WorldWideScience

Sample records for waterproofing

  1. Waterproofing Underground Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    of 100 mils for chloroprene modified asphalt and 85 mils for bitumen modified urethane waterproofing membranes. (3) Adhesion and elongation...properties are excellent. Elongation is 800% with 𔃻TdFF-N-DRI" versus 700% using bitumen modified urethane products. ŕUFF-N-DRI" is hot applied and adhesion ...Foundation ................................ 8 2 - Vertical Membrane Waterproofing System .............. 10 3 - Aggregate Drainage System and MIRADRAIN

  2. Simplified Waterproofing of Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.; White, Susan; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    A relatively simple silanization process has been developed for waterproofing or rewaterproofing aerogels, xerogels, and aerogel/tile composites, and other, similar low-density, highly microporous materials. Such materials are potentially attractive for a variety of applications especially for thermal-insulation panels that are required to be thin and lightweight. Unfortunately, such materials are also hydrophilic and tend to collapse after adsorbing water from the air. Hence, an effective means of waterproofing is necessary to enable practical exploitation of aerogels and the like. Older processes for waterproofing aerogels are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and expensive, relative to the present process. Each of the older processes includes a number of different chemical treatment steps, and some include the use of toxic halogenated surface-modifying compounds, pressures as high as hundreds of atmospheres, and/or temperatures as high as 1,000 C.

  3. Waterproofing Materials for Ammonium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Damse

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the possibility of overcoming the problem of hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate by coating the particles with selected waterproofing materials. Gravimetric analysis ofthe samples of ammonium nitrate coated with eight different waterproofing materials, vis-a-vis, uncoated ammonium nitrate, were conducted at different relative humidity and exposuretime. The results indicate that mineral jelly is the promising waterproofing material for ammonium nitrate among the materials tested, viz, calcium stearate, dioctyl phthalate, kaoline, diethylphthalate, dinitrotoluene, shelac varnish, and beeswax. Attempts were made to confirm the waterproofing ability of mineral jelly to ammonium nitrate using differential thermal analysisand x-ray diffraction patterns as an experimental tool. Suitability of mineral jelly as an additive for the gun propellant was also assessed on the basis of theoretical calculations using THERMprogram.

  4. Aerogel Composites: Strong and Waterproof

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Hsu, Ming-ta; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Aerogels are exotic materials having superior thermal and physical properties with great potential for both space and industrial uses. Although aerogels are excellent low-density insulators with unique acoustic and optical properties, their commercialization potential is currently limited by moisture absorption, fragility, and cost. This paper describes useful, easily scaled-up solutions to the first two of these three problems. The waterproofing and water-repellent method described here is a cheaper and simpler improvement over previous permanent methods.

  5. Tunnel Waterproofing with Membranes Waterproofing at Senoko Cabele Tunnel in comparison with International Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefan Hotz

    2004-01-01

    Waterproofing of tunnels is and has always been a challenge, worldwide: Changing Geology with hardly predictable water inflow, limited space underground and only very little intervention opportunities once the tunnel is completed. This paper elaborates such challenges and focuses on the waterproofing solutions of mined tunnels with membranes. Different standards and approaches for the waterproofing system. In Singapore, a membrane waterproofing system is used for the shafts and adits at Senoko Cable Tunnel. The paper project specific waterproofing challenges and emphasizes on solution for them.

  6. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touchscreen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may include a small gas cartridge or may be provided from an external source.

  7. Fractal harmonic law and waterproof/dustproof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Hai-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractal harmonic law admits that the friction between the pure water and the moving surface is the minimum when fractal dimensions of water in Angstrom scale are equal to fractal dimensions of the moving surface in micro scale. In the paper, the fractal harmonic law is applied to demonstrate the mechanism of waterproof/ dustproof. The waterproof phenomenon of goose feathers and lotus leaves is illustrated to verify our results and experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  8. Analysis of failures of waterproofing cladding layers of terracotta tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koláčný Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on one of the most important roof cladding layers – the waterproofing cladding layer of terracotta tiles. Its detailed analysis covers the main waterproofing cladding layers in terms of their material characteristics and installation methods. The article concludes by formulating principles for the correct design of the main waterproofing layer/construction.

  9. Pressurized waterproof case for electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    The pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for the waterproof containment and operation of a touch-screen computer or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. The case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touch-screen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may be a small gas cartridge (e.g., CO2), or may be provided from an external source, such as the diver\\'s breathing air. A pressure relief valve is also provided.

  10. Preparation of low-cost waterproofing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al-Hadidy AI; TAN Yi-qiu; DONG Ze-jiao; WANG Jia-ni

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for producing a cheap, single-component, hot-applied compound joint sealant with high quality for sealing joints and cracks in concrete and flexible pavements without using primer for instal-lation, a hot-applied modified asphalt sealant was produced by blending up about 30% starch into 20% citric acid. The starch and the asphalt cement were mixed at a temperature of above 160 ℃. Thus the waterproofing asphalt was manufactured to protect the surface of various shapes and types from water leakage using the citric acid. Results indicate that this sealant complies with the requirements of ASTM D-1191, D-6690-O6a and D-7116-05. The citric acid is a kind of reliable materials for asphalt cement, which can be widely used in paving and waterproofing construction materials, and this offers profound engineering and economic advantages.

  11. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189 Section 192.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to...

  12. Waterproof camera case for intraoperative photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigosa, Mauricio; Benito-Ruiz, Jesús; Fontdevila, Joan; Ballesteros, José R

    2008-03-01

    Accurate photographic documentation has become essential in reconstructive and cosmetic surgery for both clinical and scientific purposes. Intraoperative photographs are important not only for record purposes, but also for teaching, publications, and presentations. Communication using images proves to be the superior way to persuade audiences. This article presents a simple and easy method for taking intraoperative photographs that uses a presterilized waterproof camera case. This method allows the user to take very good quality pictures with the photographic angle matching the surgeon's view, minimal interruption of the operative procedure, and minimal risk of contaminating the operative field.

  13. Pathological changes waterproof membranes and their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotný Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of waterproofing systems based on synthetic membranes, especially mPVC, there is an increase in pathological changes of these membranes. Competing manufacturers and pressure on price of the final product have resulted in usage of unstable or low quality raw materials. After production, these materials keep their specific characteristics, however, their aging is accelerated, i.e. they lose their essential qualitative characteristics very quickly. Very important is the detection of these processes which is possible using chemical analysis (gas chromatography, IR analysis and others as well as using visual inspection of surface by microscope, including 3D modeling. Very important are weldability tests which identify glass transition temperature of the material. The results can then be used as a basis for correct identification of problems with weldability, nonweldability of synthetic membranes, respectively, as well as for identification of normal or abnormal aging of these materials.

  14. Waterproof casts for immobilization of children's fractures and sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Elizabeth G; DiFazio, Rachel; Kasser, James; Karlin, Lawrence; Gerbino, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the efficacy of waterproof cast-lining materials in children with short-arm, long-arm, and short-leg casts. Eligible patients had healing fractures 2 weeks after reduction, stable fractures requiring no reduction, or sprains. A total of 165 waterproof-lined casts were applied and 124 children and parents completed a survey (76.9%) upon cast removal. Results revealed 79% very satisfied, 21% satisfied, and 0% dissatisfied. There were 16 (12.9%) minor skin integrity issues. Waterproof casts in stable fractures and sprains allow acceptable immobilization with no significant associated unusual risk and allow children to resume their usual recreational water activities and hygiene regimen without risk of adverse results.

  15. Development of Techniques for Separating Waterproof Layer from XLPE Cable Sheath by Hot Water Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Masato; Nakade, Masahiko; Okashita, Minoru; Tanimoto, Mihoko

    Waterproof layer is used to prevent penetration of water which is one of the factors of dielectric breakdown in XLPE cables more than 66kV class. A XLPE cable sheath with waterproof layer is done landfill disposal as industrial waste because separation of waterproof layer is difficult for technology and cost. However, around 20 years passes after waterproof layer was introduced, and social consciousness for environment changes during these 20 years, and responsibility of company for environment of a society grows bigger. We report the result that examined techniques for separating waterproof layer.

  16. Frost resistance of concrete surfaces coated with waterproofing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Dauksys, M.; Ciuprovaite, G.

    2015-03-01

    Present research lays emphasis on the problem of concrete surface exposed to aggressive surrounding quality. The test was conducted with concrete surfaces coated with different waterproofing materials exposed in solution of 3 % of sodium sulphate. Research was performed according to LST EN 1338:2003 standard requirements. Technological properties of concrete mixture as well as physical-mechanical properties of formed concrete specimens were established. The resistance of concrete to freezing - thawing cycles was prognosticated according to the porosity parameters established by the kinetic of water absorption. Five different waterproofing materials (coatings) such as liquid bitumen-rubber based, elastic fiber-strengthened, silane-siloxane based emulsion, mineral binder based and liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based coatings were used. Losses by mass of coating materials and specimens surface fractures were calculated based on the results of frost resistance test. Open code program "ImageJ" was used for visual analysis of concrete specimens. Based on the results, aggressive surrounding did not influence specimens coated with elastic, fibre-strengthened, mineral materials. On the other hand, specimens coated with liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based material were greatly influenced by aggressive surrounding. The biggest losses of specimen surface concrete (fractures) were obtained with silane-siloxane based emulsion coating. Generally, specimens coated with waterproofing materials were less influenced by aggressive surrounding compared with those without.

  17. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-11-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity

  18. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN USED IN WATERPROOFING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria RATAJCZAK

    Full Text Available Asphalt is one of the most commonly used building material. The first attempts at modifying asphalt were made at the beginning of the twentieth century. Nowadays the most popular asphalt modifier is the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS. This thermoplastic elastomer increases the thermal resistance of bitumen, widens the range of plasticity and amends rheological properties. IR spectroscopy is by far the most common instrumental method used in analytical chemistry. The popularity of this method results from its simple measurement technique, universality and high precision. That is why IR spectroscopy applies to the analysis of polymer modified binder (PMB used in waterproofing.

  19. Briquetting mechanism and waterproof performance of bio-briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G.; Chen, L.; Cao, J. [Henen Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China)

    2008-07-15

    Maize stalk and bio-briquette binder made from it were studied comparatively by FTIR and the microstructure of bio-briquette was observed and analyzed by microscopy. It was found that a large amount of unreacted biomass fibers exist in the binder. These form a multi-level network structure inside the bio-briquette and could make fine coal particles connect together. The multi-level network structure would be still present after the bio-briquettes are immersed in water for 24 hours. On the other hand, stalk materials could be partly degraded after treatment and, with other liquid ingredients in the binder, the degradation products could form a viscous fluid which would work as a bonding ingredient inside the bio-briquette and could improve the waterproofing ability of the binder after solidification. Therefore, the multi-level network structure of the biomaterial and the presence of viscous fluid are very important to the shaping and the improvement of the waterproofing ability of bio-briquettes. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  20. The fatty acyl-CoA reductase Waterproof mediates airway clearance in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Martin H J; Pflanz, Ralf; Riedel, Dietmar; Kawelke, Steffen; Feussner, Ivo; Schuh, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The transition from a liquid to a gas filled tubular network is the prerequisite for normal function of vertebrate lungs and invertebrate tracheal systems. However, the mechanisms underlying the process of gas filling remain obscure. Here we show that waterproof, encoding a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), is essential for the gas filling of the tracheal tubes during Drosophila embryogenesis, and does not affect branch network formation or key tracheal maturation processes. However, electron microscopic analysis reveals that in waterproof mutant embryos the formation of the outermost tracheal cuticle sublayer, the envelope, is disrupted and the hydrophobic tracheal coating is damaged. Genetic and gain-of-function experiments indicate a non-cell-autonomous waterproof function for the beginning of the tracheal gas filling process. Interestingly, Waterproof reduces very long chain fatty acids of 24 and 26 carbon atoms to fatty alcohols. Thus, we propose that Waterproof plays a key role in tracheal gas filling by providing very long chain fatty alcohols that serve as potential substrates for wax ester synthesis or related hydrophobic substances that ultimately coat the inner lining of the trachea. The hydrophobicity in turn reduces the tensile strength of the liquid inside the trachea, leading to the formation of a gas bubble, the focal point for subsequent gas filling. Waterproof represents the first enzyme described to date that is necessary for tracheal gas filling without affecting branch morphology. Considering its conservation throughout evolution, Waterproof orthologues may play a similar role in the vertebrate lung.

  1. Waterproofed photomultiplier tube assemblies for the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Ken [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cummings, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Edwards, Emily [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Edwards, William [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ely, Ry [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hoff, Matthew [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lebanowski, Logan [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Li, Bo; Li, Piyi [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Lin, Shih-Kai [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Liu, Dawei [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Liu, Jinchang [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China); Luk, Kam-Biu, E-mail: k_luk@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Miao, Jiayuan [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Napolitano, Jim [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States); Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Peng, Jen-Chieh [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Qi, Ming [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210000 (China); and others

    2015-09-11

    In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.

  2. Waterproofed Photomultiplier Tube Assemblies for the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Ken; Edwards, Emily; Edwards, William; Ely, Ry; Hoff, Matthew; Lebanowski, Logan; Li, Bo; Li, Piyi; Lin, Shih-Kai; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Jinchang; Luk, Kam-Biu; Miao, Jiayuan; Napolitano, Jim; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Qi, Ming; Steiner, Herbert; Stoler, Paul; Stuart, Mary; Wang, Lingyu; Yang, Changgen; Zhong, Weili

    2015-01-01

    In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.

  3. Roofing waterproof Engineering%浅谈屋面防水工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萍

    2012-01-01

      屋面防水工程是一个系统工程,若想解决防水的防渗问题,就要从工程的设计选材、施工及维修管理着手,综合管理,严格控制,以提高防水工程质量,增强防水效果,延长屋面防水使用寿命。%  roofing waterproof project is project of a system, to solve the water seepage problem, must from the engineering design material selection, construction and repair management to begin, comprehensive management, strict control, in order to improve the quality of waterproof engineering, reinforced waterproof effect, prolonging the service life of the roofing waterproof.

  4. Condensation of Water Vapor on Waterproof Breathable Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小红; 王善元; 袁观洛

    2003-01-01

    Condensation occurs when the local vapor pressure rises above the saturation vapor pressure at the local temperature in theory. A new measuring apparatus were made to obtain temperature and relative humidity simultaneously for the purpose of investigating the mechanism of condensation occurred on the fabrics. The experiment conducted at the standard condition of temperature of 20°C and relative humidity of 65%. The result obtained from experiment showed that condensation could occur under the situation closed to saturation line as the temperature on fabric may be lower than dew point of water vapor in the measuring box depending on the experiment conducted at an ambient environment temperature of 20℃. The range of fabrics studied showed that PTFE laminated fabrics except nylon gingham PTFE laminated fabric facilitates the loss of water vapor and therefore prevent condensation. It is necessary to develop studies from a wide range of fabrics, especially breathable fabrics and under bad experiment condition in order to develop fabrics,which could eliminate condensation, or transport water vapor through the fabric while remaining waterproof.

  5. Waterproof, Ultrahigh Areal-Capacitance, Wearable Supercapacitor Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Huang, Qiyao; Niu, Liyong; Wang, Dongrui; Yan, Casey; She, Yiyi; Zheng, Zijian

    2017-02-24

    High-performance supercapacitors (SCs) are promising energy storage devices to meet the pressing demand for future wearable applications. Because the surface area of a human body is limited to 2 m(2) , the key challenge in this field is how to realize a high areal capacitance for SCs, while achieving rapid charging, good capacitive retention, flexibility, and waterproofing. To address this challenge, low-cost materials are used including multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and metallic textiles to fabricate composite fabric electrodes, in which MWCNT and RGO are alternatively vacuum-filtrated directly onto Ni-coated cotton fabrics. The composite fabric electrodes display typical electrical double layer capacitor behavior, and reach an ultrahigh areal capacitance up to 6.2 F cm(-2) at a high areal current density of 20 mA cm(-2) . All-solid-state fabric-type SC devices made with the composite fabric electrodes and water-repellent treatment can reach record-breaking performance of 2.7 F cm(-2) at 20 mA cm(-2) at the first charge-discharge cycle, 3.2 F cm(-2) after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles, zero capacitive decay after 10 000 bending tests, and 10 h continuous underwater operation. The SC devices are easy to assemble into tandem structures and integrate into garments by simple sewing.

  6. Natural and artificial ageing for evaluating waterproofing treatments for marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mecchi, Anna María

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of samples to artificial ageing is commonly carried out to test the durability of natural and artificial stones and the effectiveness of products used for their conservation. Correlations between artificial and natural ageing, however, are not always well understood mainly because the former can only try to simulate, in a faster but simplified way, the effects of the many causes interacting ín natural environments. In the present study, marble samples from Carrara and Proconnesion quarries, were treated with four waterproofing products (or mixtures of products and exposed to artificial ageing while an analogous set was exposed outdoor, in the town center of Rome for two years. Several physical parameters were measured before and after the ageing and the experimental results enabled us to compare the effects produced by the different types of ageing and to estimate the correlations between them. As for the durability of the tested waterproofing products, the two systems are in good agreement even if two years of natural ageing resulted to be slightly more severe than 33 days of exposure to saline fog, to UV radiation and to wetting-drying cycles.

    La exposición de muestras a envejecimiento artificial se lleva a cabo comúnmente para chequear la duración de las piedras naturales y artificiales y la eficacia de los productos usados para su cuidado. Las correlaciones entre el envejecimiento artificial y natural, sin embargo, no siempre se entienden bien principalmente porque el envejecimiento trata de simular, de una manera rápida pero sencilla, los efectos de las muchas causas que actúan en el ambiente natural. En este estudio, muestras de mármol de las canteras de Carrara y Proconnesio, han sido tratadas con cuatro productos o mezclas de productos, para su impermeabilización y expuestos a envejecimiento artificial. Mientras, un juego análogo de piedras se exponía al exterior en el centro de la ciudad de Roma, por un

  7. [Acute alveolitis after using a waterproofing aerosol: apropos of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Gabrielle, L; Paquin, M L; Descotes, J

    1998-04-01

    Waterproofing sprays for leather clothing have seldom been involved in severe accidents. In some circumstances, their pulmonary toxicity is marked, as shown by two case reports and a review of the literature. Acute alveolitis is described in two young adults without previous respiratory illness, following the use of a waterproofing spray for leather clothing. Clinical features typical of a flu-like reaction (malaise, fever and chills) were associated with dyspnea and with hemoptysis in one patient. X-ray examination evidenced lesional edema which quickly resolved after symptomatic treatment. The toxic mechanism is debated, but experimental data and clinical findings suggest the causative role of recently introduced fluoropolymers. Waterproofing sprays for leather clothing may induce severe respiratory illness after massive inhalation in confined area. Treatment is supportive.

  8. Optimization study on waterproofing coal and rock pillar between two working faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Liu; Xue-Zhou Chai; Jing-Sheng Li [Xi' an University of Science and Technology. Xi' an (China). School of Energy Engineering

    2009-02-15

    The routine method of designing the width of waterproofing coal and rock pillar between two working faces leads to the coal pillar size being too large and is wasteful of coal resources. The omission in this method of replacing the width of failure area by the displaced mass influence area was pointed out. A formula of coal pillar failure area width is given for waterproofing coal and rock design. It is recommended that coal pillars and rock pillars should be calculated separately first. The design method was corrected by replacing the width of failure area by the displaced mass influence area. This reduces the design width of coal pillars and optimizes the whole process of waterproof coal and rock pillars design. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  9. The Construction of Roof Waterproof%浅谈屋面防水施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    There are great influences of roof waterproof qua-lity on the service life of construction, the poor roof waterproof wil seriously affect the daily life of the people. The roof sho-uld meet the durable, waterproof, thermal insulation, heat ins-ulation, fire and resist the bad influence of various functional requirements. The service life of roofing construction quality is good or bad, is directly related to the building. According to the author's working practice, this paper discusses the const-ruction technology of waterproof roof in detail.%  屋面防水的质量对建筑工程的使用寿命有很大的影响,粗劣的屋面防水必然会严重影响人们的日常生活。屋面应满足坚固耐久、防水、保温、隔热、防火和抵御各种不良影响的功能要求。屋面施工质量的好坏、优劣直接关系到建筑物的使用寿命。本文根据笔者的工作实践,对屋面防水施工技术进行了详细的阐述。

  10. Survey of cochlear implant user satisfaction with the Neptune™ waterproof sound processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J. Briaire

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-center self-assessment survey was conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction with the Advanced Bionics Neptune™ waterproof sound processor used with the AquaMic™ totally submersible microphone. Subjective satisfaction with the different Neptune™ wearing options, comfort, ease of use, sound quality and use of the processor in a range of active and water related situations were assessed for 23 adults and 73 children, using an online and paper based questionnaire. Upgraded subjects compared their previous processor to the Neptune™. The Neptune™ was most popular for use in general sports and in the pool. Subjects were satisfied with the sound quality of the sound processor outside and under water and following submersion. Seventyeight percent of subjects rated waterproofness as being very useful and 83% of the newly implanted subjects selected waterproofness as one of the reasons why they chose the Neptune™ processor. Providing a waterproof sound processor is considered by cochlear implant recipients to be useful and important and is a factor in their processor choice. Subjects reported that they were satisfied with the Neptune™ sound quality, ease of use and different wearing options.

  11. Suggestions on building roof waterproofing construction suggestions%建筑屋面防水施工建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海强

    2015-01-01

    从设计、材料、排水、管道四方面分析了建筑屋面出现积水、渗水以及漏水的原因,并深入探讨了建筑屋面防水施工的措施,分析了不同屋面结构防水施工的要求,以选择合理的防水技术,达到良好的防水效果。%The paper analyzes building roof ponding,seepaging and leakaging causes from four aspects of design,materials,drainage and pipe-line,explores building roof waterproofing measures,and analyzes different roof structure waterproofing construction demands,with a view to select rational waterproofing techniques and achieve good waterproofing effect as well.

  12. Fire ants self-assemble into waterproof rafts to survive floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlot, Nathan J; Tovey, Craig A; Hu, David L

    2011-05-10

    Why does a single fire ant Solenopsis invicta struggle in water, whereas a group can float effortlessly for days? We use time-lapse photography to investigate how fire ants S. invicta link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Although water repellency in nature has been previously viewed as a static material property of plant leaves and insect cuticles, we here demonstrate a self-assembled hydrophobic surface. We find that ants can considerably enhance their water repellency by linking their bodies together, a process analogous to the weaving of a waterproof fabric. We present a model for the rate of raft construction based on observations of ant trajectories atop the raft. Central to the construction process is the trapping of ants at the raft edge by their neighbors, suggesting that some "cooperative" behaviors may rely upon coercion.

  13. Fire ants self-assemble into waterproof rafts to survive floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlot, Nathan J.; Tovey, Craig A.; Hu, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Why does a single fire ant Solenopsis invicta struggle in water, whereas a group can float effortlessly for days? We use time-lapse photography to investigate how fire ants S. invicta link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Although water repellency in nature has been previously viewed as a static material property of plant leaves and insect cuticles, we here demonstrate a self-assembled hydrophobic surface. We find that ants can considerably enhance their water repellency by linking their bodies together, a process analogous to the weaving of a waterproof fabric. We present a model for the rate of raft construction based on observations of ant trajectories atop the raft. Central to the construction process is the trapping of ants at the raft edge by their neighbors, suggesting that some “cooperative” behaviors may rely upon coercion. PMID:21518911

  14. Waterproofing in Arabidopsis: Following phenolics and lipids in situ by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batirtze ePrats Mateu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waterproofing of the aerial organs of plants imposed a big evolutionary step during the colonization of the terrestrial environment. The main plant polymers responsible of water repelling are lipids and lignin, which play also important roles in the protection against biotic/abiotic stresses, regulation of flux of gases and solutes and mechanical stability against negative pressure, among others. While the lipids, non-polymerized cuticular waxes together with the polymerized cutin, protect the outer surface, lignin is confined to the secondary cell wall within mechanical important tissues. In the present work a micro cross-section of the stem of Arabidopsis thaliana was used to track in situ the distribution of these non-carbohydrate polymers by Confocal Raman Microscopy. Raman hyperspectral imaging gives a molecular fingerprint of the native waterproofing tissues and cells with diffraction limited spatial resolution (~300 nm at relatively high speed and without any tedious sample preparation. Lipids and lignified tissues as well as their effect on water content was directly visualized by integrating the 1299 cm-1, 1600 cm-1 and 3400 cm-1 band, respectively. For detailed insights into compositional changes of these polymers vertex component analysis was performed on selected sample positions. Changes have been elucidated in the composition of lignin within the lignified tissues and between interfascicular fibers and xylem vessels. Hydrophobising changes were revealed from the epidermal layer to the cuticle as well as a change in the aromatic composition within the cuticle of trichomes. To verify Raman signatures of different waterproofing polymers additionally Raman spectra of the cuticle and cutin monomer from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum as well as aromatic model polymers (milled wood lignin and dehydrogenation polymer of coniferyl alcohol and phenolic acids were acquired. Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, lignin, cutin, wax, Raman

  15. Waterproofing in Arabidopsis: Following phenolics and lipids in situ by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats Mateu, Batirtze; Hauser, Marie-Theres; Heredia, Antonio; Gierlinger, Notburga

    2016-02-01

    Waterproofing of the aerial organs of plants imposed a big evolutionary step during the colonization of the terrestrial environment. The main plant polymers responsible of water repelling are lipids and lignin, which play also important roles in the protection against biotic/abiotic stresses, regulation of flux of gases and solutes and mechanical stability against negative pressure, among others. While the lipids, non-polymerized cuticular waxes together with the polymerized cutin, protect the outer surface, lignin is confined to the secondary cell wall within mechanical important tissues. In the present work a micro cross-section of the stem of Arabidopsis thaliana was used to track in situ the distribution of these non-carbohydrate polymers by Confocal Raman Microscopy. Raman hyperspectral imaging gives a molecular fingerprint of the native waterproofing tissues and cells with diffraction limited spatial resolution (~300 nm) at relatively high speed and without any tedious sample preparation. Lipids and lignified tissues as well as their effect on water content was directly visualized by integrating the 1299 cm-1, 1600 cm-1 and 3400 cm-1 band, respectively. For detailed insights into compositional changes of these polymers vertex component analysis was performed on selected sample positions. Changes have been elucidated in the composition of lignin within the lignified tissues and between interfascicular fibers and xylem vessels. Hydrophobising changes were revealed from the epidermal layer to the cuticle as well as a change in the aromatic composition within the cuticle of trichomes. To verify Raman signatures of different waterproofing polymers additionally Raman spectra of the cuticle and cutin monomer from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as well as aromatic model polymers (milled wood lignin and dehydrogenation polymer of coniferyl alcohol) and phenolic acids were acquired. Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, lignin, cutin, wax, Raman, cuticle, waterproofing

  16. TECHNOLOGY AND EFFICIENT USE OF PEAT ASH IN MASTICS FOR WATERPROOFING OF BRIDGE AND TUNNEL STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    G. D. Lyahevich; A. G. Lyahevich; Agababa Rangraz Alireza Najib; A. A. Dalidovskaya

    2015-01-01

    A prospective method for protection of  bridges and tunnels against aggressive water action is surface waterproofing on the basis of an organo-mineral binder. Its structural strength can be increased by introduction of particles which are similar to the size of  asphaltenes and an elasticity of disperse medium has been increased due to introduction of polymers. These theoretical suppositions point out the possibility for simultaneous provision of flexibility at low temperatures and high heat ...

  17. The Feasibility of Waterproof Microcapsule System for Bacteria-Based Self-Healing Cementitious Material

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a waterproof material was used to fabricate microcapsule by interfacial curing reaction to encapsulate an alkaliphilic spore-forming bacterium. The technical feasibility of encapsulated spores and the influence of three kinds of curing agent on the calcium precipitation activity (CPA) of the bacterium were studied. Furthermore, micromorphology of microcapsules was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Afterwards, the thermal stability and thermolysis temperature were ...

  18. Sustainability Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Roof Waterproofing Methods Considering LCCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a construction project, selection of an appropriate method in the planning/design stage is very important for ensuring effective project implementation and success. Many companies have adopted the life cycle cost (LCC method, one of the methods for analyzing economic efficiency, for appropriate decision-making in the basic/detailed design stage by estimating overall costs and expenses generated over the entire project. This paper presents an LCC method for calculating the LCC of CO2 (LCCO2, based on materials committed during the lifecycle of a structure for each roof waterproofing method and adding this cost to the LCC for comparative analysis. Thus, this technique presents the LCC that includes the cost of CO2 emission. The results show that in terms of initial construction cost, asphalt waterproofing had the highest CO2 emission cost, followed by sheet waterproofing. LCCO2 did not greatly influence the initial construction cost and maintenance cost, as it is relatively smaller than the LCC. However, when the number of durable years was changed, the LCC showed some changes.

  19. Durability assessment of concrete bridge deck considering waterproof membrane and epoxy-coated reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Konečný

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of waterproof membrane and steel reinforcement protection on the concrete bridge deck is modeled. The attention is paid to the durability prediction related to steel reinforcement corrosion initiation based on the chloride penetration. Thus 2-D finite element chloride ingress model is applied. The transient finite element model serves to solve Fick's second diffusion law using the computer tool compatible with the Matlab environment. The model focuses on the transport of chloride ions through a reinforced concrete bridge deck with and without the effect of waterproof membrane and on an estimate of the concentration of chlorides at the reinforcement level or in places with damage to the epoxide coating of the reinforcement. The model allows the incorporation of damage to the waterproof insulation under the asphalt coating. The time to chloride induced onset of corrosion is predicted and results are compared. The effect of water proof membrane reinforcement protection strategy typical for Central Europe and epoxy-coating protection widely used in North-Western United States is evaluated.

  20. Environmental and economic estimation of negative impact of waterproofing works and materials on environment and ability to live of the person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velichko Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article negative influence of waterproofing materials and works on health of people and environmental pollution is analyzed. Complex measures on maintenance of an ecological security, sanitary-and-hygienic requirements, size standards and rules both during works on a waterproof finish are resulted, and at the subsequent upkeep of buildings and premises, and also action for decrease in negative impact at carrying out of waterproofing works on a natural habitat condition, health of the workers occupied in repair-building manufacture and living. The estimation of components of the environmental and economic damage put to environment by manufacture of waterproofing works is given.

  1. Experimental study of CT test on the failure of acrylate spray-applied waterproof layer in the groundwater environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this study the computerized tomography (CT) was first used to quantitatively analyze the failure of acrylate spray-applied waterproof membrane in the groundwater environment. The results of the CT tests show that it is feasible to use the CT to quantitatively analyze the failure of the waterproof membrane and the CT method has the advantages of speediness and accuracy that can eliminate the fussy operation process in routine tests. The main conclusions summarized from the study are as follows. First, there are two combined-indexes that can be used to decide the failure of the spray-on waterproof layer: one is that the reduced percentage of the CT number of the spray-on waterproof layer is less than 40.0% and the other is that the variance of the CT number decreases first and then increases. Second, the applicability for the spray-on waterproof layer in the groundwater environment is the SO 24-concentration ≤ 1%, the Cl-concentration ≤ 7.5% and the pH value ≤ 12.0 of the groundwater, respectively.

  2. Full recovery of Arundo donax particleboard from swelling test without waterproofing additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Antonio Flores-Yepes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of particleboard based on common reed, reproducing the industry standard manufacturing process applied to wood chipboard. One of the main properties of the resulting board was its resistance to water, due to the hydrophobic properties of the common reed, despite there being no incorporation of melamine or any other waterproofing additive. The boards that were developed were analyzed using 2 mm and 4 mm sieves for fibre selection, a manufacturing pressure of 3 N/mm2 and 25 N/mm2, and a volume of urea formaldehyde resin content ranging from 5.2% to 13% (8 to 20% liquid format. Standard destructive tests were performed. It was found that under certain applied conditions, namely high pressure and adequate resin proportion (a pressure of over 3 N/mm2 and over 15% liquid resin, Arundo donax L. particleboard demonstrated full recovery from the swelling test. This finding highlights an unmatched property in terms of recovery from the swelling test of the designed board. This property confers a interesting property to be used in high humidity environments without the need for special resin or waterproofing process.

  3. Integrated Flexible, Waterproof, Transparent, and Self-Powered Tactile Sensing Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-Zhou; Sun, Yi-Jing; Fan, Zhiyong; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-08-23

    Portable and wearable electronic devices are human-centered devices; therefore, many unique attributes are highly desirable, such as flexibility, being self-powered, and waterproof. These properties render devices excellent adaptivity in harsh operation environments. In this work, we report an integrated triboelectric tactile sensor array with flexible, transparent, self-powered, and waterproof features. Each tactile sensor is a surface nano/microtexture enhanced triboelectric nanogenerator. The sensor array can serve as a touch panel for electronic devices. Owing to a unique design of a built-in triboelectric contact pair and an electrical shielding layer, an individual pixel of the fabricated tactile sensor array can generate an open circuit voltage up to 1.613 V and a short circuit current density of 47.308 mA/m(2) under 612.5 kPa. The tactile sensors can produce stable voltage signals regardless of the materials of the touching objects, and work stably both in ambient and aqueous environments. To examine the touch panel function of a sensor array, a matrix of 10 × 10 individually addressable 4 mm × 4 mm triboelectric sensors has been integrated into a thin, transparent, and flexible film, and the 2-D touch mapping has been successfully demonstrated. The unique triboelectric tactile sensor array reported here is robust and highly versatile, and it may find broad applications in display, wearable electronics, artificial skins, Internet of Things (IoT), etc.

  4. Interaction between plasticized polyvinyl chloride waterproofing membrane and extruded polystyrene board, in the inverted flat roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrosa, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inverted flat roof is a constructive system widely used in flat roof construction. In this constructive solution, the insulation is placed over the waterproofing material as a protection. It is believed that this solution provides a longer life cycle; given the fact that it limits the thermal variation the waterproofing material bears up to the end of its life cycle. Consequently, the result will be providing a longer life to the waterproofing membrane. This constructive solution always incorporates polymers or other materials with a thermoplastic addition in their composition. Some polymers show interactions between them that can affect their integrity, and, at the same time, the bulk of the polymeric materials are incompatible. The extruded polystyrene board is always present in the inverted flat roof, and although it is an unbeatable product for this use, it presents incompatibilities and interactions with other materials, and these can affect their properties and therefore the durability of them.La cubierta plana invertida es un sistema constructivo muy utilizado en las cubiertas planas. En esta solución constructiva, el aislamiento se coloca sobre el material impermeabilizante a modo de protección. Se cree que esta solución proporciona un ciclo de vida más largo; dado que se limita la variación térmica de la impermeabilización hasta el final de su ciclo de vida. En consecuencia, el resultado proporciona una vida más larga a la membrana impermeable. Esta solución constructiva siempre incorpora polímeros u otros materiales con adición termoplástica en su composición. Algunos polímeros muestran interacciones entre ellos que pueden afectar a su integridad, además, la mayor parte de los materiales poliméricos son incompatibles. La plancha de poliestireno extrusionado está siempre presente en la cubierta plana invertida, y aunque es un producto inmejorable para este uso, presenta incompatibilidades e interacciones con otros

  5. FTIR Study of Vapor Offgassing from Orbiter Tile Re-Waterproofing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, C. B.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed to identify and quantify the offgassing behavior of alternative re-waterproofmg materials under investigation for application to Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) tile and blanket materials. The purpose was to determine whether the new materials would cause a problem with the operational analysis of residual vapors using the current portable vapor analyzer, a Miran 203. The materials investigated were limited to dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) and proposed solvent selected as suitable for use in re-waterproofing Orbiter TPS. The solvent was selected in another phase of the overall project. Obiter TPS tiles were injected with the re-waterproofing materials under constant conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air flow. The vapor concentrations of offgassing materials were monitored using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) multi-component analysis, and with the Miran 203 instruments. The procedure was to record the time dependent concentrations of offgassing materials as analyzed by the FTIR, and the time response of the Miran 203 to the materials under consideration. The FTIR was calibrated for vapor phase DMES, tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDS), ethanol and the hydrocarbon solvents to be used to dilute the DMES for application to the TPS tile. The Miran 203 was calibrated for the operational measurement of DMES airborne vapors. The FTIR data, shows for the first time that the principal product which offgases from the tile after the first hour is not DMES, but TMDS and ethanol. The Miran 203 response to TMDS is the primary reading after the re-waterproofing operation is completed. The operational use of the Miran 203 to measure DMES vapors after re-waterproofmg operations has been responding to TMDS. The results of this study suggest that the historical complaints that have contributed to the low threshold limit value (TLV) for DMES concentrations, as read with the Miran 203, are actually based on

  6. Waterproofing Underground Structures: Lessons from the Past, Systems for the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Smith

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes some of the key issues that need to be addressed in the design and execution of underground structures to ensure their long term suitability as watertight units and outlines through practical examples of structures that have not achieved their design requirements which situations need to be considered. Waterproofing is not an exact science but a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical experience based on the five key factors: Environment, Design, Materials, Application and Use of the Structure.In conclusion the paper outlines the advances in crack control to date that can provide the necessary long term guarantees.The adoption of re - injectable crack inducers permitted the Client to save over 10% on construction costs and reduced the construction time by six months.

  7. Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Xiao, Jianliang; Kim, Bong Hoon; Park, Sang-Il; Panilaitis, Bruce; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Yao, Jimin; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhuangjian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Kim, Dae Gon; Le, An-Phong; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Huang, Yonggang; Kang, Zhan; Rogers, John A.

    2010-11-01

    Inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors represent important, established technologies for solid-state lighting, digital imaging and many other applications. Eliminating mechanical and geometrical design constraints imposed by the supporting semiconductor wafers can enable alternative uses in areas such as biomedicine and robotics. Here we describe systems that consist of arrays of interconnected, ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors configured in mechanically optimized layouts on unusual substrates. Light-emitting sutures, implantable sheets and illuminated plasmonic crystals that are compatible with complete immersion in biofluids illustrate the suitability of these technologies for use in biomedicine. Waterproof optical-proximity-sensor tapes capable of conformal integration on curved surfaces of gloves and thin, refractive-index monitors wrapped on tubing for intravenous delivery systems demonstrate possibilities in robotics and clinical medicine. These and related systems may create important, unconventional opportunities for optoelectronic devices.

  8. 防水鞋面革和防水变色革的水性涂饰%Aqueous Finishing of Waterproof Shoe Upper Leathers and Waterproof Pull-ups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hartmut Huber

    2009-01-01

    详细介绍了防水鞋面革和防水变色革的涂饰方法,包括坯革的准备、粘合层、底涂、顶涂过程中产品的选择和过程参数的确定,以及涂饰过程中的注意事项.%The finishing technology of waterproof shoe upper leathers and waterproof pull-ups were introduced in detail,in-cluding preparation of crust,products choice and process parameters of adhesion coating,base coating and top finishing,as well as the key problems in the finishing process.

  9. Functional modification of breathable polyacrylonitrile/polyurethane/TiO2 nanofibrous membranes with robust ultraviolet resistant and waterproof performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Sheng, Junlu; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2017-12-15

    Exploiting high-added-value textiles equipped with multiple functionalities like ultraviolet (UV) resistance, waterproofness, and thermal-moisture comfort is facing tremendous demand by a more discerning consumer market. However, the major challenge is to realize the equilibrium among the multifunction. Herein, a new attempt of fabricating superhydrophobic electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/polyurethane (PU)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibrous membranes has been tried, and the membranes exhibited multifunction of UV resistance, waterproofness and breathability by coating modification with 2-hydroxy-4-n-octoxybenzophenone (UV531) and fluorinated acrylic copolymer (FAC). TiO2 NPs as inorganic blocker and UV531 as organic absorber were utilized to impart the excellent double UV resistant function for the modified nanofibrous membranes. The hydrophobic coating with FAC endowed the pristine membranes with enhanced superhydrophobic wettability and the advancing contact angle was 152.1°. Regulating the addition amount of TiO2 NPs, the UV531 and FAC concentration, the multiple functionalities of the modified PAN/PU/TiO2 were systemically optimized: robust tensile strength (14.6MPa), good ultraviolet protection factor of 1485, modest waterproofness (62kPa), and moisture breathability (12.9kgm(-2) d(-1)). The equilibrium among the multifunction of the as-prepared membranes indicated their diverse possibilities can be used in various applications, including high-altitude garments, protective clothing, covering materials, self-cleaning materials, and other medical products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TECHNOLOGY AND EFFICIENT USE OF PEAT ASH IN MASTICS FOR WATERPROOFING OF BRIDGE AND TUNNEL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Lyahevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective method for protection of  bridges and tunnels against aggressive water action is surface waterproofing on the basis of an organo-mineral binder. Its structural strength can be increased by introduction of particles which are similar to the size of  asphaltenes and an elasticity of disperse medium has been increased due to introduction of polymers. These theoretical suppositions point out the possibility for simultaneous provision of flexibility at low temperatures and high heat resistance for mastics on the basis  of organo-mineral binders. In this regard a goal has been set to obtain a mastic high flexibility and high heat resistance  while using finely divided activated peat ash.Rubber crushed in accordance with ТУ (Technical Specifications 38.108035–87,  divinyl-styrene thermoelastoplast DСT-30Р-20ПС,  bitumen of grade 20/30 in accordance with СТБ ЕН 12591–2010, ash from burning peat at the Lida Peat Briquette Plant, multi-purpose industrial oil of solvent refining with high viscosity index, super-plasticizer – sodium salt which is a condensation product of aromatic carbon sulfo-oxidation with formaldehyde and neutralization with the help of sodium hydroxide (type 1 have been used in order to obtain the stated objective. While using these materials compositions and technology for preparation of organo-mineral mastics have been developed in the paper. Their tests have shown that a modification of finely divided  mastics carried out with the help of peat ash which is activated by super-plasticizer НСПКСАУсФ-1, various polymer additives, contributes to an increase in their heat resistance, elasticity, water resistance, and also allows to control their technological and operational characteristics. The paper has experimentally confirmed that peat ash can be successfully used for preparation of high-quality waterproofing mastics which are so necessary for  protection of bridge and tunnel

  11. 广州地铁车站暗挖隧道防水施工技术%Waterproofing Construction Technology for Subsurface- excavated Tunnel of Guangzhou Metro Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝和意

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:隧道工程防水施工历来是隧道施工的难点与重点.而防排水施工的成功与否,直接关系到隧道工程的质量及使用寿命.特别是地铁车站暗挖隧道其防水施工的难度更大,对工程质量和施工安全影响重大.因此,对地铁暗挖隧道的防水施工关键技术进行研究,确保隧道工程质量、使用寿命和运营安全就显得尤为重要.本文以广州地铁车站暗挖隧道防水施工为例,对地铁车站暗挖隧道防水施工关键技术进行探讨分析.研究结论:暗挖隧道防水施工成败的关键在于选择合理的防水施工体系.本隧道防水施工采取全包防水方式即以结构自防水为主,外防水(附加防水)为辅的施工方案,重点抓好结构自防水混凝土施工质量,关键处理好施工缝、变形缝、穿墙管、结构预留孔等薄弱环节的防水质量,使隧道防水施工取得了良好的效果,保证了隧道工程质量和施工安全.%Research purposes: Tunnel waterproofing construction is always a difficult and crucial work in construction of tunnel.The waterproofing quality of tunnel directly influences the tunnel construction quality and the tunnel service life.The waterproofing engineering of metro subsurface - excavated tunnel is more difficult, and its engineering quality has more influence on the tunnel construction quality and safety.So it is very important to do the research on the waterproofing construction technology for metro subsurface- excavated tunnel to guarantee the construction quality,service life and operational safety of tunnel.This paper discusses and anlyzes the key waterproofing construction technologies for the subsurface -excavated tunnel of Guangzhou metro station.Research conclusions:Whether the waterproofing construction system is reasonable or not is crucial to the waterproofing construction of the subsurface - excavated tunnel.The full waterproofing way was adopted to this tunnel.That was to take

  12. Ovarian dual oxidase (Duox) activity is essential for insect eggshell hardening and waterproofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Felipe A; Gandara, Ana Caroline P; Queiroz-Barros, Fernanda G; Oliveira, Raquel L L; Sorgine, Marcos H F; Braz, Glória R C; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2013-12-06

    In insects, eggshell hardening involves cross-linking of chorion proteins via their tyrosine residues. This process is catalyzed by peroxidases at the expense of H2O2 and confers physical and biological protection to the developing embryo. Here, working with Rhodnius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease, we show that an ovary dual oxidase (Duox), a NADPH oxidase, is the source of the H2O2 that supports dityrosine-mediated protein cross-linking and eggshell hardening. RNAi silencing of Duox activity decreased H2O2 generation followed by a failure in embryo development caused by a reduced resistance to water loss, which, in turn, caused embryos to dry out following oviposition. Phenotypes of Duox-silenced eggs were reversed by incubation in a water-saturated atmosphere, simultaneous silencing of the Duox and catalase genes, or H2O2 injection into the female hemocoel. Taken together, our results show that Duox-generated H2O2 fuels egg chorion hardening and that this process plays an essential role during eggshell waterproofing.

  13. Transparent, self-cleaning and waterproof surfaces with tunable micro/nano dual-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujin; You, Eun-Ah; Ha, Young-Geun

    2016-09-01

    The rational design and facile fabrication of optically transparent, superhydrophobic surfaces can advance their versatile applications, including optoelectronic devices. For the easily accessible and scalable preparation of transparent, superhydrophobic surfaces, various coating methods using a solution-process have been developed. However, obtaining highly transparent, non-wetting surfaces with excellent properties is challenging due to the difficulty in controlling surface roughness. Here, we report on a novel approach to control the surface roughness by fabricating tailorable micro/nano dual-scale surface structures via solution-processed nanoparticle coating. The surface roughness was able to be controlled by micro/nano dual-scale structures that can be manipulated by varying the mixture ratio of two different sizes of Al2O3 nanoparticles. The controllable micro/nano dual-scale structures were optimized to achieve the superior surface properties in both hydrophobicity and transparency, exhibiting a high water contact angle (>160°), low sliding angle (90%). These characteristics allowed an excellent transparency and self-cleaning capability as well as a superior waterproof ability even under applied voltage. Furthermore, we demonstrated the versatile applicability of the developed surface-coating method to a wide range of substrates including glass, paper, fabrics, and even flexible plastics.

  14. RESEARCH AND APPLICATION OF BENTONITE WATERPROOF CARPET CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE%膨润土防水毯施工技术的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲春珑; 周卉鑫

    2011-01-01

    膨润土防水毯的国家或行业标准尚未正式颁布.在施工中针对具体情况,采用了相应的施工方法,解决了膨润土防水毯的大面积铺设、防水毯与其他防水材料的搭接、防水毯破损处的修补、施工缝及变形缝处细部构造等施工难题,收到了预期效果,形成了一套完整的专项技术.%At present, national or professional standard for bentonite waterproof carpet has not be officially issued, so relevant construction methods are adopted during the construction according to practical conditions to overcome construction difficulties, such as large laying area of bentonite waterproof carpet, overlapping between waterproof carpet and other waterproof material, repair of damaged waterproof carpet, detail construction at construction joint and deformation joint, etc. The expected effects are realized and a full set of special techniques are formed.

  15. 地下防水工程设计探讨%Discussion on the Design of Underground Waterproof Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛秉亮

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous development of the urban construction and a reducing number of resi-dential land,the longitudinal development of underground space has become the direction of the development of modern architectures,and the design of the underground parking garage becomes indispensable to residential district.Meanwhile,the waterproof design of underground engineering is more outstanding,and it has become a vital part of the whole project.The quality of the water-proof engineering is related to the safety and durability of buildings directly.Based on the design of underground parking garage,points for attention of the design of underground waterproof engi-neering and the selection of materials as well as technologies have been expounded emphatically in this paper.%随着城市建设的不断发展及住宅用地资源的日益紧张,地下空间的纵向发展已成为现代建筑的发展方向,相应的地下停车库的设计成为居住小区必不可少的配套设施。而地下工程防水设计比较突出,成为整个项目的重要部分。本文以地下停车库的设计为依托,着重阐述地下工程防水设计中应注意的事项以及对材料、技术构造的选择。地下防水工程的优劣,直接关系到建筑本身的安全性、耐久性。

  16. 雨虹外墙防水保温一体化外墙外保温系统%Exterior insulation and waterproof integration system of oriental Yuhong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋明宇; 刘晓斌

    2014-01-01

    北京东方雨虹防水技术股份有限公司结合多年建筑防水及外保温施工经验,在总结EPS板薄抹灰外墙保温做法的基础上研发出防水保温一体化的雨虹外墙防水保温一体化外墙外保温系统,本文介绍该系统的构造性能及施工方法。%Beijing Oriental Yuhong Waterproof Technology Co.,combined with years of building waterproofing and insulation construction experience,on the basis of EPS thin plaster external wall insulation practices,developed the exterior insulation and waterproof integration system,this article describes the structure of the system performance and construction methods.

  17. Molecular Structure Characteristics of Leather Waterproof Materials%皮革防水材料的分子结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    但年华; 王康建; 但卫华; 郝艳玲; 刘兰; 曾睿

    2011-01-01

    The waterproof materials including filling type and superficial water repellent type were introduced. The relationship between molecular structure characteristics and waterproof properties of emulsion type, metal complex type, organic silicon type and organic fluoro - compounds type was reviewed. It is pointed out that the future trend is to develop multiple functions, pollution - free and economical waterproof materials.%综述了填充阻塞型和表面疏水型皮革防水材料,重点阐述了乳胶型、金属配合物型、含硅型、含氟型皮革防水材料的分子结构特征和防水性能之间的关系.认为皮革防水材料今后将向功能化、环境友好和经济性方向发展.

  18. Visible ns-pulse laser oscillation in Pr-doped double-clad structured waterproof fluoride glass fibre with SESAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Kajikawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A visible Q-switched pulse train at 639 nm was successfully generated in a Pr-doped double-clad structured waterproof fluoride glass fibre with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. The slope efficiency was calculated as 36.3%. The pulse duration and the radio frequency were measured as 270 ns and 107 kHz at 596 mW of absorbed power, respectively. The pulse energy and the pulse peak power were calculated as 1.32 μJ and 4.87 W, respectively.

