for Legionella spp. by polymerase chain reaction, with measurable concentrations in 10% of samples (4/40). Moreover, immunoassay detected Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and L. anisa, and potentially viable bacteria were seen on viability testing. These data suggest that colonized hospital washbasins could represent risks of exposure to Legionella aerosol inhalation, especially by immunocompromised patients. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unsealed Tubewells Lead to Increased Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Serre, Marc L.; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Sayler, Gary S.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, 6 unsealed) were monitored for cultured E. coli over 18 months. Additionally, two “snap shot” sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (ETEC E. coli), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using qPCR. No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained cultured E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p<0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality. PMID:23165714

  8. Contamination potential of drinking water distribution network biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingender, J; Flemming, H C

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water distribution system biofilms were investigated for the presence of hygienically relevant microorganisms. Early biofilm formation was evaluated in biofilm reactors on stainless steel, copper, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene coupons exposed to unchlorinated drinking water. After 12 to 18 months, a plateau phase of biofilm development was reached. Surface colonization on the materials ranged between 4 x 10(6) and 3 x 10(7) cells/cm2, with heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria between 9 x 10(3) and 7 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu)/cm2. Established biofilms were investigated in 18 pipe sections (2 to 99 years old) cut out from distribution pipelines. Materials included cast iron, galvanized steel, cement and PVC. Colonization ranged from 4 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(8) cells/cm2, HPC levels varied between 1 and 2 x 10(5) cfu/cm2. No correlation was found between extent of colonization and age of the pipes. Using cultural detection methods, coliform bacteria were rarely found, while Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella spp. were not detected in the biofilms. In regular operation, distribution system biofilms do not seem to be common habitats for pathogens. However, nutrient-leaching materials like rubber-coated valves were observed with massive biofilms which harboured coliform bacteria contaminating drinking water.

  9. Water contamination in urban south India: household storage practices and their implications for water safety and enteric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Thomas; Primrose, Beryl; Chandrasekhar, R; Roy, Sheela; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2004-10-01

    Water contamination, at source and during household storage, is a major cause of enterically transmitted infections in developing countries. This study assessed contamination of the municipal water in a south Indian town, which obtains its water intermittently from a surface lake and by pumping subsurface water from a dry river bed, and monitored microbial contamination during household storage. All samples of the 'treated' municipal water were contaminated when freshly pumped, and on household storage, 25/37 (67%) showed increased contamination during storage periods from 1 to 9 days. Household storage in brass, but not in containers of other materials significantly decreased contamination of water (p = 0.04). This was confirmed in the laboratory by testing water seeded with 10(3) to 10(5) Escherichia coli per 100 ml stored in containers of different materials (p water in municipal areas, in practice the water supplied in Vellore is contaminated and current household storage practices increase the level of contamination in at least two-thirds of households. The implementation of locally appropriate point-of-use disinfection and safe household storage practices in developing countries is an urgent need to ensure a safe, reliable year-round supply in areas where clean water is not available.

  10. Control of Legionella Contamination and Risk of Corrosion in Hospital Water Networks following Various Disinfection Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Isabella; Ferranti, Greta; Mansi, Antonella; Marcelloni, Anna M; Proietto, Anna R; Saini, Navneet; Borella, Paola; Bargellini, Annalisa

    2016-05-15

    Physical and chemical disinfection methods have been proposed with the aim of controlling Legionella water contamination. To date, the most effective procedures for reducing bacterial contamination have not yet been defined. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of various disinfection procedures in order to reduce both culturable and nonculturable (NC) legionellae in different hospital water networks treated with heat, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, and hydrogen peroxide. The temperature levels and biocide concentrations that proved to give reliable results were analyzed. In order to study the possible effects on the water pipes, we verified the extent of corrosion on experimental coupons after applying each method for 6 months. The percentage of positive points was at its lowest after treatment with monochloramine, followed by chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hyperthermia. Different selections of Legionella spp. were observed, as networks treated with chlorine-based disinfectants were contaminated mainly by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, hyperthermia was associated with serogroups 2 to 14, and hydrogen peroxide treatment was associated mainly with non-pneumophila species. NC cells were detected only in heat-treated waters, and also when the temperature was approximately 60°C. The corrosion rates of the coupons were within a satisfactory limit for water networks, but the morphologies differed. We confirm here that chemical disinfection controls Legionella colonization more effectively than hyperthermia does. Monochloramine was the most effective treatment, while hydrogen peroxide may be a promising alternative to chlorine-based disinfectants due to its ability to select for other, less virulent or nonpathogenic species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Treatment by water flooding of aquifers contaminated by halogenated solvents; Saneamiento mediante water flooding de acuiferos contaminados por disolventes halogenados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Flores, A.

    2004-07-01

    The treatment of PCE, TCE and DCE contaminated ground water by water flooding and the application to an industrial facility located near of Barcelona, are described in this publications. The installed system comprises three extraction wells located over the edge of contaminant plume, two reinjection wells located near the hypothetic contaminant focus, and a superficial treatment system of contaminated ground water by Air-Stripping (flow rate: 1m''3/h). The modeling of contaminant transport by codes BIOCHOLOR shows the importance of biodegradation process in the mobilization of different contaminants, calculating the disappearance of PCE; TCE and DCE by biodegradation in 61.9%, 64,1% and 72,3% respectively, of total mobilizated mass on a 15 years period. Moreover, modeling allowed the effectiveness of the treatment, indicating a decrease of contaminant concentration of 79.1% , 36.9% and 63.0% for PCE, TCE and DCE. (Author) 19 refs.

  12. A new experimental procedure for incorporation of model contaminants in polymer hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaspyrides, C.D.; Voultzatis, Y.; Pavlidou, S.; Tsenoglou, C.; Dole, P.; Feigenbaum, A.; Paseiro, P.; Pastorelli, S.; Cruz Garcia, C. de la; Hankemeier, T.; Aucejo, S.

    2005-01-01

    A new experimental procedure for incorporation of model contaminants in polymers was developed as part of a general scheme for testing the efficiency of functional barriers in food packaging. The aim was to progressively pollute polymers in a controlled fashion up to a high level in the range of

  13. Friction and wear of bearing material under water contaminated compressor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Syahirah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water has been defined as a destructive contaminant which may cause a detrimental impact on bearing performance. Nevertheless, many previous studies only made the research after the lubrication failure occurred, but they also only focused on the contaminated lubricant, but not on the new lubricant which may be taken as a preventive measure before bearing life will be reduce. Thus, experiment was conducted to identify the effect of water contamination to the lubrication performance of the compressor oil. Four ball tester was used by following standard test methods ASTM 4172 to determine the friction and wear characteristics of water contaminated lubricant. Water contamination was varied from 0% to 50% by volume percentage. The result indicates that water contamination give more effect on wear scar diameter and only has small effect on friction coefficient.

  14. Attenuation of groundwater contamination caused by cattle slurry: a plot-scale experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Periago, E.L. [Department of Vegetal Biology and Soil Science, Faculty of Sciences, As Lagoas (Spain); Delgado, A.N.; Diaz-Fierros, F. [Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    Infiltration of contaminants was investigated in a flat pasture plot Lolium perenne L. which received 250 m{sup 3}/ha of cattle slurry. Lysimeters and piezometers had previously been installed in the plot to sample groundwater at different depths. Water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity.NH{sub 4}{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, orthophosphate, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and chemical oxygen demand (COD), and for faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. Contaminant concentrations in water samples taken in lysimeters at a depth of 5 cm (2 h after slurry application) were already from 22% to 83% of raw slurry. After slurry application and after 150 mm of rainfall, contaminant concentrations in groundwater were in all depths less than 95% of those initially measured in the slurry. For all contaminants except Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, K{sup +} and COD, concentrations in groundwater measured before application were reached within 15 days. Mechanical retention was the principal mechanism of attenuation of microorganism and COD levels, whereas cations were attenuated by sorption to soil matrix. Dilution by rain water had less significant effects, accounting for about a tenfold reduction in contaminant levels. (author)

  15. Fecal contamination of drinking water in Kericho District, Western Kenya: role of source and household water handling and hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Johana Kiplagat; Kipkemboi Sang, Willy; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngayo, Musa Otieno

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46.6%) had TTC contaminated drinking water (TTC levels of >10 cfu/100 mL). Five of these households were contaminated with pathogenic E. coli, including 40% enteroaggregative E. coli, 40% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 20% enteropathogenic E. coli. All these pathogenic E. coli strains were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam. Rural household locality, drinking water hand contact, water storage container cleaning practice, hand washing before water withdrawal, water source total coliforms contamination of household drinking water. Significant proportions of household drinking water in Kericho District are contaminated with TTCs including with pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Source and household hygiene and practices contribute significantly to drinking water contamination.

  16. PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICALQUALITYOFOPAQUE, SANITIZED, AND CHILLED QUAIL EGGS EXPERIMENTALLY CONTAMINATED WITH Salmonella enteric SER. TYPHIMURIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juliana Ribeiro Lacerda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of Japanese quail eggs artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. The eggs were sanitized and stored at different temperatures (between 5 and 25 ºC for 27 days. We used 768 eggs with opaque shells, typical pigments of the species, and average weight of 11 g. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement (contamination x sanitation x cooling with six replications and one egg per experimental unit. The eggs were contaminated by handling with 1.5 x 105 colony forming unit (CFU of Salmonella. Typhimurium / mL and sanitized according to the treatments with a 5 ppm Cl solution. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and t test. Bacterial contamination has damaged the egg weight, Haugh unit, yolk index and albumen, and pH of yolk and albumen, from 18 days of storage. The egg storage time and storage temperature affected the internal quality of quail eggs in all variables. The worst internal quality was observed in eggs stored at 25 ºC. The sanitation and cooling reduced the growth of Salmonella in contaminated eggs. Eggs in opaque shell, when not refrigerated, should be consumed within 18 days after laying. Keywords: opaque shell; quail eggs; Salmonella Typhimurium; sanitization; storage.

  17. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  18. Assessment of Surface Water Contamination from Coalbed Methane Fracturing-Derived Volatile Contaminants in Sullivan County, Indiana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Nicholas; Subedi, Bikram; Stamets, Tristan; Shifa, Naima

    2017-07-14

    There is a growing concern over the contamination of surface water and the associated environmental and public health consequences from the recent proliferation of hydraulic fracturing in the USA. Petroleum hydrocarbon-derived contaminants of concern [benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] and various dissolved cations and anions were spatially determined in surface waters around 15 coalbed methane fracking wells in Sullivan County, IN, USA. At least one BTEX compound was detected in 69% of sampling sites (n = 13) and 23% of sampling sites were found to be contaminated with all of the BTEX compounds. Toluene was the most common BTEX compound detected across all sampling sites, both upstream and downstream from coalbed methane fracking wells. The average concentration of toluene at a reservoir and its outlet nearby the fracking wells was ~2× higher than other downstream sites. However, one of the upstream sites was found to be contaminated with BTEX at similar concentrations as in a reservoir site nearby the fracking well. Calcium (~60 ppm) and sulfates (~175 ppm) were the dominant cations and anions, respectively, in surface water around the fracking sites. This study represents the first report of BTEX contamination in surface water from coalbed methane hydraulic fracturing wells.

  19. Vaccinia virus Transmission through Experimentally Contaminated Milk Using a Murine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Silva Rehfeld

    Full Text Available Bovine vaccinia (BV is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV, which affects dairy cattle and humans. Previous studies have detected the presence of viable virus particles in bovine milk samples naturally and experimentally contaminated with VACV. However, it is not known whether milk contaminated with VACV could be a route of viral transmission. However, anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies were detected in humans from BV endemic areas, whom had no contact with affected cows, which suggest that other VACV transmission routes are possible, such as consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Therefore, it is important to study the possibility of VACV transmission by contaminated milk. This study aimed to examine VACV transmission, pathogenesis and shedding in mice orally inoculated with experimentally contaminated milk. Thirty mice were orally inoculated with milk containing 107 PFU/ml of VACV, and ten mice were orally inoculated with uncontaminated milk. Clinical examinations were performed for 30 consecutive days, and fecal samples and oral swabs (OSs were collected every other day. Mice were euthanized on predetermined days, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Nested-PCR, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT, viral isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC methods were performed on the collected samples. No clinical changes were observed in the animals. Viral DNA was detected in feces, blood, OSs and tissues, at least in one of the times tested. The lungs displayed moderate to severe interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, and only the heart, tonsils, tongue, and stomach did not show immunostaining at the IHC analysis. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the 20th and 30th days post infection in 50% of infected mice. The results revealed that VACV contaminated milk could be a route of viral transmission in mice experimentally infected, showing systemic distribution and shedding through feces and oral

  20. Estimation of the fate of microbial water-quality contaminants in a South-African river

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hohls, D

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of assumptions, regarding assimilative capacity for microbial contaminants, implicit in microbial water quality management in South Africa. A one dimensional steady state stream water quality model...

  1. Optimization Review: Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund Site, Operable Unit 2 (Tip Top Cleaners), Ogallala, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund site was identified in 1989 through municipal well sampling. Tetrachloroethene (PCE), a solvent commonly used in dry cleaner operations, was the primary ground water target chemical of concern (COC) that..

  2. Contaminant intrusion in water distribution networks: review and proposal of an integrated model for decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Nilufar; Al-Zahrani, Mohammad Abdullah M; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Farahat, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    .... Contaminant intrusion requires as much attention as source water protection or treatment plants, particularly given that at this point, water is near the final stage prior to human consumption...

  3. PAMAM dendrimers and graphene: Materials for removing aromatic contaminants from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFever, Ryan S.; Geitner, Nicholas K.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Ding, Feng; Ke, Pu Chun; Sarupria, Sapna

    2015-04-07

    We present results from experiments and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations on the association of naphthalene with polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers and graphene oxide (GrO). Specifically, we investigate 3rd-6th generation (G3-G6) PAMAM dendrimers and GrO with different levels of oxidation. The work is motivated by the potential applications of these materials in removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants from water. Our experimental results indicate that graphene oxide outperforms dendrimers in removing naphthalene from water. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the prominent factors driving naphthalene association to these seemingly disparate materials are similar. Interestingly, we find that cooperative interactions between the naphthalene molecules play a significant role in enhancing their association to the dendrimers and graphene oxide. Our findings highlight that while selection of appropriate materials is important, the interactions between the contaminants themselves can also be important in governing the effectiveness of a given material. The combined use of experiments and molecular dynamics simulations allows us to comment on the possible factors resulting in better performance of graphene oxide in removing naphthalene from water.

  4. Friction and wear of bearing material under water contaminated compressor oil

    OpenAIRE

    M.N. Syahirah; A.N. Farhanah; M.Z. Bahak

    2015-01-01

    Water has been defined as a destructive contaminant which may cause a detrimental impact on bearing performance. Nevertheless, many previous studies only made the research after the lubrication failure occurred, but they also only focused on the contaminated lubricant, but not on the new lubricant which may be taken as a preventive measure before bearing life will be reduce. Thus, experiment was conducted to identify the effect of water contamination to the lubrication performance of the comp...

  5. Retention of contaminants in northern natural peatlands treating mine waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Katharina; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Klöve, Björn

    2014-05-01

    The mining industry in Finland is growing, leading to an increasing number of working and proposed mine sites. As a consequence, the amount of mine waste waters created is likewise increasing. This poses a great challenge for water management and purification, as these mine waste waters can lead to severe environmental and health consequences when released to receiving water bodies untreated. In the past years, the use of natural peatlands for cost-effective passive waste water treatment has been increasing. In this study, the fate of mine water contaminants in a treatment peatland receiving process waters from the Kittilä gold mine was investigated. Special attention was paid to the fate of potentially harmful substances such as arsenic, antimony or nickel. During the 4 years of operation, the peatland removed contaminants from process waters at varying efficiencies. While arsenic, antimony and nickel were retained at high efficiencies (>80% retention), other contaminants such as zinc, sulfate or iron were not retained or even leaching from the peatland. Soil samples taken in 2013 showed a linear increase of arsenic, antimony and nickel concentration in the peatland as compared to earlier sampling times, in agreement with the good retention efficiencies for those contaminants. Measured concentrations exceeded guideline values for contaminated soils, indicating that the prolonged use of treatment peatlands leads to high soil contamination and restrict further uses of the peatlands without remediation measures. Soil and pore water samples were taken along a transect with varying distance from the process water distribution ditch and analyzed for total and more easily mobile concentrations of contaminants (peat soil) as well as total and dissolved contaminants (water samples). Concentrations of contaminants such as arsenic, manganese or antimony in peat and pore water samples were highest near the distribution ditch and decreased with increasing distance from the

  6. 77 FR 62234 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ...-0895] Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Agency policy or views. Eastern Research Group, Inc., an EPA contractor for external peer review, will...

  7. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. General Guidelines for Monitoring Contaminants in Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    90 Data Summarization and Preliminary Analysis ..... . . . • 93 PART VIII: DATA INTERPRETATION ...... ................ .... 95... espacially trte for the topics of sampling and analytical methods, statistical considerations, and the design of general water quality monitoring networks. For...contaminant monitoring program; and Part VIII considers the analysis and interpretation of contaminants data in relation to water quality criteria and

  8. Experimental Assessment of Recycled Diesel Spill-Contaminated Domestic Wastewater Treated by Reed Beds for Irrigation of Sweet Peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuktar, Suhad A A A N; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-02-06

    The aim of this experimental study is to assess if urban wastewater treated by ten different greenhouse-based sustainable wetland systems can be recycled to irrigate Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet Pepper; California Wonder) commercially grown either in compost or sand within a laboratory environment. The design variables were aggregate diameter, contact time, resting time and chemical oxygen demand. The key objectives were to assess: (i) the suitability of different treated (recycled) wastewaters for irrigation; (ii) response of peppers in terms of growth when using recycled wastewater subject to different growth media and hydrocarbon contamination; and (iii) the economic viability of different experimental set-ups in terms of marketable yield. Ortho-phosphate-phosphorus, ammonia-nitrogen, potassium and manganese concentrations in the irrigation water considerably exceeded the corresponding water quality thresholds. A high yield in terms of economic return (marketable yield expressed in monetary value) was linked to raw wastewater and an organic growth medium, while the plants grown in organic medium and wetlands of large aggregate size, high contact and resting times, diesel-spill contamination and low inflow loading rate produced the best fruits in terms of their dimensions and fresh weights, indicating the role of diesel in reducing too high nitrogen concentrations.

  9. Experimental Assessment of Recycled Diesel Spill-Contaminated Domestic Wastewater Treated by Reed Beds for Irrigation of Sweet Peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuktar, Suhad A.A.A.N.; Scholz, Miklas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study is to assess if urban wastewater treated by ten different greenhouse-based sustainable wetland systems can be recycled to irrigate Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet Pepper; California Wonder) commercially grown either in compost or sand within a laboratory environment. The design variables were aggregate diameter, contact time, resting time and chemical oxygen demand. The key objectives were to assess: (i) the suitability of different treated (recycled) wastewaters for irrigation; (ii) response of peppers in terms of growth when using recycled wastewater subject to different growth media and hydrocarbon contamination; and (iii) the economic viability of different experimental set-ups in terms of marketable yield. Ortho-phosphate-phosphorus, ammonia-nitrogen, potassium and manganese concentrations in the irrigation water considerably exceeded the corresponding water quality thresholds. A high yield in terms of economic return (marketable yield expressed in monetary value) was linked to raw wastewater and an organic growth medium, while the plants grown in organic medium and wetlands of large aggregate size, high contact and resting times, diesel-spill contamination and low inflow loading rate produced the best fruits in terms of their dimensions and fresh weights, indicating the role of diesel in reducing too high nitrogen concentrations. PMID:26861370

  10. Experimental Assessment of Recycled Diesel Spill-Contaminated Domestic Wastewater Treated by Reed Beds for Irrigation of Sweet Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhad A.A.A.N. Almuktar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experimental study is to assess if urban wastewater treated by ten different greenhouse-based sustainable wetland systems can be recycled to irrigate Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet Pepper; California Wonder commercially grown either in compost or sand within a laboratory environment. The design variables were aggregate diameter, contact time, resting time and chemical oxygen demand. The key objectives were to assess: (i the suitability of different treated (recycled wastewaters for irrigation; (ii response of peppers in terms of growth when using recycled wastewater subject to different growth media and hydrocarbon contamination; and (iii the economic viability of different experimental set-ups in terms of marketable yield. Ortho-phosphate-phosphorus, ammonia-nitrogen, potassium and manganese concentrations in the irrigation water considerably exceeded the corresponding water quality thresholds. A high yield in terms of economic return (marketable yield expressed in monetary value was linked to raw wastewater and an organic growth medium, while the plants grown in organic medium and wetlands of large aggregate size, high contact and resting times, diesel-spill contamination and low inflow loading rate produced the best fruits in terms of their dimensions and fresh weights, indicating the role of diesel in reducing too high nitrogen concentrations.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  12. Contamination Event Detection with Multivariate Time-Series Data in Agricultural Water Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchi Mao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Time series data of multiple water quality parameters are obtained from the water sensor networks deployed in the agricultural water supply network. The accurate and efficient detection and warning of contamination events to prevent pollution from spreading is one of the most important issues when pollution occurs. In order to comprehensively reduce the event detection deviation, a spatial–temporal-based event detection approach with multivariate time-series data for water quality monitoring (M-STED was proposed. The M-STED approach includes three parts. The first part is that M-STED adopts a Rule K algorithm to select backbone nodes as the nodes in the CDS, and forward the sensed data of multiple water parameters. The second part is to determine the state of each backbone node with back propagation neural network models and the sequential Bayesian analysis in the current timestamp. The third part is to establish a spatial model with Bayesian networks to estimate the state of the backbones in the next timestamp and trace the “outlier” node to its neighborhoods to detect a contamination event. The experimental results indicate that the average detection rate is more than 80% with M-STED and the false detection rate is lower than 9%, respectively. The M-STED approach can improve the rate of detection by about 40% and reduce the false alarm rate by about 45%, compared with the event detection with a single water parameter algorithm, S-STED. Moreover, the proposed M-STED can exhibit better performance in terms of detection delay and scalability.

  13. Experimental study on mass transfer of contaminants through an enthalpy recovery unit with polymer membrane foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    recovery unit with polymer membrane foils was used as refeering unit in this study. The experiments were conducted with different outdoor thermal climates e.g. warm-humid and cold-dry climates; isothermal and non isothermal as well as equal humidity and non equal humidity with indoor climate. Three......Laboratory experimental studies were conducted to investigate the mass transfer of contaminants through a total heat recovery unit with polymer membranes foils. The studies were conducted in twin climate chambers which simulated outdoor and indoor thermal climates. One manufacturd total heat...... could transfer from exhaust air to supply air through the enthalpy recovery unit. The mass transfer efficiency of contaminants was independent of the hygro-thermal differences between indoor and outdoor climate conditions. The mass transfer ratio of the chemical contaminants in the total heat recovery...

  14. Seasonal variation of fecal contamination in drinking water sources in developing countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyla, Caroline; Bain, Rob; Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Accounting for fecal contamination of drinking water sources is an important step in improving monitoring of global access to safe drinking water. Fecal contamination varies with time while its monitoring is often infrequent. We sought to understand seasonal trends in fecal contamination to guide best practices to capture seasonal variation and ascertain the extent to which the results of a single sample may overestimate compliance with health guidelines. The findings from 22 studies from developing countries written in English and identified through a systematic review were analyzed. Fecal contamination in improved drinking water sources was shown to follow a statistically significant seasonal trend of greater contamination during the wet season (pwater quality monitoring by the World Health Organization and national water quality agencies could lead to improved assessments of access to safe drinking water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pollution status of Pakistan: a retrospective review on heavy metal contamination of water, soil, and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Amir; Arshad, Jahanzaib; Iqbal, Farhat; Sajjad, Ashif; Mehmood, Zahid; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water), soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  16. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water, soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  17. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...... of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights...... quality was investigated through simulation of two contamination scenarios, i.e. drinking water contaminated with waste water and surface water at various concentrations. With ATP measurements it was possible to detect waste water diluted 1000-10,000 times in drinking water depending on sensitivity...

  18. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  19. Risk assessment of vegetables irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, S M; Anderson, C W N; Stewart, R B; Robinson, B H

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) contaminated water is used in South Asian countries to irrigate food crops, but the subsequent uptake of As by vegetables and associated human health risk is poorly understood. We used a pot trial to determine the As uptake of four vegetable species (carrot, radish, spinach and tomato) with As irrigation levels ranging from 50 to 1000 μg L(-1) and two irrigation techniques, non-flooded (70% field capacity for all studied vegetables), and flooded (110% field capacity initially followed by aerobic till next irrigation) for carrot and spinach only. Only the 1000 μg As L(-1) treatment showed a significant increase of As concentration in the vegetables over all other treatments (P tomato and spinach, but accumulated in the leaves and skin of root crops. There was a higher concentration of As in the vegetables grown under flood irrigation relative to non-flood irrigation. The trend of As bioaccumulation was spinach > tomato > radish > carrot. The As concentration in spinach leaves exceeded the Chinese maximum permissible concentration for inorganic As (0.05 μg g(-1) fresh weight) by a factor of 1.6 to 6.4 times. No other vegetables recorded an As concentration that exceeded this threshold. The USEPA parameters hazard quotient and cancer risk were calculated for adults and adolescents. A hazard quotient value greater than 1 and a cancer risk value above the highest target value of 10(-4) confirms potential risk to humans from ingestion of spinach leaves. In our study, spinach presents a direct risk to human health where flood irrigated with water containing an arsenic concentration greater than 50 μg As L(-1).

  20. Vegetated Treatment Systems for Removing Contaminants Associated with Surface Water Toxicity in Agriculture and Urban Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Cahn, Michael

    2017-05-15

    Urban stormwater and agriculture irrigation runoff contain a complex mixture of contaminants that are often toxic to adjacent receiving waters. Runoff may be treated with simple systems designed to promote sorption of contaminants to vegetation and soils and promote infiltration. Two example systems are described: a bioswale treatment system for urban stormwater treatment, and a vegetated drainage ditch for treating agriculture irrigation runoff. Both have similar attributes that reduce contaminant loading in runoff: vegetation that results in sorption of the contaminants to the soil and plant surfaces, and water infiltration. These systems may also include the integration of granulated activated carbon as a polishing step to remove residual contaminants. Implementation of these systems in agriculture and urban watersheds requires system monitoring to verify treatment efficacy. This includes chemical monitoring for specific contaminants responsible for toxicity. The current paper emphasizes monitoring of current use pesticides since these are responsible for surface water toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

  1. Experimental study of gaseous and particulate contaminants distribution in an aircraft cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Liu, Junjie; Pei, Jingjing; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Chen, Qingyan

    2014-03-01

    The environment of the aircraft cabin greatly influences the comfort and health of passengers and crew members. Contaminant transport has a strong effect on disease spreading in the cabin environment. To obtain the complex cabin contaminant distribution fields accurately and completely, which is also essential to provide solid and precise data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model validation, this paper aimed to investigate and improve the method for simultaneous particle and gaseous contaminant fields measurement. The experiment was conducted in a functional MD-82 aircraft. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was used as tracer gas, and Di-Ethyl-Hexyl-Sebacat (DEHS) was used as particulate contaminant. The whole measurement was completed in a part of the economy-class cabin without heating manikins or occupied with heating manikins. The experimental method, in terms of pollutant source setting, sampling points and schedule, was investigated. Statistical analysis showed that appropriately modified sampling grid was able to provide reasonable data. A small difference in the source locations can lead to a significant difference in cabin contaminant fields. And the relationship between gaseous and particulate pollutant transport was also discussed through tracking behavior analysis.

  2. Modeling the photodegradation of emerging contaminants in waters by UV radiation and UV/H2O2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Rodriguez, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Five emerging contaminants (1-H-Benzotriazole, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET, Chlorophene, 3-Methylindole, and Nortriptyline HCl), frequently found in surface waters and wastewaters, were selected to be photooxidized in several water matrices. Previous degradation experiments of these compounds individually dissolved in ultra pure water were performed by using UV radiation at 254 nm and the Fenton's reagent. These oxidation systems allowed the determination of the quantum yields and the rate constants for the radical reaction between each compound and hydroxyl radicals. Later, the simultaneous photodegradation of mixtures of the selected ECs in several types of water (ultrapure water, reservoir water, and two effluents from WWTPs) was carried out and a kinetic study was conducted. A model is proposed for the ECs elimination, and the theoretically calculated concentrations with this model agreed well with the experimental results obtained, which confirmed that it constitutes an excellent tool to predict the elimination of these compounds in waters.

  3. Drinking water incidents due to chemical contamination in England and Wales, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Karthikeyan; Harrison, Henrietta

    2010-12-01

    Contamination of drinking water by microbiological and chemical agents can lead to adverse health effects. In England and Wales, the Chemicals Hazards and Poisons Division (CHaPD) of the Health Protection Agency provides expert advice on the consequences to public health of chemical contamination incidents affecting drinking water. In this study, we extracted data from the National Database on the type and nature of drinking water contamination events reported to the CHaPD between 2006 and 2008. Eighty-two incidents with confirmed chemical contamination were identified. Among the 70 incidents where data was available, 40% (28/70) of incidents related to contamination of drinking water provided by private suppliers, 31% (22/70) were due to contamination occurring close to the point of consumption (i.e. near consumer) and 29% (20/70) related to incidents where public water supplies were identified as the contaminated source. For the majority of incidents, little or no information was available on the critical exposure variables such as duration of contamination and actual or estimates of the population affected. Reassuringly, the levels of exposure in most incidents were considered unlikely to cause serious immediate or long term ill health effects. Recording of exposure data for reported contamination incidents needs to be improved.

  4. Experimental analysis of the environmental contamination of electrical equipment; Analisis experimental de la contaminacion ambiental en equipos electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campillo Ruiz, Maria Teresa; Ponce Velez, Marco Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is a summary of the main causes that originate the contamination problems in insulating materials. This as the result of different studies performed in experimental testing stations, as well as in transmission, distribution and laboratory power lines by the Departamento de Materiales of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestra un resumen de los principales factores que originan los problemas de contaminacion en aislamientos. Esto, como resultado de diversos estudios realizados tanto en estaciones de prueba experimentales como en lineas de transmision, distribucion y laboratorio por el Departamento de Materiales del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE).

  5. Tolerance of negative emotion moderates the amplification of mental contamination following an evoking task: A randomized experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Thomas A

    2017-11-27

    Contamination is a near universal feeling, with mental contamination representing a contamination feeling in the absence of direct physical contact with a source. Extant research indicates that tolerance of negative emotion is important for understanding emotional reactions to images, thoughts, and memories, all of which are common sources of mental contamination. Extending research linking distress tolerance to mental contamination, this study examined if individual differences in the tolerance of negative emotion moderates the amplification of mental contamination following an evoking task. Unselected participants completed a self-report measure of tolerance of negative emotion during an online session. They later attended an in-person session and were randomized to an experimental scenario group: betrayal (n = 49) or control (n = 49). Participants imagined themselves in a scenario, with the betrayal scenario designed to evoke mental contamination. Mental contamination was assessed by self-report before and after the scenario. The betrayal, but not control, scenario caused an increase in mental contamination. Tolerance for negative emotion moderated the effect of group on mental contamination. Group differences in mental contamination evidenced at low, but not high, distress tolerance. A novel experimental manipulation and an unselected sample were used. Future research could assess tolerance of negative emotion using a behavioral task. These results indicate that tolerance of negative emotion may be important for understanding when individuals experience mental contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Limited representation of drinking-water contaminants in pregnancy-birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S

    2014-01-15

    Water contamination and noise have been consistently the least assessed environmental/lifestyle exposures in pregnancy-birth cohorts (PBC). Water quality surveillance data collected during the past decade within urban drinking-water distribution systems call for re-evaluation of water and health issues in the developed world. The objectives of this scientific commentary were to (i) highlight the extent of appraisal of water contamination in exposure assessment studies of PBC, worldwide, and (ii) propose recommendations to increase awareness of emerging water-related risks through their improved representation into PBC study designs in urban centers. Three scientific literature databases (Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science) were used for a systematic search on worldwide PBC and their publications that considered water contamination and health outcomes. Publicly-available e-databases (ENRIECO, BIRTHCOHORTS, and CHICOS) were also employed for detailed exploration of existing European Union (EU)-based PBC. Out of the 76 PBC identified in the EU territory, only 12 of them incorporated water contamination into their study designs. Among which only 6 PBC published scientific articles that either included data on water contamination and/or water intake estimates. Trihalomethanes but not other disinfection by-products were mostly studied in the PBC around the globe, while fluoride, atrazine, perfluorinated compounds, tetrachloroethylene, and lead were studied to a lesser extent as water contaminants. It appears that chemical-based water contamination and corresponding human exposures represent a largely underappreciated niche of exposure science pertaining to pregnant mother and children's health in PBC. Future PBC studies should grasp this opportunity to substantially reform elements of water contamination in their exposure assessment protocols and effectively combine them with their epidemiological study designs. © 2013.

  7. Contamination of Canadian private drinking water sources with antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Brenda L; Louie, Marie; Salvadori, Marina I; McEwen, Scott A; Neumann, Norman; Sibley, Kristen; Irwin, Rebecca J; Jamieson, Frances B; Daignault, Danielle; Majury, Anna; Braithwaite, Shannon; Crago, Bryanne; McGeer, Allison J

    2013-06-01

    Surface and ground water across the world, including North America, is contaminated with bacteria resistant to antibiotics. The consumption of water contaminated with antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been associated with the carriage of resistant E. coli in people who drink it. To describe the proportion of drinking water samples submitted from private sources for bacteriological testing that were contaminated with E. coli resistant to antibiotics and to determine risk factors for the contamination of these water sources with resistant and multi-class resistant E. coli. Water samples submitted for bacteriological testing in Ontario and Alberta Canada were tested for E. coli contamination, with a portion of the positive isolates tested for antimicrobial resistance. Households were invited to complete questionnaires to determine putative risk factors for well contamination. Using multinomial logistic regression, the risk of contamination with E. coli resistant to one or two classes of antibiotics compared to susceptible E. coli was higher for shore wells than drilled wells (odds ratio [OR] 2.8) and higher for farms housing chickens or turkeys (OR 3.0) than properties without poultry. The risk of contamination with multi-class resistant E. coli (3 or more classes) was higher if the properties housed swine (OR 5.5) or cattle (OR 2.2) than properties without these livestock and higher if the wells were located in gravel (OR 2.4) or clay (OR 2.1) than in loam. Housing livestock on the property, using a shore well, and having a well located in gravel or clay soil increases the risk of having antimicrobial resistant E. coli in E. coli contaminated wells. To reduce the incidence of water borne disease and the transmission of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, owners of private wells need to take measures to prevent contamination of their drinking water, routinely test their wells for contamination, and use treatments that eliminate bacteria. Copyright

  8. Storm water contamination and its effect on the quality of urban surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Chudzińska, Maria; Szpakowska, Barbara; Świerk, Dariusz; Gołdyn, Ryszard; Dondajewska, Renata

    2014-10-01

    We studied the effect of storm water drained by the sewerage system and discharged into a river and a small reservoir, on the example of five catchments located within the boundaries of the city of Poznań (Poland). These catchments differed both in terms of their surface area and land use (single- and multi-family housing, industrial areas). The aim of the analyses was to explain to what extent pollutants found in storm water runoff from the studied catchments affected the quality of surface waters and whether it threatened the aquatic organisms. Only some of the 14 studied variables and 22 chemical elements were important for the water quality of the river, i.e., pH, TSS, rain intensity, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, organic matter content, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd, Ni, Se, and Tl. The most serious threat to biota in the receiver came from the copper contamination of storm water runoff. Of all samples below the sewerage outflow, 74% exceeded the mean acute value for Daphnia species. Some of them exceeded safe concentrations for other aquatic organisms. Only the outlet from the industrial area with the highest impervious surface had a substantial influence on the water quality of the river. A reservoir situated in the river course had an important influence on the elimination of storm water pollution, despite the very short residence time of its water.