  19. Waterproof Technology in Underground Project of HNA International Mansion%海控国际广场地下工程防水技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢长; 李玥

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of the ground water and geological condition of HNA International Mansion, the design of waterproof for underground project is researched. A series of special requirements are indicated for building waterproof in Hainan province for its hot and moist environment. Comparing with the traditional waterproof membrane, the anti-salinization flexible waterproof material, such as CPS waterproofing membrane is decided to applied in this project. The construction process and key points for quality control of the waterproof membrane is described in detail. The product maintenance and repair measures are also introduced. The application effect is good, which proves the economy and efficiency of the material.%针对海控国际广场地下水及基坑土质情况,对其地下工程防水进行设计研究.因海南常年高温、多台风、多雨水,潮湿性较强,其建筑防水工程存在诸多特殊要求,经与传统卷材防水方案进行比对,决定使用耐盐碱的柔性防水材料——CPS反应粘防水卷材技术进行防水设计.详细介绍了此种防水卷材的施工工艺流程及施工中的主要质量控制要点,以及后期的成品养护及检查修补措施.此技术的应用效果良好,既经济又合理.

  20. The Quality Control of Roof Waterproof Engineering%浅析屋面防水工程的质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪飞

    2013-01-01

    This paper in view of roofing waterproof problems expounds from the relevant control points and measures of ma-terial, design, construction, repair management, to strengthen t-he whole process quality control of roof waterproof engineeri-ng.%  本文鉴于屋面防水存在的问题从材料、设计、施工、维修管理角度阐述相关控制要点及措施,旨在加强屋面防水工程全过程的质量控制。

  1. 关于隧道防水技术的探讨%Discussion on the Tunnel Waterproof Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂凯良

    2013-01-01

    地铁隧道的防水处理不好,将造成隧道漏水、渗水,其结果是引起隧道内各种设备机能降低、失效,加速衬砌劣化,减少隧道使用寿命,增加维修费用,尤其在寒冷地区,漏、渗水会使路面结冰或形成冰棱,在衬砌表面形成冰柱,直接影响行车安全。本文结合工程实例探讨了地铁隧道防水工程的施工技术。%The bad subway tunnel waterproof processing will cause the tunnel leakage, water seepage, the result will make the equipment function reduce and lose efficacy, accelerate the lining cracking, reduce the service life of the tunnel, and increase maintenance costs, especially in cold areas, water seepage can make the road be icy, and form ice, and form icicles in the lining surface, it directly influences the train operation safety. Combined with engineering example, the paper discusses the construction technology of waterproof engineering of metro tunnel.

  2. Research Progress on Waterproof Additive in Phosphogypsum Building Materials%磷石膏建材防水添加剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵

    2015-01-01

    磷石膏是硫酸湿法萃取磷酸时排出的固体废弃物,每生产1t湿法磷酸约产生5t磷石膏。如何有效地利用磷石膏,生产建筑材料是人们极力寻求解决的问题,进行磷石膏防水剂的开发利用具有重要意义。本文总结了磷石膏防水剂的研究现状,然后对磷石膏的防水性作用原理进行了详细的介绍,对磷石膏防水添加剂研究进展进行了综述。%Phosphogypsum is discharged when phosphoric acid was extracted by WPA , 5 t phosphogypsum was produced when 1 t wet phosphoric acid was produced.How to effectively use phosphogypsum , product building materials is the problem that people struggle to solve , development and utilization of phosphogypsum waterproofing agent is important.The research status of phosphogypsum waterproofing agent was summarized , the role of the principle of waterproof phosphogypsum was detaily presented , research progress of phosphogypsum waterproof additives was reviewed.

  3. Use of high resolution images of orbital surface of waterproofing with different levels of urban land: case Irati-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Costa de Oliveira Filho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to present a detailed diagnosis for use and occupation of urban land aimed at different levels of sealing, in a downtownIrati area of 14 blocks, totaling 0.23 km2, from the Quickbird satellite images with spatial resolution of 0.60 m, by the method of interpretation and vectorization on the screen followed by classification. The area occupied by the classes that represent the highest level of waterproof is 33,218% of the total study area, since the area occupied by classes representing less impermeable level is 22,488% of the same area. The results show that the study area is well sealed.

  4. Analysis of the use of waterproofing treatments on copings and cornices in preservation of the brickwork heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Camino Olea

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the historic buildings built with face brick tile it is very common to have copings and cornices of soldier or header course, made with the same brick as the facade and these bricks are usually more deteriorated than the rest of the facade. The cause of the deterioration is the action of the water combined with dirt, vegetation, and other moisture-related causes. One of the possible systems to conserve and protect these elements is by projecting a water repellent. This article will present the results of tests conducted on laboratory specimens formed by low brick walls with and without the application of a waterproofing treatment, finished off at the top part by a sloping course also of brick.

  5. Stretchable and Waterproof Self-Charging Power System for Harvesting Energy from Diverse Deformation and Powering Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xiaofeng; Niu, Simiao; Li, Shengming; Liao, Qingliang; Xu, Youlong; You, Zheng; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    A soft, stretchable, and fully enclosed self-charging power system is developed by seamlessly combining a stretchable triboelectric nanogenerator with stretchable supercapacitors, which can be subject to and harvest energy from almost all kinds of large-degree deformation due to its fully soft structure. The power system is washable and waterproof owing to its fully enclosed structure and hydrophobic property of its exterior surface. The power system can be worn on the human body to effectively scavenge energy from various kinds of human motion, and it is demonstrated that the wearable power source is able to drive an electronic watch. This work provides a feasible approach to design stretchable, wearable power sources and electronics.

  6. Preparation of waterproof OSL dosimeters from hygroscopic materials with a special reference to NaCl:Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Y. K.; Wankhede, S. P.; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Kumar, Munish; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) originally developed for geological/archaeological dating, has been found very useful for diverse applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. There is still a scarcity of OSL materials with demonstrated properties suited to dosimetry applications. Progress on the development of OSL materials with engineered properties has been slow and most research has focused on the OSL characterization of existing materials. One of the reasons for availability of only a handful of OSL dosimetry materials with adequate properties is that they have to satisfy certain stringent conditions necessary for such applications. Especially, hygroscopic materials are considered totally unsuitable. The efforts were made in our laboratory to overcome this problem. It is shown here that "water-proof" dosimeters can be prepared from even hygroscopic materials such as NaCl.

  7. Penetron水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料施工的应用%Application of Penetron cement foundation infiltration crystalline waterproofing material in construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋斌

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the waterproofing mechanism and characteristics of Penetron cement foundation infiltration crystalline waterproofing material.Combining with the underground waterproofing construction practice of Shanxi Haitang international hotel,it specifically describes the construction technology and operation points of Penetron cement foundation infiltration crystalline waterproofing material,which has certain guiding meaning for similar engineering in future.%简要介绍了Penetron膨内传水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料的防水机理、特点,并结合山西海棠国际酒店地下防水施工实践,具体阐述了Penetron水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料施工工艺及操作要点,对今后同类工程具有指导意义。

  8. Discussion on Technical Requirements and Methods in Underground Waterproof Engineering Construction%浅谈地下防水工程施工的技术要求和方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 唐玉东

    2011-01-01

    The underground waterproof project generally includes waterproofing of concrete waterproofing, cement mortar, painting, plastic sheeting,and metal plates and so on. This paper analyzes the technical points of the construction of underground waterproof works from this perspective.%地下防水工程一般包括防水混凝土防水、水泥砂浆防水、卷材防水、涂料防水、塑料板防水、金属板防水等.本文从这个角度出发,对地下防水工程施工的技术要点进行了分析.

  9. 保温隔热防水一体化的新型屋面水泥波形瓦及施工%ONE KIND OF HEAT PRESERVATION HEAT INSULATION WATERPROOFING INTEGRATION NEW ROOFING CEMENT PANTILE AND CONSTRUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 王元有

    2011-01-01

    Heat preservation heat insulation waterproofing cement pantile raw material by the cement, the thermal insulation material, the waterproof hatred water emulsion is composed.The heat preservation heat insulation waterproofing tile collection heat preservation heat insulation, the waterproofing, the light quality integration, the construction are simple, the construction time is short, the comprehensive cost is low. Construction technology included groove construction, roof tile construction, ridge tile construction and node management.%保温隔热防水的水泥波形瓦的原材料由水泥、保温材料、防水憎水乳液组成.该瓦集保温隔热、防水、轻质于一体,施工简便,施工时间短,综合成本低.施工技术包括阴槽流沟施工、屋面瓦施工、脊瓦施工和节点处理.

  10. 智能防水透湿聚氨酯研究进展%Development of Shape Memory Polyurethane on Intelligent Waterproof and Water Vapour Permeable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮玲; 于伟东

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍了实现形状记忆聚氨酯( SMPU)的智能透湿机理,综述了SMPU在智能透湿性方面的研究进展及智能防水透湿膜和织物研究中存在的问题,提出了研究开发具有创新功能的智能防水透湿织物是未来纺织工业发展的趋势。%The mechanism of waterproof and water vapor permeable of shape memory polyurethane was brief in⁃troduced. The research progress of shape memory polyurethane(SMPU) in intelligent water vapor permeability and problem which existed in membrane and fabrics of smart waterproof breathable were summerized. The research of in⁃telligent water proof and breathable fabrics with innovation function was the trend of textiles in the future.

  11. 软土基坑隔水帷幕渗漏检测技术%Leakage Detection in Waterproof Curtain of Soft Soil Foundation Pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆生; 韩凯; 刘涛; 高镇

    2016-01-01

    隔水帷幕渗漏是影响软土基坑稳定性的关键问题。针对隔水帷幕渗漏检测技术,开展了数值模拟和物理模型试验,深入研究了不同采集装置类型三维电阻率法和探地雷达法对渗漏异常的反映能力及在探测剖面上表现出来的异常特征,给出了判断帷幕是否渗漏和确定渗漏点位置的解释方法。结果表明:温纳装置、偶极装置和温纳施龙贝格装置都能有效反映渗漏点的存在;降水后帷幕未发生渗漏时,与基坑外侧软土含水层相比,内侧软土层电阻率表现为高阻异常;帷幕渗漏后基坑内侧底部软土层电阻率降低,外侧电阻率升高,并呈现漏斗状异常,两侧低阻异常与帷幕的交叉点可正确指示渗漏点位置;帷幕发生渗漏后,基于基坑外侧的探地雷达探测剖面中会出现双曲型反射波同相轴,通过其顶点可确定渗漏点的位置。研究结果证实了两种地球物理手段开展软土基坑隔水帷幕渗漏检测的可行性。%The leakage of waterproof curtain is a serious problem for the stability of soft soil foundation pit. In respect of the leakage detection methods of waterproof curtain, the numerical simulation and indoor physical model test were performed to verify the ability to determine the leakage position of the three different arrays of 3D resistivity methods and GPR method,and to discuss the anomaly characteristics in detecting profile.At the same time,the judgment of whether the waterproof curtain leak or not and the interpretation method of leakage position were also made.The research shows that:the resistivity method can reflect the existence of leakage position effectively by Wenner array,dipole-dipole array,and Wenner-Schlumberger array;it reveals high resistivity of soil inside foundation pit compared with that of outside the foundation pit without leakage of waterproof curtain;on the contrary,the resistivity will decrease at the

  12. Design and development of outdoor intelligent waterproof clothes-drying device%室外智能防风雨晾衣装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永; 林诗怡; 黄鉴昆; 李安然

    2013-01-01

    The design and development process of outdoor intelligent waterproof clothes-drying device is introduced in this paper. The device will control DC motor to shrink the clothes rod and delay control electromagnet to lay down the waterproof along the groove in the aluminum profiles when it has rain or snow,even other odious weather.Through commanding the DC motor to spin the rope winding stick and raise the waterproof,then stretch the clothes rod when the weather becomes good.It can be operated manually to raise the waterproof and take back the clothes when it meets the situation like the power shortage or other breakdown of mechanical control.The mechatronics device has simple structure,convenient operation and good market prospects.%设计研制一种智能防雨晾衣装置,当遇到雨雪等恶劣天气时,该装置先控制伸缩衣杆的收缩,再由电磁铁延迟加电让遮雨布沿着铝型材内的导槽自动放下;而当天气晴朗时,可驱动绕绳杆将遮雨布收起后伸展晾衣杆。遇到电源失电或者其它故障时则可手动卷起遮雨布收回衣物。该装置结构简单,操纵便捷,具有较好的市场应用前景。

  13. 氟硅树脂石膏防水剂的制备与应用%Application and preparation of water-proofing fluorin silicon gypsum additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红; 李国忠

    2011-01-01

    以有机氟﹑有机硅以及(甲基)丙烯酸酯为原料,采用溶液聚合的方法制备了氟硅树脂防水剂,探讨了软硬单体配比、反应温度和单体投入方式对防水剂性能的影响,确定了工艺参数。研究了此防水剂对石膏试样耐水性能的影响。试验结果表明:该氟硅树脂石膏防水剂对石膏试样的短期防水性能具有显著改善,但长期使用时,防水性能有一定程度的削弱。%Organic fluorine,organic silicon,and(methyl) acrylate are used to prepare a water-proofing gypsum additive which is a fluorosilicon resin by liquor polymerization method.Effects of soft hard monomer ratio,reaction temperature and the introducing model of monomers on the properties of the waterproofing additive are discussed,and the process parameters are determined.Experiment shows that the early waterproofing performance of gypsum samples with the additive is significantly improved,but the water resistance is weakened to a certain extent for a long time.

  14. 浅议屋面卷材防水的施工与维护%Construction and Maintenance of Waterproof Reefing with Coiled Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏周苔

    2011-01-01

    屋面防水工程是保证建筑物能够发挥正常使用功能和使用年限的一项重要因素.合理选择卷材品种、严格控制卷材质量、规范防水施工工艺是保证防水质量的关键环节;科学管理、定期检查、及时维修是决定屋面使用寿命的重要因素.探讨了对屋面卷材防水施工及维护的有关技术问题.%Waterproof roofing is an important factor to guarantee the function and the service life of the building. Reasonable choice of the coiled material, the Quality control inspection and construction technology standard is the key to waterproof quality. Scientific managencent, timely repairment are decisive to the service life of the roof. The technological problem about the construction and maintenance of the waterproof roofing with coiled material were disscussed in detail.

  15. Construction Control Method for Waterproof and Drainage of Highway Tunnel%公路隧道防排水施工控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷永刚

    2014-01-01

    隧道施工期间防排水施工不达标,对于隧道后期运营以及隧道使用寿命存在很大的影响,且进行防排水处理难度大、费用高,效果差.以米仓山隧道为例,介绍了公路隧道防排水施工方法,铺设PVC复合土工布防水板工艺、排水管道施工等,希望对相关领域工程设计与施工实践等起到一定的借鉴作用.%The non-compliance waterproof and drainage system during tunnel construction would be a huge threat to operation and the service life of the tunnel.Besides,it will increase the difficulties and costs for repairing,and normally will receive poor effect.Taking Micangshan Tunnel as an example,this paper introduces the highway tunnel waterproof and drainage construction,PVC composite geotextile waterproof board technology,drainage pipeline construction,etc.Hopefully,it may provide some reference to related engineering design and construction practice.

  16. Preparation and application of gypsum block waterproofing agent%石膏砌块防水剂的制备与应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红; 李国忠

    2012-01-01

    选用自由基溶液聚合的方式合成氟硅改性丙烯酸酯树脂,加入固化剂制得双组分石膏砌块防水剂。研究了有机硅功能单体、有机氟功能单体对防水剂憎水性能的改性效果,探讨了功能单体的作用机理。分别选用外涂和内掺的方法将制得的防水剂用于石膏砌块试样中,研究其对石膏砌块试样的抗折、抗压强度、吸水率以及软化系数的影响。试验结果表明:外涂防水剂的方法可明显降低石膏砌块试样浸水2h的吸水率;内掺防水剂的方法对石膏砌块试样的浸水2h、24h吸水率均有了一定程度的改善,其24h软化系数为0.71,达到防潮石膏砌块的标准要求。%A kind of gypsum block waterproofing agent is introduced, which is made of fluorine silicon modified acrylate resin and hardener. The modification effect of organic silicon and organic fluorine monomers on the water resistant of the waterproofing agent is researched. The waterproofing agent is respectively applied on gypsum block samples by coating or doping method. Effects of the agent on flexural strength, compressive strength and water absorption of gypsum block samples are studied. The experimental results show that the water absorption of gypsum block sample coated with waterproofing agent in water for 2h is significantly reduced; and the water absorption of gypsum block sample added waterproofing agent in water for 2h and 24h is also reduced, which softening coefficient reaches 0.71 for 24h, and fulfills the standard requirement of moisture resistant gypsum blocks.

  17. Discuss the Fire Elevator Waterproof Measures%浅谈消防电梯防水的措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉茂

    2014-01-01

    高层建筑已成为城市建筑的主要选择,超过一定规模的建筑,按照现行规范的规定一定要设置消防电梯。本文从消防电梯的重要性着手,分析消防电梯不防水的原因及危害,有针对性地提出应对方法,确保消防电梯在关键时候不“罢工”。%High-rise buildings have become the main choice of urban buildings. In excess of a certain size of city con-struction buildings, where must set the fire elevator on the basis of the regulation of current specification. This article starts from the importance of fire elevator, analyzes the cause and damage of the fire lift with no waterproof, and ensures the fire elevator does not"strike"in the right time.

  18. Encapsulated, High-Performance, Stretchable Array of Stacked Planar Micro-Supercapacitors as Waterproof Wearable Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungjun; Yoon, Jangyeol; Lee, Geumbee; Paik, Seung-Ho; Choi, Gukgwon; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Beop-Min; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-06-29

    We report the fabrication of an encapsulated, high-performance, stretchable array of stacked planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) as a wearable energy storage device for waterproof applications. A pair of planar all-solid-state MSCs with spray-coated multiwalled carbon nanotube electrodes and a drop-cast UV-patternable ion-gel electrolyte was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate film using serial connection to increase the operation voltage of the MSC. Additionally, multiple MSCs could be vertically stacked with parallel connections to increase both the total capacitance and the areal capacitance owing to the use of a solid-state patterned electrolyte. The overall device of five parallel-connected stacked MSCs, a microlight-emitting diode (μ-LED), and a switch was encapsulated in thin Ecoflex film so that the capacitance remained at 82% of its initial value even after 4 d in water; the μ-LED was lit without noticeable decrease in brightness under deformation including bending and stretching. Furthermore, an Ecoflex encapsulated oximeter wound around a finger was operated using the stored energy of the MSC array attached to the hand (even in water) to give information on arterial pulse rate and oxygen saturation in the blood. This study suggests potential applications of our encapsulated MSC array in wearable energy storage devices especially in water.

  19. 浅谈铁路隧道防水施工技术%On Waterproof Construction Technology of Railway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟

    2014-01-01

    铁路一直都是我国重要的交通运输方式之一,在铁路施工的过程中,隧道防水就是工程质量好坏与否的关键点。本文就铁路隧道防水施工技术的意义和基本的防水施工工艺方法进行了简要的分析,阐述了我国铁路隧道渗漏水的主要原因及应对措施。%Railway has always been one of China's important transportation way, and in the process of railway construction, tunnel waterproof is the key point of engineering quality. This paper makes a brief analysis on the significance of the waterpr- oof construction technique of railway tunnel and basic wate- rproof construction technology and method, elaborates the ma- in reason and countermeasures of railway tunnels water leak- age infiltration in China.

  20. Application of natural sodium base bentonite waterproof blanket in artificial lake (Longzi Lake) project%天然钠基膨润土防水毯在人工湖(龙子湖)工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷松; 谢长福

    2015-01-01

    Natural sodium base bentonite waterproof blanket belongs to a novel geosynthetic waterproof material. In the paper, application condition of natural sodium base bentonite waterproof blanket in artificial lake ( Longzi Lake ) is expounded. Meanwhile, waterproof blanket anti-seepage technology is compared with traditional anti-seepage technology. Practice proves that natural sodium base bentonite waterproof blanket has wider application prospect than traditional anti-seepage technology.%天然钠基膨润土防水毯是一种新型的土工合成防水材料。本文详细阐述了在人工湖(龙子湖)的湖体防渗中应用天然钠基膨润土防水毯的情况,同时将防水毯防渗技术与传统的防渗技术进行对比。实践证明,天然钠基膨润土防水毯防渗技术比传统的防渗技术具有更广阔的应用前景。

  1. 浅谈监理在建筑防水工程中的主要监控措施%The Main Control Measures of the Supervision of Building Waterproofing Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兵

    2014-01-01

    Building waterproof technology plays a functional role in protection of housing construction, That the housing construction can ensure al parts to be not subjected to various water leakage is directly related to the use of housing function, quality of life of owners and living environment. This paper di-scussed some supervision measures of quality control of wate-rproof engineering including basement waterproof, floor wat-erproof and building surface waterproof.%建筑防水技术在房屋建筑中发挥功能保障作用,房屋建筑所有部位能否保证免受各种水的侵入而不渗漏,直接关系到房屋的使用功能、生活质量和人居环境。本文着重谈了监理对地下室防水工程、屋面防水和楼面防水质量控制的一些监理措施。

  2. Mechanical Retention and Waterproof Properties of Bacterial Cellulose-Reinforced Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites Modified with Sodium Hexametaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-wei Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The waterproof and strength retention properties of bacterial cellulose (BC-reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS resins were successfully improved by reacting with sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP. After modification with SHMP, the tensile strength (σf and impact strength (Is values of initial and conditioned BC-reinforced TPS, modified with varying amounts of SHMP(TPS100BC0.02SHMPx, and their blends with poly(lactic acid((TPS100BC0.02SHMPx75PLA25 specimens improved significantly and reached a maximal value as SHMP content approached 10 parts per hundred parts of TPS resin (phr, while their moisture content and elongation at break (ɛf was reduced to a minimal value as SHMP contents approached 10 phr. The  σf, Is and ɛf retention values of a (TPS100BC0.02SHMP1075PLA25 specimen conditioned for 56 days are 52%, 50% and 3 times its initial σf, Is and ɛf values, respectively, which are 32.5 times, 8.9 times and 40% of those of a corresponding conditioned TPS100BC0.02 specimen, respectively. As evidenced by FTIR analyses of TPS100BC0.02SHMPx specimens, hydroxyl groups of TPS100BC0.02 resins were successfully reacted with the phosphate groups of SHMP molecules. New melting endotherms and diffraction peaks of VH-type crystals were found on DSC thermograms and WAXD patterns of TPS or TPS100BC0.02 specimens conditioned for 7 days, while no new melting endotherm or diffraction peak was found for TPS100BC0.02SHMPx and/or (TPS100BC0.02SHMPx75PLA25 specimens conditioned for less than 14 and 28 days, respectively.

  3. Research on waterproofness of expanded perlite thermal insulation mortar%膨胀珍珠岩保温砂浆防水性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长伟; 马世方; 陈勇; 曾伟

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobe modified expangded perlite were prepared by soaking method. The change law of water absorption,compressive strength and dry density of perlite thermal insulation mortar were investigated by the change of mass-volume concentration and the ad-dition of waterproof agent,basing on the modification of expanded perlite. The results show that the water absorption of perlite can be decreased from 290%to 90%when the surface of expanded perlite is modified by silicone water-proofing agent. With the decreasing of mass-volume concentration,the water absorption of perlite insulation mortar increases,the compressive strength and dry density de-crease.The water absorption of perlite insulation mortar can be decreased further by adding water-proofing agent for perlite,supposing the optimal mass-volume concentration is selected.%采用浸泡法制得了憎水剂改性膨胀珍珠岩,以此为基础,通过调整质体比和加入防水剂,研究了膨胀珍珠岩保温砂浆吸水率、强度和干密度的变化规律。试验结果表明:通过有机硅憎水剂对膨胀珍珠岩表面改性,可以把珍珠岩的吸水率从290%降低到90%;随着质体比的减小,砂浆的吸水率增大,强度和干密度减小;在选择最优质体比的基础上,加入珍珠岩专用防水剂,可进一步降低膨胀珍珠岩保温砂浆的吸水率。

  4. 一种新型防水剂的性能研究%Performance of new-kind water-proofing additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈尔卜; 李遵云; 李顺凯; 屠柳青

    2015-01-01

    A new kind water-proofing additive can fundamentally prevent water absorption through the capillary pore and keep chlorine ion out of the concrete structure,so as to prevent reinforcement corrosion.This paper studies the performance of the new-kind water-proofing additive,including the influence on both mortar and concrete;Takes the lead to use the British Standard to evaluate the water absorption rate of concrete;Furthermore,it compares it with the same-kind similar foreign products.The new-kind water-proofing additive can improve 7 d and 28 d compressive strength and the anti-permeability of both mortar and concrete in case of no changing the working performance.%该新型防水剂产品能从根本上解决混凝土中毛细孔吸水问题,防止混凝土结构被氯离子渗透,从而防止钢筋锈蚀。对该防水剂的性能进行测试研究,综合测试其对砂浆和混凝土相关性能的影响;率先采用英国标准评价混凝土吸水率;并比对该新型防水剂与某国外同类成熟产品的相关性能。该防水剂对混凝土和砂浆的7 d和28 d抗压强度均有良好的增益效果,在不改变工作性能的情况下,能有效改善混凝土和砂浆的抗渗能力。

  5. Waterproofing Design for Shield Tunnels on High-Speed Railways%高速铁路盾构隧道防水设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓朝辉

    2013-01-01

    根据高速铁路的运营养护特点,在广深港高速铁路狮子洋隧道设计过程中提出了盾构管片接缝防水采用双道密封与分区隔断的防水技术方案.文章针对弹性密封垫防水特点,分析了弹性密封垫及分区防水的关键技术参数,并针对弹性密封垫的正常工作状态,提出了接缝的错台量、张开量及施工期沟槽修补要求.%Considering the characteristics of operation and maintenance of high-speed railways, an option featuring a double seal and partition separation was adopted in the waterproofing design for the segment joint in the Shiziyang Tunnel on the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hongkong high-speed railway. The key technical parameters of an elastic seal gasket and partition separation are analyzed in regard to waterproofing, and the requirements for joint staggering, joint opening, and groove repair during construction are addressed.

  6. 基于防腐考虑的TPO防水施工技术%TPO Waterproof Construction Technology Based on the Anti-corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜斌; 江涛; 汪绍元; 吴卓; 张爽

    2015-01-01

    在地下防水施工过程中,由于土壤被污染,普通防水材料容易被有机物腐蚀溶解,无法满足直接接触二氯乙烷等环境的防水要求。结合北京某住宅项目工程实例,探索TPO防水材料在特殊环境中的应用,并总结出了其技术特点及应用要点,介绍了TPO防水卷材具体施工工艺流程及关键节点做法,取得良好的经济和环保效益。%During the construction of the underground waterproof engineering, it is found that ordinary building waterproof materials can be corroded easily, the construction can’ t meet the requirements for the direct contact with the dichloromethane( CH2 Cl2 ) because of the soil contamination. Combining with the engineering example of some residential buildings in Beijing, this paper explores the TPO system application in the particular environment, and summarizes the characteristics for the technical and the application of the TPO system. Moreover, it introduces the construction process and key joints structure of TPO system, then good economic and environmental benefits are achieved.

  7. 建筑屋面节能与保温防水材料的应用%Applications of the Energy Conservation and Thermal Insulation Waterproof Material of Building Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖杰

    2014-01-01

    The application of energy conservation and thermal insulation waterproof technology in housing construction plays an important role. This article analyzes the concrete applicati-on of roof energy saving materials and waterproof insulation materials, application status and development trend of thermal insulation roofing waterproof materials, discusses problems a-nd solutions of a new energy-saving material of roofing water-proof insulation board in the application.%建筑屋面节能与保温防水技术的应用在房屋建设中发挥着重要的作用。文章先后分析了屋面节能材料与保温防水材料的具体运用,屋面保温节能防水材料的应用现状与发展趋势,就屋面保温防水板这一新型节能材料应用中存在的问题与解决对策进行了探讨。

  8. Waterproof Fire Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer; Stjernfelt, Frederik; Østergaard, Svend

    2006-01-01

    of Fauconnier & Turner’s theory of conceptual integration, which historically is a reelaboration of Lakoff & Johnson’s theory of metaphor.    The first section sums up two classical approaches in the analysis of nominal compounds; it comments on their inadequacies, and how these have been assessed by Fauconnier...

  9. Waterproof Fire Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer; Stjernfelt, Frederik; Østergaard, Svend

    2006-01-01

    The paper develops a characterization of nominal compounds. The analysis is carried out on frame-schematic and construction-grammatical grounds.  It rests on assumptions about cognitive processing long since known within cognitive linguistics, but it criticizes certain linguistic applications of ...

  10. Industrialization of the Protective Layer for Waterproof Roof%屋面防水保护层轻质、工业化生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继文

    2014-01-01

    Most of the protective layer chosen for the waterproof layer is the fine stone concrete protection layer in wet oper -ation.To reduce the deformation caused by the temperature difference of the structural disadvantages , used in the process of repair and trouble , the construction speed is slow , the seasonal construction conditions , but also bring hidden trouble of quality and not the economy .In the development of science and technology today , along with the construction technology and the progress of the material science , if taken in light , high-strength material roof panel , can achieve the purpose of pro-tecting the waterproof layer , but also can solve the repair , hidden quality problems caused wet construction .Discuss the ad-vantages and disadvantages of this paper is through the use of light plate , thus roof waterproof protection layer of light , the plate to be popularized .%在现在在建工程中,大多数防水保护层主要还是采取湿作业的细石砼保护层。对降低屋面温度、降低温差引起的结构变形不利,使用过程中的维修带来很大麻烦,施工速度慢,在季节性施工条件下,还会带来质量隐患而且不经济。在科学技术大发展的今天,随着施工技术和材料科学的进步,如果采取轻质、高强成品材料屋面板,既可以达到保护防水层的目的,又可以解决湿作业施工带来的维修、质量隐患方面的问题。本文就是通过轻质板使用的利与弊的讨论,从而使屋面防水保护层轻质、板块化得以推广。

  11. Synthesis of new water expandable waterproofing sealant and its application%新型水膨胀防水密封胶的合成与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文君

    2009-01-01

    重点阐述了一种新型水膨胀防水密封胶的合成,包括丙烯酸类专用吸水树脂的组成配方和合成过程,以及以氯丁胶为主的基体胶料的选择;扼要介绍了该水膨胀防水密封胶的工程应用.%The article focuses on synthesis of a new water ex-pandable waterproofing sealant, including formulation of acrylic specific hydroscopic resin and its synthesis process and selection of neoprene -based rubbers. It also briefs the application of the sealant.

  12. Factors Influencing the Quality of the Roof Waterproof Construction and Exploration%影响建筑屋面防水质量的因素和探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇

    2014-01-01

    屋面渗漏严重影响了屋主的起居生活。因为屋面结构复杂,如果在抢修过程要求速度将导致工程积压繁多甚至可能修缮不当。对于建筑屋面的防水质量从两方面分析:一是影响建筑屋面防水质量的因素;二是如何应对的措施。%The roof leakage seriously affected homeowners living life. Because the roof structure is complex, if the repair process requires speed wil lead to many engineering backlog may even repair improper. Water quality for the building roof is analyzed from two aspects: one is the influence factors of building roofing waterproof quality;the two is measures how to deal with.

  13. Polymeric synthetic geo membranes in reservoirs waterproofing in the Kingdom of Morocco; Las geomembranas sinteticas polimericas en la impermeabilizacion de balsas en el Reino de Marruecos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.

    2015-07-01

    This essay aims to address some of the aspects related to polymeric synthetic geo membranes that could be used in reservoirs of water located in the Kingdom of Morocco. In this regard, it offers a description of the two basic components geo membranes consist of, that is, resins and additives. It also gives an overview of the key pieces of legislation affecting such an issue. Furthermore, it stresses the paramount importance of implementing monitoring procedures in order to assess the condition of geo membranes over time and, if necessary, to proceed to provide for new waterproofing. Lastly, the characteristics of the process monitoring aforementioned are detailed in terms of tensile strength, elongation, tear resistance, dynamic impact, puncture resistance, low-temperature folding. Shore hardness, stress cracking, oxidation induction times, joint strength shear and peeling test, content and dispersion of carbon black and reflection-optical and scanning-electron microscopy. (Author)

  14. 细石混凝土刚性防水屋面渗漏及防治%FINE AGGREGATE CONCRETE RIGID WATERPROOF ROOF LEAKAGE AND PREVENTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭皓; 张电吉; 卢海林

    2011-01-01

    细石混凝土刚性防水屋面在我国一些经济欠发达地区的居民住宅、中小学校以及广房建筑等,还在大量应用.文中通过分析细石混凝土刚性防水屋面产生渗漏的原因,提出其渗漏的防治措施.%Rigid waterproofing fine aggregate concrete is still widely used in some of our underdeveloped residential areas, schools and widespread housing constructions. By analyzing the causes of the leakage, we come along with the control measures for the leakage.

  15. 575 nm laser oscillation in Dy3+-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fiber pumped by violet GaN laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki

    2011-02-01

    We successfully drew a low-loss Dy-doped optical fiber (0.3dB/m at 532nm) of a waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass system and demonstrated yellow laser oscillation in the Dy3+-doped fluoride fiber pumped by a 398.8-nm GaN laser diode. The maximum output power was 10.3 mW and the slope efficiency was 17.1% at 575 nm. Since the fluoro-aluminate- glass system has a remarkable water resistance advantage compared to ZBLAN glass, Dy-doped fluoro-aluminate glass fiber is expected to contribute to making a solid-state yellow fiber laser with high chemical durability without a frequency doubling technique.

  16. Robust Fluorine-Free Superhydrophobic Amino-Silicone Oil/SiO2 Modification of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Membranes for Waterproof-Breathable Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Junlu; Xu, Yue; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2017-05-03

    Superhydrophobic waterproof-breathable membranes have attracted considerable interest owing to their multifunctional applications in self-cleaning, anti-icing, anticorrosion, outdoor tents, and protective clothing. Despite the researches pertaning to the construction of superhydrophobic functional membranes by nanoparticle finishing have increased drastically, the disconnected particle component is easy to fall off from the membranes under deformation and wear conditions, which has restricted their wide use in practice. Here, robust superhydrophobic microporous membranes were prepared via a facile and environmentally friendly strategy by dip-coating amino-silicone oil (ASO) onto the electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes, followed by SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) blade coating. Compared with hydrophilic PAN membranes, the modified membranes exhibited superhydrophobic surface with an advancing water contact angle up to 156°, after introducing ASO as low surface energy substance and SiO2 NPs as filler to reduce the pore size and construct the multihierarchical rough structure. Varying the concentrations of ASO and SiO2 NPs systematically, the PAN electrospun membranes modified with 1 wt % ASO and 0.1 wt % SiO2 NPs were endowed with good water-resistance (74.3 kPa), relative low thermal conductivity (0.0028 W m(-1) K(-1)), modest vapor permeability (11.4 kg m(-2) d(-1)), and air permeability (20.5 mm s(-1)). Besides, the inorganic-organic hybrid coating of ASO/SiO2 NPs could maintain its superhydrophobicity even after 40 abrasion cycles. The resulting membranes were found to resist variations on the pH scale from 0 to 12, and retained their water repellent properties when exposed to harsh acidic and alkali conditions. This facile fabrication of durable fluorine-free superhydrophobic membranes simultaneous with good waterproof-breathable performance provides the advantages for potential applications in self-cleaning materials and versatile protective clothing.

  17. the Research Progress of Water-Proofing Gypsum Block%石膏砌块耐水性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丹; 杨林; 曹建新

    2009-01-01

    Owing to gypsum block's disadvantage of poor water-proofing, the paper summarized some methods which can improve gypsum block's disadvantage by looking up lots of literatures. The results showed that there were mainly three methods: one was adding the activated pozzolana to gypsum; the other was adding organic water repellents; thirdly, the two materials (the activated pozzolana and organic water repellents) were added to gypsum at some rate. The first method was the most economical. If the gypsum block could be water-proofing only by adding the activated pozzolana, the prospect would be broad.%石膏砌块具有耐水性差的缺点,从而限制其使用领域.基于这一问题,文章总结了目前耐水石膏砌块处理技术的研究进展,其中采用在建筑石膏中掺入有机防水剂与活性火山灰质等材料制备耐水石膏砌块的方法具有防水效果好、强度高的优点.但是成本较单独掺活性火山质材料高,并且还存在石膏掺量低、制备工艺复杂等不足,若能在建筑石膏中只掺入活性火山灰质等材料,同时提高石膏掺量制备耐水石膏砌块,该制备技术的应用前景将更为广阔.

  18. 纳米材料拒水织物加工技术及应用%Technology and Application of Nanomaterials in Waterproof Fabric Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党美娟; 林娜; 王飞龙

    2011-01-01

    Application of nanomaterials in waterproof fabric production was summarized. Principle of applying nanomaterials in surface waterproof fabric were researched, characterization of nanomaterial was introduced as well as fabric water repellency test index, method of doing fabric water repellency for nanomaterials, applications at home and a-broad. It is considered that advantages of nano water repellence materials in both materials manufacture process and function application are obviously. It is pointed out that research of nano water repellence materials should be strengthened, agglomeration phenomenon of nanomaterials in applications and its effect on human body should be paid attention to specially.%概述纳米材料在拒水织物生产中的应用情况.探究了纳米材料应用于表面拒水性织物的机理,介绍了纳米材料的表征方法、织物拒水性测试指标及纳米材料进行织物拒水整理加工的方法和国内外应用状况.认为:不论是从材料的加工过程,还是功能性应用方面,纳米拒水材料都具有明显优势,并指出应加强纳米拒水材料的研究,着重关注纳米材料在应用中的团聚现象及时人体的影响.

  19. The synthesis and application of fluorinated-containing acrylate waterproof agent%含氟丙烯酸酯防水剂的合成及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦毅; 贺江平; 马科

    2014-01-01

    以甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)、丙烯酸丁酯(BA)为单体,脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚(AEO-9)和十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)为复合乳化剂,过硫酸铵(APS)为引发剂,采用乳液聚合方法制备含氟防水整理剂乳液。结果表明:当m(BA)︰m(MMA)=3︰2,乳化剂用量为6%,引发剂用量为0.6%(均为对单体总质量),制得的聚合物乳液外观透亮、细腻、稳定性好。经该防水整理剂整理后的棉织物对水的接触角可达140°。%A fluorinated-containing waterproof agent emulsion was synthesized by emulsion polymerization using methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA) as monomer, fatty alcohol-polyoxyethylene ether(AEO-9) and sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS) as compound emulsifier, and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. The results showed that with m(BA)︰m(MMA) of 3︰2, 0.6%initiator, and 0.6%emulsifier(compared to total mass of monomers), the prepared copolymer emulsion was transparent, fine and stable. The water contact angle of fabric treated by this prepared waterproof agent could reach up to 140°.

  20. Research Progress and Application of Thermo-sensitive Waterproof and Moisture Permeable Polyurethane%温敏型防水透湿聚氨酯的研究进展及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宁; 李冰; 律微波; 李金辉; 彭丹

    2014-01-01

    温敏型防水透湿聚氨酯为当前智能高分子材料研究的热点之一。介绍了该类聚氨酯的结构和温敏特性,介绍了温敏型防水透湿聚氨酯的研究进展,并对其在纺织、医疗、食品包装等领域的应用前景进行了概述。%Thermo-sensitive waterproof and moisture permeable polyurethane is one of the hotspots in current research on intelligent polymer materials. In this paper, the structure and thermo-sensitive characteristics of this polyurethane were summarized, research progress of thermo-sensitive waterproof and moisture permeable polyurethane was introduced, and its application prospect in textile, medical, food packaging and other fields was described.

  1. Waterproofing methods of comprehensive underground pipe ditch pipeline engineering in Zhenhua street%振华街地下综合管沟管道工程防水做法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史拉明

    2015-01-01

    通过研究某地下综合沟的工程现状,对地下综合管沟防水工程的技术复杂性和难度性进行了分析,阐述了施工缝部分、施工工艺、要求等具体的防水技术,指出完工后达到了良好的使用效果。%Through analyzing comprehensive underground pipe ditch engineering status,the paper analyzes technological complexity and difficulty of comprehensive underground pipe ditch waterproofing engineering,describes its construction joint,construction technology and other specific waterproofing techniques,and finally points out its good utilization effect after completion.

  2. 大连北站雨棚屋面多层中空阳光板防水施工技术%The Waterproofing Construction Technology of Awning Roof Multilayer Hollow Slab in the North Station of Dalian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方源

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the awning roof system of railway station increasingly perfect, highlighting the characteristics of architectural diversity and aesthetic. But people increasingly pursuing the aesthetic architectural, while the waterproof roof lighting system issue has become a key point of quality control. Therefore, the waterproofing technology of multi-layer hol ow slab can effectively ensure the roofing performance.%近年来,铁路客站雨棚屋面系统日益完美,突出了建筑的多样性、美学性等特点。但在日益追求建筑美感的同时,屋面采光系统的防水问题成为了质量控制的关键点。因此,多层中空阳光板防水施工技术可有效地保证屋面防水性能。

  3. On quality control of single-floor SBS roof waterproof craft with heat fusion method%热熔法单层 SBS 屋面防水工艺工程质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵基平

    2015-01-01

    结合工作经验,介绍了热熔法单层SBS屋面防水工艺原材料的控制要点,主要阐述了单层SBS屋面防水施工的质量控制措施,并对施工时适宜的气候条件进行了研究,以避免屋面防水质量问题的发生。%Combining with the work experience,the paper introduces the controlling measures for the single-floor SBS roof waterproof craft with heat fusion method,mainly illustrates the quality control measures for the construction,and researches the suitable climate conditions of the con-struction,so as to avoid the defects in the roof waterproof quality.

  4. Application of permeable crystalline waterproof material in Three Gorges Project%渗透结晶防水材料在三峡工程中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊

    2014-01-01

    水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料是以水泥、砂等为基料,渗入活性化学物质制成的新型防水材料。自2000年起,陆续应用于三峡工程碾压混凝土围堰和枢纽主体建筑物的表面防渗、裂缝修复等方面,是国内水电行业最早应用该类材料的大型工程。应用效果表明,裂缝内水流不能快速流动时,该材料才能析出钙质结晶填充裂缝从而达到防渗目的;渗透结晶的深度可随着水流的扩散而深入;由于该材料具有与混凝土相近的性质,未来可开发出具有防水特性的各种新型混凝土专用材料,应用前景广阔。%Cement-based permeable crystalline waterproof material is a new type of waterproof material that adopts cement and sand as base materials while incorporates other active substances. Since 2000, it had been used as surface waterproof and crack repairing for roller concrete cofferdam and main structures in the Three Gorges Project, which was the first application of this type of material in hydropower project in China. The application cases show that the material can only crystallize calcareous-crystal and play a role of waterproof when the adjacent water in crack flows slowly;the depth of permeable crystallization could be extended with dispersion process of flow;due to similar features of the material with normal concrete, several new special con-crete material with waterproof feature could be developed in future.

  5. Modification of waterproof property for foamed polystyrene grain and foaming gypsum thermal insulation material%聚苯颗粒/发泡石膏保温材料的防水性能改性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红; 高子栋

    2015-01-01

    采用掺加自制憎水性能优异的SFA防水剂和外喷甲基硅酸钠防水剂两种方式对聚苯颗粒/发泡石膏保温材料进行复合防水改性,研究了不同掺量SFA防水剂对保温材料吸水率、软化系数、密度、导热系数和绝干抗折抗压强度的影响,以及SFA防水剂最优掺量下外喷不同次数甲基硅酸钠防水剂对保温材料吸水率、软化系数的影响,并分析了其作用机理。结果表明:当SFA防水剂的掺量为16%并外喷三次甲基硅酸钠防水剂时,保温材料的各项性能明显改善,其中2h、24h吸水率分别降至40.30%、40.36%,软化系数升高至0.61。%The waterproof property of foamed polystyrene grain and foaming gypsum thermal insulation material is modified by SFA waterproof agent with good hydrophobic property and spraying methyl-sodium. The influences of SFA waterproof agent on the absorption rate, softening coefficient, density, coefficient of thermal conductivity and dry flexural, compressive strength of insulation material are investigated. Based on doping the optimum amount of SFA waterproof agent, the effects of different spraying times of methyl-sodium on the absorption rate and softening coefficient are studied, and their mechanism is also analyzed. The experimental results show that the properties of the thermal insulation material are improved obviously with doping of 16%of SFA waterproof agent and spraying methyl-sodium 3 times. The absorption rates for 2h and 24h reduce to 40.30%and 40.36%respectively and the softening coefficient rises to 0.61.

  6. 水泥基复合保温材料的防水性能研究%Study on the waterproofing properties of thermal insulation cement-based composite materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李国忠

    2015-01-01

    Polystyrene granules (EPS) for lightweight aggregate and cement for cementing material, while adding a variety of additives, were used to prepare cement-based composite thermal insulation materials by the method of vibration molding. The effects of different waterproof agent on water absorption, flexural softening resistance coefficient and strength of cement-based composite thermal insulation materials were studied contrastively by adding emulsified stearic acid and emulsified composite waterproofing agent, and the related mechanisms were analyzed. Results showed that the waterproofing effect and strengthen effect of emulsified composite waterproofing agent is superior to emulsified stearic acid, when the content of emulsified stearic acid and emulsified composite waterproofing agent are 5% and 5%, respectively, the 2h, 24h water absorption of samples are 20.59%, 47.64%and 15.53%, 34.53%, the flexural softening resistance coefficient of samples are 0.71 and 0.75, the flexural and compressive strength of samples are 0.32MPa, 0.42MPa and 0.35MPa, 0.47MPa respectively.%以聚苯乙烯颗粒(EPS)为轻骨料、水泥为胶凝材料,同时掺加多种外加剂,经振动成型制备水泥基复合保温材料,通过掺加乳化硬脂酸和乳化复合防水剂,对比研究了不同防水剂对水泥基复合保温材料吸水率、抗折软化系数和强度的影响,并对其相关作用机理进行了分析。结果表明:乳化复合防水剂的防水效果和增强效果均明显优于乳化硬脂酸,当乳化硬脂酸和乳化复合防水剂掺量分别为5%和5%时,试样的2 h、24 h吸水率分别为20.59%、47.64%和15.53%、34.53%,试样的抗折软化系数分别为0.71和0.75,试样的抗折、抗压强度分别为0.32 MPa、0.42 MPa和0.35 MPa、0.47 MPa。

  7. Effect of ultraviolet absorptivity and waterproofness of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) with extremely weak acidity, high conductivity on enhanced stability of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wang, Kaixuan; Guo, Bin; Qiu, Xueqing; Hao, Yue; Chang, JingJing; Li, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    The poor long-term stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) tremendously hampers their future commercialization though their superior photovoltaic efficiencies. To enhance the device stability, a new poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):sulfonated acetone-formaldehyde (PEDOT:SAF) with higher PEDOT content (2:1) is developed considering the excellent dispersing capacity of SAF. PEDOT:SAF exhibits extremely lower acidity with pH value of 6 and higher conductivity of 3.12 S/cm comparing with the former reported sample with lower PEDOT content. Moreover, PEDOT:SAF film shows superior ultraviolet (UV) absorptivity originated from the fluorescence effect of SAF and unexceptionable film waterproofness on account of the high PEDOT content. As a result, the PSC incorporating PEDOT:SAF as the hole extraction layer (HEL) achieves higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and highly enhanced device stability than the traditional PEDOT:PSS-based device. After 28 days of storage time, our device retains 83.2% from its original PCE, while almost half-degradation is experienced in the PEDOT:PSS controlled device. In addition, SAF is renewable with more simple and inexpensive preparation than that of PSS. Undoubtedly, this new PEDOT:SAF provides us a scaffold for designing stable PSC, and this platform is also shared in other photovoltaic technologies.

  8. A new modifier for asphalt waterproof material%一种新型沥青防水材料改性剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范新宇; 孔繁和

    2001-01-01

    The influence of environmental status and process thought on asphalt waterproof material is presented.The asphalt performance is improved by means of interior preparation, exterior addition, blowing (oxdation) and dosing raw material of asphalt. The asphalt is modified by addition process of high molecule polymer. This article introduces a new asphalt madifier with main compositions of ethylene acrylate n- butyl ester and glycidyl methacrylate co- polymer. The asphalt modification is achieved through chemical reaction between the copolymer and asphalt.%介绍环境气候、工艺思路对沥青防水材料的影响 ,通过内配法、外掺法、吹制(氧化)沥青及调配沥青的原料, 达到改善沥青性能的方法;掺加高分子聚合物改性石油沥青 的方法及改性性能。较详细介绍一种新的沥青改性剂,它的主 要成份为乙烯丙烯酸正丁脂和甲基丙烯酸缩水甘油脂共聚物 ,通过与沥青之间产生化学反应达到对沥青改性的目的。

  9. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-07-22

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria.

  10. High power red laser oscillation in Pr3+-doped waterproof fluoroaluminate glass fiber excited by a GaN laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, J.; Yamada, T.; Fujimoto, Y.; Ishii, O.; Yamazaki, M.

    2011-02-01

    We have demonstrated a high power red fiber laser with a Pr-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fiber (Pr:WPFGF). When 800 mW pumping power of a blue/violet GaN laser diode (GaN-LD) was launched into the Pr:WPFGF (core diameter 8 μm, length 40 mm) with dielectric coating on both end surfaces to construct a resonator, the maximum output laser power at 638 nm was obtained to be 311.4 mW that is higher than previously reported Pr:ZBLAN fibers. The threshold power was evaluated to be 52.1 mW, and the slope efficiency was calculated to be 41.6%. Assuming the resonator to be a Fabry-Perot resonator, we can calculate the output power to be 336 mW at 800 mW pump power and the slop efficiency to be 44.2%. These theoretical values show good agreement with experimental ones.

  11. Weaving Processing Optimization of Waterproof Permeable Fabric%防水透湿织物织造工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东照; 胥正安

    2011-01-01

    探讨防水透湿织物的织造工艺要点.选用超细涤纶高收缩纤维,结合高密度织物组织设计,通过优选卷取方式、经纱张力、开口时间、送经张力补偿弹簧圈数、筘的空间率等工艺参数,认为选用W型卷取方式、适当降低经纱张力、适当提早开口时间、合理选择筘的空间率等,可使织机效率得到有效提高.%Weaving processing key points of waterproof permeable fabric were discussed. Superfine polyester shrinkage fiber was selected, combining high density fabric weave design, processing parameter was optimized including take-up style,warp tension, shed time,warp let-off tension compensation spring coils,reed density et al. It is considered that loom efficiency could be improved effectively when adopting W type take-up, reducing warp tension properly, setting shed time early,selecting reed density rationally et al.

  12. The Waterproof Effect Analysis and Improvement Techniques for Underground Stations of Xi’an Metro Line No .3%西安地铁3号线地下车站防水效果分析及其改进技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军琪; 邓国华

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study of the waterproof design and its effect for the underground stations of Xi’an Metro Line No . 3 ,a set of waterproof design schemes which are suitable for these stations were proposed .In the study ,the waterproof ef-fects of different schemes were tested out on a few typical stations ,and then the subsequent waterproof schemes were de-termined ,which were the combination of outer waterproof coating of the structure ,joint and roof waterproofing .More-over ,the improvement measures and suggestions for the subsequent construction were put forward based on the waterproof effects .It is suggested that macromolecule polythene self-adhesive waterproof roofing should be adopted in the sections with complex strata and abundant ground water .During the construction of the joint waterproofing ,the installation of steel-edged rubber water stop in the middle of the vertical joints and galvanized steel plate water stop in the middle of the horizontal joints should be handled with extra attention .%通过对西安地铁3号线地下车站防水设计及其效果研究,提出了一套适用于西安地铁地下车站的防水设计方案。研究中选择典型车站进行试验,比较了不同防水方案下的防水效果,确定了后续西安地铁地下车站外包防水、接缝防水和顶板防水的设计方案,并根据防水效果,提出了相应的改进措施和建议。建议在地下水丰富且地层复杂地段采用聚乙烯高分子自粘防水卷材;在施工缝防水管理中建议重点把控对垂直施工缝中部设置钢边橡胶止水带、水平施工缝中部设置镀锌钢板止水带的接头处理。

  13. 建筑中防水性能造价约束与抗冲击能力建模%Modeling of Cost Constraints in Building Waterproof Performance and Shock Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    绳晓庆

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the anti shock ability analysis of cost and building waterproof engineering in civil and structural engineering, cost constrained optimal and anti impact performance ratio is achieved. Waterproof construction in the traditional relational model, empirical mode decomposition and by the stiffness degradation model design of building waterproof performance of remainder binding and shock resistant ability, model affected by impact fatigue damage and ma⁃terial cost ratio, the relationship between model, it should use less value. A waterproof performance cost constraint model based on impact damage cracking point and the yield point is proposed, the characteristic energy limited, the relationship between anti impact ability analysis of cost constraints and building body. Impact Damage Cracking point analysis of the building results and the yield point, the characteristic energy confinement model, constructing the element equilibrium equation, on the basis of Euler-Bernoulli waterproof performance cost residue theory establishment of steel frame, nonlin⁃ear finite element model of multi scale, from the overall structure of the layer structure in the face of the yield mechanism to evaluate, get in waterproofing design impact the longitudinal residual stress distribution model. By using the finite element analysis software ANSYS waterproof performance cost constraint parameters in architecture, implementation of modeling waterproof performance cost constraint construction and anti impact capability analysis. Test results, using this model, can realize to waterproof the most under cost, realize the impact resistance performance of building structure of the biggest im⁃pact, the anti damage strength under the same cost saving, the waterproof is saved by 28%, improve the quality of construc⁃tion, it has the important meaning to save the project cost.%分析土建结构中防水工程造价与建筑体抗冲击能力的关系,达到最优的

  14. The Application of Waterproofing Membrane in Automotive Interior Acoustic Environment%新型防水膜在汽车内饰声学环境中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田佳平; 梁鹏; 高玉香; 潘萍萍

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce noise of automotive interior acoustic environment, based on acoustic properties of laminated materials and waterproofing membrane material characteristics, adopting spot test data, combined with interior design experience, acoustic performance, cost and operational characteristic of waterproofing membrane materials and combination lining materials of three main doors are contrasted. The results indicated that waterproofing membrane of X-PE materials meets the design requirements. It shows good effect in sound insulation and sound absorption. High rigidity materials can improve the efficiency of sound insulation in composite materials. It provides reference for new materials used in function expansion of door trim pieces.%为降低汽车内饰声学环境的噪声,依据层复合材料的声学特性与防水膜材料特点,采用现场实测数据,结合内饰设计工作经验,对3种主流车门防水膜材料及其组合内衬材料的声学性能、成本及使用特性进行对比,结果表明,XPE材料防水膜满足设计要求,吸声和隔声效果良好,在层复合材料中,刚性高的材料能提高隔声效果。为新型材料用于车门内饰件功能扩展方面的设计提供了参考。

  15. 基于Leaky Noisy OR模型的运营隧道防水系统可靠性研究%Reliability Research of Operating Tunnel Waterproof System Based on the Leaky Noisy OR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长庆; 李晓钟

    2015-01-01

    The concealment of the operating tunnel and the uncertain and complex risk factors both increase the difficulty in the reliability research of operational tunnel waterproof system. Firstly this paper established the bayesian network topology and identified the root node prior probability of the failure of values based on the history data and expert experience. Secondly the Leaky Noisy OR model is introduced into the bayesian network,which greatly reduced the demand of the conditional probability value,at the same time improved the accuracy of the models. Then this paper applied GeNIe Ver 2.0 software to model deduction,calculated the tunnel waterproof system failure probability and posterior probability of each risk factor respectively. The size of the posterior probability can provide theoretical guidance for tunnel waterproofing system operation maintenance,and improve the work efficiency. Finally through the sensitivities analysis of each risk factor,this paper found out the sensitivity of the system factor, provided guidance to reduce the occurring probability of sensitive factors to improve the reliability of tunnel waterproofing system in the tunnel construction.%由于运营隧道的隐蔽性和风险因素的不确定性、复杂性增加了运营隧道防水系统可靠性研究的难度.根据历史数据和专家经验建立了贝叶斯网络拓扑结构并确定根节点发生故障的先验概率值,将Leaky Noisy OR模型引入到贝叶斯网络中,大大降低对条件概率值的需求量,同时提高模型的准确性.并应用GeNIe Ver 2.0软件对模型进行推导,分别计算出隧道防水系统的失效概率和各风险因子的后验概率,根据后验概率的大小可以为隧道防水系统运营维护提供理论指导,提高工作效率.通过对各风险因子进行敏感性分析,找到系统中存在的敏感性因子,指导在隧道施工中降低敏感因子的发生概率以提高隧道防水系统的可靠性.

  16. Grey Target Optimization of Waterproof Adhesive Material for Concrete Bridge Deck Pavement Based on Mechanical Analysis%基于力学分析的桥面铺装防水粘结层材料灰靶优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新; 李英涛; 刘云

    2012-01-01

    为了优选与混凝土箱梁桥防水粘结层实际受力状态相匹配的材料,以沪杭高速公路拓宽改建工程高架桥为例,采用有限元法建立了全桥模型,在分析刹车、超载、随机动荷载等因素对防水粘结层力学响应的基础上,利用灰靶理论优选室内实测典型防水粘结层的相关技术参数.研究结果表明:刹车超载使防水粘结层产生的剪应力大于由桥面不平度引起的防水粘结层剪应力,最大可达0.397 MPa;橡胶沥青和SBS改性沥青防水粘结层综合性能较优,可作为混凝土桥防水粘结层材料.%In order to select the optimal waterproof adhesive material that meets the stress needs of concrete box girder bridge deck pavement, taking the viaduct in widening project of the Shanghai-Hangzhou Expressway as an example, a composite structure model of the whole bridge was established using the finite element method, and the influence of braking, overloading, random dynamic loading on the mechanical response of the waterproof adhesive layer was analyzed. The technique parameters of some typical materials for waterproof adhesive layer were tested in lab, and then analyzed by the grey target theory. The result shows that braking plus overloading has a larger effect on the shear stress of adhesive layer than the random dynamic loading caused by bridge deck roughness, and may produce a maximum shear stress of 0. 397 MPa. The rubber asphalt and SBS modified asphalt both have good performance, and can be used as the material of waterproof adhesive layer.

  17. 地下室外墙聚合物柔性防水监理工作经验探讨%Discussion on Supervision Experience on Flexible Waterproof of Basement Exterior Wall Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志勇

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the supervision control method in the application of polymer flexible waterproof of basement exterior wall from aspects of quality control, schedule control and safety management, which provides reference for professional technical management personnel.%本文从质量控制、进度控制、安全管理等方面,探讨地下室外墙聚合物柔性防水应用中的监理控制方法,以供专业技术管理人员借鉴。

  18. 掺澎内传 PNC-803的防水混凝土在工程中的应用%On application of penetron admix PNC-803 waterproof concrete in projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴鲜英

    2015-01-01

    From the main features of materials,the paper illustrates the main features of penetron admix PNC-803,illustrates its waterproof mechanism,analyzes from the construction methods to economic effects according to engineering cases,and proves the waterproof effect and eco-nomic benefits have advantages,so as to extend its application in projects.%从材料的主要特性入手,阐述了澎内传PNC-803的主要特性,并进一步阐述了它的防水机理,然后附以工程实例,从施工方法到工程实体效果及经济效果进行了分析,证明在防水效果与经济效益方面确实有很大的优势,值得在工程项目中推广。

  19. Application of High Pressure Jet Waterproof Curtain to Dock Cofferdam Project%高压旋喷止水帷幕在船坞围堰工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东俊

    2013-01-01

    泉州船厂船坞围堰工程采用基床双排高喷连续墙和帷幕灌浆止水施工工艺。本文对主围堰基床采用2排高压旋喷桩、土石坝围堰采用1排高压旋喷桩的帷幕灌浆止水施工工艺进行简要叙述,对施工过程质量控制和成果、以及工程中出现的几个问题进行了分析。%Dock cofferdam phase-1 project in the ship-repairing zone of Quanzhou shipyard adopts the construction technologies of two-row high-pressure jet diaphragm wall supported on the bedding and curtain grouting waterproofing. The construction technology of curtain grouting waterproofing is briefly described in which two rows of high pressure jet grouting piles are used for main cofferdam bedding and one row for earth-and-rock dam cofferdam. In addition,the construction quality control,results and problems are analyzed in detail.

  20. Analysis of the Waterproofing Construction Weight Control of a Building Basement%某大厦地下室防水工程施工重量控制探讨分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世益

    2013-01-01

      地下室墙板砼的浇筑质量优劣直接影响地下室的抗渗能力。超大超长地下室工程一旦产生渗漏,补修工作较困难。本文以某大厦地下室防水工程为例,详细阐述了如何做好地下室防水施工质量控制,希望能够给类似项目提供一些参考和建议。%The basement wal concrete pouring quality direct-ly affects the basement impermeability. Super-long oversized basement project once produced leakage, repair work is more difficult. This paper taking waterproof engineering in the base-ment of a building as the example, elaborates how to do qualit-y control of basement waterproof construction, hoping to be able to provide some reference and suggestions for similar pro-jects.

  1. APPLICATION OF POLYETHYLENE FOAM PLASTIC SHEET IN WATERPROOF PROTECTION LAYER%聚乙烯泡沫塑料片材在防水保护层中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文良

    2011-01-01

    新型聚乙烯泡沫塑料片材防水保护层区别于传统材料,既可满足图集和施工要求,又可大大降低成本.在某工程地下室防水保护层施工中采用了横向粘贴方法,并与其他保护层进行技术经济对比分析,提出了实践过程中需探讨的几个问题.%The waterproof protection layer made of new polyethylene foam plastic sheet is different from traditional material. It can not only satisfy the drawing collection and construction requirements, but also reduce the cost greatly. During the construction of basement waterproof layer in this engineering, transverse sticking method is adopted, technical and economic comparison and analysis are made with other protective layer. Finally, several problems which shall be discussed in practice are put forward.

  2. The preparation of waterproof luminous coated fabric and its properties%夜光涂层拒水织物的制备及其性能∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴仁芬; 葛明桥

    2015-01-01

    Have a water repellent finish on fabric by using fluoride from water and organic silicon from agent re-spectively setting the concentration at 30 g/L firstly,and then coated with luminous materials.Discuss the influ-ence of two different repellent finishing agents on the coated fabric’s fastness,luminous property,washing prop-erty,waterproof property,moisture permeation property,breathability property and surface morphology.The results show that luminous coated fabric has no water repellent finish was better at fastness luminance and moisture permeation than that has,but show worse at washing,water resistance and breathability.Luminous coated fabric that has be finshed by organic silicon from agent was better at fastness,luminance,washing and moisture permeation than that has be finshed by fluoride from water,but do worse at water resistance and breathability.%采用30 g/L的含氟和有机硅拒水剂分别对织物先进行拒水整理,再对拒水整理的织物进行夜光涂层,讨论两种不同拒水剂整理对夜光涂层织物的牢度性能、发光性能、耐水洗性能、防水透湿透气性能以及表面形态的影响。结果显示,未经拒水整理的夜光涂层织物的牢度、发光性能和透湿性比经拒水整理的要好,但是耐水洗、透气性和拒水性能要差;有机硅拒水剂整理的夜光涂层织物的牢度、发光性能、耐水洗性和透湿性均比含氟拒水剂整理的要好,但是透气性和拒水性均不如含氟拒水剂整理的夜光涂层织物。

  3. Waterproofing with polymeric geo synthetic barriers (GBR-P) in the manual for the design, construction, management and maintenance of reservoirs; La impermeabilizacion con barreras geosinteticas polimericas (GBR-P) en el manual para el diseno, construccion, explotacion y mantenimiento de balsas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.; Cea, J. C.; Garcia, F.; Sanchez, F. J.; Castillo, F.; Mora, J.; Crespo, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a part of Manual for the Design, Construction, Management and Maintenance of Reservoirs relative to waterproofing with Polymeric Geo synthetic Barriers (GBR-P). the nature materials of geo membranes is studied also theirs characteristics and specifications. (Author) 26 refs.

  4. 煤田巷道防水侵水泥浆材的封堵试验%Sealing Test of Waterproof Cement Slurry Material in Coalfield Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 姚平均; 陈道元; 张相乾; 曾艳军

    2015-01-01

    井下巷道掘进仍然是地下煤炭开采的主要方式,在开采过程中必然要穿过一些断裂地层带以及无胶结的松软地层及煤层顶板上的含水层。在掘进过程中,如果处理不当,地层中的水将沿着裂缝和采空塌陷区大量进入巷道内,造成严重的透水事故,使掘进工作无法顺利进行,严重时将导致井巷的报废,甚至造成重大的人身伤亡事故。针对传统水泥浆经水侵后不凝固或被流动水稀释而完全漏失,起不到应有的封堵固化作用等问题,研制出一种防水侵水泥浆封堵材料。该水泥浆与水按1∶1的比例掺混后仍具有凝结时间快、凝结强度高等特点,可在25℃以上的温度条件下使用。在某煤矿840 m井深、120 m3/h出水量情况下进行堵水作业试验,堵水效果良好,可在类似的条件下推广应用。%Underground tunnel excavation is still the main way of coal mining, some fracture stratum zones, non cemented soft strata and aquifer on coal seam roof must be encountered in the mining process.If there is misconduct in the excava-tion, a large amount of formation water may enter along the cracks and through mined-out subsidence areas into the tunnel to cause severe flooding accident, the excavation work will be severely affected, the well lane might be abandoned and even serious personal injury accident might happen.According to the disadvantages of traditional cement slurry, a kind of water-proof has been developed, which is mixed with water at ratio of 1∶1 with rapid condensation and high condensation strength and can be used at the temperature over 25℃.This cement slurry is tested in a mine water plugging operation, the well is 840m in height with outflow of 120m3/h, good water plugging effect is received.

  5. 防水剂对受荷开裂下PVA-SHCC渗透性能的影响%Influences by waterproofing agent on impermeability of strain hardening cement-based composite on the loading state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高嵩; 李秋义; 金祖权; 吴本清

    2014-01-01

    受荷载时产生的多重裂缝是SHCC的薄弱部位和外界介质侵入的通路,会加速了结构的耐久性劣化。而对SHCC进行防水处理是提高耐久性的有效措施,研究了防水剂对PVA-SHCC试件抗氯离子渗透性能和受荷开裂下的试件水毛细吸收系数的影响。试验结果表明:对PVA-SHCC进行防水处理可以显著降低试件中的氯离子扩散系数,外涂防水剂试件的氯离子扩散系数只是不掺防水剂的试样的8%到20%,内掺防水剂的试件的氯离子扩散系数只是不掺防水剂试件的60%左右。试件在受荷开裂下的抗渗性比未施加应力试件的抗渗性差,采取防水处理可以有效提高受荷试件的抗渗性能,外涂和内掺处理方式对提高抗渗的效果相差不大。SHCC渗透性能的研究可以为SHCC结构耐久性研究和服役寿命预测提供重要参考。%Cracks in strain hardening cement-based composite(SHCC)structures caused by mechanical load are the weakness under ser-vice condition,and they provide pathways for access of water and solution containing chloride into strain hardening cement-based com-posite. In the present paper,the influences by waterproofing agent to chloride resisting performances and capillary suction coefficient of specimen on the loading state are experimental studied.The experimental results indicate that water proof treatment can significantly reduce the chloride diffusion coefficient.The chloride diffusion coefficient of the specimen by external application of waterproofing agent is only between 8%and 20%of normal strain hardening cement-based composite specimen. And which of blended with waterproofing agent is ap-proximately 60%of normal strain hardening cement-based composite.Furthermore,the impermeability of strain hardening cement-based composite specimen under the loading state is much worse than that of unloaded strain hardening cement-based composite specimen.The water proofing treatments are

  6. Disccusion on Waterproofing and Draining Design of Railway Tunnel in Severe Cold and Cold Regions%寒冷及严寒地区铁路隧道防排水设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国伟

    2013-01-01

    研究目的:我国寒冷及严寒地区已建成的隧道存在渗漏水影响造成的仰拱翻浆冒泥、衬砌开裂、底鼓甚至侵限等一系列病害.通过对东北地区既有铁路隧道防排水技术现状及运营维护状况进行的调研,分析严寒及寒冷地区防排水设计、施工和运营中存在的问题,指出防排水设计技术需要不断提升水平,从而简化运营维护及保证行车安全.研究结论:结合拟建及在建隧道的防排水设计、施工中存在的实际问题以及新工艺、新材料的实用,总结出保温水沟、中心深埋水沟、防寒泄水洞以及保温盲沟等保温排水的设计应优先采用新型保温材料,减少施工工序以及减低施工难度,以充分解决寒冷及严寒地区隧道的冻害问题.%Research purposes; The water leakage has happened to the tunnel in the severe cold and cold regions, resulting in a series of the disasters, such as rising soil of the inverted arch, lining cracking, heaving floor and even invasion of limitation. Based on investigation and analysis of the current situation of the waterproofing and draining technologies and current maintenance situation of the existing the railway tunnels in the Northeast China, the analysis of the problems in design, construction and maintenance of the waterproofing and draining facilities was made and it was proposed that the waterproofing and draining technologies could be continuously improved to simplify the operation and maintenance and ensure the traffic safety. Research conclusions; Combining with the real problems in design and construction of the waterproofing and draining facilities for the planned tunnel and the tunnel under construction and the application of the new technologies and new materials, it is proposed that the new type heat insulating material should be used for the heat insulating ditch, central deep buried ditch, cold - proof weepage hole and heat insulating blind ditch to reduce

  7. Composite nanofiber membrane based on electrospun PVDF/PVDF-HFP and evaluation for waterproof & breathable properties%电纺PVDF/PVDF-HFP复合纳米纤维膜及其防水透湿性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延波; 马营; 孙健; 宋学礼; 陈国贵

    2014-01-01

    通过静电纺丝技术制备PVDF/PVDF-HFP复合纳米纤维膜,然后对其进行热压处理,采用FE-SEM对其形貌进行表征,并对其力学性能和防水透湿性能进行评价。结果表明:PVDF和PVDF-HFP溶液的最佳纺丝质量分数分别为9%和12%;热压处理后PVDF/PVDF-HFP复合纳米纤维膜具有优异的防水透湿性能,当复合纳米纤维膜中PVDF与PVDF-HFP的质量比为2∶1时,其耐静水压达到7220 mmH2O,透湿量达到7300 g/(m2·24 h)。%Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) composite nanofiber membrane was prepared by electrospinning, followed by thermal calendaring process. The morphology of the membrane was characterized by FE-SEM, and the mechanical property and waterproof-breathable property were evaluated. The results indicate that the best solution concentration of PVDF and PVDF-HFP are 9% and 12% respectively. PVDF/PVDF-HFP composite nanofiber membrane possesses excellent waterproof-breathable property after thermal calendaring. When the mass ratio of PVDF and PVDF-HFP is 2∶1 in the composite nanofiber membrane, the hydrohead of membrane achieves to 7 220 mmH2O and water vapor transmission rate amounts to 7 600 g/(cm2· 24 h).

  8. 目视化管理在防水材料生产管理中的应用%Application of visual management in production management of waterproof materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋强

    2016-01-01

    防水材料生产制造行业因涉及的产品品类和产品型号多,所以对现场管理提出了很高的要求,生产现场存在原材料类型差异大、生产流程不连贯、重要管理节点多、人员分散、操作复杂等特点,规范生产现场可以提高生产效率和质量,减少生产和安全的隐患,提升管理效率。文章以防水材料生产现场的目视化管理为例,简述了如何在其生产现场进行有效的目视化管理,让生产管理透明、直观、易懂、创造良好的工作环境。%Because waterproof material production and manufacturing industry involves a number of product categories and product models, so it puts forward high demands on site management. There are many characteristics, such as raw material type is large difference, the production process is not coherent, the important management nodes are too many, the personnel are scattered, the operation is complex and so on. Regulate the production site can improve the production efficiency and quality, reduce the hidden dangers of production and safety, improve management efficiency. Taking waterproof material production field of visual management as an example, this article briefly describes how to make effective visual management in the production site, so that the production management is transparent, intuitive, straightforward and create a good working environment.

  9. 绿色环保型高性能沥青混凝土排水铺装用防水材料应用研究%Application research on the green high-performance waterproof material for asphalt concrete drainage pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冲; 冉千平; 孙德文

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces a high-performance resin-based waterproof materials for drainage pavement with asphalt con-crete,and its performance advantages as waterproof layer. Its excellent performance includes:4.07 MPa of adhesion to asphalt concrete base surface, 3.51 MPa of adhesion to the concrete surface, low temperature flexibility of up to -20℃,no impervious after 24 h under 1.8 MPa pressure, excellent abrasion resistance. It can not only achieve good compatibility between the waterproof layer with the substrate, but also avoid the economic losses due to performance deficiencies in the waterproof layer exist in the real project.%介绍了一种沥青混凝土排水铺装用的高性能树脂型防水材料以及其作为防水层所具备的性能优势.其优异性能表现在与沥青混凝土基面的粘结强度达4.07 MPa,与混凝土基面的粘结强度达3.51 MPa,低温弯折性可达-20℃,同时在1.8 MPa的压力下24 h不透水,耐磨性优良.不仅能够实现防水层与基层之间良好的相容性,同时避免了在实际工程中存在的因防水层性能缺陷带来的经济损失.

  10. AnaIysis of performance and microstructure of waterproof and anti-crack phosphorus sIag mortar%磷渣砂防水抗裂砂浆的性能及显微结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 刘亚明; 张冰; 左健; 周坤; 刘秀伟

    2015-01-01

    Performance and micro-structure of waterproof and anti-crack phosphorus slag mortar were explored,and the mineral composition,microstructure and pore size distribution of phosphorus slag mortarˊs hardening body were studied by the means of XRD, SEM and Physical Adsorption Instrument. The results show that with the content of waterproof agent increasing,water retention,the orig-inal tensile bond strength and soaking the tensile bond strength increase and ratio of compressive strength to flexural,compressive strength and water permeability reduce. With the content of redispersion emulsoid powder decreasing,compressive strength,soaking the tensile bond strength and ratio of compressive strength to flexural reduce,and water retention,water permeability,and original tensile bond strength increase. The main mineral composition of hydration and hardening of the mortar are silica,hydrated calcium silicate,cal-cium hydroxide and wollastonite. With hydration time extending,active material of fly ash and phosphorus slag powder react with calci-um hydroxide to generate massive hydrated calcium silicate gel. These hydrated calcium silicate fill the gap between fine aggregate,thus the specific surface area and bore diameter of the slurry decrease,and the performance of phosphorus slag mortar(smaple M3)meet re-spectively the technical requirements of M10 waterproof mortar in JG/T 230—2007 and the anti-crack mortar in JGJ 253—2011.%考察了常用添加剂对磷渣砂防水抗裂浆性能的影响,并结合XRD、SEM及物理吸附仪等测试技术分析了磷渣砂浆水化硬化体的矿物组成,微观形貌及孔径分布。试验结果表明:提高防水剂掺量可使砂浆的保水性,原拉伸黏结强度以及浸水拉伸黏结强度增大,而压折比,抗压强度与透水性却降低。减小可再分散乳胶粉的掺量可使砂浆的抗压强度,浸水拉伸黏结强度及压折比减小,而保水性,透水性及原拉伸黏结强度增加。

  11. 橡胶沥青防水粘结层层间抗剪性能试验分析%Test Analysis on Shear Resistance Performance between Rubber Asphalt Waterproofing Adhesive Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正中; 宋晓燕; 肖庆一; 魏连雨

    2012-01-01

    Based on the indoor shear test stimulation of the interface bonding force status of concrete bridge deck waterproof layers, conduct systematically analysis of various factors and rules in layer shear resistance, in terms of asphalt spray amount, gravel spreading type, bridge panel interface treatment conditions and environmental temperature, etc, to propose various technical measures for improving the shear resistance performance between rubber asphalt waterproofing adhesive layers thus provide experimental basis and data support for the practical applications and construction quality. Research concludes that; in order to give full play to the shear resistance performance between rubber asphalt waterproofing adhesive layers, the shear resistance and bond performance in high temperature state must be strictly controlled, the spray volume and spray temperature should be controlled at 1. 8 ~2. 2 kg/m2 and 190 - 200 ℃ ; meanwhile, the spreading gravels should be clean with preheating treatment, the diameter ranging from 2. 36mm to 4. 75 mm; the spraying volume should be 10 kg/m2. In addition, the bridge panel surface roughness degree should be controlled within a reasonable context, when the anti-sliding value is between 45 to 55, the maximum value of interlayer shear resistance strength appears.%利用室内剪切试验模拟水泥混凝土桥面防水粘结层的界面受力状态,从沥青喷涂量、碎石撒布类型、桥面板界面处理状况、环境温度等方面系统分析影响其层间抗剪性能的各种因素及变化规律,以此提出提高橡胶沥青防水粘结层层间抗剪性能的各项技术措施,为充分发挥橡胶沥青防水粘结层的层间抗剪性能,必须严格控制其在高温状态下的抗剪和粘结性能,喷洒量和喷洒温度应控制在1.8~2.2 kg/m2和190~200℃,同时,撤布粒径为2.36~4.75mm、撒布量为10 kg/m2左右且经过预热处理的洁净碎石,而且,还应将桥面板的表面粗糙程度控

  12. 无纺布对海底隧道衬砌防水作用的试验研究%Test study of waterproof effect of nonwoven fabrics on subsea tunnel lining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠盛; 李健; 卓越; 张鹏

    2012-01-01

    As a common waterproof material used in tunnel construction, nonwoven fabrics are widely used as a cushion in the waterproof layer. But the water pressure and structure stress distribution mechanism after using it hasn't been studied thoroughly. Through the research of Xiang'an subsea tunnel, the effect of nonwoven fabrics has been studied with different proof-drainage patterns; i.e. whole block, block combined with drainage and drainage modes. The primary research method adopted is simulated model test with proportional scale of 1:38.88. Its test apparatus can apply both soil pressure and water pressure at the same time. According to the model test, the conclusion is as follow: under whether whole block or limited drainage condition, nonwoven fabrics have a good Junction of water collection and absorption; the nonwoven fabrics can strengthen the water fluxility and complementarity around the lining to make the water pressure distribution on it more well and also improve the stress condition around the lining structure.%采用无纺布作为防水层中的垫层,是国内外隧道工程中结构外层防水常用的措施,但对于无纺布如何改善隧道衬砌背后水压力分布及结构应力分布却一直缺乏相应研究.依托厦门翔安海底隧道,对不同防排水方式(即全封堵、堵排结合及排放方式)的隧道衬砌无纺布作用进行研究,采用相似模型试验方法,模型试验的比例尺为1∶38.88,试验台架可同时施加土压力和水压力.通过模型试验得出结论:无论在全封堵条件还是限排条件下,无纺布均起到很好的集水、附水的作用,加强了水在衬砌四周的流动性、相互补给性,使衬砌周围的水压分布更为均匀,并且改善了衬砌结构周边的应力环境.

  13. Studying on the permeability of waterproofing concrete processed with silane emuslion under freezing-thawing environment%冻融环境下硅烷防水混凝土渗透性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵炜; 黄巍林; 宋强; 徐建光

    2016-01-01

    For studying the influence of freezing-thawing damage on the anti-permeability of integral waterproofing concrete,the con-crete specimens with different W/C and the amount of silane emulsion were prepared.The water absorption and chloride penetration testes were respectively carried out after different freezing-thawing cycles.Eventually,the curves of water absorption and chloride tent are drawn, which aims to evaluate the anti-permeability of integral water proofing concrete.The results show that the anti-frost property of integral wa-terproof concrete is decreased with the addition of silane emulsion.After the same freezing-thawing cycles,the integral water proofing con-crete possesses a better anti-permeability than ordinary concrete that without silane emulsion adding.%为研究冻融损伤对整体混凝土抗渗透性能影响,制备不同水灰比、不同硅烷乳液掺量的整体防水混凝土试件。在不同冻融循环次数下,测定不同试件相对动弹性模量以评价整体防水混凝土抗冻性能。同时,对经过不同冻融循环次数下的试件进行毛细吸水试验和氯离子侵蚀试验,并绘制毛细吸水曲线和氯离子含量曲线,以评价不同冻融损伤下整体防水混凝土的抗渗透性能。试验结果表明,随着硅烷乳液掺量的增加,整体防水混凝土的抗冻性能降低。但是在相同冻融循环次数下,整体防水混凝土仍较普通混凝土具有较好的抗渗透性能。

  14. Analysis of SBS Modified Bitumen Waterproofing Membrane Cracking and Quality Control%浅析屋面 SBS 改性沥青防水卷材开裂及质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯锦

    2013-01-01

    SBS modified bitumen waterproofing membrane cra-cking was widely used in the roof, toilet water proof. Because the product quality of their own and human operator improper proc-es, which make serious problem of leaks between the roof and th-e toilet with the bathroom. The article analysis it’s performance and the Construction points in the process, and puts forward so-me treatment methods%  SBS 改性沥青防水卷材在屋面、卫生间防水中被广泛采用,但由于产品的自身质量原因和在人为操作过程中的不当,使屋面及厕浴间渗漏等问题突出。本文通过对 SBS改性沥青防水卷材的性能、使用过程中施工的要点进行了分析,并提出了一些处理方法。

  15. Comparative study of three different kinds of geo membranes (PVC-P, HDPE, EPDM) used in the waterproofing of reservoirs; Estudio comparativo de tres geomembranas de distinta naturaleza (PVC-P, PEAD, EPDM) empleadas en la impermeabilizacion de balsas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Castillo Rubi, F.; Soriano Carrillo, J.; Noval Arango, A. M.; Touze-Foltz, N.; Pargada Iglesias, L.; Rico Arnaiz, G.; Aguilar gonzalez, E.

    2014-02-01

    This work describes the long-term behaviour of three kinds of geo membranes which are constituted by plasticised poly vinyl chloride (PVC-P), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and terpolymer rubber of ethylene-propylene-dienic monomer (EPDM) used as the waterproofing system of the reservoirs Los Llanos de Mesa, San Isidro and El Golfo, respectively. Characteristics of the three original geo membranes and their behaviour along time are presented. Thicknesses, content and nature of the plasticizers ( in PVC-P), tensile properties dynamic and static puncture, fold ability at low temperature, shore hardness, tear resistance and carbon black ( in HDPE), joint strength (shear and peeling test) and microscopy, both optical and electronic scanning tests were carried out. Results obtained conclude with a long-term durability of geo membranes, independently of their macromolecular nature. These characteristics were determined by advanced analytical techniques in PVC-P samples, such as fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Spectrometry (MS). (Author)

  16. Study on the lining crack of subsea tunnel in the different conditions of waterproof and drainage%海底隧道不同防排水条件下衬砌结构开裂情况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷波; 漆泰岳; 王睿; 陈小雨

    2015-01-01

    The waterproof and drainage way are not always similar to each other in the different level of surround-ing rock of subsea tunnel,among which the principle of controlled drainage was used in the hard surrounding rock I andⅡ,and the entire plugging method can be applied to the surrounding rock of poor quality,such as the level of Ⅳ and Ⅴ.Based on the XFEM,the actual cracking of Xiamen Subsea Tunnel will be taken in a re-search in different condition of waterproof and drainage,which can be available to provide some useful sugges-tions for the building of other high -pressure tunnels and making cause analysis of lining crack.The research re-sults show that it is not happened to the crack of tunnel lining in the case of controlled drainage of surrounding rock level Ⅱ and the design is reasonable.It also turns out that the outside of arch springing of tunnel lining is cracked in the condition of whole block of surrounding rock level Ⅴ.Both the crushing and cracking of concrete lining will happen under the condition of higher water pressure,which need to be structural reinforced in the rel-evant position of tunnel lining cracks.Besides,based on tunnel lining diseases until now,which mainly are cir-cumferential cracks and located in some parts above the arch wall,it is found that the high water pressure isn’t the main reason of lining cracking of Xiamen subsea tunnel.%海底隧道不同围岩级别所采用的防排水方式不同。Ⅰ、Ⅱ级围岩采用限量排导的防排水方案,Ⅳ、Ⅴ级较差围岩地段衬砌结构采用全封闭防排水方案。基于扩展有限元法,以厦门海底隧道为例,针对海底隧道不同防排水条件下的衬砌结构开裂情况进行研究,为今后其他高水压水下隧道设计和海底隧道的病害原因分析提供一定的参考价值。研究表明:采用堵水限排的条件下Ⅱ级围岩的衬砌结构未发生衬砌结构开裂,结构设计合理;而采

  17. 高铁梁面防水保护层C40细石纤维混凝土性能研究%Study on properties of waterproof protectivelayer C40 fine aggregate concrete for high speed railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志讲; 周华新; 崔巩; 阳知乾

    2014-01-01

    依据高铁梁面防水保护层C40细石纤维混凝土技术要求,对比研究了网状聚丙烯纤维、聚丙烯腈纤维、聚乙烯醇纤维及纤维素纤维对混凝土抗裂性能及拌合物性能的影响。试验结果表明:网状聚丙烯纤维和聚丙烯腈纤维均存在各自的局限性,网状聚丙烯纤维早期抗塑性开裂性能较差,而聚丙烯腈纤维早期抗塑性开裂性能较好,但严重影响混凝土施工性能;短切纤维素纤维在混凝土体系中很难搭接粗骨料和细骨料形成网络结构,抗塑性开裂效果一般;聚乙烯醇纤维分子结构中含有羟基,能与水泥水化产物发生反应,亲水性强,分散性好,具有较好抗裂性能,更适合用于高铁梁面防水保护层C40细石纤维混凝土。%According to the requirements of C40 fine aggregate concrete technology of waterproof protective layer for high speed rail-ways,the influence of the reticulate polypropylene fiber,polyacrylonitrile fiber,polyvinyl alcohol fiber and cellulose fiber on the properties of concrete anti-cracking performance and workability were studied.The results showed that the reticular polypropylene fiber and polyacry-lonitrile fiber had their limitations,the reticulate polypropylenefiber had little effect on concrete workability,but early plastic cracking re-sistance performance wasvery poor,polyacrylonitrile fiber early plastic cracking resistance performance was good,but seriously affected the construction of concrete performance.Short cellulose fiber in the concrete system was difficult to lap of coarse aggregate and fine aggre-gate to form network structure,and plastic cracking resistance effect was not very ideal.The molecular structure of polyvinyl alcohol fiber containing hydroxyl,could react with cement hydration products,powerful hydrophily,good dispersibility,had a good crack resistance,so more suitable for waterproof protective layer C40 fiber concrete with fine stones.

  18. PU/PVDF 防水透气共混膜的制备及性能研究%Preparation and characterization analysis of waterproof breathable PU/PVDF nanofibrous membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 姚理荣; 高强

    2014-01-01

    PU/PVDF nanofibrous membranes were successfully prepared by electrospinning .The effect of the concentration , the component solvent of DMF/acetone and mass ratio of solute on the morphology , the diameter of the spun fibers and the contact angle of fiber membrane were studied .The PU/PVDF membrane with optimum parameter was explored .The results show that the optimum process for electrospinning PU/PVDF membrane is concentration being 12%, volume ratio of component solvents of DMF/acetone being 4/6 , mass ratio of solute of PU/PVDF being 7/3 when voltage being 14 kV and traveling distance being 10 cm.Under these conditions , PU/PVDF blend membrane with good air permeability, excellent waterproofness and stretchability can be obtained .%采用静电纺丝法制备聚氨酯/聚偏氟乙烯( PU/PVDF )共混纳米纤维膜,研究PU、PVDF质量分数、溶剂体积配比、溶质质量比对纳米纤维形貌、直径及膜性能的影响,探索共混纤维膜较优制备工艺。结果表明:共混纳米纤维膜较优制备工艺为静电纺丝电压14 kV、接收距离10 cm、纺丝液质量分数12%、溶剂体积配比N,N-二甲基甲酰胺/丙酮为4/6、溶质质量比PU/PVDF为7/3,此条件下可获得具有较优防水透气性能和力学性能的共混膜。

  19. Experiment of the cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material on autoclaved PHC pile concrete%水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料在蒸压PHC管桩混凝土中应用的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐孟雄; 胡贺松; 杨医博; 艾立涛; 郭文瑛; 王恒昌

    2014-01-01

    The autoclaved PHC pile is widely used in the project,however the pile will easily have tiny crack in the process of produc-tion and construction.Based on the good crack repairing function of the cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material ,re-searched the influence of mixed and brushed cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material on the pile.The crack imitated by ap-ply different levels of stress in the pile concrete,and put the concrete into the air,tap water and saline water curing environment for 7 and 28 day.The results showed that mixed cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material cannot repair the crack of pile concrete , brushed cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material maybe repair the crack of pile concrete.%蒸压PHC管桩是广泛应用的一种桩基材料,然而在生产和施工中桩身容易产生微裂纹。鉴于水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料具有良好的裂缝修复能力,选用掺入型和涂刷型两种水泥基渗透结晶防水材料,通过对管桩混凝土试件施加不同应力水平的模拟裂纹,分别在空气、自来水、盐水等三种方式下养护,对比研究其对管桩混凝土裂缝的修复能力。研究结果显示,掺入型防水材料对管桩混凝土裂缝基本无修复能力,不适用于管桩混凝土,而涂刷型防水材料对管桩混凝土裂缝可能有一定修复能力。

  20. Influence of fly ash, activator and waterproofing agent on the properties of thermal insulation gypsum block%粉煤灰、激发剂和防水剂对石膏自保温砌块性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘研; 李国忠

    2015-01-01

    Influence of fly ash, activator and waterproofing agent on the properties of thermal insulation gypsum block is researched. The research results show that when the content of fly ash is up to 25%, the mechanical properties of samples is best; when the activator reaches 1.5%, dry bending strength increases 36.5%, dry compressive strength increases 27.6%;when the organosilicon waterproofing agent content is 0.4%, the water absorption rates for 2 h and 24 h respectively are 3.5%and 4.2%, comparing the gypsum sample, the water absorption rate reduces respectively 88.3%and 87%.%研究结果表明,当粉煤灰掺量达到25%时,试样的力学性能最好;当激发剂掺量达到1.5%时,绝干抗折强度增加了36.5%,绝干抗压强度增加了27.6%;当有机硅防水剂掺量为0.4%时,2 h和24 h的吸水率分别为3.5%和4.2%,相比于空白试样,吸水率分别降低了88.3%和87%。

  1. Plasticized Effect of Plasticizers on CPE Waterproofing Materials%增塑剂对氯化聚乙烯防水卷材增塑效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新星; 苑会林; 李明昆

    2012-01-01

    分析了几种增塑剂[邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二辛酯(DOP)、邻苯二甲酸二异癸酯(DIDP)、癸二酸二辛酯(DOS)、偏苯三甲酸三辛酯(TOTM)以及氯化石蜡等]对氯化聚乙烯(CPE)防水卷材的增塑机理.在保持其他条件不变的前提下,选取增塑剂的份数为25份,并在此基础上从力学性能、耐温性能、流变性能以及微观结构四个方面比较各种增塑剂与CPE树脂的相容性,从而比较它们的增塑效果.结果表明:DSC以及电镜结果显示邻苯类增塑剂效果明显优于其他类型增塑剂;其中DOP为主增塑剂的体系综合性能最好;DOS作为主增塑剂时具有良好的耐低温析出性;DIDP作为主增塑剂时具有耐高温析出性;氯化石蜡可作为辅助增塑剂;以上增塑剂可根据各自特点复配使用.%The plasticizing mechanism of several plasticizers (DBP, DOP, DIDP, DOS, TOTM and chlorinated paraffin wax, etc,) to the chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) waterproofing materials was studied. Keeping other conditions under the same basis, the test selected the number of copies of plasticizer as 25. On this basis test compared the compatibility of these plasticizers and the CPE resin from mechanical properties, heat resistance, rheological properties and microstructure of the four aspects, inorder to compare the difference of plasticizing effect. DSC and SEM showed that the plastic effect of phthalic acid ester plasticizer was much better than other types of plasticizer, and the plastic effect of DOP was the best. When DOS was as the main plasticizer it can provide the material better low temperature resistance ability. If DIDP was as the main plasticizer it can provide the material better high temperature resistance ability. Chlorinated paraffin wax cannot be used as main plasticizer but as auxiliary plasticizer. These plasticizers can be used together according to their characteristics.

  2. 聚合物水泥防水涂料的自修复性能研究%Study on the Self Repair Property of Polymer Cement Waterproof Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩朝辉

    2011-01-01

    Through the experiments, the influences of different types of cement on the self repair performance of polymer cement waterproof coatings is investigated, getting that only in use of fast hardening ferric aluminate cement, can the self repair performance be obtained. Basing on this, this paper discusses the influence of amount of cement, amount of vinyl acetate - ethylene polymer emulsion, amount of water absorbent resin and the ratio of powder and liquid on the self repair performance. Experiment results show that, with the increase of the amount of cement and water absorbent resin, the self repair performance increases; and with the increase of vinyl acetate - ethylene polymer emulsion and powder, the self repair performance firstly increases and then decreases.%通过试验,考察了不同型号水泥对聚合物水泥防水涂料的自修复性能的影响,结果只有在使用快硬铁铝酸盐水泥情况下聚合物水泥防水涂料才能自我修复。在此基础上,进一步考察了水泥用量、聚醋酸乙烯-乙烯聚合物乳液用量、吸水树脂用量、粉料与液料之比对聚合物水泥防水涂料的自修复性能的影响。试验结果显示:随着水泥及吸水树脂用量的增加,聚合物水泥防水涂料的自修复性能增加;随着聚醋酸乙烯-乙烯聚合物乳液及粉料的增加,聚合物水泥防水涂料的自修复性能先增加后降低。

  3. Unvulcanized elastomeric waterproofing materials for construction application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Karmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the construction was widespread elastomer profiles, which have the ability to swell in water. Such products should have a high capacity for swelling, elasticity, resistance to weathering. At the present time for these purposes are used materials, mostly of foreign origin. With the increasing pace of construction in Russia the problem of replacement of imported materials is particularly relevant. The work was dedicated to the creation of water-swellable elastomer materials using bentonite powders and study of their properties. Сomparative testing of imported and domestic hydrophilic sealants were held. Rationale and choice of components for the cords of bentonite was conducted. Polymer base is saturated ethylene-propylene rubber. Bentonite from different manufacturers used to increase the swelling of the samples. Filler added in an amount of 50–100 phr. The elastomeric compositions were prepared using laboratory roller at a temperature of 60 ± 5° C. Profiling was performed on a syringe-machine at a temperature of 120° C. Extrusion indicator of the mixtures were evaluated on a 10-point scale (German-Russian system. It is found that high swelling products provided using field Azerbaijan bentonite. It is noted that the dosage of bentonite than 150 w.p. deteriorates technological properties of bentonite cords. It has been shown that activation of the bentonite and sodium carbonate chloride can significantly improve product swelling, wherein the bentonite content of the composition was 150–200 w.p.

  4. 石灰-水泥系外墙防水装饰砂浆与外墙外保温系统适应性研究%The adaptive research of lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall and exterior insulation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩方晖; 王栋民; 许晨阳; 刘晓斌; 刘天德

    2012-01-01

    To make lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall which successes through chemical modification technology to be widely applied in exterior insulation system, it must have good adaptability with exterior insulation system. This paper through establishing force diagram of facing external wall thermal insulation and adopting ESP external wall thermal insulation to be used in high-rise building)analyzing and calculating the earthquake effect by level, wind load and both combination effect and vertical stress gravity and bond force: meanwhile,on the basis of the calculation method to calculate the force of the 100 m-high high-rise building top exterior insulation system in the Beijing center: furthermore, calculating the force of facing external wall thermal insulation when the exterior wall facing is ceramic tile, coating and carrying on the comparison. Results indicate: it is safe when the exterior wall facing is lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall in high-rise exterior insulation system; by the size of the load is for ceramic tile > lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall > coating, in comprehensive comparison, lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall has superiority.%要使通过化学改性技术研制成功的石灰-水泥系外墙防水装饰砂浆在外墙外保温系统中得到广泛应用,其必须与外墙外保温系统有很好的适应性.通过建立饰面外墙外保温系统受力图,对采用膨胀聚苯板作为高层建筑外墙外保温时,所受水平地震作用、风荷载和两者组合效应及竖直方向受力重力和压剪粘结力分析计算;同时,依据这些计算方法计算了北京市中心高为100m的高层建筑顶部外墙外保温系统受力情况;计算了外墙饰面为瓷砖、涂料时外墙外保温系统的受力情况,并对其进行比较.结果表明:外墙饰面为石灰-水泥系外墙防水装饰砂浆时应用于高层外

  5. Design and Construction of Heat-keeping Water-proofing and Drainage System of Lafashan Tunnel in Extremely Cold Region%严寒地区拉法山隧道保温型防排水系统设计施工技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐晟; 杨春勃; 杨艳玲

    2014-01-01

    严寒地区隧道结构因为地下水的存在,会长期出现冻胀的问题,经过冻融后,隧道结构易产生破坏,将大大影响结构的使用寿命。严寒地区的拉法山隧道从设计到施工,在“防、排、截、堵相结合,因地制宜,综合治理”的原则指导下,摸索出“先堵水、后排水、再防水”的防排水工程三要素。即先对围岩进行封闭注浆堵水,达到衬砌背后无水、少水的目的,再对衬砌背后增加聚氨酯保温层,保证衬砌背后不结冻;同时,采用在冻结线以下的深埋中央水沟,保证排水的通畅,解决了隧道在严寒环境下的冻胀问题。在施工技术上,开发了挂设聚氨酯保温层的施工方法,同时对止水带施工工艺进行优化,仰拱纵向钢边止水带、中埋式止水带和衬砌中埋止水带均采用了特制的定型钢模板施工,有效地解决了隧道防排水系统施工的质量通病。%Due to the existence of ground water,swelling and thawing caused by freezing always occur to tunnels located in extremely cold regions.Therefore,the tunnel structure may be damaged and the service life of the tunnel may be reduced.For the water-proofing and drainage of Lafashan tunnel,which is located in extremely cold region,the design principle of“water stopping,water draining and water sealing”is established,i.e.,water-stopping grouting is made to stop the ground water so as to minimize the water behind the lining,then heat-keeping layer is installed behind the lining to avoid freezing behind the lining,and finally central drainage ditch is built below the freezing level so as to ensure smooth water releasing.In this way,the problem of freezing swelling in extremely cold regions has been successfully solved .Regarding the construction of the water-proofing and drainage system,new heat-keeping layer installation method is developed,the water stop tie installation technique is optimized and

  6. Water inrush risk evaluation of coal mining under Quatemary alluvial water and reasonable design method of waterproof coal pillar%第四系松散含水层下煤层开采突水危险性及防水煤柱确定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟召平; 高延法; 卢爱红; 王睿; 乔旭; 黄成玉

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of water inrush risk coefficient was proposed through theoretical analysis, and the theory and method of the evaluation of water inrush danger under the Quaternary loose aquifer, as well as the reasonable design method of waterproof coal pillar were established. The results show that the thickness of effective protective layer is calculated by the distance between the top of mining seam and bottom of Quaternary loose aquifer minus the height of caving and fractured zone which is formed after mining the whole height at one time. If the thickness value is less than zero, the water in the Quaternary loose aquifer may influx into the working face, which will result in roof water inrush. If the thickness value is larger than zero, the water inrush risk coefficient, which is the ratio of hydraulic pressure in Quaternary loose aquifer to the thickness value of effective protective layer, can be used to evaluate the water inrush danger. On this basis, the thickness of protective layer and the reasonable height of waterproof coal pillar are put forward according to the hydraulic pressure value of loose aquifer. Adopting the method metioned above, the water inrush danger of No. 8 coal seam mining under Quaternary loose aquifer in Donghuantuo minefield, Kailuan mining area, and the reasonable waterproof coal pillar were evaluated. The evaluation results consistent well with the actual conditions.%通过理论分析提出了松散含水层突水危险系数概念,建立了第四系松散含水层下煤层开采突水危险性评价和防水煤柱留设的理论与方法.研究结果表明,开采煤层顶界至第四系松散含水层底界之间距离减去开采煤层一次采全高形成的冒落裂隙带高度为有效保护层厚度,若有效保护层厚度小于零,第四系松散含水层可能涌入回采工作面,造成顶板突水.若有效保护层厚度大于零,其突水危险性采用松散含水层水压与有效保护层厚度之比

  7. Study on Scheme Selection of Waterproof System of Bridge Deck Pavement Based on Fuzzy Evaluation Theory%模糊评价理论在桥面铺装防水体系方案比选中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强; 潘红伟; 付建村; 孙杰

    2014-01-01

    结合华北地区某大型水泥混凝土桥面沥青铺装层工程,将半结构多目标模糊优选评价理论应用到桥面铺装防水体系方案比选中。根据桥面铺装防水体系需要综合考虑的几个方面,建立综合评价指标体系,通过确定各指标对分系统相对优属度矩阵及分系统对总决策的相对优属度向量,并确定出各方案对总决策的优越度,最终比选出方案1(热 SBS 改性沥青与0.5%单粒径预拌碎石封层+2 cm 沥青胶砂防水层+改性乳化沥青粘层)为最优方案。%Relying on bridge deck pavement for a large concrete bridge in North China,the half-structural and multi-objective fuzzy optimization theory is applied.According to considering several as-pects of waterproof system of bridge deck pavement,comprehensive evaluation index system is estab-lished.Through determining the relative subordinate degree matrix for the criteria and the relative subor-dinate degree vector of the sub-system to total decision,the preponderance of the scenarios chosen to the total decision are decided,and finally program 1 that is seal coat of heat SBS modified asphalt and 0.5%single particle size premixed gravel +waterproof layer of 2 cm asphalt sand +sticky layer of modified e-mulsified asphalt is selected as the optimal scheme.