  9. Spatial and temporal features of density-dependent contaminant transport: experimental investigation and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoia, Andrea; Latrille, Christelle; Beccantini, Alberto; Cartadale, Alain

    2009-10-13

    We investigate the spatial and temporal features of variable-density contaminant plumes migration in porous materials. Our analysis is supported by novel experimental results concerning concentration profiles inside a vertical column setup that has been conceived at CEA to this aim. The experimental method relies on X-ray spectrometry, which allows determining solute profiles as a function of time at several positions along the column. The salient outcomes of the measurements are elucidated, with focus on miscible fluids in homogeneous saturated media. The role of the injected solution molarity is evidenced. As molarity increases, the solutes plume transport progressively deviates from the usual Fickian behavior, and pollutants distribution becomes skewed in the direction dictated by gravity. By resorting to a finite elements approach, we numerically solve the nonlinear equations that rule the pollutants migration: a good agreement is found between the simulated profiles and the experimental data. At high molarity, a strong dependence on initial conditions is found. Finally, we qualitatively explore the (unstable) interfacial dynamics between the dense contaminant plume and the lighter resident fluid that saturates the column, and detail its evolution for finite-duration contaminant injections.

  10. HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION OF WATER IN NEGOMBO LAGOON AND INTERCONNECTED WATER SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kanchana.N.K.CHANDRASEKARA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in natural lagoons that are located within close proximity to human settlements is generally at contamination risk due to increasing anthropogenic activities. The Negombo lagoon situated in the Gampaha District in Sri Lanka is a lagoonal estuary. It receives surface water runoff mainly from Dandugamoya, Ja-ela, Hamilton and Dutch canals. During the recent past, it has been noted by several researches that there is increasing evidence in anthropogenic activities in Negombo lagoon and surrounding areas. The present study was carried out to assess the contamination levels of heavy metals of water in the Negombo lagoon and interconnected water sources. Sampling was carried out in 19 locations; 6 in the Negombo lagoon and 13 from the interconnected sources (5 samples from Hamilton canal, 2 samples each from Dutch canal, Dandugamoya and Ja-Ela and one sample each from Kelani estuary and Ocean-Negombo. The data collection was conducted during relatively wet (May and relatively dry (September months in 2013. Water samples were analysed in the laboratory as per the standards methods of American Public Health Association (APHA manual by using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The tests were carried out to detect heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, Lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, and zinc (Zn in water. Data analysis was accomplished using ArcGIS (version 9.3 software package along with Microsoft Excel. Standards for inland water and drinking water of Sri Lanka were used to determine the threshold levels of heavy metals. The results show that concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of all water bodies were below the threshold level of human consumption and quality standards for inland waters in Sri Lanka. The Cd and Pb levels of water in Negombo lagoon and Hamilton canal were comparatively high. Furthermore the Cd and Pb levels of Dandugamoya, Ja-ela and Dutch canals were below the maximum permissible levels in both relatively wet

  11. A HYBRID FILTER AND WRAPPER FEATURE SELECTION APPROACH FOR DETECTING CONTAMINATION IN DRINKING WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VISALAKSHI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an important task in predictive models which helps to identify the irrelevant features in the high - dimensional dataset. In this case of water contamination detection dataset, the standard wrapper algorithm alone cannot be applied because of the complexity. To overcome this computational complexity problem and making it lighter, filter-wrapper based algorithm has been proposed. In this work, reducing the feature space is a significant component of water contamination. The main findings are as follows: (1 The main goal is speeding up the feature selection process, so the proposed filter - based feature pre-selection is applied and guarantees that useful data are improbable to be detached in the initial stage which discussed briefly in this paper. (2 The resulting features are again filtered by using the Genetic Algorithm coded with Support Vector Machine method, where it facilitates to nutshell the subset of features with high accuracy and decreases the expense. Experimental results show that the proposed methods trim down redundant features effectively and achieved better classification accuracy.

  12. Metagenomes of microbial communities in arsenic- and pathogen-contaminated well and surface water from bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Alice C; Chauhan, Archana; Williams, Daniel E; Mailloux, Brian; Knappett, Peter S K; Ferguson, Andrew S; McKay, Larry D; Alam, M Jahangir; Matin Ahmed, Kazi; van Geen, Alexander; Sayler, Gary S

    2014-11-20

    The contamination of drinking water from both arsenic and microbial pathogens occurs in Bangladesh. A general metagenomic survey of well water and surface water provided information on the types of pathogens present and may help elucidate arsenic metabolic pathways and potential assay targets for monitoring surface-to-ground water pathogen transport. Copyright © 2014 Layton et al.

  13. Dissemination of drinking water contamination data to consumers: a systematic review of impact on consumer behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Lucas

    Full Text Available Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes.A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination. Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26-72% among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0-0.46] 6-12 months post intervention suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment.Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of contamination data to improve water management is currently

  14. Defense Health Care: Activities Related to Past Drinking Water Contamination at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    help prevent tooth decay . After the water is treated, it is stored in ground and elevated storage reservoirs. When needed, treated water...Background Page 9 GAO-07-276 Past Camp Lejeune Water Contamination compromised immune systems and children may be more vulnerable to contaminants in...cancerous health effects in children could not be determined because of insufficient scientific information, and (3) there was evidence that

  15. Dissemination of Drinking Water Contamination Data to Consumers: A Systematic Review of Impact on Consumer Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Patricia J.; Cabral, Christie; Colford, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Drinking water contaminated by chemicals or pathogens is a major public health threat in the developing world. Responses to this threat often require water consumers (households or communities) to improve their own management or treatment of water. One approach hypothesized to increase such positive behaviors is increasing knowledge of the risks of unsafe water through the dissemination of water contamination data. This paper reviews the evidence for this approach in changing behavior and subsequent health outcomes. Methods/Principal Findings A systematic review was conducted for studies where results of tests for contaminants in drinking water were disseminated to populations whose water supply posed a known health risk. Studies of any design were included where data were available from a contemporaneous comparison or control group. Using multiple sources >14,000 documents were located. Six studies met inclusion criteria (four of arsenic contamination and two of microbiological contamination). Meta-analysis was not possible in most cases due to heterogeneity of outcomes and study designs. Outcomes included water quality, change of water source, treatment of water, knowledge of contamination, and urinary arsenic. Source switching was most frequently reported: of 5 reporting studies 4 report significantly higher rates of switching (26–72%) among those who received a positive test result and a pooled risk difference was calculate for 2 studies (RD = 0.43 [CI0.4.0–0.46] 6–12 months post intervention) suggesting 43% more of those with unsafe wells switched source compared to those with safe wells. Strength of evidence is low since the comparison is between non-equivalent groups. Two studies concerning fecal contamination reported non-significant increases in point-of-use water treatment. Conclusion Despite the publication of some large cohort studies and some encouraging results the evidence base to support dissemination of contamination data to

  16. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  17. A NEW PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE: CONTAMINATION WITH ARSENIC OF PRIVATE WATER SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    ANCA ELENA GURZAU; CRISTIAN POP

    2012-01-01

    A new public health issue: contamination with arsenic of private water sources. Known since the early ‘40s, the natural contamination with arsenic of depth water in Bihor and Arad areas continues to incite interest, especially since the rural localities still use depth water as the main source of drinking water. Arsenic concentrations measured in the water sources in the area range between 0-176 μg/L, and it is estimated that over 45,000 people are exposed via drinking water to arsenic concen...

  18. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  19. CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATERS BY RUNOFF WATER FROM A CATTLE FARM AT FALENTY, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.RUSSEL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of surface and ground waters by runoff waterfrom a cattle farm at Falenty, Poland. The paper presents the results of theanalysis of runoff water from a cattle farm at Falenty near Warsaw, Poland. Thewater samples came from two wells collecting the outflow, the nearest drainingditch and the nearest stream. The sampling frequency was higher in the rainperiods. The reaction, conductivity, COD, concentration of ammonia, nitrite, andnitrate nitrogen, as well as phosphates was determined. Additionally, the totalquantity of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, fungi, Proteus sp., sulphidereducing bacteria and the coliform index was also counted. Results showed anincreased level of COD and higher concentration of phosphate ions in therainwater in the area of the farmyard. Relatively high microbiological indexeswere also observed. During periods with rain, the values of the biochemicaldemand for oxygen (COD and concentration of phosphate ions exceeded thethresholds for flowing waters.

  20. Microcystins contamination of surface water supply sources in Zaria-Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Kwaghe, Mndepawe Jonah

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacterial contamination of public water supply systems is a worldwide problem. The present study investigated water quality and microcystins (MCs) contamination of four public water supply systems in Zaria, Nigeria. The water bodies were eutrophic in the rainy and dry season and supported high phytoplankton biomass with chlorophyll a concentrations generally higher than 20.0 μg/L. The biomass of the predominant species (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena subcylindrica) of cyanobacteria had a significant positive correlation with particulate and dissolved MCs. Dissolved MCs concentrations were higher (>1.0 μg/L) than the maximum permissible limits for drinking water in all the water bodies in the dry season and three of them in the rainy season. These results suggest that there is the need to have a regular monitoring program for these water bodies to prevent acute and chronic health hazards associated with MCs contamination of drinking and irrigation water.

  1. Experimental investigation of airborne contaminant transport by a human wake moving in a ventilated aircraft cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane B.

    The air ventilation system in jetliners provides a comfortable and healthy environment for passengers. Unfortunately, the increase in global air traffic has amplified the risks presented by infectious aerosols or noxious material released during flight. Inside the cabin, air typically flows continuously from overhead outlets into sidewall exhausts in a circular pattern that minimizes secondary flow between adjacent seat rows. However, disturbances frequently introduced by individuals walking along an aisle may alter air distribution, and contribute to spreading of contaminants. Numerical simulation of these convoluted transient flow phenomena is difficult and complex, and experimental assessment of contaminant distribution in real cabins often impractical. A fundamental experimental study was undertaken to examine the transport phenomena, to validate computations and to improve air monitoring systems. A finite moving body was modeled in a 10:1 scale simplified aircraft cabin equipped with ventilation, at a Reynolds number (based on body diameter) of the order of 10,000. An experimental facility was designed and constructed to permit measurements of the ventilation and wake velocity fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Contaminant migration was imaged using the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. The effect of ventilation was estimated by comparison with a companion baseline study. Results indicate that the evolution of a downwash predominant behind finite bodies of small aspect ratio is profoundly perturbed by the ventilation flow. The reorganization of vortical structures in the near-wake leads to a shorter longitudinal recirculation region. Furthermore, mixing in the wake is modified and contaminant is observed to convect to higher vertical locations corresponding to seated passenger breathing level.

  2. Experimental investigations of the neutron contamination in high-energy photon fields at medical linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunckhorst, Elin

    2009-02-26

    The scope of this thesis was to develop a device for the detection of the photoneutron dose inside the high-energy photon field. The photoneutron contamination of a Siemens PRIMUS linear accelerator was investigated in detail in its 15 MV photon mode. The experimental examinations were performed with three ionisation chambers (a tissue equivalent chamber, a magnesium chamber and a {sup 10}B-coated magnesium chamber) and two types of thermoluminescence detectors (enriched with {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li, respectively). The detectors have different sensitivities to photons and neutrons and their combination allows the dose separation in a mixed neutron/photon field. The application of the ionisation chamber system, as well as the present TLD system for photoneutron detection in high-energy photon beams is a new approach. The TLD neutron sensitivity was found to be too low for a measurement inside the open photon field and the further investigation focused on the ionisation chambers. The three ionisation chambers were calibrated at different photon and neutron sources and a the borated magnesium chamber showed a very high response to thermal neutrons. For a cross check of the calibration, the three chambers were also used for dose separation of a boron neutron capture therapy beam where the exact determination of the thermal neutron dose is essential. Very accurate results were achieved for the thermal neutron dose component. At the linear accelerator the chamber system was reduced to a paired chamber system utilising the two magnesium chambers, since the fast neutron component was to small to be separated. The neutron calibration of the three chambers could not be applied, instead a conversion of measured thermal neutron signal by the borated chamber to Monte Carlo simulated total neutron dose was performed. Measurements for open fields in solid water and liquid water were performed with the paired chamber system. In larger depths the neutron dose could be determined

  3. Microbial Contamination of Drinking Water and Human Health from Community Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2015-03-01

    A relatively short list of reference viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens appears adequate to assess microbial risks and inform a system-based management of drinking waters. Nonetheless, there are data gaps, e.g. human enteric viruses resulting in endemic infection levels if poorly performing disinfection and/or distribution systems are used, and the risks from fungi. Where disinfection is the only treatment and/or filtration is poor, cryptosporidiosis is the most likely enteric disease to be identified during waterborne outbreaks, but generally non-human-infectious genotypes are present in the absence of human or calf fecal contamination. Enteric bacteria may dominate risks during major fecal contamination events that are ineffectively managed. Reliance on culture-based methods exaggerates treatment efficacy and reduces our ability to identify pathogens/indicators; however, next-generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction approaches are on the cusp of changing that. Overall, water-based Legionella and non-tuberculous mycobacteria probably dominate health burden at exposure points following the various societal uses of drinking water.

  4. Field-based Metabolomics for Assessing Contaminated Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolomics is becoming well-established for studying chemical contaminant-induced alterations to normal biological function. For example, the literature contains a wealth of laboratory-based studies involving analysis of samples from organisms exposed to individual chemical tox...

  5. Modeling Adsorption Based Filters (Bio-remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Water)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Chris

    I will discuss kinetic models of adsorption, as well as models of filters based on those mechanisms. These mathematical models have been developed in support of our interdisciplinary lab group, which is centered at BMCC/CUNY (City University of New York). Our group conducts research into bio-remediation of heavy metal contaminated water via filtration. The filters are constructed out of biomass, such as spent tea leaves. The spent tea leaves are available in large quantities as a result of the industrial production of tea beverages. The heavy metals bond with the surfaces of the tea leaves (adsorption). The models involve differential equations, stochastic methods, and recursive functions. I will compare the models' predictions to data obtained from computer simulations and experimentally by our lab group. Funding: CUNY Collaborative Incentive Research Grant (Round 12); CUNY Research Scholars Program.

  6. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  8. Alginate-based polysaccharide beads for cationic contaminant sorption from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei Li; Thomas Elder; Gisela Buschle-Diller

    2016-01-01

    Massive amounts of agricultural and industrial water worldwide are polluted by different types of contaminants that harm the environment and impact human health. Removing the contaminants from effluents by adsorbent materials made from abundant, inexpensive polysaccharides is a feasible approach to deal with this problem. In this research, alginate beads combined with...

  9. Removal of Uranium from Contaminated Water by Clay Ceramics in Flow-Through Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Florez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Uranium contamination of groundwater increasingly concerns rural residents depending on home wells for their drinking water in communities where uranium is a source of contamination. Established technologies to clean up contaminated aquifers are ineffective in large contaminated areas or are prohibitively expensive. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs are a low-cost alternative to these methods. In this paper, the applicability of clay ceramic pellets was investigated as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs material for the treatment of uranium-contaminated groundwater. Flow-through columns were fabricated and used to mimic the flow path of a contaminant plume through the reactive media. Experiment results show that clay ceramic pellets effectively remove uranium from uranium-contaminated water and also can be a cost-efficient technique for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater by a clay pellet barrier. Using clay ceramic pellets is also a practical treatment method for uranium removal from drinking water and can supply potable water for households in the affected areas.

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  11. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in garden produce at homes with a history of PFAS-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Deanna P; Kelly, James E; Huset, Carin A; Barry, Kitrina M; Hoffbeck, Richard W; Yingling, Virginia L; Messing, Rita B

    2018-04-01

    The decades-long disposal of manufacturing waste containing perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in landfills resulted in contamination of groundwater serving as the drinking water supply for the eastern Twin Cities metropolitan region. While measures were taken to reduce the levels of PFAS in the drinking water, questions remained about possible non-drinking water pathways of exposure in these communities. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) investigated whether PFAS in water used for yard and garden irrigation results in elevated concentrations of PFAS in soil and home-grown produce. In 2010, samples of outdoor tap water, garden soil, and garden produce were collected at homes impacted by the contamination and analyzed for several PFAS. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was the primary PFAS present in water, followed by perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA). Although PFBA, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were present in 100% of soil samples at higher concentrations compared to other PFAS, only PFBA was readily translocated to plants. Significant determinants of PFBA concentration in produce were the amount of PFBA applied to the garden via watering and the type of produce tested. Results from this real-world study are consistent with experimental findings that short-chain PFAS have the highest potential to translocate to and bioaccumulate in edible plants. These findings are globally relevant, as short-chain PFAS serve as commercial substitutes for longer-chain compounds and are increasingly detected in water due to their relatively high solubility and mobility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Faecal contamination of household drinking water in Rwanda: A national cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Miles A., E-mail: miles.kirby@lshtm.ac.uk [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Nagel, Corey L., E-mail: nagelc@ohsu.edu [Oregon Health and Science University, School of Nursing Portland Campus, 3455 SW US Veterans Hospital Road, SN-6S, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Rosa, Ghislaine, E-mail: ghislaine.rosa@lshtm.ac.uk [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Iyakaremye, Laurien, E-mail: laurieniyakaremye1@gmail.com [DelAgua Health Rwanda Implementation, Ltd., 3rd Fl KG 19 Avenue, Kibagabaga Rd, Kigali (Rwanda); Zambrano, Laura Divens, E-mail: laura.zambrano@emory.edu [Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Clasen, Thomas F., E-mail: thomas.f.clasen@emory.edu [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children in low-income settings. We conducted a national survey in Rwanda to determine the level of faecal contamination of household drinking water and risk factors associated therewith. Drinking water samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of 870 households and assessed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved indicator of faecal contamination. Potential household and community-level determinants of household drinking water quality derived from household surveys, the 2012 Rwanda Population and Housing Census, and a precipitation dataset were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Widespread faecal contamination was present, and only 24.9% (95% CI 20.9–29.4%, n = 217) of household samples met WHO Guidelines of having no detectable TTC contamination, while 42.5% (95% CI 38.0–47.1%, n = 361) of samples had > 100 TTC/100 mL and considered high risk. Sub-national differences were observed, with poorer water quality in rural areas and Eastern province. In multivariate analyses, there was evidence for an association between detectable contamination and increased open waste disposal in a sector, lower elevation, and water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled. Risk factors for intermediate/high risk contamination (> 10 TTC/100 mL) included low population density, increased open waste disposal, lower elevation, water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled, and occurrence of an extreme rain event the previous day. Modelling suggests non-household-based risk factors are determinants of water quality in this setting, and these results suggest a substantial proportion of Rwanda's population are exposed to faecal contamination through drinking water. - Graphical abstract: Household drinking water quality (thermotolerant coliform colony forming units/100 m

  13. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aged-contaminated soil using cyclodextrins: Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viglianti, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Centre Sciences, Information et Technologies pour l' Environnement (SITE) - ENS de Mines de Saint Etienne, 158 cours Fauriel - 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Hanna, Khalil [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail: khalilhanna@hotmail.com; Brauer, Christine de [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Germain, Patrick [Laboratoire d' Analyse Environnementale des Procedes et des Systemes Industriels - INSA de Lyon, 9, rue de la Physique - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-04-15

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil using water as flushing agent is relatively ineffective due to their low aqueous solubility. However, addition of cyclodextrin (CD) in washing solutions has been shown to increase the removal efficiency several times. Herein are investigated the effectiveness of cyclodextrin to remove PAH occurring in industrially aged-contaminated soil. {beta}-Cyclodextrin (BCD), hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (MCD) solutions were used for soil flushing in column test to evaluate some influent parameters that can significantly increase the removal efficiency. The process parameters chosen were CD concentration, ratio of washing solution volume to soil weight, and temperature of washing solution. These parameters were found to have a significant and almost linear effect on PAH removal from the contaminated soil, except the temperature where no significant enhancement in PAH extraction was observed for temperature range from 5 to 35 {sup o}C. The PAHs extraction enhancement factor compared to water was about 200. - An innovative method using a biodegradable and non-toxic flushing agent for the depollution of industrially aged-contaminated soil.

  14. Fungal Contaminants in Drinking Water Regulation? A Tale of Ecology, Exposure, Purification and Clinical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak Babič, Monika; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Vargha, Márta; Tischner, Zsófia; Magyar, Donát; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Viegas, Carla; Meyer, Wieland; Brandão, João

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological drinking water safety is traditionally monitored mainly by bacterial parameters that indicate faecal contamination. These parameters correlate with gastro-intestinal illness, despite the fact that viral agents, resulting from faecal contamination, are usually the cause. This leaves behind microbes that can cause illness other than gastro-intestinal and several emerging pathogens, disregarding non-endemic microbial contaminants and those with recent pathogenic activity reported. This white paper focuses on one group of contaminants known to cause allergies, opportunistic infections and intoxications: Fungi. It presents a review on their occurrence, ecology and physiology. Additionally, factors contributing to their presence in water distribution systems, as well as their effect on water quality are discussed. Presence of opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in drinking water can pose a health risk to consumers due to daily contact with water, via several exposure points, such as drinking and showering. The clinical relevance and influence on human health of the most common fungal contaminants in drinking water is discussed. Our goal with this paper is to place fungal contaminants on the roadmap of evidence based and emerging threats for drinking water quality safety regulations.

  15. Prediction of areas where irrigation drainage may induce selenium contamination of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior has investigated 25 areas in the western USA to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused harmful effects on wildlife or has reduced subsequent beneficial uses of the water. A database of chemical analyses of water, sediment, and biota from the 25 areas was created and supplemented with geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic date. The data were evaluated to identify common features among study areas and principal factors that result in Se contamination of water in lakes, ponds, and streams downgradient of irrigated areas. From the analysis of data, a decision tree that use readily available geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic date was derived for use by resource managers as a screening tool to predict the likelihood that irrigation drainage will result in Se contamination in areas of the western USA. Irrigation in areas that are not associated with marine sedimentary rocks of late Cretaceous age is unlikely to cause Se contamination. Irrigation in very arid areas that are associated with these Cretaceous sediments is almost certain to cause Se contamination if the irrigation water drains to terminal lakes and ponds. The likelihood that an area will be contaminated with Se because of irrigation drainage can change, particularly with changes in precipitation. During normal or wet periods, Se contamination may not occur in an area, even though it has seleniferous soils, but reduced water deliveries during a drought in such an area may result in Se contamination.

  16. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Water Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water temperature data. *These services are for testing and evaluation...

  17. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Water Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have water surface height above a reference datum. *These services are for...

  18. Treating Water Contamination using Ultraviolet Radiation to Control Cryptosporidium and E.Coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, David; O'Hehir, Michael; Dunphy, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about the quality of drinking water in Ireland have come into sharp focus with the recent Cryptosporidium outbreak in Galway City. This article looks at how ultraviolet radiation can offer a potential solution in the control of Cryptosporidium contamination.

  19. National Enforcement Initiative: Keeping Raw Sewage and Contaminated Stormwater Out of Our Nation's Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's enforcement activities on water pollution from raw sewage and contaminated stormwater. This is one of EPA's National Enforcement Initiatives. Both enforcement cases, and a map of enforcement actions are provided.

  20. Fate and Effects of Leachate Contamination on Alaska's Tribal Drinking Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and Alaskan tribal communities identified and selected five representative Alaskan tribal landfills/dump sites and performed water quality sampling and analysis to identify chemical and microbial contaminants of concern (COCs) that could potentially impact the local drinking ...

  1. Probability of nitrate contamination of recently recharged ground waters in the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a national map of predicted probability of nitrate contamination of shallow ground waters based on a logistic regression (LR) model. The LR model...

  2. Defense Health Care: Activities Related to Past Drinking Water Contamination at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crosse, Marcia; Anderson, Bonnie; Doran, Karen; Bogart, George; Desaulniers, Helen; Hamann, Cathleen; Organek, Danielle; Price, Roseanne; Ritchie, Christina; Ryba, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    .... ATSDR has projected a December 2007 completion date for the study. The National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005 required GAO to report on past drinking water contamination and related health effects at Camp Lejeune...

  3. Gold tailings as a source of water-borne uranium contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gold tailings as a source of water-borne uranium contamination of streams - the Koekemoerspruit (South Africa) as a case study - part III of III: fluctuations of stream chemistry and their impacts on uranium mobility.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  5. The effect of disinfectant agents in eliminating the contamination of dental unit water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, M; Kulak, Y; Kazazoglu, E

    High concentrations of water-borne organisms cause multiple public health problems. Contamination of water exiting the dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of some disinfectants. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the effect of two disinfectants and to test their

  6. Widespread copper and lead contamination of household drinking water, New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P J; Handley, H K; Taylor, M P

    2016-11-01

    This study examines arsenic, copper, lead and manganese drinking water contamination at the domestic consumer's kitchen tap in homes of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of 212 first draw drinking water samples shows that almost 100% and 56% of samples contain detectable concentrations of copper and lead, respectively. Of these detectable concentrations, copper exceeds Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) in 5% of samples and lead in 8%. By contrast, no samples contained arsenic and manganese water concentrations in excess of the ADWG. Analysis of household plumbing fittings (taps and connecting pipework) show that these are a significant source of drinking water lead contamination. Water lead concentrations derived for plumbing components range from 108µg/L to 1440µg/L (n=28, mean - 328µg/L, median - 225µg/L). Analysis of kitchen tap fittings demonstrates these are a primary source of drinking water lead contamination (n=9, mean - 63.4µg/L, median - 59.0µg/L). The results of this study demonstrate that along with other potential sources of contamination in households, plumbing products that contain detectable lead up to 2.84% are contributing to contamination of household drinking water. Given that both copper and lead are known to cause significant health detriments, products for use in contact with drinking water should be manufactured free from copper and lead. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A national look at nitrate contamination of ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water provides drinking water for more than one-half of the Nation's population (Solley and others, 1993), and is the sole source of drinking water for many rural communities and some large cities. In 1990, ground water accounted for 39 percent of water withdrawn for public supply for cities and towns and 96 percent of water withdrawn by self-supplied systems for domestic use.

  8. Poisoning the mind: Arsenic contamination of drinking water wells and children's educational achievement in rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh has experienced the largest mass poisoning of a population in history owing to contamination of groundwater with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic. Prolonged drinking of such water risks development of diseases and therefore has implications for children's cognitive and psychological development. This study examines the effect of arsenic contamination of tubewells, the primary source of drinking water at home, on the learning outcome of school-going children in rural Bangladesh...

  9. Arsenic in contaminated waters: biogeochemical cycle, microbial metabolism and biotreatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lièvremont, Didier; Bertin, Philippe N; Lett, Marie-Claire

    2009-10-01

    Arsenic is responsible for the contamination of water supplies in various parts of the world and poses a major risk to human health. Its toxicity and bioavailability depend on its speciation, which in turn, depends on microbial transformations, including reduction, oxidation and methylation. This review describes the development of bioprocesses for the treatment of arsenic-contaminated waters based on bacterial metabolism and biogeochemical cycling of arsenic.

  10. Study of the possibility of thermal utilization of contaminated water in low-power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2017-09-01

    The utilization of water contaminated with oil products is a topical problem for thermal power plants and boiler houses. It is reasonable to use special water treatment equipment only for large power engineering and industry facilities. Thermal utilization of contaminated water in boiler furnaces is proposed as an alternative version of its utilization. Since there are hot-water fire-tube boilers at many enterprises, it is necessary to study the possibility of thermal utilization of water contaminated with oil products in their furnaces. The object of this study is a KV-GM-2.0 boiler with a heating power of 2 MW. The pressurized burner developed at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, National Research University, was used as a burner device for supplying liquid fuel. The computational investigations were performed on the basis of the computer simulation of processes of liquid fuel atomization, mixing, ignition, and burnout; in addition, the formation of nitrogen oxides was simulated on the basis of ANSYS Fluent computational dynamics software packages, taking into account radiative and convective heat transfer. Analysis of the results of numerical experiments on the combined supply of crude oil and water contaminated with oil products has shown that the thermal utilization of contaminated water in fire-tube boilers cannot be recommended. The main causes here are the impingement of oil droplets on the walls of the flame tube, as well as the delay in combustion and increased emissions of nitrogen oxides. The thermal utilization of contaminated water combined with diesel fuel can be arranged provided that the water consumption is not more than 3%; however, this increases the emission of nitrogen oxides. The further increase in contaminated water consumption will lead to the reduction of the reliability of the combustion process.

  11. Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hairong Li; Wuyi Wang; Yonghua Li; Bixiong Ye; Linsheng Yang

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drink...

  12. Inequalities in microbial contamination of drinking water supplies in urban areas: the case of Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Ansah, Akosua Sarpong; Ferrero, Giuliana; Rusca, Maria; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Over past decades strategies for improving access to drinking water in cities of the Global South have mainly focused on increasing coverage, while water quality has often been overlooked. This paper focuses on drinking water quality in the centralized water supply network of Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. It shows how microbial contamination of drinking water is unequally distributed to consumers in low-income (unplanned areas) and higher-income neighbourhoods (planned areas). Microbial contamination and residual disinfectant concentration were measured in 170 water samples collected from in-house taps in high-income areas and from kiosks and water storage facilities in low-income areas between November 2014 and January 2015. Faecal contamination (Escherichia coli) was detected in 10% of the 40 samples collected from planned areas, in 59% of the 64 samples collected from kiosks in the unplanned areas and in 75% of the 32 samples of water stored at household level. Differences in water quality in planned and unplanned areas were found to be statistically significant at p contamination of drinking water are produced by decisions both on the development of the water supply infrastructure and on how this is operated and maintained.

  13. Norovirus contamination of a drinking water supply at a hotel resort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Susan; Bell, Derek; Hewitt, Joanne

    2013-12-13

    To investigate a waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak and consider wider environmental contamination concerns. An acute gastroenteritis outbreak was investigated through interviews, analysis of faecal samples, drinking water and environmental water samples. A total of 53 cases reported an illness of acute gastroenteritis following stays and/or dining at a hotel or neighbouring resort in southern New Zealand over a 1-month period in early spring 2012. The consumption of table or tap water was strongly associated with the illness. Faecal samples were positive for norovirus (NoV) genogroup I and II (GI and GII). Drinking tap water samples were positive for NoV GI and GII but negative for Escherichia coli (E. coli). Wider environmental water testing at local drinking water sources, around the sewage disposal field and at the nearby river showed the presence of NoV GI and GII. Voluntary boil water notices were issued and implemented with no further cases following this action. Additional treatment of drinking water supplies has been implemented and sewerage disposal concerns referred to local government. Investigation of this gastroenteritis outbreak revealed contamination of both drinking water and the wider environment with NoV. Bacterial indicators do not adequately cover contamination by viruses but due to costs, frequent virus monitoring programmes are currently impractical. A strategy to decrease environmental contamination of drinking water supplies in this busy tourist location through improved management of sewage disposal and drinking water is urgently required.

  14. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Wright

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012−2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR = 32.3, p < 0.001, whilst packaged (sachet or bottled water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p < 0.001, compared to water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

  15. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Johnston, Richard; Hill, Allan; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Adanu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012−2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision. PMID:27005650

  16. Effects of Sachet Water Consumption on Exposure to Microbe-Contaminated Drinking Water: Household Survey Evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jim; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Wardrop, Nicola A; Johnston, Richard; Hill, Allan; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Adanu, Richard

    2016-03-09

    There remain few nationally representative studies of drinking water quality at the point of consumption in developing countries. This study aimed to examine factors associated with E. coli contamination in Ghana. It drew on a nationally representative household survey, the 2012-2013 Living Standards Survey 6, which incorporated a novel water quality module. E. coli contamination in 3096 point-of-consumption samples was examined using multinomial regression. Surface water use was the strongest risk factor for high E. coli contamination (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 32.3, p water use had the greatest protective effect (RRR = 0.06, p water piped to premises. E. coli contamination followed plausible patterns with digit preference (tendency to report values ending in zero) in bacteria counts. The analysis suggests packaged drinking water use provides some protection against point-of-consumption E. coli contamination and may therefore benefit public health. It also suggests viable water quality data can be collected alongside household surveys, but field protocols require further revision.

  17. Inhibition of Nitrification by Creosote-Contaminated Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyreborg, Søren; Arvin, Erik

    1995-01-01

    A leaching experiment was carried out in a saturated sand column contaminated with creosote. The toxicity of the leachate was determined by the inhibition of nitrification. Good correlations between the toxicity and the concentrations of five selected creosote compounds (benzene, toluene, o-xylen...

  18. Faecal contamination of household drinking water in Rwanda: A national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Miles A; Nagel, Corey L; Rosa, Ghislaine; Iyakaremye, Laurien; Zambrano, Laura Divens; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-11-15

    Unsafe drinking water is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among young children in low-income settings. We conducted a national survey in Rwanda to determine the level of faecal contamination of household drinking water and risk factors associated therewith. Drinking water samples were collected from a nationally representative sample of 870 households and assessed for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), a World Health Organization (WHO)-approved indicator of faecal contamination. Potential household and community-level determinants of household drinking water quality derived from household surveys, the 2012 Rwanda Population and Housing Census, and a precipitation dataset were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Widespread faecal contamination was present, and only 24.9% (95% CI 20.9-29.4%, n=217) of household samples met WHO Guidelines of having no detectable TTC contamination, while 42.5% (95% CI 38.0-47.1%, n=361) of samples had >100TTC/100mL and considered high risk. Sub-national differences were observed, with poorer water quality in rural areas and Eastern province. In multivariate analyses, there was evidence for an association between detectable contamination and increased open waste disposal in a sector, lower elevation, and water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled. Risk factors for intermediate/high risk contamination (>10TTC/100mL) included low population density, increased open waste disposal, lower elevation, water sources other than piped to household or rainwater/bottled, and occurrence of an extreme rain event the previous day. Modelling suggests non-household-based risk factors are determinants of water quality in this setting, and these results suggest a substantial proportion of Rwanda's population are exposed to faecal contamination through drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Contaminated osteochondral plugs: effect of different sterilizing solutions: an experimental study in the rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Yazdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Background: To determine the efficacy of different antiseptic solutions (Control group (I, Antibiotic solution (II, Chlorhexidine 0.4% (III, and povidone – iodine 10% (IV in sterilizing contaminated osteochondral plugs. Methods: Under sterile conditions, the femoral head and condyles of 20 rabbits were removed and cut into equal osteochondral pieces. A total of 200 osteochondral specimens were obtained. All 200 specimens were dropped on the operating room floor for fifteen seconds and assigned to one of four experimental groups. Group I samples were cultured after washing with normal saline solution (Control group. In other three groups, prior to culturing process, samples were placed in an antibiotic solution after washing with normal saline (Neomycin & Polymyxin (group II, Chlorhexidine 0.4% (group III, and povidone – iodine 10% (group IV, respectively. Results: In group I, 25 of 50 specimens had positive cultures. Of 50 specimens of group II, III and IV, no positive cultures were found after 10 days. Conclusion: all three agents including antibiotic solution, povidone-iodine 10% and chlorhexidine 0.4% seem effective in sterilizing the contaminated osteochondral samples. According to the literature, povidone-iodine has no negative effect on the cartilage metabolism and seems to be a proper choice of decontaminating solution for osteochondral plugs.To the best of the authors' knowledge, such a study on the contaminated osteochondral specimen has not been previously reported in the literature. 