  8. Long-Term Performance of the Laguna de Barlovento Reservoir Water-Proofing using a PVC-P Geo membrane; Impermeabilizacion de la balsa de la Laguna de Barlovento con geomembrana de PVC-P: evolucion a lo largo del tiempo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Leiro Lopez, A.; Soriano Carrillo, J.; Crespo Mucientes, M.; Zornberg, J.; Aguilar Gonzalez, E.; Rico Arnaiz, G.; Pargada Iglesias, L.

    2014-02-01

    The Laguna de Barlovento reservoir was one of the most important European hydraulic projects at the time of its construction because of its high capacity and challenging location. At the time, the designers decided to waterproof this reservoirs with a geo membrane of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-P). This paper documents the initial characteristics of the geo membrane and its performance since its installation until 2010. The material characterization includes a comprehensive testing program, the results of which are presented. They include quantification of the geo membrane thickness, amount and nature of plasticizers, tensile properties, fold ability under low temperatures, dynamic impact resistance, puncture resistance, welding strength (both in the manufacturing facility and in the field), as well as the use of techniques involving optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, advanced analytical techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Mass spectrometry (MS), were used in order to identify the plasticizers used in the geo membrane formulation. Fold ability tests were found to provide early indication of degradation. Results from reflection optical and electron scanning microscopy showed that, after 19 nineteen years of installation, the geo membrane remains in good conditions, particularly on the non-exposed side. (Author)

  9. Experimental Investigation and Lifetime Estimating on Non-sulfurized Chlorinate Polyethylene Waterproof Roll Material%非硫化型氯化聚乙烯(CPE)防水卷材耐热老化性能研究及寿命估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹本飞; 苑会林; 杨晋娜; 王新星; 牛萍

    2011-01-01

    This article was to research the thermal aging performance effect of Chlorcosane , Carbon black and Light quality magnesia on the Non-sulfurized chlorinate polyethylene waterproof roll material. Stretcher, TGA and Fourier transformation infrared spectrum were used to test the sample and the lifetime of the best compounding was estimated by thermal gravity analysis(TGA). The result showed that migration of plasticizer was the major factor of heat deterioration, The optimal ratio of chlorinate polyethylene was 15phr; Light quality MgO did nothing to heat stabilizer performance, and lowered the ageing-resistant performance of chlorinate polyethylene. Carbon black had the aging-resistant performance to some extent. By way of Doyle and Zsako' integral method of dynamic TG method, its heat degradation dynamic mechanism was got, and the formula was selected to analyse thermal degradation dynamically , calculate the dynamic parameters such as degradation activation energy E and frequency factor A,and the relation equation between temperature and lifetime was deduced. Due to the experimental data, its life cycie was estimated to be about 59 years.%为了研究阻燃增塑剂氯化石蜡、增强剂炭黑N330、轻质氧化镁对CPE防水卷材热老化性能的影响规律,对老化前后的试样进行拉伸、热重分析(TGA)和红外光谱分析等测试,并运用非等温动态热重分析法对最优配方的防水卷材进行寿命估算.结果表明:增塑剂迁移是CPE防水卷材热老化的主要因素,氯化石蜡的最佳用量是15份;轻质氧化镁在非硫化热塑性橡胶中没有热稳定的作用,反而降低了防水卷材耐热老化性能;炭黑N330具有防热老化的作用;运用动态热重法的Doyle和Zsako'积分法判断其老化反应机理并计算出反应活化能E和频率因子A等动力学参数,进而计算出卷材使用寿命与温度的关系.由实验数据估算,CPE防水卷材的使用寿命在59年左右.

  10. Human-mediated dispersal of aquatic invertebrates with waterproof footwear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valls, Luis; Castillo-Escrivà, Andreu; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Armengol, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    ...-)national management considering invasive species in other aquatic systems. In this context, we aim at understanding the role of human-mediated dispersal by footwear in protected wetlands with high conservation value...

  11. 南京四桥钢桥面铺装防水粘结层试验及施工工艺研究%Tests for Waterproof Binding Layer of Steel Bridge Deck Pavement of Fourth Nanjing Changjiang River Bridge and the Paving Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章登精; 朱华平; 潘友强

    2014-01-01

    T he Fourth Nanjing Changjiang River Bridge is a three-span continuous steel box girder suspension bridge with a main span of 1 418 m ,to which the composite poured asphalt steel deck pavement system has been used for the first time .The lower layer of the pavement is the 4 cm thick GA-13 poured asphalt concrete w hile the upper layer is the 3 .5 cm thick AC-13 high-elastic modified asphalt concrete ,and the binding layer between the lower layer and the steel deck plate a-dopts the solvent rubber asphalt .To investigate the performance of the binding layer ,the solvent rubber asphalt was checked by the pull-out test and shear test .The results indicate that the bind-ing layer of solvent rubber asphalt can better meet the anti-debonding damage requirements of the steel bridge deck pavement under constant temperatures ,but under the extreme low temperatures , the tensile strength of the binding layer should be checked .The binding layer is proved satisfying the anti-shear requirements .To direct the binding layer construction ,the testing of the surface handling technique for the steel bridge deck and that of the field construction technique of the bind-ing layer were carried out .According to the test results ,the targeted measures taken for ensuring the construction quality were proposed . The sandblasting of the steel bridge deck was set at Sa3 .0 .After the sandblasting of the steel bridge deck ,the waterproof binding layer was directly paved and there was no need to do the traditional zinc spraying or painting protection .The rational construction control parameters were determined through experimental study and trial section con-struction .%南京四桥为主跨1418 m的三跨连续钢箱梁悬索桥,在国内首次采用复合浇注式沥青钢桥面铺装体系,下层为4 cm厚GA -13浇注式沥青混凝土,上层为3.5 cm厚AC -13高弹改性沥青混凝土,下层与桥面钢板的粘结层采用溶剂型橡胶沥青。为了解粘结层性能,

  12. New generation waterproofing materials containing vollastonite-basedantigidron system Гидроизоляционные материалы нового поколения на основе волластонитового комплекса «Антигидрон»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezrukov Aleksey Vladimirovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Major penetrating waterproofing mixtures represent dry mixtures of cement and sand having admixtures, or systems of mineral salts, used to block the structure of capillaries and pores of cement mortars and concretes. Thin layers of waterproofing mortars are applied to sufficiently porous surfaces. As a result, the water content is reduced in the course of hardening. This process causes contraction and cracks in the coating.The findings of the research performed by the authors have proven that waterproofing materials containing wollastonite-based Antigidron system comply with each basic requirement applicable to penetrating waterproofing materials, as their admixtures penetrate into the concrete to seal concrete pores and to generate insoluble crystals.The new Antigidron system has the following strengths. Each component of the proposed system is made in Russia. It has efficient operating properties, and its cost is1.5 — 2 times lower than the one of similar products.Гидроизоляционные смеси проникающего действия — это, как правило, цементно-песчаные сухие растворные смеси, содержащие в качестве добавок систему минеральных солей, обеспечивающих блокирование капиллярнопоровой структуры цементных растворов и бетонов. Гидроизоляционные растворы наносятся тонким слоем на достаточно пористое основание. В результате при твердении происходит снижение влажности. Это вызывает усадку и образование трещин в покрытии.

  13. Waterproofing of thermally insulating products based on caustic dolomite ПОВЫШЕНИЕ ВОДОСТОЙКОСТИ ТЕПЛОИЗОЛЯЦИОННЫХ ИЗДЕЛИЙ НА ОСНОВЕ КАУСТИЧЕСКОГО ДОЛОМИТА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezdina Yevgeniya Vasilevna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Constructional materials production based on magnesia cement, the waterproofing and the cold endurance of these materials is described. The composition and the hardening kinetics of magnesia cement is investigated.Рассмотрены получение строительных материалов на основе магнезиальных вяжущих; повышение водо- и морозостойкости этих материалов. Исследованы состав и кинетика твердения магнезиальных вяжущих.

  14. Waterproof, Breathable Fabrics for Military Clothing Systems: An Innovative Approach to Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    extracting) and then dry bag in automatic tumble dryer set on permanent press cycle, 1501-1601 F for fifteen 20 (15) minutes (more than one bag can be...into the washer. The duration of each laundering cycle shall be 30 + 5 minutes. After laundering, place sample and ballast in an automatic tumble ... dryer set on permanent press cycle, 150’-1600 F, and dry for approximately 15 minutes. Conduct 20 laundering and drying cycles. After each drying cycle

  15. Retrospective exposure assessment for carcinogenic agents in bitumen waterproofing industry in Finland and Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, P.; Heikkila, P.; Makela, M.; Schlunssen, V.; Priha, E. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the study was (I) to identify the carcinogenic agents that may cause confounding when studying the exposure-response relationship between bitumen fume exposure and cancer among roofing membrane-manufacturing workers and roofers and (ii) to assess exposures to the identified carcinogens and bitumen fume in roofing membrane manufacturing and roofing in Finland and Denmark from 1950 to 2005. Information on the use of carcinogenic agents and other relevant data were collected through semi-structured interviews of senior employees in the industry. Semi-quantitative exposure assessments were made on the basis of available measurement data and information obtained from the interviews and literature. Most of the production line workers in roofing membrane plants in Finland were exposed to asbestos until the mid-1970s. Also, some of the mixer operators in the plants were exposed to asbestos in Finland during the 1970s and in Denmark from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s. In both countries, coal tar pitch was used in roofing membrane manufacturing until the mid-1960s, and consequently, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the plants was high in the 1950s and still significant in the early 1960s. Exposure of production line workers to quartz dust was high until the 1980s and is still relatively high compared with current occupational exposure limit values. Bitumen roofers' exposure to coal tar-derived PAHs may have been significant in both countries until the end of 1960s. Roofers' exposure to asbestos and quartz was estimated to have been near background level.

  16. Formation and dynamics of "waterproof" photoluminescent complexes of rare earth ions in crowded environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Tetyana; Blades, Michael; Duque, Juan G; Doorn, Stephen K; Biaggio, Ivan; Rotkin, Slava V

    2014-12-28

    Understanding behavior of rare-earth ions (REI) in crowded environments is crucial for several nano- and bio-technological applications. Evolution of REI photoluminescence (PL) in small compartments inside a silica hydrogel, mimic to a soft matter bio-environment, has been studied and explained within a solvation model. The model uncovered the origin of high PL efficiency to be the formation of REI complexes, surrounded by bile salt (DOC) molecules. Comparative study of these REI-DOC complexes in bulk water solution and those enclosed inside the hydrogel revealed a strong correlation between an up to 5×-longer lifetime of REIs and appearance of the DOC ordered phase, further confirmed by dynamics of REI solvation shells, REI diffusion experiments and morphological characterization of microstructure of the hydrogel.

  17. Evolution of ``waterproof'' photoluminescent complexes of rare earth ions in crowded environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blades, Michael; Ignatova, Tetyana; Duque, Juan; Doorn, Stephen; Biaggio, Ivan; Rotkin, Slava V.

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery of novel nitrogen phase synthesized using laser-heated diamond anvil cells at pressures well above the stability field of cg-N. This new phase is characterized by its singly bonded, layered polymeric (LP) structure similar to the predicted Pba2 and two colossal Raman bands, arising from two groups of highly polarized nitrogen atoms in the bulk and surface of the layer, respectively. The present result also provides a new constraint for the nitrogen phase diagram, highlighting an unusual symmetry lowering 3D cg-N to 2D LP-N transition and thereby the enhanced electrostatic contribution to the stabilization of this densely packed LP-N. The work has been supported by the NSF-DMR (Grant No. 1203834) and DTRA (HDTRA1-12-01-0020).

  18. Waterproof Manado: Life must be safe and secure, not only today but also in the future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slijk, R.V.; Schadee, L.W.; Knook, P.P.; Van der Salm, G.L.S.; Notenboom, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    Manado City is growing, its population is increasing. This demands the city to grow outside its borders and even into the sea by using land reclamation. Introducing new challenges or making challenges bigger, which are already present. Not only growth is present in the city, going forward and

  19. Waterproof Manado: Life must be safe and secure, not only today but also in the future!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slijk, R.V.; Schadee, L.W.; Knook, P.P.; Van der Salm, G.L.S.; Notenboom, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    Manado City is growing, its population is increasing. This demands the city to grow outside its borders and even into the sea by using land reclamation. Introducing new challenges or making challenges bigger, which are already present. Not only growth is present in the city, going forward and becomi

  20. Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase sustains a fatty acid-dependent remote signal to waterproof the respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Napal, Laura; Rubin, Thomas; Poidevin, Mickael; Perrin, Laurent; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Montagne, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA-interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA-interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles-the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA) within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes.

  1. Development of Series Floor Waterproof Wax%系列地板防水蜡的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊岭; 潘金亮; 汤湖川; 田勇; 时卉娟

    2010-01-01

    地板防水蜡要求有适宜的稠度、凝固点和良好的化学稳定性、热稳定性及防水性.通过对原料油、原料蜡及添加剂复配的研究,确定系列地板防水蜡配方组成,经实验室检测分析和用户使用表明:该系列蜡具有良好的化学稳定性、热稳定性及防水性能,完全可以替代欧洲进口同类产品.

  2. 防水材料环保标准解读%Interpretation of environmental standards for waterproofing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶林标; 王翠芬

    2010-01-01

    介绍了防水卷材、防水涂料及刚性防水材料环境标志产品技术要求标准的制定背景、必要性和可行性;对该3项标准的适用范围以及主要的技术内容进行了解读.

  3. Drosophila melanogaster Acetyl-CoA-carboxylase sustains a fatty acid-dependent remote signal to waterproof the respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Parvy

    Full Text Available Fatty acid (FA metabolism plays a central role in body homeostasis and related diseases. Thus, FA metabolic enzymes are attractive targets for drug therapy. Mouse studies on Acetyl-coenzymeA-carboxylase (ACC, the rate-limiting enzyme for FA synthesis, have highlighted its homeostatic role in liver and adipose tissue. We took advantage of the powerful genetics of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of the unique Drosophila ACC homologue in the fat body and the oenocytes. The fat body accomplishes hepatic and storage functions, whereas the oenocytes are proposed to produce the cuticular lipids and to contribute to the hepatic function. RNA-interfering disruption of ACC in the fat body does not affect viability but does result in a dramatic reduction in triglyceride storage and a concurrent increase in glycogen accumulation. These metabolic perturbations further highlight the role of triglyceride and glycogen storage in controlling circulatory sugar levels, thereby validating Drosophila as a relevant model to explore the tissue-specific function of FA metabolic enzymes. In contrast, ACC disruption in the oenocytes through RNA-interference or tissue-targeted mutation induces lethality, as does oenocyte ablation. Surprisingly, this lethality is associated with a failure in the watertightness of the spiracles-the organs controlling the entry of air into the trachea. At the cellular level, we have observed that, in defective spiracles, lipids fail to transfer from the spiracular gland to the point of air entry. This phenotype is caused by disrupted synthesis of a putative very-long-chain-FA (VLCFA within the oenocytes, which ultimately results in a lethal anoxic issue. Preventing liquid entry into respiratory systems is a universal issue for air-breathing animals. Here, we have shown that, in Drosophila, this process is controlled by a putative VLCFA produced within the oenocytes.

  4. Environmentally Safe, Sprayable, Waterproof, Rapid Three Minute Room Temperature Cure Resin for the Manufacturing of Aerospace Composite Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    test specimens with a composite wax composed of 60% white beeswax and 40% Fisher Tissueprep. Molten asphalt or wax is required for permeance tests...polyurethane test specimens with a composite wax composed of 60% white beeswax and 40% Fisher Tissueprep. 2) Molten asphalt or wax is required for permeance

  5. Energy Roof. A waterproof and efficient solution for sustainable energy; Energiedak. Een waterdichte en voordelige oplossing voor duurzame energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiebroek, A. [SolarTech International, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    An Energy Roof is an effective and economically efficient system to compensate heat loss in the underground. It concerns a tube system on the roof which contains cold water that is heated by the sun, balancing the underground storage. A good system to control the flow is key to a sustainable climate installation for heating and cooling [Dutch] Een Energiedak is een effectief en economisch rendabel systeem om de onttrekking van warmte aan de bodem op een efficiente wijze te compenseren. Het betreft een buizensysteem op het dak waar koud water doorheen vloeit, dat door de zon wordt opgewarmd en de ondergrondse bron in balans houdt. Een goede regeling om de stroomsnelheid te beinvloeden vormt het sluitstuk van een duurzaam klimaatsysteem voor verwarming en koeling.

  6. Application and development of waterproofing techniques for segment joints%管片接缝防水工艺的应用与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇智; 刘永良

    2007-01-01

    我国自引进TBM掘进水工输水长隧洞的施工工艺以后,工程技术人员经过十多年不断的探索和研究,混凝土衬砌管片的接缝防渗止水工艺有了长足的发展,从根本上解决了TBM掘进水工输水长洞工艺的防渗止水技术.

  7. A special waterproof agent on the spray-ink typewrite paper%关于喷墨打印纸专用抗水剂(固色)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽云

    2004-01-01

    本文对喷墨打印纸专用抗水剂DK系列的产品作了性能评价.DK系列是以聚酰胺树脂为主要成分的阳离子树脂,DK-856是具有优良效果的抗水剂;DK-857,DK-854H具有更大的使用通用性.

  8. Research and Development of Microcrystal Floor Board Waterproof Wax%微晶地板防水蜡的研制与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海涛; 李弓; 任洪光; 杨秋爱; 张晓; 娄庆海; 王文辉

    2012-01-01

      以抚顺石化公司的脱油蜡、蜡下油为主要原料,通过加入添加剂改变晶体结构,实现微晶化,开发出微晶地板防水蜡产品。产品配方合理,生产工艺简便易行,易于工业化生产,对提高强化复合地板防水性能,阻止其有害物质释放,提高抚顺石化石蜡产品附加值,开发特种蜡新产品有着重要的意义。

  9. Research and manufacturing of double-outlet waterproof endcaps with radiation crosslinking technique%辐射交联双出口防水帽的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉宝; 田汝超; 张丹堤; 梁宏斌; 斯琴图雅; 王强

    2007-01-01

    采用辐射交联技术制造双出口防水帽的工艺,研究了一种适宜注塑且机械性能和物理性能俱佳的材料配方,在注塑机上注塑成型,用电子加速器辐照交联,加热后在自制扩张机上扩张、冷却定型,涂上性能优异的热熔胶成为辐射交联双出口热收缩性防水帽.结果表明:材料配方适宜注塑,采用倾斜15°辐照方法,辐照剂量为80 kGy时制造出性能优异的辐射交联双出口防水帽.

  10. Behaviour and use of cation neoprene bituminous waterproof paints%阳离子氯丁胶沥青防水涂料性能及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博

    2004-01-01

    阳离子氯丁胶沥青防水涂料是国内采用新工艺、新配方生产的新型防水涂料.它采用水性沥青基防水涂料用化学乳化剂配置的基料,加人其他助剂生产.具有防水效果优良、便于施工、无毒、成本低廉等特点,适用于各类工业与民用建筑、地下工程、其他防腐保温工程和严寒地区使用.

  11. 聚合物水泥快速修补防水砂浆的研究%Study on Polymer Cement Waterproofing Mortar for Fast Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉林; 刘义兴; 王伟坤

    2013-01-01

    通过试验研究了聚合物水泥快速修补防水砂浆的性能,结果表明,该材料具有较高的抗折、抗压强度,其指标均超过JC/T 984-2011标准的规定;湿基面粘结强度较高,且5h后即具有强度;抗渗性能好,吸水率较低,材料密实性较高.该材料可用于混凝土或砂浆的快速修复、补强等.

  12. Geo textiles and related products used in the waterproofing of reservoirs. Situation in Morocco; Geotextiles y productos relacionados utilizados en la impermeabilizacion de balsas. Situacion en Marruecos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the geo textiles, and products related to geo textiles, used for the building of water-storage reservoirs, which can be applicable to the construction of this kind of structures in Morocco. It presents different types of geo textiles and related products most commonly used in reservoirs, such as geo nets, geo grids, geo mats and geo composites, describing their characteristics and experimental methodology. Furthermore, and drawing on the Spanish Manual for Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of Reservoirs, emphasis is placed on the functions that geo synthetics can perform, such as protection and filter in the case of geo textiles, and drainage in the case of geo nets and draining composites. Finally, several works of this sort of structures located in Morocco are cited. (Author)

  13. EPDM橡胶基防水材料专用胶粘剂的研制%The preparation of adhesive for EPDM rubber based waterproof mterial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹德荣; 徐宇

    2002-01-01

    以端羟基聚丁二烯(HTPB)作为基体材料,以甲苯二异氰酸酯、癸二酸二异辛酯、一编二乙二醇、纳米CaCO3等为配合剂,制作成两端带-NCO基团的聚氨酯预聚体的甲组分,乙组分为固化剂E-300,以此制备了EPDM橡胶基防水材料专用胶粘剂.本试验研究了配合剂的含量变化对胶粘剂性能的影响,进行了加速老化试验,测试了胶粘剂的物理化学性能.试验结果表明,当甲组分(100g)中w(-NCO)控制在5.32%,纳米CaCO3为20 g左右,乙组分(E-300)为5 g时,可以获得物理化学性能优异、老化性能稳定的EPDM橡胶基防水材料专用胶粘剂.

  14. The new progress and suggestion of rubber base waterproof for construction%建筑橡胶基防水材料新进展及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛光全

    2006-01-01

    @@ 一、国外建筑防水材料 1.概况 欧洲的屋面防水材料主要包括改性沥青卷材、单层聚合物片材及氧化沥青油毡三大类,其中,改性沥青约占65%,占统治地位;单层聚合物片材约占24%,呈持续增长之势;氧化沥青油毡下降到7%,呈迅速减少之势.

  15. SBS改性沥青防水卷材防水构造%Waterproofing Construction of SBS Modified Bitumen Roll-roofing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱克娟

    2007-01-01

    文章在10多个城市近300幢屋面防水工程的实地调查,以及分析影响防水工程质量的诸多因素基础上,提出了从合理设计、正确选材、精心施工、维护保养等方面综合处理解决屋面防水工程质量的途径.

  16. 地下室防水水泥混凝土适宜技术研究%Research on Appropriate Technology of Waterproof Cement Concrete of Basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖绍锋; 黄德祥; 赵传东; 王元曦

    2014-01-01

    地下室墙体的渗漏问题一直是建筑工程的通病,基于水泥混凝土本身的自防水方案不仅防水性能优越、施工简单而且较为经济,具有绿色、节约的特点.文章通过优化防水混凝土方案、研究施工质量控制对防水混凝土性能影响,通过三组外加剂防水混凝土和一组普通防水混凝土对比研究以及掺粉煤灰和矿粉,表明掺ART-F微膨胀防水混凝土的防水性能最佳,为编写安徽地方标准《地下室防水混凝土施工与验收规程》提供技术支持.

  17. 聚乙烯醇水溶液在防水水泥中应用的研究%Application of Aqueous Polyvinyl Alcohol in Waterproof Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛强; 陈金芳; 赵芬

    2009-01-01

    对影响聚乙烯醇(PVA)水溶液粘度的主要因素进行了研究,温度、加热时间以及氯化钠和淀粉的加入量对聚乙烯水溶液的粘度均有影响.聚乙烯醇水溶液是制备聚合物水泥防水涂料的优质原料,聚合物水泥中聚乙烯醇水溶液的配比对防水性能有很大的影响.实验结果表明,以m(PvA):m(Nacl):m(H2O)=18:2:80的配比,在80℃下加热50 min配制PVA水溶液,并将其与水泥、水以质量比为1:1:5配制的聚合物水泥的防水效果最好.

  18. Behavior of a New Elastomeric material used as polyolefinic geo membrane in waterproofing; Comportamiento de un nuevo material elastomerico utilizado como geomembrana poliolefinica en impermeabilizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.; Aguilar, E.; Vara, T. A; Soriano, J.; Garcia, F.; Castillo, F.

    2011-07-01

    Two decades ago that Balsas de Tenerife (BALTEN) and the Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), in its experimental field of the south of the Tenerife Island have installed a series of materials to known their behaviour over time. These products among which was placed over a dozen years ago, on an elastomeric polyolefin. This work presents the performance of this synthetic geo membrane, focusing on the evolution in the time of the tensile properties static puncture, low temperature folding, dynamic impact, joint strength (shear and peeling test), optical microscopy of reflection nd scanning electron microscopy. (Author) 11 refs.

  19. 有机硅皮革防水剂的研究%Studies on Waterproof Agent Containing Organopolysiloxane Used in Leather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项超; 张廷有; 程海明

    2001-01-01

    Three kinds of fatty alcohol ether carboxylate were synthesizedand their hy-drophilities were compared. It was proved by application test that the negative effect of twoof them can be decreased by lowering pH value or adding trivalent chrome. HLB values need-ed in emulsification of several kinds of organopolysiloxane were measured and stabilities ofsome organopolysiloxane emulsion using two kinds of fatty alcohol ether carboxylate as emul-sifiers were compared.%合成了三种脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚羧酸(盐)并比较了它们的亲水性,通过应用实验证实了调低pH值或加入三价铬,可以大大降低其中两种产物对皮革防水性的负面影响。测定了几种乳化硅油和蜡所需HLB值,比较了用这两种产物作乳化剂所得硅乳液的稳定性。

  20. 坡屋面防水用防滑型自粘防水垫层%Antiskid Self-adhesive Waterproof Cushion for Slope Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶军

    2013-01-01

    YTL-VR防滑型自粘防水垫层是一种高性能、冷施工的无胎型自粘防水卷材,由自粘层、表面材料以及底面隔离层组成,在坡屋面防水工程中应用,可牢固地粘贴于混凝土、木质或金属等基面上,防水效果可靠.

  1. 单层SBS防水卷材机械固定系统在屋面防水改造项目上的应用%Application of Single Ply SBS Modified Bitumen Waterproofing Membrane Mechanical Fasten System in the Roof Waterproofing Renovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏连中

    2014-01-01

    某混凝土屋面热熔满粘法施工的SBS改性沥青卷材防水层因材料质量和设计施工不合理而过早失效渗漏,采用单层SBS防水卷材机械固定系统对此屋面进行翻新,不仅节材、缩短工期,而且防水效果显著.

  2. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a waterproof crotch. They hold a reusable absorbent liner in place. Some look like normal underwear, ... Drip collector: This is a small pocket of absorbent padding with a waterproof backside. The drip collector ...

  3. FEATURES AND REVIEWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Waterproof and breathable fabric: A ,Review By Xuanting LIAO , Xiaoqiang MA, Wuhan Vocational Technology College and College of Textile Garment, Wuhan, Hubei Abstract: Waterproof and breathable (W&B) fabric is one of new type of functional textiles gradu

  4. 水泥-石灰系外墙防水装饰砂浆的性能及作用机理研究%Performance and mechanisms studying of cement-lime waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩方晖; 王栋民; 许晨阳; 刘晓斌; 刘天德

    2011-01-01

    采用化学改性技术研制成功一种水泥--石灰外墙防水装饰砂浆.通过白水泥--石灰复合降低砂浆的压折比,改善砂浆的柔韧性,从而减少砂浆开裂:在砂浆中掺入防水剂、颜料等添加剂,使砂浆具有优良的防水性能和装饰效果;并对水泥--熟石灰复合胶凝体系进行微观形貌观察和作用机理分析.试验结果表明,熟石灰用量为9%.白水泥用量为19%时,砂浆在强度、柔韧性、防水效果方面较佳;白水泥--石灰复合体系浆体水泥水化产物和石灰凝结产物相互包裹,形成相对疏松的微观结构,配以外加剂的使用,具有防水、透气功能.

  5. Application of infrared thermography in bonding effect detection of building waterproofing materials%红外热像法在检测建筑防水卷材粘合效果的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓烨; 石永平; 关洪军; 李宏伟; 刘华丽

    2014-01-01

    红外热像法(Infrared Thermography)在建筑检测领域具有相当广阔的应用前景.本文利用NEC_H2640型红外热像仪,结合软件编程及参考红外热像法检测建筑外墙饰面粘结质量技术规程[1],提出红外热像法检测的具体技术方法,对某建筑地下车库外墙防水卷材粘合效果进行了检测尝试,发现红外热像法对大部分空鼓具有很高辨识度.实现了红外热像法在建筑防水检测领域的有效应用.

  6. The Roof Waterproof Construction of Farmers' and Herders' Houses in Xiewu Town, Yushu%玉树歇武镇农牧民住房屋面防水施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍雯

    2012-01-01

    青海省玉树藏族自治州称多县歇武镇农牧民住房的屋面为现浇钢筋混凝土面板,板厚为12 cm,由于当地气候以寒冷天气为主,钢筋混凝土屋面板在满足强度要求的情况下防水效果不理想.文章主要介绍了钢筋混凝土屋面的防水施工工艺、质量要求等,通过实践克服和解决了特殊环境下的施工问题.

  7. 智能防水透湿织物用温感型聚氨酯的研究进展%Development of thermo-sensitive polyurethane for smart waterproof and breathable textiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪娜; 鲍利红

    2016-01-01

    “智能”防水透湿织物采用温度感应型聚氨酯材料.介绍了温度感应型聚氨酯膜防水透湿机理、结构与性能的关系、制备方法,以及研究现状,并分析其今后的发展方向.

  8. Experimental research of cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material applied to metro engineering concrete%水泥基渗透结晶型防水剂在地铁应用的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘行; 殷素红; 李铁锋; 文梓芸; 史海欧; 刘健美

    2007-01-01

    Penetron Admix是一种在混凝土拌和时加入的新型水泥基渗透结晶型本体防水添加剂.采用广州地铁工程混凝土所使用的原材料和配合比,在试验室研究了添加Penetron Admix后对混凝土性能的影响.结果表明:掺入一定量的Penetron Admix后,混凝土拌合物的流动性能提高;硬化混凝土的抗渗性能显著提高,渗透压力比大于267%;抗压强度也有所提高;但混凝土收缩值比基准混凝土稍大.裂缝自修复试验表明掺入Penetron Admix的混凝土试件在水或潮湿条件下确实具有裂缝自修复功能.

  9. 通风管路过模板台车和挂板台车的新方法%A New Method for Ventilation Duct to Pass Formwork and Water-proofing Membrane Stand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立新

    2001-01-01

    针对隧道施工中通风管路过模板台车和挂板台车的老大难问题,在分析研究和现场试验的基础上,设计并实施了一种管路过台车的新方法,文章对该方法进行了详细的介绍,并简单评述了该方法的优点和经济效益.

  10. Effect of waterproof agent on performance of inorganic lightweight aggregate thermal insulating mortar%防水剂对无机轻集料保温砂浆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方明晖; 钱晓倩; 胡瑞柏; 庄中海

    2009-01-01

    研究了不同防水剂对无机轻集料保温砂浆性能的影响.结果表明,防水剂能降低保温砂浆的体积吸水量,提高保温砂浆的物理力学性能,但使砂浆的保温性能降低.不同防水剂对保温砂浆的施工性能影响有较大差别,有机硅改性防水剂对施工性能影响较小,并随其掺量的增加,保温砂浆体积吸水量降低.

  11. 聚氨酯泡沫在屋面保温防水中的应用%Applications of Polyurethane Foam in Thermo-insulating and Waterproofing Material of the Building Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美丽; 平玉柱; 李效华; 黄实; 赵慧妍; 屈明晨

    2002-01-01

    简要介绍了硬质聚氨酯泡沫塑料的特点及其在建筑业的应用情况.硬质聚氨酯泡沫塑料作为建筑物屋面保温防水新材料,改变传统屋面保温防水的方法,达到提高工效、保温、防水、节能的效果.

  12. Application of TJ281-BEP new waterproof coiled materials in the tunnel project%TJ281-BEP新型防水卷材在隧道工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武秀萍

    2001-01-01

    针对隧道施工过程中常见的隧道渗漏水问题,结合具体工程实例,提出了采用TJ281-BEP隧道专用型背贴背吊带式高分子土工复合排防水卷材是解决该问题的有效方法,并叙述了该方法在施工中的施工工艺、注意事项及工艺特点,得到了较好的应用效果.

  13. Repair the Problematic Reinforced Concrete Bridges Using Cementitious Capillary Crystalline Waterproofing Materials%采用水泥基渗透结晶型材料治理钢筋混凝土桥梁病害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海涛; 孔凡坤

    2011-01-01

    针对钢筋混凝土桥梁病害情况,提出采用水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料作为其病害处理的主要材料.以"长牛线11#桥"维修工程为例,介绍了该类材料的施工工艺和处理技术.

  14. 山东惠青黄河公路大桥索区防水维修施工%Waterproofing Repair of the Cable Area of Huiqing Yellow River Highway Bridge in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵刚珠; 王峥峰; 李峰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了山东省惠青黄河公路大桥索区防水维修工程的设计与施工,就防水设计的考虑因素和防水材料选用进行了阐述,细述了施工工艺中基层处理、涂料涂刷、玻璃纤维布铺贴等主要步骤,另外也指出了防水层验收的要求及方法.

  15. Waterproofing Repair for Underground Passage of a Wuhan-Guangzhou High Speed Railway Station%武广高铁某车站地下通道防水维修技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰茹; 黄金星

    2013-01-01

    介绍了武广高铁车站地下通道渗漏治理工程,治理中采用手刷厚浆型液体橡胶防水涂料进行细部处理,然后大面积喷涂液体橡胶防水涂料,并在通道底板设置了排水设施,防排结合,多道设防,达到了治理的目的.

  16. 硅丙聚合物水泥防水涂料在金属屋面渗漏修复中的应用%Application of Silicone Acrylic Polymer Cement Waterproof Coating in Metal Roofing Leakage Repairing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王廷勋

    2015-01-01

    金属屋面渗漏时,采用硅丙聚合物水泥防水涂料对锈蚀的漏洞修复,然后用该涂料将屋面做成白色反射屋面,可使屋面兼具防腐、防水和节能的功能.本文给出了该涂料的配比,并介绍了该屋面修复的施工工艺.

  17. 上海市轨道交通四号线修复工程防水设计%Waterproofing design for repair of Shanghai rail rapid transit Line 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆明; 梁伟; 朱祖熹

    2008-01-01

    对上海市轨道交通四号线修复工程的修复方案作了简要介绍,同时针对修复方案中的不同结构型式,较详细地阐述了具体防水设计所采取的不同措施,期望对今后类似修复工程的防水设计提供参考依据.

  18. Compound Bridge Floor Waterproof Layer Characteristic and Construction Overseeing Main Point%复合桥面防水层的特点及施工监理要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋杰华

    2009-01-01

    通过笔者对复合桥面混凝土铺装层防水层特点的分析,结合施工监理防水层的经历,总结出复合桥面混凝土铺装层的防水层施工监理要点,并提出关于复合桥面混凝土铺装层的防水层施工、内业资料整理归档及施工合理化的建议.

  19. Evaluation on permeability of closed waterproof layer of asphalt mixture in ballastless track%无碴轨道沥青混合料防水封闭层渗透性评测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴林

    2009-01-01

    介绍了无碴轨道的优点和基本构成,针对无碴轨道铁路对路基工后沉降的要求和影响工后沉降的因素,分别阐述了现场测定,实验室制模测定,简化试验三种检测渗透系数的方法,并进行比较,得出了渗透系数的影响因素及标准.

  20. 迪拜棕榈岛地下工程中分区注浆防水系统的应用技术%Zoning Grouting Waterproofing System in Palm Island Underground Works, Dubai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢嫔婷; 葛兆

    2012-01-01

    分区注浆防水系统是以聚氯乙烯防水卷材为基础,再利用止水带将防水层分割为各小块,并在防水层内预埋注浆管为渗漏修复作保障的一种防水设计.本文针对迪拜棕榈岛地下工程中的防水设计与施工,逐步阐述了地下工程分区注浆防水系统的防水原理、应用技术及其优势.

  1. Analysis of Methods for Thermal Insulation and Water-proof of Reinforced Concrete Water Storage Tank%水蓄冷用钢筋混凝土水槽的保温及防水方法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆清; 彭安; 周孝清; 许艳

    2010-01-01

    水蓄冷空调系统重要的组成部分之一是蓄水槽.本文分析了钢筋混凝土蓄水槽2 种不同的保温及其防水方法; 介绍了聚氨酯现场发泡加PVC 卷材防水的施工工艺及注意事项,指出应从蓄冷水槽的使用特点和使用条件出发,采用科学的水槽内保温及其防水方法.

  2. Waterproofing techniques used in vegetative roofs of VIP building in Shanghai World Expo Village%上海世博村VIP生活楼种植屋面阻根防水施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉娟; 贾伟一

    2010-01-01

    介绍了2010年上海世博会世博村VIP生活楼种植屋面阻根防水的设计方案和选用的Sopralene Flam Jardin SBS耐根穿刺防水卷材的特点,指出施工要点及节点处理方式.

  3. Construction technology of waterproofing and insulation in spraying rigid polyurethane foam on external wall%外墙喷涂聚氨酯硬泡体防水保温一体化施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付国永

    2012-01-01

      Rigid polyurethane foam is a new type of building material. Rigid polyurethane foam external wall insulation system is a thermal insulation system with excellent properties, which can achieve 65 % of energy conservation. This article describes characteristics, structure, construction process and construction technology of rigid polyurethane foam external thermal insulation system.%  聚氨酯硬泡体是一种新型建筑材料。聚氨酯硬泡体外墙外保温系统是技术先进、性能优良的保温体系,其应用和推广对于实现65%的节能目标具有重要意义。针对喷涂法介绍聚氨酯硬泡体外墙防水保温一体化系统的特点、构造、施工流程和施工工艺等。

  4. 开采对已封堵陷落柱的影响及防水煤柱的留设%Desigu of Waterproof Pillar and Mining Impact on the Plugged Subsided Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东红; 许进鹏; 桂辉

    2009-01-01

    任楼煤矿7222陷落柱曾引起重大突水灾害,后经注浆封堵.通过数值模拟表明,在今后的开采中,当采面距陷落柱小于100 m时,采面对陷落柱扰动较大.在此基础上,充分考虑了陷落柱的出水部位,结合有关规程,设计了7222陷落柱防水煤柱留设方案,取得了良好的效果.

  5. 基坑内承压降水井封井的防水与封堵%Waterproof and Shutoff for Closing of Pressured Dewatering Well Located in Foundation Pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟明

    2009-01-01

    上海地区为软土地基,地下水蕴藏丰富.对深基坑工程而言,降水问题至关重要.上海国金中心工程项目根据超深基坑分区施工的情况,分别制定了承压降水井的具体布置、封井顺序、封堵防水措施,取得了较好的效果.

  6. The new progress and suggestion of rubber base waterproof for construction (Ⅱ)%建筑橡胶基防水材料新进展及建议(续)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛光全

    2006-01-01

    @@ (接上期) 3.科技创新取得进展 (1)产品标准和规范.2004年制定和修订了大量防水材料产品标准和技术规范、规程.这些标准和规范的制定和修订对提高我国建筑防水技术水平、规范防水材料市场起到积极的促进作用.2004年制定和修订的产品标准和规范见表3.

  7. 渗透结晶防水材料和橡胶止水片的应用%Engineering application of cement based capillary crystalline waterproof material and split blot of expanded rubber water-stop form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞连红

    2004-01-01

    以太原市金桥大厦地下室外墙防水工程为例,对水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料和对拉螺栓膨胀橡胶止水片的特点及止水原理作了介绍,经过严格组织施工管理,取得了较好的防水效果.

  8. The construction of SBS modified bitumen water-proof rolling material%屋面高聚物SBS改性沥青防水卷材施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱双双

    2008-01-01

    高聚物SBs改性沥青防水卷材属弹性体沥青防水卷材,具有良好的弹性、柔性、耐疲劳性、抗拉强度高及温度稳定性,广泛应用于各类建筑防水防潮工程,被列为重点发展的沥青改性物料.为确保SBS改性沥青防水卷材达到最佳使用效果,采用热熔法施工技术具有重要意义.

  9. Exploration on durability of modified bitumen waterproofing membrane with polyester reinforcements%改性沥青聚酯胎防水卷材的耐久性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广彬; 尚华胜; 杜奎义

    2007-01-01

    通过对两种典型改性沥青(SBS和橡胶粉)聚酯胎防水卷材的自然曝晒老化性能、耐酸碱盐腐蚀性能、耐水性以及抗冻融性能的测试,分析了改性沥青防水卷材的耐久性.结果显示:SBS改性沥青聚酯胎防水卷材表现出优异的耐久性,相比之下橡胶粉改性沥青聚酯胎防水卷材的耐久性较差.

  10. The application of SBS modified bitumen membrane in roof waterproof engineering%谈SBS改性沥青防水卷材在屋面工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭青梅

    2004-01-01

    介绍了SBS改性沥青防水卷材在屋面防水工程中的应用情况,从防水材料、工程设计等方面分析了影响SBS改性沥青卷材防水工程质量的几种因素,提出了提高防水工程质量的措施.

  11. A discussion about quality specification of SBS modified bitumen waterproofing membrane%SBS改性沥青防水卷材指标体系若干问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮政卿

    2004-01-01

    针对SBS改性沥青防水卷材从胎基材料、浸涂油到卷材产品的三大标准,分析其在技术指标的设置和确定、定义概念的表述、标准间的统一性等方面的问题,提出相应的修改意见.

  12. 香港东海工业大厦SBS沥青旧屋面防水翻修%Repair of the Old SBS Bitumen Membrane Roof Waterproof of Hongkong Oriental Industrial Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余建平; 刘志聪

    2014-01-01

    香港东海工业大厦钢混SBS沥青卷材新旧屋面年久渗漏,经清理后采用暴露型单组分聚脲液体涂层材料并植入胎基布作为主要弹性防水层,不仅可作为屋面加强层,还可防止裂缝的产生,预期新屋面的防水效果能达到香港建筑寿命质保期的要求.

  13. 上海中心大厦双层幕墙的防排水设计%Waterproofing & Drainage Design for Double-layer Curtain Wall of Shanghai Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔卫

    2015-01-01

    上海中心大厦造型别致,圆角三角形外立面层层收分,连续120°缓缓螺旋上升,形成了独特优美的流线型玻璃晶体.其外幕墙采用分体式单元幕墙设计,玻璃大单元与不锈钢板小单元之间设置了一道贯穿整个楼层的连续的柔性硅胶板防水层,整层胶板无机械拼缝,配套多道胶条及硅酮耐候密封胶的使用,保证了幕墙整体的水密、气密性能.

  14. Application of "Jing Tang Water-Repellent"in waterproofing engineering of toilet and bathroom%金汤水不漏在厕浴间防水工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琨

    2002-01-01

    @@ 金汤水不漏防水材料是由北京金汤建筑防水技术开发有限责任公司研制生产的一种新型防水材料.我公司在青岛经济技术开发区武夷山商贸市场施工时,对新建的厕浴间防水采用金汤牌水不漏防水材料,该工程自1999年交工至今未发现渗漏,收到了良好的防水效果.

  15. 钢筋混凝土抗桩与水泥土止水帷幕咬合技术应用%On application of reinforced concrete resistance pile and cement soil waterproof curtain occlusion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2014-01-01

    总结开发了在水泥止水帷幕桩内钻孔安放钢筋笼浇灌混凝土支护桩的施工方法,形成了混凝土灌注支护桩与水泥土止水帷幕墙咬合施工工法的关键技术,该施工工法关键技术经过鉴定,达到了国内领先水平,具有良好的运用前景.

  16. Water-proof construction technology in surface layer great waterbearing layer shaft%表土层大含水层立井防治水施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春明

    2008-01-01

    鹤煤集团公司八矿新风井工程,表土段总厚150m,在施工过程中,共发生过5次较大的涌水,累计涌水量达302m3/h;并揭露出两层流沙层,其中一层厚度达12.3m,其涌水量为106m3/h,给井筒正常施工造成了意想不到的困难.施工单位通过导、截、排、注等综合治水方案,采用普通施工法,顺利通过井筒表土层.为立井表土段复杂水文地质条件的防治水综合治理探索出了一条新途径.

  17. 利用粉煤灰和废泡沫塑料研制屋面保温防水材料%Developing waterproof and thermal insulation roofing material using fly ash and waste plastic foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛福生; 倪文; 陈淑祥

    2004-01-01

    介绍的新型屋面保温材料是以电厂粉煤灰、废弃泡沫塑料为主要原料,普通硅酸盐水泥为胶凝材料,配以多种外加剂,在常温、常压条件下成型养护而成.具有产品质轻、导热系数小以及粉煤灰掺量大、成型方便、工艺简单、投资小、见效快等特点.

  18. "纳米防水水泥"修复混凝土缺陷的理论与实践%Theory and Practice of Concrete Repair-Deficiency with Nanometer Waterproof Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王权平; 朱琳; 王镇生; 杨玉淮

    2010-01-01

    "纳米防水水泥"是近年新出现的防水材料.与传统的水泥相比,具有可灌性更好的特点.用"纳米防水水泥"通过灌浆去修复混凝土的缺陷,可以很好的解决防水问题,力学指标也得到相应的提升或恢复.

  19. Missan Surgical Hospital Under the Economic Support Fund Al Amarah, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-16

    waterproofing to the portion of the wall below grade (Figure 8). However, the application of waterproofing without the integration of subsurface drainage...bearing members, this is mostly a cosmetic issue, however, the inability of the contractor to construct this connection on this relatively simple part...section of this report that the contractor’s design called for waterproofing the base of the wall. At the time of the site visit, the base of the wall

  20. HIGHLY EFFECTIVE CHEMICAL MODIFIERS FOR PRODUCTION OF CONCRETES WITH PRE-SET PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the application of industrial by-products and recycled materials. Waterproofing admixtures improve the structure and the properties of the cement stone. Development and preparation of highly effective waterproofing modifiers of durable effect, as well as development of the process procedure parameters, including mixing, activation, heat treatment, etc. are to be implemented. The composition of waterproofing modifiers is to be fine-tuned to synergize the behaviour of var...

  1. The applications of geotextiles in the sanitary landfills; Aplicaciones de los geotextiles en los vertederos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera, J.; Marin, J.

    1999-11-01

    The spillways controlled of Solid Urban Residuals, Industrial Residuals and Industrial Special Residuals should be waterproofed. The waterproofing should be assured, to avoid the possibility of contamination of the aquifer for the filtration of leachates coming from the garbage and rain waters eventually polluted for their contact with the mass of deposited waste already.

  2. Cold Regions Performance Test of Snowshoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-05

    Pouch, ammo, w/ammo 2 Suspenders, pack, cbt I Protective Mask 1 Lipstick , antichap, cold climate I Sunglasses w/case 1 Box, match, waterproof w/matches...2 Liner, trousers 1 Inserts, mitten, TF 1 Bag, sleeping, mtn 1 Bag, sleeping, arctic I Case, water repellent I Bag, waterproof 1 Mattress, pneumatic

  3. Ultrasonic Methods to Study Shadow Boundaries of Diffracting Cracks. Ultrasonic Caustics in NDE (Non-Destructive Evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    structure was held together with waterproof cement . The edges of the structure were machined to form a sharp edge around the periphery. A small stainless...air gap. The composite structure was held together with waterproof cement . The edges of the L - structure were machined to form a sharp edge around

  4. The coal mining practice of reducing water proof coal pillars in Panxie mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Wang, W.; Peng, W.; Feng, Z.; Shu, K. [Anhui Polytechnical University, Maanshan (China). College of Chemical Engineering and Environment

    2002-04-01

    By summarizing the successful mining practice of reducing waterproof coal pillars in Panxie Mining Area in the past ten years, the hydrogeological feature of Panxie Mining Area, overburden failure law, the mechanism of reducing waterproof coal pillars and the main safety measures during the period of safe extraction are discussed. 3 tabs.

  5. HIGHLY EFFECTIVE CHEMICAL MODIFIERS FOR PRODUCTION OF CONCRETES WITH PRE-SET PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya Vladimirovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the application of industrial by-products and recycled materials. Waterproofing admixtures improve the structure and the properties of the cement stone. Development and preparation of highly effective waterproofing modifiers of durable effect, as well as development of the process procedure parameters, including mixing, activation, heat treatment, etc. are to be implemented. The composition of waterproofing modifiers is to be fine-tuned to synergize the behaviour of various ingredients of cement systems to assure the substantial improvement of their strength, freeze- and corrosion resistance. Multi-functional waterproofing admixtures were used to produce highly effective modified concretes. The key idea of the new method of modifying cement-based building materials is that the waterproofing admixture concentration is to exceed 10% of the weight of the binding agent within the per-unit weight of the cement stone, given that its strength does not deteriorate. GKM-type modifier coupled with organo-mineral waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M may be recommended for mass use in the manufacturing of hydraulic concrete and reinforced concrete products. Overview of their practical implementation has proven that waterproofing modifier GKM-S, if coupled with waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M, improves the corrosion control inside the cement stone and makes it possible to manufacture durable concrete and reinforced concrete products that demonstrate pre-set physical and processing behaviour. Comprehensive concrete modification by modifier GKM-S and waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M may be regarded as one of the most ambitious methods of production of highly effective waterproof concretes.

  6. 一种适应农村市场的新型防虫、防水电磁炉设计方案及其实现%A New Induction Cooker Model with Mothproof and Waterproof Functions for Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志伟; 姜莉莉

    2009-01-01

    对农村电磁炉使用环境复杂的特点进行分析,围绕目前电磁炉防虫和防水这一难题展开研究.通过阐述电磁炉的工作原理,对电磁炉防虫和防水的现状研究,针对农村电器使用的特点,提出了一种新型的防虫、防水的电磁炉设计方案,并完成该方案的结构和电控方面的设计.

  7. Grace Concrete Admixture and water-proofing material of roof applying in Hongkong Disneyland%格雷斯混凝土外加剂以及屋面防水层用于香港迪士尼乐园建设项目

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    (2005年11月3日,上海)香港迪士尼乐园主题公园于2005年9月在人们的热切期盼中开放。在这个历时几年的高难度建设项目中,作为全球领先的建筑产品制造商,格雷斯公司以其优质的产品参与了此项目的建设。格雷斯混凝土外加剂的使用

  8. Application of Non-penetrating PVC Flexible Waterproofing System in Repair Engineering of Failed Self-adhesive Bitumen Membrane Roof%无穿孔PVC柔性系统在失效自粘沥青卷材屋面维修工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万常彪; 韩啸

    2016-01-01

    杭州地铁2号线蜀山车辆段综合基地屋面为轻质太空板钢网架结构,新建时采用自粘型SBS防水卷材,两年后即由于卷材老化等原因出现漏水.本文介绍了采用PVC防水卷材无穿孔施工工艺,对该屋面进行翻修的技术,重点对屋面变形缝、气楼、天窗等细部节点的处理作了阐述.

  9. 反应型橡胶基防水材料与硅酸盐水泥的化学作用研究%Investigation on the chemical reaction between the reactive rubber-based waterproof material and the silicate cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓岚; 周为为; 雷彩霞; 曹德光; 陈立斌; 王烨文

    2015-01-01

    分别采用了固体核磁共振和X射线光电子能谱对掺入不同KH-550硅烷偶联剂以及反应型橡胶基防水密封膏含量的水泥石样品进行了测试和分析.实验结果表明,当KH-550的含量达到一定值时,驾i固体核磁共振谱峰发生了比较明显的偏移,Si原子的化学环境发生了一定程度的变化;并且随着偶联剂用量的增加,水泥石样品中XPS的Si2p峰强呈现增强的趋势,而O1s的峰强有减弱的趋势.这些现象都在一定程度上证实了反应型橡胶基防水密封膏与水泥颗粒之间发生了化学反应,形成了一定的化学键.

  10. SBS改性沥青防水卷材在路桥防水系统的应用及全自动铺设工艺%The utilization of SBS modified bitumen waterproof membrane on bridge decks and automatic installation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾伟一

    2005-01-01

    简要回顾了桥面防水的发展史,分析了防水层被破坏的原因及防水层应具有的功能,介绍了SBS改性沥青桥梁专用防水卷材的构成、特点,并对索普瑞玛公司的全自动铺设系统Macaden、配套的200m长卷材Antirock及其铺设过程作了介绍,最后对桥面防水的发展提出了几点建设.

  11. The preparation of blend membrane about quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan/waterborne polyurethane and its waterproof and breathable properties%季铵盐壳聚糖/水性聚氨酯共混膜的制备及防水透湿性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉章; 尉霞; 章媛媛

    2011-01-01

    将季铵盐壳聚糖( HACC)与水性聚氨酯(WPU)进行共混,对共混膜进行了耐静水压、透湿量性能测试.讨论了HACC用量、共混时间、烘干温度对共混膜防水透湿性能的影响.结果表明,当HACC用量10%~15%,共混时间15~20min,烘干温度100~110℃时,制备的共混膜具有良好的防水透湿性能及共混性能.%In order to further enrich cashmere product category and utilize cashmere resource more rationally, a type of light and thin worsted blending fabric is successfully developed. It was used wool, mulberry silk fiber and cashmere fiber as raw materials, and mainly to the technological process and key techniques through the re-combing, spinning, weaving and finishing four parts to feasible treatment technology. This topic of research and development the superb properties of wool, mulberry silk fiber and cashmere fibers contribute to the superior quality of high count yarn, best quality and superior product performance reduce the consumption of raw material, improves the grade of the product.

  12. Moisture-resistant TPS Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed NASA Phase I SBIR will generate closed-cell foam thermal protection system materials which do not need waterproofing, and which can be applied as a...

  13. 46 CFR 160.002-6 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, Kapok, Adult and Child (Jacket Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-6 Marking. Each life preserver must have the following clearly marked in waterproof...

  14. Effect of Penetron Admix on the Properties of Concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... whether the product is suitable for use on construction projects in Mauritius. A ... which is the most important concrete property, was found to ... A new type of waterproofing admixture namely, PENETRON ADMIX, has been.

  15. Nanocoating : A Novel Drift in Nanotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravi Shankar Mishra; Deepak Tiwari; Kamlesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    .... Some nanocoating techniques such as Waterproof nanocoating, Electrostatic layer-by-layer nanocoating, Anti-graffiti and Sol-gel nanocoating, Anti-mist nanocoating, UV and IR protection nanocoating...

  16. 46 CFR 160.053-5 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... there shall be stenciled in waterproof ink in letters not less than one inch in height, the words, “WORK... after 48 hours submergence in water, they will withstand rubbing by hand with moderate pressure while...

  17. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  18. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  19. Fort Bliss Standards for the Treatment of Historic Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    decayed areas with fungicide, waterproof with two or three applications of boiled linseed oil , fill cracks and holes with putty or wood filler, and...with linseed oil before repainting. • Caulk gaps between joints and seams. • Check glazing putty for cracked, loose, or missing sections around...fungicide, waterproof with two or three applications of boiled linseed oil , fill cracks and holes with putty or wood fil- ler, and paint the surface

  20. Field Demonstration and Validation of a New Device for Measuring Groundwater and Perchlorate Fluxes at IHDIV-NSWC, Indian Head, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    potential hazard associated with this activity is exposure to perchlorate present in the ground water through skin contact. Waterproof , chemical... Waterproof , chemical resistant gloves shall be worn by site personnel when sub-sampling the PFMs and transferring to sample vials. 1.4.4 Site...water or disinfectant moist towelettes before eating, drinking, smoking, or applying cosmetics . These activities will be restricted to the designated

  1. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    or cosmetic standards. On the other hand, placement on the mastoid bone can cause some discomfort if used with the standard headband designed for...of 98 about 1/8 inch, is waterproof , and is typically mounted on the forehead under a Navy diver’s protective cap or hood. The main drawback of...FM pro was marketed for use by swimming teams so that the coach could communicate with the swimmers during practice. This device is waterproof to 10

  2. SAVEWS Jr. User’s Manual, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    is more of a cosmetic fix than a true signal processing fix, but it can be handy in some situations. The reprocessing results (Figure 24) exhibit...Figure A1) consists of a Lowrance LSS-2 structure scan module and a 12-V DC power source housed in a waterproof case (Figure A2), a quick disconnect...swivel mount for the HDS unit, and a waterproof through- deck fitting for transducer and power connections (Figure A3). The system includes

  3. Field Demonstration and Validation of a New Device for Measuring Water and Solute Fluxes at CFB Borden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    with this activity is exposure to contaminants (principally VOCs) present in the ground water through inhalation or skin contact. Waterproof ... Waterproof , chemical resistant gloves shall be worn by site personnel when sub- sampling the flux meters and transferring to sample vials. 1.4.4 Site...soap and water or disinfectant moist towelettes before eating, drinking, smoking, or applying cosmetics . These activities will be restricted to the

  4. REMR (Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation) Research Program Development Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    filling the cracks with a waterproofing sealer would be ineffective but harmless. On the other hand, if a concrete section has cracked due to BII-20...minor leakage with cosmetic concern to major hydraulic lorces and structural overloading. An extreme problem might cause indirect tensile stresses in the...decks, built to lower standards of quality than modern structures and constructed without the benefit of efficient waterproof - ing systems and air

  5. Evaluation of Ground Vibrations Induced by Military Noise Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    vegetation (Eglin AFB, Florida, 2002). b. Typical sensor location. Two high pressure microphones are covered with waterproof bags to protect them from...at the surface of the snow cover itself. The yellow boxes are waterproof digitizers, and the black case and white bucket are used to protect the...measurement set have peak pressure levels above the Army airblast criterion of 138 dB for cosmetic damage, and that the ANSI standard prediction of

  6. Fort Campbell Childers House: Historic Maintenance and Repair Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    visual ap- pearance of the surviving parts of the masonry feature or that is physically or chemically incompatible. • Applying waterproof , water...as Good when: - the roof is structurally and architecturally sound and performing its intended purpose, and - there are few or no cosmetic ...RECOMMENDED, AS THIS TYPE OF BLISTERING SHOULD NOT AFFECT THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WATERPROOFING . a. Miniature surface blistering of the bitumen coating

  7. Application of a mixture of soils to create a stable layer of support on the slope in ponds waterproofed with geo membranes. Application to a specific case in the reservoir Conseller Jose Ramon Garcia Anton in Elche (Alicante); Aplicacion de una mezcla de suelos para el desarrollo de la capa de apoyo estable a lo largo del tiempo en los taludes para la geomembrana de la balsa Conseller Jose Ramon Garcia Anton en Elche. Alicante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferran Gozalvez, F. J.; Ferrer Gisbert, C.; Redon Santafe, M.; Perez Sanchez, M.; Torregrosa Solar, J. S.; Zapata Raboso, F. J.; Sanchez Romero, F. J.

    2014-02-01

    This text present the experience developed in a reservoir in Elche (Alicante). This communication explains the importance of the layer of support to prevent the punching. This phenomenon can occur in a reservoir that has a deficient layer of support. Also, the paper describes the requirements to be met by the support layer to perform its function. (Author)

  8. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  9. Modern Solutions to Eliminate Capillarity Moisture from Brick Walls – Comer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin L. Tamaş

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing stock at this time in our country is, in general, described by the old buildings built before 1990. Their degradation, from waterproofing protection point of view, noticeable by infiltrations of water, both at the level of the superstructure (roof, and the default thermal-hydro isolation and infrastructure (walls, is a result of multiple causes. Some of these causes were: deficient work of hydro isolation, thereby understanding the failure in implementing details, the use of materials with poor technical characteristics or savings regarding use of materials, improperly qualified or unqualified personnel for such activities. Intervention on buildings that have such problems, in order to ensure the requirements and criteria for specific performance of the waterproofing work, should pursue aspects of analysing the current situation, diagnose the causes of infiltrations, determining solutions and how to remedy those works, in order to comply with the specifications of the quality Law 10/1995 and the general requirement of waterproofing isolation.

  10. 深圳天麓三区种植屋面施工技术%Shenzhen Tianlu 3rd Zone planted roof construction technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石伟国

    2011-01-01

    In Shenzhen Tianlu 3rd Zone Rhine Castle project, basement roof is designed as the sky garden, and it is planted roof above the waterproof layer. This paper introduces the waterproof design scheme, waterproof material characteristics, roof greening, and construction process of the planted roof.%深圳天麓三区莱茵堡项目地下室顶板设计为空中花园,防水层上为种植屋面.介绍该种植屋面防水设计方案、防水材料特点、屋面绿化及种植屋面的施工工艺.

  11. Set-shaped Steel Formwork of Tunnel Lining Trolley%隧道二衬台车端头定型钢模板

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洋

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the waterproof function of the lining of tunnel, in line with the principle of operation easy, high-speed construction, cost saving and waterproof, this paper decides to adopt the technology of set-shaped steel formwork of tunnel lining trol ey.%为了提高隧道衬砌的防水功能,本着操作简单、快速施工、节约成本、防水质量有保证的原则,决定采用隧道二衬台车端头定型钢模板技术进行施工。

  12. Cold Regions Environmental Test of CB Protective Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    Suspenders, pack, combat 1 Protective mask 1 Lipstick , antichap, cold climate 1 C-I TOP 8-4-006 1 November 1986 Item Quantity Sunglasses w/case 1 Box...match, waterproof w/matches I Personal items (i.e., cigarettes, matches, As desired notebook, pencil, etc.) *Either coat or parka or both depending upon...Rucksack 1 Socks, cushion sole 2 Liner, trousers 1 Inserts, mitten, trigger finger 1 Bag, sleeping, type 11 1 Case, water repellent 1 Bag, waterproof 1

  13. The Billingsley Dairy: A Family Enterprise in the Prado Basin. CA-RIV- 3508-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    point approximately 3 feet from the milk house. Panting All inside woodwork must be properly painted with a lisht colored waterproof paint [State Dept...3.1 and 4.13). No evidence of any other wash basin was found in this portion of the site. 78 Painting Only waterproof paints or oils shall be used in...34 The product was probably cosmetic . JUGS, BROWN GLAZED 90 (See Cut at right) Height- 1 pt.-5 inches Another item of interest 1 qt.-63/ inches was a

  14. The Positive Ion Emulsified Bitumen Applies in the Road Maintenance%阳离子乳化沥青应用于道路养护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范林眼; 王慧

    2009-01-01

    文章论述了乳化沥青的概念,详细叙述了乳化沥青在道路透层、黏层、路面防水层、稀浆封层和桥面防水层等部位中的应用情况.%This article elaborated the emulsified bitumen concept.Narrated spot in detail and so on in emulsified bitumen application situations, Seeps in the path, mounted the level, the road surface waterproof layer, spot and so on in thin paste sealing course and bridge floor waterproof layer.

  15. Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arthur

    This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

  16. 49 CFR 178.521 - Standards for paper bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identification codes for paper bags: (1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and (2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water... more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two...

  17. Praktijkdag suikerbieten en energieboerderij : suikerbieten een energieke teelt : Vredepeel, 17 september 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PPO Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving,

    2009-01-01

    Brochure uitgedeeld op de Velddag op 17 september 2009 te Vredepeel met als onderwerpen: 1. Bestrijdingsstrategieën bladschimmels in suikerbieten; 2. Suikerbieten telen voor de energieproductie; 3a. Bemestingsresultaten suikerbieten in Nutriënten Waterproof; 3b. Ken uw grond; 4. Rasvergelijking Biog

  18. Improving Attachments of Non-Invasive (Type III) Electronic Data Loggers to Cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    using an external computer housed in a portable waterproof container. Measurements of an individual cup and arrays of cups were made on cadavers...Howle, L.E., Murray, M.M., Rittschof, D., Shorter, K.A., and Moore, M. From Kooyman’s 1963 wind-up kitchen timer TDR, multi-sensor tags have

  19. 77 FR 5091 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...) Waterproofing inorganic (G) Silane quats. substrates. trade name zycosil; asphalt binder modifier. Trade name...) Component of coatings.... (G) Isocyanate polymer, alcohol- blocked. P-12-0057 11/18/2011 02/15/2012 CBI (G) Component of coatings.... (G) Hydroxyalkenoate, polymer with isocyanate and diglycol, alcohol- blocked....

  20. A data acquisition system for water heating and cooling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Martins, J. E. M.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a simple analogue waterproof temperature probe design and its electronic interfacing with a computer to compose a data acquisition system for water temperature measurement. It also demonstrates the system usage through an experiment to verify the water heating period with an electric heater and another to verify the Newton’s law of cooling

  1. 46 CFR 161.013-9 - Independent power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent power source. 161.013-9 Section 161.013-9... source. (a) Each independent power source must be capable of powering the light so that it meets the... signal. (b) If the independent power source is rechargeable, it must have a waterproof recharger designed...

  2. Plastic Coatings and Wraps for New Marine Timber Piling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    all fresh asphalt , resin-base curing compounds, or loose paint. Use compressed air to remove dust and dirt prior to applying the waterproofing...nonyellowing) isocyanate with a polycaprolactone backbone. The system is available in colors which are unaffected by solar radiation. Mechanical

  3. 公路隧道防排水施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓波

    2015-01-01

    隧道防排水是隧道施工过程中的关键,是隧道长期安全运行的保障.因此公路隧道的防排水施工要因地制宜,综合治理,确保隧道结构物和运营设备的正常使用和行车安全.因此,隧道防排水工程应当合理设计、精心施工并且有效维护.本文就公路隧道防排水施工技术进行研究探讨.%the tunnel waterproof and drainage is the key, in the process of tunnel construction is the guarantee of long-term safe operation of the tunnel. So of highway tunnel waterproof and drainage construction to adjust measures to local conditions, comprehensive treatment, and ensure the normal use of tunnel structure and operating equipment and driving safety. Therefore, tunnel waterproof and drainage engineering should be reasonable design, the careful construction and effective maintenance. In this paper, the research of highway tunnel waterproof and drainage construction technology.

  4. Ozone Resistance, Water Permeability, and Concrete Adhesion of Metallic Films Sprayed on a Concrete Structure for Advanced Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ho Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the applicability of metal spray coating as a waterproofing/corrosion protection method for a concrete structure used for water purification. We carried out an ozone resistance test on four metal sprays and evaluated the water permeability and bond strength of the metals with superior ozone resistance, depending on the surface treatment method. In the ozone resistance test, four metal sprays and an existing ozone-proof paint were considered. In the experiment on the water permeability and bond strength depending on the surface treatment method, the methods of no treatment, surface polishing, and two types of pore sealing agents were considered. The results showed that the sprayed titanium had the best ozone resistance. Applying a pore sealing agent provided the best adhesion performance, of about 3.2 MPa. Applying a pore sealing agent also provided the best waterproofing performance. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that applying a pore sealing agent resulted in an excellent waterproofing performance because a coating film formed on top of the metal spray coating. Thus, when using a metal spray as waterproofing/corrosion protection for a water treatment concrete structure, applying a pore sealing agent on top of a film formed by spraying titanium was concluded to be the most appropriate method.

  5. Making a Canoe-Paddle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Rob

    1996-01-01

    Instructions on making a canoe paddle include types of wood to consider, choices of tools, how to determine paddle length, various designs, blade dimensions, smoothing, waterproofing, and storage. Explains how every aspect of the design is influenced by upper body strength, paddling experience, and personal preference. (TD)

  6. Hide And Seek GPS And Geocaching In The Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, Lynn M.

    2004-01-01

    In short, geocaching is a high-tech, worldwide treasure hunt (geocaches can now be found in more than 180 countries) where a person hides a cache for others to find. Generally, the cache is some type of waterproof container that contains a log book and an assortment of goodies, such as lottery tickets, toys, photo books for cachers to fill with…

  7. Swim Free. A 10 Day Program of Aquatic Exercises Adapted from Life in the Waterworld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Lorraine; Sanborn, Laura

    The completely waterproof book contains instructions for an alternative form of swimming exercises based on the movements of 19 water creatures. The exercises can be used by groups or individuals to enhance training programs, to serve as part of a structured synchronized swimming program, or to supplement recreational activities. The book provides…

  8. 3-D Wizardry: Design in Papier-Mache, Plaster, and Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, George

    Papier-mache, plaster, and foam are inexpensive and versatile media for 3-dimensional classroom and studio art experiences. They can be used equally well by elementary, high school, or college students. Each medium has its own characteristic. Papier-mache is pliable but dries into a hard, firm surface that can be waterproofed. Plaster can be…

  9. 3-D Wizardry: Design in Papier-Mache, Plaster, and Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, George

    Papier-mache, plaster, and foam are inexpensive and versatile media for 3-dimensional classroom and studio art experiences. They can be used equally well by elementary, high school, or college students. Each medium has its own characteristic. Papier-mache is pliable but dries into a hard, firm surface that can be waterproofed. Plaster can be…

  10. Sustaining Soldier Health and Performance in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia. Guidance for Small Unit Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    glove is not waterproof . o. Trigger-finger or Exttreme Cold Weather mittens with liners should provide additional protection when air temperature is Lelow...boots and the outermost clothing should be rel-ioved for sleeping. r. Use lip balm to prevent chapped and sunburned lips (Cold Climate Lipstick , Antichap

  11. Better Assessment of Operational Suitability. Volume 2. Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    improved bolts Salt-water fording No changes required, waterproof system Cold starting Additional grounding straps, rerouting of preheate exhaust Front...window, but the impact is primarily cosmetic . Video degradation requires prolonged operation in the sand environment and is gradual. In SWA, 24 windows

  12. China Report, Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The traditional waterproofing and heat-insulating materials on house surfaces are of "two felts and three oil’s" meaning coated with two layers of...increments in taxation as opposed to merely keeping up with inflation. However, he ruled out the elimination of taxes on soft drinks and cosmetics

  13. Industrial Equipment Survival/Recovery Feasibility Program during Event DICE THROW

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-31

    particular conditions at this site. *In this section survival is defined as no damage or only " cosmetic " damage. 40 aM ----- -- IP l- FIGURE 9: DESK AND HAND...results on much smaller tanks indicated that if rigid waterproof tanks had been available, much less damage might have resulted.) It was not clear from

  14. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-14

    34out-of-round parts" was men- tritium treatment system headed for Pakistan by ship tioned. The cosmetic linguistic change took place prior and a few...34 waterproof ’-a Havanna deluxe, so to speak. At any rate, the regime in The most interesting new development in the compli- South Africa paid 45

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 3, March 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    venture producing all-purpose insulating and waterproofing material based on Japanese technology) or allocate foreign markets between the partners in...34corrections" could be attributed to the " cosmetic " category and the argument itself considered a misunderstanding if we accept the mode of reasoning

  16. Rigid-Flex Printed Circuit Manufacturing process. A Project of the Manufacturing Technology Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-30

    2 cable. This type of defect was considered to be cosmetic only. The de- fect occurred as a result of a severe reaming operation in which a 3/16-in...on or before 31 January 1979. The hardware will be legibly identified with a waterproof epoxy type ink per MIL-STD-129 and packaged using a

  17. Combating Terrorism Technology Support Office 2006 Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    listed in the International Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients, Clean Earth Technologies, LLC developed and tested a portable simulant training kit for...underwater. The design includes a multipurpose housing with an integrated means of attachment that is waterproof to depths of 190 feet. The cutting

  18. Urinary incontinence products - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day at the same times every day. Adult Diapers and Underwear You can use adult diapers if you are leaking large amounts of urine. ... These look more like regular underwear than adult diapers. Some have a waterproof crotch area and room ...

  19. 40 CFR 60.591a - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and adhesive properties... redistillation, cracking, or reforming of unfinished petroleum derivatives. Process unit means the components... products from petroleum, unfinished petroleum derivatives, or other intermediates. A process unit...

  20. Measure Guideline. Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Bruce [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home’s structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas.

  1. Application of honeymoon cold-set adhesive systems for structural end joints in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland E. Kreibich; Richard W. Hemingway; William T. Nearn

    1993-01-01

    High quality, structural end joints can be cold-set at mill speed using a two-component honeymoon adhesive system composed of southern pine bark or pecan shell membrane tannin and a modified, commercially available. phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde resin. Adhesive costs of a fully waterproof glueline are approximately $0.60/lb. of applied adhesive mix compared to $0.80/...

  2. TEST AND ANALYSIS ON FACTORS AFFECTING COMBUSTION PERFORMANCE OF HEAT INSULATION MATERIAL%影响保温材料燃烧性能因素试验与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段恺; 费慧慧; 张丽; 赵莹

    2011-01-01

    Combustion performance test of polystyrene foam boards EPS and XPS is carried out by covering ethylene propylene terpolymer waterproof sheet and SBS modified asphalt waterproof coiled material respectively, to obtain the factors affecting the combustion performance of polystyrene foam material, whose combustion performance is completely different from that covered with ethylene propylene terpolymer waterproof material or SBS modified asphalt waterproof coiled material. After test and analysis, it is suggested to reasonably select and use organic and efficient heat insulation material on building to improve the fire resistance of heat insulating building.%通过对聚苯乙烯泡沫材料板EPS和XPS分别覆盖三元乙丙橡胶防水片材和SBS改性沥青防水卷材试件进行燃烧性能试验,得到影响聚苯乙烯泡沫材料燃烧性能的因素,与覆盖三元乙丙橡胶防水材料或SBS改性沥青防水卷材所产生的燃烧结果是不同的.经试验分析,为提高保温隔热建筑的防火性能,建议在建筑上合理选择使用有机高效保温材料.

  3. Waarom produceren steltlopers ander stuitklierwas tijdens het broedseizoen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Piersma, Theunis

    2004-01-01

    Birds daily maintain their plumage by applying waxes secreted from their uropygial gland. The preen wax coat probably keeps the feathers flexible and waterproof. Recent studies show that the chemical composition of preen wax of several shorebird species rapidly shifts from the usual monoester waxes

  4. Construction method of foam glass thermal insulation material in sloping roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longwei; Bu, Fangming; Guo, Fenglu; Zhang, Zimeng

    2017-04-01

    Foam glass thermal insulation board has the characteristics of fireproof, waterproof, corrosion resistant, noncombustible, mothproof, non-toxic, non-aging, non-radioactive, high mechanical strength and good dimensional stability. Foam glass thermal insulation material in sloping roof construction method is an effective solution to large angle sloping roof construction operation difficulties.

  5. Advances of the Development of MMA Series Materials%MMA系列材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱怀刚; 李明阳

    2012-01-01

    文章综述了MMA防水涂料、MMA彩色防滑路面、MMA地坪涂料和MMA混凝土修复材料等系列产品的研究进展情况。%The recent research progresses of MMA in waterproof paint, colorful antiskid pavement, floor paint and concrete restoration were summarized.

  6. Exposure assessment for a multicentric cohort study of cancer risk among European asphalt workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burstyn, I.

    2001-01-01

    There is a long-standing controversy about the health effects of fumes and vapors generated during paving and waterproofing with bitumen. Such emissions may be carcinogenic. To address this question, a historical multicentric cohort of asphalt workers was assembled by in eight coun

  7. Skilled up and Having Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers seem to have followed the "dunking theory." That is, they dunk their children in a variety of investigations and hope that through their practical work they will absorb a thorough understanding of enquiry skills. Children seem to have quite a good natural waterproof coating when it comes to absorbing scientific skills through…

  8. Structure and Function of Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Structure & Function of Your Skin Share | What It Looks Like . . . Skin is a waterproof, flexible, but tough protective covering for your body. Normally the surface is smooth, punctuated only with hair and pores for sweat. A cross-section of ...

  9. Requirements of inverted roofs with a drainage layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimer, Hans-Peter; Rode, Carsten; Künzel, Hartwig

    2005-01-01

    flowing between the insulation and the waterproofing membrane. It is possible to calculate the extra heat loss of inverted roofs caused by rain water below the heat insulation. The extra heat loss depends on the average rainfall and on which fraction of the rain water that will drain between...... the waterproofing membrane and the thermal insulation. This paper explains the application of the standard for areas of Europe. Furthermore, some constructions are proposed, which have such small extra heat losses caused by rain water that they may be disregarded in the calculation.......This contribution illustrates the application of the standard EN ISO 6946 regarding the heat loss of an inverted roof for different regions of Europe. An addendum to the standard (EN ISO 6946:1996/A1, 2003) introduces a correction to the thermal transmittance of inverted roofs due to rain water...

  10. Theory and technology of preventing water from flooding roadways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Sheng-gen; HOU Shi-song; LI Zhong-hua

    2008-01-01

    According to the principle of effective stress action of rock and soil, we established a mechanical model of water flooding into roadways, analyzed the constitutive relation of hydrodynamic pressure and contact pressure of rock and soil and discovered that the process of pre-grouting of a roadway curtain is a dynamically balancing process in which effective stress keeps gradually increasing and pore water pressure gradually declines. In such a grouting process, the initial water plugging effect is realized when the effective stress and total stress reaches equilibrium. A rigid-flexible packing layer is designed behind the brickwork to increase the effective stress and reduce pore water pressure in order to have a permanent water proof performance. This provides a theoretical basis for roadway driving and permanent water prevention. The monitoring and application results show that the initial and permanent waterproof theory has provided an effective method for roadway driving and making it waterproof.

  11. 某深基坑降水方案及涌水事故处理%Design of Ground Water Lowering Scheme and Management of Water Inrush Accident in a Deep Foundation Pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉洁

    2014-01-01

    详细说明了武汉地区某车站的降水及防水设计,并就施工过程中遇到的涌水事件,对设计方案进行补充和修正,对今后此种地质条件下深基坑工程的降水防水设计有良好的借鉴作用。%The design of ground water lowering and waterproofing scheme of a station pit in Wuhan is described in de -tail.A water inrush accident in the construction process is analyzed and the design scheme is accordingly amended and supplemented , which could be useful experience for the design of water lowering and waterproofing scheme of deep foun -dation pits with similar geological conditions .

  12. Study on characteristics of pipeline transportation and sulfur fixing of cleaned coal logs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yu; LIN Qun; TANG Jun; LIU Tong-cheng

    2006-01-01

    As special cylindrical briquettes of coal for long distance pipeline transportation and directly cleaned combustion the cleaned coal logs should possess two characteristics of transportation in pipeline and cleaned combustion. In order to make cleaned coal logs a rational technology for manufacturing, cleaned coal logs was designed and compound sulfur fixing binders with high effects of binding and sulfur-fixing was selected and combined. In addition, by means of characteristic experiments of strength, wear, waterproof and sulfur-fixing five different cleaned coal logs made with different compound sulfur fixing binders in different compaction conditions was tested and measured. Experimental results indicated that the manufacturing technology of cleaned coal logs was reasonable and the combination of compound sulfur fixing binders was scientific. Cleaned coal logs made up with the fourth group of coal mixture had high strength, good waterproof property, efficient sulfur-fixing, good characteristic of transportation, and achieved the performance requirement for pipeline transportation and sulfur fixing.

  13. Flower solid modeling based on sketches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan DING; Shu-chang XU; Xiu-zi YE; Yin ZHANG; San-yuan ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method to model flowers of solid shape. Based on (Ijiri et al., 2005)'s method, we separate individual flower modeling and inflorescence modeling procedures into structure and geometry modeling. We incorporate interactive editing gestures to allow the user to edit structure parameters freely onto structure diagram. Furthermore, we use free-hand sketching techniques to allow users to create and edit 3D geometrical elements freely and easily. The final step is to automatically merge all independent 3D geometrical elements into a single waterproof mesh. Our experiments show that this solid modeling approach is promising. Using our approach, novice users can create vivid flower models easily and freely. The generated flower model is waterproof. It can have applications in visualization, animation, gaming, and toys and decorations if printed out on 3D rapid prototyping devices.

  14. Study on Protective Clothing against SARS Using PTFE/Poly(ether-ester) Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xin-min; ZHANG Jian-chun; GUO Yu-hai

    2004-01-01

    By means of texturing with organic conductive fiber, and then being treated with JAM-Y1 anti-bacteria agent, in the end, treated with the XL-550 waterproof agent, the PET fabric has permanent antistatic, anti-bacteria and waterproof and anti-oil properties. The PET fabric was laminated with PTFE membrane by paste dot coating, and then coated by Poly(ether-ester) solution in a direct process. The filter efficiency of NaCl aerosol, penetration property of poliomyelitis virus in liquid and animalcule in air of PET fabric laminated with PTFE membrane are measured. The properties show that the PET fabric laminated with PTFE membrane can separate SARS virus in air and liquid. The protective mechanism is also discussed in the article.

  15. O/W microemulsion as a vehicle for sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, M Eugenia; Gallarate, Marina; Rossatto, Valeria

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, transparent dispersions or diluted milks have been used as sunscreens. These products contain water-soluble sunscreen agents, and quite frequently are washed away from the skin. However, O/W microemulsions are now being prepared as transparent vehicles for sunscreens. They are waterproof, nonsticky, and easily spreadable. The microemulsions are prepared by using pseudoternary diagrams, by combining lipids with surfactant blends and a polar phase. Soya lecithin and decylpolyglucose produce transparent systems with the lowest percentage of surfactants. These microemulsions contain 4-methylbenzilidene camphor or octylmethoxycinnamate as sunscreen agents. Cyclomethicone, menthol, and allantoin give products a good skin feel, and stearyl methicone gives the waterproof effect. These systems show a Newtonian flux. Little permeation of the sunscreens' trough lipophilic and hydrophilic membrane is evidenced.

  16. High performance fly ash mixed concrete in underground construction of Delhi metro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, R.; Gupta, A.K.; Garg, R.; Gopalkrishnan, E. [DMRC, New Delhi (India)

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes the comprehensive concrete durability studies carried out for deciding the specifications for the MCIA contract for construction of 4 km of underground metro from Vishwa Vidyalaya station to Kashmere Gate station in India. The study involved adiabatic concrete temperature measurement tests to know the heat generation and temperature rising properties inside concrete mass. The paper describes the background for selection of fly ash as a part replacement up to 30% of cement in concrete including determination of specification, identification of source, collection and transportation by bulk carrier and transfer to storage silo at the concrete batching plant. Control of temperature of concrete during production and after placement requires detailed arrangements for cooling aggregates and water at batching plant and thermal insulation along with curing to the concrete placed at site. Fully tanked membrane waterproofing and special waterproofing details at construction joints also contribute towards achieving the high performance durable concrete structure. 3 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Mechanism of Action of Lung Damage Caused by a Nanofilm Spray Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren T.; Dallot, Constantin; Larsen, Susan W;

    2014-01-01

    techniques and by identification of the binding interaction. Inhalation of the aerosolized product gave rise to increased airway resistance in the mice, as evident from the decreased expiratory flow rate. The toxic effect of the waterproofing spray product included interaction with the pulmonary surfactants....... More specifically, the active film-forming components in the spray product, perfluorinated siloxanes, inhibited the function of the lung surfactant due to non-covalent interaction with surfactant protein B, a component which is crucial for the stability and persistence of the lung surfactant film...... and identification of toxicological targets are important to perform rational and cost-effective toxicological studies. Thus, because the pulmonary surfactant system appears to be an important toxicological target for waterproofing spray products, study of surfactant inhibition could be included in toxicological...

  18. Characteristics of the mechanically fastened joints of one-layer bitumen sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petříček Tomá¡

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of mechanic fastening is one of the most frequently used variants of roof membrane stabilization against the impacts of wind sucking. With the growing number of applications of mechanically fastened roofs the number of defects is also growing. We particularly see them in the joints of waterproofing membranes. The contribution is thus dedicated to examination of mutual dependence between the type of the carrier and the strength characteristics of mechanically fastened joints of these sheets. Bitumen sheets with different types of carrier used for onelayer mechanically fastened waterproofing membranes of flat roofs were chosen as samples. The above mentioned dependence is frequently stated in the practice, but is not explicitly documented. The aim of the contribution is to confirm or refute a hypothesis that a relation between the bitumen sheet carrier type and the strength of their joints exists. The results were arranged on the base of statistic evaluation of data obtained by laboratory measurement.

  19. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials (detachable plane panel); Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kenzai ittaigata module no kenkyu kaihatsu (chakudatsushiki heiban panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of technology for module structures, specifications of the horizontal muntin system module were newly determined in addition to the improved muntin system module, and the prototype pseudo-module integrated with construction material was prepared. The comparison results of the basic performance of both system modules clarified superior waterproofing and module temperature uniformity of the horizontal muntin system. Based on this specifications, integration technology of modules with back metal plates was studied. Formation of the integrated module close to final specifications was ascertained to be possible by use of passivation equipment to irregular form. (2) On development of construction and installation methods of modules, improvement of the waterproofing and workability of both system modules was studied. (3) On the study on practical use of modules, their design and ventilation/cooling structure were studied. 38 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Experimental studies of liquid marbles and superhydrophobic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, SJ

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of water droplets with hydrophobic or rough, superhydrophobic solid surfaces has been studied. Such surfaces may be found in the natural world and their potential applications range from waterproof and self-cleaning surfaces to droplet microfluidics. A measure of hydrophobicity is obtained from the angle between the liquid and solid surface measured from the solid through the liquid, known as the contact angle. Variations in this angle can indicate not only a level of ‘wetting...

  1. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Application of Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Workers’ Compensation and Environmental Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    NAME POSITION Eric Murray Controller (Risk Management & Workers’ Comp) Jim Paulson Manager Safety Brienn Woods Manager Training & Development Judie...making the distinction. Stretching is best done when the muscles, tendons, joints, etc. are warm and have good blood flow. These tissues are more pliable ...manufacturer, Safeguard technologies further assisted us in our efforts. I. Selection Criteria Waterproof Cold/Thermal insulation Long life Durability

  2. Effectiveness of Low-Cost Planting Techniques for Improving Water Availability to Olea europaea Seedlings in Degraded Drylands

    OpenAIRE

    Valdecantos Dema, Alejandro; Fuentes Delgado, David; Smanis, Athanasios; Llovet López, Joan; Morcillo Juliá, Luna; Bautista Aguilar, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Reforestation projects in semiarid lands often yield poor results. Water scarcity, poor soil fertility, and structure strongly limit the survival and growth of planted seedlings in these areas. At two experimental semiarid sites, we evaluated a variety of low-cost planting techniques in order to increase water availability to plants. Treatments included various combinations of traditional planting holes; water-harvesting microcatchments; stone or plastic mulches; small waterproof sheets to in...

  3. Sub-structure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available to ensure that it enhances the overall performance of the building and maximises energy savings associated with heating and cooling. One way of achieving the correct insulation performance is to use a closed-cell spray polyurethane foam (ccSPF...) insulation and waterproofing system. A typical application of ccSPF would entail casting a rough concrete slab, covering that with a layer of ccSPF, and applying another layer of concrete to form a sandwich...

  4. Identification of acyltransferases required for cutin biosynthesis and production of cutin with suberin-like monomers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Koo, Abraham J. K.; Molina, Isabel; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John

    2007-01-01

    Cutin and suberin are the two major lipid-based polymers of plants. Cutin is the structural polymer of the epidermal cuticle, the waterproof layer covering primary aerial organs and which is often the structure first encountered by phytopathogens. Suberin contributes to the control of diffusion of water and solutes across internal root tissues and in periderms. The enzymes responsible for assembly of the cutin polymer are largely unknown. We have identified two Arabidopsis acyltransferases es...

  5. Marine Mammals Ashore: A Field Guide for Strandings. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    working in the water after dark should wear a dry suit marked with a chemical light or other waterproof illumination device. At night or Linder rough...Dubey, E. Obdn, C. Juan-Salles. E. Degollada, F. Alegre, 0. Cabez6n, S. Pont and M. Domingo. 2002. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a Mediterranean...nitrogen, and electrolyte flux and sea water drinking in the sea oner Enhihdra harts . Physiological Zoology 55:35-44. 12. Costa. D.. and G.L. Kooyman

  6. Modificación físico-química de betunes asfálticos mediante agentes reactivos

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad

    2016-01-01

    Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil distillation, has long been used in numerous engineering applications that range from the construction of road pavements to waterproof membranes for the roofing industry. On account of its properties (impermeability, adhesiveness, elasticity, ductility, etc.), bitumen is the most suitable material to be used as a binder of mineral aggregates for paving industry, and consequently, roads are mainly constructed using a composite mixture of bitumen (~ 5 wt.%) ...

  7. Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane Material for Patching: Laboratory Investigations and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    membranes made from vulcanized cthylcne-propylenc-dienc terpolymer (EPDM) rubber as the waterproofing component of low-sloped roofing systems has...terpolymer). The use of vulcanized EPDM rubber for low-sloped roofing membranes has become common in the U.S. Current estimates indicate that more than 93...would provide a means for obtaining field data on this proposed tesi , which has not yet been investigated in the field. 45 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND

  8. Unsteady Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics for Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    horizontal model. The first has advantages of placing t he force balance above the water line and thus solving the balance waterproofing i ssues , an d h...ABSTRACT This work introduces the Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) problem from the viewpoint of aerodynamics. Water tunnels are assessed as tools for MAV...aerodynamics. The design, construction and instrumentation of RB’s “Horizontal Free-surface Water Tunnel” is documented. Experiments in steady

  9. STUDY OF EXPERIMENTAL SAMPLES WITH DIFFERENT CONFIGURATIONS AT THE JOINTS COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Magomedova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article marked the behavior of concrete under the action of water, the effect of moisture and water saturation on the performance and durability of concrete waterproofing; offered special configuration interface, allowing to increase the strength characteristics of the concrete structure, the results of experimental studies; conclusions about the relationship configuration of joints and their strength.

  10. Tests for the characterization of bentonite used in the manufacture of clay geo synthetic barriers (GBR-C); Ensayos para la caracterizacion de las bentonitas utilizadas en la fabricacion de las barreras geosinteticas arcillosas (GBR-C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiro, A.; Mateo, B.; Garcia, H.; Llorente, S.

    2011-07-01

    Bentonites are clays essentially composed of the smectite minerals. they are used in the manufacture of Clay Geosynthetic Barriers )GBR-C) which are low-permeability geosynthetic materials, forming part of the lining technologies and construction waterproofing systems. This article shows a series of testing to evaluate the quality of the bentonite for such use. Correlation between different testing has also been established in order to identify the most suitable ones for their characterization. (Author) 8 refs.

  11. Other solutions for the plastic residue from the automobile industry and used as additives in the asphaltic bitumens; Alternativas de los residuos plasticos de la automocion y su empleo como aditivos de los betunes asfalticos. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Vidriero, E.; Castillo, F. [CEDEX. Ministerio de Fomento. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    This article forms part of an investigation which aims to achieve two adjectives. The first is to cooperate in the improvement of the environment by decreasing the amount of plastic residue from the automobile industry. The second is to improve the characteristics of asphaltic bitumens used in roofing and waterproofing in civil engineering, through the addition of plastic residue from the automobile industry. (Author) 4 refs.

  12. Development of Multifunctional Anti Aging Military Raincoat Fabric by Using Fitting Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Chun Xia

    2016-01-01

    Use Woodland camouflage paint Oxford fabric as base cloth, first the light pressure processing was used on the fabric, and then use polyurethane which has high water vapor permeability performance and other various additives as face glue and Bottom glue, the fabric was compounded a thin macromolecule hydrophilic polymer PU film, the fabric was water allocation processed after stripping, At last the fabric will have high performance of the windproof, waterproof and moisture permeability. After...

  13. Rehabilitation of Navigation Lock Walls: Case Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    the low bidder, Pre mier Waterproofing Company, Denver, Colorado. 258. There was no device or test which co uld be used to measure the degree of...concrete to be in sound condition except for surface deterioration. Total resurfacing of the lock chamber would be for cosmetic reasons only and was not...replacement of deteriorated concrete may only be cosmetic and in many cases the appearance may not be satisfac- tory either. Damage from freezing and

  14. Process Time Refinement for Reusable Launch Vehicle Regeneration Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Adjustments / Calibrations / Post-Repair QC 138 HLV systems check Inspections / Checks / Diagnosis / Troubleshooting 131 139 Waterproof TPS Adjustments...stenciling, lettering, installing decals, instrument range marking, etc., and painting for cosmetic purposes only). Do Not Use This Code For Treating...painting for cosmetic purposes only). Do Not Use This Code For Treating Corrosion or Painting of Parts/Assemblies/Equipment For Corrosion Prevention

  15. Workshop on Avionics Corrosion Control: Meeting of the Structures and Materials Panel of AGARD (62nd) Held in Hovik (Norway) on 16-17 April 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    transparent waterproof seal which, if corrosion is detected through the transparency, is easily removed with a solvent for treatment of the corrosion...This paper deals with them botk, One has only a cosmetic effect on electronic modules and, so far, no failure can be related to It. The other one...products used to build, maintain or fix must not be hazardous to the health, - the ratio cost/sePvice must be evaluated, - finally the cosmetic aspect

  16. Manufacturing Technology Study on Radio Frequency Power Modules Packaging Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    transmitter, without adequate waterproofing procedures for the transducer cables. No detailed mapping was carried out, since no mechanical carriage was... cosmetic and does not affect hermetic seal of module. A.7 Final Electrical Test Method: Test performed on computer controlled automatic module test...dull gray due to reaction to salt environment. Discoloration is cosmetic only since solder coating is used to prevent oxidation of copper runs. Gold

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Offpost Private Well Inventory, Sampling nd Information Response Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    nonhazardous materials. 4.3 Prohibitions Smoking, eating, drinking, chewing gum or tobacco, storing food or food containers, or application of cosmetics ...55 will be minimized. Chewing gum or tobacco; drinking except in designated areas; eating; smoking: and applications of cosmetics will not be...towels, watch, well file folders, large waterproof bags, evidence tape, clipboard, tissue papers or lens papers, calculator, and tools for troubleshooting

  18. Camouflage for vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Miki; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetic camouflage is indispensable for patients with vitiligo and can result in an improvement of their quality of life. Recent cosmetic advances enabled camouflage to obtain a suitable color match and keep it waterproof. However, camouflage needs some techniques. Therefore, patient education through a camouflage lesson is required to enjoy camouflage. Here the authors introduced a few tips for suitable camouflage, which were devised through camouflage lessons.

  19. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Rehabilitation of Navigation Lock Walls: Case Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    construction contract for the repairs was awarded to the low bidder, Premier Waterproofing Company, .- Denver, Colorado. 258. There was no device or test...sound condition except for surface deterioration. Total resurfacing of the lock chamber would be for cosmetic reasons only and was not considered...may only be cosmetic and in many cases the appearance may not be satisfac- . ’ tory either. Damage from freezing and thawing may only be a % few

  20. The Design and Implementation of a Prototype Surf-Zone Robot for Waterborne Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    developed and tested for mobility in a beachfront environment. Three wheel- designs were tested during fixed pattern tests on grass, concrete and sand. The...part of the internal electronics. To include the connectors in the design, the waterproof cylinder end caps are modified using CNC milling as shown... rubber coating (Plasti-Dip) and a liquid repellent treatment (Rust-Oleum Never Wet–multisurface). An FDM sparse part T5 was coated as depicted in Figure

  1. A composite construction material that solidifies in water

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Fukai, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Mikio

    1990-01-01

    A flexible, waterproof material that will solidify in water has long been desired in civil engineering. We have developed a new class of material, called Aquaphalt, which has these and other desirable properties. Aquaphalt is composed of an asphalt emulsion, cement and a water-absorbing polymer. The components are liquid at ambient temperature and can therefore be pumped, but they form a gel almost instantly when mixed. The hardened mixture is similar to hard bitumen, and has very low water p...

  2. Effects of bituminous layer as backfill material on mechanical behavior in tunnel model

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Takano, Shin-ei; Urata, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Takaki

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of bituminous material as a backfill material on mechanical behavior in model tunnel in laboratory. It is known that load spreading and relaxation of bituminous material are good properties. Then if we use bituminous material as a backfill material of tunnel, the tunnel will have waterproof, good load spreading property. We used new bituminous material (Aquaphalt) which can solidify in water. We conducted relaxation test in tension for new bituminous mat...

  3. Agents of Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Penelope; Paliani-Kamanga

    2011-01-01

    Rural women in Malawi successfully take their fate into their own hands by Penelope Paliani-Kamanga IN her childhood,40-year-old Zione Nyirenda used to watch women in her village in the northern region of Malawi joined forces to replace traditional thatched roofs with waterproof corrugated iron. Later,as an adult vegetable vendor and mother of six,this memory prompted her to form a women’s group to buy farm produce in bulk

  4. STUDY ON THE SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF SELF-FIXED SIZING AGENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxiang Zhu; Shuangfei Wang; Qifeng Yang; Shangyong Nong

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a study about the synthesis of self-fixed sizing agent and gives a detailed example about this kind of sizing agent's practical operation.The study focuses on the condition of emulsion polymerization and the proportions of monomer,which can make the product not only have a nice waterproof attribute but also have a better stability of emulsion. At the same time the use of the cation monomer enables the polymer to adhere to fiber easily.

  5. Electromagnetic Induction E-Sensor for Underwater UXO Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    junction is over-molded with a waterproof , rubberized epoxy; visible above in Figure 4. The size of this over-molded junction meant that two electrodes...Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) objects in seawater. The system was based around an existing Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) sensor, in which a pulsed...Dimensional model, Time-domain electromagnetic measurement, Acknowledgements This material is based upon work supported by SERDP through the

  6. The Aerodynamics of a Maneuvering UCAV 1303 Aircraft Model and its Control through Leading Edge Curvature Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    14 Figure 9. UCAV 1303 Model with Dimensions (Inches). From [1]. ..............................15 Figure 10. A Small Rubber Tube Placed over the...DC motor. A third motor is enclosed in a waterproofed mechanism which supports roll motions. The model is supported in the inverted position in order...entire system, from tunnel velocity to model motion, is driven by a PC based LabVIEW software. B. THE UCAV 1303 MODEL In order to perform a flow

  7. Modificación físico-química de betunes asfálticos mediante agentes reactivos

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil distillation, has long been used in numerous engineering applications that range from the construction of road pavements to waterproof membranes for the roofing industry. On account of its properties (impermeability, adhesiveness, elasticity, ductility, etc.), bitumen is the most suitable material to be used as a binder of mineral aggregates for paving industry, and consequently, roads are mainly constructed using a composite mixture of bitumen (~ 5 wt.%) ...

  8. Condition Assessment Survey (CAS) Program. Deficiency standards and inspections methods manual: Volume 1, 0.01 Foundations and footings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for footings - spread/strip/grade beams; foundation walls; foundation dampproofing/waterproofing; excavation/backfill/ and piles & caissons.

  9. Physico-chemical modification of asphalt bitumens by reactive agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil distillation, has long been used in numerous engineering applications that range from the construction of road pavements to waterproof membranes for the roofing industry. On account of its properties (impermeability, adhesiveness, elasticity, ductility, etc.), bitumen is the most suitable material to be used as a binder of mineral aggregates for paving industry, and consequently, roads are mainly constructed using a composite mixture of bitumen (~ 5 wt.%) ...