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  1. Remediation approach for organic compounds and arsenic co-contaminated soil using the pressurized hot water extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Jo, Young-Tae; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2017-09-26

    Successful remediation of soil with co-existing organics contaminants and arsenic (As) is a challenge as the chemical and remediation technologies are different for each group of pollutants. In this study, the treatment effectiveness of the pressurized hot water (PHW) extraction process was investigated for remediation of soil co-contaminated with phenol, crude oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and As. An elimination percentage of about 99% was achieved for phenol, and in the range of 63-100% was observed for the PAHs at 260°C for 90 min operation. The performance of PHW extraction in the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons was found to be 86%. Of the 87 mg/kg of As in untreated soil, 67% of which was eliminated after treatment. The removal of organic contaminants was mainly via desorption, dissolution and degradation in subcritical water, while As was eliminated probably by oxidation and dissolution of arsenic-bearing minerals. According to the experimental results, the PHW extraction process can be suggested as an alternative cleaning technology, instead of using any organic solvents for remediation of such co-contaminated soil.

  2. Removal of the emerging contaminant bisphenol A by an ureasil-PEO hybrid membrane: experimental study and molecular dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lilian K; Moura, André L A; Barbosa, Valdir; Parreira, Renato L T; Banegas, Rodrigo S; Caramori, Giovanni F; Ciuffi, Katia J; Molina, Eduardo F

    2017-08-01

    This work reports the use of a cross-linked ureasil-PEO hybrid matrix (designated PEO800) as an efficient adsorbent to retain the emerging contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) from an aqueous medium. The in-deep experimental and theoretical results provide information about the interactions between PEO800 and BPA. The in situ UV-vis spectroscopy data and the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, and Morris-Webber intraparticle diffusion models allowed us to propose a three-step mechanism for the adsorption of BPA onto PEO800. The results indicate that the pseudo-first-order kinetic model effectively describes the adsorption of BPA onto PEO800. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the interaction of PEO800 with BPA, showing an alteration in the chemical environment of the polymer ether oxygen atoms present in the hybrid matrix. The molecular dynamic simulation provides further evidence that the BPA molecules interact preferentially with PEO. The amount of desorbed BPA depended on the pH and solvent used in the assays. This work provides new opportunities for using the hydrophilic ureasil-PEO matrix which has demonstrated its abilities in being a fast and easy alternative to successfully removing organic contaminants from aqueous mediums and therefore having potential applications in water remediation. Graphical abstract.

  3. Full scale amendment of a contaminated wood impregnation site with iron water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a free by-product of the treatment of drinking water with high concentration of iron oxides and potential for arsenic sorption. This paper aims at applying Fe-WTR to a contaminated site, measuring the reduction in contaminant leaching, and discussing...... amendment a 100 m2 test site and a control site (without amendment) were monitored for 14 months. Also soil analysis of Fe to evaluate the degree of soil and Fe-WTR mixing was done. Stabilization with Fe-WTR had a significant effect on leachable contaminants, reducing pore water As by 93%, Cu by 91% and Cr...... by 95% in the upper samplers. Dosage and mixing of Fe-WTR in the soil proved to be difficult in the deeper part of the field, and pore water concentrations of arsenic was generally higher. Despite water logged conditions no increase in dissolved iron or arsenic was observed in the amended soil. Our...

  4. Identification of the source of nitrate contamination in ground water below an agricultural site, Jeungpyeong, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Seong-Chun; Bae, Gwang-Ok; Lee, Kang-Kun; Chung, Hyung-Jae

    2005-01-01

    This study applied hydrogeological characterization and isotope investigation to identify source locations and to trace a plume of ground water contaminated by nitrate. Most of the study site is agricultural fields with the remainder being residential. A poultry farm is also within the study area, so that potential point and nonpoint sources were present. Estimates of seasonal ground water recharge from irrigation and precipitation, leakage of sewage, and the regional ground water flow were linked to the seasonal changes in isotopic values. Ground water recharge largely occurred in spring and summer following precipitation or irrigation, depending on the locations. Natural and fertilized soils were identified as nonpoint sources of nitrate contamination in this area, while septic and animal wastes were identified as small point sources. The seasonal changes in the relative impact of these sources on ground water contamination were related to such factors as source distribution, the aquifer confining condition, precipitation rate, infiltration capacity, recharge rate, and the land use pattern.

  5. Occurrence of contaminant accumulation in lead pipe scales from domestic drinking-water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Michael R; Hyland, Robert N; Welch, Meghan M

    2008-06-15

    Previously, contaminants, such as AI, As, and Ra, have been shown to accumulate in drinking-water distribution system solids. Accumulated contaminants could be periodically released back into the water supply causing elevated levels at consumers taps, going undetected by most current regulatory monitoring practices and consequently constituting a hidden risk. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of over 40 major scale constituents, regulated metals, and other potential metallic inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution system Pb (lead) or Pb-lined service lines. The primary method of analysis was inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, following complete decomposition of scale material. Contaminants and scale constituents were categorized by their average concentrations, and many metals of potential health concern were found to occur at levels sufficient to result in elevated levels at the consumer's taps if they were to be mobilized. The data indicate distinctly nonconservative behavior for many inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution systems. This finding suggests an imminent need for further research into the transport and fate of contaminants throughout drinking-water distribution system pipes, as well as a re-evaluation of monitoring protocols in order to more accurately determine the scope and levels of potential consumer exposure.

  6. Effect of Co-Contaminant on Denitrification Removal of Nitrate in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu KILIÇ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nitrogenous fertilizers used in agriculture, unconscious and without treatment wastewater is discharged led to an increase in groundwater nitrate pollution. In many countries, nitrate concentration in the ground waters used as drinking water source exceeded the maximum allowable concentration of 10 mg/L NO3-N. According to a study, some wells in the Harran Plain contain nitrate as high as 180 mg/L NO3--N and the average concentration for whole plain is 35 mg/L NO3--N (Yesilnacar et al., 2008. Additionally, increased water consumption, unconscious use of fertilizers and pesticides has led to the emergence of co-contaminant in drinking water. Recently, hazardous to human health co-contaminant such as arsenic, pesticides, perchlorate, selenate, chromate, uranium are observed in the nitrate pollution drinking water. There are many processes used for the removal of nitrate. The physical–chemical technologies that can be used for nitrate removal are reverse osmosis, ion exchange and electrodialysis (Alvarez et al., 2007. Important disadvantages of these processes are their poor selectivity, high operation and maintenance costs and the generation of brine wastes after treatment. Consequently, biological treatment processes to convert nitrates to benign dinitrogen gas, could be an interesting alternative for the remediation of groundwater contaminated with nitrates. The aim of this article, effective and cheap method for the removal of nitrate from drinking water biological denitrification is to examine the usability of contaminated drinking water with co-contaminant pollutions.

  7. Future Challenges to Protecting Public Health from Drinking-Water Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eileen A.; Post, Gloria B.; Buckley, Brian T.; Lippincott, Robert L.; Robson, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several decades, human health protection for chemical contaminants in drinking water has been accomplished by development of chemical-specific standards. This approach alone is not feasible to address current issues of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in drinking water, some of which have little health effects information, and water scarcity. In this article, we describe the current chemical-specific paradigm for regulating chemicals in drinking water and discuss some potential additional approaches currently being explored to focus more on sustaining quality water for specific purposes. Also discussed are strategies being explored by the federal government to screen more efficiently the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals to prioritize further intensive testing. Water reuse and water treatment are described as sustainable measures for managing water resources for potable uses as well as other uses such as irrigation. PMID:22224887

  8. Future challenges to protecting public health from drinking-water contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eileen A; Post, Gloria B; Buckley, Brian T; Lippincott, Robert L; Robson, Mark G

    2012-04-01

    Over the past several decades, human health protection for chemical contaminants in drinking water has been accomplished by development of chemical-specific standards. This approach alone is not feasible to address current issues of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in drinking water, some of which have little health effects information, and water scarcity. In this article, we describe the current chemical-specific paradigm for regulating chemicals in drinking water and discuss some potential additional approaches currently being explored to focus more on sustaining quality water for specific purposes. Also discussed are strategies being explored by the federal government to screen more efficiently the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals to prioritize further intensive testing. Water reuse and water treatment are described as sustainable measures for managing water resources for potable uses as well as other uses such as irrigation.

  9. Fact Sheet: Water Monitoring Reveals More Well Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedron Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action program to work with hazardous waste facilities to investigate and clean up any release of hazardous waste into the soil, ground water, surface water and air.

  10. Drinking Water Quality Status and Contamination in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Daud, M. K.; Muhammad Nafees; Shafaqat Ali; Muhammad Rizwan; Raees Ahmad Bajwa; Muhammad Bilal Shakoor; Muhammad Umair Arshad; Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha; Farah Deeba; Waheed Murad; Ijaz Malook; Shui Jin Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Due to alarming increase in population and rapid industrialization, drinking water quality is being deteriorated day by day in Pakistan. This review sums up the outcomes of various research studies conducted for drinking water quality status of different areas of Pakistan by taking into account the physicochemical properties of drinking water as well as the presence of various pathogenic microorganisms. About 20% of the whole population of Pakistan has access to safe drinking water. The remai...

  11. Bacterial contamination of raw vegetables, vegetable-related water and river water in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nguyen Thi Van; Kitajima, Masaaki; Hang, Nguyen Vo Minh; Matsubara, Koichi; Takizawa, Satoshi; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Kumiko; Ohgaki, Shinichiro

    2008-01-01

    The study attempts to identify the potential routes of bacterial infection via consumption of raw vegetables, drinking water and vegetable-related water in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). Vegetables in the markets and restaurants had higher total coliforms and E. coli counts than the vegetables at the vegetable cultivation fields. In search of the potential contamination sources, it was found that vegetables are washed in nearby canals after harvesting. Those canals are contaminated with human and animal excreta, which in turn may contaminate the vegetables. At the markets, although the tap water was found to be free of microbes, contaminated and non-contaminated vegetables are mixed and washed in the same bowl, which may bring about further spreading of infectious bacteria. The results of this study suggested that an integrated countermeasure that incorporates reducing microbial contamination of canals, raising the awareness of microbial infection among the local farmers and wholesalers, and providing enough clean water to the food markets should be implemented to reduce the incidence of food-borne illness in HCMC. IWA Publishing 2008.

  12. Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert; Cronk, Ryan; Hossain, Rifat; Bonjour, Sophie; Onda, Kyle; Wright, Jim; Yang, Hong; Slaymaker, Tom; Hunter, Paul; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-08-01

    To estimate exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water as indicated by levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) or thermotolerant coliform (TTC) in water sources. We estimated coverage of different types of drinking water source based on household surveys and censuses using multilevel modelling. Coverage data were combined with water quality studies that assessed E. coli or TTC including those identified by a systematic review (n = 345). Predictive models for the presence and level of contamination of drinking water sources were developed using random effects logistic regression and selected covariates. We assessed sensitivity of estimated exposure to study quality, indicator bacteria and separately considered nationally randomised surveys. We estimate that 1.8 billion people globally use a source of drinking water which suffers from faecal contamination, of these 1.1 billion drink water that is of at least 'moderate' risk (>10 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml). Data from nationally randomised studies suggest that 10% of improved sources may be 'high' risk, containing at least 100 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml. Drinking water is found to be more often contaminated in rural areas (41%, CI: 31%-51%) than in urban areas (12%, CI: 8-18%), and contamination is most prevalent in Africa (53%, CI: 42%-63%) and South-East Asia (35%, CI: 24%-45%). Estimates were not sensitive to the exclusion of low quality studies or restriction to studies reporting E. coli. Microbial contamination is widespread and affects all water source types, including piped supplies. Global burden of disease estimates may have substantially understated the disease burden associated with inadequate water services. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine and International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert; Cronk, Ryan; Hossain, Rifat; Bonjour, Sophie; Onda, Kyle; Wright, Jim; Yang, Hong; Slaymaker, Tom; Hunter, Paul; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water as indicated by levels of Escherichia coli (E. coli) or thermotolerant coliform (TTC) in water sources. Methods We estimated coverage of different types of drinking water source based on household surveys and censuses using multilevel modelling. Coverage data were combined with water quality studies that assessed E. coli or TTC including those identified by a systematic review (n = 345). Predictive models for the presence and level of contamination of drinking water sources were developed using random effects logistic regression and selected covariates. We assessed sensitivity of estimated exposure to study quality, indicator bacteria and separately considered nationally randomised surveys. Results We estimate that 1.8 billion people globally use a source of drinking water which suffers from faecal contamination, of these 1.1 billion drink water that is of at least ‘moderate’ risk (>10 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml). Data from nationally randomised studies suggest that 10% of improved sources may be ‘high’ risk, containing at least 100 E. coli or TTC per 100 ml. Drinking water is found to be more often contaminated in rural areas (41%, CI: 31%–51%) than in urban areas (12%, CI: 8–18%), and contamination is most prevalent in Africa (53%, CI: 42%–63%) and South-East Asia (35%, CI: 24%–45%). Estimates were not sensitive to the exclusion of low quality studies or restriction to studies reporting E. coli. Conclusions Microbial contamination is widespread and affects all water source types, including piped supplies. Global burden of disease estimates may have substantially understated the disease burden associated with inadequate water services. PMID:24811893

  14. Enhanced communication and coordination in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam; Simon, Katie

    2012-03-01

    Effective communication and coordination are critical when investigating a possible drinking water contamination incident. A contamination warning system is designed to detect water contamination by initiating a coordinated, effective response to mitigate significant public health and economic consequences. This article describes historical communication barriers during water contamination incidents and discusses how these barriers were overcome through the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System, referred to as the "Cincinnati Pilot." By enhancing partnerships in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Pilot, information silos that existed in each organization were replaced with interagency information depots that facilitated effective decision making.

  15. Absorption-Edge-Modulated Transmission Spectra for Water Contaminant Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    resources in the New York City metro area has demonstrated the potential application of this type of analysis for water monitoring, treatment and...comparative to the quality of the lake water , with primarily soluble compounds and colloids, but with fewer pollutants and bacteria/ algae ...parametric model representations, in conjunction with their spectral signature interpretation, before and after water treatment processes that

  16. 49 Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR AHMED

    health, safety and welfare of any living species (Pickering & Owen, 1996). Water pollution leads to deterioration of water quality which is also defined by temperature, amount and character of mineral particle, dissolved substance and organic matter content of a body of water in relation to its intended use (Skinner & Porter, ...

  17. Potential of zerovalent iron nanoparticles for remediation of environmental organic contaminants in water: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychoudhury, Trishikhi; Scheytt, Traugott

    2013-01-01

    Zerovalent iron (ZVI) has the potential to degrade different organic contaminants. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) can reduce the contaminants even more rapidly due to its small size and large specific surface area (SSA), compared to granular ZVI. The main objective of this paper is to assess and compare the potential of NZVI for degradation of different contaminants in water under specific environmental conditions. As a first step, the potential reactive functional groups/bonds associated with different contaminants are identified and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. Thereafter, the reaction efficiencies of different organic contaminants with NZVI are compared. Mass of ZVI and reaction time required to transform a certain amount of contaminated water are calculated based on literature data. Sources of contaminants in the environment and their environmental occurrences are discussed to understand the potential locations where NZVI could be applied for removal of different contaminants. Overall it is observed that azo-compounds are readily transformed in the presence of NZVI particles. Reaction efficiencies of ZVI for reduction of nitro-organic compounds are also reasonably high. However, halogenated compounds with high molecular weights or complex structures (i.e., iodinated contrast media, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc.) show lower reaction rates with NZVI compared to the widely studied chlorinated hydrocarbons (i.e., trichloroethylene).

  18. Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

  19. Early warning system for detection of protozoal contamination of source waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Mogensen, Claus; Berg, Tommy W.

    2012-01-01

    water contamination e.g. water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, and industry in general. Data from on-going field tests as well as sensitivity and specificity testing of the system will be presented at the conference.......Ensuring water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, detection of protozoa in drinking water is a costly and time consuming process. We have developed an online, real-time sensor for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in a range of source waters. The novel...

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water.

  1. Effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water on reducing Listeria monocytogenes contamination on seafood processing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengchu; Duan, Jingyun; Su, Yi-Cheng

    2006-02-15

    The effects of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on reducing Listeria monocytogenes contamination on seafood processing surfaces were studied. Chips (5 x 5 cm(2)) of stainless steel sheet (SS), ceramic tile (CT), and floor tile (FT) with and without crabmeat residue on the surface were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and soaked in tap or EO water for 5 min. Viable cells of L. monocytogenes were detected on all chip surfaces with or without crabmeat residue after being held at room temperature for 1 h. Soaking contaminated chips in tap water resulted in small-degree reductions of the organism (0.40-0.66 log cfu/chip on clean surfaces and 0.78-1.33 log cfu/chip on dirty surfaces). Treatments of EO water significantly (peffectiveness of EO water on inactivating Listeria cells. However, treatments of EO water also resulted in significant reductions of L. monocytogenes on dirty surfaces (2.33 log on SS and CT and 1.52 log on FT) when compared with tap water treatments. The antimicrobial activity of EO water was positively correlated with its chlorine content. High oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of EO water also contributed significantly to its antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes. EO water was more effective than chlorine water on inactivating L. monocytogenes on surfaces and could be used as a chlorine alternative for sanitation purpose. Application of EO water following a thorough cleaning process could greatly reduce L. monocytogenes contamination in seafood processing environments.

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

  3. Degradation of phenolic contaminants in ground water by anaerobic bacteria: St. Louis Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, G.G.; Goerlitz, D.F.; Godsy, E.M.; Hult, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    Coal-tar derivatives from a coal-tar distillation and wood-treating plant that operated from 1918 to 1972 at St. Louis Park, Minnesota contaminated the near-surface ground water. Solutions of phenolic compounds and a water-immiscible mixture of polynuclear aromatic compounds accumulated in wetlands near the plant site and entered the aquifer. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the aqueous phase under the wetlands is about 30 mg/1 but decreases to less than 0.2 mg/1 at a distance of 430 m immediately downgradient from the source. Concentrations of naphthalene (the predominant polynuclear compound in the ground water) and sodium (selected as a conservative tracer) range from about 20 mg/1 and 430 mg/1 in the aqueous phase at the source to about 2 mg/1 and 120 mg/1 at 430 m downgradient, respectively. Phenolic compounds and naphthalene are disappearing faster than expected if only dilution were occurring. Sorption of phenolic compounds on aquifer sediments is negligible but naphthalene is slightly sorbed. Anaerobic biodegradation of phenolic compounds is primarily responsible for the observed attenuation. Methane was found only in water samples from the contaminated zone (2-20 mg/1). Methane-producing bacteria were found only in water from the contaminated zone. Methane was produced in laboratory cultures of contaminated water inoculated with bacteria from the contaminated zone. Evidence for anaerobic biodegradation of naphthalene under either field or laboratory conditions was not obtained.

  4. Spatial and seasonal variations of the contamination within water body of the Grand Canal, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.L.; Han, Jingyi; Xu, L.G.; Zhang, Q.

    2010-01-01

    To delineate the character of contaminations in the Grand Canal, China, a three-year study (2004-2006) was conducted to investigate variations the water quality in the canal. Results showed that the variation of water quality within the Grand Canal was of there is remarkable spatial and seasonal

  5. [The regional characteristics of the hygienic evaluation of biological contamination of superficial waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'eva, L V; Lutaĭ, G F; Kuznetsova, I A; Miasnikov, I O; Chernova, G I; Rad'kova, E A; Oparin, A E

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives the data characterizing the specific features of formation of an anthropogenic load on water bodies in north regions; sanitary and hygienic criteria for estimating the biological contamination; and the factors that increase the biological productivity of the algal flora; a classification of eutrophic waters is also proposed.

  6. SEPTIC TANK SETBACK DISTANCES: A WAY TO MINIMIZE VIRUS CONTAMINATION OF DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septic tanks are the most frequently reported causes of contamination in ground-water disease outbreaks associated with the consumption of untreated ground water in the United States. The placement of septic tanks is generally controlled by county-wide or state-wide regulations, ...

  7. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M.; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Boer, de Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; Pelt, Van Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water

  8. Heavy metal contamination of water and fish in peri-urban dams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban effluents are significant sources of heavy metal pollution in fresh water. Metal contamination in dams around the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, were monitored during October 2014 to assess ecological and public health risks. Heavy metals were measured in water, sediment and fish in dams located downstream of ...

  9. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY GAC, AIR STRIPPING, AND MEMBRANE PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

  10. Methods for the Determination of Bacteriological Contaminants in Drinking Water. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Material on the membrane filter methods and the most probable number method for determining bacteriological contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations is presented. This course is for bacteriologists and technicians with little or no experience in bacteriological procedures required to monitor drinking water, though…

  11. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report presents information related to the sampling of ground water at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. It is part of an investigation into possible ground water contamination. Information concerns well drilling/construction; x-ray diffraction and sampling; soil boring logs; and chain-of-custody records.

  12. Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-Contaminated Drinking Water and the Risk of Pregnancy Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice M; Gallagher, Lisa G; Winter, Michael R; Vieira, Veronica M; Webster, Thomas F; Ozonoff, David M

    2009-02-01

    There is little information on the impact of solvent-contaminated drinking water on pregnancy outcomes. This retrospective cohort study examined whether maternal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) - contaminated drinking water in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts influenced the risk of clinically recognized pregnancy loss. The study identified exposed (n=959) and unexposed (1,087) women who completed a questionnaire on their residential and pregnancy histories, and confounding variables. Exposure was estimated using water distribution system modeling software. No meaningful associations were seen between PCE exposure level and the risk of clinically recognized pregnancy loss at the exposure levels experienced by the study population. Because PCE remains a common water contaminant, it is important to continue monitoring its impact on women and their pregnancies.

  13. Contamination of Bathing Waters with Trihalomethanes in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko - Drev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available THM and AOX compounds form as by-products of disinfection with the use of chlorine. THM compounds can pose problems for pool water, while AOX compounds can be problematic for waste water. Today's state of the art technology allows for proper removal of THM and AOX compounds from water. In addition, new disinfection technologies are currently being developed that will significantly reduce the use of chlorine and thus the formation of THM and AOX compounds.

  14. Evaluation of emerging contaminants in a drinking water treatment plant using electrodialysis reversal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrón, S; Gernjak, W; Valero, F; Barceló, A; Petrovic, M; Rodríguez-Roda, I

    2016-05-15

    Emerging contaminants (EC) have gained much attention with globally increasing consumption and detection in aquatic ecosystems during the last two decades from ng/L to lower ug/L. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and related compounds in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) treating raw water from the Mediterranean Llobregat River. The DWTP combined conventional treatment steps with the world's largest electrodialysis reversal (EDR) facility. 49 different PhACs, EDCs and related compounds were found above their limit of quantification in the influent of the DWTP, summing up to a total concentration of ECs between 1600-4200 ng/L. As expected, oxidation using chlorine dioxide and granular activated carbon filters were the most efficient technologies for EC removal. However, despite the low concentration detected in the influent of the EDR process, it was also possible to demonstrate that this process partially removed ionized compounds, thereby constituting an additional barrier against EC pollution in the product. In the product of the EDR system, only 18 out of 49 compounds were quantifiable in at least one of the four experimental campaigns, showing in all cases removals higher than 65% and often beyond 90% for the overall DWTP process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A new Experimental Rig for Oil Burning on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), has been developed to study in-situ burning of crude and pure oils spilled on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The parameters and phenomena studied for an asphaltic crude oil...

  16. Contaminants Investigation Bulletin: Environmental contaminants in sediments from oilfield produced water discharge points

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Trace element concentrations in sediment samples are shown in Table 2. Sediments from a wetland receiving oilfield produced water from the Arnell oil production site...

  17. evaluation of metal contaminants of surface water sources in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMSUNG

    washed with distilled deionised water (DDW), soaked overnight in 10% (v/v) nitric acid and then rinsed exhaustively with DDW. The washed items were dried and stored in zip locked polyethylene bags (Pistόn et al.,. 2012). Water samples were collected for a period of three weeks. The cleaned HDPE bottles were used for.

  18. Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Water in the Rift Valley, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the amount of Fluoride in ground, potable water in Njoro division, Nakuru district and some parts outside the division was conducted to determine the concentration of Fluoride the residents are consuming through water. This area is situated in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa, which is known to have high levels ...

  19. contamination of water and sediments by obslolete pesticides at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HCH is the most persistent isomer among the HCH isomers (Lee et al. 2001). This is supported by the low Henry's law constant and low water solubility of the isomer. (Tomlin 2000). The behaviour of HCH isomers in the environment may be explained by volatility and water solubility rather than adsorption to organic matter.

  20. Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pb) in stream water and irrigated crop Carrots (Daucus carota sativa) in Naraguta area of Jos were determined. The stream water was sampled at three different sites A, B and C which were about 200m apart along the stream. The Daucus ...

  1. Helminth Contamination of Selected Vegetables Irrigated with Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low growing crops watered from rivers laden waste from man, animal, and industries are usually rich in micro-organisms which may persist during the growing season and serve as principal route for the transmission of many diseases. Survey of Helminth parasites ova on selected vegetables irrigated with water from River ...

  2. Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.; Heringa, M.B.; van der Kooij, M.M.E.; de Voogt, P.; van Wezel, A.P.

    2010-01-01

    The detection of many new compounds in surface water, groundwater and drinking water raises considerable public concern, especially when human health based guideline values are not available it is questioned if detected concentrations affect human health. In an attempt to address this question, we

  3. Contamination of boreholes water by 76 pesticides molecules in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis campaign of underground water was done in 2010 on five boreholes water samples situated in agricultural cotton zone. The obtained results showed the presence of various active matters of at least 76 residues of pesticides, especially insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, with accumulated contents which could ...

  4. Acoustically enhanced remediation of contaminated soil and ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Rynne, T.M.; Spencer, J.W. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    This program systematically evaluates the use of acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to increase fluid and contaminant extraction rates from a wide range of unconsolidated soils. Successful completion of this program will result in a commercially-viable, advanced in-situ remediation technology that will significantly reduce clean-up times and costs. This technology should have wide applicability since it is envisioned to augment existing remediation technologies, such as traditional pump and treat and soil vapor extraction, not replace them. The overall program has three phases: Phase 1--laboratory scale parametric investigation; Phase 2--technology scaling study; Phase 3--field demonstration. Phase 1 of the program, corresponding to this period of performance, has as its primary objectives to provide a laboratory-scale proof of concept, and to fully characterize the effects of AEFs on fluid and contaminant extraction rates in a wide variety of soil types. The laboratory measurements of the soil transport properties and process parameters will be used in a computer model of the enhanced remediation process. A Technology Merit and Trade Study will complete Phase 1.

  5. Multi-criteria decision analysis with probabilistic risk assessment for the management of contaminated ground water

    OpenAIRE

    Khadam, I.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, environmental decision analysis in subsurface contamination scenarios is performed using cost–benefit analysis. In this paper, we discuss some of the limitations associated with cost–benefit analysis, especially its definition of risk, its definition of cost of risk, and its poor ability to communicate risk-related information. This paper presents an integrated approach for management of contaminated ground water resources using health risk assessment and economic analysis thro...

  6. Turbidity in extreme western Lake Superior. [contamination of Duluth, Minnesota water intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, M.

    1975-01-01

    Data were obtained from ERTS images for western Lake Superior for 1972-74. Data examination showed that for easterly winds the turbidity originating along the Wisconsin shore and the resuspension areas are transported northward then out along a N.E. path where it disperses, and often, for large storms, contaminates the Duluth water intake. Contaminants such as dredging fines anywhere along these paths would likewise find their way to the intake areas in concentrations comparable to the relative red clay concentration.

  7. Control of microbial contamination in drinking water from microfiltering dispensers by dialysis ultrafilters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolelli Luca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tap water filtering devices are widely employed to improve odor and taste of tap water, or to obtain refrigerated or sparkling drinking water. The presence of disinfectants-resistant bacteria in tap water is responsible of the biofilm formation inside tubes and tanks. The consequent contamination of dispensed water is a well-known hygiene problem because of the quite constant presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria likes P. aeruginosa. In this study, we tested the technical feasibility and effectiveness of the addition to different commercial devices of a packaged polysulphone fibers filter. We aimed to find a simple solution to implement the quality of the delivered water. Water contamination levels were determined in a wide selection of microfiltered water dispensers and we selected among them a representative group of 10 devices, new or in use. The packaged ultrafilter was introduced in about half of them, to monitor, when possible, in parallel the contamination levels and flow rate of a couple of identical units, with and without the filter. The placement of the dialysis filters resulted feasible at different positions along the water circuits of the variously designed filtration units. Delivered water resulted completely free from bacteria when the filter was placed exactly at, or very close to, the outlet in spite of the inner surfaces contamination. This performance was not obtained in presence of a more or less long tract of water circuits downstream the ultrafilter: a significant but not complete reduction of the plate count numbers was observed. The filters worked in continue over the whole study period, ten months, showing exactly the same efficiency. Moreover, the flow rate in presence of the filter was quite unaffected. The addition of this kind of filter to already in use water dispensers was technically easy, and its use can be recommended in all cases a simple but reliable water sanitization is requested.

  8. Experimental water droplet impingement data on modern aircraft surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Michael; Breer, Marlin D.; Craig, Neil C.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental method has been developed to determine the water droplet impingement characteristics on two- and three-dimensional aircraft surfaces. The experimental water droplet impingement data are used to validate particle trajectory analysis codes that are used in aircraft icing analyses and engine inlet particle separator analyses. The aircraft surface is covered with thin strips of blotter paper in areas of interest. The surface is then exposed to an airstream that contains a dyed-water spray cloud. The water droplet impingement data are extracted from the dyed blotter paper strips by measuring the optical reflectance of each strip with an automated reflectometer. Preliminary experimental and analytical impingement efficiency data are presented for a NLF(1)-0414F airfoil, s swept MS(1)-0317 airfoil, a swept NACA 0012 wingtip and for a Boeing 737-300 engine inlet model.

  9. Livestock ownership and microbial contamination of drinking-water: Evidence from nationally representative household surveys in Ghana, Nepal and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A; Hill, Allan G; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Wright, Jim A

    2018-01-01

    Current priorities for diarrhoeal disease prevention include use of sanitation and safe water. There have been few attempts to quantify the importance of animal faeces in drinking-water contamination, despite the presence of potentially water-borne zoonotic pathogens in animal faeces. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between livestock ownership and point-of-consumption drinking-water contamination. Data from nationally representative household surveys in Nepal, Bangladesh, and Ghana, each with associated water quality assessments, were used. Multinomial regression adjusting for confounders was applied to assess the relationship between livestock ownership and the level of drinking-water contamination with E. coli. Ownership of five or more large livestock (e.g. cattle) was significantly associated with drinking-water contamination in Ghana (RRR=7.9, 95% CI=1.6 to 38.9 for medium levels of contamination with 1-31cfu/100ml; RRR=5.2, 95% CI=1.1-24.5 for high levels of contamination with >31cfu/100ml) and Bangladesh (RRR=2.4, 95% CI=1.3-4.5 for medium levels of contamination; non-significant for high levels of contamination). Ownership of eight or more poultry (chickens, guinea fowl, ducks or turkeys) was associated with drinking-water contamination in Bangladesh (RRR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.0 for medium levels of contamination, non-significant for high levels of contamination). These results suggest that livestock ownership is a significant risk factor for the contamination of drinking-water at the point of consumption. This indicates that addressing human sanitation without consideration of faecal contamination from livestock sources will not be sufficient to prevent drinking-water contamination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of three different sanitizing solutions on the contaminated bone: an experimental study in the rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Yazdi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Background: To determine the efficacy of three different antiseptic solutions (Control group (I, Antibiotic solution – Neomycin and polymyxin (II, Chlorhexidine 0.4% (III, and povidone – iodine 10% (IV in disinfecting contaminated bone fragments. Methods: Under sterile conditions, the femora of 12 rabbits were removed and cut into six millimeter pieces. A total of 200 bone specimens were obtained. All 200 specimens were dropped on the operating room floor for fifteen seconds and assigned to one of four experimental groups. Group I samples were cultured after immersion in normal saline solution (Control group. In other three groups, prior to culture the samples, they were washed with normal saline for ninety seconds and placed in an antibiotic solution (Neomycin & Polymyxin (group II, Chlorhexidine 0.4% (group III, and povidone-iodine 10% (group IV respectively. Results: In group I, 22 of 50 specimens had positive cultures. Of 50 specimens of group II and IV, positive cultures were found in 3 and 2 grafts respectively after 10 days whereas no positive cultures were detected in any samples of group III. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine 0.4% seems to be the best antiseptic solution for discontaminating the contaminated bone samples although it did not have any significant difference with povidone-iodine and other antibiotic solution. 

  11. An integrative approach to assess ecological risks of surface water contamination for fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Raphael; Joyeux, Aude; Besnard, Aurélien; Blanchard, Christophe; Halkett, Cédric; Bony, Sylvie; Sanchez, Wilfried; Devaux, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic ecosystems is considered as one of the main threats to global freshwater biodiversity. Within the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD) a particular attention is dedicated to assess ecological risks of surface water contamination and mitigation of chemical pressures on aquatic ecosystems. In this work, we evaluated ecological risks of surface water contamination for fish populations in four EU-WFD rivers through an integrative approach investigating three Lines of Evidence (chemical contamination, biomarker responses as early warning signals of contamination impacting individuals and ecological analyses as an indicator of fish community disturbances). This work illustrates through 4 case studies the complementary role of biomarkers, chemical and ecological analyses which, used in combination, provide fundamental information to understand impacts of chemical pressures that can affect fish population dynamics. We discuss the limitations of this approach and future improvements needed within the EU-WFD to assess ecological risk of river contamination for fish populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of molecular techniques to characterize the microbial communities in contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Seidu; Beer, Michael; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2008-02-01

    Traditionally, the identification and characterization of microbial communities in contaminated soil and water has previously been limited to those microorganisms that are culturable. The application of molecular techniques to study microbial populations at contaminated sites without the need for culturing has led to the discovery of unique and previously unrecognized microorganisms as well as complex microbial diversity in contaminated soil and water which shows an exciting opportunity for bioremediation strategies. Nucleic acid extraction from contaminated sites and their subsequent amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proved extremely useful in assessing the changes in microbial community structure by several microbial community profiling techniques. This review examines the current application of molecular techniques for the characterization of microbial communities in contaminated soil and water. Techniques that identify and quantify microbial population and catabolic genes involved in biodegradation are examined. In addition, methods that directly link microbial phylogeny to its ecological function at contaminated sites as well as high throughput methods for complex microbial community studies are discussed.