  10. The problem of the compatibility of bitumen sheets for the reconstruction and ehabilitation of roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Plachý Jan

    2017-01-01

    During the renovation of flat roofs, the waterproofing layer is often repaired locally rather than completely replaced. When making such repairs, it is very important to know whether the proposed bitumen sheets are compatible in order to prevent delamination and the release of the joints. This paper deals with the determination of the resistance of bitumen sheet joints against peeling when combined with different bitumen materials. On the basis of the described test methodology it was possibl...

  11. Humble Opinion of Roof Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXiaoxiao; MAQiangqiang; CAOXiaojun

    2005-01-01

    With the swift development of urban construction in China and the boost in people's demands for green environments in cities, roof gardens are widely used as a new way of greening. This paper deals chiefly with the functions, building principle, classification and composing elements of roof gardens, an analysis of main ecological factors, loads, and waterproof. It suggests that roof gardens will bring about a comparatively big leap in city greening both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  12. Modeling experiments and studies on retractable flanging device for shaftwalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.; Yang, J.; Yao, Z.; Wu, W.; Lin, H.; Huang, D.; Chen, X. [Huainan Institute of Technology, Huainan (China)

    2001-12-01

    The paper presents the structural forms of two compressive joints according to the new vertical compressive shaft-boring lining, and tests have been performed on the compressive joints under vertical loading, side loading and tri-axial loading. The test results show that both structural forms of compressive joint have fine property of vertical deformation, good compression resistance and waterproofing. The result of this study has been applied to Xutuan Coal Mine in Huaibei. 3 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. The analysis of implementation options of transverse joints of bitumen sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plachý Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent sources of faults on flat roofs is a violation of the waterproof layers along the transverse joints between bitumen sheets. This fault is caused by a failure to adhere to the technological methodologies. This paper presents current solutions, as well as a new solution, for creating such joints. The new solutions are experimentally compared with existing solutions.

  14. Operation REDWING 1956

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Energy Commission ALO 1956 D. OTHFR REDWING REFERENCES D.1 Gordon Jacks, personal communication, June 1980. D.2 A Fallout Forecastin.Technique with...decrease of inten- waterproofing preservatives . sity with distance from the source (inverse sauare law, which see). bathvthermoaraph. A device for...the names of the islands as used in this report. All other entries are spellings of the islands that may appear in other literature. Aaraanbiru VERA

  15. European Scientific Notes 36-1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-31

    low-cost waterproof simply does not know his own aptitudes garment of polyurethane-coated nylon and interests, and he may also be fairly was designed...SRCnet, the British Telecom (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Packet Switch Service (PSS), and other Pisa), DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron...which is in the Istituto di centers (e.g., the Aleutian and Icelandic Fisica A Righi, is headed by Dr. Antonio lows) around 60* latitude. Speranza, who

  16. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Accidental battery ingestion in children is a recognized source of significant morbidity and mortality. To mitigate the risks of accidental battery ingestion, legislation has been introduced to regulate the locking of battery compartments. Regulation of battery housings has translated into modest reductions in the number of battery ingestion cases reported. We report here the fabrication of waterproof, pressure-sensitive battery coatings that are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointest...

  17. Polyurethane Functional Coatings for Protection of Different Surfaces from Aggressive Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savelyev, U.V., Markovska, L.A., Robota, L.P., Parkhomenko, N.I., and Savelyeva, O.O.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New polyurethane compositions (PC as multifunctional protective materials that can serve as coatings or binders or impregnating materials have been created. PC have high adhesion values and the PC-based materials are waterproof and resistant to aggressive biotic (abiotic and technogenic factors (biocorrosion, UV radiation, chemical agents. Putting active compounds into the polymer macrochain prolongs the protection functions of the materials. This is their advantage to existing materials.

  18. Concepto del coeficiente de seguridad en las obras de impermeabilización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safránez, Carlos

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available To assure the efficiency of waterproofing, a suitable safety coefficient should be counted on, but we find this concept is not clearly defined precisely in the waterproofing works. Since it is not yet feasible to express the safety coefficient in numerical terms, using a calculation method, in spite of the most notable progress recently made in this respect to achieve this, we have to conform with a comparative safety coefficient, for waterproofing works. The various factors that condition the efficiency of a waterproofing are described, and which must be considered when fixing a suitable safety coefficient. It should moreover be remembered that certain circumstances such as the location of the works, the social conditions of the waterproofed work users, etc., may make it advisable to choose a safer solution than the minimum accepted by the Standard. Finally a procedure is given, through calculation, to compare the ageing and shedding re sistance coefficient of the asphalt sealer.

    Para asegurar la eficacia de una impermeabilización hay que contar con un coeficiente de seguridad adecuado, pero observamos que su concepto resulta poco definido, precisamente en las obras de impermeabilización. Al no ser factible aún expresar su coeficiente de seguridad en términos numéricos, por medio de un cálculo, a pesar de los muy notables progresos realizados últimamente en este sentido para lograrlo, tenemos que conformarnos, para las obras de impermeabilización, con un coeficiente de seguridad comparativo. Se exponen los distintos factores que condicionan la eficacia de una impermeabilización, que hay que tener en cuenta y para la fijación de un coeficiente de seguridad adecuado. Además, se debe tener presente que ciertas circunstancias, como el emplazamiento de la obra, las condiciones sociales de los usuarios de la obra impermeabilizada, etc., pueden hacer aconsejable elegir una solución más segura que la mínima admisible

  19. 硅烷乳液、TEOS和硅溶胶对水泥砂浆防水性能的影响%Effect of silane emulsions,TEOS and silica sol on the water absorption of cement mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠; 李绍纯; 赵铁军; 金祖权

    2016-01-01

    Treat the cement mortar with tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS),octyl-triethoxy silane emulsions,isobutyl triethoxy silane emulsions and silica sol.The properties of mortar water absorption with different waterproof material was studied.Analyzed the changes of surface contact angle of water in the slurry.The effect of different waterproof net of micro-morphology on cement slurry.The waterproof mechanism of different waterproof materials were studied.Mortar water absorption test results show that TEOS and emulsion mixing effect is best,contrast with untreated mortar,36 h water quantity dealing with 1/9,latex coating times alone,is dealing with 1/7 the size of a sin-gle coating is worst effect of tetraethyl silicate,silica sol,is only 1/2,the processing of but still have certain waterproof function.The con-tact Angle test results show that the net pulp after processing the water contact Angle of not less than 90°.Have good hydrophobicity,TEOS and emulsion after mixing the water contact angle of up to 104°.XRD,SEM results show that the different waterproof material on the net after the net pulp slurry surface,net paste microstructure improved.%选用正硅酸四乙酯(TEOS)、辛基三乙氧基硅烷乳液、异丁基三乙氧基硅烷乳液以及硅溶胶对水泥砂浆进行处理,研究了不同防水材料对砂浆吸水性能的影响,并分析了水在水泥浆将表面接触角的变化,研究了不同防水材料对水泥净浆试块微观形貌的影响,研究了不同防水材料的防水机理。砂浆吸水试验结果表明TEOS和乳液混合使用效果最好,36 h吸水量为未处理砂浆的1/9,单涂乳液次之,是未处理时的1/7,单涂正硅酸四乙酯、硅溶胶效果最差,仅为未处理时的1/2,但仍具有一定防水作用。接触角试验结果表明:净浆经处理后水的接触角均大于90°,具有良好疏水性,TEOS与乳液混合使用后水的接触角可达104°。XRD、SEM结果表明:不同防

  20. 探究和分析建筑屋面节能与保温防水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖新维

    2014-01-01

    建筑屋面节能与保温防水已经受到了全球的广泛关注,屋面保温隔热与防水材料作为建筑屋面节能的基础,具有十分重要的意义,在科技水平的发展之下,各类轻质、环保、使用寿命长的建筑屋面节能保温材料也得到了越来越广泛的应用,我国常用的建筑屋面隔热材料主要有膨胀蛭石、膨胀珍珠岩、硬质发泡聚氨脂材料、聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料、XPS挤塑式聚苯乙烯保温板几种,本文主要分析建筑屋面节能与保温防水措施与发展方向。%energy saving building roof and waterproof insulation has been widespread concern in the global, basic roof insulation and waterproof material as energy conservation, has the very vital significance, in contrast to the development of science and technology, al kinds of light, environmental protection, energy saving and long life of use of building roof insulation material has been used more and more widely the commonly used in China, the building roof insulation materials mainly expanded vermiculite, expanded perlite, hard foaming polyurethane material, polystyrene foam, extruded polystyrene insulation board of XPS, this paper analyzes the roof construction of energy-saving and thermal insulation waterproof measures and development direction.

  1. Design and construction of Nemiscau-1 Dam, the first asphalt core rockfill dam in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicescu, V.; Tournier, J.P. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Vannobel, P. [Societe d' Energie de la Baie James, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The concept of asphalt as a waterproofing medium inside embankment dams was originally developed in Germany in the 1960s. More than 100 asphalt core rockfill (ACRD) dams have been completed or are under construction. They all have a strong record without any seepage problems or required maintenance. After using the glacial till as waterproofing material for its embankment dams for more than 50 years, Hydro-Quebec is now looking to develop new dam concepts, mainly for the zones where natural waterproofing materials do not exist. In order to do so, the company has decided to design and construct the Nemiscau-1 Dam as a prototype ACRD. This paper presented the detailed design criteria, technical specifications as well as some information concerning the construction of the dam such as asphalt mix design. The given dam site, geology and materials is well suited for a dam with an asphalt core and the chosen core thickness of minimum 400 mm was found to be appropriate, given the small net water head. The main reservoir levels as well as the characteristics of the dam were also listed. Information on the general construction of the dam was provided. It was concluded that the longitudinal profile of the rock excavation and concrete plinth must be optimized, with an optimum balance between the rock excavation, the volume and shape of the concrete plinth and finally, the placement of the asphalt core with the manual method. Several combinations of these 3 elements must be analyzed at the design stage and the most cost effective one should be applied on site. 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. 基于防水性能的永磁直驱风力发电机绝缘结构%Insulation Structure of Direct-Drive Permanent Magnet Wind Turbines Based on Water Proof Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪武; 车三宏

    2012-01-01

    Wind turbines usually operate in harsh environment, due to the reasons of protection level, a situation appears those generators are prone to be exposed to moisture or be soaked by rain, so a higher requirement of the performance of resistant to moisture on the insulation structure is needed. The significance of insulation structure of wind turbines based on waterproof performance was presented, giving analysis of insulation structure's character and the reason may lead to bad waterproof performance, meanwhile, combining with the introduction and implementation of water-immersion test and water-spray test, the waterproof performance of improved wind turbines' insulation structure has been verified.%风力发电机长期在恶劣的环境下运行,由于防护等级的原因,电机运行过程中容易出现绝缘受潮或受雨水浸泡的情况,对绝缘结构的耐潮性能提出了更高要求.介绍了风力发电机绝缘结构基于防水性能研究的意义,分析了绝缘结构的特点及可能导致防水性能差的原因,结合浸水、淋水试验的标准介绍及试验的实施,对电机结缘结构的防水性能进行了验证.

  3. A New Type Machine of Mixing-molding for Polyblends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chuan-sheng; LI Li; BIAN Hui-guang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type machine for polyblends with excellent mixing capabilities of internal mixer and continuous molding character of extruder. The machine includes two functions -- mixing and extrusion molding that have been composed together by rational design, so a tandem production mode -- "batch + continuous" are opened up. The mathematical model of continuous mixing molding was established and verified availably by experimental research. The main physical mechanical property of vuicanizate, which had met national waterproof material standard, verified the machine practicability. The essential difference from other similar type machines is that this machine is not only suitable in producing granular and powder rubbers but also lumpish tablets.

  4. Student inventors to challenge Nobel prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1997-07-15

    The book introduces the inventions invented by students which are a telephone box which is on automatically, light instead of sound, oil bottle using a milk carton, good bye cockroach, syringe toothpaste, globe using balloons, a grove with magnet, bicycle for two people, a mat with magic tapes, a glass stick which doesn't roll, a eraser both drawing and writing, a color pencil with a square cap, swivel which doesn't tangle, a beaker marked volume, convenient trash can and waterproofing toilet paper holder.

  5. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  6. Protección temporal de la impermeabilización de una cubierta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safránez, Carlos

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available As experience tells us, when placing a thick mortar layer for temporary protection for temporary waterproofing, it is common to detect faults or cracks, which do not normally occur when mortar layer is thin. There does not seem to be a clear and unanimous explanation of this fact and an attempt is made to clarify the situation trough an understanding if the effects on the waterproofing membrane when the protective layer cracks up. It is shown here that the traction generated in the protective layer by atmospheric temperature changes, acting on the waterproofing membrane and the effects on the effectiveness of its fastenings to the supporting base, are both related to the thickness of the protective layer. The thicker the layer, She greater the traction force and thus the greater fastening efficiency. Therefore, the application of an excessively thick temporary protection, can cause damage to the water-proofing membrane.

    Según lo demuestra la experiencia, al colocar una capa gruesa de mortero como protección temporal de la impermeabilización, se observan con frecuencia fallos en la misma, lo que no ocurre, normalmente, al emplear una capa delgada. Parece que no existe un criterio claro y unánime para explicar este hecho y se pretende aclarar la situación exponiendo los efectos que se producen en la membrana impermeabilizante, al agrietarse la capa de protección. Se demuestra que lo mismo la fuerza de tracción producida en la capa de protección debido a los cambios de la temperatura ambiente y que actúa sobre la membrana impermeabilizante, como la eficacia de la sujeción de la misma sobre el soporte base, están relacionadas con el espesor de la capa de protección. A mayor espesor corresponde una mayor fuerza de tracción y una sujeción más eficaz, por lo que la aplicación de una capa de mortero excesivamente gruesa, como protección temporal, puede ser causa de una avería de la membrana impermeabilizante.

  7. Degradação de membrana impermeabilizante de polietileno de alta densidade usada em tanques de armazenamento de vinhaça

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Luiz Lavoie; Benedito de Souza Bueno; Paulo César Lodi

    2013-01-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) water-proof membranes are used as coatings in vinasse (leachate from sugar cane) storage tanks. The leachate is pumped into the tanks at temperatures of 80-90 °C. Due to these high temperatures and acidity of the waste, these membranes can be degraded, cracked and then loose the function for which they have been designed. This may cause contamination of the soil and groundwater. This study evaluated the effect of vinasse in HDPE membranes after 4 months of exp...

  8. Encapsulation for smart textile electronics - humidity and temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Andreas; Tran, Thanh-Nam; Aasmundtveit, Knut E; Seeberg, Trine M

    2015-01-01

    A combined humidity and temperature sensor was packaged by vacuum casting onto three different types of textiles; cotton, nylon and a waterproof fabric. This was done in order to integrate the sensor in a jacket in a soft and reliable way without changing the sensor performance. A membrane was custom made and integrated into the device to protect the sensor from the environment. The packaged sensors performance was characterized in a climate chamber were the relative humidity and temperature ranged from 25 % to 95 % and -10 °C to 75 °C respectively. The packaged sensors showed insignificant to limited performance degradation.

  9. Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of cutin, a plant barrier biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Antonio

    2003-03-17

    Cutin is a support biopolyester involved in waterproofing the leaves and fruits of higher plants, regulating the flow of nutrients among various plant cells and organs, and minimizing the deleterious impact of pathogens. Despite the complexity and intractable nature of this biopolymer, significant progress in chemical composition, molecular architecture and, more recently, biosynthesis have been made in the past 10 years. This review is focused in the description of these advances and their physiological impacts to improve our knowledge on plant cutin, an unusual topic in most plant physiology and biochemistry books and reviews.

  10. 超快硬混凝土修复王在抢修工程中的应用%Application of Restoration of Quickly Harden of Concrete in First-aid Repairing Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明杰

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, taking repairing water-proof pavement of bridge, the author introduced construction technology and features of restoration of quickly harden of concrete in first-aid repairing engineering, which provided reference for similar projects.%以桥梁桥面防水铺装层维修为例,介绍了超快硬混凝土修复王的施工工艺及技术特点,对混凝土修复王的主要性能进行了分析.旨在为以后同类工程提供相关参考。

  11. Studies on Mechanical Properties of Full-Biodegradable Starch-PVA-Polyester Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A kind of full-biodegradable film material is discussed in this article. The film material is composed of starch, PVA, degradable polyesters(PHB, PHB-V, PCL) with built plasticizer, a cross-linking reinforcing agent and a wet strengthening agent. It contains a high percentage of starch, costs cheap and is excellent in weather fastness, temperature resistance and waterproof and it could be completely biodegraded. The present paper deals mainly with a new technical route using a new type of electromagnetic dynamic blow molding extruder and some effects on mechanical properties of the system.

  12. An Elastic Tube Gage for Measuring Static and Dynamic Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-05-01

    f^pm the free ends by means of ä spring-clip With rubberrpadded jaws*. Before the Wire is wound, the tube Is coated with cement; after the winding...Compounds such as beeswax or ceresin wax were first employed for waterproofing, but their brittleness at low temperatures was found to be ob- jectionable...Engineering Company,- New Castle, Delaware, is given in the following: 1. Apply one coat of primer, with a brush or ä spray gun, and allow It to dry one-half

  13. 磷酸镁水泥耐水性能改善的研究%Researching on Water Resistance Improvement of Magnesium Phosphate Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛敏; 王智; 贾兴文

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium phosphate cement(MPC) is a novel cementing material characterized by Early strength and fast hard. The present researches refer to the chemical composition, hydration mechanism, mechanic and repairing performance of MPC while seldom come to the water resistance. This paper compared the water resistance of MPC with different amount of aluminum salt, ferric salt, coal ash and outer waterproof agent. The results indicated that aluminum salt, ferric salt, coal ash and outer waterproof agent can all improve the water resistance of MPC in some extent. For instance, when the proportion of ferric salt was 0.50%, the strength retention of 90 d of MPC was 88.09%.when the proportion of ferric salt was 0.75%, the strength retention of 90d of MPC was 80.18%. It achieved cheerful effect about the water resistance of MPC. When the proportion of coal ash and increasing of the waterproof agent. It also improved the water resistance of MPC significantly. With the increasing of the waterproof agent, the compression strength of the solid MPC specimen is growing at the same time.%磷酸镁水泥(MPC)是一种早强快硬的新型胶凝材料.研究了不同掺量的铝盐、铁盐、粉煤灰以及外涂不同涂层防水剂对磷酸镁水泥耐水性能的影响.结果表明,90d时,铁盐掺量0.50%,强度保留率为88.09%,铝盐掺量0.75%,强度保留率为80.18%,与磷酸镁水泥基准组强度保留率56.50%相比,分别提高了31.59%和23.68%,说明对磷酸镁水泥耐水性改性效果较好;掺加粉煤灰以及外涂防水剂也能不同程度的改善磷酸镁水泥耐水性,且随着防水剂涂层的增加,MPC试件在水养条件下的抗压强度呈增长趋势.

  14. 地下停车库渗漏水的处理与防范--以柳州市工人医院为例%UNDERGROUND PARKING GARAGE LEAKAGE WATER TREATMENT AND PRECAUTION-- LIUZHOU WORKERS’HOSPITAL CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄克朋; 王军

    2016-01-01

    The article takes Liuzhou Workers’ Hospital underground parking garage for example, analyzes the water leakage cause, plugging construction plan; gives advice on hospital underground garage waterproofing treatment.%文章以柳州市工人医院地下停车库工程为例,从漏水原因、堵漏施工方案等方面进行了实例分析,为医院地下停车库防水处理提供建议。

  15. 浅谈地下停车场的顶板绿化%Study on the Roof Greening of Underground Parking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗利娟

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the current situation and problems about the roof greening of underground parking, the au- thor pointed out that the roof greening should be designed according to load. In addition, it is also necessary to deal with waterproof, drainage proce%本文通过分析当前地下停车场顶板绿化的现状及存在问题,指出地下停车场顶板的绿化应根据荷载进行设计,做好防水、排水处理及植物品种选择。

  16. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Scott R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Efird, Marty [VeloxFlow, LLC

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  17. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  18. Introductory Handbook for Small Arms Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-07-01

    by a casual nents and drawings, or a visit t line. A lipstick container Is not trldge case In form. It Is blanked and trimmed by the same general...pro ment. However, the lipstick tube s container while the cartridge case of a very powerful "engine". ntlons that the ves "problems", d that... Waterproof Opera- tion. The cases are processed through a Dry Opera- tion after this operation. r. Mouth and Neck Anneal (1) The cases are mouth and

  19. At What Cost? Contingency Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    waterproof , smart cards: “Contracting Officer Representatives,” “The Commanders’  Emergency Response Program,” and “Contracting Basics for Leaders...recommendations for system reforms that are real and not merely  cosmetic . We  will also speak to the barriers of politics, bureaucratic inertia, fiscal

  20. Laboratory Experimentation of Autonomous Spacecraft Docking Using Cooperative Vision Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    treatment of expansion joints and/or cracks will be needed. Using standard 2 inch duct tape, tape a waterproofing seal around the inside perimeter of the...with no cosmetic concerns. 2nd Day The 1st pour of FP-85 epoxy has been allowed to cure and you can now see the relation of the floor to the...The FP-85 epoxy is mixed and poured to a depth of 3/16 inch at a rate of 8.5 square feet per gallon to create the cosmetic color coat of the

  1. Evaluación de diferentes tipos de barnices en la protección de electrodos para la soldadura subacuática//Evaluation of different types of varnishs to protect underwater welding electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rodríguez-Pérez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo evaluar  las posibilidades de empleo de diferentes tipos de barnices como impermeabilizantes para los electrodos del tipo AWS E 6013, cuando se realiza la soldadura  en condiciones subacuática mojada. Los barnices evaluados son el Vinílico, Marítimo, base Poliuretano y una nueva variante base Isopor. Los métodos de evaluación incluye el comportamiento de la resistencia mecánica que le confiere al revestimiento a cada uno de los barnices, el agua adsorbida y el tipo de estructura en el cordón, utilizando microscopía óptica convencional. En este aspecto, la estructura en todos los cordones realizados con el electrodo E 6013, independientemente del impermeabilizante utilizado es similar, caracterizada por ferrita primaria o de contorno de grano y del tipo Widmanstätten, sin embargo, se determinó, que el impermeabilizante base Isopor, garantiza una mejor protección del electrodo en cuanto a la cantidad de agua adsorbida y adherencia del revestimiento.Palabras claves: soldadura subacuática, impermeabilizante, electrodos._______________________________________________________________________________The article aims to assess the potential use of different types of paints and waterproofing materials for the electrodes of type AWS E 6013, when performing underwater welding in wet conditions. The coatings evaluated are Vinyl, Maritime, polyurethane base and a new variant Isopor base. Evaluation methods include the behavior of the mechanical strength to the coating gives each of the varnishes, the adsorbed water and the type of structure in the welds, using conventional microscopy. In this sense, the structure in all the welds made with the electrode E 6013, regardless of waterproofed used is similar, characterized by primary or ferrite grain boundary and Widmanstätten type, however, it was determined that the base waterproofing Isopor, guarantees better protection of the electrode in terms of the amount of

  2. Developing the Navy’s NC Flying Boats: Transforming Aeronautical Engineering for the First Transatlantic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ft. Max Gross Weight 28,0001b Cruising Speed 84kts Range 1,278 nm Crew 6 Engines (4) 400 hp Liberty L-12 Figure 7. The NC flying boat. In...of the hull. The keel of the hull is built up from spruce while the bottom planking is laid up from two plies of cedar separated by a waterproofing...pilots could remain below decks and out of the weather if desired. The aircraft commander even had enough space to lie down on the planking that made up

  3. Acción de las radiaciones U.V. sobre el poli (cloruro de vinilo) flexible

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Manuel; Cuevas, Ángel; Ortega, Juan J.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the U.V. radiations effects on plasticized Poly (vinyl chloride) used as waterproofing membrane in Building and also in Public Works. The ageing fact due to U.V. radiations has been followed for 3.000 hours, checking the changes produced in the composition of the material, on its mechanical characteristics and microscopic structure.

    En este trabajo se trata de poner de manifiesto el efecto de las radiaciones U.V. sobre el poli (clor...

  4. Thermal Stress Analysis of RCG-Tempered TUFI Tile TPS for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.; Squire, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents detailed results from linear and nonlinear finite-element thermal stress analyses of a new tile, Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) concept. A very thin coating of Reaction Cured Glass (RCG) is used to "temper" the surface of Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI) tiles to improve resistance to thermal shock and thermal cycling effects. The coating also serves to reduce catalytic heating and may improve waterproofing. Calculations include trajectory-based aerothermal heating environments for X-34 wing leading edge TPS designs and arc jet environments for TPS test articles. The nonlinear analyses include the high temperature plasticity of RCG to demonstrate the reuseability of the material.

  5. TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE PLANNING OF ROOF GARDENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizamettin KOÇ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Increases in population, buildings, traffic density and air pollution is the most specific characteristics of metropol cities. These conditions effect the living quality negatively. That is why architectures and planners should find both aesthetic and functional planning approach in urban areas. Roof gardens, which affect positively urban ecology in many ways, have an important place in this approach. Planning aproach of roof gardens are rather different compare to ground level design. Structural elements under the roof gardens againist the infiltration of water. That is why it is important that roof garden plannings should have some layers shuclh as drainage, insulation, waterproofing, filter layers and irrigation andf drainage systems.

  6. Polymer Composite Wrapping and Cathodic Protection System for Reinforced Concrete Piles in Marine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    waterproof rubberized liquid electrical coating. The welds were cleaned, and continuity verification measure- ments were taken between all reinforcing...wt. max. • Fe—0.001% wt. max. • Cd—0.005% wt. max. • Cu—0.7–0.9% wt. max. • Al—0.001% wt. max. • Zn—balance. Based on the manufacturer’s data...of 25 years based upon encapsulation in concrete and interrogation of up to once per week on av- erage for 1 hour with instrumentation of 10 Mohm

  7. The Impermeability Mechanism of Self-compacting Water Proof Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Houxiang; TANG Chun'an; XIONG Jianmin; LI Sinian

    2005-01-01

    The impermeability mechanism of water-proof self-compacting concrete (WPSCC )was studied. The mechanism and influential factors, such as water-cement ratio(w/c), dosage of powder, superplasticizer, sand content, aggregate content, fly ash, UEA, PP fiber, on compactibility and crack resistance of WPSCC were analyzed. A type of WPSCC successfully applied in tunnel liner with its validities, conveniences and economies by mockup test was developed and optimized. Experimental results show that the WPSCC has good workability, mechanical properties and impermeability when reasonable requirements are fulfilled.

  8. The problem of the compatibility of bitumen sheets for the reconstruction and ehabilitation of roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plachý Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the renovation of flat roofs, the waterproofing layer is often repaired locally rather than completely replaced. When making such repairs, it is very important to know whether the proposed bitumen sheets are compatible in order to prevent delamination and the release of the joints. This paper deals with the determination of the resistance of bitumen sheet joints against peeling when combined with different bitumen materials. On the basis of the described test methodology it was possible to determine whether the selected bitumen materials were compatible with bitumen sheets. As part of the experiments, modified bitumen sheets with plastomers (PO, oxidized bitumen (OX, and elastomers (SBS, were tested.

  9. Effect of Low Molecule Polyamide and Nano-SiO2 on Properties of the Poly (MMA/BA/MAA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjun ZOU; Bo LIAO; Jin PENG; Linqi ZHANG; Yun YANG; Furen XIAO

    2007-01-01

    Effects of Iow molecule polyamide (LMPA) and namometer SiO2 particles on the properties of the poly (MMA/BA/MAA) adhesive for wearable and nonskid PVC (polyvinyl carbazole) materials were investigated. The experimental results show that the shear strength of poly (MMA/BA/MAA)/LMPA is increased, when the LMPA is added into poly (MMA/BA/MAA). The optimum addition of LMPA is about 4 wt pct. By adding 3 wt pct nano-SiO2 into poly (MMA/BA/MAA)/LMPA adhesive, its properties such as the shear strength,thermal stability, wear resistance and sea waterproof resistance are increased too.

  10. New treatments for restoring impaired epidermal barrier permeability: skin barrier repair creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2012-01-01

    Skin health depends on an intact barrier composed of protein-rich corneocytes surrounded by the lamellar intercellular lipids. This barrier provides waterproof protection for the body, preventing infection, regulating electrolyte balance, maintaining body temperature, and providing a mechanism for sensation. Damage to the skin barrier results in skin disease that can be treated by a variety of externally applied substances, such as ceramides, hyaluronic acid, licorice extracts, dimethicone, petrolatum, and paraffin wax. These substances are found in moisturizers that are sold as cosmetics and in prescriptions as 510(k) devices. This contribution examines the formulation and effect of skin barrier creams.

  11. Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

  12. Fluorinated anti-graffiti coating for natural stone

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.; Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The water- and dirt-repellent properties of fluorinated products have been used primarily in waterproof coatings. The development of new materials or the definition of new functions for existing substances may extend the possible application of these systems to other specific uses, such as new anti-graffiti coatings to guarantee easy clean-up in the event of this kind of vandalism.The present study aimed to assess the anti-graffiti protection afforded by a fluoralkyl siloxane in limestone and...

  13. Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drchalová

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor paints on glass concrete substrates. All the Karlocolor paints are found to be very effective materials for driven rain protection. The diffusion properties of all the paints are found to be excellent.

  14. Stabilization of Problematic Shirasu Soil by Using Cement

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve the strength characteristics of shirasu against the slope failure. Cement was mixed with shirasu in small amounts of 1%, 1.5% and 2%, and cured at constant temperature of 20℃ for a period of 96 hours. The results of this study indicate that the axial strength and shear strength of shirasu increased noticeably by using cement in small amounts. Slaking test was also performed, the result of which has shown that cement is working well as bonding and water-proof age...

  15. The effect of sodium hydroxide treatment on biomass binder preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Xu, D.; Xu, Z.; Chen, Q. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

    2001-02-01

    The possibility of rice straw which has been treated with sodium hydroxide for use as coal briquette binder was studied. The main factor which influenced the binder preparation was the concentration of sodium hydroxide. It was found that the binding ability of the solid component was higher than the liquid part. The prepared rice straw binder was mixed with inorganic material, bentonite, or high molecular synthetic organic materials to manufacture a compound coal briquette binder. This compound binder is waterproofing and can further enhance the strength of the briquette. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Mechanical Properties and Self-Healing Effect of Concrete Containing Capillary Hydro Insulation Admixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mačanovskis Artūrs

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack formation during exploitation considerably decreases durability of concrete structures. Capillary hydro insulation is an integral crystalline waterproofing system ensuing filling of micro cracks, pores and capillaries with an insoluble crystalline formation. In order to evaluate self-healing effect of this system, fiber concrete beams were initially pre-cracked, then treated with capillary insulation and repeatedly tested under bending. Water permeability and frost resistance tests were also realized in order to evaluate long-term performance of the capillary insulation.

  17. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shortis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  18. PC装配式墙体相关集成技术研究%Research The Related Integration Technology in the System of PC Prefabricated Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪力; 樊骅

    2015-01-01

    文章分析研究PC装配式墙体系统中的相关集成技术,包括保温技术、外墙装饰技术、墙体门窗一体化技术、水电管线技术、预制整体卫浴技术、防水技术等。其中,保温技术包括预制夹心保温墙体和预制外墙外保温墙体;外墙装饰技术包括瓷砖饰面和石材饰面;墙体门窗一体化技术包括实心墙体门窗一体化和叠合墙体门窗一体化;水电管线技术是通过BIM技术预先确定穿墙管线位置;预制整体卫浴技术包括“钢筋混凝土”整体卫浴、“SMC”整体卫浴、“轻钢龙骨”整体卫浴;防水技术包括成型胶防水和非成型胶防水。应用上述相关集成技术的目的在于提高装配式建筑工业化程度,加快施工效率,保证工程质量。%This paper analyzed the related integration technology in the system of PC prefabricated wall, including thermal insulation technology, exterior wall decoration, wall windows integration technology, water pipeline technology, prefabricated whole wei yu, waterproof technology etc. Among them, the thermal insulation technology included the prefabrication sandwich insulation wall body and the exterior insulation wall. Exterior wall decoration techniques included the tile and stone veneer. Wall doors and windows integrated technology included the solid wall doors and windows integration and integration of composite wall doors and windows. Water pipeline technology is predetermined by BIM technology wall pipe position. Prefabricated whole wei yu technology included "reinforced concrete whole wei yu", "SMC whole wei yu", "light steel keel whole wei yu". Waterproof technology including the molding rubber waterproof and non waterproof glue. The purpose of the related integration technology is to increase the degree of prefabricated construction industrialization, speed up the construction efficiency and ensure the engineering quality.

  19. Calibration Techniques for Accurate Measurements by Underwater Camera Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortis, Mark

    2015-12-07

    Calibration of a camera system is essential to ensure that image measurements result in accurate estimates of locations and dimensions within the object space. In the underwater environment, the calibration must implicitly or explicitly model and compensate for the refractive effects of waterproof housings and the water medium. This paper reviews the different approaches to the calibration of underwater camera systems in theoretical and practical terms. The accuracy, reliability, validation and stability of underwater camera system calibration are also discussed. Samples of results from published reports are provided to demonstrate the range of possible accuracies for the measurements produced by underwater camera systems.

  20. Study on environmental pollution in slurry ponds in the region of Murcia (Spain); Estudio sobre contaminacion ambiental en balsas de purines en la Region de Murcia (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, A. B.; Faz, A.; Ramos, G.

    2009-07-01

    In Murcia the importance of the pig industry is both economically and environmentally, as it involves the proper management of organic waste produced. The necessary protection of the environment makes the development of appropriate studies to define the effects that this type of waste produced in the subsoil, in order to make appropriate recommendations to ensure the continuation of this activity, in a sustainable manner. In this way, this work studies different locations representing the Region on the slurry to be deposited, either with or without artificial waterproofing to check to what extent it has affected the underground waste. (Author) 10 refs.

  1. A Wireless EEG Recording Method for Rat Use inside the Water Maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Pinnell

    Full Text Available With the continued miniaturisation of portable embedded systems, wireless EEG recording techniques are becoming increasingly prevalent in animal behavioural research. However, in spite of their versatility and portability, they have seldom been used inside water-maze tasks designed for rats. As such, a novel 3D printed implant and waterproof connector is presented, which can facilitate wireless water-maze EEG recordings in freely-moving rats, using a commercial wireless recording system (W32; Multichannel Systems. As well as waterproofing the wireless system, battery, and electrode connector, the implant serves to reduce movement-related artefacts by redistributing movement-related forces away from the electrode connector. This implant/connector was able to successfully record high-quality LFP in the hippocampo-striatal brain regions of rats as they undertook a procedural-learning variant of the double-H water-maze task. Notably, there were no significant performance deficits through its use when compared with a control group across a number of metrics including number of errors and speed of task completion. Taken together, this method can expand the range of measurements that are currently possible in this diverse area of behavioural neuroscience, whilst paving the way for integration with more complex behaviours.

  2. Development of under water inspection robot 'AQUAROBOT'. Suichu chosa robot 'akuarobo' no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, H. (Port and Harbour Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1991-09-15

    With a purpose of developing a robot that can work at a high efficiency in building constructions in underwater environment with a great depth and under strong currents, an underwater walking robot was developed that can retain its position, and can move on rugged terrains safely and freely. The land exclusive No. 1 robot was build in 1985, the water-proof underwater No. 2 robot for site experiments in 1987, and water-proof compact No. 3 robot in 1989. This paper describes the summary of the No. 2 robot and its walking experiments. The robot weighs 857 kg in air and 440 kg in water, has six insect type legs, each having three revolute joints, and is driven by DC motors. It self-contains six earthing sensors, two inclinometers, one each of direction sensor and depth sensor, which are controlled by a personal computer. The AQUAROBOT'' is connected to control devices on a mother ship by means of electric-fiber composite cables. The irregularity the robot can walk over is {plus minus} 35 cm, and the maximum walkable depth is 50 m. The results of a walking experiment at a water depth of 24 m verified its practicability with a walking speed of 0.61-1.4 m min, a walking error of {plus minus} 21 cm, and a measuring accuracy of {plus minus} 3cm. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. New pollution reduction technologies through tank sealing of slag and ashes pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruell, A.; Revenco, V. [Institutul de Stuidii Si Proiectari Energetice S.A. (ISPE), Bucharest (Hungary)

    2002-07-01

    Under the Romanian environment protection law provision no. 137/1995, the existing slag and ashes pits raise problems due to the exfiltrations from the pits tank towards the phreatic water sheet. The design includes the following steps to be taken: pit bed waterproofing under new works; bed ends sealing, parallel with pit aggradation for dumps in operation; waterproofing of aggradation dikes. The conventional solution is clay plating. When works are performed under bad weather conditions, and clay must be brought from remote distances, the clay plating solution should be compared to the geocomponents one. The latter area combination of geotextiles and bentone material that can be placed easily, joint in situ, and can be paid at negative temperatures. Once wet, geo components become impermeable. The paper describes the sealing performed at the slag and ashes pit of Vales Ceplea at Turceni thermal power plant, and the sealing solution being developed at the Beterega Nord slag and ashes pit at Rovinari thermal power plant. The necessary geophysical characteristics of the material are pointed out.

  4. On reasons for leakage in low-temperature water geothermal heating toilets and its prevention%低温热水地热采暖卫生间渗漏原因及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳莲

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the leakage problems in the low-temperature water geothermal heating toilets,illustrates the reasons for the leakage from the floor compactness,the construction of the waterproof layer,the packing layer,and the treatment of the leveling blanket,points out the respective prevention measures,and points out the waterproof treatment of the toilets can do well in the blocking and the direction,and pay attention to the quality control in the construction process.%针对低温热水地热采暖卫生间渗漏问题进行了分析,从楼板密实性、防水层施工、填充层及找平层处理等方面入手阐述了渗漏的原因,提出了相应的预防措施,并指出卫生间的防水处理应做好堵和导两方面,注意施工过程中质量控制。

  5. 浅谈电厂新型防水卷材的施工%Installation of external current cathodic protection system for seawater filtration equipment in nuclear power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚增宝; 刘灿辉; 宋东升; 杨鲲

    2015-01-01

    BAC双面自粘防水卷材是一种复合双面自粘橡胶沥青防水卷材。它是由聚酯胎体(或玻纤胎体)、SBS改性沥青、自粘橡胶沥青胶料及隔离膜符合而成,卷材厚度有2mm、3mm、4mm三种结构。它具有粘结性高、可靠度强、延伸性好、耐候性能优良、可在潮湿基面铺贴等特点,即使卷材出现任何局部破坏,水都会被限定在很小范围内,不窜流,不渗漏。%BAC double- sided adhesive waterproof coiled material is a kind of composite double- sided adhesive rubber asphalt waterproof coiled material. It is made of polyester tire body (or fiberglass tire body), SBS modified asphalt, the sticky rubber asphalt rubber and isolation membrane meet and become, coil thickness 2 mm、3 mm、4 mm three kinds of structure. They have high co-hesiveness, strong reliability, good extensibility and excellent weather resistance, can be in damp base set of characteristics, even if the coil any local damage, who will be limited in a small range, interporosity flow, no leakage.

  6. Defects and behaviour of inverted flat roof from the point of building physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misar Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most discussed flat roof structures during the last 20 years is a structure called inverted roof, where the main thermal insulation layer is placed above the main waterproofing system. The reasons why this type of flat roof is or could be chosen are more less clear. Usually it is the intention to protect the main waterproofing system, usually of synthetic or bituminous membranes, against the impact of outdoor air thermal changes, against any prospective mechanical damages and also to reduce risk of water vapor condensation in the structure. This type of structure could help to solve the vapor/thermal difficulties during the design of the flat roof over the space with higher indoor air humidity like swimming pools or specific industrial processes. Due to the higher rate of safety against mechanical damage it is also used quite often in the case of the design of the roof terraces or roof gardens. Nevertheless, the correct attitude during the design of the structure is to take into considerations all possible aspects including the defects and problems which are most typical for each one type of structure. This paper is willing to give the brief overview of the typical defects for inverted flat roofs and to contribute a little to the understanding of commonly discussed effect of undergoing water beneath the thermal insulation itself and decreasing thus the thermal protection efficiency as well as the inner surface temperature.

  7. 波形沥青防水板在某住宅工程中的应用%Application of Corrugated Bitumen Sheets on a Residential Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖磊; 原世伟; 何巍; 周励强

    2012-01-01

    波形沥青防水板作为下覆层在坡瓦屋面中应用,除具防水功能外,同时还能通风、除湿、隔热.结合波形沥青防水板在某住宅项目中的实际应用,总结了其在施工过程中的工艺做法,以及施工中的重点和难点.结果表明,波形沥青防水板能确保防水质量,缩短工期,并降低造价.%Corrugated bitumen sheets can be used on sloped roofs as covering layer under roof tiles. Apart from being waterproofing, they also provide functions such as roof ventilation, dehumidification and insulation to the roof. Combined with the application of corrugated bitumen sheets on a residential building, the construction technologies and key points in construction process are summarized. The application results show that the corrugated bitumen sheets can ensure the waterproof quality, reduce the construction cost and shorten the construction time.

  8. Impact of Cosmetics on the Physical Dimension and Optical Performance of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luensmann, Doerte; Yu, Mili; Yang, Jeffery; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of cosmetics on silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lens shape, lens power, and optical performance. In this in vitro experiment, 7 SiHy materials were coated with 9 marketed brands of cosmetics, including hand creams (HCs) (3), eye makeup removers (MRs) (3), and mascaras (3). Diameter, sagittal depth, and base curve were determined using the Chiltern (Optimec Limited), whereas lens power and optical performance were assessed using the Contest Plus (Rotlex). Six replicates were used for each lens and cosmetic combination. Measurements were repeated after a cleaning cycle using a one-step hydrogen peroxide solution. Makeup removers had the greatest impact on diameter, sagittal depth, and base curve, resulting in changes of up to 0.5, 0.15, and 0.77 mm, respectively. The HCs and mascaras had little impact on these parameters; however, differences were observed between lens types. Optical performance was reduced with all mascaras, and a decrease of greater than 2 units on a 0 to 10 scale (10=uniform power distribution) was seen for 5 lens types exposed to waterproof mascara (Pcosmetics (± 0.25 diopter; P>0.05). Lens cleaning resulted in some recovery of the lens parameters, and efficiency varied between cosmetics. Some eye MRs and waterproof mascaras changed the shape and optical performance of some SiHy lenses. Further research is needed to understand the clinical implications for SiHy lens wearers using cosmetics.

  9. Study and trial on exploitation of retaining safety coal pillar against sand under medium-thickness aquifer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Wang, C.; Yan, C. [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China). Dept. of Resources Exploration and Management Engineering

    2002-08-01

    The main target coal seam of Baishan Mine is directly covered with a 22-27 m thick gravel aquifer, which seriously threatens the safety of the mine. To demonstrate the safety and reliability of the coal pillar, tests of the hydrogeological conditions of the mining area, rock mechanics, the water-rocks physical properties and the height of the 'two-belt' were conducted. The results show that the gravel layer has relatively higher volume of cementing clay materials but weaker ability of vertical permeation. The safety coal pillar that is retained under sand-bodies belongs to the loose or very loose rock type. The content of clay minerals in the weathered zone is relatively high, resulting in strong regenerating waterproofing due to volume dilation after water absorption, which has the double functions of waterproofing and restraining the propagation of fractures under mining impact conditions. The research shows a breakthrough in technology: that a 50 m coal pillar against sand has been reduced to a 12-20 m safety coal pillar. An extra 6.0 Mt of coal was safely extracted. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Performance of synthetic geo membrane installed in the experimental field of el Saltadero; Comportamiento de geomembranas sinteticas instaladas en el campo experimental de El Saltadero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.; Aguiar, E.; Vara, Ta.; Garcia, F.; Soriano, J.; Castillo, F.

    2009-07-01

    El Saltadero is a covered reservoir located in a place of strong insolation in the South of the Island of Tenerife, where and artificial slop has been constructed directed to the south in which some sheets were applied to be used like geo membranes in hydraulic work waterproofing. In this experimental field of research they have been placed perfectly anchored sheets of new materials and other traditional ones, but whose manufacturers were not sufficiently implanted in our country. In all the cases sheets were solded with the aim of showing not only the performance of the geo membranes but their one the joint. Initial tests have been made. besides samples have been taken to determinate their technical properties and to see their evolution as well as behaviour one time installed. considerated materials were PVC, HDPE, CSM, EVA/C, EPDM, PP and polyolefines. Important characteristics were evaluated: tensile properties, tear resistance (in HDPE), yield point (in HDPE), impact resistance, static perforation, low temperature folding, joint strength, joint peel resistance plasticizer content (in PVC-P), carbon black; content and dispersion (in HDPE), optic microscopy and electron microscopy scanner. The most significant results with the different materials from this experimental field are presented an they can be considered pioneer for geo membranes to use in hydraulic work waterproofing. (Author) 29 refs.

  11. 水泥-粉煤灰发泡保温材料的制备与性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王裕银; 满丽莹; 王忠平; 贾涛; 陈洪

    2013-01-01

    Cement, fly ash, foaming agent, foam stabilizer, polypropylene fiber and water-proofing agent are used as raw materials to manufacture cement-fly ash foaming thermal insulation material. The effects of chemical foaming agent on volume density, thermal conductivity and strength of foaming thermal insulation material are studied. The influences of foam stabilizer on foam structure, thermal conductivity and strength are discussed, and the effects of the polypropylene fiber on flexural strength, the waterproof agent on water-proofing performance are also studied. The technique parameter of cement-fly ash foaming thermal insulation material is gotten by experiment. Cement-fly ash foaming thermal insulation material is characterized by fireproofing, lightweight, thermal insulation and freezing resistance, these above properties are all accordance with the rules of relative national standards.%以快硬硫铝酸盐水泥、粉煤灰、发泡剂、稳泡剂、聚丙烯纤维、防水剂为主要原材料,经化学发泡成型工艺制备水泥-粉煤灰发泡保温材料。实验研究了化学发泡剂对发泡保温材料体积密度、导热系数、强度的影响;稳泡剂对发泡保温材料泡孔结构、导热系数、强度的影响;聚丙烯纤维对发泡保温材料抗折强度的影响以及防水剂对发泡保温材料防水性能的影响。确定了水泥-粉煤灰发泡保温材料成型工艺参数。研制的水泥-粉煤灰发泡保温材料具有防火功能,同时还具有质轻、保温、抗冻性好等特点,其各项性能均达到国家相关标准要求。

  12. Fabrication of hydrophobic, electrically conductive and flame-resistant carbon aerogels by pyrolysis of regenerated cellulose aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caichao; Lu, Yun; Jiao, Yue; Jin, Chunde; Sun, Qingfeng; Li, Jian

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we reported miscellaneous carbon aerogels prepared by pyrolysis of regenerated cellulose aerogels that were fabricated by dissolution in a mild NaOH/PEG solution, freeze-thaw treatment, regeneration, and freeze drying. The as-prepared carbon aerogels were subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), nitrogen adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and water contact angle (WCA) tests. The results showed that the carbon aerogels with pore diameters of 1-60 nm maintained interconnected three-dimensional (3D) network after the pyrolysis, and showed type-IV adsorption isotherm. The pyrolysis process leaded to the decomposition of oxygen-containing functional groups, the destruction of cellulose crystalline structure, and the formation of highly disordered amorphous graphite. Moreover, the carbon aerogels also had strong hydrophobicity, electrical conductivity and flame retardance, which held great potential in the fields of waterproof, electronic devices and fireproofing.

  13. Electrochemical recovery of water from the vegetable water in olive oil, to prevent contamination of the environment and the reuse as irrigation water; Recuperacion electroquimica del agua del Alpechin del Aceite de Oliva, para evitar la contaminacion del medio ambiente y su reutilizacion como agua de riego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, J. F.; Brito, R.

    2012-07-01

    The project began because of the awareness about the deterioration of the environment, which is why this thesis deals with the treatment of industrial effluent coming from the production of olive oil and vegetable water is known that untreated discharges are polluting soils. This project proposes to treat the effluent to reduce the concentrations of contaminants through a new technique that comes from the Electrochemical Engineering, called continuous flow electrocoagulation, in order to use this liquid as irrigation water. OMW polluting compounds are polyphenols which give a bactericidal effect lipid suspension to be dumped on the ground cause the waterproofing of the surface. In this case applied to solve electrocoagulation the issues raised. This method involves the use of electrolytic cells and aluminum metallic electrodes through which electrical current is passed continuously, to produce the decomposition of phenols, transforming them into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, as well as would cause flocculation of lipids on the surface of the effluent for subsequent extraction. (Author)

  14. Rad Pole Cam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  15. Underwater manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  16. 探查水下矿物资源的AUV动力控制系统开发%Development of a power control system for AUVs probing for underwater mineral resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Jin KIM; Hyung Tae KIM; Young June CHO; Kang Won LEE

    2009-01-01

    Valuable mineral resources are widely distributed throughout the seabed, autonomous underwater vehicles(AUVs)are preferable to remotely-operated vehicles(ROVs)when probing for such mineral resources as the extensive exploration area makes it difficult to maintain contact with operators. AUVs depend on batteries, so their power consumption should be reduced to extend exploration time. Power for conventional marine instrument systems is incorporated in their waterproof sealing. External intermittent control of this power source until termination of exploration is challenging due to limitations imposed by the underwater environment. Thus, the AUV must have a power control system that can improve performance and maximize use of battery capacity. The authors developed such a power control system with a three-step algorithm. It automatically detects underwater operational states and can limit power, effectively decreasing power consumption by about 15%.

  17. Assessment of chemicals in construction products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Hanne; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2000-01-01

    The building sector uses a lot of products (several thousands) and many of these contain chemicals, some of which have harmful effects on human and environmental health. Due to the restricted knowledge of data, the impacts of chemicals can be overlooked e.g. in eco-profiles of building elements....... The reasons for that are lacks of product-specific emissions by manufacturing of chemical products, e.g. waterproofing systems and sealants. Besides, most LCA-models do not include assessments of emissions in working environment, in indoor environment or from disposal processes. It was therefore...... in the project Assessment of Chemicals in Construction Products decided to adapt an existing score method for assessing the chemicals. As the European countries had agreed on a score Method for Risk Ranking chemicals (EURAM), it was decided to use this method to assess chemicals in construction products for two...

  18. Assessment of hydrophysical and mechanical properties of the new mineral-basedwaterproofing material ОЦЕНКА ГИДРОФИЗИЧЕСКИХ И МЕХАНИЧЕСКИХ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИК НОВОГО ГИДРОИЗОЛЯЦИОННОГО ОБМАЗОЧНОГО СОСТАВА НА МИНЕРАЛЬНОЙ ОСНОВЕ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapidevskaya Ol’ga Borisovna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problems of influence of corrosive water media onto underground buildings and structures and various methods of their waterproofing. The market overview of up-to-date waterproofing compounds is provided in the article. The authors set forth their research findings identified at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering recently. A new mineral-based waterproofing coating material is presented. The authors deal with the issue of chemical interaction within the system of cement - microsilica - soda-silica glass and the issue of optimization of particle packing aimed at the assurance of superior protective and durability-related properties of the composition. The main process strengths of the new coating material are enlisted.The authors introduce the results of comparative tests of basic hydro-physical and mechanical (compressive strength, adhesive strength properties of the new material and its analogues currently applied in the construction industry with a view to the assessment of the protective ability and the economic effectiveness of the new waterproofing material.Рассмотрен вопрос обеспечения гидроизоляционной защиты подземных зданий и сооружений. Предложен новый эффективный обмазочный гидроизоляционный материал на минеральной основе. Приведены результаты сравнительных испытаний по определению основных гидрофизических и механических характеристик разработанного состава и аналогов, применяемых в строительной индустрии, с целью оценки эффективности применения представленного гидроизоляционного материала.

  19. Identification of ftalates used as additives in the geo membrane of a la Florida reservoir through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Determinacion de las ftalatos utilizados como aditivos en la geomembrana de la bolsa de la florida mediante cromtografia de gases-espectrometria de masas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.; Rico, G.; Pargada, L.; Aguiar, E.; Castillo, F.

    2009-07-01

    This article studies the behaviour of the plastified poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-P) applied as synthetic geo membrane for the waterproofing of the La Florida reservoir. We show the results of the initial examen of its properties and its most significant characteristics eighteen years after being applied. Furthermore we isolate and identify the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the plasticizers used in its formula through infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry technic. We have identified as the said plasticizers di-n-octyl phthalate, di-n-decyl phthalate and n-decyl n-octyl phthalate, and we calculate the joint average molecular weight using Wilsons equation. The results found that the geo membranes we have studied has shown an excellent behaviour along through time. (Author) 53 refs.

  20. Spanish experience in the use of synthetic geo membranes for hydraulic works; Experiencia espanola en el uso de geomembranas sinteticas en obras hidraulicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Leiro Lopez, A.

    2014-02-01

    The Spanish institution Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX) has studied for decades the behaviour of geosynthetic products, specially the polymeric geo synthetic barriers used as waterproofing systems of different hydraulic works, mainly in reservoirs. Both in geotextiles or related products and in geomembranes, initial characteristics are determined; besides of that, periodic controls along the service life are performers in geomembranes. The monitoring of more than two hundred hydraulic structure hydraulic structures requires technical inspection, taking samples and replacing them, experimental tests and recommendations, with the purpose of increasing security and durability in hydraulic structures. Because of that, the Spanish experience in this field of technology is presented along this paper. (Author)

  1. Phosphor coated NiO-based planar inverted organometallic halide perovskite solar cells with enhanced efficiency and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Li, Pengfei; Chen, Zhifan; Cao, Kun; Li, Dan; Han, Junbo; Shen, Yan; Peng, Mingying; Fu, Yong Qing; Wang, Mingkui

    2016-10-01

    This work investigates non-rare-earth phosphor (Sr4Al14O25:Mn4+, 0.5%Mg) with intensively red luminescence as a luminescent down-shifting layer for perovskite solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of the fabricated device with a structure of NiO/CH3NH3PbI3/[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester/Au coated with phosphor layer shows a 10% increase as compared with that of the control devices. Importantly, the phosphor layer coating can realize UV-protection as well as waterproof capability, achieving a reduced moisture-degradation of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite upon applying an UV irradiation. Therefore, perovskite devices using this luminescent coating show a combined enhancement in both UV down-shifting conversion and long term stability. This can be expanded as a promising encapsulation technique in the perovskite solar cell community.

  2. Determination of the cross-linking degree of unmodified epoxy resin by cycloaliphatic polyamine and polyamidamin hardeners by ftir spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatković Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmodified epoxy resin GY250 was crosslinked by the cycloaliphatic polyamino hardener HY847 and polyamidamine hardener HY848 in the different mass ratios. The degree of crosslinking of the epoxy resin and the quantity of unreacted epoxy groups were determined by a spectroscopic FTIR method. The optimal time of complete crosslinking, as a criterion of the degree, was determined by measuring the film hardness indirectly (JUS H.C8.055. The optimal stoichiometric ratio of 100:18:32 (GY250:HY847:HY848 was defined by correlating parameters which directly depend on the degree of crosslinking and the period of application of the epoxy resins, as a prerequisite for forming 2-component epoxy systems which are comparatively more elastic adhesive and waterproof.

  3. Acetylation of cell wall is required for structural integrity of the leaf surface and exerts a global impact on plant stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafisi, Majse; Stranne, Maria; Fimognari, Lorenzo;

    2015-01-01

    The epidermis on leaves protects plants from pathogen invasion and provides a waterproof barrier. It consists of a layer of cells that is surrounded by thick cell walls, which are partially impregnated by highly hydrophobic cuticular components. We show that the Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants...... to abiotic stress, particularly detoxification of reactive oxygen species and defense against microbial pathogens (e.g., lipid transfer proteins, peroxidases). In accordance, peroxidase activities were found to be elevated in rwa2 as compared to the wild type. These results indicate that cell wall...... acetylation is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of leaf epidermis, and that reduction of cell wall acetylation leads to global stress responses in Arabidopsis....

  4. Preparation and luminescent properties of lanthanide (Eu3+ and Tb3+) complexes grafted to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane by covalent bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-12-01

    A novel precursor PMA-Si was synthesized by modifying 1,2,4,5-benzene-tetracarboxylic acid (PMA) with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Then the hybrids were prepared by PMA-Si coordinating to lanthanide ions (Eu3+ and Tb3+) in sol-gel process. In order to improve luminescent efficiency, 1,10-Phenanthroline (Phen) was introduced to the system as the second ligand. As-prepared compounds in sol condition were coated on quartz plates to form a layer of thin film, which was different from other similar hybrids. The properties of the hybrids were characterized by FT-IR, fluorescence spectra, TG and SEM. The results showed that the obtained materials enhanced thermal stability, mechanical resistances, waterproofness as well as machining properties.

  5. The Problem Most Be Over Looked in the Man Walking Residential Design%上人住宅设计容易忽略的一个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉庆

    2012-01-01

      The man walking roof is very common in a multi-storey residential. The reversed beams are the structural measures of roofing waterproofing.But the mismatch between the height of the reversed beam and the roof insulation layer may lead to the failure of the reversed beam, and thus resulting in residential water seepage.%  上人屋面在多层住宅中常见,反梁是屋面防水的构造措施,但反梁高度和屋面保温层的不协调可能导致反梁失效,从而造成住宅渗水。

  6. Highly Stretchable 2D Fabrics for Wearable Triboelectric Nanogenerator under Harsh Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Nam; Chun, Jinsung; Kim, Jin Woong; Lee, Keun Young; Park, Jang-Ung; Kim, Sang-Woo; Wang, Zhong Lin; Baik, Jeong Min

    2015-06-23

    Highly stretchable 2D fabrics are prepared by weaving fibers for a fabric-structured triboelectric nanogenerator (FTENG). The fibers mainly consist of Al wires and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tubes with a high-aspect-ratio nanotextured surface with vertically aligned nanowires. The fabrics were produced by interlacing the fibers, which was bonded to a waterproof fabric for all-weather use for fabric-structured triboelectric nanogenerator (FTENG). It showed a stable high-output voltage and current of 40 V and 210 μA, corresponding to an instantaneous power output of 4 mW. The FTENG also exhibits high robustness behavior even after 25% stretching, enough for use in smart clothing applications and other wearable electronics. For wearable applications, the nanogenerator was successfully demonstrated in applications of footstep-driven large-scale power mats during walking and power clothing attached to the elbow.

  7. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  8. Modernisation of pumped storage power plant Waldeck I. Overhaul upper basin; Modernisierung des Pumpspeicherkraftwerkes Waldeck I. Sanierung des Oberbeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehn, Rolf-Guenter [Lahmeyer International, Bad Vilbel (Germany); Rau, Martin [E.ON Wasserkraft GmbH, Landshut (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Waldeck I pumped storage power plant is located near the Edersee Lake in Northern Hesse. The existing power plant, comprising four horizontal turbine and pump combination units with a total installed capacity of 140 MW, was commissioned in 1932. After some 75 years of operation, the plant had reached the end of its service life and the following modernisation concept was developed: Construction on the existing site of a new shaft power house with a pump turbine of approximately 70 MW capacity and refurbishment of two of the Francis turbines and decommissioning of all four pumps and two turbines in the old plant. The existing upper basin will be retained and extensively overhauled, including waterproof lining of the internal walls using a drained synthetic sealing membrane. (orig.)

  9. Analysis on durability of asphalt pavement%沥青路面耐久性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车守忠

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了我国沥青混凝土路面使用现状,针对沥青路面的损坏问题进行了分析,分别阐述了影响沥青路面耐久性的内部因素和外部因素,从原材料、配合比、防水设计等方面入手提出了耐久性改善措施,以期指导实践。%This paper briefly introduced the current situation of asphalt concrete pavements in our country,according to the damage problems of asphalt pavement made analysis,elaborated separately the internal factors and external factors which affect the durability of asphalt pavement,put forward durability improvement measures from raw materials,mixing ratio,waterproof design and other aspects,in order to guide practice.

  10. Ancient Wall Tiles – The Importance of the Glaze/Ceramic Interface in Glaze Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa COSTA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pathologies suffered by early industrially produced tiles in Portugal in late nineteenth century is glaze detachment in wall tiles placed in the lower part of the façade. It is known that salts crystallize provoking the glaze detachment, destroying the waterproofing and the beauty of the wall tile and this is one of the crucial factors towards this occurrence. The present work questions the importance of the thickness of glaze/ceramic body interface, in what concerns glaze detachment provoked by salt crystallization. SEM-EDS was used to perform all the observations that lead to the conclusion that the exuberance of the interface between glaze and ceramic body has no influence in the resistance of the glaze to salt crystallization though time, being the porous network more determinant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3815

  11. Printing tattoo effect after use of Dermabond®Prineo® Skin closure system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabeer Ahmad Wani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominoplasty is a very common procedure in the plastic surgery practice and may lead to a variety of unfavorable results including incision site complications. The surgical adhesives system, which entered into daily practice to replace the need for subcuticular closure for skin, saves time and may have better wound appearance. Dermabond® Prineo® Skin Closure System (Ethicon Inc., Somerville, NJ, USA has two major components: 2–Octyl cyanoacrylate glue and a flexible, self-adhesive polyester mesh. It can be used with or without sutures, and has the added benefit of waterproofing, and microbial resistance. It also saves time. This case describes a male patient who experienced a “printing tattoo” effect following an elective procedure of abdominoplasty and the results after this closure system was used.

  12. Kitchen Physics: Lessons in Fluid Pressure and Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Rebecca Elizabeth; Vieyra, Chrystian; Macchia, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Although the advent and popularization of the "flipped classroom" tends to center around at-home video lectures, teachers are increasingly turning to at-home labs for enhanced student engagement. This paper describes two simple at-home experiments that can be accomplished in the kitchen. The first experiment analyzes the density of four liquids using a waterproof case and a smartphone barometer in a container, sink, or tub. The second experiment determines the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas in a constant volume container placed momentarily in a refrigerator freezer. These experiences provide a ripe opportunity both for learning fundamental physics concepts as well as to investigate a variety of error analysis techniques that are frequently overlooked in introductory physics courses.

  13. CFRP materials reinforced with LCP fibres for applications in vehicle and aircraft engineering. Final report; Faserverbundkunststoffe mit einer LCP-Faserverstaerkung fuer Anwendungen im Fahrzeug- und Flugzeugbau. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-11

    CFRP materials reinforced with liquid crystalline polyester (LCP) fibres were produced and characterized with regard to their physical and mechanical characteristics. Compared with non-reinforced plastics, polypropylene/LCP fibre-UD laminates produced by filmstacking, epoxy resin/LCP fibre-UD laminates produced by spooling and epoxy resin composites with internal LCP fibre fleece had significantly higher strength and stiffness as well as high thermoforming resistance and waterproofness. [Deutsch] In diesem Forschungsvorhaben wurden Faserverbundkunststoffe mit einer Verstaerkungsfaser auf Basis eines thermotropen fluessigkristallinen Polyester [Liquid Crystalline Polyester, abgekuerzt LCP] hergestellt und bezueglich der physikalisch-mechanischen Eigenschaften charakterisiert. Die im `filmstacking`-Verfahren hergestellte Polypropylen/LCP-Faser-UD-Laminate und mittels Bewicklung gewonnene Epoxidharz/LCP-Faser-UD-Laminate sowie Epoxidharzverbunde mit eingearbeiteten LCP-Faservlies zeigen gegenueber den unverstaerkten Kunststoffmaterialien einen betraechtlichen Anstieg von Festigkeit und Steifigkeit. Die Faserverbunde weisen ausserdem eine hohe Waermeformbestaendigkeit und Wassersperrwirkung auf. (orig.)

  14. Dynamics of Drying in Phenolically Tanned Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian F. V. Vincent

    2004-01-01

    The cuticle of a maggot goes through a mechanical transition when it dries, increasing in stiffness by about an order of magnitude (e. g. from 0.5 GPa to 5 GPa) as the water content drops from about 1 g/g (weight of water per unit dry weight) to 0.4 g/g. Thus stiffness represents the loss of freezable water and is more or less diagnostic of a material stabilized by hydrogen bonds. Further loss in water results in a smaller increase in stiffness. In natural systems the water content is controlled by the addition of phenolic residues, resulting in tanning or sclerotisation, which drives the matrix components towards co-operative interaction and makes the material permanently waterproof.

  15. Study of the engineering geologic feature of weathering zone of bedrock in 810 producing area of Luling Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂和荣; 孙家斌; 李明好; 李伟; 尹正柱; 陈富勇; 宋晓梅

    2002-01-01

    For a safe extracting of the mine resource of the razor-thin capping rock, a study of waterproof, sand prevention, roof-fall prevention must be made. As a result, its necessary to master the engineering feature of weathering zone of bedrock. According to the lithology appraisal and X diffract analyses, the mineral feature of weathering zone of bedrock in 810 producing area has been studied in this article. By testing the physical mechanics index of weathering zone, we have found out some features of physical mechanic quality. Utilizing the determined result of viscosity index and slaking test, we reach a conclusion of the water stability of weathering zone, that is the weathering zone rock belongs to the type that is easily slaked when encountered water and the water stability is weak.

  16. Intrinsic Hydrophobicity of Rammed Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, M.; Stone, C.; Balintova, M.; Grul, R.

    2015-11-01

    Rammed earth is well known for its vapour diffusion properties, its ability to regulate humidity within the built environment. Rammed earth is also an aesthetically iconic material such as marble or granite and therefore is preferably left exposed. However exposed rammed earth is often coated with silane/siloxane water repellents or the structure is modified architecturally (large roof overhangs) to accommodate for the hydrophilic nature of the material. This paper sets out to find out optimal hydrophobicity for rammed earth based on natural composite fibres and surface coating without adversely affecting the vapour diffusivity of the material. The material is not required to be waterproof, but should resist at least driving rain. In order to evaluate different approaches to increase hydrophobicity of rammed earth surface, peat fibres and four types of repellents were used.

  17. 谈某粮食储备库维修改造方案%Discussion on the repair and renovation scheme of a grain reserve depot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安合

    2014-01-01

    以某粮食储备库维修改造工程为例,介绍了该项目维修改造技术方案的指导思想,对项目建设中屋面防水铺设、墙面防潮维修、窗户更换等技术要点作了总结,并进行了投资估算,以供同类工程建设参考。%Taking the repair and renovation engineering of a grain reserve depot as an example,this paper introduced the guiding ideology of the project repair and renovation scheme,summarized the technical key points of roofing waterproof laying,walls moisture repair,windows replace-ment etc. in project construction,and made investment estimation,provided references for similar engineering construction.

  18. Large-span tunnel construction of clay layer%粘土层大跨度隧道施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段杰

    2014-01-01

    Combining with engineering example, the thesis studies large-span tunnel construction technology of clay layer, mainly explores barrel construction technology, and introduces barrel support, spaying concrete and barrel masonry and other points, and analyzes waterproofing and drainage measures of barrel entrance and major barrel, which has accumulated experience for similar engineering construction.%结合工程实例,对粘土层大跨度隧道施工技术进行了研究,着重探讨了洞身的施工工艺,对洞身支护、喷射混凝土、洞身衬砌等环节作了详细介绍,并分析了洞口与正洞的防排水措施,为同类工程的施工积累了经验。

  19. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John

    2015-01-01

    The shrinking size and weight of electronic circuitry has given rise to a new generation of smart clothing that enables biological data to be measured and transmitted. As the variation in the number and type of deployable devices and sensors increases, technology must allow their seamless integration so they can be electrically powered, operated, and recharged over a digital pathway. Nyx Illuminated Clothing Company has developed a lightweight health monitoring system that integrates medical sensors, electrodes, electrical connections, circuits, and a power supply into a single wearable assembly. The system is comfortable, bendable in three dimensions, durable, waterproof, and washable. The innovation will allow astronaut health monitoring in a variety of real-time scenarios, with data stored in digital memory for later use in a medical database. Potential commercial uses are numerous, as the technology enables medical personnel to noninvasively monitor patient vital signs in a multitude of health care settings and applications.

  20. 上海地铁区间隧道渗漏水发生的机理与防治%Mechanism of Seepage Emergence in Regional Tunnel of Shanghai Metro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇

    2001-01-01

    The reason and mechanism of seepage emergency in regional tunnel of Shanghai metro were analyzed and various countermeasures were suggested. Based on experience of sealing of tunnel lining in Shanghai Metro Line No.2: Longdong Road-Central Park, Zhongshan Park-Jiangsu Road, the technical countermeasures and methods suggested are beneficial to waterproof of similar projects.%本文分析了地铁区间隧道渗漏水的原因和发生机理,提出了不同的治理方案。结合上海地铁二号线龙东路~中央公园、中山公园~江苏路隧道衬砌堵漏的成功经验,所提出的技术对策和措施对类似工程防水有参考价值。

  1. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X; Brogaard, Nicholas L; Rigét, Frank F; Kristensen, Paneeraq; Jomaas, Grunde; Boertmann, David M; Wegeberg, Susse; Gustavson, Kim

    2016-08-15

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified. To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil.

  2. Analysis of the Causes and Recommendations on Elimination of Biological Damage of Structures During the Repair and Reconstruction of the State Biological Museum in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamskov Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of mycological research on buildings of the State Biological Museum located in Moscow. Over time, the building maintenance conditions have worsened, in particular because of construction of high-rise buildings in the immediate vicinity of the museum, as well as construction of a greenhouse above the underground passage tunnel between buildings 1 and 2. Over the years, the temperature gradients, high humidity, wear and damage of wall waterproofing and foundations have caused leaks in the underpass tunnel and the biological corrosion of stone, wood and metal structures in indoor exhibition halls. In this connection, part of the survey was to determine the types and size of biological lesions in structures, determination of the causes of biological damage, and the development of measures to eliminate the mycological problems during repair and reconstruction works in the museum.

  3. Micro/Nanostructured Films and Adhesives for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungkyu K; Kang, Sung Min; Yang, Sung Ho; Cho, Woo Kyung

    2015-12-01

    The advanced technologies available for micro/nanofabrication have opened new avenues for interdisciplinary approaches to solve the unmet medical needs of regenerative medicine and biomedical devices. This review highlights the recent developments in micro/nanostructured adhesives and films for biomedical applications, including waterproof seals for wounds or surgery sites, drug delivery, sensing human body signals, and optical imaging of human tissues. We describe in detail the fabrication processes required to prepare the adhesives and films, such as tape-based adhesives, nanofilms, and flexible and stretchable film-based electronic devices. We also discuss their biomedical functions, performance in vitro and in vivo, and the future research needed to improve the current systems.

  4. Camouflage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, V L

    1995-04-01

    Camouflage therapy is a system of cosmetic techniques designed for patients to use to assist themselves in coping constructively with the psychological and physical trauma of their disfigurements. It is described as a "system" because these techniques are interrelated. A camouflage therapist may teach the patient to use one, two, or all of the techniques at the same time in order to normalize their appearance. Four basic techniques have been described in this article. They are as follows: (1) the use of opaque, waterproof cover creams to conceal scarring; (2) the application of pancake makeup for patients with oily or acne-prone skin; (3) color correctors to obliterate discoloration from postoperative trauma; and (4) recreating imperfections on the skin. For more information about the use of cosmetics to normalize the appearance of physical disfigurements, the following books are recommended.

  5. RFID-Based Monitoring And Access Control System For Parliamentary Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Thu Rein Htun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to implement monitoring and access control system based on RFID and Zigbee technology which can be used at Parliamentary Campus. Nowadays RFID technology is widely used for access control system because it is cheap waterproof and easy to use as well as it contains unique EPC electronic protect code .In addition Zigbee wireless module is cost-effective and can be reliable for security. Sothis system consists of RFID tag RFID reader Arduino Uno and Zigbee. This system can also be used for industrial amp commercial and security HVAC closures. This paper describes the results of point-to-point connection and point-to-multipoint connection using Zigbee and RFID technology.

  6. Análise da eficiência dos equipamentos de proteção aos agrotóxicos utilizados em saúde pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Motta Veiga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal Protective Equipment (PPE is used in Public Health to protect the workers who use pesticides for disease control. The dermal exposure is the highest contamination risk. The permeability is a characteristic that makes PPE unsuitable for using. Even those PPE which are made from waterproof materials, can be permeable, due to fabric porosity and the presence of seams. This study analysed the permeability to pesticides on PPE used by health personnel controlling Aedes aegypti mosquito. Permeability was evaluated through the pipette method, by calculating repellency, retention and penetration percentages of pesticides in the PPE. The results showed that the type of seam influences permeability; and a lower repellency may not be sufficient to evaluate the efficiency of PPE, as this can be compensated by a greater retention, resulting in less penetration.

  7. The Use of Basalt, Basalt Fibers and Modified Graphite for Nuclear Waste Repository - 12150

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulik, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, pr. Nauky 47, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Biland, A.B. [HHK Technologies, 3535 Wilcreast Dr., Houston TX 77042 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    New materials enhancing the isolation of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are continuously being developed.. Our research suggests that basalt-based materials, including basalt roving chopped basalt fiber strands, basalt composite rebar and materials based on modified graphite, could be used for enhancing radioactive waste isolation during the storage and disposal phases and maintaining it during a significant portion of the post-closure phase. The basalt vitrification process of nuclear waste is a viable alternative to glass vitrification. Basalt roving, chopped basalt fiber strands and basalt composite rebars can significantly increase the strength and safety characteristics of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel storages. Materials based on MG are optimal waterproofing materials for nuclear waste containers. (authors)

  8. Optimization of fractional composition of the excipient in the elastomeric covering for asphalt highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Nurullaev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The computational method of optimum fractional composition of a dispersible filler of polymeric composite on the basis of three-dimensionally linked elastomer is developed according to non-linear programming. The coefficient of dynamic viscosity of polymeric suspension or the initial module of a viscoelasticity of the join solidification low-molecular rubbers with the final functional groups, filled by many fractional dioxide of silicon are considered as criteria of optimization. Influence of the limiting volume filling on energy of mechanical destruction was investigated. The elastomeric material is offered for use as a covering of asphalt highways in the form of a frost-proof waterproofing layer, which allowing multiply to increase operating properties.

  9. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Shao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12 MPa at the age of 28 d of curing. Stabilizer can meet the strength requirements of cement-soil mixing pile composite foundation and cement-soil mixing pile waterproof curtain.

  10. A novel backpackable ice-penetrating radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Kenichi; Saito, Ryoji; Naruse, Renji

    We have developed a novel ice-penetrating radar system that can be carried on a backpack. Including batteries for a 3 hour continuous measurement, the total weight is 13 kg. In addition, it operates reliably down to -25°C, has a low power consumption of 24 W, and is semi-waterproof. The system has a built-in-one controller with a high-brightness display for reading data quickly, a receiver with 12-bit digitizing, and a 1 kV pulse transmitter in which the pulse amplitude varies by <0.2%. Optical communications between components provides low-noise data acquisition and allows synchronizing of the pulse transmission with sampling. Measurements with the system revealed the 300 m deep bed topography of a temperate valley glacier in the late ablation season.

  11. Director's Discretionary Fund Report for Fiscal Year 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Topics covered include: Waterproofing the Space Shuttle tiles, thermal protection system for Reusable Launch Vehicles, computer modeling of the thermal conductivity of cometary ice, effects of ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation on plants, a novel telemetric biosensor to monitor blood pH on-line, ion mobility in polymer electrolytes for lithium-polymer batteries, a microwave-pumped far infrared photoconductor, and a new method for measuring cloud liquid vapor using near infrared remote sensing. Also included: laser-spectroscopic instrument for turbulence measurement, remote sensing of aircraft contrails using a field portable imaging interferometer, development of a silicon-micromachined gas chromatography system for determination of planetary surface composition, planar Doppler velocimetry, chaos in interstellar chemistry, and a limited pressure cycle engine for high-speed output.

  12. Inquiry on civil construction technology points of building engineering%建筑工程土建施工技术要点探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵成学

    2015-01-01

    依照建筑工程土建的施工要求,简单的总结了建筑工程土建施工的关键技术要点,主要包括混凝土施工、钢筋施工、砖砌筑施工、防水施工、模板施工五方面内容,以期达到提升建筑工程土建施工技术性能的目的。%According to civil construction demands of building engineering,the paper briefly summarizes critical civil construction technology points of building engineering,which mainly includes concrete construction,steel construction,brick masonry construction,waterproofing construc-tion and template construction,with a view to achieve the goal of improving civil construction technology performance of building engineering.

  13. Research on thin-plastered construction quality problem of outside wall heat preservation EPS board%墙外保温EPS板薄抹灰施工质量问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁军

    2011-01-01

    指出EPS板保温体系是一种新型的建筑构造体系,集保温、防水、防火和装饰功能为一体,结合工程实践,简要阐述了墙外保温EPS板薄抹灰施工技术的主要施工方案及注意事项,以保证外保温系统施工质量,提高保温效果。%This paper pointed out that EPS board heat preservation system was a new building structure system,setting heat preservation,waterproof,fire protection and decorative function as one,combining with the engineering practice,briefly elaborated the main cons

  14. 硅烷高沸物的综合利用%Comprehensive utilization of high boiling silane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲

    2000-01-01

    介绍了合成有机硅过程中产生的硅烷高沸物的组成、处理方法及其综合利用技术进展情况。简述了利用硅烷高沸物制备单硅烷、硅油、有机硅防水剂、有机硅树脂、消泡剂等产品的生产方法及技术特点。%The advances of components, treatment and comprehensive utilization of high boiling silane resulting from the synthesis of organo-silicone were introduced. The production methods and technical features of monosilane, silicone oil, silicone water-proofing agent and silicone resin using the high boiling silane were described.

  15. 有机无机杂化物作乳化剂的苯丙乳液制备及其性能表征%Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(St-co-BA) Latex with an Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Compound as Emulsifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊杰; 周树学; 廖建和; 武利民

    2003-01-01

    A poly (St-co-BA) latex was successfully synthesized by using an organic-inorganic hybrid compound(OIHC), an aliphatic carboxylate sodium/nano-silica composite, as the emulsifier, and investigated by particlesize analyzer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), optical contact angle measurement (OCA) and dynamicmechanical analyzer (DMA). It was found that the protective agent, sodium polyacrylate (PA),could obviouslyimprove the polymerization stability and the functional monomer, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), could enhancethe store stability of the latex. The particle size of poly(St-co-BA) latex decreased and then leveled off as OIHCcontent increased. TEM shows that the prepared polymers were actually organic-inorganic nanocomposites, andthese films have better waterproof property than those prepared by traditional poly(St-co-BA) latex or organicsilicone modified poly(St-co-BA) latex. The nanocomposite polymer has much higher glass transition temperaturethan organic silicone modified poly(St-co-BA) polymer containing the same organic silicone content.

  16. Development of an outdoor MRI system for measuring flow in a living tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Akiyoshi; Kose, Katsumi; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    An outdoor MRI system for noninvasive, long-term measurements of sap flow in a living tree in its natural environment has been developed. An open-access, 0.2 T permanent magnet with a 160 mm gap was combined with a radiofrequency probe, planar gradient coils, electromagnetic shielding, several electrical units, and a waterproofing box. Two-dimensional cross-sectional images were acquired for a ring-porous tree, and the anatomical structures, including xylem and phloem, were identified. The MRI flow measurements demonstrated the diurnal changes in flow velocity in the stem on a per-pixel basis. These results demonstrate that our outdoor MRI system is a powerful tool for studies of water transport in outdoor trees.

  17. A new test method for measuring the water vapour permeability of fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua; Qian, Xiaoming

    2007-09-01

    The water vapour permeability of textile fabrics is a critical determinant of wearer comfort. Existing test methods are either time consuming or require large amounts of material. A new test apparatus was developed for characterizing the water vapour permeability of fabrics. An aluminium cylinder covered with waterproof and vapour permeable PTFE laminate is used for generating water vapour source on one side of the sample. A dry nitrogen sweep gas stream is used to carry water vapour away. The calculation of the rate of water vapour transmission across the fabric is based on the measurement of the relative humidity of the outgoing nitrogen stream. This new measuring apparatus offers a short test time and calls for a small sample size. The comparison measurements show that the test results correlated well with those obtained from ISO 11092 and ASTM E96. Therefore, this test method provides a new technique to accurately and precisely characterize the water vapour transport properties of fabrics.

  18. Development of Heat-resistant XLPE Cable and Accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Murata, Yoshinao; Kishi, Kouji; Katakai, Shoshi

    We have developed heat-resistant XLPE cable and accessories that can be operated at 105°C as the maximum permissible conductor temperature in normal operation. Through this cable system, greater transmission capacity can be achieved using existing cable ducts and without increasing the conductor size of the cable. We have developed heat-resistant XLPE insulation material which has a higher melting point than that of conventional XLPE. The breakdown strength of heat-resistant XLPE cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. The heat deformation of the new cable at 105°C is almost the same as that of conventional XLPE cable at 90°C. Conventional self-pressurized rubber joints can be applied to heat-resistant cable lines with the new waterproof joint compound with low heat resistivity.

  19. Fish-inspired robots: design, sensing, actuation, and autonomy--a review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Aditi; Thakur, Atul

    2016-04-13

    Underwater robot designs inspired by the behavior, physiology, and anatomy of fishes can provide enhanced maneuverability, stealth, and energy efficiency. Over the last two decades, robotics researchers have developed and reported a large variety of fish-inspired robot designs. The purpose of this review is to report different types of fish-inspired robot designs based upon their intended locomotion patterns. We present a detailed comparison of various design features like sensing, actuation, autonomy, waterproofing, and morphological structure of fish-inspired robots reported in the past decade. We believe that by studying the existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from the successful robots. The review also summarizes the open research issues that need to be taken up for the further advancement of the field and also for the deployment of fish-inspired robots in practice.

  20. Effect of cracking and randomness of inputs on corrosion initiation of reinforced concrete bridge decks exposed to chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konecny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the indicative evaluation of the effect of random scatter of input parameters in case of durability of reinforced concrete bridge deck. The time to onset of corrosion of steel reinforcement of concrete bridge deck exposed to chloride is evaluated. The effect of cracking in concrete onto chloride ingress is considered. The selected steel reinforcement protection strategies are: unprotected steel reinforcement, epoxy-coated steel reinforcement and water-proof barrier bellow asphalt overlay. The preliminary model for damage effect on chloride ion ingress through water proof membrane under penetrable asphalt overlay is used. 2-D finite element chloride ingress model is combined with Monte Carlo simulation technique. The innovative crack effect modeling via highly penetrable elements is applied. Deterministic and probabilistic calculations are compared.

  1. Vývoj nových druhů plynotěsných a vodotěsných povrchových úprav

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Práce se zabývá vývojem nových druhů plynotěsných a vodotěsných povrchových úprav na bázi sekundární krystalizace cementu, s využitím průmyslových odpadů jako druhotných surovin při formulaci receptur. The work deals with the development of new types of gas and waterproof tight coatings based on secondary crystallization of cement, using industrial waste as secondary raw material in the formulation of new recipes. P

  2. Physical characteristics of cold cured anthracite/coke breeze briquettes prepared from a coal tar acid resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, L.J.; Snape, C.E.; Taylor, D. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    Phenolic resins were synthesised using the whole coal tar acid fraction of the oil from a low temperature carbonisation process. A series of briquettes were prepared using a number of coal tar acid concentrations, cured at ambient temperature with various concentrations of sulphuric acid and were subjected to a variety of physical tests. Excellent briquettes, in terms of mechanical strength, water-proofing characteristics and thermal degradation, were produced with both nominally 10 and 9% w/w resole solution and acid concentrations down to 1.8 M, corresponding to sulphur addition in the briquettes of ca. 0.2% w/w. Briquettes bound with 8% w/w resole solution, however, required stronger acid concentrations to satisfy the test conditions. When the briquettes were combusted up to 850{degree}C, they retained their core shape after 70% weight loss. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Calibration and 3D reconstruction of underwater objects with non-single-view projection model by structured light stereo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yexin; Negahdaripour, Shahriar; Aykin, Murat D

    2016-08-20

    Establishing the projection model of imaging systems is critical in 3D reconstruction of object shapes from multiple 2D views. When deployed underwater, these are enclosed in waterproof housings with transparent glass ports that generate nonlinear refractions of optical rays at interfaces, leading to invalidation of the commonly assumed single-viewpoint (SVP) model. In this paper, we propose a non-SVP ray tracing model for the calibration of a projector-camera system, employed for 3D reconstruction based on the structured light paradigm. The projector utilizes dot patterns, having established that the contrast loss is less severe than for traditional stripe patterns in highly turbid waters. Experimental results are presented to assess the achieved calibrating accuracy.

  4. Thermal comfort of diving dry suit with the use of the warp-knitted fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenfeldova, I.; Hes, L.; Annayeva, M.

    2016-07-01

    Achievement of a good level of thermal comfort of under-suits for dry suit diving which enable also the required mobility of the diver in water is inevitable not only for the scuba sport and commercial diving people but also for safety and activities of people who make research under water. The aim of this work is to verify whether selected knitted structures (which are not waterproof) can substitute the currently used textile materials (nonwovens). This dry-suit innovation is intended to increase the properties which correspond to the perception of thermal comfort of the diver in water. To achieve this objective, the Alambeta thermal tester was used in the study for experimental determination of thermal resistance of spacer warp knitted fabric at varying contact pressure. The studied textiles were expected to be very suitable for the intended application due to their low compressibility which yields relatively high thickness a hence increased thermal insulation.

  5. Piezoresistive Foam Sensor Arrays for Marine Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dusek, Jeff E; Lang, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Spatially-dense pressure measurements are needed on curved surfaces in marine environments to provide marine vehicles with the detailed, real-time measurements of the near-field flow necessary to improve performance through flow control. To address this challenge, a waterproof and conformal pressure sensor array comprising carbon black-doped-silicone closed-cell foam (CBPDMS foam) was developed for use in marine applications. The response of the CBPDMS foam sensor arrays was characterized using periodic hydrodynamic pressure stimuli from vertical plunging, from which a piecewise polynomial calibration was developed to describe the sensor response. Inspired by the distributed pressure and velocity sensing capabilities of the fish lateral line, the CBPDMS foam sensor arrays have significant advantages over existing commercial sensors for distributed flow reconstruction and control. Experimental results have shown the sensor arrays to have sensitivity on the order of 5 Pascal, dynamic range of 50-500 Pascal; are...

  6. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (I); Aplicacion del permanganato potasico para la eliminacion de cianuros de cobre en aguas residuales de la planta de lixiviacion en una mina de oro (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho, J. P.; Fernandez, B.; Ayala, J.; Garcia, M. P.; Lavandeira, A.

    2009-07-01

    The use of cyanide in the hydrometallurgical and chemical industries has led to the emergence of a major environmental problem due to its high toxicity. Te wastewater generated at these plants is hazardous to the environment and therefore must be managed properly. For this purpose, they undergo detoxification processes after lodes from the plant are accumulated in waste-resistant containment ponds that mast be waterproof to prevent environmental disasters from leakages or massive flood. This work shows the results obtained in laboratory tests carried out with plant waters and demonstrates the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidant of cyanide wastewater from a gold hydrometallurgical plant. In the process the destruction of the copper cyanide complexes is solution is achieved and copper metal ions are eliminated through precipitation mostly as hydroxide. (Author) 28 refs.

  7. Development of CVD diamond detectors for clinical dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliero, M. A.; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Ryde, S. J. S.; Oliver, K.

    2014-11-01

    The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods for the manufacture of diamonds could lead to detectors for high-resolution radiotherapy dosimetry that are cheaper and more reproducible than detectors based on natural diamonds. In this work two prototype designs (Diamond Detectors Ltd, Poole) of CVD diamond detectors were considered. The detectors were encapsulated in a water-proof housing in a form-factor that would be suitable for dosimetry measurements in water, as well as solid material phantoms. Stability of the dosimeter over time, the dose-response, dose-rate response and angular-response were examined. The study demonstrated that the detector behaviour conformed with theory in terms of the dose-rate response and had acceptable properties for use in the clinic.

  8. Bioengineering a 3D integumentary organ system from iPS cells using an in vivo transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Ryoji; Ishimaru, Junko; Sugawara, Ayaka; Toyoshima, Koh-Ei; Ishida, Kentaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sakakibara, Kei; Asakawa, Kyosuke; Kashiwakura, Akitoshi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Minamide, Ryohei; Sato, Akio; Yoshitake, Toshihiro; Takeda, Akira; Egusa, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The integumentary organ system is a complex system that plays important roles in waterproofing, cushioning, protecting deeper tissues, excreting waste, and thermoregulation. We developed a novel in vivo transplantation model designated as a clustering-dependent embryoid body transplantation method and generated a bioengineered three-dimensional (3D) integumentary organ system, including appendage organs such as hair follicles and sebaceous glands, from induced pluripotent stem cells. This bioengineered 3D integumentary organ system was fully functional following transplantation into nude mice and could be properly connected to surrounding host tissues, such as the epidermis, arrector pili muscles, and nerve fibers, without tumorigenesis. The bioengineered hair follicles in the 3D integumentary organ system also showed proper hair eruption and hair cycles, including the rearrangement of follicular stem cells and their niches. Potential applications of the 3D integumentary organ system include an in vitro assay system, an animal model alternative, and a bioengineered organ replacement therapy.

  9. A Flexible Ultrasound Transducer Array with Micro-Machined Bulk PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel flexible piezoelectric micro-machined ultrasound transducer, which is based on PZT and a polyimide substrate. The transducer is made on the polyimide substrate and packaged with medical polydimethylsiloxane. Instead of etching the PZT ceramic, this paper proposes a method of putting diced PZT blocks into holes on the polyimide which are pre-etched. The device works in d31 mode and the electromechanical coupling factor is 22.25%. Its flexibility, good conformal contacting with skin surfaces and proper resonant frequency make the device suitable for heart imaging. The flexible packaging ultrasound transducer also has a good waterproof performance after hundreds of ultrasonic electric tests in water. It is a promising ultrasound transducer and will be an effective supplementary ultrasound imaging method in the practical applications.

  10. Evolution of Flat Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şt. Vasiliu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Roofs are constructive subassembles that are located at the top of buildings, which toghether with perimetral walls and some elements of the infrastructure belongs to the subsystem elements that close the building. Roofs must meet resistance requirements to mechanical action, thermal insulating, waterproofing and acoustic, fire resistance, durability, economy and aesthetics. The man saw the need to build roofs from the oldest ancient times. Even if the design of buildings has an empirical character, are known and are preserved until today constructions that are made in antiquity, by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans with architectural achievements, worthy of admiration and in present time. General composition of civil construction has been influenced throughout the evolution of construction history by the level of production forces and properties of building materials available in every historical epoch. For over five millennia, building materials were stone, wood and ceramic products (concrete was used by theRomans only as filling material.

  11. [Groundwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  12. Study on Swell Pressure Stress of Bentonite in Geosynthetic Clay Liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Junfeng; LI Shengrong; HE Shaohui; ZHANG Guangshan; TONG Jinggui; YAN Bokun

    2006-01-01

    The geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) is a kind of waterproofing material used widely in engineering. The waterproof mechanism is understood in terms of bentonite particles becoming water-obstruct colloid layers after they sorb water and swell. The swell pressure stress, however, has not been determined directly till now. In our experiment, swell pressure stress of the GCL under saturated water-sorbing condition was measured directly using a custom-made instrument. The results show that (1) the instrument designed by the authors performs satisfactorily and the test results are reproducible;and (2) the trend line of swell pressure stress variation with time can be divided into three segments.The first segment is characterized by a quick increase of the swell force in the first 0-50 hours. The swell pressure stress increases by 7.00×10-4-1.00×10-3 MPa/h. The second segment shows a slow increase of the swell pressure stress from the 50th to 1730th hour. The swell force increases by 7.54×10-6-2.02×10-5 MPa/h. The third segment is characterized by a little variation in swell pressure stress after 1730 hours. In this segment, the average value of the swell pressure stress measurements is 0.0719 MPa and the maximum value is 0.0729 MPa. It is suggested that the swell pressure stress is mainly raised by water entering pores among montmorillonite particles and interstitial layers in individual montmorillonite crystals, leading to an increase of volume.

  13. New high-temperature resistant ceramic coating to accelerate expansion into new markets%高温耐磨的陶瓷涂料新品加速拓展新市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳

    2012-01-01

    Ceramic coating is a very important fine chemical products,its application has been deep into all areas of the national economy.High temperature ceramic coating is widely used in aerospace,electronics,automotive,machinery and other high-tech fields.According to a new generation ceramic coating and then a new,analyzed the main component of the ceramic coating,film theory and application;study of high temperature resistant ceramic coatings and ceramic coatings for wear-resistant waterproof structure and performance characteristics;describes new nano-ceramic coatings available introduced several kinds of typical high-temperature resistant ceramic coating waterproof new.%陶瓷涂料是一种很重要的精细化工产品,其应用已深入到国民经济的各个领域。耐高温陶瓷涂料更是广泛应用于航空航天、电子、汽车、机械制造等高技术领域。根据新型陶瓷涂料再出换代新品,分析了陶瓷涂料的主要成分、成膜原理及应用范围;研究了高温耐磨陶瓷涂料和耐磨防水陶瓷涂料的结构和性能特点;阐述了纳米陶瓷涂料新品面市,介绍了国内几种典型的高温耐磨防水陶瓷涂料新品。

  14. Visible fiber lasers excited by GaN laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nakanishi, Jun; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes and discusses visible fiber lasers that are excited by GaN laser diodes. One of the attractive points of visible light is that the human eye is sensitive to it between 400 and 700 nm, and therefore we can see applications in display technology. Of course, many other applications exist. First, we briefly review previously developed visible lasers in the gas, liquid, and solid-state phases and describe the history of primary solid-state visible laser research by focusing on rare-earth doped fluoride media, including glasses and crystals, to clarify the differences and the merits of primary solid-state visible lasers. We also demonstrate over 1 W operation of a Pr:WPFG fiber laser due to high-power GaN laser diodes and low-loss optical fibers (0.1 dB/m) made by waterproof fluoride glasses. This new optical fiber glass is based on an AlF3 system fluoride glass, and its waterproof property is much better than the well known fluoride glass of ZBLAN. The configuration of primary visible fiber lasers promises highly efficient, cost-effective, and simple laser systems and will realize visible lasers with photon beam quality and quantity, such as high-power CW or tunable laser systems, compact ultraviolet lasers, and low-cost ultra-short pulse laser systems. We believe that primary visible fiber lasers, especially those excited by GaN laser diodes, will be effective tools for creating the next generation of research and light sources.

  15. Accuracy Assessment of GO Pro Hero 3 (black) Camera in Underwater Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmholz, , P.; Long, J.; Munsie, T.; Belton, D.

    2016-06-01

    Modern digital cameras are increasing in quality whilst decreasing in size. In the last decade, a number of waterproof consumer digital cameras (action cameras) have become available, which often cost less than 500. A possible application of such action cameras is in the field of Underwater Photogrammetry. Especially with respect to the fact that with the change of the medium to below water can in turn counteract the distortions present. The goal of this paper is to investigate the suitability of such action cameras for underwater photogrammetric applications focusing on the stability of the camera and the accuracy of the derived coordinates for possible photogrammetric applications. For this paper a series of image sequences was capture in a water tank. A calibration frame was placed in the water tank allowing the calibration of the camera and the validation of the measurements using check points. The accuracy assessment covered three test sets operating three GoPro sports cameras of the same model (Hero 3 black). The test set included the handling of the camera in a controlled manner where the camera was only dunked into the water tank using 7MP and 12MP resolution and a rough handling where the camera was shaken as well as being removed from the waterproof case using 12MP resolution. The tests showed that the camera stability was given with a maximum standard deviation of the camera constant σc of 0.0031mm for 7MB (for an average c of 2.720mm) and 0.0072 mm for 12MB (for an average c of 3.642mm). The residual test of the check points gave for the 7MB test series the largest rms value with only 0.450mm and the largest maximal residual of only 2.5 mm. For the 12MB test series the maximum rms value is 0. 653mm.

  16. Preliminary Analysis of Engineering Effect of Crushed Rocks Mat Embankment in Heimahe Section of Qinghai-Tibet Highway%青藏公路黑马河试验段碎石垫层路基工程效果初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东庆; 常法; 张坤; 房建宏; 徐安花

    2011-01-01

    基于青藏公路黑马河试验段碎石垫层路基近1 a的温度、水分监测资料,初步分析了碎石垫层路基温度,水分的发展与分布特征以及造成这些差异的原因,并与传统的砂砾垫层比较.结果表明:碎石垫层加隔水土工布能够更好的削弱毛细水自下而上的迁移,起到了一定的隔水排水效果,对于防治季节性冻土路基冻胀病害具有积极作用.%Based on the monitoring data of moisture and temperature along the National Road 109 in Qinghai Province,the changes and induced causes of temperatures and moistures at different positions of an embankment under the action of external climate conditions were systematically analyzed.The change rates and induced causes of moistures for the traditional gravel embankment and the crushed rock mat embankment with waterproof geotextile were discussed.Further more,the effects of these differences on the frost heaving of embankment were also analyzed.It is found that the rushed rock mat embankment with waterproof geotextile is better than the traditional gravel embankment for preventing frost heaving and boiling of embankment in seasonally frozen soil regions,even that there are top-down migration of ground surface water,and soil moisture migration under winter negative temperature gradient and capillary action from the bottom to promote the migration of the soil water.