  13. Treatment of arsenic-contaminated water using akaganeite adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena C, Fernando [Las Cruces, NM; Johnson, Michael D [Las Cruces, NM

    2008-01-01

    The present invention comprises a method and composition using akaganeite, an iron oxide, as an ion adsorption medium for the removal of arsenic from water and affixing it onto carrier media so that it can be used in filtration systems.

  14. Inactivation of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Rumen Content- or Feces-Contaminated Drinking Water for Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; West, Joe W.; Bernard, John K.; Cross, Heath G.; Doyle, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    Cattle drinking water is a source of on-farm Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission. The antimicrobial activities of disinfectants to control E. coli O157:H7 in on-farm drinking water are frequently neutralized by the presence of rumen content and manure that generally contaminate the drinking water. Different chemical treatments, including lactic acid, acidic calcium sulfate, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, caprylic acid, ozone, butyric acid, sodium benzoate, and competing E. c...

  15. Monitoring for contaminants of emerging concern in drinking water using POCIS passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Chris; Hoque, M Ehsanul; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Helm, Paul; Kleywegt, Sonya

    2014-03-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) have been detected in drinking water world-wide. The source of most of these compounds is generally attributed to contamination from municipal wastewater. Traditional water sampling methods (grab or composite) often require the concentration of large amounts of water in order to detect trace levels of these contaminants. The Polar Organic Compounds Integrative Sampler (POCIS) is a passive sampling technology that has been developed to concentrate trace levels of CEC to provide time-weighted average concentrations for individual compounds in water. However, few studies to date have evaluated whether POCIS is suitable for monitoring contaminants in drinking water. In this study, the POCIS was evaluated as a monitoring tool for CEC in drinking water over a period of 2 and 4 weeks with comparisons to typical grab samples. Seven "indicator compounds" which included carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, estrone and sucralose, were monitored in five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in Ontario. All indicator compounds were detected in raw water samples from the POCIS in comparison to six from grab samples. Similarly, four compounds were detected in grab samples of treated drinking water, whereas six were detected in the POCIS. Sucralose was the only compound that was detected consistently at all five plants. The POCIS technique provided integrative exposures of CECs in drinking water at lower detection limits, while episodic events were captured via traditional sampling methods. There was evidence that the accumulation of target compounds by POCIS is a dynamic process, with adsorption and desorption on the sorbent occurring in response to ambient levels of the target compounds in water. CECs in treated drinking water were present at low ng L(-1) concentrations, which are not considered to be a threat to human health.

  16. Focus on toxicological aspects of pesticide chemical interaction in drinking water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, D; Molinari, G P; Rossini, L

    1990-12-01

    Toxicological aspects related to chemical and microbial degradation of pesticides in water and to products deriving from the interaction with xenobiotics found in water are reviewed. Other aspects considered are those related to compounds formed in potabilization processes and to water contamination by pesticide synthesis by-products or intermediates. These problems refer to scarcely investigated issues which are nevertheless very interesting because of their impact on human health.

  17. Contamination of water reservoirs to Legionella in khorramabad hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed hamed Mirhossaini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legionella is a negative aquatic bacterium and one of the most common nosocomial pathogen. Hospital environment in case of growth, aerosol transmission system and endangered individuals are the high potential location for growth and prevalence of this agent. The suitable temperature in water reservoirs and water distribution system empowered the growth of this bactria. The purpose of this investigation is the study of legionella presence in khorramabad water distribution system. Materials and Methods: Sampling performed with fifteen-day periods of each cold and hot hospital water reservoirs and also cold and hot water taps in those hospital wards which have more pathogens. Each of samples concentrate high vulnerable membrane and from each sample 2 plates were cultured with BCYE and GVPC optional culture media and the growth of bacteria in third and seventh and tenth days were controlled and registered. Results: From 240 samples of five Khorramabad hospitals 41.7 percent of the samples were positive. The percent of positive samples of Ashayer, Tamin ejtemaee, Tohid, and Asalian were respectively 68.8, 45.5, 33.3, 9.1 and 36.4 percent and the residual mean chlorine of samples were respectively 0.38, 0.52, 0.46, 0.82 and 0.62mg/l. The most positive samples related to hot shower and the lowest value related to cold water taps. Conclusion: In spite of the fact that all hospitals used treated water, but from 240 collected samples, 100 samples in different sections of hospital were positive these results show direct relation between residual chlorine value and presence of legionella, by the manner that in 0.6 mg/l and higher values of residual chlorine none of samples were positive. So usually the residual chlorine value in water distribution system is not enough to legionella against.

  18. An experimental study on recovering heat from domestic drain water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamad; Al Shaer, Ali; Haddad, Ahmad; Khaled, Mahmoud

    2016-07-01

    This paper concerns an experimental study on a system of heat recovery applied to domestic drain water pipes. The concept suggested consists of using the heat still present in the drain water as a preheating/heating source to the cold water supply of the building. To proceed, an appropriate experimental setup is developed and a coil heat exchanger is used as heat transfer device in the recovery system. Several scenarios are simulated and corresponding parameters are recorded and analyzed. It was shown that the suggested recovery concept can considerably preheat the cold water supply and then decrease the energy consumption. Particularly, up to 8.6 kW of heat were recovered when the cold water supply is initially at 3 °C.

  19. Light scattering by particles in water theoretical and experimental foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasz, Miroslaw

    2007-01-01

    Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data o...

  20. Mapping the environmental risk potential on surface water of pesticide contamination in the Prosecco's vineyard terraced landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Patricia; Ferrarese, Francesco; Loddo, Donato; Eugenio Pappalardo, Salvatore; Varotto, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) have been used to map vineyards and to evaluate slope and drainage systems. All the data and statistics analyses have been performed in GIS environment. The areas of surface water located within a buffer zone of 20 linear meters from vineyard perimeter were considered at risk of pesticide contamination, according to European guidelines and on-site experimental results about the pesticide drift effect. Preliminary results show that 26 ha of the total vineyards within the river basin can potentially affect surface water bodies, highlighting that 19,410 m of perimeter is within 20 m from water courses. Moreover, vineyard classification based on proximity analysis indicates that 6.8 ha are at very high potential risk (10 m).

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  2. [Safety value of contaminant in water pollution accident based on human health risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bing-Hui; Luo, Jin-Hong; Fu, Qing; Qin, Yan-Wen; Hu, Lin-Lin

    2012-02-01

    The acute human health risk assessment of contaminant in water pollution accident is a new study field of environmental sciences. This study established a model for calculating acute safety value of contaminant in water pollutant. The acute safety value of contaminant in mainly water pollution during 2000-2010 was calculated by this model. The safety value of sodium cyanide, cadmium, formaldehyde, ammonia, toluene, nitrobenzene, microcystin-LR were 0.1, 0.6, 8, 20, 6, 0.07, 0.004 mg x L(-1), respectively. The differences of safety value calculate methods between acute and chronic exposure were compared from the following aspects, the toxicology exposure end-point, allocation of intake, exposure sensitive subpopulation.

  3. First comprehensive screening of lipophilic organic contaminants in surface waters of the megacity Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, L; Sträter, M; Dwiyitno; Ariyani, F; Irianto, H E; Schwarzbauer, J

    2016-09-30

    Jakarta is an Indonesian coastal megacity with over 10 million inhabitants. The rivers flowing through the city receive enormous amounts of untreated wastewaters and discharge their pollutant loads into Jakarta Bay. We utilized a screening approach to identify those site-specific compounds that represent the major contamination of the cities' water resources, and detected a total number of 71 organic contaminants in Jakarta river water samples. Especially contaminants originating from municipal wastewater discharges were detected in high concentrations, including flame retardants, personal care products and pharmaceutical drugs. A flame retardant, a synthetic fragrance and caffeine were used as marker compounds to trace the riverine transport of municipal wastewaters into Jakarta Bay. These markers are also appropriate to trace municipal wastewater discharges to other tropical coastal ecosystems. This application is in particular useful to evaluate wastewater inputs from land-based sources to habitats which are sensitive to changing water quality, like coral reefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Iron and manganese contamination in underground waters; Contaminacion por hierro y manganeso en aguas subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Flores, A.; Pous Barcelo, A. [Departamento Mecanica de Fluidos, ETSEIT, Tarrasa (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    Statistic analyses of groundwater contamination by Te and Mn in the Valle Bajo and Delta aquifers of Tordera river basin, showed the relation between the infiltration of contaminated superficial waters and the increase of these metals in the aquifer. The concentrations of Fe and Mn are above 2 mg/l in groundwater and were by the high amount of these heavy metals in the sediments, that are dissolved in groundwater the oxidation of organic matter infiltrated with superficial waters of Tordera river. The temporal increase in manganese and iron concentrations is attributed to increases pumping rates, because this explotation introduces to the aquifer a very important volume of Tordera contaminated water. (Author) 12 refs.

  5. MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow FloridaKeys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retrievals of water quality parameters from satellite measurements over optically shallow waters have been problematic due to bottom contamination of the signals. As a result, large errors are associated with derived water column properties. These deficiencies greatly reduce the ...

  6. [Assessment of risk of contamination of drinking water for the health of children in the Tula region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorev, Yu I; Lyapina, N V

    2014-01-01

    The hygienic analysis of centralized drinking water supply in Tula region was performed. Priority contaminants of drinking water were established. On the base of the application of risk assessment methodology there was calculated carcinogenic risk for children's health. A direct relationship between certain classes of diseases and pollution of drinking water with chemical contaminants has been determined.

  7. Comparative analysis of decision tree algorithms on quality of water contaminated with soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Andrea Dota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture, roads, animal farms and other land uses may modify the water quality from rivers, dams and other surface freshwaters. In the control of the ecological process and for environmental management, it is necessary to quickly and accurately identify surface water contamination (in areas such as rivers and dams with contaminated runoff waters coming, for example, from cultivation and urban areas. This paper presents a comparative analysis of different classification algorithms applied to the data collected from a sample of soil-contaminated water aiming to identify if the water quality classification proposed in this research agrees with reality. The sample was part of a laboratory experiment, which began with a sample of treated water added with increasing fractions of soil. The results show that the proposed classification for water quality in this scenario is coherent, because different algorithms indicated a strong statistic relationship between the classes and their instances, that is, in the classes that qualify the water sample and the values which describe each class. The proposed water classification varies from excelling to very awful (12 classes

  8. Bioassessment of trace element contamination of Mediterranean coastal waters using the seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richir, J; Salivas-Decaux, M; Lafabrie, C; Lopez y Royo, C; Gobert, S; Pergent, G; Pergent-Martini, C

    2015-03-15

    A large scale survey of the trace element (TE) contamination of Mediterranean coastal waters was performed from the analysis of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb in the bioindicator Posidonia oceanica, sampled at 110 sites differing by their levels of exposure to contaminants. The holistic approach developed in this study, based on the combined utilization of several complementary monitoring tools, i.e. water quality scale, pollution index and spatial analysis, accurately assessed the TE contamination rate of Mediterranean coastal waters. In particular, the mapping of the TE contamination according to a new proposed 5-level water quality scale precisely outlined the contamination severity along Mediterranean coasts and facilitated interregional comparisons. Finally, the reliability of the use of P. oceanica as bioindicator species was again demonstrated through several global, regional and local detailed case studies. NB: The designations employed and the presentation of the information in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the authors concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons: effect of water and saliva contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Fraticelli, Danilo; Gandini, Paola; Scribante, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of water and saliva contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of orthodontic brackets and lingual buttons. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens each. Both orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons were tested under three different enamel surface conditions: (a) dry, (b) water contamination, and (c) saliva contamination. Brackets and buttons were bonded to the teeth and subsequently tested using a Instron universal testing machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive failure rate were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (strength values) and Chi squared test (ARI Scores). Noncontaminated enamel surfaces showed the highest bond strengths for both brackets and buttons. Under water and saliva contamination orthodontic brackets groups showed significantly lower shear strengths than disinclusion buttons groups. Significant differences in debond locations were found among the groups under the various enamel surface conditions. Water and saliva contamination of enamel during the bonding procedure lowers bond strength values, more with orthodontic brackets than with disinclusion buttons.

  10. The degradation behaviour of nine diverse contaminants in urban surface water and wastewater prior to water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Guillaume; Barbeau, Benoit; Arp, Hans Peter H; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    An increasing diversity of emerging contaminants are entering urban surface water and wastewater, posing unknown risks for the environment. One of the main contemporary challenges in ensuring water quality is to design efficient strategies for minimizing such risks. As a first step in such strategies, it is important to establish the fate and degradation behavior of contaminants prior to any engineered secondary water treatment. Such information is relevant for assessing treatment solutions by simple storage, or to assess the impacts of contaminant spreading in the absence of water treatment, such as during times of flooding or in areas of poor infrastructure. Therefore in this study we examined the degradation behavior of a broad array of water contaminants in actual urban surface water and wastewater, in the presence and absence of naturally occurring bacteria and at two temperatures. The chemicals included caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, atrazine, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, diclofenac, desethylatrazine and norethindrone. Little information on the degradation behavior of these pollutants in actual influent wastewater exist, nor in general in water for desethylatrazine (a transformation product of atrazine) and the synthetic hormone norethindrone. Investigations were done in aerobic conditions, in the absence of sunlight. The results suggest that all chemicals except estradiol are stable in urban surface water, and in waste water neither abiotic nor biological degradation in the absence of sunlight contribute significantly to the disappearance of desethylatrazine, atrazine, carbamazepine and diclofenac. Biological degradation in wastewater was effective at transforming norethindrone, 17β-estradiol, ethinylestradiol, caffeine and sulfamethoxazole, with measured degradation rate constants k and half-lives ranging respectively from 0.0082-0.52 d(-1) and 1.3-85 days. The obtained degradation data generally followed a pseudo-first-order-kinetic model

  11. Enteropathogenic Bacteria Contamination of Unchlorinated Drinking Water in Korea, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Won; Lee, Do Kyung; An, Hyang Mi; Cha, Min Kyeong; Kim, Kyung Jae

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of unchlorinated drinking water in Korea, 2010. One hundred and eighty unchlorinated drinking water samples were collected from various sites in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Methods To investigate bacterial presence, the pour plate method was used with cultures grown on selective media for total bacteria, total coliforms, and Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Results In the 180 total bacteria investigation, 72 samples from Seoul and 33 samples from Gyeonggi province were of an unacceptable quality (>102 CFU/mL). Of all the samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 28 samples (15.6%) and Staphylococcus spp. in 12 samples (6.7%). Most of the coliform isolates exhibited high-level resistance to cefazolin (88.2%), cefonicid (64.7%) and ceftazidime (20.6%). In addition, Staphylococcus spp. isolates exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin (42%). Species of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Cupriavidus, Hafnia, Rahnella, Serratia, and Yersinia were isolated from the water samples. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that consumption of unchlorinated drinking water could represent a notable risk to the health of consumers. As such, there is need for continuous monitoring of these water sources and to establish standards. PMID:22216417

  12. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    KAUST Repository

    Kubiak, Jan J.

    2012-04-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately and in combination. Lemna minor was chosen for As remediation and collected from a ditch in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The tanks were filled with surface water without any pre-cleaning, therefore containing various elements including metals as Mn (2.9mgL -1), Cu (0.05mgL -1), Fe (1.39mgL -1), and Ba (0.13mgL -1). This water was then spiked with As and allocated to a feed container, guaranteeing a continuous flow of 0.12mLs -1 to each tank. Two experiments were performed: Exp. 1 with 3 consecutive stages with rising applied voltage and Exp. 2, with a constant voltage over a period of 6d. Measurements of pH and temperature were taken every working day, as well as water samples from outlets of all tanks including feed container for control. From the present study, there was no evidence that As had been taken up by the plants, but a strong depletion of As was observed in the tanks where current was applied. Preliminary results clearly showed that applying voltage to the electrodes caused 90% removal of As from the spiked surface water. © 2012 .

  13. Decision support for water quality management of contaminants of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Astrid; Ter Laak, Thomas; Bronders, Jan; Desmet, Nele; Christoffels, Ekkehard; van Wezel, Annemarie; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2017-05-15

    Water authorities and drinking water companies are challenged with the question if, where and how to abate contaminants of emerging concern in the urban water cycle. The most effective strategy under given conditions is often unclear to these stakeholders as it requires insight into several aspects of the contaminants such as sources, properties, and mitigation options. Furthermore the various parties in the urban water cycle are not always aware of each other's requirements and priorities. Processes to set priorities and come to agreements are lacking, hampering the articulation and implementation of possible solutions. To support decision makers with this task, a decision support system was developed to serve as a point of departure for getting the relevant stakeholders together and finding common ground. The decision support system was iteratively developed in stages. Stakeholders were interviewed and a decision support system prototype developed. Subsequently, this prototype was evaluated by the stakeholders and adjusted accordingly. The iterative process lead to a final system focused on the management of contaminants of emerging concern within the urban water cycle, from wastewater, surface water and groundwater to drinking water, that suggests mitigation methods beyond technical solutions. Possible wastewater and drinking water treatment techniques in combination with decentralised and non-technical methods were taken into account in an integrated way. The system contains background information on contaminants of emerging concern such as physical/chemical characteristics, toxicity and legislative frameworks, water cycle entrance pathways and a database with associated possible mitigation methods. Monitoring data can be uploaded to assess environmental and human health risks in a specific water system. The developed system was received with great interest by potential users, and implemented in an international water cycle network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  14. Microbial contamination of drinking water from risky tubewells situated in different hydrological regions of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Nepal C; Parvez, Mahmood; Dey, Digbijoy; Saha, Ratnajit; Ghose, Lucky; Barua, Milan K; Islam, Akramul; Chowdhury, Mushtaque R

    2017-05-01

    This study, conducted in 40 selected upazilas covering four hydrological regions of Bangladesh, aimed at determining the risk of selected shallow tubewells (depthcontamination of shallow tubewells. The main objective of the study was to observe the seasonal and regional differences of microbial contamination and finally reaching a conclusion about safe distance between tubewells and latrines by comparing the contamination of two tubewell categories (category-1: distance ≤10m from nearest latrine; n=80 and category 2: distances 11-20m from nearest latrine; n=80) in different geographical contexts. About 62% of sampled tubewells were at medium to high risk according to WHO's sanitary inspection guidelines, while the situation was worst in south-west region. Microbiological contamination was significantly higher in sampled category-1 tubewells compared to category-2 tubewells, while the number of contaminated tubewells and level of contamination was higher during wet season. About 21% (CI95=12%-30%), 54% (CI95=43%-65%) and 58% (CI95=46%-69%) of water samples collected from category-1 tubewells were contaminated by E. coli, FC, and TC respectively during the wet season. The number of category-1 tubewells having E.coli was highest in the north-west (n=8) and north-central (n=4) region during wet season and dry season respectively, while the level of E.coli contamination in tubewell water (number of CFU/100ml of sample) was significantly higher in north-central region. However, the south-west region had the highest number of FC contaminated category-1 tubewells (n=16 & n=17; respectively during wet and dry season) and significantly a higher level of TC and FC in sampled Category-1 tubewells than north-west, north-central and south-east region, mainly during wet season. Multivariate regression analysis could identified some sanitary inspection indicators, such as tubewell within contaminants in tubewell water (pwater than a tubewell with a medium risk during wet season

  15. All coliforms are not created equal: A comparison of the effects of water source and in-house water contamination on Infantile Diarrheal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerslice, James; Briscoe, James

    1993-07-01

    Storing drinking water in the home is common in the developing world. Several studies have documented increased concentrations of fecal coliforms during household storage. This has led to the belief that in-house water contamination is an important transmission route for enteric pathogens and, moreover, that improving water source quality is not warranted until that quality can be maintained in the home. We contend that in-house water contamination does not pose a serious risk of diarrhea because family members would likely develop some level of immunity to pathogens commonly encountered in the household environment. Even when there is no such immunity, transmission of these pathogens via stored water may be inefficient relative to other household transmission routes, such as person-to-person contact or food contamination. A contaminated water source poses much more of a risk since it may introduce new pathogens into the household, The effects of water source and in-house contamination on diarrheal disease are estimated for 2355 Filipino infants. The results confirm our hypothesis: contaminated water sources pose a serious risk of diarrhea while contamination of drinking water in the home does not. Water boiling is shown to eliminate the risk of diarrhea due to water source contamination. The results imply that improvements in water source quality are more important than improving water storage practices.

  16. Modeling the Influence of Variable Tributary Inflow on Circulation and Contaminant Transport in a Water Supply Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L. H.; Wildman, R.

    2012-12-01

    This study characterizes quantitatively the flow and mixing regimes of a water supply reservoir, while also conducting numerical tracer experiments on different operation scenarios. We investigate the effects of weather events on water quality via storm water inflows. Our study site the Kensico Reservoir, New York, the penultimate reservoir of New York City's water supply, is never filtered and thus dependent on stringent watershed protection. This reservoir must meet federal drinking water standards under changing conditions such as increased suburban, commercial, and highway developments that are much higher than the rest of the watershed. Impacts from these sources on water quality are magnified by minor tributary flows subject to contaminants from development projects as other tributaries providing >99% of water to this reservoir are exceedingly clean due to management practices upstream. These threats, coupled with possible changes in the frequency/intensity of weather events due to climate change, increase the potential for contaminants to enter the reservoir and drinking water intakes. This situation provides us with the unique ability to study the effects of weather events on water quality via insignificant storm water inflows, without influence from the major tributaries due to their pristine water quality characteristics. The concentration of contaminants at the drinking water intake depends partially on transport from their point of entry in the reservoir. Thus, it is crucial to understand water circulation in this reservoir and to estimate residence times and water ages at different locations and under different hydrologic scenarios. We described water age, residence time, thermal structure, and flow dynamics of tributary plumes in Kensico Reservoir during a 22-year simulation period using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model (CE-QUAL-W2). Our estimates of water age can reach a maximum of ~300 days in deep-reservoir-cells, with

  17. The D&D of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellhauer, C.R.; Boling, L.E.; Yule, T.J.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the D&D of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor. The Project consisted of decontaminating and for packaging as radioactive waste the reactor vessel and internals, contaminated piping systems, miscellaneous tanks, pumps, and associated equipment. The D&D work involved dismantling process equipment and associated plumbing, ductwork drain lines, etc., performing size reduction of reactor vessel internals in the fuel pool, packaging and manifesting all radioactive and mixed waste, and performing a thorough survey of the facility after the removal of activated and contaminated material. Non-radioactive waste was disposed of in the ANL-E landfill or recycled. In January 1996 the EBWR facility was formally decommissioned and transferred from EM-40 to EM-30. This paper will discuss the details of this ten year effort.

  18. Tetrachloroethylene contamination of drinking water by vinyl-coated asbestos-cement pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, S.G.; Davis, A.C.; Witt, R.T.; Tripp, B.W.; Frew, N.M.

    1980-10-01

    Drinking water transported in vinyl-coated asbestos-cement pipes often contains elevated concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, which is used as solvent during application of the vinyl coating. Tetrachloroethylene contamination of drinking waters flowing in vinyl-coated asbestos-cement pipes in Falmouth, Mass., is assessed. Problems encountered in trying to reduce this potential health hazard are reviewed. Flushing of the pipe sometimes leads to a reduced tetrachloroethylene level in that pipe, but after flushing is terminated, the level of contamination will gradually increase. (1 diagram, 17 references, 2 tables)

  19. Development of Green Solvent Modified Zeolite (GSMZ) for the Removal of Chemical Contaminants and Pathogens from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Stapleton, E. R.; Xu, S.

    2012-12-01

    Sorption represents an important strategy in the remediation of groundwater contamination. As a naturally-occurring mineral with large cation exchange capacity, zeolite is negatively charged and has been widely used as an inexpensive and effective sorbent for the removal of positively charged contaminants such as heavy metals from water. The negative charges of zeolite, however, make it generally ineffective in the sorption of anionic contaminants such as chromate and arsenate as well as many pathogens. In this research, we used the imidazolium group of chemicals, which are considered as "green solvents" and differ from the surfactants used in previous studies, to modify zeolite. Both batch and column experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of GSMZ in the removal of representative anionic pollutant (i.e., Cr) and bacterium (i.e., Eschericha coli) under various water chemistry conditions. Our experimental results showed that the adsorption of Cr on GSMZ was fast (equilibrium was reached within ~5 min) and the capacity of GSMZ to remove chromate (>1000 mg/kg) was ~100% higher than surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ). GSMZ was also found to be very effective in the removal of E. coli. As pH was found to have minimal effects on the adsorption of chromium on GSMZ, higher ionic strength could lower the adsorption capacity of chromium by GSMZ.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  1. Contaminant Permeation in the Ionomer-Membrane Water Processor (IWP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Laura K.; Finger, Barry W.; Pasadilla, Patrick; Perry, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The Ionomer-membrane Water Processor (IWP) is a patented membrane-distillation based urine brine water recovery system. The unique properties of the IWP membrane pair limit contaminant permeation from the brine to the recovered water and purge gas. A paper study was conducted to predict volatile trace contaminant permeation in the IWP system. Testing of a large-scale IWP Engineering Development Unit (EDU) with urine brine pretreated with the International Space Station (ISS) pretreatment formulation was then conducted to collect air and water samples for quality analysis. Distillate water quality and purge air GC-MS results are presented and compared to predictions, along with implications for the IWP brine processing system.

  2. Drinking water system treatment and contamination in Shatila Refugee Camp in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, S; Graczyk, T; Burnham, G; Jurdi, M; Goldman, L

    2016-11-02

    Drinking water at Shatila Palestinian Refugee Camp in Beirut, Lebanon is of poor quality and unpredictably intermittent quantity. We aimed to characterize drinking water sources and contamination at Shatila and determine how drinking water can be managed to reduce community health burdens. We interviewed the Popular Committee, well owners, water vendors, water shopkeepers and preschool administrators about drinking water sources, treatment methods and the population served. Water samples from the sources and intermediaries were analysed for thermotolerant faecal coliforms (FCs), Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia, using immunofluorescent antibody detection for G. lamblia and C. parvum, and chromotrope-2 stain for microsporidia. All drinking water sources were contaminated with FCs and parasites. FC counts (cfu/mL) were as follows: wells (35-300), water vendors (2-178), shops (30-300) and preschools (230-300). Responsible factors identified included: unskilled operators; improper maintenance of wells and equipment; lack of proper water storage and handling; and misperception of water quality. These factors must be addressed to improve water quality at Shatila and other refugee camps.

  3. Effective bioreduction of hexavalent chromium–contaminated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-24

    Oct 24, 2013 ... semi-passive systems can be an environmentally sound alterna- tive or complementary technology to active ... most interest for metals treatment in natural waters is the redox potential (ORP/Eh). For Cr6+ .... Predominant bands were excised and re-amplified using the primers 341F and 907RM (Muyzer et ...

  4. Contamination of boreholes water by 76 pesticides molecules in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user2

    76 residues of pesticides, especially insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, with accumulated contents which could average 0.350 or 350 ... cide residues of weed killers and fungicides were already detected in water reserves, ..... lithographic structure, its high content in organic matter and the depth of the underground ...

  5. Evaluation of metal contaminants of surface water sources in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Mn, Co, Cu, Ni and Cr were quantitatively determined in water samples collected from Enyigba Pb-Zn mine and a nearby Uruva pond using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed varying concentrations of these metals in the samples. The mean values of the metals (mg/L) in ...

  6. Protecting Consumers from Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural disasters can cause damage and destruction to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Communities should plan for and designate an authorized team to manage and prioritize emergency response in devastated areas. Sections 2.0 and 3.0 describe the Environmental...

  7. Monitoring bacterial faecal contamination in waters using multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-26

    Aug 26, 2009 ... pneumophila not detectable by culture on agar media. Biotechnol. 5 947-950. ISO (2000) Water Quality – Guidance on Validation of Micro biolo- gical Methods. ISO/TR 13843:2000. Geneva: International. Organization for Standardization. ICONTEC (2003) Calidad del agua Guía para la orientación acerca.

  8. Effects of Crude Oil Contaminated Water On Haematocrit and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four guinea pigs (Caria porcellus) obtained from the Animal House of College of Health Sciences, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria, were weighed individually and divided into six groups of four per group. They were allowed access to rat feed and tap water ad libitum for two weeks acclimatization. Different ...

  9. Contamination of water and sediments by obsolete pesticides at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments and water from Vikuge State Farm, Coast Region, Tanzania, where, in 1986, a “donation” of 170 m3 of partially expired pesticides were stored in an open shed- which eventually collapsed, were analysed for 80 different pesticide residues and metabolites. DDT and HCH, two of the most persistent ...

  10. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubiak, J.J.; Khankhane, P.J.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Lima, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately and in combination. Lemna minor was chosen for As

  11. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Alamdar, Ambreen [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Katsoyiannis, Ioannis [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Chemistry, Division of Chemical Technology, Box 116, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Shen, Heqing [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Ali, Nadeem [Department of Environmental Sciences, FBAS, International Islamic University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Syeda Maria [Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Bokhari, Habib [Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstrasse 7, D-76829 Landau in der Pfalz (Germany); Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah, E-mail: ali_ebl2@yahoo.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Public Health and Environment Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150–200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. - Highlights: • Predictions of trace metal concentration use geographically weighted regression • Human health risk

  12. Vulnerability of the uppermost ground water to contamination in the greater Denver area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, G.A.; Wireman, Michael; Campbell, A.S.; Turner, Sandy; Ingersoll, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    Information about vulnerability of ground water to contamination is needed to facilitate ground-water management. Vulnerability of ground water refers to the intrinsic characteristics that determine the sensitivity of the water to being adversely affected by an imposed contaminant load. Within the greater Denver area, vulnerability of the uppermost ground water to contamination from the surface was assessed by considering the intrinsic characteristics included in a method developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Water Well Association, the DRASTIC method. The seven geohydrologic characteristics considered are: (1) Aquifer media, (2) hydraulic conductivity, (3) unsaturated media, (4) depth to water, (5) recharge, (6) soil media, and (7) land-surface slope. Recharge from precipitation generally is less than 2 inches per year; no effort was made to quantify the variation of recharge throughout the study area. Data for geology, depth to water, soils, and elevation were obtained and processed to produce maps of the other six characteristics. Spatial and attribute data for these maps were stored and processed by geographic-information-system software to produce a map showing vulnerability of the uppermost ground water to contamination from the surface. This report describes the assessment of each geohydrologic characteristic and the 157 vulnerability response units that were delineated within the greater Denver area. These response units are unique with respect to the geohydrologic characteristics considered. The uppermost ground water within each of the vulnerability response units are described in a series of tables, which include qualitative and selected quantitative data and the vulnerability rating assigned for each of the seven geohydrologic characteristics.

  13. Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: A field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Chiou, C.T.; Brinton, T.I.; Barber, L.B.; Demcheck, D.K.; Demas, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in the vicinity of an industrial outfall in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, have shown that water, bottom and suspended sediment, and four different species of biota are contaminated with halogenated organic compounds (HOC) including haloarenes. A "salting-out" effect in the estuary moderately enhanced the partitioning tendency of the contaminants into biota and sediments. Contaminant concentrations in water, suspended sediments, and biota were found to be far below the values predicted on the basis of the assumption of phase equilibria with respect to concentrations in bottom sediment. Relative concentration factors of HOC between biota (catfish) and bottom sediment increased with increasing octanol/estuarine water partition coefficients (Kow*), maximizing at log Kow* of about 5, although these ratios were considerably less than equilibrium values. In contrast, contaminant concentrations in water, biota, and suspended sediments were much closer to equilibrium values. Bioconcentration factors of HOC determined on the basis of lipid content for four different biotic species correlated reasonably well with equilibrium triolein/water partition coefficients (Ktw).

  14. Enterobacteriacea contamination of drinking water of the wells in Romeshkan town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esmaeyl Badparva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water is a vital liquid which is contaminatied by multiple biological agents such as; parasites, fungi, viruses and bacteria. The Enterobactriaceae, especially E.Coli are the most important indicator of fecal contamination of water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Enterobacteriaceae in drinking water of  the wells in Romeshkan town. Material and Methods: 160 of  2.5 liter water samples were collected and quickly transferred to the laboratory under the desired temperature then were concentrated by passing through a 0.45 µm filter. Then the bacteria were differentiated by culture in Macconkey medium and the grown single colonies were cultured on other differentiate media. Results: 18 (%11.25 of the drinking water of the wells were contaminated with E.Coli which in most cases accompanied with other Enterobactoaceae such as; Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Klebsiella. These contaminations had significant relationship with distance between sewage wells and damaged lids of wells. Conclusion: Although the contamination rate was lower than some previous studies, but according to standards of WHO, it is very high. It is suggested that authorities apply pipetting before wells waterborne diseases become epidemic.

  15. The English Channel: Contamination status of its transitional and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, A D; Millward, G E

    2015-06-30

    The chemical contamination (organic compounds, metals, radionuclides, microplastics, nutrients) of English Channel waters has been reviewed, focussing on the sources, concentrations and impacts. River loads were only reliable for Pb, whereas atmospheric loads appeared robust for Cd, Pb, Hg, PCB-153 and γ-HCH. Temporal trends in atmospheric inputs were decreasing. Contaminant concentrations in biota were relatively constant or decreasing, but not for Cd, Hg and HBCDD, and deleterious impacts on fish and copepods were reported. However, data on ecotoxicological effects were generally sparse for legacy and emerging contaminants. Intercomparison of activity concentrations of artificial radionuclides in sediments and biota on both Channel coasts was hindered by differences in methodological approaches. Riverine phosphate loads decreased with time, while nitrate loads remained uniform. Increased biomass of algae, attributable to terrestrial inputs of nutrients, has affected benthic production and shellfisheries. A strategic approach to the identification of contaminant impacts on marine biota is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental analysis of blast mitigation associated with water sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Andrew J.; Miklaszewski, Eric J.; Guildenbecher, Daniel R.; Son, Steven F.

    2012-03-01

    An explosion yielding a blast wave can cause catastrophic damage to a building and its personnel. This threat defines an immediate importance for understanding blast mitigation techniques via readily available materials. An unconfined mass of water in the form of a free flowing sheet has been experimentally tested and analyzed as a readily available mitigant. A single water sheet, with an approximate sheet thickness of 3 mm, was experimentally tested with an explosively driven shock tube at three different standoff distances. At the strongest shock strength considered, the water sheet decreased the peak overpressure of the blast wave by 80% and the impulse by 60%. Additionally, the peak overpressure transmitted through the water sheet was roughly constant regardless of standoff distance and explosive strength.

  17. Use of solar energy in the treatment of water contaminated with phenol by photochemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. B. Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar driven photo-Fenton process for treating water containing phenol as a contaminant has been evaluated by means of pilot-scale experiments with a parabolic trough solar reactor (PTR. The effects of Fe(II (0.04-1.0 mmol L-1, H2O2 (7-270 mmol L-1, initial phenol concentration (100 and 500 mg C L-1, solar radiation, and operation mode (batch and fed-batch on the process efficiency were investigated. More than 90% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC was removed within 3 hours of irradiation or less, a performance equivalent to that of artificially-irradiated reactors, indicating that solar light can be used either as an effective complementary or as an alternative source of photons for the photo-Fenton degradation process. A non-linear multivariable model based on a neural network was fit to the experimental results of batch-mode experiments in order to evaluate the relative importance of the process variables considered on the DOC removal over the reaction time. This included solar radiation, which is not a controlled variable. The observed behavior of the system in batch-mode was compared with fed-batch experiments carried out under similar conditions. The main contribution of the study consists of the results from experiments under different conditions and the discussion of the system behavior. Both constitute important information for the design and scale-up of solar radiation-based photodegradation processes.

  18. Drinking Water from Dug Wells in Rural Ghana — Salmonella Contamination, Environmental Factors, and Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Denise Myriam; Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Frickmann, Hagen; Boahen, Kennedy Gyau; Frimpong, Michael; Asare, Renate; Larbi, Richard; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Poppert, Sven; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Marks, Florian; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important but neglected disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Food or fecal-oral associated transmissions are the primary cause of infections, while the role of waterborne transmission is unclear. Samples were collected from different dug wells in a rural area of Ghana and analyzed for contamination with bacteria, and with Salmonella in particular. In addition, temporal dynamics and riks factors for contamination were investigated in 16 wells. For all Salmonella isolates antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed, serovars were determined and strains from the same well with the same serovar were genotyped. The frequency of well water contamination with Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria was 99.2% (n = 395). Out of 398 samples, 26 (6.5%) tested positive for Salmonella spp. The serovar distribution was diverse including strains not commonly isolated from clinical samples. Resistance to locally applied antibiotics or resistance to fluoroquinolones was not seen in the Salmonella isolates. The risk of Salmonella contamination was lower in wells surrounded by a frame and higher during the rainy season. The study confirms the overall poor microbiological quality of well water in a resource-poor area of Ghana. Well contamination with Salmonella poses a potential threat of infection, thus highlighting the important role of drinking water safety in infectious disease control. PMID:25826395

  19. Drinking water from dug wells in rural ghana--salmonella contamination, environmental factors, and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Denise Myriam; Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Frickmann, Hagen; Boahen, Kennedy Gyau; Frimpong, Michael; Asare, Renate; Larbi, Richard; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Poppert, Sven; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Marks, Florian; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

    2015-03-27

    Salmonellosis is an important but neglected disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Food or fecal-oral associated transmissions are the primary cause of infections, while the role of waterborne transmission is unclear. Samples were collected from different dug wells in a rural area of Ghana and analyzed for contamination with bacteria, and with Salmonella in particular. In addition, temporal dynamics and riks factors for contamination were investigated in 16 wells. For all Salmonella isolates antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed, serovars were determined and strains from the same well with the same serovar were genotyped. The frequency of well water contamination with Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria was 99.2% (n = 395). Out of 398 samples, 26 (6.5%) tested positive for Salmonella spp. The serovar distribution was diverse including strains not commonly isolated from clinical samples. Resistance to locally applied antibiotics or resistance to fluoroquinolones was not seen in the Salmonella isolates. The risk of Salmonella contamination was lower in wells surrounded by a frame and higher during the rainy season. The study confirms the overall poor microbiological quality of well water in a resource-poor area of Ghana. Well contamination with Salmonella poses a potential threat of infection, thus highlighting the important role of drinking water safety in infectious disease control.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  1. Assessing potential impacts associated with contamination events in water distribution systems : a sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M. J.; Janke, R.; Taxon, T. N. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS); (EPA)

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of the nature of the adverse effects that could be associated with contamination events in water distribution systems is necessary for carrying out vulnerability analyses and designing contamination warning systems. This study examines the adverse effects of contamination events using models for 12 actual water systems that serve populations ranging from about 104 to over 106 persons. The measure of adverse effects that we use is the number of people who are exposed to a contaminant above some dose level due to ingestion of contaminated tap water. For this study the number of such people defines the impact associated with an event. We consider a wide range of dose levels in order to accommodate a wide range of potential contaminants. For a particular contaminant, dose level can be related to a health effects level. For example, a dose level could correspond to the median lethal dose, i.e., the dose that would be fatal to 50% of the exposed population. Highly toxic contaminants may be associated with a particular response at a very low dose level, whereas contaminants with low toxicity may only be associated with the same response at a much higher dose level. This report focuses on the sensitivity of impacts to five factors that either define the nature of a contamination event or involve assumptions that are used in assessing exposure to the contaminant: (1) duration of contaminant injection, (2) time of contaminant injection, (3) quantity or mass of contaminant injected, (4) population distribution in the water distribution system, and (5) the ingestion pattern of the potentially exposed population. For each of these factors, the sensitivities of impacts to injection location and contaminant toxicity are also examined. For all the factors considered, sensitivity tends to increase with dose level (i.e., decreasing toxicity) of the contaminant, with considerable inter-network variability. With the exception of the population distribution (factor 4

  2. Experimental studies toward the characterization of Inmetro's circulating water channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. M.; Alho, A. T. P.; Garcia, D. A.; Farias, M. H.; Massari, P. L.; Silva, V. V. S.

    2016-07-01

    Circulating water channels are facilities which can be used for conducting environmental, metrological and engineering studies. The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology-INMETRO has a water channel of innovative design, and the present work deals with the prior experimental investigation of its hydrodynamics performance. By using the optical technique PIV - Particle Image Velocimetry, under certain conditions, the velocity profile behavior in a region inside the channel was analyzed in order to evaluate the scope of applicability of such bench.

  3. Community Engaged Cumulative Risk Assessment of Exposure to Inorganic Well Water Contaminants, Crow Reservation, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Margaret J; Doyle, John T; Lefthand, Myra J; Young, Sara L; Moore-Nall, Anita L; Kindness, Larry; Medicine, Roberta Other; Ford, Timothy E; Dietrich, Eric; Parker, Albert E; Hoover, Joseph H; Camper, Anne K

    2018-01-05

    An estimated 11 million people in the US have home wells with unsafe levels of hazardous metals and nitrate. The national scope of the health risk from consuming this water has not been assessed as home wells are largely unregulated and data on well water treatment and consumption are lacking. Here, we assessed health risks from consumption of contaminated well water on the Crow Reservation by conducting a community-engaged, cumulative risk assessment. Well water testing, surveys and interviews were used to collect data on contaminant concentrations, water treatment methods, well water consumption, and well and septic system protection and maintenance practices. Additive Hazard Index calculations show that the water in more than 39% of wells is unsafe due to uranium, manganese, nitrate, zinc and/or arsenic. Most families' financial resources are limited, and 95% of participants do not employ water treatment technologies. Despite widespread high total dissolved solids, poor taste and odor, 80% of families consume their well water. Lack of environmental health literacy about well water safety, pre-existing health conditions and limited environmental enforcement also contribute to vulnerability. Ensuring access to safe drinking water and providing accompanying education are urgent public health priorities for Crow and other rural US families with low environmental health literacy and limited financial resources.

  4. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: d.phillips@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  5. House hold unit for the treatment of fluoride, iron, arsenic and microorganism contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadge, Vijaykumar L; Medhi, Chitta Ranjan; Changmai, Murchana; Purkait, Mihir Kumar

    2018-02-16

    A first of its kind hybrid electrocoagulation-filtration prototype unit was fabricated for the removal of fluoride, iron, arsenic and microorganisms contaminated drinking water. The unit comprised of 3 chambers, chamber A consisting of an inlet for the water to be treated and an outlet for the treated water along with one block of aluminum electrodes. Chamber B consisted of ceramic membrane filtration assembly at the bottom over a metallic support which filters the flocs so produced in chamber A and chamber C consisting of space to collect the treated water. Operating parameters were maintained as current density of 625 A m -2 and an electrode distance of 0.005 m. Contaminated drinking water containing mixture of fluoride (10 mg L -1 ), iron (25 mg L -1 ), arsenic (200 μg L -1 ) and microorganisms (35 CFU ml -1 ) was used for the experiment. A removal of 98.74%, 95.65%, 93.2% and 100% were obtained for iron, arsenic, fluoride and microorganisms, respectively. The apparatus and method made it possible to efficiently treat contaminated drinking water to produce drinkable water as per WHO specification. By-products obtained from the electrocoagulation bath were analyzed using SEM, EDX and XRD and explained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial Contamination on Household Toys and Association with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Stauber

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF. The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children’s toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children’s toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.

  7. Bacterial contamination on household toys and association with water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Walters, Adam; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2013-04-18

    There is growing evidence that household water treatment interventions improve microbiological water quality and reduce diarrheal disease risk. Few studies have examined, however, the impact of water treatment interventions on household-level hygiene and sanitation. This study examined the association of four water and sanitation conditions (access to latrines, improved sanitation, improved water and the plastic biosand filter) on the levels of total coliforms and E. coli on existing and introduced toys during an on-going randomized controlled trial of the plastic biosand filter (plastic BSF). The following conditions were associated with decreased bacterial contamination on children's toys: access to a latrine, access to improved sanitation and access to the plastic BSF. Overall, compared to existing toys, introduced toys had significantly lower levels of both E. coli and total coliforms. Results suggest that levels of fecal indicator bacteria contamination on children's toys may be associated with access to improved water and sanitation conditions in the home. In addition, the fecal indicator bacteria levels on toys probably vary with duration in the household. Additional information on how these toys become contaminated is needed to determine the usefulness of toys as indicators or sentinels of water, sanitation and hygiene conditions, behaviors and risks.

  8. Frequency of legionella contamination in conditional & water distribution systems of Tehran hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davod Esmaieli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legionella species are ubiquitous in natural aquatic environments, capable of existing in waters with varied temperatures, PH levels, and nutrient and oxygen contents. Of 49 known legionella species, 20 species have been linked to pneumonia in humans. Contamination by legionella has occurred in the distribution systems of many hospitals. Aerosol-generating systems such as faucets, showerheads, cooling towers, and nebulizers are responsible for their transmission from water to air. Methods: A total of 113 water samples were gathered from different wards of 32 hospitals in different geographical regions of Tehran city. These samples were concentrated by filtration, treated with the acid and temperature buffers, and isolated on a BCYE agar culture medium. Results: A total of 22 hospitals out of 33 (26.5% were contaminated by legionella species, and 30 samples (26.5% out of 113 were positive. Chlorine concentration and pH level of the water samples were 0.18-2.2 mg/l and 6.6-7.6, respectively. Conclusion: The high rate of waste water contamination in Tehran hospitals with Legionella indicates the resistance of this microorganism to chlorine and other disinfectants, or inadequate disinfection process, representing the insufficiency of the current decontamination of hospital water distribution system. Thus identifying legionella species and their controlling in water distribution system of hospitals is of great importance.

  9. Chloride/bromide and chloride/fluoride ratios of domestic sewage effluents and associated contaminated ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vengosh, A.; Pankratov, I. [Hydrological Service, Jerusalem (Israel)

    1998-09-01

    To establish geochemical tools for tracing the origin of ground water contamination, the authors examined the variations of Cl/Br and Cl/F (weight) ratios in (1) domestic waste water from the Dan Region Sewage Reclamation Project and from reservoirs in the central coast of Israel; (2) associated contaminated ground water; and (3) pristine ground water from the Mediterranean coastal aquifer of Israel. The data show that supply water, anthropogenic NaCl and fluoridation control the Cl/Br and Cl/F ratios of domestic waste water, and conventional sewage treatment does not affect the anthropogenic inorganic signals. The Cl/Br ratios of ground water contaminated with sewage effluent reflect conservative mixing proportions of sewage and regional ground water components. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that it is possible to detect and distinguish sewage contamination from marine ratios after a sewage contribution of 5 to 15% is mixed with regional ground water. Mixing with Br-enriched fresh water however, would reduce this sensitivity. Since the high Cl/Br signal of sewage effluents is distinguishable from other anthropogenic sources with low Cl/Br ratios and from natural contamination sources, Cl/Br ratios can therefore be a useful inorganic tracer for identification of the origin of contaminated ground water. The Cl/F ratios of sewage-contaminated ground water were higher than those in the original sewage effluent, which suggests retention of fluoride into the aquifer solid phase.

  10. Experimental study on mass transfer of contaminants through an enthalpy recovery unit with polymer membrane foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    chemical gases were used to simulate air contaminants. The concentrations of dosed contaminants in the supply and exhaust air upstream and downstream of the total heat recovery unit were measured with Multi-Gas Monitor Innova 1316 in real time. Experiment results showed that 5% to 9% of dosed contaminants...

  11. Environmentally friendly biosorbents (husks, pods and seeds) from Moringa oleifera for Pb(II) removal from contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Fernanda Oliveira; Pinto, Laura Adriane de Moraes; Bassetti, Fátima de Jesus; Vieira, Marcelo Fernandes; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo

    2017-12-01

    Lead is a heavy metal considered highly toxic, responsible for causing several health problems as well as being extremely harmful to fauna and flora. Given this fact, several techniques have been studied for the removal of this metal from contaminated water, in which stands out adsorption. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of lead(II) biosorption from contaminated water by seed husks, seeds and pods of Moringa oleifera Lam (moringa). Biomass was characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. From the studied parameters, the optimal conditions obtained for the three analyzed biosorbents are: 30 min to equilibrium, pH 6 and 25°C temperature. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model was the best fitted to the experimental data for the three evaluated biosorbents. Regarding the adsorption isotherms, the model that best fitted to the experimental data for seed and seed husk was that proposed by Freundlich, and for the pod the Langmuir model. The analysis of the obtained thermodynamic data showed that the adsorption process is favorable and of exothermic nature. Through the results it was concluded that the evaluated biosorbents are efficient in lead(II) biosorption.

  12. Experimental investigation of concentration and stable isotopes signals during organic contaminants back diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Nika, Chrysanthi-Elisabeth; Rolle, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    dispersion, as well as on the values of aqueous diffusion coefficients and diffusion-induced isotope fractionation from a previous study [3], provided a good agreement with the experimental data. References [1] Mackay, D. M.; Cherry, J. A. Groundwater contamination: Pumpand-treat remediation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1989, 23, 630-636. [2] Parker, B. L.; Chapman, S. W.; Guilbeault, M. A. Plume persistence caused by back diffusion from thin clay layers in a sand aquifer following TCE source-zone hydraulic isolation. J. Contam. Hydrol. 2008, 102, 19-19. [3] Jin, B., Rolle, M., Li, T., Haderlein, S.B., 2014. Diffusive fractionation of BTEX and chlorinated ethenes in aqueous solution: quantification of spatial isotope gradients. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48, 6141-6150.

  13. Impact of sewage contaminated water on soil, vegetables, and underground water of peri-urban Peshawar, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hidayat; Khan, Ikhtiar; Ullah, Ihsan

    2012-10-01

    The use of sewage-contaminated municipal water for irrigation of crops is an old practice in many big cities of Pakistan. Since the wastewater is rich in nutrients, it increases crops yield substantially but at the cost of food quality. The objective of this study was to investigate sewage water irrigation as a source of accumulation of heavy metals in soil and its subsequent transfer to crops and underground water. Sewage water, soil, groundwater, and crop samples were collected from selected areas around Peshawar city and analyzed for heavy metals concentration by atomic absorption spectroscopic method. Analysis of data revealed a considerable impact of the irrigation practices in the peri-urban Peshawar. Statistical analysis of the data showed a positive correlation between heavy metals concentration and soil carbon contents on the one hand and cation exchange capacity on the other. A strongly negative correlation was observed between metal contents and soil pH. The vertical movement of heavy metals from contaminated soil has polluted crops and underground water. The results indicated higher concentration of toxic metals in soil accumulated due to long-term sewage-contaminated water irrigation and their subsequent transfer to our food chain. The practice, if continued un-noticed may pose a threat of phytotoxicity to the local population.

  14. An assessment of drinking water contamination with Helicobacter pylori in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Brewster, Rebecca K; Sánchez, Brisa N; Valdivieso, Manuel; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Guevara, Magaly; Saenz, Claudia Gonzales; Alva, Soledad Osorio; Gil, Elena; Xi, Chuanwu

    2018-01-08

    Helicobacter pylori is a gut bacterium that is the primary cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to sanitation and clean drinking water. In this study, we conducted time-series sampling of drinking water in Lima, Peru, to examine trends of H. pylori contamination and other water characteristics. Drinking water samples were collected from a single faucet in Lima's Lince district 5 days per week from June 2015 to May 2016, and pH, temperature, free available chlorine, and conductivity were measured. Quantities of H. pylori in all water samples were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Relationships between the presence/absence and quantity of H. pylori and water characteristics in the 2015-2016 period were examined using regression methods accounting for the time-series design. Forty-nine of 241 (20.3%) of drinking water samples were contaminated with H. pylori. Statistical analyses identified no associations between sampling date and the likelihood of contamination with H. pylori. Statistically significant relationships were found between lower temperatures and a lower likelihood of the presence of H. pylori (P water of a single drinking water faucet in the Lince district of Lima. However, no seasonal trends were observed. Further studies are needed to determine the presence of H. pylori in other drinking water sources in other districts in Lima, as well as to determine the viability of H. pylori in these water sources. Such studies would potentially allow for better understanding and estimates of the risk of infection due to exposure to H. pylori in drinking water. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Post-mining water treatment. Nanofiltration of uranium-contaminated drainage. Experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyer, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Nanofiltration of real uranium-contaminated mine drainage was successfully discussed in experiments and modeling. For the simulation a renowned model was adapted that is capable of describing multi-component solutions. Although the description of synthetic multi-component solutions with a limited number of components was performed before ([Garcia-Aleman2004], [Geraldes2006], [Bandini2003]) the results of this work show that the adapted model is capable of describing the very complex solution. The model developed here is based on: The Donnan-Steric Partitioning Pore Model incorporating Dielectric Exclusion - DSPM and DE ref. [Bowen1997], [Bandini2003], [Bowen2002], [Vezzani2002]. The steric, electric, and dielectric exclusion model - SEDE ref. [Szymczyk2005]. The developed modeling approach is capable of describing multi-component transport, and is based on the pore radius, membrane thickness, and volumetric membrane charge density as physically relevant membrane parameters instead of mere fitting parameters which allows conclusions concerning membrane modification or process design. The experiments involve typical commercially available membranes in combination with a water sample of industrial relevance in the mining sector. Furthermore, it has been shown experimentally that uranium speciation influences its retention. Hence, all experiments consider the speciation of uranium when assessing its charge and size. In the simulation 10 different ionic components have been taken into account. By freely fitting 4 parameters in parallel (pore radius, membrane thickness, membrane charge, relative permittivity of the oriented water layer at the pore wall) an excellent agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained. Moreover, the determined membrane thickness and pore radius is in close agreement with the values obtained by independent membrane characterization using pure water permeability and glucose retention. On the other hand, the fitted and the literature

  16. 1,4-Dioxane drinking water occurrence data from the third unregulated contaminant monitoring rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, David T; Piña, Elizabeth A; Cartwright, Abigail E; Rauch, Sharon R; Hunter Anderson, R; Mohr, Thomas; Connor, John A

    2017-10-15

    This study examined data collected from U.S. public drinking water supplies in support of the recently-completed third round of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR3) to better understand the nature and occurrence of 1,4-dioxane and the basis for establishing drinking water standards. The purpose was to evaluate whether the occurrence data for this emerging but federally-unregulated contaminant fit with common conceptual models, including its persistence and the importance of groundwater contamination for potential exposure. 1,4-Dioxane was detected in samples from 21% of 4864 PWSs, and was in exceedance of the health-based reference concentration (0.35μg/L) at 6.9% of these systems. In both measures, it ranked second among the 28 UCMR3 contaminants. Although much of the focus on 1,4-dioxane has been its role as a groundwater contaminant, the detection frequency for 1,4-dioxane in surface water was only marginally lower than in groundwater (by a factor of 1.25; psurface water (psurface water sources tend to be more dilute. Sampling from large systems increased the likelihood that 1,4-dioxane was detected by a factor of 2.18 times relative to small systems (pwater were highly associated with detections of other chlorinated compounds particularly 1,1-dichlorethane (odds ratio=47; pwater supplies may be decreasing. However, in the interim, some water supply systems may need to consider improving their treatment capabilities in response to further regulatory review of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of carbon nanotube technology for removal of contaminants in drinking water: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Deng, Shuguang; Mitchell, Martha C; Smith, Geoffrey B

    2009-12-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) adsorption technology has the potential to support point of use (POU) based treatment approach for removal of bacterial pathogens, natural organic matter (NOM), and cyanobacterial toxins from water systems. Unlike many microporous adsorbents, CNTs possess fibrous shape with high aspect ratio, large accessible external surface area, and well developed mesopores, all contribute to the superior removal capacities of these macromolecular biomolecules and microorganisms. This article provides a comprehensive review on application of CNTs as adsorbent media to concentrate and remove pathogens, NOM, and cyanobacterial (microcystin derivatives) toxins from water systems. The paper also surveys on consideration of CNT based adsorption filters for removal of these contaminants from cost, operational and safety standpoint. Based on the studied literature it appears that POU based CNT technology looks promising, that can possibly avoid difficulties of treating biological contaminants in conventional water treatment plants, and thereby remove the burden of maintaining the biostability of treated water in the distribution systems.

  18. A spatial analysis of private well water Escherichia coli contamination in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolik, Julia; Maier, Allison; Evans, Gerald; Belanger, Paul; Hall, Geoffrey; Joyce, Alan; Majury, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Research to date has provided limited insight into the complexity of water-borne pathogen transmission. Private well water supplies have been identified as a significant pathway in infectious disease transmission in both the industrialised and the developing world. Using over 90,000 private well water submission records representing approximately 30,000 unique well locations in south-eastern Ontario, Canada, a spatial analysis was performed in order to delineate clusters with elevated risk of E. coli contamination using 5 years of data (2008-2012). Analyses were performed for all years independently and subsequently compared to each other. Numerous statistically significant clusters were identified and both geographic stability and variation over time were examined. Through the identification of spatial and temporal patterns, this study provides the basis for future investigations into the underlying causes of bacterial groundwater contamination, while identifying geographic regions that merit particular attention to public health interventions and improvement of water quality.

  19. Application of Metal Oxide Heterostructures in Arsenic Removal from Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become one of the major environmental problems for people worldwide to be exposed to high arsenic concentrations through contaminated drinking water, and even the long-term intake of small doses of arsenic has a carcinogenic effect. As an efficient and economic approach for the purification of arsenic-containing water, the adsorbents in adsorption processes have been widely studied. Among a variety of adsorbents reported, the metal oxide heterostructures with high surface area and specific affinity for arsenic adsorption from aqueous systems have demonstrated a promising performance in practical applications. This review paper aims to summarize briefly the metal oxide heterostructures in arsenic removal from contaminated water, so as to provide efficient, economic, and robust solutions for water purification.

  20. Estimating the Risk of Domestic Water Source Contamination following Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Ian F.; Hoover, Christopher M.; Remais, Justin V.; Monaghan, Andrew; Celada, Marco; Carlton, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase precipitation extremes, threatening water quality. In low resource settings, it is unclear which water sources are most vulnerable to contamination following rainfall events. We evaluated the relationship between rainfall and drinking water quality in southwest Guatemala where heavy rainfall is frequent and access to safe water is limited. We surveyed 59 shallow household wells, measured precipitation, and calculated simple hydrological variables. We compared Escherichia coli concentration at wells where recent rainfall had occurred versus had not occurred, and evaluated variability in the association between rainfall and E. coli concentration under different conditions using interaction models. Rainfall in the past 24 hours was associated with greater E. coli concentrations, with the strongest association between rainfall and fecal contamination at wells where pigs were nearby. Because of the small sample size, these findings should be considered preliminary, but provide a model to evaluate vulnerability to climate change. PMID:27114298

  1. Experimental observation of internal water curing of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2007-01-01

    Internal water curing has a significant effect on concrete. In addition to affecting hydration and moisture distribution, it influences most concrete properties, such as strength, shrinkage, cracking, and durability. The following paper is an overview of experimental methods to study internal water...... curing of concrete and its consequences. The special techniques needed to study internal water curing are dealt with along with the consequences of this process. Examples of applications are given and new measuring techniques that may potentially be applied to this field are addressed....

  2. Solar disinfection of wastewater to reduce contamination of lettuce crops by Escherichia coli in reclaimed water irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichai, Françoise; Polo-López, M Inmaculada; Fernández Ibañez, Pilar

    2012-11-15

    Low-cost disinfection methods to allow safe use of recycled wastewater for irrigation can have important beneficial implications in the developing world. This study aims to assess the efficiency of solar disinfection to reduce microbial contamination of lettuce crops when solar-treated wastewater effluents are used for irrigation. The irrigation study was designed as a complete experimental loop, including (i) the production of irrigation water through solar disinfection of real municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents (WWTPE), (ii) the watering of cultivated lettuce crops at the end of solar treatment, and (iii) the detection of microbial contamination on the irrigated crops 24 h after irrigation. Solar disinfection was performed using two types of reactors: (i) 20-L batch borosilicate glass reactors equipped with CPC to optimize solar irradiation, and (ii) 1.5-L PET bottles, i.e. the traditional SODIS recipients commonly used for disinfection of drinking water in developing communities. Both solar and H(2)O(2)-aided solar disinfection processes were tested during ≤5 h exposure of WWTPE, and Escherichia coli inactivation was analysed. A presence/absence detection method was developed to analyse lettuce leaves sampled 24 h after watering for the detection of E. coli. Results of inactivation assays show that solar disinfection processes can bring down bacterial concentrations of >10(3)-10(4)E. coli CFU mL(-1) in real WWTPE to <2 CFU/mL (detection limit). The absence of E. coli on most lettuce samples after irrigation with solar-disinfected effluents (26 negative samples/28) confirmed an improved safety of irrigation practices due to solar treatment, while crops irrigated with raw WWTPE showed contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Drinking water toxicity study of the environmental contaminant--Bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongmei, Liu; Zhiwei, Wang; Qi, Zhu; Fuyi, Cui; Yujuan, Shan; Xiaodong, Liu

    2015-12-01

    Bromate is a byproduct of water disinfection that is produced when waters contain bromide treated with ozone. To investigate the level of the toxicity of bromate and find the most sensitive indicators in a short time, a series of toxicological assessments were conducted including the acute toxicity, cumulative toxicity, genetic toxicity and subacute toxicity of bromate (using Potassium Bromate to represent bromate). The LD50 of orally administered Potassium Bromate was 215 mg/kg in Wistar rats and 464 mg/kg in ICR mice. The cumulative toxicity of Potassium Bromate was not obvious. The Ames test, mouse bone marrow cell micronucleus test and mouse sperm abnormality test did not indicate mutagenicity. The results of the subacute study did not exhibit significant differences in most of the parameters, except the white blood cell count, which was significantly decreased in male rats. In addition, Potassium Bromate influenced the albumin, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels in male rats to various extents. A thorough analysis of the above tests clearly demonstrates that bromate has toxicity, not obvious cumulative toxicity and the white blood cell count can be used as an indicator to reflect the toxicity of bromate and investigate bromate's toxic mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of water contamination and conductive additives on the intercalation of lithium into graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joho, F.; Rykart, B.; Novak, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Spahr, M.E.; Monnier, A. [Timcal AG, Sins (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The irreversible charge loss in the first cycle of lithium intercalation into graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed as a function of water contamination of the electrolyte solution. Furthermore, the improvement of the electrode cycle life due to conductive additives to graphite is demonstrated. (author) 5 figs., 3 refs.

  5. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water. Instructors Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This instructor's manual presents information for a training course in analytical methods for inorganic and organic chemical contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations. Topics focus on: (1) pre-course activities, including course logistics, equipment, and facilities; (2) sample agendas; (3) lesson plans for specific…

  6. Phytoremediation of Mercury- and Methyl Mercury-Contaminated Sediments by Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has the potential for implementation at Hg- (Hg) and methylHg (MeHg)-contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated forms...

  7. Phytoremediation Of Mercury And Methylmercury Contaminated Sediments By Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation has potential to be implemented at mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contaminated sites. Water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) were investigated for their ability to assimilate Hg and MeHg into plant biomass, in both aquatic and sediment-associated f...

  8. Anthropogenic contamination of a phreatic drinking water winning: 3-dimensional reactive transport modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/091129265; van der Grift, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/373433484; Maas, D.; van den Brink, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/187443416; Zaadnoordijk, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Groundwater is contaminated at the regional scale by agricultural activities and atmospheric deposition. A 3-D transport model was set-up for a phreatic drinking water winning, where the groundwater composition was monitored accurately. The winning is situated at an area with unconsolidated

  9. Quantitative analysis of microbial contamination in private drinking water supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allevi, Richard P; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Hagedorn, Charles; Benham, Brian; Lawrence, Annie H; Ling, Erin J; Ziegler, Peter E

    2013-06-01

    Over one million households rely on private water supplies (e.g. well, spring, cistern) in the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA. The present study tested 538 private wells and springs in 20 Virginia counties for total coliforms (TCs) and Escherichia coli along with a suite of chemical contaminants. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate potential correlations between TC contamination and chemical parameters (e.g. NO3(-), turbidity), as well as homeowner-provided survey data describing system characteristics and perceived water quality. Of the 538 samples collected, 41% (n = 221) were positive for TCs and 10% (n = 53) for E. coli. Chemical parameters were not statistically predictive of microbial contamination. Well depth, water treatment, and farm location proximate to the water supply were factors in a regression model that predicted presence/absence of TCs with 74% accuracy. Microbial and chemical source tracking techniques (Bacteroides gene Bac32F and HF183 detection via polymerase chain reaction and optical brightener detection via fluorometry) identified four samples as likely contaminated with human wastewater.

  10. Poisoning the Mind: Arsenic Contamination of Drinking Water Wells and Children's Educational Achievement in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, M. Niaz; Chaudhury, Nazmul

    2011-01-01

    Bangladesh has experienced the largest mass poisoning of a population in history owing to contamination of groundwater with naturally occurring inorganic arsenic. Prolonged drinking of such water risks development of diseases and therefore has implications for children's cognitive and psychological development. This study examines the effect of…

  11. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...

  12. Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and water in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    contaminated soil, water and air (Zurera et al., 1989). As trace elements, some heavy metals e.g. copper, ... cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans (Reilly, 1991). ... manufacturing batteries, textile, steel, paints, food processing, abattoir, and electrical products. Msimbazi River ...

  13. Groundwater Contamination. Instructor Guide. Working for Clean Water: An Information Program for Advisory Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles A.

    Described is a presentation and learning session on groundwater, which is intended to educate advisory groups interested in improving water quality decision making. Among the areas addressed are the importance of groundwater, sources of contamination, and groundwater pollution control programs. These materials are part of the Working for Clean…

  14. Comparison of contaminant transport in agricultural drainage water and urban stormwater runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transport of nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural and urban landscapes to surface water bodies can cause adverse environmental impacts including hypoxia and harmful algal blooms. The main objective of this long-term study was to quantify and compare contaminant transport from a subsurface-drain...

  15. Defense Health Care: Issues Related to Past Drinking Water Contamination at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-12

    particles, chlorination to protect against microbial contamination, and fluoride addition to help prevent tooth decay . After the water is...Representatives In the early 1980s, volatile organic compounds (VOC) were discovered in some of the water systems serving housing areas on Marine Corps...likely to have developed certain childhood cancers or birth defects. GAO was asked to testify on its May 11, 2007 report: Defense Health Care

  16. Non-polar contaminants in estuarine waters: new extraction methods and passive sampling choices

    OpenAIRE

    Posada Ureta, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    248 p. The huge amounts of anthropogenic organic micro-pollutants released to environmental waters due to human daily activities have bequeathed many countries the legacy of organic pollution in water. Their persistence in the aquatic environments disrupsts the natural processes and thus, the need of a continous monitoring of these contaminants is endlessly revealed in several international environmental legislations. Therefore, the principal aim of this work is the development of analytic...

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Alternative Mix Water for Concrete: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a comparison of seawater and laboratory brine on concrete using experimental methods. The seawater employed was obtained from Escravos in the coast of Atlantic Ocean in Nigeria. A concrete mix of 1:2:4and water/cement ratio of 0.6 was adopted. The cube samples measured ...

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  19. Endotoxin contamination and control in surface water sources and a drinking water treatment plant in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zhang; Wenjun, Liu; Wen, Sun; Minglu, Zhang; Lingjia, Qian; Cuiping, Li; Fang, Tian

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, endotoxin contamination was determined in treated water following each unit of a drinking water treatment plant (WTP) in Beijing, China and its source water (SW) from a long water diversion channel (Shijiazhuang-Beijing) originating from four reservoirs in Hebei province, China. The total-endotoxin activities in SW ranged from 21 to 41 EU/ml at five selected cross sections of the diversion channel. The total-endotoxin in raw water of the WTP ranged from 11 to 16 EU/ml due to dilution and pretreatment during water transportation from Tuancheng Lake to the WTP, and finished water of the WTP ranged from 4 to 10 EU/ml, showing a 49% decrease following the full-scale treatment process at the WTP. Compared with the 31% removal of free-endotoxin, the WTP removed up to 71% of bound-endotoxin in raw water. The traditional treatment processes (coagulation, sedimentation and filtration) in the WTP removed substantial amounts of total-endotoxin (up to 63%), while endotoxin activities increased after granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and chlorination. The total-endotoxin in the actual water was composed of free-endotoxin and bound-endotoxin (endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins). The endotoxin aggregates, bacteria-bound endotoxins and particle-attached endotoxins co-exist as suspended particles in water, and only the bacteria-bound endotoxins were correlated with bacterial cells suspended in water. The particle distribution of endotoxin aggregates in ultrapure water was also tested and the results showed that the majority (64-89%) of endotoxin aggregates had diameters contamination and control in treated water following each unit of the WTP processes and its SW from reservoirs are discussed and compared with regard to bacterial cell counts and particle characteristics, which were dependent, to a certain extent, on different flow rates and turbulence of the water environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Experimental and Numerical Study of Spacecraft Contamination Problems Associated With Gas and Gas-Droplet Thruster Plume Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-17

    sources of contamination of the surface of space vehicles are jets of their control thrusters, containing products of poor combustion (droplets... Etanol , 4861 Е Experimental Points Approximating Curve Fig. 2.16. Calibration dependence of optical radiation intensity for ethanol vapors -6

  1. Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A H; Lingas, E O; Rahman, M

    2000-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is the largest poisoning of a population in history, with millions of people exposed. This paper describes the history of the discovery of arsenic in drinking-water in Bangladesh and recommends intervention strategies. Tube-wells were installed to provide "pure water" to prevent morbidity and mortality from gastrointestinal disease. The water from the millions of tube-wells that were installed was not tested for arsenic contamination. Studies in other countries where the population has had long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater indicate that 1 in 10 people who drink water containing 500 micrograms of arsenic per litre may ultimately die from cancers caused by arsenic, including lung, bladder and skin cancers. The rapid allocation of funding and prompt expansion of current interventions to address this contamination should be facilitated. The fundamental intervention is the identification and provision of arsenic-free drinking water. Arsenic is rapidly excreted in urine, and for early or mild cases, no specific treatment is required. Community education and participation are essential to ensure that interventions are successful; these should be coupled with follow-up monitoring to confirm that exposure has ended. Taken together with the discovery of arsenic in groundwater in other countries, the experience in Bangladesh shows that groundwater sources throughout the world that are used for drinking-water should be tested for arsenic.

  2. Investigation of Health Effects According to the Exposure of Low Concentration Arsenic Contaminated Ground Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-seoub Hong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological studies have reported adverse health effects, including skin cancer, due to low concentrations of arsenic via drinking water. We conducted a study to assess whether low arsenic contaminated ground water affected health of the residents who consumed it. For precise biomonitoring results, the inorganic (trivalent arsenite (As III and pentavalent arsenate (As V and organic forms (monomethylarsonate (MMA and dimethylarsinate (DMA of arsenic were separately quantified by combining high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy from urine samples. In conclusion, urinary As III, As V, MMA, and hair arsenic concentrations were significantly higher in residents who consumed arsenic contaminated ground water than control participants who consumed tap water. But, most health screening results did not show a statistically significant difference between exposed and control subjects. We presume that the elevated arsenic concentrations may not be sufficient to cause detectable health effects. Consumption of arsenic contaminated ground water could result in elevated urinary organic and inorganic arsenic concentrations. We recommend immediate discontinuation of ground water supply in this area for the safety of the residents.

  3. Bacteriological contamination of well water in Makurdi town, Benue State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mile, I I; Jande, J A; Dagba, B I

    2012-11-01

    Bacteriological contamination of well water in Makurdi town, of Benue State, Nigeria was investigated. A total of 15 water samples were collected from hand dug wells and analyzed for total bacteria count as it affect the quality of drinking water for both wet and dry season. The analysis was done according to standard methods of water examination and as reported in WHO guide limit for drinking water. The investigation revealed that the wells examined were highly contaminated with bacteria. Wells 6 and 7 showed highest total bacteria counts of 7.0 x 10(5)/100 mL and 8.2 x 10(5)/100 mL in the wet season, while wells 7 and 2 showed highest total bacteria counts of 8.0 x 10(5)/100 mL and 5.5 x 10(5)/100 mL in the dry season. The contamination of all wells could be due to improper construction of wells, refuse dumping sites and various human activities around the wells. Water generally from these wells is not safe for drinking except some form of treatment is carried out.

  4. Influence of hydrological regime on pore water metal concentrations in a contaminated sediment-derived soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Laing, G. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Gent 9000 (Belgium)]. E-mail: gijs.dulaing@ugent.be; Vanthuyne, D.R.J. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Gent 9000 (Belgium); Vandecasteele, B. [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Plant Unit, Burg. van Gansberghelaan 109, Box 1, Merelbeke 9820 (Belgium); Tack, F.M.G. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Gent 9000 (Belgium); Verloo, M.G. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Gent 9000 (Belgium)

    2007-06-15

    Options for wetland creation or restoration might be limited because of the presence of contaminants in the soil. The influence of hydrological management on the pore water concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn in the upper soil layer of a contaminated overbank sedimentation zone was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Flooding conditions led to increased Fe, Mn, Ni and Cr concentrations and decreased Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in the pore water of the upper soil layer. Keeping the soil at field capacity resulted in a low pore water concentration of Fe, Mn and Ni while the Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn concentrations increased. Alternating hydrological conditions caused metal concentrations in the pore water to fluctuate. Formation and re-oxidation of small amounts of sulphides appeared dominant in determining the mobility of Cd, Cu, and to a lesser extent Zn, while Ni behaviour was consistent with Fe/Mn oxidation and reduction. These effects were strongly dependent on the duration of the flooded periods. The shorter the flooded periods, the better the metal concentrations could be linked to the mobility of Ca in the pore water, which is attributed to a fluctuating CO{sub 2} pressure. - The hydrological regime is a key factor in determining the metal concentration in the pore water of a contaminated sediment-derived soil.

  5. Faecal contamination of a municipal drinking water distribution system in association with Campylobacter jejuni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Takkinen, Johanna; Nieminen, Kalle; Siitonen, Anja; Kuusi, Markku; Holopainen, Arja; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2008-09-01

    After heavy rains Campylobacter jejuni together with high counts of Escherichia coli, other coliforms and intestinal enterococci were detected from drinking water of a municipal distribution system in eastern Finland in August 2004. Three patients with a positive C. jejuni finding, who had drunk the contaminated water, were identified and interviewed. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes from the patient samples were identical to some of the genotypes isolated from the water of the suspected contamination source. In addition, repetitive DNA element analysis (rep-PCR) revealed identical patterns of E. coli and other coliform isolates along the distribution line. Further on-site technical investigations revealed that one of the two rainwater gutters on the roof of the water storage tower had been in an incorrect position and rainwater had flushed a large amount of faecal material from wild birds into the drinking water. The findings required close co-operation between civil authorities, and application of cultivation and genotyping techniques strongly suggested that the municipal drinking water was the source of the infections. The faecal contamination associated with failures in cleaning and technical management stress the importance of instructions for waterworks personnel to perform maintenance work properly.

  6. Contamination of drinking-water by arsenic in Bangladesh: a public health emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. H.; Lingas, E. O.; Rahman, M.

    2000-01-01

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is the largest poisoning of a population in history, with millions of people exposed. This paper describes the history of the discovery of arsenic in drinking-water in Bangladesh and recommends intervention strategies. Tube-wells were installed to provide "pure water" to prevent morbidity and mortality from gastrointestinal disease. The water from the millions of tube-wells that were installed was not tested for arsenic contamination. Studies in other countries where the population has had long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater indicate that 1 in 10 people who drink water containing 500 micrograms of arsenic per litre may ultimately die from cancers caused by arsenic, including lung, bladder and skin cancers. The rapid allocation of funding and prompt expansion of current interventions to address this contamination should be facilitated. The fundamental intervention is the identification and provision of arsenic-free drinking water. Arsenic is rapidly excreted in urine, and for early or mild cases, no specific treatment is required. Community education and participation are essential to ensure that interventions are successful; these should be coupled with follow-up monitoring to confirm that exposure has ended. Taken together with the discovery of arsenic in groundwater in other countries, the experience in Bangladesh shows that groundwater sources throughout the world that are used for drinking-water should be tested for arsenic. PMID:11019458

  7. Assessment Of Heavy Metal Contamination Of Water Sources From Enyigba Pb-Zn District South Eastern Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nnabo Paulinus N

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of thirty 30 water samples were collected from the Enyigba PbZn mining district to assess the contamination of the water sources as a result of mining of lead and zinc minerals in the area...

  8. PILOT-SCALE SUBCRITICAL WATER REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON- AND PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were used to determine conditions f...

  9. Detection of water contamination from hydraulic fracturing wastewater: a μPAD for bromide analysis in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Leslie J; Bandara, Gayan C; Weber, Genevieve L; Remcho, Vincent T

    2015-08-21

    Due to the rapid expansion in hydraulic fracturing (fracking), there is a need for robust, portable and specific water analysis techniques. Early detection of contamination is crucial for the prevention of lasting environmental damage. Bromide can potentially function as an early indicator of water contamination by fracking waste, because there is a high concentration of bromide ions in fracking wastewaters. To facilitate this, a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) has been developed and optimized for the quantitative colorimetric detection of bromide in water using a smartphone. A paper microfluidic platform offers the advantages of inexpensive fabrication, elimination of unstable wet reagents, portability and high adaptability for widespread distribution. These features make this assay an attractive option for a new field test for on-site determination of bromide.

  10. Contamination of water and vegetables in Akaki and Mekanisa areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia : microbiological, observational and qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Wondim, Tadesse Alemayehu

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the extent of pollution of water and contamination of vegetables grown by irrigation with polluted river water. The study was done in the Akaki and Mekanisa areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2002. The need to investigate the extent of contamination of vegetables is valid because of repeated occurrence of food-born disease outbreaks in many restaurants in the city of Addis Ababa. This might be partly attributed to the consumption of such contaminated raw ...

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1989 by the US DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination in this risk assessment.

  12. “Improved” but Not Necessarily Safe: An Assessment of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Rural Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Rocha, Claudio A.; Quick, Robert E.; Montano, Silvia M.; Tilley, Drake H.; Mock, Charles N.; Carrasco, A. Jannet; Cabrera, Ricardo M.; Hawes, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    The indicator used to measure progress toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for water is access to an improved water supply. However, improved supplies are frequently fecally contaminated in developing countries. We examined factors associated with Escherichia coli contamination of improved water supplies in rural Pisco province, Peru. A random sample of 207 households with at least one child less than 5 years old was surveyed, and water samples from the source and storage container were tested for E. coli contamination. Although over 90% of households used an improved water source, 47% of source and 43% of stored water samples were contaminated with E. coli. Pouring or using a spigot to obtain water from the storage container instead of dipping a hand or object was associated with decreased risk of contamination of stored water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.80). Container cleanliness (aPR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.00) and correct handwashing technique (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.42, 0.90) were also associated with decreased contamination risk. These findings highlighted the limitations of improved water supplies as an indicator of safe water access. To ensure water safety in the home, household water treatment and improved hygiene, water handling, and storage practices should be promoted. PMID:26195455

  13. "Improved" But Not Necessarily Safe: An Assessment of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Rural Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Rocha, Claudio A; Quick, Robert E; Montano, Silvia M; Tilley, Drake H; Mock, Charles N; Carrasco, A Jannet; Cabrera, Ricardo M; Hawes, Stephen E

    2015-09-01

    The indicator used to measure progress toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for water is access to an improved water supply. However, improved supplies are frequently fecally contaminated in developing countries. We examined factors associated with Escherichia coli contamination of improved water supplies in rural Pisco province, Peru. A random sample of 207 households with at least one child less than 5 years old was surveyed, and water samples from the source and storage container were tested for E. coli contamination. Although over 90% of households used an improved water source, 47% of source and 43% of stored water samples were contaminated with E. coli. Pouring or using a spigot to obtain water from the storage container instead of dipping a hand or object was associated with decreased risk of contamination of stored water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.80). Container cleanliness (aPR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.00) and correct handwashing technique (aPR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.42, 0.90) were also associated with decreased contamination risk. These findings highlighted the limitations of improved water supplies as an indicator of safe water access. To ensure water safety in the home, household water treatment and improved hygiene, water handling, and storage practices should be promoted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Determination of biological removal of recalcitrant organic contaminants in coal gasification waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qinhong; Tabassum, Salma; Yu, Guangxin; Chu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2015-01-01

    Coal gasification waste water treatment needed a sustainable and affordable plan to eliminate the organic contaminants in order to lower the potential environmental and human health risk. In this paper, a laboratory-scale anaerobic-aerobic intermittent system carried out 66 operational cycles together for the treatment of coal gasification waste water and the removal capacity of each organic pollutant. Contaminants included phenols, carboxylic acids, long-chain hydrocarbons, and heterocyclic compounds, wherein the relative content of phenol is up to 57.86%. The long-term removal of 77 organic contaminants was evaluated at different hydraulic retention time (anaerobic24 h + aerobic48 h and anaerobic48 h +aerobic48 h). Contaminant removal ranged from no measurable removal to near-complete removal with effluent concentrations below the detection limit. Contaminant removals followed one of four trends: steady-state removal throughout, increasing removal to steady state (acclimation), decreasing removal, and no removal. Organic degradation and transformation in the reaction were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technology.

  15. Phototransformation of wastewater-derived trace organic contaminants in open-water unit process treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T; Sedlak, David L

    2013-10-01

    Open-water cells in unit process treatment wetlands can be used to exploit sunlight photolysis to remove trace organic contaminants from municipal wastewater effluent. To assess the performance of these novel systems, a photochemical model was calibrated using measured photolysis rates for atenolol, carbamazepine, propranolol, and sulfamethoxazole in wetland water under representative conditions. Contaminant transformation by hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) and carbonate radical ((•)CO3(-)) were predicted from steady-state radical concentrations measured at pH values between 8 and 10. Direct photolysis rates and the effects of light screening by dissolved organic matter on photolysis rates were estimated using solar irradiance data, contaminant quantum yields, and light screening factors. The model was applied to predict the land area required for 90% removal of a suite of wastewater-derived organic contaminants by sunlight-induced reactions under a variety of conditions. Results suggest that during summer, open-water cells that receive a million gallons of water per day (i.e., about 4.4 × 10(-2) m(3) s(-1)) of nitrified wastewater effluent can achieve 90% removal of most compounds in an area of about 15 ha. Transformation rates were strongly affected by pH, with some compounds exhibiting faster transformation rates under the high pH conditions associated with photosynthetic algae at the sediment-water interface and other contaminants exhibiting faster transformation rates at the circumneutral pH values characteristic of algae-free cells. Lower dissolved organic carbon concentrations typically resulted in increased transformation rates.

  16. Impact of environmental traders on water markets: An experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, John G.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a series of economic experiments in which an environmental agency with a stochastic demand function enters an existing water market to buy or sell water for instream use. Previous experimental studies have examined the use of tenders to reduce water extractions and social suasion to maintain aggregate flow levels and compared imposing minimum flow restrictions with subsidizing downstream water use and the allocation of tradeable minimum flow rights. The important contribution of this paper is that it explores the consequence of having an environmental agency enter an existing water market. In this paper we explore the consequences of (1) formally allocating tradeable water rights to the environmental agency, (2) allocating funding to purchase water as required, and (3) having the trading actions of the environmental agency a matter of public record. The research, while contextualized to water markets in this paper, addresses an important and timely issue that could have implication beyond water markets. In pollution permit markets, for example, there is the question of what the impact on the market would be if a government agency were to begin buying back permits, particularly if this represented a relatively large volume of trades and entered into such purchases on a needs basis.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Surface cleanup at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lakeview, Oregon was completed in 1989. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  18. The Evaluation of Removal Efficiency of COD Due to Water Contaminated by Gasoline by Granular Active Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salmani

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We can conclude from this study that the activated carbon is an appropriate adsorbent for decreasing of COD due to gasoline contamination in water. The use of this adsorbent can well decrease COD of water contamination due to gasoline at times of 30 min.

  19. Health effects of swimming in fecally-contaminated recreational water: Results from studies at nine coastal beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to fecally-contaminated water has long been known to transmit infectious disease. In 2003, EPA and the CDC initiated studies to better describe the health effects associated with exposure to fecal contamination in recreational waters and to test faster ways of measuring ...

  20. Effects of hydrogen peroxide on dental unit biofilms and treatment water contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Ming; Svoboda, Kathy K H; Giletto, Anthony; Seibert, Jeff; Puttaiah, Raghunath

    2011-01-01

    To study effects of various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide on mature waterline biofilms and in controlling planktonic (free-floating) organisms in simulated dental treatment water systems; and to study in vitro the effects of 2%, 3%, and 7% hydrogen peroxide on the removal of mature biofilms and inorganic compounds in dental waterlines. Four units of an automated dental unit water system simulation device was used for 12 weeks. All units were initially cleaned to control biofilms and inorganic deposits. H2O(2) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3% was used weekly for periodic cleaning in three treatment group units (units 1, 2 & 3), with 0.05%, 0.15% and 0.25% H(2)O(2) in municipal water used as irrigant respectively. The control unit (unit 4) did not have weekly cleanings and used municipal water as irrigant. Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to study deposits on lines, and weekly heterotrophic plate counts done to study effluent water contamination. A 24 hour in vitro challenge test with 7%, 3% and 2% H(2)O(2) on mature biofilms was conducted using harvested waterlines to study biofilm and inorganic deposit removal. Heterotrophic plate counts of effluent water showed that the control unit reached contamination levels in excess of 400,000 CFU/mL while all treatment units showed contamination levels irrigation was beneficial in controlling biofilm and planktonic contamination in dental unit water systems. However, to remove well established biofilms, it may take more than 2 months when initial and multiple periodic cleanings are performed using H(2)O(2).

  1. Livestock ownership and microbial contamination of drinking-water: evidence from nationally representative household surveys in Ghana, Nepal and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Wardrop, Nicola A.; Hill, Allan G.; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Wright, Jim A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current priorities for diarrhoeal disease prevention include use of sanitation and safe water. There have been few attempts to quantify the importance of animal faeces in drinking-water contamination, despite the presence of potentially water-borne zoonotic pathogens in animal faeces. Objectives: This study aimed to quantify the relationship between livestock ownership and point-of-consumption drinking-water contamination. Methods: Data from nationally representative househo...

  2. Water sources and their protection from the impact of microbial contamination in rural areas of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Hairong

    2013-03-05

    Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators.

  3. Assessment of Filter Materials for Removal of Contaminants From Agricultural Drainage Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, B. J.

    2007-12-01

    Fertilizer nutrients and pesticides applied on farm fields, especially in the Midwest U.S., are commonly intercepted by buried agricultural drainage pipes and then discharged into local streams and lakes, oftentimes resulting in an adverse environmental impact on these surface water bodies. Low cost filter materials have the potential to remove nutrient and pesticide contaminants from agricultural drainage waters before these waters are released from the farm site. Batch tests were conducted to find filter materials potentially capable of removing nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) and pesticide (atrazine) contaminants from subsurface drainage waters. For each batch test, stock solution (40 g) and filter material (5 g) were combined in 50 mL Teflon centrifuge tubes and mixed with a rotator for 24 hours. The stock solution contained 50 mg/L nitrate-N, 0.25 mg/L phosphate-P, 0.4 mg/L atrazine, 570 mg/L calcium sulfate, and 140 mg/L potassium chloride. Calcium sulfate and potassium chloride were added so that the stock solution would contain anions and cations normally found in agricultural drainage waters. There were six replicate batch tests for each filter material. At the completion of each test, solution was removed from the centrifuge tube and analyzed for nitrate-N, phosphate-P, and atrazine. A total of 38 filter materials were tested, which were divided into five classes; high carbon content substances, high iron content substances, high aluminum content substances, surfactant modified clay/zeolite, and coal combustion products. Batch test results generally indicate, that with regard to the five classes of filter materials; high carbon content substances adsorbed atrazine very effectively; high iron content substances worked especially well removing almost all of the phosphate present; high aluminum content substances lowered phosphate levels; surfactant modified clay/zeolite substantially reduced both nitrate and atrazine; and coal combustion products

  4. Geology and ground water in Door County, Wisconsin, with emphasis on contamination potential in the Silurian dolomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Marvin G.

    1977-01-01

    Door County, a recreational and fruit-growing area bordering Lake Michigan in northeastern Wisconsin, has had a long history of ground-water contamination from surface and near-surface sources. Contamination is most severe in late summer when fruit-canning operations and the influx of tourists create additional wastes. Silurian dolomite is the upper bedrock unit in the county and yields generally adequate supplies of very hard water with locally objectionable concentrations of iron and nitrate. Thin soil cover and well-fractured dolomitic bedrock give easy entry to ground-water contaminants throughout large parts of Door County. Many contaminants enter the dolomite by surface or near-surface seepage. There is little attenuation of contamination concentrations in the well-jointed dolomite, and contaminants may travel long distances underground in a relatively short time. The major source of ground-water contamination is bacteria, from individual waste-disposal systems, agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastes. Areas of the county underlain by contaminated zones include only a small percentage of the total ground-water system and are separated by large volumes of ground water free of contamination. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. A NEW PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE: CONTAMINATION WITH ARSENIC OF PRIVATE WATER SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA ELENA GURZAU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new public health issue: contamination with arsenic of private water sources. Known since the early ‘40s, the natural contamination with arsenic of depth water in Bihor and Arad areas continues to incite interest, especially since the rural localities still use depth water as the main source of drinking water. Arsenic concentrations measured in the water sources in the area range between 0-176 μg/L, and it is estimated that over 45,000 people are exposed via drinking water to arsenic concentrations above 10 μg/L. The present study proposed the measurement of arsenic concentrations from old public sources and individual private water sources from recent wells located in five localities in Arad County, samples being collected during 2010-2011. The results showed that public water sources declared or not non-potable contain arsenic above the maximum allowable concentration of 10 μg/L. Individual water sources recently drilled as an alternative for the population to the lack of access to safe water from public water systems, presented high concentrations of arsenic in most cases, even higher than the concentrations of the public sources declared by authorities as non-potable. In the absence of informing and counseling the population regarding the natural uneven distribution of arsenic in the depth water and its potential carcinogenicity, human exposure continues and it is even more intense. The significance of the problem in terms of public health becomes even more important as for the private water sources quality is not monitored by the authorities according to law, water analysis being performed on request and for a fee.

  6. Integrated Assessment of the impact of Aqueous Contaminant Stressors on Surface Water Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes J.; Kronvang, Brian

    2011-01-01

    carried out in summer 2010. The campaign included an analysis of xenobiotics in surface water, inorganic chemistry, diffuse source (run-off) impacts and ecology along a gradient of contamination in the stream. Modelling results indicate that naphthalene, glyphosate and 4-nonylphenol could adversely impact...... ecosystems at expected environmentally-relevant concentrations. In general, thresholds determined for all compounds in the study were within the source mass discharge ranges expected at sites where contaminants may leach into groundwater (ITR C, 2010). Results of a sensitivity analysis revealed (low) oxygen...

  7. Biofouling of contaminated ground-water recovery wells: Characterization of microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.W. [Bechtel Environmental, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lange, C.R. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Lesold, E.A. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The taxonomy and physiology of microorganisms isolated from contaminated ground-water recovery wells prone to biofouling are characterized for an industrial site in Rochester, New York. Principal aquifer contaminants include acetone, cyclohexane, dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,4-dioxane, isopropanol, methanol, and toluene. These contaminants represent a significant fraction (up to 95%) of the total organic carbon in the ground water. Ground-water samples from 12 recovery wells were used to isolate, quantify, and identify aerobic and anaerobic bacterial populations. Samples from selected wells were also characterized geochemically to assess redox conditions and availability of essential and trace nutrients. Dominant bacteria, listed in order of descending numbers, including sulfate-reducers (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans), anaerobic heterotrophs (Actinomyces, Bacteriodes, Bacillus, Agrobacterium), aerobic heterotrophs (Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Nocardia, Citrobacter), iron-oxidizers (Gallionella ferruginea, Crenothrix polyspora), iron-reducers (Shewanella), and sulfur-oxidizers (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Fungi were also recovered in low numbers. Both aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs were able to utilize all principal contaminants as sole carbon and energy sources except 1,4-dioxane. The prevalence of heterotrophic bacteria and their ability to use the available anthropogenic carbon suggests that aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs contribute to the biofouling of wells at this site, in addition to the often cited fouling due to iron-oxidizing bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  8. Sensing of contaminants in potable water using TiO{sub 2} functional film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akshatha, N.; Poonia, Monika; Gupta, R. K., E-mail: raj@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in; Manjuladevi, V.; Shukla, P.; Gupta, Rajiv [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, 333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-04-13

    The piezoelectric based quartz crystal microbalance is employed for sensing contaminants in potable water. A spin coated thin layer of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was formed at the sensing area of a 5 MHz AT-cut quartz wafer. The thin film of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles forms a mesoporous functional layer for the trapping of water borne contaminants. The morphology of the thin film of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The surface morphology of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles reveals the mesoporous structures indicating large number of defects and porous sites. Such film was employed for the detection of water borne contaminants by detecting the piezoelectric response from a quartz crystal microbalance. We found the film to be very sensitive to the contaminants. The minimum detection limit was found to be 330 ppb. The effect of surface recharging was also studied by altering the physical conditions so that the film can be used for repetitive usage.

  9. Human adenovirus in tissues of freshwater snails living in contaminated waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gularte, J S; Staggemeier, R; Demoliner, M; Heck, T M S; Heldt, F H; Ritzel, R G F; Rigotto, C; Henzel, A; Spilki, F R

    2017-06-01

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) is resistant to environment and can be used as a marker to detect fecal contamination. Considering the importance of freshwater snails in the aquatic environment, their use as concentrators for HAdV is a complementary tool for viral analysis of water. The goal of the study was to detect HAdV in snails and surface water collected from wetlands of the Sinos River (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) basin and to compare rates and viral loads found in both samples. HAdV was detected through real-time PCR. Total and fecal coliforms were detected by Colilert(®) kit, and viral infectivity of positive samples of the DNA genome was performed in A549 human cell line. All wetlands presented bacterial and viral contamination, but no viral particle was considered viable. The wetland that showed lower fecal coliform mean was Campo Bom, and São Leopoldo (both cities in Rio Grande do Sul) was representative of the highest mean. HAdV was detected in water samples (53%), gastropods' hemolymph (31%) and tissues (16%). Wetlands proved to be environments already altered by human action. Water samples exhibited a higher frequency of HAdV detection; however, in some instances, the target viral genomes were only found in gastropod biological samples. This was a pioneer study in the use of freshwater snails for human enteric viral assessment thus demonstrating that the human organism can retain fecal contamination, complementing and assisting in microbiological water analyzes.

  10. Nylon 6,6 Nonwoven Fabric Separates Oil Contaminates from Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A Ortega

    Full Text Available Industrial oil spills into aquatic environments can have catastrophic environmental effects. First responders to oil spills along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the southern United States have used spunbond nylon fabric bags and fences to separate spilled oil and oil waste from contaminated water. Low area mass density spunbond nylon is capable of sorbing more than 16 times its mass in low viscosity crude oil and more than 26 times its mass in higher viscosity gear lube oil. Nylon bags separated more than 95% of gear lube oil contaminate from a 4.5% oil-in-water emulsion. Field testing of spunbond nylon fences by oil spill first responders has demonstrated the ability of this material to contain the oily contaminate while allowing water to flow through. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of nylon as an oil filter is due to the fact that it is both more oleophilic and more hydrophilic than other commonly used oil separation materials. The nylon traps oil droplets within the fabric or on the surface, while water droplets are free to flow through the fabric to the water on the opposite side of the fabric.

  11. Nylon 6,6 Nonwoven Fabric Separates Oil Contaminates from Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ryan A; Carter, Erin S; Ortega, Albert E

    2016-01-01

    Industrial oil spills into aquatic environments can have catastrophic environmental effects. First responders to oil spills along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the southern United States have used spunbond nylon fabric bags and fences to separate spilled oil and oil waste from contaminated water. Low area mass density spunbond nylon is capable of sorbing more than 16 times its mass in low viscosity crude oil and more than 26 times its mass in higher viscosity gear lube oil. Nylon bags separated more than 95% of gear lube oil contaminate from a 4.5% oil-in-water emulsion. Field testing of spunbond nylon fences by oil spill first responders has demonstrated the ability of this material to contain the oily contaminate while allowing water to flow through. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of nylon as an oil filter is due to the fact that it is both more oleophilic and more hydrophilic than other commonly used oil separation materials. The nylon traps oil droplets within the fabric or on the surface, while water droplets are free to flow through the fabric to the water on the opposite side of the fabric.

  12. [Microbial contamination of wash water in automatic washing and disinfection machines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolch, A; Krizek, L; Schoenen, D

    1993-11-01

    Samples were taken from the water containing tube system of 7 cleaning and disinfection machines located at the university clinics. The machines were used for the treatment of medical tools. The samples were bacteriologically examined. The results showed systemic contaminations of the tubes of all tested machines. The well known positive effect of common ion-exchangers on bacterial growth was not the only reason for the high degree of microbial contaminations. Partial bacterial growth on the inner sides of the water tubes was detected. The reason was the use of bacteriological objectionable tube materials. Recontamination of the post treated medical tools is possible at any time by the last washing water. Preceding sterile filtration showed as supposed no effect. Consequences for the use of cleaning and disinfection machines are discussed.

  13. Contaminated water as a source of Helicobacter pylori infection: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy K. Aziz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the preceding years and to date, the definitive mode of human infection by Helicobacter pylori has remained largely unknown and has thus gained the interest of researchers around the world. Numerous studies investigated possible sources of transmission of this emerging carcinogenic pathogen that colonizes >50% of humans, in many of which contaminated water is mentioned as a major cause. The infection rate is especially higher in developing countries, where contaminated water, combined with social hardships and poor sanitary conditions, plays a key role. Judging from the growing global population and the changing climate, the rate is expected to rise. Here, we sum up the current views of the water transmission hypothesis, and we discuss its implications.

  14. [Review on characteristics and detecting assay of bacterial endotoxin contamination in water environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Liu, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Lu; Tian, Fang; Yang, Yi; An, Dai-Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Endotoxins, also known as lipopolysaccharide complexes, are anchored in the outer membrane cell wall of most Gram-negative bacteria and some cyanobacteria. They are continuously released to environment during cell decay. Being common pyrogens and highly immunogenic molecules, endotoxins are related to many human diseases. Due to the tolerances and thermo-stability of endotoxin molecules, they were hard to be removed by common methods. The health risk caused by the endotoxin contamination in drinking water and water environment by various exposure pathways have attracted more and more attention in recent years. In this paper, the physical and chemical properties, biological activities and detection assay of the endotoxin contamination were reviewed, and interfere factors of the main assay, the LAL/TAL (Limulus amebocyte lysate/Tachypleus amebocyte lysate) assay, for detecting endotoxin in water sample were investigated, and the development tendency of the endotoxin detection assay was analyzed.

  15. Xenocryst assimilation and formation of peritectic crystals during magma contamination: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Erdmann, Saskia; Scaillet, Bruno; Kellett, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Contamination of magmas by country rocks may contribute xenoliths and xenocrysts to the magma, but also melt and peritectic crystals that form through incongruent melting or dissolution of the original contaminants. Identifying contaminant-derived peritectic crystals and former melt components in igneous rocks is particularly challenging, but also particularly important, because their assimilation significantly affects melt composition and magma temperature. To facilit...

  16. Exposure to Contaminated Drinking Water and Health Disparities in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillo, Frank; MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    To examine drinking water quality in majority Black periurban neighborhoods in Wake County, North Carolina, that are excluded from nearby municipal water service and to estimate the health benefits of extending water service. We tested 3 samples collected July through December 2014 in 57 private wells for microbial contaminants. We compared contaminant prevalences to those in adjacent community water systems (35 280 samples from routine monitoring). Using a population intervention model, we assessed the number of annual emergency department visits for acute gastrointestinal illness that is preventable by extending water services to the 3799 residents of these periurban communities. Overall, 29.2% of 171 private well samples tested positive for total coliform bacteria and 6.43% for Escherichia coli, compared with 0.556% and 0.00850% of municipal system samples. An estimated 22% of 114 annual emergency department visits for acute gastrointestinal illness could be prevented by extending community water service. Predominantly Black periurban neighborhoods excluded from municipal water service have poorer quality drinking water than do adjacent neighborhoods with municipal services. These disparities increase the risk of emergency department visits for acute gastrointestinal illness.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards.

  18. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the UMTRA Project site near Lakeview, Oregon, was completed in 1989. The mill operated from February 1958 to November 1960. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  1. Investigation of microbial contamination frequency in drinking water of buses at Sofeh terminal of Isfahan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiomars Sharafi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to assess the microbial contamination status of drinking water supply among buses at the main bus terminal in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: About 184 drinking water samples were taken randomly from buses arriving at the Sofeh terminal in Isfahan in 2011. For data analysis of one-sample, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (α = 0.05.and Mann-Whitney U-test with a significant difference (α = 0.05 was used for the effect of setting insulated water tank in cities bus to reduce microbial contamination. Results: Results showed that 15% of all samples were contaminated with total coliforms and 2.5% of samples contaminated with fecal coliforms. The most contaminated samples were related to buses arriving from Shiraz and Booshehr, (fecal MPN~4. About 16.66% of all samples collected from buses without insulated water tanks were contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms. Conclusion: Results indicated that the drinking water available on investigated public transportation was not safe for public health. However, the highest levels of microbial contamination were observed in samples taken from buses without insulated water tanks. In conclusion, a constant and systematic monitoring system is recommended to prevent contamination of drinking water available on buses.

  2. An experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of beach ashtrays in preventing marine contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Martin Widmer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hypotheses concerning the use of beach ashtrays were experimentally tested. Results indicated that the mean rate of abandonment of this equipment was low (1.5%. The mean amount of cigarette stubs (3.4 items/ashtray was greater than mean amounts of other types of litter. People with different socioeconomic profiles had different perceptions regarding the issues associated with beach debris. These results indicated that beach ashtrays could be useful to prevent the contamination of these environments and that differences in socioeconomic characteristics of beachgoers could partially explain the differences in perceptions regarding the presence of waste on the beaches. This information could now be used by coastal managers to plan strategies to reduce the marine contamination.A presença de resíduos sólidos no ambiente marinho é extensa. Praias são tipicamente contaminadas com esses materiais, que podem causar impactos ecológicos. Resíduos sólidos nas praias podem causar ferimentos nas pessoas e podem prejudicar a atividade turística. Neste estudo, hipóteses relativas ao uso de cinzeiros de praia foram testadas. Os resultados indicam que a taxa de abandono desse equipamento é pequena (1,5% e que a quantidade média de pontas de cigarro (3,4 itens/cinzeiro é maior do que as quantidades médias de outros tipos de lixo. Também se observou que pessoas com diferentes perfis socioeconômicos apresentaram percepções diferentes relativas à presença de resíduos sólidos nas praias. Estes resultados sugerem que cinzeiros portáteis podem ser um equipamento importante na redução da contaminação das praias e que diferenças socioeconômicas dos freqüentadores das praias podem explicar parcialmente as diferentes percepções relativas à presença de resíduos no ambiente praial. Sugere-se que os gerentes costeiros usem esse tipo de informação para planejar estratégias de redução desse problema.

  3. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W., E-mail: caoxuewu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  4. Technology of afterpurification of drinking water from organic contaminants in production of foodstuff

    OpenAIRE

    TIMOSHCHUK I.V.

    2016-01-01

    The technology of afterpurification of drinking water is developed for upgrading of foodstuff from organic contaminants periodically present at natural water or formed on a stage of disinfecting by ozonization. The adsorption research of phenol, formaldehyde and acetic aldehyde from individual water solutions and their mixes on active charcoals (AC) marks AG-3, ABG, KsAU, AG-OV-1, SKD-515 and BАU differing in contents, in the way of reception, structure and chemical state of a surface is carr...

  5. Assessment of ground-water contamination by coal-tar derivatives, St. Louis Park area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving facility in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, during 1918-72 contaminated ground water with coal-tar derivatives and inorganic chemicals. Coal-tar derivatives entered the groundwater system through three major paths: (1) Spills and drippings that percolated to the water table, (2) surface runoff and plant process water that was discharged to wetlands south of the former plant site, and (3) movement of coal tar directly into bedrock aquifers through a multiaquifer well on the site.

  6. Nanochannel-based electrochemical sensor for the detection of pharmaceutical contaminants in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Vinay J; Jacobs, Michael; Vattipalli, Krishna Mohan; Annam, Venkata Praveen; Prasad, Shalini

    2014-01-01

    Effective real-time monitoring is the key to understanding and tackling the issue of pharmaceutical contamination of water. This research demonstrates the utility of an alumina nanochannel-based electrochemical sensor platform for the detection of ibuprofen in water derived from various sources. Our results indicate that the sensor is highly sensitive with a limit of detection at 0.25 pg mL(-1). The novel sensor described here has potential for application as a simple, rapid, inexpensive and highly reliable method for real-time environmental water quality assessment.

  7. The risk of surface contamination of ground water resources of the river Bregalnica used for the water supply of the town of Stip

    OpenAIRE

    Mircovski, Vojo; Petrov, Gose; Spasovski, Orce

    2004-01-01

    The water supply system of the Stip uses the ground waters from aquifers of intergranular porosity formed in alluvial sediments of the River Bregalnica. The aquifers are close to the town high risk of contamination as the area is urban with the presence of anthropogenic contaminators.

  8. Fecal contamination of drinking water supplies in and around Chandigarh and correlation with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam, Taneja; Malkit, Singh; Pooja, Rao; Manisha, Biswal; Shiva, Priya; Ram, Chander; Meera, Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Acute gastroenteritis due to Vibrio cholerae and Enterotoxigenic E. coli is a common problem faced in the hot and humid summer months in north India. The study was undertaken to evaluate drinking water supplies for fecal coliforms, V. cholerae and Enterotoxigenic E. coli in urban, semiurban and rural areas in and around Chandigarh and correlate with occurrence of acute gastroenteritis occurring from the same region. Drinking water sample were collected from various sources from April to October 2004 from a defined area. Samples were tested for fecal coliforms and E. coli count. E. coli were screened for heat labile toxin (LT) also. Stool samples from cases of acute gastroenteritis from the same region and time were collected and processed for V. cholerae, Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and others like Salmonella, Shigella and Aeromonas spp. A total of 364 water samples were collected, (251 semi urban, 41 rural and 72 from urban areas). 116 (31.8%) samples were contaminated with fecal coliforms (58.5% rural, 33.4% semiurban and 11.1% of samples from urban areas). E. coli were grown from 58 samples. Ninety two isolates of E. coli were tested for enterotoxins of which 8 and 24 were positive for LT and ST respectively. V. cholerae were isolated from 2 samples during the outbreak investigation. Stored water samples showed a significantly higher level of contamination and most of Enterotoxigenic E. coli were isolated from stored water samples. A total of 780 acute gastroenteritis cases occurred; 445 from semiurban, 265 rural and 70 from urban areas. Out of 189 stool samples submitted, ETEC were the commonest (30%) followed by V. cholerae (19%), Shigellae (8.4%), Salmonellae (2.1%) and Aeromonas (2.6%). ST-ETEC (40/57) were commoner than LT-ETEC (17/57). In the present study, high levels of contamination of drinking water supplies (32.1%) correlated well with cases of acute gastroenteritis. Majority of cases of acute gastroenteritis occurred in the semi urban

  9. Chemical analysis of interstitial water in rivers of Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika; Goncalves, Julia Rosa, E-mail: ematoso@hotmail.com [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CE/CTM-SP), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analitica

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the results from analysis of samples of interstitial waters for the following chemical parameters: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Br{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} by Ionic Chromatography, Na, K by Flame Photometry, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn by ICP OES, pH and the biological parameter: toxicity by natural bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay. The samples were obtained from sediments collected in 6 different sampling locations, in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). The rivers were the samples came from were: Ipanema River, Sorocaba River and Ribeirao do Ferro River. The interstitial water was extracted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 20 min, 4 deg C). Analysis for metal concentrations were carried out after acid digestion and others tests proceeded in the sample after filtration without further treatment. These data will contribute to evaluate the distribution of contaminants and nutrients in these collecting points and this toxicity status. The release of soluble substances from sediments to interstitial water provides one way for bioaccumulation of these compounds and may affect the survival or development of aquatic organisms. The analysis in interstitial water has never been evaluated at this sampling points and the importance of this study is collecting data providing a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in which Centro Experimental Aramar is located. (author)

  10. Using additional external inputs to forecast water quality with an artificial neural network for contamination event detection in source water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.; Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Source water quality plays an important role for the safety of drinking water and early detection of its contamination is vital to taking appropriate countermeasures. However, compared to drinking water, it is more difficult to detect contamination events because its environment is less controlled and numerous natural causes contribute to a high variability of the background values. In this project, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and a Contamination Event Detection Process (CED Process) were used to identify events in river water. The ANN models the response of basic water quality sensors obtained in laboratory experiments in an off-line learning stage and continuously forecasts future values of the time line in an on-line forecasting step. During this second stage, the CED Process compares the forecast to the measured value and classifies it as regular background or event value, which modifies the ANN's continuous learning and influences its forecasts. In addition to this basic setup, external information is fed to the CED Process: A so-called Operator Input (OI) is provided to inform about unusual water quality levels that are unrelated to the presence of contamination, for example due to cooling water discharge from a nearby power plant. This study's primary goal is to evaluate how well the OI fits into the design of the combined forecasting ANN and CED Process and to understand its effects on the online forecasting stage. To test this, data from laboratory experiments conducted previously at the School of Environment, Tsinghua University, have been used to perform simulations highlighting features and drawbacks of this method. Applying the OI has been shown to have a positive influence on the ANN's ability to handle a sudden change in background values, which is unrelated to contamination. However, it might also mask the presence of an event, an issue that underlines the necessity to have several instances of the algorithm run in parallel. Other difficulties

  11. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fecal Contamination and Inadequate Treatment of Packaged Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R Williams

    Full Text Available Packaged water products provide an increasingly important source of water for consumption. However, recent studies raise concerns over their safety.To assess the microbial safety of packaged water, examine differences between regions, country incomes, packaged water types, and compare packaged water with other water sources.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Turkish, with no date restrictions were identified from online databases and two previous reviews. Studies published before April 2014 that assessed packaged water for the presence of Escherichia coli, thermotolerant or total coliforms were included provided they tested at least ten samples or brands.A total of 170 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies did not detect fecal indicator bacteria in packaged water (78/141. Compared to packaged water from upper-middle and high-income countries, packaged water from low and lower-middle-income countries was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.6-8.1 and 13.6 (95% CI: 6.9-26.7 times more likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria and total coliforms, respectively. Compared to all other packaged water types, water from small bottles was less likely to be contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.17-0.58 and total coliforms (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.22. Packaged water was less likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.62 compared to other water sources used for consumption.Policymakers and regulators should recognize the potential benefits of packaged water in providing safer water for consumption at and away from home, especially for those who are otherwise unlikely to gain access to a reliable, safe water supply in the near future. To improve the quality of packaged water products they should be integrated into regulatory and monitoring frameworks.

  12. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fecal Contamination and Inadequate Treatment of Packaged Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ashley R; Bain, Robert E S; Fisher, Michael B; Cronk, Ryan; Kelly, Emma R; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Packaged water products provide an increasingly important source of water for consumption. However, recent studies raise concerns over their safety. To assess the microbial safety of packaged water, examine differences between regions, country incomes, packaged water types, and compare packaged water with other water sources. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Turkish, with no date restrictions were identified from online databases and two previous reviews. Studies published before April 2014 that assessed packaged water for the presence of Escherichia coli, thermotolerant or total coliforms were included provided they tested at least ten samples or brands. A total of 170 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies did not detect fecal indicator bacteria in packaged water (78/141). Compared to packaged water from upper-middle and high-income countries, packaged water from low and lower-middle-income countries was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.6-8.1) and 13.6 (95% CI: 6.9-26.7) times more likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria and total coliforms, respectively. Compared to all other packaged water types, water from small bottles was less likely to be contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.17-0.58) and total coliforms (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.22). Packaged water was less likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.62) compared to other water sources used for consumption. Policymakers and regulators should recognize the potential benefits of packaged water in providing safer water for consumption at and away from home, especially for those who are otherwise unlikely to gain access to a reliable, safe water supply in the near future. To improve the quality of packaged water products they should be integrated into regulatory and monitoring frameworks.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the EPA. the first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the contaminants of potential concern in the ground water are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sulfate, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and radium-226. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if they drank from a well installed in the contaminated ground water at the former processing site.

  14. Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Katherine F; Bain, Robert E S; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim A; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water.

  15. Experimental Study Of Fog Water Harvesting By Stainless Steel Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil R. Pawar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to get hold of fresh water for various purposes. In areas where a substantial amount of fog can be obtained it is feasible to set up a stainless steel as well as black double layer plastic mesh structure for fog water harvesting. The mesh structure is directly exposed to the weather and the fog containing air is pushed through the active mesh surface by the wind. Afterward fog droplets are deposited on the active mesh area which combines to form superior droplets and run down into a gutter to storage by gravity. Fog water harvesting rates show a discrepancy from site to site. The scope of this experimental work is to review fog collection at SCOE Pune campus and to examine factors of success. This study is to synthesize the understanding of fog water harvesting in the institutional era and to analyze its benefits and boundaries for future development. The rate of fog water harvesting depends on the science of fog physics chemistry and its starring role in the hydrological cycle. This technology runs on zero energy and zeroes pollution level with cost of the benefit. The collected or treated clear water mainly could be used for different purposes as per requirement. For further development this technology public as well as government participation is needed.

  16. Contaminated drinking water and rural health perspectives in Rajasthan, India: an overview of recent case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Surindra

    2011-02-01

    Access to safe drinking water is an important issue of health and development at national, regional, and local levels. The concept of safe drinking water assumes greater significance in countries like India where the majority of the population lives in villages with bare infrastructures and poor sanitation facilities. This review presents an overview of drinking water quality in rural habitations of northern Rajasthan, India. Although fluoride is an endemic problem to the groundwater of this region, recently, other anthropogenic chemicals has also been reported in the local groundwater. Recent case studies indicate that about 95% of sites of this region contain a higher fluoride level in groundwater than the maximum permissible limit as decided by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Nitrate (as NO3-) contamination has appeared as another anthropogenic threat to some intensively cultivable rural habitations of this region. Biological contamination has appeared as another issue of unsafe drinking water resources in rural areas of the state. Recent studies have claimed a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria including members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in local drinking water resources. Overall, the quality of drinking water in this area is not up to the safe level, and much work is still required to establish a safe drinking water supply program in this area.

  17. Performance of Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hasan Sharifah Nur Munirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tolerance towards metal uptake, there is a need to evaluate the performance of vetiver grass for metal removal to reduce water impurity. This study was aimed to evaluate contaminant removal by vetiver grass at varying root length and plant density and determine the metal uptake in vetiver plant biomass. Pollutant uptake of vetiver grass was conducted in laboratory experiment and heavy metal analysis was done using acid digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Findings indicated that the removal of heavy metal was decreased in seven days of the experiment where iron shows the highest percentage (96%; 0.42 ppm of removal due to iron is highly required for growth of vetiver grass. Removal rate of heavy metals in water by vetiver grass is ranked in the order of Fe>Zn>Pb>Mn>Cu. Results also demonstrated greater removal of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn at greater root length and higher density of vetiver grass because it increased the surface area for metal absorption by plant root into vetiver plant from contaminated water. However, findings indicated that accumulation of heavy metals in plant biomass was higher in vetiver shoot than in root due to metal translocation from root to the shoot. Therefore, the findings have shown effective performance of vetiver grass for metal removal in the phytoremediation of contaminated water.

  18. Mathematical simulation of sediment and contaminant transport in surface waters. Annual report, October 1977 - September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Arnold, E.M.; Serne, R.J.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.; Mayer, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Various pathways exist for exposure of humans and biota to radioactive materials released from nuclear facilities. Hydrologic transport (liquid pathway) is one element in the evaluation of the total radiation dose to man. Mathematical models supported by well-planned field data collection programs can be useful tools in assessing the hydrologic transport and ultimate fate of radionuclides. Radionuclides with high distribution coefficients or radionuclides in surface waters with high suspended sediment concentrations are, to a great extent, adsorbed by river and marine sediments. Thus, otherwise dilute contaminants are concentrated. Contaminated sediments may be deposited on the river and ocean beds creating a significant pathway to man. Contaminated bed sediment in turn may become a long-term source of pollution through desorption and resuspension. In order to assess migration and accumulation of radionuclides in surface waters, mathematical models must correctly simulate essential mechanisms of radionuclide transport. The objectives of this study were: (1) to conduct a critical review of (a) radionuclide transport models as well as sediment transport and representative water quality models in rivers, estuaries, oceans, lakes, and reservoirs, and (b) adsorption and desorption mechanisms of radionuclides with sediments in surface waters; (2) to synthesize a mathematical model capable of predicting short- and long-term transport and accumulation of radionuclides in marine environments. (ERB)

  19. Detection and spatial mapping of mercury contamination in water samples using a smart-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingshan; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Feng, Steve; Yan, Eddie; Ki, So Jung; Caire, Romain; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-02-25

    Detection of environmental contamination such as trace-level toxic heavy metal ions mostly relies on bulky and costly analytical instruments. However, a considerable global need exists for portable, rapid, specific, sensitive, and cost-effective detection techniques that can be used in resource-limited and field settings. Here we introduce a smart-phone-based hand-held platform that allows the quantification of mercury(II) ions in water samples with parts per billion (ppb) level of sensitivity. For this task, we created an integrated opto-mechanical attachment to the built-in camera module of a smart-phone to digitally quantify mercury concentration using a plasmonic gold nanoparticle (Au NP) and aptamer based colorimetric transmission assay that is implemented in disposable test tubes. With this smart-phone attachment that weighs smart application was utilized to process each acquired transmission image on the same phone to achieve a limit of detection of ∼ 3.5 ppb. Using this smart-phone-based detection platform, we generated a mercury contamination map by measuring water samples at over 50 locations in California (USA), taken from city tap water sources, rivers, lakes, and beaches. With its cost-effective design, field-portability, and wireless data connectivity, this sensitive and specific heavy metal detection platform running on cellphones could be rather useful for distributed sensing, tracking, and sharing of water contamination information as a function of both space and time.

  20. Emerging contaminants in surface waters in China—a short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Fan, Maohong; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-07-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) have drawn attention to many countries due to their persistent input and potential threat to human health and the environment. This article reviews the current contamination sources and their status for surface waters in China. The contamination levels of ECs in surface waters are in the range ng L-1 to μg L-1 in China, apparently about the same as the situation in other countries. ECs enter surface water via runoff, drainage, rainfall, and wastewater treatment effluent. The frequency of occurrence of ECs increased rapidly from 2006 to 2011; a significant reason is the production and consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products. As for the distribution of EC pollution in China, the frequency of occurrence of ECs in eastern regions is higher than in western regions. A majority of EC studies have focused on surface waters of the Haihe River and Pearl River watersheds due to their highly developed industries and intense human activity. Legislative and administrative regulation of ECs is lacking in China. To remove ECs, a number of technologies, such as absorption by activated carbon, membrane filtration technology, and advanced oxidation processes, have been researched.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  2. Cyanobacteria and microcystin contamination in untreated and treated drinking water in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Naa Dzama Addico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins represent a worldwide-occurring phenomenon, there are large differences among different countries in cyanotoxin-related human health risk assessment, management practices and policies. While national standards, guideline values and detailed regulatory frameworks for effective management of cyanotoxin risks have been implemented in many industrialized countries, the extent of cyanobacteria occurrence and cyanotoxin contamination in certain geographical regions is under-reported and not very well understood. Such regions include major parts of tropical West and Central Africa, a region constisting of more than 25 countries occupying an area of 12 million km2, with a total population of 500 milion people. Only few studies focusing on cyanotoxin occurrence in this region have been published so far, and reports dealing specifically with cyanotoxin contamination in drinking water are extremely scarce. In this study, we report seasonal data on cyanobacteria and microcystin (MC contamination in drinking water reservoirs and adjacent treatment plants located in Ghana, West Africa. During January-June 2005, concentrations of MCs were monitored in four treatment plants supplying drinking water to major metropolitan areas in Ghana: the treatment plants Barekese and Owabi, which serve Kumasi Metropolitan Area, and the plants Kpong and Weija, providing water for Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. HPLC analyses showed that 65% samples of raw water at the intake of the treatment plants contained intracellular MCs (maximal detected concentration was 8.73 µg L-1, whereas dissolved toxins were detected in 33% of the samples. Significant reduction of cyanobacterial cell counts and MC concentrations was achieved during the entire monitoring period by the applied conventional water treatment methods (alum flocculation, sedimentation, rapid sand filtration and chlorination, and MC concentration in the final treated water

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water.

  4. Screening for contaminants of emerging concern in Northern Colorado Plateau Network waters: 2015 surface-water data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissinger, R; Battaglin, William A.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, as part of an on-going screening program for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8, surface waters at 18 locations in or near seven national park units within the Northern Colorado Plateau Network (NCPN) were sampled for pesticides and pesticide degradation products, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, hormones, organic-wastewater-indictor chemicals, and nutrients. Most sites were sampled in spring (May or June) and fall (September).

  5. Testing of the KRIA Ionizing Water Treatment System for Waters Contaminated with Diesel, PCBs, and Nutrients (Nitrogen Forms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    with hydrofracturing ( fracking ), although these fluids contain a much broader range of potential contaminants that may require some additional...for establishing sanitation in third world countries. • The KRIA should be tested on solutions associated with fracking and on water bodies...affected by fracking operations to assess its utility for these solutions. ERDC/EL TR-16-3 22 References Agarwal, A., W. J. Ng, and Y. Liu. 2011

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  7. Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified Lagrangian sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. Lagrangian sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the Lagrangian parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise Lagrangian sampling is difficult, and small deviations – such as missing the Lagrangian parcel by less than 1 h – can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed “verified Lagrangian” sampling, which can be used to determine if the Lagrangian parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the Lagrangian parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2–4 h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we

  8. Discovery and Identification of Dimethylsilanediol as a Contaminant in ISS Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.; Kuo, C. Mike; Curtis, Matthew; Jones, Patrick R.; Sparkman, O. David; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, analysis of ISS potable water samples was undertaken to determine the contaminant(s) responsible for a rise of total organic carbon (TOC) in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water. As analysis of the routine target list of organic compounds did not reveal the contaminant, efforts to look for unknown compounds were initiated, resulting in discovery of an unknown peak in the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis for glycols. A mass spectrum of the contaminant was then generated by concentrating one of the samples and analyzing it by GC/MS in full-scan mode. Although a computer match of the compound identity could not be obtained with the instrument database, a search with a more up-to-date mass spectral library yielded a good match with dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). Inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) analyses showed abnormally high silicon levels in the samples, confirming that the unknown compound(s) contained silicon. DMSD was then synthesized to confirm the identification and provide a standard to develop a calibration curve. Further confirmation was provided by external direct analysis in real time time of flight (DART TOF) mass spectrometry. To routinely test for DMSD in the future, a quantitative method was needed. A preliminary GC/MS method was developed and archived samples from various locations on ISS were analyzed to determine the extent of the contamination and provide data for troubleshooting. This paper describes these events in more detail as well as problems encountered in routine GC/MS analyses and the subsequent development of high performance liquid chromatography and LC/MS/MS methods for measuring DMSD.

  9. Phytoremedial Potential of Typha latifolia, Eichornia crassipes and Monochoria hastata found in Contaminated Water Bodies Across Ranchi City (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Moushumi; Avishek, Kirti; Pathak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses green plants (living machines) for removal of contaminants of concern (COC). These plant species have the potential to remove the COC, thereby restoring the original condition of soil or water environment. The present study focuses on assessing the heavy metals (COC) present in the contaminated water bodies of Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Phytoremedial potential of three plant species: Typha latifolia, Eichornia crassipes and Monochoria hastata were assessed in the present study. Heterogenous accumulation of metals was found in the three plant species. It was observed that the ratio of heavy metal concentration was different in different parts, i.e., shoots and roots. Positive results were also obtained for translocation factor of all species with minimum of 0.10 and maximum of 1. It was found experimentally that M. hastata has the maximum BFC for root as 4.32 and shoot as 2.70 (for Manganese). For T. latifolia, BCF of maximum was observed for root (163.5) and respective shoot 86.46 (for Iron), followed by 7.3 and 5.8 for root and shoot (for Manganese) respectively. E. crassipes was found to possess a maximum BCF of 278.6 (for Manganese and 151 (for Iron) and shoot as 142 (for Manganese) and 36.13 (for Iron).

  10. Cumulative effects of fecal contamination from combined sewer overflows: Management for source water protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalliffier-Verne, Isabelle; Heniche, Mourad; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Galarneau, Martine; Servais, Pierre; Prévost, Michèle; Dorner, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    The quality of a drinking water source depends largely on upstream contaminant discharges. Sewer overflows can have a large influence on downstream drinking water intakes as they discharge untreated or partially treated wastewaters that may be contaminated with pathogens. This study focuses on the quantification of Escherichia coli discharges from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and the dispersion and diffusion in receiving waters in order to prioritize actions for source water protection. E. coli concentrations from CSOs were estimated from monitoring data at a series of overflow structures and then applied to the 42 active overflow structures between 2009 and 2012 using a simple relationship based upon the population within the drainage network. From these estimates, a transport-dispersion model was calibrated with data from a monitoring program from both overflow structures and downstream drinking water intakes. The model was validated with 15 extreme events such as a large number of overflows (n > 8) or high concentrations at drinking water intakes. Model results demonstrated the importance of the cumulative effects of CSOs on the degradation of water quality downstream. However, permits are typically issued on a discharge point basis and do not consider cumulative effects. Source water protection plans must consider the cumulative effects of discharges and their concentrations because the simultaneous discharge of multiple overflows can lead to elevated E. coli concentrations at a drinking water intake. In addition, some CSOs have a disproportionate impact on peak concentrations at drinking water intakes. As such, it is recommended that the management of CSOs move away from frequency based permitting at the discharge point to focus on the development of comprehensive strategies to reduce cumulative and peak discharges from CSOs upstream of drinking water intakes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of PCR with Standard Method (MPN for detection of bacterial contamination in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Dehghan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of bacterial contamination in drinking water by culture method is a time and cost consuming method and spends a few days depending on contamination degree. However, the people use the tap water during that time. Molecular methods are rapid and sensitive. In this study a rapid Multiplex PCR method was used for rapid analysis both coliform bacteria and E.coli, and probable detection of VBNC bacteria in drinking water, the experiments were performed in bacteriological lab of water and Wastewater Corporation in Markazi province. Material and Methods:Amplification of a fragment from each of lacZ and uidA genes in a Multiplex PCR was used for detection of coliforms. Eight samples was taken from Arak drinking water system including 36 samples of wells, 41 samples of water distribution network and 3 samples from water storages were examined by amplification of lacZ and uidA genes in a Multiplex PCR. Equivalently, the MPN test was applied as a standard method for all samples for comparison of results. Standard bacteria, pure bacteria isolated from positive MPN and CRM were examined by PCR and MPN method. Results: The result of most samples water network, water storages, and water well were same in both MPN and PCR method .The results of standard bacteria and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from positive MPN and CRM confirmed the PCR method. Five samples were positive in PCR but negative in MPN method. Duration time of PCR was decreased about 105 min by changing the PCR program and electrophoreses factors. Conclusion: The Multiplex PCR can detect coliform bacteria and E.coli synchronous in drinking water.

  12. Drinking water contamination from perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): an ecological mortality study in the Veneto Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrantonio, Marina; Bai, Edoardo; Uccelli, Raffaella; Cordiano, Vincenzo; Screpanti, Augusto; Crosignani, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a heterogeneous group of highly stable man-made chemicals, have been widely used since 1960s and can be detected almost ubiquitously in all environmental matrices. In Italy, on January 2014, drinking water contamination in an area of the Veneto Region was detected mainly due to the drain of fluorinated chemicals by a manufacturing company operating since 1964. The present ecological mortality study was aimed at comparing mortality for some causes of death selected on the basis of previous reported associations, during the period 1980-2013, in municipalities with PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated drinking water on the basis of the levels indicated by the Italian National Health Institute (ISS). Sex-specific number, standardized mortality rates and rate ratios (RR) for PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated areas were computed for each cause of death through the ENEA epidemiological database. In both sexes, statistically significant RRs were detected for all causes mortality, diabetes, cerebrovascular diseases, myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease. In females, RRs significantly higher than 1.0 were also observed for kidney and breast cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Increased risk, although not statistically significant, was observed for bladder cancer in both sexes, and for testicular cancer, pancreatic cancer and leukemia in males only. Higher mortality levels for some causes of death, possibly associated with PFAS exposure, were detected in contaminated municipalities in comparison with uncontaminated ones with similar socioeconomic status and smoking habits. These results warrant further individual level analytic studies to delineate casual associations.

  13. Proposing nanofiltration as acceptable barrier for organic contaminants in water reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor

    2010-10-01

    For water reuse applications, " tight" nanofiltration (NF) membranes (of polyamide) as an alternative to reverse osmosis (RO) can be an effective barrier against pharmaceuticals, pesticides, endocrine disruptors and other organic contaminants. The use of RO in existing water reuse facilities is addressed and questioned, taking into consideration that tight NF can be a more cost-effective and efficient technology to target the problem of organic contaminants. It was concluded that tight NF is an acceptable barrier for organic contaminants because its removal performance approaches that of RO, and because of reduced operation and maintenance (O&M) costs in long-term project implementation. Average removal of neutral compounds (including 1,4-dioxane) was about 82% and 85% for NF and RO, respectively, and average removal of ionic compounds was about 97% and 99% for NF and RO, respectively. In addition, " loose" NF after aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) can be an effective barrier against micropollutants with removals over 90%. When there is the presence of difficult to remove organic contaminants such as NDMA and 1,4-dioxane; for 1,4-dioxane, source control or implementation of treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants will be an option; for NDMA, a good strategy is to limit its formation during wastewater treatment, but there is evidence that biodegradation of NDMA can be achieved during ARR. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Experimental mobile water reuse; Unidade movel experimental em reuso de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Maria de Fatima Rodrigues da; Santiago, Vania Maria Junqueira; Machado, Mara de Barros; Cerqueira, Ana Claudia Figueiras Pereira de; Florido, Priscilla Lopes; Iwane, Tsutomo; Coelho, Eloisia B.A.P.; Souza, Rodrigo Suhett de; Tomaz, Ailton Fonseca [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The search for environmental excellence in PETROBRAS and the need to minimize water use dictated by Law 9433/97 led to corporate guidelines to promote initiatives for the effective management of water resources, triggering a series of actions and projects. The Center for Research and Development - CENPES has as a priority research lines enable the reduction of water consumption in the oil industry through the reuse of effluent. The Mobile Unit for Experimental Water Reuse is a pioneer project in the world, in its format and purpose, was developed by CENPES in partnership with E and P - Process Engineering Ltda. and with e participation of the managements of Refine, SMES and Engineering. The main objective support initiatives aimed at reuse deployments Units of Operations (refineries and terminals, for example), by defining the best route technology for water treatment and wastewater. The Mobile Unit is composed of two trucks with pilot scale equipment that can test up to 90 technological solutions for water treatment and reuse. The station can test spot, the Company's refinery, processes to remove solids, organic load removal, and processes aimed at polishing and demineralization, simulating the operating conditions specific to the different characteristics of water and wastewater, with view to producing high quality water-compatible reuse in cooling towers or steam generation. From these tests CENPES may indicate the best alternative technically and economically for water reuse in design for industrial facilities, reducing time and cost of testing pilots. The field of knowledge in water reuse is an important asset to the sustainability of the Oil and Gas industry. Sustainable use of water resources is a goal of permanent PETROBRAS. (author)

  15. Enabling sustainable urban water management through governance experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, J J; Brown, R R; Farrelly, M A; de Haan, F J

    2013-01-01

    A shift towards sustainable urban water management is widely advocated but poorly understood. There is a growing body of literature claiming that social learning is of high importance in restructuring conventional systems. In particular, governance experimentation, which explicitly aims for social learning, has been suggested as an approach for enabling the translation of sustainability ideas into practice. This type of experimentation requires a very different dynamic within societal relations and necessitates a changed role for professionals engaged in such a process. This empirically focused paper investigates a contemporary governance experiment, the Cooks River Sustainability Initiative, and determines its outcome in terms of enabling social learning for attaining sustainable water practice in an urban catchment. Drawing on the qualitative insights of the actors directly involved in this novel process, this paper provides evidence of changes in individual and collective understanding generated through diverse forms of social interaction. Furthermore, the research reveals perceived key-factors that foster and/or hamper the execution of this new form of experimentation, including project complexity, resource intensity and leadership. Overall, this paper highlights that, while implementation of governance experimentation in a conventional setting can be highly challenging, it can also be highly rewarding in terms of learning.

  16. [Exposure to contaminated water: perceptions and practices in a neighborhood in the city of Manaus, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatti, Leandro Luiz; Neves, Natasha Lima da Silva; Saraiva, Giselle Nayara de Moraes; de Toledo, Renata Ferraz

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the modes of water supply and the perception concerning the problems caused by this water among residents of a neighborhood without public supply of water, settled in an area previously used as a garbage dump in the city of Manaus, Brazil. One hundred and sixty-two semi-structured household interviews were conducted. In addition, a focal group with teachers from a local public school and a meeting with residents were held. The instruments employed focused on the perception and modes of water use and on the process of exposure to chemical contaminants through water. Untreated well water was used by most families. This water was considered to be "good" by 64.8% of the individuals interviewed. Most residents (88.3%) declared knowledge about the garbage dump. Of these, 77.6% stated that the garbage dump caused health and environmental problems. However, qualitative analysis of the responses revealed that the residents were not aware of contamination by chemical elements or of the consequences of such contamination. The activities carried out with teachers revealed that they were partially aware of the problem, but did not design interventions to address the issue. In a meeting with neighborhood residents, the presence of social activism concerning the problem was identified, but it did not extend beyond the neighborhood or reach governmental spheres. The study identified a situation of critical exposure that tends to be maintained as a result of misperceptions and lack of social mobilization. The dissemination of research results to teachers and residents was useful to empower subjects.

  17. Evaluation of exposure scenarios on intentional microbiological contamination in a drinking water distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Jack; Forêt, Jean Marie; Chardon, Jurgen; Teunis, Peter; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Tangena, Ben

    2016-06-01

    Drinking water distribution networks are vulnerable to accidental or intentional contamination events. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seeding duration and concentration, exposure pathway (ingestion via drinking of water and tooth brushing and inhalation by taking a shower) and pathogen infectivity on exposure and infection risk in the case of an intentional pathogenic contamination in a drinking water distribution network. Seeding of a pathogen for 10 min and 120 min, and subsequent spreading through a drinking water distribution network were simulated. For exposure via drinking, actual data on drinking events and volumes were used. Ingestion of a small volume of water by tooth brushing twice a day by every person in the network was assumed. Inhalation of contaminated aerosol droplets took place when taking a shower. Infection risks were estimated for pathogens with low (r = 0.0001) and high (r = 0.1) infectivity. In the served population (48 000 persons) and within 24 h, about 1400 persons were exposed to the pathogen by ingestion of water in the 10-min seeding scenario and about 3400 persons in the 120-min scenario. The numbers of exposed persons via tooth brushing were about the same as via drinking of water. Showering caused (inhalation) exposure in about 450 persons in the 10-min scenario and about 1500 in the 120-min scenario. Regardless of pathogen infectivity, if the seeding concentration is 10(6) pathogens per litre or more, infection risks are close to one. Exposure by taking a shower is of relevance if the pathogen is highly infectious via inhalation. A longer duration of the seeding of a pathogen increases the probability of exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of a risk management plan on Legionella contamination of dental unit water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Erica; Dallolio, Laura; Stagni, Francesca; Sanna, Tiziana; D'Alessandro, Giovanni; Piana, Gabriela

    2015-02-23

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Legionella spp. in dental unit waterlines of a dental clinic and to verify whether the microbiological parameters used as indicators of water quality were correlated with Legionella contamination. A risk management plan was subsequently implemented in the dental health care setting, in order to verify whether the adopted disinfection protocols were effective in preventing Legionella colonization. The water delivered from syringes and turbines of 63 dental units operating in a dental clinic, was monitored for counts of the heterotrophic bacteria P. aeruginosa and Legionella spp. (22 °C and 37 °C). At baseline, output water from dental units continuously treated with disinfection products was more compliant with the recommended standards than untreated and periodically treated water. However, continuous disinfection was still not able to prevent contamination by Legionella and P. aeruginosa. Legionella was isolated from 36.4%, 24.3% and 53.3% of samples from untreated, periodically and continuously treated waterlines, respectively. The standard microbiological parameters used as indicators of water quality proved to be unreliable as predictors of the presence of Legionella, whose source was identified as the tap water used to supply the dental units. The adoption of control measures, including the use of deionized water in supplying the dental unit waterlines and the application of a combined protocol of continuous and periodic disinfection, with different active products for the different devices, resulted in good control of Legionella contamination. The efficacy of the measures adopted was mainly linked to the strict adherence to the planned protocols, which placed particular stress on staff training and ongoing environmental monitoring.

  19. Monitoring bacterial contamination of piped water supply in rural coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Md Sabbir; Akber, Md Ali; Islam, Md Atikul; Kabir, Md Pervez; Hoque, Md Ikramul

    2017-10-31

    Safe drinking water is scarce in southwest coastal Bangladesh because of unavailability of fresh water. Given the high salinity of both groundwater and surface water in this area, harvested rainwater and rain-fed pond water became the main sources of drinking water. Both the government and non-government organizations have recently introduced pipe water supply in the rural coastal areas to ensure safe drinking water. We assessed the bacteriological quality of water at different points along the piped water distribution system (i.e., the source, treatment plant, household taps, street hydrants, and household storage containers) of Mongla municipality under Mongla Upazila in Bagerhat district. Water samples were collected at 2-month interval from May 2014 to March 2015. Median E. coli and total coliform counts at source, treatment plant, household taps, street hydrants, and household storage containers were respectively 225, 4, 7, 7, and 15 cfu/100 ml and 42,000, 545, 5000, 6150, and 18,800 cfu/100 ml. Concentrations of both of the indicator bacteria reduced after treatment, although it did not satisfy the WHO drinking water standards. However, re-contamination in distribution systems and household storage containers indicate improper maintenance of distribution system and lack of personal hygiene.

  20. Faecal contamination of drinking water in a Brazilian shanty town: Importance of household storage and new human faecal marker testing

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, Curtis; Beers, Benjamin; Thompson, Meghan; Pinkerton, Relana; Barrett, Leah; Sevilleja, Jesus Emmanuel; Alencar, Sayonara; Lima, Aldo; Guerrant, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, contaminated drinking water poses a major health threat, particularly to child development. Diarrhoea represents a large part of the water-related disease burden and enteric infections have been linked to nutritional and growth shortfalls as well as long-term physical and cognitive impairment in children. Previous studies detailed the frequency of infection and the consequences for child health in a shanty town in north-east Brazil. To determine the frequency of contaminated water,...

  1. Integrated modelling for assessing the risk of groundwater contaminants to human health and surface water ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, Ursula S.; Rasmussen, Jes; Funder, Simon G.

    2010-01-01

    for evaluating the impact of a TCE groundwater plume, located in an area with protected drinking water interests, to human health and surface water ecosystems. This is accomplished by coupling the system dynamicsbased decision support system CARO-Plus to the aquatic ecosystem model AQUATOX via an analytical......The practical implementation of the European Water Framework Directive has resulted in an increased focus on the groundwater-surface water interaction zone. A gap exists with respect to preliminary assessment methodologies that are capable of evaluating and prioritising point sources...... volatilisation model for the stream. The model is tested on a Danish case study involving a 750 m long TCE groundwater plume discharging into a stream. The initial modelling results indicate that TCE contaminant plumes with μgL-1 concentrations entering surface water systems do not pose a significant risk...

  2. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  3. The development of an experimental model of contaminated muscle injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardley, Will G P; Martin, Kevin R; Taylor, Chris; Kirkman, Emrys; Clasper, Jon C; Watts, Sarah A

    2012-12-01

    Extent of tissue trauma and contamination determine outcome in extremity injury. In contrast to fracture, osteomyelitis, and closed muscle injury studies, there are limited small animal models of extremity muscle trauma and contamination. To address this we developed a model of contaminated muscle injury in rabbits. Twenty-eight anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits underwent open controlled injury of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU). Twenty-two animals had subsequent contamination of the injured muscle with Staphylococcus aureus. All animals were sacrificed at 48 hours and the level of muscle injury and contamination determined by quantitative histological and microbiological analysis. A 1-kg mass dropped 300 mm onto the mobilized FCU resulted in localized necrosis of the muscle belly. Delivery of a mean challenge of 3.71 × 10(6) cfu/100 µL S aureus by droplet spread onto the injured muscle produced a muscle contamination of 8.79 × 10(6) cfu/g at 48 hours. Ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes demonstrated clinically significant activation. All animals had normal body temperature and hematological parameters throughout and blood and urinalysis culture at autopsy were negative for organisms. This model allows reproducible muscle injury and contamination with the organism ubiquitous to extremity wound infection at a level sufficient to allow quantitative assessment of subsequent wound care interventions without incurring systemic involvement.

  4. Modeling water chemistry change and contaminant transport in riverbank filtration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Shaymaa; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul; Suratman, Saim

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration system is river water treatment approach based on natural removal of contaminants due to physical, chemical and biological processes. In this article, an analytical model is developed by using Green's function method to simulate the effects of pumping well and microbial activity that occurs in riverbed sediments on contaminant transport and evolution of water chemistry. The model is tested with data collected previously for RBF site in France. The results are compared with numerical simulation conducted in the literature by using finite difference method. Graphically, it is noticed that both numerical and analytical results have almost the same behavior. Also it is found that the model can simulate the decreasing of one pollutant concentration at the zone where the bacteria starts to consume this pollutant.

  5. The Effect of Handwashing with Water or Soap on Bacterial Contamination of Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Maxine; Cobb, Emma; Donachie, Peter; Judah, Gaby; Curtis, Val; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. However it is not conclusive that handwashing with soap is more effective at reducing contamination with bacteria associated with diarrhoea than using water only. In this study 20 volunteers contaminated their hands deliberately by touching door handles and railings in public spaces. They were then allocated at random to (1) handwashing with water, (2) handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and (3) no handwashing. Each volunteer underwent this procedure 24 times, yielding 480 samples overall. Bacteria of potential faecal origin (mostly Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp.) were found after no handwashing in 44% of samples. Handwashing with water alone reduced the presence of bacteria to 23% (p soap and water reduced the presence of bacteria to 8% (comparison of both handwashing arms: p soap and water is more effective for the removal of bacteria of potential faecal origin from hands than handwashing with water alone and should therefore be more useful for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. PMID:21318017

  6. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cholera outbreak secondary to contaminated pipe water in an urban area, West Bengal, India, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rama; Ramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Hutin, Yvan; Gupte, Mohan D

    2009-01-01

    Outbreaks of cholera are common in West Bengal. In April 2006, Garulia municipality reported a cluster of diarrhea cases. We investigated this cluster to identify the etiological agent, source of transmission and propose control measures. We defined a case of diarrhea as occurrence of > or =3 loose/watery stools a day among the residents of Garulia since April 2006. We searched for cases of diarrhea in health care facilities and health camp. We conducted a gender- and age-matched case-control study to identify risk factors. We inspected the sanitation and water supply system. We collected rectal swabs from diarrhea patients and water specimens from the affected areas for laboratory investigation. Two hundred and ninety-eight cases of diarrhea were reported to various health care facilities (attack rate: 3.5/1000, no deaths). The attack rate was highest among children (6.4/1000). Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 Inaba was isolated from two of 7 rectal swabs. The outbreak started on 10 April 2006, peaked on 26 April and lasted till 6 May. Cases clustered in an area distal to leaking water pipelines. Drinking municipal water exclusively was significantly associated with the illness (OR 13, 95% CI=6.5-27). Eight of the 12 water specimens from the affected area had fecal contamination and poor chlorine content. This outbreak was due to a contaminated municipal piped water supply and V. cholera 01 Inaba was possibly the causative organism.

  8. CyanoHAB occurrence and water irrigation cyanotoxin contamination: ecological impacts and potential health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqrane, Sana; Oudra, Brahim

    2009-12-01

    The world-wide occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria blooms "CyanoHAB" in fresh and brackish waters creates problems for all life forms. During CyanoHAB events, toxic cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins at high levels that can cause chronic and sub-chronic toxicities to animals, plants and humans. Cyanotoxicity in eukaryotes has been mainly focused on animals, but during these last years, data, related to cyanotoxin (mainly microcystins, MCs) impact on both aquatic and terrestrials crop plants irrigated by water containing these toxins, have become more and more available. This last cited fact is gaining importance since plants could in a direct or indirect manner contribute to cyanotoxin transfer through the food chain, and thus constitute a potent health risk source. The use of this contaminated irrigation water can also have an economical impact which appears by a reduction of the germination rate of seeds, and alteration of the quality and the productivity of crop plants. The main objective of this work was to discuss the eventual phytotoxicity of cyanotoxins (microcystins) as the major agricultural impacts induced by the use of contaminated water for plant irrigation. These investigations confirm the harmful effects (ecological, eco-physiological, socio-economical and sanitary risk) of dissolved MCs on agricultural plants. Thus, cyanotoxin phytotoxicity strongly suggests a need for the surveillance of CyanoHAB and the monitoring of water irrigation quality as well as for drinking water.

  9. Experimental contamination of pink shrimps by caesium 137; Contamination experimentale de crevettes roses par le cesium 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancellin, J.; Michon, G.; Vilquin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The authors describe first of all the technique used for the determination of cesium 137 concentration factors in the pink shrimp (Leander Serratus Pennant). Experiments over three months have shown that the specific activity of the shrimps becomes stable between the thirtieth and the fortieth day. The concentration factors then have values between 30 and 40. These results are similar to those obtained by other authors. (authors) [French] Les auteurs decrivent tout d'abord la technique utilisee pour la determination des facteurs de concentration du Cesium 137 chez la crevette rose (Leander Serratus Pennant). Le resultat des experimentations menees pendant trois mois montre que l'activite specifique des crevettes se stabilise entre le trentieme et le quarantieme jour. Les facteurs de concentration se situent alors entre 30 et 40, Ces donnees sont comparables a celles obtenues par d'autres auteurs. (auteur)

  10. Effects of ozone and ozone/peroxide on trace organic contaminants and NDMA in drinking water and water reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Stanford, Benjamin D; Yan, Dongxu; Gerrity, Daniel; Snyder, Shane A

    2012-02-01

    An ozone and ozone/peroxide oxidation process was evaluated at pilot scale for trace organic contaminant (TOrC) mitigation and NDMA formation in both drinking water and water reuse applications. A reverse osmosis (RO) pilot was also evaluated as part of the water reuse treatment train. Ozone/peroxide showed lower electrical energy per order of removal (EEO) values for TOrCs in surface water treatment, but the addition of hydrogen peroxide increased EEO values during wastewater treatment. TOrC oxidation was correlated to changes in UV(254) absorbance and fluorescence offering a surrogate model for predicting contaminant removal. A decrease in N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential (after chloramination) was observed after treatment with ozone and ozone/peroxide. However, during spiking experiments with surface water, ozone/peroxide achieved limited destruction of NDMA, while in wastewaters net direct formation of NDMA of 6-33 ng/L was observed after either ozone or ozone/peroxide treatment. Once formed during ozonation, NDMA passed through the subsequent RO membranes, which highlights the significance of the potential for direct NDMA formation during oxidation in reuse applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of organic matter on determination of reactive mercury in contaminated waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalhosa, Elsa; Río-Segade, Susana; Pereira, Eduarda; Vale, Carlos; Duarte, Armando

    2003-01-01

    Dissolved reactive mercury was determined in water samples from Ria da Aveiro, a coastal lagoon contaminated by mercury. Concentrations increased with acid dilution to a maximum of 193% in samples containing organic matter with high aromaticity, as inferred from absorbances at 250, 280 and 365 nm. Laboratory experiments with potassium hydrogenoftalate and humic acids solutions proved the influence of aromaticity in complexing mercury, how acid dilution protonates the aromatic Hg-complexes and...

  12. Detection and Spatial Mapping of Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-20

    environmental and biological samples has become a high priority. Various neurological effects of mer- cury exposure have beenmainly attributed to the organic... Mercury Exposure with Single Human Hair Strand. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 39, 4594–4598. 12. Hightower, J. M.; Moore, D. Mercury Levels in High-End... Mercury Contamination in Water Samples Using a Smart-Phone QingshanWei,†,‡,§ Richie Nagi, ),# Kayvon Sadeghi,†,‡,# Steve Feng,† Eddie Yan,† So Jung Ki

  13. Adsorption of ATF additives on wet clutch friction interfaces under water contaminated lubricant conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, Nowshir; Minami, Ichiro; Holmgren, Allan; Marklund, Pär; Larsson, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Stable friction and positive slope of friction-speed is the typical criterion for a good clutch performance. Lubricated friction interfaces used for wet clutches produces different friction behaviour depending on the lubricant conditions. Usually the lubricant conditions vary for different automatic transmission fluid (ATF) formulations implying e.g. water contamination and these conditions might influence the deterioration of the clutch plates. The aim of this paper is to verify additive ads...

  14. Evaluation of an automated dental unit water system's contamination control protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaiah, Raghunath; Svoboda, Kathy K H; Lin, Shih Ming; Montebugnoli, Lucio; Dolci, Giovanni; Spratt, David; Siebert, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the efficacy of an automated decontamination protocol using the germicide 'tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) perborate' (Farmec SpA, Italy). The germicide TAED perborate protocol is used in the Castellini Dental Units fitted with an Autosteril unit (an automated device that can cycle 0.26% TAED perborate solution and sterile water for cleaning the water system between patients and overnight). Prior to testing the Autosteril and the 0.26% TAED perborate protocol on the Logos Jr Dental Unit (Castellini SpA, Italy), TAED perborate was used on a dental unit water system simulation device. A dental unit water system simulation device equipped with four dental unit water systems and with naturally grown and mature biofilm contamination was used in this study (three treatment units and one control). One treatment group used a simulated 5 minutes contact with TAED perborate and sterile water for irrigation; the second used a simulated 5 minutes contact with TAED perborate and 2 ppm ClO2 for irrigation; the third used a simulated 5 minutes contact with TAED perborate and municipal water for irrigation. The control group used municipal water for irrigation with no cleaning/disinfection protocols. This protocol was repeated for 30 cycles. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) was used to study the effects on natural and mature biofilms, and R2A agar used to quantify heterotrophic plate counts in the effluent irrigant. Antimicrobial efficacy was evaluated by challenging TAED perborate with microbes and spores (M. smegmatis and B. subtilis). Deleterious effects of the germicide were evaluated on metal and nonmetal parts of dental unit water systems. Heterotrophic plate counts using R2A agar and LSCM of the lines were conducted to assess biofilm and microbial control. Baseline water samples showed mean contamination >5.6 log10 cfu/ml. After initial cleaning, all three groups maintained mean contamination levels of less than 1.1 (SD systems over time

  15. Safe drinking water and clean air: an experimental study evaluating the concept of combining household water treatment and indoor air improvement using the Water Disinfection Stove (WADIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Andri; Navarro, Carlos Morante; Mäusezahl, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Indoor air pollution and unsafe water remain two of the most important environmental risk factors for the global burden of infectious diseases. Improved stoves and household water treatment (HWT) methods represent two of the most effective interventions to fight respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses at household level. Since new improved stoves are highly accepted and HWT methods have their drawbacks regarding sustained use, combining the two interventions in one technical solution could result in notable positive convenience and health benefits. A WAter DIsinfection Stove (WADIS) based on a Lorena-stove design with a simple flow-through boiling water-treatment system was developed and tested by a pilot experimental study in rural Bolivia. The results of a post-implementation evaluation of two WADIS and 27 Lorena-stoves indicate high social acceptance rather due to convenience gains of the stove than to perceived health improvements. The high efficacy of the WADIS-water treatment system, with a reduction of microbiological contamination load in the treated water from 87600 thermotolerant coliform colony forming units per 100mL (CFU/100mL) to zero is indicative. The WADIS concept unifies two interventions addressing two important global burdens of disease. WADIS' simple design, relying on locally available materials and low manufacturing costs (approx. 6 US) indicates potential for spontaneous diffusion and scaling up.

  16. Spatial and statistical methods for correlating the interaction between groundwater contamination and tap water exposure in karst regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Rivera, V. L.; Macchiavelli, R. E.; Torres Torres, N. I.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater systems in karst regions are highly vulnerable to contamination and have an enormous capacity to store and rapidly convey pollutants to potential exposure zones over long periods of time. Contaminants in karst aquifers used for drinking water purposes can, therefore, enter distributions lines and the tap water point of use. This study applies spatial and statistical analytical methods to assess potential correlations between contaminants in a karst groundwater system in northern Puerto Rico and exposure in the tap water. It focuses on chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC) and phthalates because of their ubiquitous presence in the environment and the potential public health impacts. The work integrates historical data collected from regulatory agencies and current field measurements involving groundwater and tap water sampling and analysis. Contaminant distributions and cluster analysis is performed with Geographic Information System technology. Correlations between detection frequencies and contaminants concentration in source groundwater and tap water point of use are assessed using Pearson's Chi Square and T-Test analysis. Although results indicate that correlations are contaminant-specific, detection frequencies are generally higher for total CVOC in groundwater than tap water samples, but greater for phthalates in tap water than groundwater samples. Spatial analysis shows widespread distribution of CVOC and phthalates in both groundwater and tap water, suggesting that contamination comes from multiple sources. Spatial correlation analysis indicates that association between tap water and groundwater contamination depends on the source and type of contaminants, spatial location, and time. Full description of the correlations may, however, need to take into consideration variable anthropogenic interventions.

  17. Early warning system for detection of microbial contamination of source waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Claus Tilsted; Bentien, Anders; Lau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring the microb....../or variation. This includes: water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, waste water effluent, and industry in general.......Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring...... the microbial water quality of a wide range of source waters. The novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the microbial content present in the sample. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of microbial contamination of the source. Sample...

  18. Phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury using Typha domingensis in constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcos Vinícius Teles; de Souza, Roberto Rodrigues; Teles, Vinícius Silva; Araújo Mendes, Érica

    2014-05-01

    The presence of mercury in aquatic environments is a matter of concern by part of the scientific community and public health organizations worldwide due to its persistence and toxicity. The phytoremediation consists in a group of technologies based on the use of natural occurrence or genetically modified plants, in order to reduce, remove, break or immobilize pollutants and working as an alternative to replace conventional effluent treatment methods due to its sustainability - low cost of maintenance and energy. The current study provides information about a pilot scale experiment designed to evaluate the potential of the aquatic macrophyte Typha domingensis in a constructed wetland with subsurface flow for phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury. The efficiency in the reduction of the heavy metal concentration in wetlands, and the relative metal sorption by the T. domingensis, varied according to the exposure time. The continued rate of the system was 7 times higher than the control line, demonstrating a better performance and reducing 99.6±0.4% of the mercury presents in the water contaminated. When compared to other species, the results showed that the T. domingensis demonstrated a higher mercury accumulation (273.3515±0.7234 mg kg(-1)) when the transfer coefficient was 7750.9864±569.5468 L kg(-1). The results in this present study shows the great potential of the aquatic macrophyte T. domingensis in constructed wetlands for phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  20. Microbial water quality and sedimentary faecal sterols as markers of sewage contamination in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, B P; Devlin, M J; Abdul Hamid, S A; Al-Otiabi, A F; Al-Enezi, M; Massoud, M S; Al-Zaidan, A S; Smith, A J; Morris, S; Bersuder, P; Barber, J L; Papachlimitzou, A; Al-Sarawi, H A

    2015-11-30

    Microbial water quality and concentrations of faecal sterols in sediment have been used to assess the degree of sewage contamination in Kuwait's marine environment. A review of microbial (faecal coliform, faecal streptococci and Escherichia coli) water quality data identified temporal and spatial sources of pollution around the coastline. Results indicated that bacterial counts regularly breach regional water quality guidelines. Sediments collected from a total of 29 sites contained detectable levels of coprostanol with values ranging from 29 to 2420 ng g(-1) (dry weight). Hot spots based on faecal sterol sediment contamination were identified in Doha Bay and Sulaibikhat Bay, which are both smaller embayments of Kuwait Bay. The ratio of epicoprostanol/coprostanol indicates that a proportion of the contamination was from raw or partially treated sewage. Sewage pollution in these areas are thought to result from illegal connections and discharges from storm drains, such as that sited at Al-Ghazali. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated water and sediment by eleocharis acicularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, Masayuki; Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Ohmori, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Taisei Kiso Sekkei Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sano, Sakae [Faculty of Education, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan); Sera, Koichiro [Cyclotron Center, Iwate Medical University, Takizawa-mura (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Phytoremediation is an environmental remediation technique that takes advantage of plant physiology and metabolism. The unique property of heavy metal hyperaccumulation by the macrophyte Eleocharis acicularis is of great significance in the phytoremediation of water and sediments contaminated by heavy metals at mine sites. In this study, a field cultivation experiment was performed to examine the applicability of E. acicularis to the remediation of water contaminated by heavy metals. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in the shoots of E. acicularis were 20 200 mg Cu/kg, 14 200 mg Zn/kg, 1740 mg As/kg, 894 mg Pb/kg, and 239 mg Cd/kg. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the shoots correlate with their concentrations in the soil in a log-linear fashion. The bioconcentration factor for these elements decreases log-linearly with increasing concentration in the soil. The results indicate the ability of E. acicularis to hyperaccumulate Cu, Zn, As, and Cd under natural conditions, making it a good candidate species for the phytoremediation of water contaminated by heavy metals. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Simultaneous recovery of bacteria and viruses from contaminated water and spinach by a filtration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Julie; Guévremont, Évelyne; Gagné, Marie-Josée; Lamoureux, Lisyanne

    2011-01-05

    Water and leafy vegetables eaten fresh are increasingly reported as being involved in food-borne illness cases. The pathogenic agents responsible for these infections are mainly bacteria and viruses and are present in very small quantities on the contaminated food matrices. Laboratory techniques used to isolate or detect the contaminating agent differ enormously according to the type of microorganisms, generating time and economical losses. The purpose of this study was to optimize a single method which allows at the same time the recovery and concentration of these two main types of pathogenic organisms. Water and spinach samples were artificially contaminated with the feline calicivirus (FCV), rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella Typhimurium. The principle behind the recovery technique is based on the use of a positively charged membrane which adsorbs both viruses and bacteria present in the water or in the rinse from the vegetables. Using conventional microbiology, PCR and RT-PCR, this filtration technique allowed a detection level superior to 10² CFU/g for S. Typhimurium, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni and to 10¹ PFU/g for FCV, HAV and rotavirus. This combined method can also be applied to other bacterial and viral species for the identification of the responsible agent for food-borne illnesses. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural-derived contaminants and their resolution in transboundary water resources in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.; Weinthal, E.

    2005-12-01

    The rapidly growing population in the Middle East and the ensuing increase in exploitation have led to the degradation its renewable aquifers. In turn, countries in the Middle East have been forced to search for alternative resources like non- renewable (fossil) groundwater and to develop new technologies such as desalination. Here, we show that most of the contamination of the transboundary water resources in the Middle East is due to natural processes. We integrate hydrogeological, geochemical, and isotopic investigations to show that salinization of groundwater in the Gaza Strip, the Jordan River, and the groundwater along the Jordan and Arava valleys are natural phenomena triggered by over-exploitation and distraction of the fragile balance of the hydrological systems in the region. Recent investigations also show that fresh and brackish groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone aquifer in Israel and Jordan contains high level of natural radioactivity. Groundwater from similar basins in Egypt and Libya may also suffer from similar problems of high natural radioactivity in the groundwater. The scientific evidences that most of the contamination is natural raises new challenges for political and legal solutions for such transboundary water resources. Unlike the traditional upstream/downstream conflicts associated with transboundary water resources, the natural contamination demands a reevaluation of water resource management approaches in the Middle East. We argue that regional cooperation must be based upon political bargaining and side-payments rather than just international water law in order to not only foster cooperation, but, more important, to address the poor water quality situation in the Middle East.

  4. Extent of Fecal Contamination of Household Drinking Water in Nepal: Further Analysis of Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Pragya; Kunwar, Ritu; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Karki, Surendra

    2017-02-08

    Water sources classified as "improved" may not necessarily provide safe drinking water for householders. We analyzed data from Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 to explore the extent of fecal contamination of household drinking water. Fecal contamination was detected in 81.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.9-84.2) household drinking water from improved sources and 89.6% (95% CI: 80.4-94.7) in water samples from unimproved sources. In adjusted analysis, there was no difference in odds of fecal contamination of household drinking water between improved and unimproved sources. We observed significantly lower odds of fecal contamination of drinking water in households in higher wealth quintiles, where soap and water were available for handwashing and in households employing water treatment. The extent of contamination of drinking water as observed in this study highlights the huge amount of effort required to ensure the provision of safely managed water in Nepal by 2030 as aimed in sustainable development goals. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. A decision tree approach to screen drinking water contaminants for multiroute exposure potential in developing guideline values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kannan; Carrier, Richard

    2017-07-03

    The consideration of inhalation and dermal routes of exposures in developing guideline values for drinking water contaminants is important. However, there is no guidance for determining the eligibility of a drinking water contaminant for its multiroute exposure potential. The objective of the present study was to develop a 4-step framework to screen chemicals for their dermal and inhalation exposure potential in the process of developing guideline values. The proposed framework emphasizes the importance of considering basic physicochemical properties prior to detailed assessment of dermal and inhalation routes of exposure to drinking water contaminants in setting guideline values.

  6. Photo catalytic degradation of methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) from contaminated water: complete mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, A.; Nasseri, S.; Maleki, A.; Aghvami, T.

    2009-07-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been commercially used as an octane enhancer to replace tetraethyl lead in gasoline since 1979. The high mobility, water solubility, and resistance to natural attenuation associated with MTBE may result in contamination of ground and surface waters. In this investigation the degradation of aqueous MTBE at relatively high concentrations was studied by UV-vis/TiO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} photo catalytic process. The effect of important operational parameters such as ph, oxygen flow, catalyst loading, and irradiation time were also studied. (Author)

  7. Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Dental Unit Biofilms and Treatment Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Ming; Svoboda, Kathy K.H.; Giletto, Anthony; Seibert, Jeff; Puttaiah, Raghunath

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study effects of various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide on mature waterline biofilms and in controlling planktonic (free-floating) organisms in simulated dental treatment water systems; and to study in vitro the effects of 2%, 3%, and 7% hydrogen peroxide on the removal of mature biofilms and inorganic compounds in dental waterlines. Methods: Four units of an automated dental unit water system simulation device was used for 12 weeks. All units were initially cleaned to control biofilms and inorganic deposits. H2O2 at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3% was used weekly for periodic cleaning in three treatment group units (units 1, 2 & 3), with 0.05%, 0.15% and 0.25% H2O2 in municipal water used as irrigant respectively. The control unit (unit 4) did not have weekly cleanings and used municipal water as irrigant. Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to study deposits on lines, and weekly heterotrophic plate counts done to study effluent water contamination. A 24 hour in vitro challenge test with 7%, 3% and 2% H2O2 on mature biofilms was conducted using harvested waterlines to study biofilm and inorganic deposit removal. Results: Heterotrophic plate counts of effluent water showed that the control unit reached contamination levels in excess of 400,000 CFU/mL while all treatment units showed contamination levels biofilm and inorganic deposit control in this short 12 week study. The in vitro challenge test showed although there was biofilm control, there was no eradication even when 7% H2O2 was used for 24 hours. Conclusions: 2% H2O2 used as a periodic cleaner, and diluted to 0.05% in municipal water for irrigation was beneficial in controlling biofilm and planktonic contamination in dental unit water systems. However, to remove well established biofilms, it may take more than 2 months when initial and multiple periodic cleanings are performed using H2O2. PMID:21228956

  8. High Nitrogen Fertilization of Tobacco Crop in Headwater Watershed Contaminates Subsurface and Well Waters with Nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    D. R. Kaiser; L. Sequinatto; Reinert,D. J.; Reichert,J. M.; D. S. Rheinheimer; Dalbianco, L.

    2015-01-01

    Our hypothesis was that subsurface and well waters in watershed with shallow, stony soils, steep landscapes, and cropped to tobacco are contaminated by nitrate. Nitrate in soil solution was monitored in (0.20 m) and below (0.5 m) root zone with tension lysimeters, in five transects. Water from two wells (beneath tobacco field and in native forest) used for human consumption was also analyzed for nitrate. Soil bulk density, porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were evaluated. Soil ph...

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  10. Experimental measurements of the cavitating flow after horizontal water entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat Nguyen, Thang; Hai, Duong Ngoc; Quang Thai, Nguyen; Phuong, Truong Thi

    2017-10-01

    Water-entry cavitating flow is of considerable importance in underwater high-speed applications. That is because of the drag-reduction effect that concerns the presence of a cavity around moving objects. Though the study of the flow has long been carried out, little data are documented in literature so far. Besides, currently, in the case of unsteady flow, experimental measurements of some flow parameters such as the cavity pressure still encounter difficulties. Hence continuing research efforts are of important significance. The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the unsteady cavitating flow after the horizontal water entry of projectiles. An experimental apparatus has been developed. Qualitative and quantitative optical visualizations of the flow have been carried out by using high-speed videography. Digital image processing has been applied to analyzing the recorded flow images. Based on the known correlations between the ellipsoidal super-cavity’s size and the corresponding cavitation number, the cavity pressure has been measured by utilizing the data of image processing. A comparison between the partial- and super-cavitating flow regimes is reported. The received results can be useful for the design of high-speed underwater projectiles.

  11. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  12. Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Robert E.S.; Cronk, Ryan; Wright, Jim A.; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Background Access to safe drinking water is essential for health. Monitoring access to drinking water focuses on water supply type at the source, but there is limited evidence on whether quality differences at the source persist in water stored in the household. Objectives We assessed the extent of fecal contamination at the source and in household stored water (HSW) and explored the relationship between contamination at each sampling point and water supply type. Methods We performed a bivariate random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies, identified through a systematic review, that reported either the proportion of samples free of fecal indicator bacteria and/or individual sample bacteria counts for source and HSW, disaggregated by supply type. Results Water quality deteriorated substantially between source and stored water. The mean percentage of contaminated samples (noncompliance) at the source was 46% (95% CI: 33, 60%), whereas mean noncompliance in HSW was 75% (95% CI: 64, 84%). Water supply type was significantly associated with noncompliance at the source (p Source water (OR = 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5) and HSW (OR = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) from piped supplies had significantly lower odds of contamination compared with non-piped water, potentially due to residual chlorine. Conclusions Piped water is less likely to be contaminated compared with other water supply types at both the source and in HSW. A focus on upgrading water services to piped supplies may help improve safety, including for those drinking stored water. Citation Shields KF, Bain RE, Cronk R, Wright JA, Bartram J. 2015. Association of supply type with fecal contamination of source water and household stored drinking water in developing countries: a bivariate meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 123:1222–1231; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409002 PMID:25956006

  13. Modeling of experimental treatment of acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-containing water using corona discharge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Sano, Noriaki; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2006-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-contaminated water were experimentally treated using corona discharge reactions and gas absorption in a single water-film column. Mathematical modeling of the combined treatment was developed in this work. Efficient removal of the gaseous acetaldehyde was achieved while the corona discharge reactions produced short-lived species such as O and O- as well as ozone. Direct contact of the radicals and ions with water was known to produce aqueous OH radical, which contributes to the decomposition of organic contaminants: phenol, absorbed acetaldehyde, and intermediate byproducts in the water. The influence of initial phenol concentration ranging from 15 to 50 mg L(-1) and that of influent acetaldehyde ranging from 0 to 200 ppm were experimentally investigated and used to build the math model. The maximum energetic efficiency of TOC, phenol, and acetaldehyde were obtained at 25.6 x 10(-9) mol carbon J(-1), 25.0 x 10(-9) mol phenol J(-1), and 2.0 x 10(-9) mol acetaldehyde J(-1), respectively. The predictions for the decomposition of acetaldehyde, phenol, and their intermediates were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  15. The impact of combined sewage overflows on the viral contamination of receiving waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Roberto A; Gundy, Patricia M; Rijal, Geeta K; Gerba, Charles P

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of combined sewer overflows (CSO) to the viral contamination of receiving waters was determined. Adenovirus concentrations were determined using the Primary Liver Carcinoma (PLC/PRF/5) cell line and confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Norovirus concentration was determined using the Most Probable Number (MPN) and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Seventy-five water samples were collected during dry weather and 50 samples were collected during wet weather. CSO events significantly increased the concentration of culturable viruses, adenoviruses, and noroviruses in the receiving waters (P effects (CPE), adenoviruses were detected in 41% of the positive cell cultures, and noroviruses in 6% of the concentrates by direct RT-PCR. During wet weather, 100% of the samples were positive by CPE, 84% for adenoviruses, and 40% in the concentrates for norovirus. Our results demonstrate that CSOs can contribute significant viral loading to receiving waters.

  16. UVQ: a tool for assessing the water and contaminant balance impacts of urban development scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, V G; Diaper, C

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the water and contaminant daily simulation model of the total water cycle, called UVQ. The model has been developed to provide a means for rapidly assessing conventional and nonconventional approaches to providing water supply, stormwater and wastewater services to urban allotments, neighbourhoods and study areas. The model is placed the context of other such models developed internationally through a brief literature review. This is followed by a description of the model and output examples, which is used to illustrate the utility of the model. UVQ is an effective preliminary assessment tool for determining the impacts of urban development options on the total water cycle, as well as the performance of a wide range of non-conventional demand and supply side management techniques. It compliments other aspects of an environmental assessment of options, along with more traditional aspects such as infrastructure costing.

  17. Contamination of Community Potable Water from Land Grabbing: A Case Study from Rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Arduino

    2012-06-01

    The paper discusses the direct causes of water contamination (the use of fertilisers and pesticides and the presence of cattle and the indirect causes (unclear administrative boundaries, lack of participation and transparency, procedures not followed and limited resources. The negotiation process and its outcomes are described. From this study we conclude that stakeholder communication and transparency are key elements in anticipating and preventing the arising of such situations. Often, these are in short supply when large land deals occur. In this case, ex-post solutions were arrived at. Finally, the paper looks at the broader dimensions of land deals that pollute the water feeding a water supply scheme. Such situations are a clear violation of the human right to safe drinking water – an issue that has not yet been sufficiently documented in the literature and which merits further attention.

  18. Holistic risk assessment of surface water contamination due to Pb-210 in oil produced water from the Bakken Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-02-01

    A holistic risk assessment of surface water (SW) contamination due to lead-210 (Pb-210) in oil produced water (PW) from the Bakken Shale in North Dakota (ND) was conducted. Pb-210 is a relatively long-lived radionuclide and very mobile in water. Because of limited data on Pb-210, a simulation model was developed to determine its concentration based on its parent radium-226 and historical total dissolved solids levels in PW. Scenarios where PW spills could reach SW were analyzed by applying the four steps of the risk assessment process. These scenarios are: (1) storage tank overflow, (2) leakage in equipment, and (3) spills related to trucks used to transport PW. Furthermore, a survey was conducted in ND to quantify the risk perception of PW from different stakeholders. Findings from the study include a low probability of a PW spill reaching SW and simulated concentration of Pb-210 in drinking water higher than the recommended value established by the World Health Organization. Also, after including the results from the risk perception survey, the assessment indicates that the risk of contamination of the three scenarios evaluated is between medium-high to high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Brahmaputra river basin: a water quality assessment in Golaghat (Assam), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetia, Mridul; Chatterjee, Soumya; Banerjee, Saumen; Nath, Manash J; Singh, Lokendra; Srivastava, Ravi B; Sarma, Hari P

    2011-02-01

    Distribution of arsenic (As) and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Millions of individuals worldwide are suffering from arsenic toxic effect due to drinking of As-contaminated groundwater. The Bengal delta plain, which is formed by the Ganga-Padma-Meghna-Brahmaputra river basin, covering several districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh is considered as the worst As-affected alluvial basin. The present study was carried out to examine As contamination in the state of Assam, an adjoining region of the West Bengal and Bangladesh borders. Two hundred twenty-two groundwater samples were collected from shallow and deep tubewells of six blocks of Golaghat district (Assam). Along with total As, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, viz., Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, K, and Mg with pH, total hardness, and SO[Formula: see text], was also carried out. In respect to the permissible limit formulated by the World Health Organization (WHO; As 0.01 ppm, Fe 1.0 ppm, and Mn 0.3 ppm for potable water), the present study showed that out of the 222 groundwater samples, 67%, 76.4%, and 28.5% were found contaminated with higher metal contents (for total As, Fe, and Mn, respectively). The most badly affected area was the Gamariguri block, where 100% of the samples had As and Fe concentrations above the WHO drinking water guideline values. In this block, the highest As and Fe concentrations were recorded 0.128 and 5.9 ppm, respectively. Tubewell water of depth 180±10 ft found to be more contaminated by As and Fe with 78% and 83% of the samples were tainted with higher concentration of such toxic metals, respectively. A strong significant correlation was observed between As and Fe (0.697 at p<0.01), suggesting a possible reductive dissolution of As-Fe-bearing minerals for the mobilization of As in the groundwater of the region.

  20. Nationwide reconnaissance of contaminants of emerging concern in source and treated drinking waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Batt, Angela L.; Benson, Robert; Boone, J. Scott; Conerly, Octavia D.; Donohue, Maura J.; King, Dawn N.; Kostich, Mitchell S.; Mash, Heath E.; Pfaller, Stacy; Schenck, Kathleen M.; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Varughese, Eunice A.; Vesper, Stephen J.; Villegas, Eric N.; Wilson, Vickie S.

    2017-01-01

    When chemical or microbial contaminants are assessed for potential effect or possible regulation in ambient and drinking waters, a critical first step is determining if the contaminants occur and if they are at concentrations that may cause human or ecological health concerns. To this end, source and treated drinking water samples from 29 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) were analyzed as part of a two-phase study to determine whether chemical and microbial constituents, many of which are considered contaminants of emerging concern, were detectable in the waters. Of the 84 chemicals monitored in the 9 Phase I DWTPs, 27 were detected at least once in the source water, and 21 were detected at least once in treated drinking water. In Phase II, which was a broader and more comprehensive assessment, 247 chemical and microbial analytes were measured in 25 DWTPs, with 148 detected at least once in the source water, and 121 detected at least once in the treated drinking water. The frequency of detection was often related to the analyte's contaminant class, as pharmaceuticals and anthropogenic waste indicators tended to be infrequently detected and more easily removed during treatment, while per and polyfluoroalkyl substances and inorganic constituents were both more frequently detected and, overall, more resistant to treatment. The data collected as part of this project will be used to help inform evaluation of unregulated contaminants in surface water, groundwater, and drinking water.