  17. Stress Relaxation of Paraffin Wax Emulsion/Copper Azole Compound System Treated Wood%石蜡防水剂与CA复配处理材的力学松弛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖雨晴; 钟卉; 马尔妮

    2016-01-01

    Objective] An approach of stress relaxation was proposed in present work to investigate the interactions among the waterproof agent, preservative and wood. [Method] Paraffin emulsion waterproof using natural surfactants was prepared at dif-ferent concentrations of 0.5% and 2.0%, which were added into two concentrations (0.3%, 0.5%) of copper azole (CA) to obtain compound systems, and one-time ful-cel process was applied to treat the sapwood of Pinus spp. with a size of 10 mm (L) ×10 mm (R) ×10 mm (T). [Result] Compressive stress relaxation behaviors at two moisture levels and room temperature were measured and the results were as fol-lows: 1) compared with control group, the stress relaxation of compound system treated groups reduced, whether at oven-dried state or air-dried state. 2) Under oven-dried condition, CA could weaken the relaxation of treated samples and this effect became greater with increasing concentration of preservative, but an increase in the concentration of paraffin emulsion would slightly promote the relaxation of compound system treated samples. While under air-dried condition, both CA and paraffin wax emulsion lowered the relaxation which was inversely related to the concentrations of both agents. [Conclusion] The results were expected to shed new light on the various macroscopic properties of the compound system treated wood at a microscopic level, and to provide favorable scientific evidences and theoretical supports for the manufacture of waterproofing preservative-treated wood.%[目的]利用应力松弛的方法考察复配处理材中防水剂、防腐剂与木材的相互作用情况[方法]采用0.3%和0.5%两种浓度的CA以及0.5%、2.0%两种浓度的石蜡乳液制备复配体系,利用满细胞法一次性浸注处理10 mm(L)×10 mm (R)×10 mm (T)的南方松(Pinus spp.)试材,在常温条件下,对其进行不同含水率状态下的压缩应力松弛实验。[结果]无论在气干还是绝干状态下,CA和石蜡

  18. 逐阶段安全提高巨厚松散含水层下煤层开采上限研究%Safely improving by stage the upper limit of mining under extremely thick loose aquifer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎; 岳建华; 姜志海; 孙红卫

    2013-01-01

    For maximum recovery of coal and safely reducing waterproof coal pillar in Huaibei Liudong coal mine, the upper limit of mining was improved by two steps: water-proof and sand control. In west No.3 mining district, firstly through research and analysis of the hydrogeological data of the aquifer and water-resisting clay layer at the bottom of the Quaternary system, the bottom aquifer of the Quaternary system in the western 31000 coalface was determined as weak watery, and the mining disturbance of water body was of level II. Then through numerical simulation, physical simulation comparison and analysis, the damage height of overlying rock after mining was studied and compared with the mine actual observation value, the development height of the water conducting fractured zone was confirmed as 41.3 meters;The paper put forward the safe and reasonable waterproof upper limit of mining, and 0.221 million tons of dull reserves were liberated. A good foundation has been set for further safe mining through sand control.%为最大限度回收煤炭资源,安全缩小防水煤柱,针对淮北矿区煤层普遍上覆巨厚第四系松散含水层,煤层顶板不稳定情况,淮北刘东煤矿把提高开采上限工作分为防水、防砂两个阶段推进。首先通过研究分析西三采区第四系底部含水层和黏土隔水层等水文地质资料,确定西31000工作面第四系底部含水层为弱富水性,水体采动等级为Ⅱ级;然后通过数值模拟、物理模拟和对比分析等方法研究开采后的覆岩破坏高度,并与井下实际观测值进行对比,确定西31000工作面采后导水裂缝带的发育高度为41.3 m;据此提出了安全、合理的防水开采上限高度。安全回采后,成功解放呆滞储量22万t,为下一步进行防砂安全开采打下了良好的基础。

  19. Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Helen

    Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when

  20. Vibration characteristics of subgrade in expansive soil area under simulated rainfall and natural conditions%降雨与自然状态下膨胀土基床的振动特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨果林; 段君义; 杨啸; 徐亚斌

    2016-01-01

    In-situ dynamic tests were carried out on the cutting subgrade with excitation of 1 million times , respectively ,under service environments of natural state and simulated rainfall to study the vibration characteristics of cutting subgrade of expansive soil by using composite drainable waterproof plate along Yun-Gui high-speed railway .The dynamic stress of subgrade ,velocity ,acceleration ,settlement and soil humidity were monitored .Results show that the values of dynamic characteristic parameters (dynamic stress ,velocity and acceleration ) have larger volatility at the beginning of the excitation and obvious inhomogeneity of the lateral distribution in the surface layer of subgrade . The influence of service environments on dynamic stress and settlement of cutting subgrade is significant ,which is not so obvious on the attenuation law of the dynamic characteristic parameters with depth . Composite drainable waterproof plate has waterproofing and drainage capacity ,and also some influence on the distribution of vibration velocity of subgrade .The settlement of subgrade surface is about 3 mm under natural state and 8 mm after simulated rainfall . The settlement of foundation is negligible , consequently , and the embankment settlement is mainly caused by subgrade .%为研究铺设复合防排水板的膨胀土路堑基床的振动特性,结合云桂铁路建设工程,进行现场激振试验,对基床在自然状态、模拟降雨环境下各进行100万次激振,测试基床动应力、振动速度、振动加速度、路基沉降以及湿度的变化规律。结果表明:基床动应力、振动速度、振动加速度在激振初期随激振次数的波动性较大,且在基床表层范围内的横向分布不均匀性较明显;服役环境对动应力、沉降大小具有显著影响,但对动力响应沿基床深度的衰减规律影响不大;复合防排水板具有一定的防排水能力,且对基床内振动速度的分布具有一

  1. Impermeabilización del hormigón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gete-Alonso de Ylera, Antonio

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to concrete water-proofing, and the different sealing systems used. After a brief study of the different types of pores and air and water capillaries, the various kinds of water penetration —penetrability and hygroscopicity— are analyzed. The origin of the water is studied: natural moisture, construction humidity, moisture coming from absorption and condensation, rain, accumulated water pressure and miscellaneous moisture and the damaging effects they have on permeability and on hygroscopicity; losses in reservoirs, sub-pressure, Chemical reactions and oxidation. The different forms of measuring permeability are also studied: DIN Standard, by means of test tubes in the form of plates; ASTM Standard, by freezing and permeability tests, by means of a permeability meter, etc. After analyzing the basic conditions for decreasing water penetration in the concrete the following is considered. a Means of additives or treatments which improve the quality of same in order to obtain optimum conditions for waterproofing; b using products which avoid water penetration inside the concrete mass, without altering its basic properti.es. These two forms refer to different waterproofing systems: mass, hydrofugous, joints, sheets and continuous lining. These systems are studied in detail as far as their effects, characteristics and applications are concerned.Se trata en este artículo la impermeabilidad del hormigón y los diferentes sistemas de impermeabilización. Después de un breve estudio de las diversas clases de poros: capilares, de aire y de agua, se analizan los diversos modos de penetración del agua —penetrabilidad e higroscopicidad—, resaltando la mayor importancia de la permeabilidad, y su aumento en función del diámetro de los poros capilares mientras la higroscopicidad disminuye al aumentar el diámetro de aquéllos. Se estudia la procedencia del agua: humedad natural, humedad de construcción, humedad

  2. 玻璃离子水门汀牙体充填后边缘封闭性的观察%Observation of marginal seal of glass ionomer cement after repairing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艺; 俞律峰; 邹德荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A comparison of marginal seal of three glass ionomer cement after repairing. Method: 80 premolars in vitro preparation of the required cavity, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups of 20 teeth each. Three kinds of glass ionomer cement were repaired in three different groups. Another group was repaired by type Ⅱ glass ionomer cement and painted waterproof agent (vaseline). After thermal cycling (0~55 ℃, × 500) . The teeth were immersed in 1 % methylene blue dye, and observed micro-leakage. Result: Significantly differents were found type Ⅰ glass ionomer cement group with the other groups (P 0.05). Conclusion: Marginal seal of type Ⅱ glass ionomer cement and GCFuji Ⅱ is the same. The waterproof agent can reduce the micro-leakage.%目的:比较三种玻璃离子水门汀牙体充填修复后边缘封闭性的差别.方法:离体前磨牙80颗按要求制备洞型,随机分成4组,分别用三种玻璃离子水门汀(新世纪齿科材料有限公司玻璃离子水门汀Ⅰ型、Ⅱ型,日本GCFujiⅡ)充填修复,另外一组用玻璃离子水门汀Ⅱ型修复后再涂隔湿剂(凡士林).经冷热交替试验(0 ℃~55 ℃,循环500次),采用1%亚甲蓝染料渗入法观察充填体与牙体洞壁间边缘微渗漏的情况.结果:玻璃离子水门汀Ⅰ型(普通型)边缘封闭性与其他各组存在显著差异(P 0.05).结论:玻璃离子水门汀Ⅱ型与GCFujiⅡ边缘封闭效果相同;隔湿剂能降低微渗漏.

  3. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fantozzi

    Full Text Available Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23° and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9° at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13° in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7° and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°. The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered

  4. Diez años de estudio del comportamiento higrotérmico de la cubierta del Museo del Prado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Montero, J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we present the results of the monitoring of the hygrothermal behaviour during the last ten years of the El Prado Museum roof. Sensors were installed in the south roof of the museum after it underwent mayor repair following a leak over a very important exhibition hall (the one holding Velazquez’s Las Meninas painting. The liquid water sensors reveal that water is retained at the waterproofing layer. These sensors do not show water presence in lower layers of the roof. The humidity sensors show condensation when the ambient temperature drops. The temperature sensors show the insulating capacity of the different layers of the roof, which effectively attenuate the outside temperature changes. The strain sensors placed on the liquid waterproofing layer show a constant increase of strain with time. In summary, the repaired roof can be considered to perform as intended and no more leaks have been detected.Debido a unas filtraciones detectadas al terminar la renovación de las cubiertas del Museo del Prado se decidió instalar sensores en sus diversas capas, cuyo diseño no es tradicional. Después de más de diez años de registro, los sensores de agua líquida muestran la acumulación de humedad en la capa de impermeabilización líquida. Sin embargo, no se ha detectado la presencia de agua líquida en las capas inferiores. Los sensores de humedad relativa muestran la presencia de condensaciones locales. Los sensores de temperatura muestran la capacidad aislante de las diferentes capas de la cubierta. Y los sensores de deformación muestran un incremento de deformación continuo con el tiempo, posiblemente debido a la fluencia del conjunto. Como conclusión del estudio, se puede afirmar que el comportamiento de la cubierta ha sido correcto ya que no se ha detectado la aparición de agua líquida en las capas internas de la cubierta.

  5. The case for using a sacrificial layer of absorbent insulation in the design of flat and low-sloped roofing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Gregory R.

    2013-05-01

    Beginning about twenty-five years ago, there was a marked increase in the number of single-ply membrane roof designs used to cover and waterproof flat and low-sloped building roofs. Over the past ten years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of installations of white and more reflective single-ply roof systems, mostly using high density cellular foam insulation in the substrate for insulation. A major factor in the increase in the popularity of these highly insulated and more reflective roof systems is the fact that many governments began offering incentives for building owners to use reflective coverings and better insulated roofs. Now, owing to the energy efficient requirements for the design and construction of new buildings put forth in ASHRAE Standard 90.1, "Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings" and the world's apparent desire to be "green" (or at least appear to be), more and more roof designs will include these reflective single-ply membranes, which use the cellular foam insulation boards to meet these requirements. Using a lower density traditional insulation will mean that the roof will have to be very thick to comply, increasing the costs of installation. High density cellular foams do not absorb water until time, vapor pressure drive, UV and thermal shock break down the foam and it becomes more absorbent. This could be 5-7 years or longer, depending on the roof construction and other factors. This means that any water that enters the roof through a breach (leak) in the membrane goes straight into the building. This is not a good consequence since the failure mode of any roof is water entering the building. Keeping the water out of the building is the purpose of the waterproofing layer. This paper reviews the techniques of moisture testing on building roofs and infrared (IR) thermography, and puts forth the idea and reasoning behind having a sacrificial layer of very absorbent insulation installed in every

  6. 木质素基酚醛树脂泡沫塑料的结构与性能研究%Structure and Properties of Lignin Based Phenolic Foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强林; 方红霞; 丁运生; 刘东银; 郑雨; 晏秀男

    2012-01-01

    The structure and performances of lignin based phenolic resin ( LPF ) and LPF foam were studied. Results showed that LPF had lower free formaldehyde content of 0.35%, and lower free phenol content of 0.59% compared with the traditional type of phenolic resin ( PF ). Phenolic of lignin and resinic reactions of LPF foam were conformed by FTIR analyses. Stereoscopic microscope observation results showed that LPF foam had more closed-cell foam with fine cell structures than that of PF foam. The results of TGA and oxygen index determination showed that LPF foam had better thermostability and flame retardance. The results of determination of compressive strength, thermal conductivity and water absorption also indicated that LPF foam had improved mechanical property, thermal insulation property and waterproof performance as well. Compared with the traditional PF foam, LPF foam prepared by thermo-chemical phenolic reactions had better mechanical property, thermal insulation property, waterproof and fireproof performances. It was also more economical, environmentally friendly and safer.%研究了木质素基可发性酚醛树脂(LPF)及LPF泡沫塑料的结构与性能.结果表明,采用酚化木质素制备的LPF具有比酚醛树脂(PF)更低的游离甲醛(质量分数为0.35%)和更低的游离苯酚(质量分数为0.59%);傅立叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)分析证明了木质素的酚化及参与树脂固化反应;体视显微镜观测结果表明,LPF泡沫塑料具有比PF泡沫塑料更高的闭孔结构;热重分析及氧指数分析结果表明,LPF泡沫塑料具有更好的热稳定性和阻燃性能;压缩强度、导热系数和吸水率测定结果表明,LPF泡沫塑料具有更好的力学性能、保温性能和防水性能.相比于传统的PF泡沫塑料,采用热化学酚化技术制备的LPF泡沫塑料,具有更加优良的力学、保温、防火、防水性能,且更加安全、环保、经济.

  7. Determination of seven kinds of phthalate acid esters in coated textiles by GC-MS%涂层织物中7种邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂的GC-MS测试方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学洋; 李宁涛; 郑来云; 李淑芬; 王琨; 王媛

    2012-01-01

    针对涂层织物,采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)检测技术,对纺织品中7种邻苯二甲酸酯类增塑剂(PAEs)的含量进行测试研究.通过索氏提取和固相萃取净化样品,经总离子流图确证、定性和定量离子分析,建立了纺织品中PAEs含量的GC-MS测试方法.结果表明:7种PAEs工作曲线线性关系良好,线性相关系数为0.995 8~0.999 9,方法定量限为23~274 μg/L,试样加标回收率为96.2%~100.9%,相对标准偏差为1.10%~6.87%之间;该方法简便快捷,灵敏度高,定量准确,用该方法在儿童防水涂层织物、防水油布中检出PAEs的含量超过0.1%.%Seven kinds of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) plasticizer content in coated textiles are tested by using GC-MS detection technique. Through the procedure of soxhlet extraction, solid phase extraction sample, total ion current confirmatory, qualitative and quantitative ion analysis, GC-MS detection for PAEs content in textiles is developed. The results show that the linear relationship for the calibration curves of 7 kinds of PAEs using this method is good, the linear correlation coefficient is 0.995 8-0.999 9, the limits of quantification are 23-274μ-g/L, the standard addition recoveries is 96.2% -100.9% , and the relative standard deviation is 1.10% -6.87%. The method is simple, fast, high sensitivity and quantitative accuracy. This method is used to detect PAEs in baby waterproof coated fabrics, then ihe results showed that baby waterproof coated fabrics and tarpaulins contain more than 0.1% PAEs.

  8. Drip Sealing Grouting of Tunnels in Crystalline Rock: Conceptualisation and Technical Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butron, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual model of the groundwater hydraulic conditions around the tunnel contour in ancient brittle crystalline rocks has been developed and verified. The general aim has been to reach an understanding of the groundwater conditions in and close to the tunnel roof where dripping takes place and to propose technical and practical strategies for waterproofing. Dripping is accompanied by ice growth and icicle formation in cold regions, creating additional problems such as shotcrete fall-outs, icicle fall-outs, damage to vehicles, damage to trains, etc. The methodology for the development of the conceptual model is based mainly on transmissivity determinations from short-duration hydraulic tests and analyses of the connectivity of the fracture structure by means of semi-variogram analysis. The determination of the dimensionality of the flow in the fractures has also been found to be essential in order to describe the conductive system. This conceptual model describes the fracture systems as a combination of transmissive patches (2D-flow fractures) connected by less pervious channels (1D-flow fractures). It provides an understanding of the heterogeneity and connectivity of the fracture network and thus the groundwater conditions, not only in the roof but also around the tunnel contour. The pre-excavation grouting design process used in the tunnelling projects followed a structured approach and the evaluation showed that the grouting design reduced the inflow and fulfilled the environmental demands. However, dripping remained, making its characterisation very important when proposing a possible solution for its control. It is proposed that the remaining dripping comes from a channelised system that has been left unsealed and which would be extremely difficult to intersect with future boreholes, as well as from some ungrouted fractures with inconvenient orientations. Geomembrane lining and post-excavation grouting are possible solutions, although particular attention

  9. Research on Application of Manufactured Sand and Manufactured Sand Concrete%机制砂及机制砂混凝土应用与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨声检

    2015-01-01

    为了保护环境并且节约成本,河砂的开采必须得到遏制,取而代之的机制砂生产已迫在眉睫。对机制砂的主要成分以及机制砂混凝土的性能进行了介绍。在多条机制砂生产线实地考察和调研的基础上,重点采用河砂以及机制砂试配了 C30水下桩基混凝土与 C25隧道二衬防水混凝土,得到了机制砂的物理性能以及两种混凝土的性能指标,试验同时考虑了掺粉煤灰的影响。试验结果表明,机制砂的物理性能以及试配的两种混凝土的性能均达到同等级河砂混凝土的性能标准,适用于水下桩基混凝土与隧道二衬防水混凝土的应用。%With the aims of environmental protection and cost-cutting,exploitation of the river sand must be stopped and the manufacture of manufactured sand is becoming urgently needed.In this article,the main compo-nent of the manufactured sand and the mechanical performance of manufactured sand concrete have been intro-duced.On the basis of the investigation on several production lines of manufactured sand,emphasis is put on the experiment of C30 underwater concrete and C25 tunnel lining waterproof concrete by manufactured sand and river sand respectively,the physical property of the manufactured sand and the performance of concrete by these two kinds of sand have been obtained,and the effect of fly ash has also been taken into account in the experiments. The results show that both the physical property of the manufactured sand and the performance of manufactured sand concrete meet the requirements as the river sand concrete,and the manufactured sand can be used in the manufacture of underwater pile foundation concrete and tunnel lining waterproof concrete.

  10. The Basement Roof Subsidence Pre Closed the Construction Technology of Post-cast Strip%地下室顶板沉降后浇带预封闭施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋虎山

    2014-01-01

    目前,高层建筑周边均设置了沉降后浇带,以满足高层建筑在主体施工期间的沉降需要。其中,顶板后浇带的存在给地下室顶板整体防水施工、土方回填和场地的布置利用带来了一定的影响。鉴于此,传统的做法为对后浇带钢筋防锈处理后进行临时苫盖,车库顶板防水施工至后浇带两侧预留接槎,同时在两侧砌筑挡土墙,以满足回填等后续施工。部分案例还采用了预封闭盖板、从下部进行压力灌注混凝土的方式。天保B01项目部在对既有的施工方式进行了相应改进和完善后,成功实现了沉降后浇带的预封闭,并取得了较好的效果。%At present, high-rise buildings are set around the settlement after pouring belt, in order to meet the high-rise building subsidence needs during the subject construction. Among them, the roof after the existence of the pouring belt to the basement roof waterproof construction, earthwork backfilling and of the whole site layout using a certain impact. In view of this, the traditional approach to the reinforcement of post-cast strip rust proofing after they are temporary, garage roof waterproof construction on both sides of post-cast strip to reserve if, in the masonry retaining wall on both sides at the same time, in order to meet the backfill and other follow-up construction. Part of the case also adopted closed cover plate, from the lower pressure grouting concrete way. Tianbao B01 projects department in the existing way of construction for the corresponding improvement and perfect, closed in advance of settlement of post-cast strip is implemented, and achieved good results.

  11. Application of Asphalt Rubber Seal Coat Gravel Synchronization in Highway Maintenance%橡胶沥青碎石同步封层在公路养护中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖文平; 王勇

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous chip sealer 90s century technology application and promotion in Europe in recent years, synchronous chip seal layer applied in our country has become increasingly widespread.It can be used as a seal coat of asphalt pavement preventive maintenance,and can be used as a sealing layer and a new highway under stress absorbing layer,but also as a bridge deck waterproofing layer,with good road performance,especially modified asphalt synchronous chip sealer,asphalt rubber synchronous chip sealer has both good waterproof effect,crack and has a good effect,to prevent and delay the semi-rigid base reflective crack has a good effect,simple construction and low cost.Through the application of synchronous asphalt rubber chip seal road preventive maintenance in its process principle,construction technology,performance characteristics were discussed.%同步碎石封层技术上世纪90年代在欧美得到应用和推广,近年来,同步碎石封层在我国的应用也越来越广泛。它既可以作为上封层用于沥青路面预防性养护,又可以用作新建公路下封层和应力吸收层,还可作为桥面防水层,具有良好的路用性能,特别是改性沥青同步碎石封层、橡胶沥青同步碎石封层既具有良好的防水效果,也有较好的防裂效果,对防止和延缓半刚性基层反射裂缝有较好效果,施工简单,成本低廉。文中通过橡胶沥青同步碎石封层在公路预防性养护中的应用对其工艺原理,施工技术,性能特点等进行了探讨。

  12. Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of

  13. Structural Behavior of H+Hat Combined Steel Sheet Pile%H+Hat 组合型钢板桩结构性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海丰; 永津亮祐; 项伟; 桂树强

    2015-01-01

    H+Hat 组合型钢板桩构造简单、抗弯刚度大、可反复使用且经济性好,具有广泛的应用前景,但在国内尚未应用而缺乏验证。通过理论计算、室内试验、现场原位试验和数值模拟等手段对H+Hat 组合型钢板桩的截面抗弯、锁口抗拉及锁口止水等结构性能进行了研究。研究结果显示:H+Hat 组合型钢板桩具有比普通钢板桩更大的抗弯截面模量,且其抗弯工作性能良好;锁口抗拉容许强度远大于其实际运行的抗拉强度;锁口止水性能不差于普通钢板桩。研究为H+Hat 组合型钢板桩在基坑、码头、船坞、围堰、库岸等工程中的推广应用提供了依据。%H+Hat combined steel sheet pile has a broad prospect of application due to its simple structure,big ben-ding stiffness,repeated usage and cost effectiveness.However,it has not been applied in China yet and lack of verification.In view of this we carried out theoretical calculation,indoor experiment,in situ test and numerical simulation to research the sectional flexural performance,lock tensile performance and lock waterproof performance of H+Hat combined steel sheet pile.Results reveal that the sectional flexural modulus of H+Hat combined steel sheet pile is larger than that of ordinary steel sheet pile with good flexural performance;the allowable lock tensile strength is far greater than that in actual operation;and the lock waterproof performance is not worse than that of or-dinary steel sheet pile.The research could be a basis for the popularization and application of H+Hat combined steel sheet pile in foundation pit,piers,docks,cofferdam,and bank supporting structures.

  14. Preparation for putty of phosphogypsum and its performance%建筑磷石膏腻子的配制及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜勇; 彭家惠; 江丽珍; 向振宇

    2011-01-01

    通过对凝结时间、粘结强度、耐水性、施工性等性能的测试,研究了建筑磷石膏颗粒级配、外加剂和填料对建筑磷石膏性能的影响,明确了建筑磷石膏基腻子材料的合理级配、外加剂种类及掺量.结果表明,羟丙基甲基纤维素对建筑磷石膏腻子的粘结性和保水性影响最为显著,其掺量不宜大于0.1%;磷石膏的合理级配能明显提高腻子的保水、刮涂性能;僧水剂掺量和滑石粉取代量分别以0.05%、15%为宜:配制的磷石膏腻子的干粘结强度为0.63 MPa,保水率达到97%,表干时间85 min,耐水性、施工性、耐碱性及打磨性等均合格.%The influences of important factors on the performance of phosphogypsum are investigated by determining setting time,cohesive strength,waterproof performance and working performance,etc,which referring to factors such as grain composition,admixture and stuffing. Rational grain composition,the category of admixture and the additive quantity in the putty of phosphogypsum are confirmed. The results indicate that hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose has a great influence on the cohesive strength and preservative water effect of phosphogypsum putty and additive quantity is not exceeding 0.1%.The rational grain composition of phosphogypsum can improve the capability of working and retentive water. 0.05% water repellent is fitting in phosphogypsum putty,15% replace of talcum powder is better at the same time.Cohesive dry-intensity and keeping-water is respectively achieve to 0.63 MPa and 97%,the desiccation time is 85 min,the performances of waterproof,working, alkali resistance and standing are correspond to atandard.

  15. Research on surface mortar of ETICS based on rock wool%防水型岩棉外保温系统抹面砂浆研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 王霞

    2011-01-01

    针对岩棉对水敏感的弱点,重点研究具有良好防水功能的岩棉外保温系统抹面砂浆,对比了EVA乳胶粉和丙烯酸乳胶粉与有机硅憎水剂在抹面砂浆中复合使用情况,研究结果表明,丙烯酸乳胶粉的防水性更为优异,丙烯酸乳胶粉7042W掺量2.5%时可以使5mm抹面砂浆不透水,EVA乳胶粉6022E和有机硅憎水剂复合使用也可以达到相同效果;在热老化作用下,抹面砂浆的吸水量有所增加,抗冲击强度有所下降,丙烯酸乳胶粉7042W的耐热老化性能明显优于EVA乳胶粉6022E.%Aiming at the water-sensitive weakness of rock wool, surface mortar for rock wool-based ETICS with good waterproof performance was particularly researched. The compound use condition of EVA emulsion powder, acrylic latex powder with silicone water repellent in surface mortar was compared. The research results showed that the waterproof performance of acrylic latex powder was better, 5 mm surface mortar can be impermeable when the content of acrylic latex powder 7042W was 2.5%. And compound use of EVA emulsion powder 6022E and silicone water repellent can achieve the same effect; under the function of thermal aging, the water absorption of the surface mortar increased, and impact strength decreased. Hie heat-resisting performance of acrylic latex powder 7042W was significantly better than that of EVA emulsion powder 6022E.

  16. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk) was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23°) and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9°) at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13°) in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7°) and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°). The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered modifications in the

  17. Exposure to and precautions for blood and body fluids among workers in the funeral home franchises of Fort Worth, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanyanwu, O C; Tabasuri, T H; Harris, G R

    1989-08-01

    In 1982 the Centers for Disease Control published a set of recommendations and measures to protect persons working in health care settings or performing mortician services from possible exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus. This study of a number of funeral homes in the Fort Worth area was designed to determine the level of exposure of funeral home workers to blood and other body fluids and also to assess existing protective measures and practices in the industry. Workers in 22 funeral home franchises were surveyed with a predesigned questionnaire. Eighty-five responses from 20 of the 22 establishments were received. All 85 respondents admitted exposure of varying degrees to blood and body fluids. Sixty persons (70%) admitted heavy exposure, that is, frequent splashes. Analysis of the responses showed that 81 of 85 (95.3%) persons consistently wore gloves while performing tasks that might expose them to blood or other body fluids. Of the 60 persons who were heavily exposed, 43 wore long-sleeved gowns, 27 wore waterproof aprons, 17 surgical masks, and 15 goggles. The study further revealed that 52.9% (45/85) of the respondents had sustained accidental cuts or puncture wounds on the job. In light of these findings it is important to target educational efforts to persons in this industry to help them minimize their risks of infection with blood and body fluid borne infections.

  18. Acción de las radiaciones U.V. sobre el poli (cloruro de vinilo flexible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco, Manuel

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the study of the U.V. radiations effects on plasticized Poly (vinyl chloride used as waterproofing membrane in Building and also in Public Works. The ageing fact due to U.V. radiations has been followed for 3.000 hours, checking the changes produced in the composition of the material, on its mechanical characteristics and microscopic structure.

    En este trabajo se trata de poner de manifiesto el efecto de las radiaciones U.V. sobre el poli (cloruro de vinilo plastificado, utilizado en forma de lámina para la impermeabilización, tanto en la Edificación como en la Obra Pública. La acción del envejecimiento por radiaciones U.V. se ha seguido a lo largo de 3.000 horas, comprobando las alteraciones producidas en la composición del material, características mecánicas y estructura microscópica.

  19. Direct Observation of a Carbon Filament in Water-Resistant Organic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Bae, Hagyoul; Seong, Hyejeong; Lee, Dong-Il; Park, Hongkeun; Choi, Young Joo; Im, Sung-Gap; Kim, Sang Ouk; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-07-28

    The memory for the Internet of Things (IoT) requires versatile characteristics such as flexibility, wearability, and stability in outdoor environments. Resistive random access memory (RRAM) to harness a simple structure and organic material with good flexibility can be an attractive candidate for IoT memory. However, its solution-oriented process and unclear switching mechanism are critical problems. Here we demonstrate iCVD polymer-intercalated RRAM (i-RRAM). i-RRAM exhibits robust flexibility and versatile wearability on any substrate. Stable operation of i-RRAM, even in water, is demonstrated, which is the first experimental presentation of water-resistant organic memory without any waterproof protection package. Moreover, the direct observation of a carbon filament is also reported for the first time using transmission electron microscopy, which puts an end to the controversy surrounding the switching mechanism. Therefore, reproducibility is feasible through comprehensive modeling. Furthermore, a carbon filament is superior to a metal filament in terms of the design window and selection of the electrode material. These results suggest an alternative to solve the critical issues of organic RRAM and an optimized memory type suitable for the IoT era.

  20. Investigations of a large scale eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) die-off at the Salton Sea, California in 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, C.U.; Audet, D.J.; Rocke, T.E.; Radke, W.; Creekmore, L.H.; Duncan, R.

    2004-01-01

    An estimated 150,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) died at the Salton Sea between 16 December 1991 and 21 April 1992. This represented the largest documented mortality event of Eared Grebes at the time and approximately 6% of the North American population. During the die-off, grebes exhibited several uncharacteristic behaviors, such as congregating at freshwater tributaries, repeatedly gulping freshwater, preening excessively, moving onto land, and allowing close approach and/or capture. Avian cholera was diagnosed in Eared Grebes collected along the north and west shoreline of the Sea late in the die-off but not from the majority of the Eared Grebes dying along the south shore. Gross and histological examinations and diagnostic testing for viruses, bacteria, and parasites did not identify the cause of mortality in the majority of Eared Grebes examined from the south shore of the Sea. Liver concentrations of arsenic, chromium, DDE, mercury, selenium, and zinc were elevated in some Eared Grebes, but none of those contaminants exceeded known thresholds for independent lethality. Poisoning by heavy metals, organochlorine, organophosphorus, or carbamate pesticides, avian botulism, and salt were ruled out as the cause of mortality. Hypotheses for the die-off are interactive effects of contaminants, immunosuppression, a yet unidentified biotoxin or pathogen present in the Salton Sea, impairment of feather waterproofing leading to hypothermia, or a unique manifestation of avian cholera that evades laboratory detection.

  1. A feasibility study of using two-component polyurethane adhesive in constructing wooden structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Derikvand; Ghanbar Ebrahimi; Mehdi Tajvidi

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using a two-component polyurethane (PUR) adhesive, with special waterproof properties, in constructing wooden structures. We designed and conducted tests to compare the shear strength and adhesion per-formance of PUR with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) adhesive on block-shear specimens constructed of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.), fir (Abies alba Mill.), poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), sycamore (Platanus orientalis L.) and white walnut (Juglans cinerea L.). The values of the percentage of wood failure were also determined in specimens constructed with each adhesive. The highest shear strength values of both adhesives were obtained in specimens constructed of beech, while the lowest shear strength values were obtained in fir and poplar specimens. Average shear strength of the PUR adhesive was 16.5%higher than that of the PVAc adhesive. Specimens constructed of fir, poplar and sycamore were characterised by the highest percentages of wood failure, whereas the lowest average percentages of wood failure were obtained in beech and oak specimens. With the exception of oak specimens, there was no statistically significant difference between per-centage of wood failure among the PUR and PVAc adhesives. Generally, the PUR adhesive showed an acceptable adhesion performance on wood materials used in our study.

  2. Engineering water repellency in granular materials for ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Sergio; Saulick, Yunesh; Zheng, Shuang; Kang, Hengyi; Liu, Deyun; Lin, Hongjie

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic water repellent granular materials are a novel technology for constructing water-tight barriers and fills that is both inexpensive and reliant on an abundant local resource - soils. Our research is verifying its stability, so that perceived risks to practical implementation are identified and alleviated. Current ground stabilization measures are intrusive and use concrete, steel, and glass fibres as reinforcement elements (e.g. soil nails), so more sustainable approaches that require fewer raw materials are strongly recommended. Synthetic water repellent granular materials, with persistent water repellency, have been tested for water harvesting and proposed as landfill and slope covers. By chemically, physically and biologically adjusting the magnitude of water repellency, they offer the unique advantage of controlling water infiltration and allow their deployment as semi-permeable or impermeable materials. Other advantages include (1) volumetric stability, (2) high air permeability and low water permeability, (3) suitability for flexible applications (permanent and temporary usage), (4) improved adhesion aggregate-bitumen in pavements. Application areas include hydraulic barriers (e.g. for engineered slopes and waste containment), pavements and other waterproofing systems. Chemical treatments to achieve water repellency include the use of waxes, oils and silicone polymers which affect the soil particles at sub-millimetric scales. To date, our research has been aimed at demonstrating their use as slope covers and establishing the chemical compounds that develop high and stable water repellency. Future work will determine the durability of the water repellent coatings and the mechanics and modelling of processes in such soils.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF URBAN SPRAWL IN LONDRINA, PARANÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Polidoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public policies encouraging the insertion of large industrial and commercial developments near highways, associated to exclusionary housing policies, have shaped over the past decades a new urbanization phenomenon; the sprawl. This is largely characterized by discontinuous and fragmented occupation, with random population densities. This phenomenon brings environmental and social impacts to the urban and rural population, in addition to a great burden for the Government. In line with this and considering the lack of discussion about the topic, this paper discusses some of those impacts observed in Londrina - PR, Brazil. The influence of urban sprawl in this city has shown to impact traffic, waterproofing rates and green areas, in addition to underutilizing the infrastructure due to large urban voids and vacant lots. With the data presented here, it is hoped that debates emerge on the importance of rethinking the plan, so that everyone can have legal access to the city (endowed with infrastructure, as well as the importance of developing strategies to contain urban sprawl.

  4. A paired-laser photogrammetric method for in situ length measurement of benthic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Austin A.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Thompson, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Photogrammetry, a technique to obtain measurements from photographs, may be a valid method for measuring lengths of rare, threatened, or endangered species. Photogrammetric methods of measurement are nonintrusive and reduce the possibility of physical damage or physiological stress associated with the capture and handling of individuals. We evaluated precision and accuracy of photogrammetric length measurements relative to board measurements of Greenside Darters Etheostoma blennioides and Variegate Darters E. variatum in an aquarium and applied photogrammetry in a field study of the Diamond Darter Crystallaria cincotta, a federally listed endangered species. Digital photographs were taken of each individual using a waterproof camera equipped with two parallel lasers. Photogrammetric length measurements were digitized with ImageJ software. Agreement between board and photogrammetric measurements were high for Greenside and Variegate darters. The magnitude of differences was small between direct and photogrammetric measurements, ranging from 0.6% to 3.1%, depending on the species measured and the type of measurement taken. These results support photogrammetry as a useful method for obtaining length measurements of benthic stream fishes. Photogrammetric methods allowed for length measurements and an assessment of length frequency of 199 Diamond Darters, informative data for management that could not be collected with conventional measuring-board methods.

  5. Adsorption kinetics of {sup 201}Tl and migration of {sup 99m}Tc in natural soils; Cinetica de adsorcion de {sup 201}Tl y migracion de {sup 99m}Tc en suelos naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez N, C. E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Fraccionamiento La Virgen, 52149 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Fernandez R, E.; Anguiano A, J., E-mail: estefany_rodriguezn@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The safety is very important in facilities where radioactive wastes are stored. One of the necessary characteristics of the site where these wastes will be disposed is the soil permeability, since a waterproof terrain avoids the diffusion and radionuclide transport in the leakages case. The objective of this work is to study the adsorption kinetics of {sup 201}Tl and the migration of {sup 99m}Tc in natural soil samples. The adsorption kinetics was determined starting from the obtaining of the retention coefficient of the thallium (static method) at different contact times. The technetium diffusion was studied by means of the dynamic method with different soil particles sizes. The results showed that the thallium is totally adsorbed starting from 20 h of contact among this and the mean. On the other hand, the technetium is very mobile in the soil, since it was possible to extract the majority of the tracer with little solvent. Also, it was found that for each soil gram the double water will be needed to leach the technetium almost in its entirety. Moreover, influence exists of the particle size in the migration velocity from the radiotracer to the most mobile being in major sizes than 2 mm that in minor size. (Author)

  6. Specification of Epidermal Cell Fate in Plant Shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu eTakada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Land plants have evolved a single layer of epidermal cells, which are characterized by mostly anticlinal cell division patterns, formation of a waterproof coat called cuticle, and unique cell types such as stomatal guard cells and trichomes. The shoot epidermis plays important roles not only to protect plants from dehydration and pathogens but also to ensure their proper organogenesis and growth control. Extensive molecular genetic studies in Arabidopsis and maize have identified a number of genes that are required for epidermal cell differentiation. However, the mechanism that specifies shoot epidermal cell fate during plant organogenesis remains largely unknown. Particularly, little is known regarding positional information that should restrict epidermal cell fate to the outermost cell layer of the developing organs. Recent studies suggested that certain members of the HD-ZIP class IV homeobox genes are possible master regulators of shoot epidermal cell fate. Here, we summarize the roles of the regulatory genes that are involved in epidermal cell fate specification and discuss the possible mechanisms that limit the expression and/or activity of the master transcriptional regulators to the outermost cell layer in plant shoots.

  7. The cell biology of lignification in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Jaime; Serk, Henrik; Granlund, Irene; Pesquet, Edouard

    2015-06-01

    Lignin is a polyphenolic polymer that strengthens and waterproofs the cell wall of specialized plant cell types. Lignification is part of the normal differentiation programme and functioning of specific cell types, but can also be triggered as a response to various biotic and abiotic stresses in cells that would not otherwise be lignifying. Cell wall lignification exhibits specific characteristics depending on the cell type being considered. These characteristics include the timing of lignification during cell differentiation, the palette of associated enzymes and substrates, the sub-cellular deposition sites, the monomeric composition and the cellular autonomy for lignin monomer production. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of lignin biosynthesis and polymerization at the cell biology level. The lignification process ranges from full autonomy to complete co-operation depending on the cell type. The different roles of lignin for the function of each specific plant cell type are clearly illustrated by the multiple phenotypic defects exhibited by knock-out mutants in lignin synthesis, which may explain why no general mechanism for lignification has yet been defined. The range of phenotypic effects observed include altered xylem sap transport, loss of mechanical support, reduced seed protection and dispersion, and/or increased pest and disease susceptibility. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A Robust Epoxy Resins @ Stearic Acid-Mg(OH)2 Micronanosheet Superhydrophobic Omnipotent Protective Coating for Real-Life Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-06-29

    Superhydrophobic coating has extremely high application value and practicability. However, some difficult problems such as weak mechanical strength, the need for expensive toxic reagents, and a complex preparation process are all hard to avoid, and these problems have impeded the superhydrophobic coating's real-life application for a long time. Here, we demonstrate one kind of omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating via a simple antideposition route and one-step superhydrophobization process. The whole preparation process is facile, and expensive toxic reagents needed. This omnipotent coating can be applied on any solid substrate with great waterproof ability, excellent mechanical stability, and chemical durability, which can be stored in a realistic environment for more than 1 month. More significantly, this superhydrophobic coating also has four protective abilities, antifouling, anticorrosion, anti-icing, and flame-retardancy, to cope with a variety of possible extreme natural environments. Therefore, this omnipotent epoxy resins @ stearic acid-Mg(OH)2 superhydrophobic coating not only satisfies real-life need but also has great application potential in many respects.

  9. The Campaign GPS Component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO): New Tools, New Strategies and New Opportunities to Support EarthScope Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. A.; Greenberg, J.; Sklar, J.; Meertens, C. M.; Andreatta, V.; Feaux, K.

    2004-12-01

    The UNAVCO Facility is charged with implementing the campaign GPS component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to support EarthScope investigators through a pool of approximately one hundred mobile GPS systems. In contrast to the PBO continuous GPS network, the PBO campaign systems are designed for temporary deployments with periods ranging from several minutes to several months per site. This allows researchers to conduct spatially and temporally focused investigations into a wide range of phenomena, including volcano monitoring, post-seismic deformation monitoring, and ground control for airborne LIDAR surveys. A standard PBO campaign system consists of a Topcon GB-1000 dual-frequency GPS receiver, a Topcon PG-A1 compact GPS antenna, an 18 Ah battery, cabling, a portable and waterproof Pelican case enclosure, and a Tech 2000 GPS antenna mast or tripod and tribrach. Available ancillary equipment includes solar panels, additional batteries, enclosures and mounting hardware. Communications equipment such as radio modems and cellular modems are also available to allow remote data retrieval during longer term deployments. We present an overview of the PBO campaign equipment available to investigators, technical specifications of the system, examples of current and planned EarthScope research projects utilizing the campaign equipment, and a hands-on demonstration of a PBO campaign system.

  10. Marker and pen graffiti cleaning on diverse calcareous stones by different laser techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, S. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Daurelio, G.; Albanese, A.

    2007-05-01

    Industries nowadays continuously produce new types of inks for markers and pens, so new different graffiti appear . In this paper laser cleaning tests on 41 new marker and pen types ( fluorescent, permanent, water-based, acrylic tempera, metallic paint, waterproof inks ), applied into laboratory on different litho- type samples (Chianca, Travertino di Roma, Tufo Carparo fine grain, Sabbie), typical stones employed in much more monuments in Puglia and Italian architectures were carried out. The same ones, were exposed for twelve months to outdoor ageing, subject to sunshine, rain, wind, IR and UV solar radiations. Ablation experiments and tests by using different cleaning techniques, each one in Dry and Wet condition (classic technique, Daurelio technique 1 and Daurelio technique 2 and others new techniques) and two different Nd:YAG laser systems (Palladio by QUANTA SYSTEM and SMART CLEAN II by EL.EN.), were adopted. The experimental modes, N-Mode (1064nm - 150, 300 and 500 μs pulse duration), Q-Switch (1064nm - 8 ns pulse duration) and SFR (Short Free Running - 1064 nm - 40 to 110μs pulse duration) were tested on each marked stones. It was found that according to the different ink types and stone substrate, Q-Switch laser cleaning ablation with optimized laser technique are the best solution to marker an pen graffiti removal. The work is still in progress.

  11. Influence of Freeze-Thaw Damage on the Steel Corrosion and Bond-Slip Behavior in the Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzhi Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly studies the behavior of steel corrosion in various reinforced concrete under freeze-thaw environment. The influence of thickness of concrete cover is also discussed. Additionally, the bond-slip behavior of the reinforced concrete after suffering the freeze-thaw damage and steel corrosion has also be presented. The results show that the freeze-thaw damage aggravates the steel corrosion in concrete, and the results become more obvious in the concrete after suffering serious freeze-thaw damage. Compared with the ordinary concrete, both air entrained concrete and waterproofing concrete possess better resistance to steel corrosion under the same freeze-thaw environment. Moreover, increasing the thicknesses of concrete cover is also an effective method of improving the resistance to steel corrosion. The bond-slip behavior of reinforced concrete with corroded steel decreases with the increase of freeze-thaw damage, especially for the concrete that suffered high freeze-thaw cycles. Moreover, there exists a good correlation between the parameters of bond-slip and freeze-thaw cycles. The steel corrosion and bond-slip behavior of reinforced concrete should be considered serious under freeze-thaw cycles environment, which significantly impact the durability and safety of concrete structure.

  12. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  13. Measurement of Characteristic Impedance of Silicon Fiber Sheet based readout strips panel for RPC detector in INO

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, M K; Marimuthu, N; Singh, V; Subrahmanyam, V S

    2016-01-01

    The India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a mega science project of India, which is going to use near about 30, 000 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) as active detector elements for the study of atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Each RPC detector will consist of two orthogonally placed readout strips panel for picking the signals generated in the gas chamber. The area of RPC detector in INO-ICAL (Iron Calorimeter) experiment will be 2m x 2m, therefore the dimension of readout strips panel will also be of 2m x 2m. To get undistorted signals pass through the readout strips panel to frontend electronics, their Characteristic Impedance should be matched with each other. For the matching of Characteristic Impedance we have used the principle of termination. In the present paper we will describe the need and search of new dielectric material for the fabrication of flame resistant, waterproof and flexible readout pickup strips panel. We will also describe the measurement of Characteristic Impedance of plastic hone...

  14. Measurement of characteristic impedance of silicon fiber sheet based readout strip panel for RPC detector in INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. K.; Kumar, A.; Marimuthu, N.; Singh, V.; Subrahmanyam, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is a mega science project of India, which is going to use about 30,000 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) as active detector elements for the study of atmoshpheric neutrino oscillations. Each RPC detector will consist of two orthogonally placed readout strip panel for picking the signals generated in the gas chamber. The area of RPC detector in INO-ICAL (Iron Calorimeter) experiment will be 2 m × 2 m, therefore the dimensions of readout strip panel should also be 2 m × 2 m. To get undistorted signals pass through the readout strip panel to front-end electronics, their characteristic impedance should be matched with each other. In the present paper, we describe the need and search of new dielectric material for the fabrication of flame resistant, waterproof and flexible readout strip panel. We will also describe the measurement of characteristic impedance of Plastic Honeycomb (PH) based readout strip panel and Silicon Fiber Sheet (SFS) based readout strip panel in a comparative way, and its variation under loading and with time. Based on this study, we found that a 5 mm thick SFS-based readout strip panel has a minimum signal reflection at 49.5 ohm characteristic impedance value. Our study shows that SFS is a good dielectric material for the purpose.

  15. Time-dependent bladder tissue regeneration using bilayer bladder acellular matrix graft-silk fibroin scaffolds in a rat bladder augmentation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; He, Yi; Zhou, Zhe; Guo, Jian-hua; Wu, Jia-sheng; Zhang, Ming; Li, Wei; Zhou, Juan; Xiao, Dong-dong; Wang, Zhong; Sun, Kang; Zhu, Ying-jian; Lu, Mu-jun

    2015-09-01

    With advances in tissue engineering, various synthetic and natural biomaterials have been widely used in tissue regeneration of the urinary bladder in rat models. However, reconstructive procedures remain insufficient due to the lack of appropriate scaffolding, which should provide a waterproof barrier function and support the needs of various cell types. To address these problems, we have developed a bilayer scaffold comprising a porous network (silk fibroin [SF]) and an underlying natural acellular matrix (bladder acellular matrix graft [BAMG]) and evaluated its feasibility and potential for bladder regeneration in a rat bladder augmentation model. Histological (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining) and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the bilayer BAMG-SF scaffold promoted smooth muscle, blood vessel, and nerve regeneration in a time-dependent manner. At 12weeks after implantation, bladders reconstructed with the BAMG-SF matrix displayed superior structural and functional properties without significant local tissue responses or systemic toxicity. These results demonstrated that the bilayer BAMG-SF scaffold may be a promising scaffold with good biocompatibility for bladder regeneration in the rat bladder augmentation model.

  16. Effect of additives on the performance of recycled fine aggregate cement mortar%外加剂对再生细骨料水泥砂浆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王复星; 李国忠; 陈娟

    2014-01-01

    The effect of additives on the mechanical properties and water resistance of recycled fine aggregate cement mortar is studied. The result shows that the 28d flexural strength, compressive strength and osmotic pressure of cement mortar samples compared with the blank sample are increased by15.6%, 35.5%, 41.1%when silicone waterproofing agent is 0.2wt%, naphdalin series water reducer is wt1.0%,polycarboxylate super plasticizer is 0.8wt%.%研究了外加剂对再生细骨料水泥砂浆力学性能、防水性能的影响。结果表明:当有机硅防水剂掺量0.2 wt%、萘系减水剂1.0 wt%、聚羧酸减水剂0.8 wt%时,水泥砂浆试样与空白试样相比,其28 d抗折强度、抗压强度、渗透压力分别提高15.6%、35.5%、41.1%。实验中利用SEM对砂浆试样断面微观形貌进行了观察分析,同时利用XRD对水化产物进行了物相鉴定。

  17. Rapid Passing through Small Kiln and Abandoned Roadway Technology and Application in Coal Laneway in Small Coal Mine%煤巷机掘快速通过小窑空巷技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿

    2015-01-01

    According to the location and profile of XV3214 small kiln and abandoned roadway in Fenghuangshan Mine, we should make safeguard measures in advance and perform accurate drilling and waterproof. This paper set support design of small kiln and abandoned roadway, wind current adjustment, construction scheme in detail, which has a certain reference significance for quick comprehensive mechanized drivage, and safe and efficient passing through small kiln and abandoned roadway.%根据凤凰山矿XV3214巷小窑空巷的位置及概况,提前制定保障措施并进行精确钻探和防水,详细制定了空巷支护设计、风流调整及施工组织方案,对综合机械化掘进快速、安全、高效通过小窑空巷具有一定的借鉴意义。

  18. Sugarcane bagasse and castor oil polyurethane adhesive-based particulate composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential use of sugarcane bagasse in two different fiber lengths (5 mm and 8 mm of the same density as a raw material for the production of particleboards, using castor oil-based two-component polyurethane adhesive. The quality of the product that can be manufactured industrially was evaluated based on density, thickness swell (TS, absorption (WA, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR in static bending and internal bond (IB, according to the Brazilian NBR 14.810:2006 standard. The results revealed a significant difference between the particleboards made with 5-mm-long fibers and those made with 8-mm-long fibers. An analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM indicates that the interparticle spaces are filled with castor oil-based two-component polyurethane adhesive, contributing to improve the physicomechanical properties of the particleboards. A durability assessment based on accelerated aging tests shows that waterproofed particleboards can be used in moist environments.

  19. Analysis of roof membranes damaged by mechanical and climatic loads – pilot research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čurpek Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Realization of roof construction has many hidden risks, especially in buildings with diverse architecture. There is a problem about cooperation of individual works (vertical and horizontal constructions on roof in this type of architecture, during the process of realization. Purpose of this research is to reveal risks in form of the group of major source of defects by mechanical damages. The most often types of mechanical damages were chosen in this research, which then were applied on individual types of roof membranes. Response of this damage was found out during the test procedure of water pressure by special laboratory machines. Furthermore, samples of roof membranes were subjected to the Impact test, which was actually focused on damage by hailstone impact from the atmosphere. The final outcomes of the measurements show that the material composition of each roof membrane can influence their whole waterproofing after application of certain type of mechanical damage. In the Impact test, samples were suffered from impact of the hails. This test signified that the choice of base material of thermal insulation below the roof membrane plays an important role.

  20. A hydrodynamically suspended, magnetically sealed mechanically noncontact axial flow blood pump: design of a hydrodynamic bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Kido, Kazuyuki; Yano, Tetsuya; Sakota, Daisuke; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sekine, Kazumitsu; OKamoto, Eiji

    2007-03-01

    To overcome the drive shaft seal and bearing problem in rotary blood pumps, a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless direct current (DC) motor were employed in an axial flow pump. This enabled contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. The axial flow pump consisted of a brushless DC motor, an impeller, and a guide vane. The motor rotor was directly connected to the impeller by a motor shaft. A hydrodynamic bearing was installed on the motor shaft. The motor and the hydrodynamic bearing were housed in a cylindrical casing and were waterproofed by a magnetic fluid seal, a mechanically noncontact seal. Impeller shaft displacement was measured using a laser sensor. Axial and radial displacements of the shaft were only a few micrometers for motor speed up to 8500 rpm. The shaft did not make contact with the bearing housing. A flow of 5 L/min was obtained at 8000 rpm at a pressure difference of 100 mm Hg. In conclusion, the axial flow blood pump consisting of a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless DC motor provided contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear.