WorldWideScience

Sample records for waterproofing materials

  1. Waterproofing Materials for Ammonium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Damse

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the possibility of overcoming the problem of hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate by coating the particles with selected waterproofing materials. Gravimetric analysis ofthe samples of ammonium nitrate coated with eight different waterproofing materials, vis-a-vis, uncoated ammonium nitrate, were conducted at different relative humidity and exposuretime. The results indicate that mineral jelly is the promising waterproofing material for ammonium nitrate among the materials tested, viz, calcium stearate, dioctyl phthalate, kaoline, diethylphthalate, dinitrotoluene, shelac varnish, and beeswax. Attempts were made to confirm the waterproofing ability of mineral jelly to ammonium nitrate using differential thermal analysisand x-ray diffraction patterns as an experimental tool. Suitability of mineral jelly as an additive for the gun propellant was also assessed on the basis of theoretical calculations using THERMprogram.

  2. Preparation of low-cost waterproofing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al-Hadidy AI; TAN Yi-qiu; DONG Ze-jiao; WANG Jia-ni

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for producing a cheap, single-component, hot-applied compound joint sealant with high quality for sealing joints and cracks in concrete and flexible pavements without using primer for instal-lation, a hot-applied modified asphalt sealant was produced by blending up about 30% starch into 20% citric acid. The starch and the asphalt cement were mixed at a temperature of above 160 ℃. Thus the waterproofing asphalt was manufactured to protect the surface of various shapes and types from water leakage using the citric acid. Results indicate that this sealant complies with the requirements of ASTM D-1191, D-6690-O6a and D-7116-05. The citric acid is a kind of reliable materials for asphalt cement, which can be widely used in paving and waterproofing construction materials, and this offers profound engineering and economic advantages.

  3. Frost resistance of concrete surfaces coated with waterproofing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klovas, A.; Dauksys, M.; Ciuprovaite, G.

    2015-03-01

    Present research lays emphasis on the problem of concrete surface exposed to aggressive surrounding quality. The test was conducted with concrete surfaces coated with different waterproofing materials exposed in solution of 3 % of sodium sulphate. Research was performed according to LST EN 1338:2003 standard requirements. Technological properties of concrete mixture as well as physical-mechanical properties of formed concrete specimens were established. The resistance of concrete to freezing - thawing cycles was prognosticated according to the porosity parameters established by the kinetic of water absorption. Five different waterproofing materials (coatings) such as liquid bitumen-rubber based, elastic fiber-strengthened, silane-siloxane based emulsion, mineral binder based and liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based coatings were used. Losses by mass of coating materials and specimens surface fractures were calculated based on the results of frost resistance test. Open code program "ImageJ" was used for visual analysis of concrete specimens. Based on the results, aggressive surrounding did not influence specimens coated with elastic, fibre-strengthened, mineral materials. On the other hand, specimens coated with liquid rubber (caoutchouc) based material were greatly influenced by aggressive surrounding. The biggest losses of specimen surface concrete (fractures) were obtained with silane-siloxane based emulsion coating. Generally, specimens coated with waterproofing materials were less influenced by aggressive surrounding compared with those without.

  4. Unvulcanized elastomeric waterproofing materials for construction application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Karmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the construction was widespread elastomer profiles, which have the ability to swell in water. Such products should have a high capacity for swelling, elasticity, resistance to weathering. At the present time for these purposes are used materials, mostly of foreign origin. With the increasing pace of construction in Russia the problem of replacement of imported materials is particularly relevant. The work was dedicated to the creation of water-swellable elastomer materials using bentonite powders and study of their properties. Сomparative testing of imported and domestic hydrophilic sealants were held. Rationale and choice of components for the cords of bentonite was conducted. Polymer base is saturated ethylene-propylene rubber. Bentonite from different manufacturers used to increase the swelling of the samples. Filler added in an amount of 50–100 phr. The elastomeric compositions were prepared using laboratory roller at a temperature of 60 ± 5° C. Profiling was performed on a syringe-machine at a temperature of 120° C. Extrusion indicator of the mixtures were evaluated on a 10-point scale (German-Russian system. It is found that high swelling products provided using field Azerbaijan bentonite. It is noted that the dosage of bentonite than 150 w.p. deteriorates technological properties of bentonite cords. It has been shown that activation of the bentonite and sodium carbonate chloride can significantly improve product swelling, wherein the bentonite content of the composition was 150–200 w.p.

  5. FTIR instrumentation to monitor vapors from Shuttle tile waterproofing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, C. B.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1995-11-01

    The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles and blankets are waterproofed using DimethylEthoxySilane (DMEX) in the Orbiter Processing Facilities (OPF). DMES has a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for exposure of personnel to vapor concentration in air of 0.5 ppm. The OPF high bay cannot be opened for normal work after a waterproofing operation until the DMES concentration is verified by measurement to be below the TLV. On several occasions the high bay has been kept closed for up to 8 hours following waterproofing operations due to high DMES measurements. In addition, the Miran 203 and Miran 1 BX infrared analyzers calibrated at different wavelengths gave different readings under the same conditions. There was reason to believe that some of the high DMES concentration readings were caused by interference form water and ethanol vapors. The Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) was asked to test the existing DMES instruments and identify the best qualified instrument. In addition the TVDL was requested to develop instrumentation to ensure the OPF high bay could be opened safely as soon as possible after a waterproofing operation. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer instrument developed for an earlier project was reprogrammed to measure DMES vapor along with ethanol, water, and several common solvent vapors. The FTIR was then used to perform a series of laboratory and field tests to evaluate the performance of the single wavelength IR instruments in use. The results demonstrated that the single wavelength IR instruments did respond to ethanol and water vapors, more or less depending on the analytical IR wavelength selected. The FTIR was able to separate the responses to DMES, water and ethanol, and give consistent readings for the DMES vapor concentration. The FTIR was then deployed to the OPF to monitor real waterproofing operations. The FTIR was also used to measure the time for DMES to evaporate from TPS tile under a range of humidity

  6. The Feasibility of Waterproof Microcapsule System for Bacteria-Based Self-Healing Cementitious Material

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a waterproof material was used to fabricate microcapsule by interfacial curing reaction to encapsulate an alkaliphilic spore-forming bacterium. The technical feasibility of encapsulated spores and the influence of three kinds of curing agent on the calcium precipitation activity (CPA) of the bacterium were studied. Furthermore, micromorphology of microcapsules was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Afterwards, the thermal stability and thermolysis temperature were ...

  7. FTIR Study of Vapor Offgassing from Orbiter Tile Re-Waterproofing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, C. B.

    1999-01-01

    The work presented in this paper was performed to identify and quantify the offgassing behavior of alternative re-waterproofmg materials under investigation for application to Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) tile and blanket materials. The purpose was to determine whether the new materials would cause a problem with the operational analysis of residual vapors using the current portable vapor analyzer, a Miran 203. The materials investigated were limited to dimethylethoxysilane (DMES) and proposed solvent selected as suitable for use in re-waterproofing Orbiter TPS. The solvent was selected in another phase of the overall project. Obiter TPS tiles were injected with the re-waterproofing materials under constant conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air flow. The vapor concentrations of offgassing materials were monitored using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) multi-component analysis, and with the Miran 203 instruments. The procedure was to record the time dependent concentrations of offgassing materials as analyzed by the FTIR, and the time response of the Miran 203 to the materials under consideration. The FTIR was calibrated for vapor phase DMES, tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDS), ethanol and the hydrocarbon solvents to be used to dilute the DMES for application to the TPS tile. The Miran 203 was calibrated for the operational measurement of DMES airborne vapors. The FTIR data, shows for the first time that the principal product which offgases from the tile after the first hour is not DMES, but TMDS and ethanol. The Miran 203 response to TMDS is the primary reading after the re-waterproofing operation is completed. The operational use of the Miran 203 to measure DMES vapors after re-waterproofmg operations has been responding to TMDS. The results of this study suggest that the historical complaints that have contributed to the low threshold limit value (TLV) for DMES concentrations, as read with the Miran 203, are actually based on

  8. Environmental and economic estimation of negative impact of waterproofing works and materials on environment and ability to live of the person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velichko Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article negative influence of waterproofing materials and works on health of people and environmental pollution is analyzed. Complex measures on maintenance of an ecological security, sanitary-and-hygienic requirements, size standards and rules both during works on a waterproof finish are resulted, and at the subsequent upkeep of buildings and premises, and also action for decrease in negative impact at carrying out of waterproofing works on a natural habitat condition, health of the workers occupied in repair-building manufacture and living. The estimation of components of the environmental and economic damage put to environment by manufacture of waterproofing works is given.

  9. Simplified Waterproofing of Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.; White, Susan; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    A relatively simple silanization process has been developed for waterproofing or rewaterproofing aerogels, xerogels, and aerogel/tile composites, and other, similar low-density, highly microporous materials. Such materials are potentially attractive for a variety of applications especially for thermal-insulation panels that are required to be thin and lightweight. Unfortunately, such materials are also hydrophilic and tend to collapse after adsorbing water from the air. Hence, an effective means of waterproofing is necessary to enable practical exploitation of aerogels and the like. Older processes for waterproofing aerogels are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and expensive, relative to the present process. Each of the older processes includes a number of different chemical treatment steps, and some include the use of toxic halogenated surface-modifying compounds, pressures as high as hundreds of atmospheres, and/or temperatures as high as 1,000 C.

  10. Preparation of waterproof OSL dosimeters from hygroscopic materials with a special reference to NaCl:Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Y. K.; Wankhede, S. P.; Patil, R. R.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Kumar, Munish; Moharil, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) originally developed for geological/archaeological dating, has been found very useful for diverse applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. There is still a scarcity of OSL materials with demonstrated properties suited to dosimetry applications. Progress on the development of OSL materials with engineered properties has been slow and most research has focused on the OSL characterization of existing materials. One of the reasons for availability of only a handful of OSL dosimetry materials with adequate properties is that they have to satisfy certain stringent conditions necessary for such applications. Especially, hygroscopic materials are considered totally unsuitable. The efforts were made in our laboratory to overcome this problem. It is shown here that "water-proof" dosimeters can be prepared from even hygroscopic materials such as NaCl.

  11. Molecular Structure Characteristics of Leather Waterproof Materials%皮革防水材料的分子结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    但年华; 王康建; 但卫华; 郝艳玲; 刘兰; 曾睿

    2011-01-01

    The waterproof materials including filling type and superficial water repellent type were introduced. The relationship between molecular structure characteristics and waterproof properties of emulsion type, metal complex type, organic silicon type and organic fluoro - compounds type was reviewed. It is pointed out that the future trend is to develop multiple functions, pollution - free and economical waterproof materials.%综述了填充阻塞型和表面疏水型皮革防水材料,重点阐述了乳胶型、金属配合物型、含硅型、含氟型皮革防水材料的分子结构特征和防水性能之间的关系.认为皮革防水材料今后将向功能化、环境友好和经济性方向发展.

  12. Research Progress on Waterproof Additive in Phosphogypsum Building Materials%磷石膏建材防水添加剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵

    2015-01-01

    磷石膏是硫酸湿法萃取磷酸时排出的固体废弃物,每生产1t湿法磷酸约产生5t磷石膏。如何有效地利用磷石膏,生产建筑材料是人们极力寻求解决的问题,进行磷石膏防水剂的开发利用具有重要意义。本文总结了磷石膏防水剂的研究现状,然后对磷石膏的防水性作用原理进行了详细的介绍,对磷石膏防水添加剂研究进展进行了综述。%Phosphogypsum is discharged when phosphoric acid was extracted by WPA , 5 t phosphogypsum was produced when 1 t wet phosphoric acid was produced.How to effectively use phosphogypsum , product building materials is the problem that people struggle to solve , development and utilization of phosphogypsum waterproofing agent is important.The research status of phosphogypsum waterproofing agent was summarized , the role of the principle of waterproof phosphogypsum was detaily presented , research progress of phosphogypsum waterproof additives was reviewed.

  13. Analysis of failures of waterproofing cladding layers of terracotta tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koláčný Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on one of the most important roof cladding layers – the waterproofing cladding layer of terracotta tiles. Its detailed analysis covers the main waterproofing cladding layers in terms of their material characteristics and installation methods. The article concludes by formulating principles for the correct design of the main waterproofing layer/construction.

  14. 浅议屋面卷材防水的施工与维护%Construction and Maintenance of Waterproof Reefing with Coiled Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏周苔

    2011-01-01

    屋面防水工程是保证建筑物能够发挥正常使用功能和使用年限的一项重要因素.合理选择卷材品种、严格控制卷材质量、规范防水施工工艺是保证防水质量的关键环节;科学管理、定期检查、及时维修是决定屋面使用寿命的重要因素.探讨了对屋面卷材防水施工及维护的有关技术问题.%Waterproof roofing is an important factor to guarantee the function and the service life of the building. Reasonable choice of the coiled material, the Quality control inspection and construction technology standard is the key to waterproof quality. Scientific managencent, timely repairment are decisive to the service life of the roof. The technological problem about the construction and maintenance of the waterproof roofing with coiled material were disscussed in detail.

  15. Penetron水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料施工的应用%Application of Penetron cement foundation infiltration crystalline waterproofing material in construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋斌

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the waterproofing mechanism and characteristics of Penetron cement foundation infiltration crystalline waterproofing material.Combining with the underground waterproofing construction practice of Shanxi Haitang international hotel,it specifically describes the construction technology and operation points of Penetron cement foundation infiltration crystalline waterproofing material,which has certain guiding meaning for similar engineering in future.%简要介绍了Penetron膨内传水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料的防水机理、特点,并结合山西海棠国际酒店地下防水施工实践,具体阐述了Penetron水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料施工工艺及操作要点,对今后同类工程具有指导意义。

  16. Aerogel Composites: Strong and Waterproof

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan; Hsu, Ming-ta; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Aerogels are exotic materials having superior thermal and physical properties with great potential for both space and industrial uses. Although aerogels are excellent low-density insulators with unique acoustic and optical properties, their commercialization potential is currently limited by moisture absorption, fragility, and cost. This paper describes useful, easily scaled-up solutions to the first two of these three problems. The waterproofing and water-repellent method described here is a cheaper and simpler improvement over previous permanent methods.

  17. Waterproofing Underground Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    of 100 mils for chloroprene modified asphalt and 85 mils for bitumen modified urethane waterproofing membranes. (3) Adhesion and elongation...properties are excellent. Elongation is 800% with 𔃻TdFF-N-DRI" versus 700% using bitumen modified urethane products. ŕUFF-N-DRI" is hot applied and adhesion ...Foundation ................................ 8 2 - Vertical Membrane Waterproofing System .............. 10 3 - Aggregate Drainage System and MIRADRAIN

  18. 建筑屋面节能与保温防水材料的应用%Applications of the Energy Conservation and Thermal Insulation Waterproof Material of Building Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖杰

    2014-01-01

    The application of energy conservation and thermal insulation waterproof technology in housing construction plays an important role. This article analyzes the concrete applicati-on of roof energy saving materials and waterproof insulation materials, application status and development trend of thermal insulation roofing waterproof materials, discusses problems a-nd solutions of a new energy-saving material of roofing water-proof insulation board in the application.%建筑屋面节能与保温防水技术的应用在房屋建设中发挥着重要的作用。文章先后分析了屋面节能材料与保温防水材料的具体运用,屋面保温节能防水材料的应用现状与发展趋势,就屋面保温防水板这一新型节能材料应用中存在的问题与解决对策进行了探讨。

  19. A new modifier for asphalt waterproof material%一种新型沥青防水材料改性剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范新宇; 孔繁和

    2001-01-01

    The influence of environmental status and process thought on asphalt waterproof material is presented.The asphalt performance is improved by means of interior preparation, exterior addition, blowing (oxdation) and dosing raw material of asphalt. The asphalt is modified by addition process of high molecule polymer. This article introduces a new asphalt madifier with main compositions of ethylene acrylate n- butyl ester and glycidyl methacrylate co- polymer. The asphalt modification is achieved through chemical reaction between the copolymer and asphalt.%介绍环境气候、工艺思路对沥青防水材料的影响 ,通过内配法、外掺法、吹制(氧化)沥青及调配沥青的原料, 达到改善沥青性能的方法;掺加高分子聚合物改性石油沥青 的方法及改性性能。较详细介绍一种新的沥青改性剂,它的主 要成份为乙烯丙烯酸正丁脂和甲基丙烯酸缩水甘油脂共聚物 ,通过与沥青之间产生化学反应达到对沥青改性的目的。

  20. Application of permeable crystalline waterproof material in Three Gorges Project%渗透结晶防水材料在三峡工程中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊

    2014-01-01

    水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料是以水泥、砂等为基料,渗入活性化学物质制成的新型防水材料。自2000年起,陆续应用于三峡工程碾压混凝土围堰和枢纽主体建筑物的表面防渗、裂缝修复等方面,是国内水电行业最早应用该类材料的大型工程。应用效果表明,裂缝内水流不能快速流动时,该材料才能析出钙质结晶填充裂缝从而达到防渗目的;渗透结晶的深度可随着水流的扩散而深入;由于该材料具有与混凝土相近的性质,未来可开发出具有防水特性的各种新型混凝土专用材料,应用前景广阔。%Cement-based permeable crystalline waterproof material is a new type of waterproof material that adopts cement and sand as base materials while incorporates other active substances. Since 2000, it had been used as surface waterproof and crack repairing for roller concrete cofferdam and main structures in the Three Gorges Project, which was the first application of this type of material in hydropower project in China. The application cases show that the material can only crystallize calcareous-crystal and play a role of waterproof when the adjacent water in crack flows slowly;the depth of permeable crystallization could be extended with dispersion process of flow;due to similar features of the material with normal concrete, several new special con-crete material with waterproof feature could be developed in future.

  1. Modification of waterproof property for foamed polystyrene grain and foaming gypsum thermal insulation material%聚苯颗粒/发泡石膏保温材料的防水性能改性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红; 高子栋

    2015-01-01

    采用掺加自制憎水性能优异的SFA防水剂和外喷甲基硅酸钠防水剂两种方式对聚苯颗粒/发泡石膏保温材料进行复合防水改性,研究了不同掺量SFA防水剂对保温材料吸水率、软化系数、密度、导热系数和绝干抗折抗压强度的影响,以及SFA防水剂最优掺量下外喷不同次数甲基硅酸钠防水剂对保温材料吸水率、软化系数的影响,并分析了其作用机理。结果表明:当SFA防水剂的掺量为16%并外喷三次甲基硅酸钠防水剂时,保温材料的各项性能明显改善,其中2h、24h吸水率分别降至40.30%、40.36%,软化系数升高至0.61。%The waterproof property of foamed polystyrene grain and foaming gypsum thermal insulation material is modified by SFA waterproof agent with good hydrophobic property and spraying methyl-sodium. The influences of SFA waterproof agent on the absorption rate, softening coefficient, density, coefficient of thermal conductivity and dry flexural, compressive strength of insulation material are investigated. Based on doping the optimum amount of SFA waterproof agent, the effects of different spraying times of methyl-sodium on the absorption rate and softening coefficient are studied, and their mechanism is also analyzed. The experimental results show that the properties of the thermal insulation material are improved obviously with doping of 16%of SFA waterproof agent and spraying methyl-sodium 3 times. The absorption rates for 2h and 24h reduce to 40.30%and 40.36%respectively and the softening coefficient rises to 0.61.

  2. 水泥基复合保温材料的防水性能研究%Study on the waterproofing properties of thermal insulation cement-based composite materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李国忠

    2015-01-01

    Polystyrene granules (EPS) for lightweight aggregate and cement for cementing material, while adding a variety of additives, were used to prepare cement-based composite thermal insulation materials by the method of vibration molding. The effects of different waterproof agent on water absorption, flexural softening resistance coefficient and strength of cement-based composite thermal insulation materials were studied contrastively by adding emulsified stearic acid and emulsified composite waterproofing agent, and the related mechanisms were analyzed. Results showed that the waterproofing effect and strengthen effect of emulsified composite waterproofing agent is superior to emulsified stearic acid, when the content of emulsified stearic acid and emulsified composite waterproofing agent are 5% and 5%, respectively, the 2h, 24h water absorption of samples are 20.59%, 47.64%and 15.53%, 34.53%, the flexural softening resistance coefficient of samples are 0.71 and 0.75, the flexural and compressive strength of samples are 0.32MPa, 0.42MPa and 0.35MPa, 0.47MPa respectively.%以聚苯乙烯颗粒(EPS)为轻骨料、水泥为胶凝材料,同时掺加多种外加剂,经振动成型制备水泥基复合保温材料,通过掺加乳化硬脂酸和乳化复合防水剂,对比研究了不同防水剂对水泥基复合保温材料吸水率、抗折软化系数和强度的影响,并对其相关作用机理进行了分析。结果表明:乳化复合防水剂的防水效果和增强效果均明显优于乳化硬脂酸,当乳化硬脂酸和乳化复合防水剂掺量分别为5%和5%时,试样的2 h、24 h吸水率分别为20.59%、47.64%和15.53%、34.53%,试样的抗折软化系数分别为0.71和0.75,试样的抗折、抗压强度分别为0.32 MPa、0.42 MPa和0.35 MPa、0.47 MPa。

  3. Grey Target Optimization of Waterproof Adhesive Material for Concrete Bridge Deck Pavement Based on Mechanical Analysis%基于力学分析的桥面铺装防水粘结层材料灰靶优选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新; 李英涛; 刘云

    2012-01-01

    为了优选与混凝土箱梁桥防水粘结层实际受力状态相匹配的材料,以沪杭高速公路拓宽改建工程高架桥为例,采用有限元法建立了全桥模型,在分析刹车、超载、随机动荷载等因素对防水粘结层力学响应的基础上,利用灰靶理论优选室内实测典型防水粘结层的相关技术参数.研究结果表明:刹车超载使防水粘结层产生的剪应力大于由桥面不平度引起的防水粘结层剪应力,最大可达0.397 MPa;橡胶沥青和SBS改性沥青防水粘结层综合性能较优,可作为混凝土桥防水粘结层材料.%In order to select the optimal waterproof adhesive material that meets the stress needs of concrete box girder bridge deck pavement, taking the viaduct in widening project of the Shanghai-Hangzhou Expressway as an example, a composite structure model of the whole bridge was established using the finite element method, and the influence of braking, overloading, random dynamic loading on the mechanical response of the waterproof adhesive layer was analyzed. The technique parameters of some typical materials for waterproof adhesive layer were tested in lab, and then analyzed by the grey target theory. The result shows that braking plus overloading has a larger effect on the shear stress of adhesive layer than the random dynamic loading caused by bridge deck roughness, and may produce a maximum shear stress of 0. 397 MPa. The rubber asphalt and SBS modified asphalt both have good performance, and can be used as the material of waterproof adhesive layer.

  4. Waterproof casts for immobilization of children's fractures and sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Elizabeth G; DiFazio, Rachel; Kasser, James; Karlin, Lawrence; Gerbino, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the efficacy of waterproof cast-lining materials in children with short-arm, long-arm, and short-leg casts. Eligible patients had healing fractures 2 weeks after reduction, stable fractures requiring no reduction, or sprains. A total of 165 waterproof-lined casts were applied and 124 children and parents completed a survey (76.9%) upon cast removal. Results revealed 79% very satisfied, 21% satisfied, and 0% dissatisfied. There were 16 (12.9%) minor skin integrity issues. Waterproof casts in stable fractures and sprains allow acceptable immobilization with no significant associated unusual risk and allow children to resume their usual recreational water activities and hygiene regimen without risk of adverse results.

  5. Pathological changes waterproof membranes and their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotný Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of waterproofing systems based on synthetic membranes, especially mPVC, there is an increase in pathological changes of these membranes. Competing manufacturers and pressure on price of the final product have resulted in usage of unstable or low quality raw materials. After production, these materials keep their specific characteristics, however, their aging is accelerated, i.e. they lose their essential qualitative characteristics very quickly. Very important is the detection of these processes which is possible using chemical analysis (gas chromatography, IR analysis and others as well as using visual inspection of surface by microscope, including 3D modeling. Very important are weldability tests which identify glass transition temperature of the material. The results can then be used as a basis for correct identification of problems with weldability, nonweldability of synthetic membranes, respectively, as well as for identification of normal or abnormal aging of these materials.

  6. 目视化管理在防水材料生产管理中的应用%Application of visual management in production management of waterproof materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋强

    2016-01-01

    防水材料生产制造行业因涉及的产品品类和产品型号多,所以对现场管理提出了很高的要求,生产现场存在原材料类型差异大、生产流程不连贯、重要管理节点多、人员分散、操作复杂等特点,规范生产现场可以提高生产效率和质量,减少生产和安全的隐患,提升管理效率。文章以防水材料生产现场的目视化管理为例,简述了如何在其生产现场进行有效的目视化管理,让生产管理透明、直观、易懂、创造良好的工作环境。%Because waterproof material production and manufacturing industry involves a number of product categories and product models, so it puts forward high demands on site management. There are many characteristics, such as raw material type is large difference, the production process is not coherent, the important management nodes are too many, the personnel are scattered, the operation is complex and so on. Regulate the production site can improve the production efficiency and quality, reduce the hidden dangers of production and safety, improve management efficiency. Taking waterproof material production field of visual management as an example, this article briefly describes how to make effective visual management in the production site, so that the production management is transparent, intuitive, straightforward and create a good working environment.

  7. Tunnel Waterproofing with Membranes Waterproofing at Senoko Cabele Tunnel in comparison with International Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefan Hotz

    2004-01-01

    Waterproofing of tunnels is and has always been a challenge, worldwide: Changing Geology with hardly predictable water inflow, limited space underground and only very little intervention opportunities once the tunnel is completed. This paper elaborates such challenges and focuses on the waterproofing solutions of mined tunnels with membranes. Different standards and approaches for the waterproofing system. In Singapore, a membrane waterproofing system is used for the shafts and adits at Senoko Cable Tunnel. The paper project specific waterproofing challenges and emphasizes on solution for them.

  8. Behavior of a New Elastomeric material used as polyolefinic geo membrane in waterproofing; Comportamiento de un nuevo material elastomerico utilizado como geomembrana poliolefinica en impermeabilizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.; Aguilar, E.; Vara, T. A; Soriano, J.; Garcia, F.; Castillo, F.

    2011-07-01

    Two decades ago that Balsas de Tenerife (BALTEN) and the Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), in its experimental field of the south of the Tenerife Island have installed a series of materials to known their behaviour over time. These products among which was placed over a dozen years ago, on an elastomeric polyolefin. This work presents the performance of this synthetic geo membrane, focusing on the evolution in the time of the tensile properties static puncture, low temperature folding, dynamic impact, joint strength (shear and peeling test), optical microscopy of reflection nd scanning electron microscopy. (Author) 11 refs.

  9. Roofing waterproof Engineering%浅谈屋面防水工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萍

    2012-01-01

      屋面防水工程是一个系统工程,若想解决防水的防渗问题,就要从工程的设计选材、施工及维修管理着手,综合管理,严格控制,以提高防水工程质量,增强防水效果,延长屋面防水使用寿命。%  roofing waterproof project is project of a system, to solve the water seepage problem, must from the engineering design material selection, construction and repair management to begin, comprehensive management, strict control, in order to improve the quality of waterproof engineering, reinforced waterproof effect, prolonging the service life of the roofing waterproof.

  10. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touchscreen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may include a small gas cartridge or may be provided from an external source.

  11. 煤田巷道防水侵水泥浆材的封堵试验%Sealing Test of Waterproof Cement Slurry Material in Coalfield Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 姚平均; 陈道元; 张相乾; 曾艳军

    2015-01-01

    井下巷道掘进仍然是地下煤炭开采的主要方式,在开采过程中必然要穿过一些断裂地层带以及无胶结的松软地层及煤层顶板上的含水层。在掘进过程中,如果处理不当,地层中的水将沿着裂缝和采空塌陷区大量进入巷道内,造成严重的透水事故,使掘进工作无法顺利进行,严重时将导致井巷的报废,甚至造成重大的人身伤亡事故。针对传统水泥浆经水侵后不凝固或被流动水稀释而完全漏失,起不到应有的封堵固化作用等问题,研制出一种防水侵水泥浆封堵材料。该水泥浆与水按1∶1的比例掺混后仍具有凝结时间快、凝结强度高等特点,可在25℃以上的温度条件下使用。在某煤矿840 m井深、120 m3/h出水量情况下进行堵水作业试验,堵水效果良好,可在类似的条件下推广应用。%Underground tunnel excavation is still the main way of coal mining, some fracture stratum zones, non cemented soft strata and aquifer on coal seam roof must be encountered in the mining process.If there is misconduct in the excava-tion, a large amount of formation water may enter along the cracks and through mined-out subsidence areas into the tunnel to cause severe flooding accident, the excavation work will be severely affected, the well lane might be abandoned and even serious personal injury accident might happen.According to the disadvantages of traditional cement slurry, a kind of water-proof has been developed, which is mixed with water at ratio of 1∶1 with rapid condensation and high condensation strength and can be used at the temperature over 25℃.This cement slurry is tested in a mine water plugging operation, the well is 840m in height with outflow of 120m3/h, good water plugging effect is received.

  12. Fractal harmonic law and waterproof/dustproof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Hai-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractal harmonic law admits that the friction between the pure water and the moving surface is the minimum when fractal dimensions of water in Angstrom scale are equal to fractal dimensions of the moving surface in micro scale. In the paper, the fractal harmonic law is applied to demonstrate the mechanism of waterproof/ dustproof. The waterproof phenomenon of goose feathers and lotus leaves is illustrated to verify our results and experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  13. 绿色环保型高性能沥青混凝土排水铺装用防水材料应用研究%Application research on the green high-performance waterproof material for asphalt concrete drainage pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冲; 冉千平; 孙德文

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces a high-performance resin-based waterproof materials for drainage pavement with asphalt con-crete,and its performance advantages as waterproof layer. Its excellent performance includes:4.07 MPa of adhesion to asphalt concrete base surface, 3.51 MPa of adhesion to the concrete surface, low temperature flexibility of up to -20℃,no impervious after 24 h under 1.8 MPa pressure, excellent abrasion resistance. It can not only achieve good compatibility between the waterproof layer with the substrate, but also avoid the economic losses due to performance deficiencies in the waterproof layer exist in the real project.%介绍了一种沥青混凝土排水铺装用的高性能树脂型防水材料以及其作为防水层所具备的性能优势.其优异性能表现在与沥青混凝土基面的粘结强度达4.07 MPa,与混凝土基面的粘结强度达3.51 MPa,低温弯折性可达-20℃,同时在1.8 MPa的压力下24 h不透水,耐磨性优良.不仅能够实现防水层与基层之间良好的相容性,同时避免了在实际工程中存在的因防水层性能缺陷带来的经济损失.

  14. Plasticized Effect of Plasticizers on CPE Waterproofing Materials%增塑剂对氯化聚乙烯防水卷材增塑效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新星; 苑会林; 李明昆

    2012-01-01

    分析了几种增塑剂[邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)、邻苯二甲酸二辛酯(DOP)、邻苯二甲酸二异癸酯(DIDP)、癸二酸二辛酯(DOS)、偏苯三甲酸三辛酯(TOTM)以及氯化石蜡等]对氯化聚乙烯(CPE)防水卷材的增塑机理.在保持其他条件不变的前提下,选取增塑剂的份数为25份,并在此基础上从力学性能、耐温性能、流变性能以及微观结构四个方面比较各种增塑剂与CPE树脂的相容性,从而比较它们的增塑效果.结果表明:DSC以及电镜结果显示邻苯类增塑剂效果明显优于其他类型增塑剂;其中DOP为主增塑剂的体系综合性能最好;DOS作为主增塑剂时具有良好的耐低温析出性;DIDP作为主增塑剂时具有耐高温析出性;氯化石蜡可作为辅助增塑剂;以上增塑剂可根据各自特点复配使用.%The plasticizing mechanism of several plasticizers (DBP, DOP, DIDP, DOS, TOTM and chlorinated paraffin wax, etc,) to the chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) waterproofing materials was studied. Keeping other conditions under the same basis, the test selected the number of copies of plasticizer as 25. On this basis test compared the compatibility of these plasticizers and the CPE resin from mechanical properties, heat resistance, rheological properties and microstructure of the four aspects, inorder to compare the difference of plasticizing effect. DSC and SEM showed that the plastic effect of phthalic acid ester plasticizer was much better than other types of plasticizer, and the plastic effect of DOP was the best. When DOS was as the main plasticizer it can provide the material better low temperature resistance ability. If DIDP was as the main plasticizer it can provide the material better high temperature resistance ability. Chlorinated paraffin wax cannot be used as main plasticizer but as auxiliary plasticizer. These plasticizers can be used together according to their characteristics.

  15. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN USED IN WATERPROOFING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria RATAJCZAK

    Full Text Available Asphalt is one of the most commonly used building material. The first attempts at modifying asphalt were made at the beginning of the twentieth century. Nowadays the most popular asphalt modifier is the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS. This thermoplastic elastomer increases the thermal resistance of bitumen, widens the range of plasticity and amends rheological properties. IR spectroscopy is by far the most common instrumental method used in analytical chemistry. The popularity of this method results from its simple measurement technique, universality and high precision. That is why IR spectroscopy applies to the analysis of polymer modified binder (PMB used in waterproofing.

  16. Suggestions on building roof waterproofing construction suggestions%建筑屋面防水施工建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海强

    2015-01-01

    从设计、材料、排水、管道四方面分析了建筑屋面出现积水、渗水以及漏水的原因,并深入探讨了建筑屋面防水施工的措施,分析了不同屋面结构防水施工的要求,以选择合理的防水技术,达到良好的防水效果。%The paper analyzes building roof ponding,seepaging and leakaging causes from four aspects of design,materials,drainage and pipe-line,explores building roof waterproofing measures,and analyzes different roof structure waterproofing construction demands,with a view to select rational waterproofing techniques and achieve good waterproofing effect as well.

  17. Experiment of the cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material on autoclaved PHC pile concrete%水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料在蒸压PHC管桩混凝土中应用的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐孟雄; 胡贺松; 杨医博; 艾立涛; 郭文瑛; 王恒昌

    2014-01-01

    The autoclaved PHC pile is widely used in the project,however the pile will easily have tiny crack in the process of produc-tion and construction.Based on the good crack repairing function of the cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material ,re-searched the influence of mixed and brushed cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material on the pile.The crack imitated by ap-ply different levels of stress in the pile concrete,and put the concrete into the air,tap water and saline water curing environment for 7 and 28 day.The results showed that mixed cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material cannot repair the crack of pile concrete , brushed cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material maybe repair the crack of pile concrete.%蒸压PHC管桩是广泛应用的一种桩基材料,然而在生产和施工中桩身容易产生微裂纹。鉴于水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料具有良好的裂缝修复能力,选用掺入型和涂刷型两种水泥基渗透结晶防水材料,通过对管桩混凝土试件施加不同应力水平的模拟裂纹,分别在空气、自来水、盐水等三种方式下养护,对比研究其对管桩混凝土裂缝的修复能力。研究结果显示,掺入型防水材料对管桩混凝土裂缝基本无修复能力,不适用于管桩混凝土,而涂刷型防水材料对管桩混凝土裂缝可能有一定修复能力。

  18. Briquetting mechanism and waterproof performance of bio-briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G.; Chen, L.; Cao, J. [Henen Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China)

    2008-07-15

    Maize stalk and bio-briquette binder made from it were studied comparatively by FTIR and the microstructure of bio-briquette was observed and analyzed by microscopy. It was found that a large amount of unreacted biomass fibers exist in the binder. These form a multi-level network structure inside the bio-briquette and could make fine coal particles connect together. The multi-level network structure would be still present after the bio-briquettes are immersed in water for 24 hours. On the other hand, stalk materials could be partly degraded after treatment and, with other liquid ingredients in the binder, the degradation products could form a viscous fluid which would work as a bonding ingredient inside the bio-briquette and could improve the waterproofing ability of the binder after solidification. Therefore, the multi-level network structure of the biomaterial and the presence of viscous fluid are very important to the shaping and the improvement of the waterproofing ability of bio-briquettes. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Pressurized waterproof case for electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    The pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for the waterproof containment and operation of a touch-screen computer or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. The case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touch-screen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may be a small gas cartridge (e.g., CO2), or may be provided from an external source, such as the diver\\'s breathing air. A pressure relief valve is also provided.

  20. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. 192.189 Section 192.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to...

  1. Waterproof camera case for intraoperative photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigosa, Mauricio; Benito-Ruiz, Jesús; Fontdevila, Joan; Ballesteros, José R

    2008-03-01

    Accurate photographic documentation has become essential in reconstructive and cosmetic surgery for both clinical and scientific purposes. Intraoperative photographs are important not only for record purposes, but also for teaching, publications, and presentations. Communication using images proves to be the superior way to persuade audiences. This article presents a simple and easy method for taking intraoperative photographs that uses a presterilized waterproof camera case. This method allows the user to take very good quality pictures with the photographic angle matching the surgeon's view, minimal interruption of the operative procedure, and minimal risk of contaminating the operative field.

  2. Fire ants self-assemble into waterproof rafts to survive floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlot, Nathan J; Tovey, Craig A; Hu, David L

    2011-05-10

    Why does a single fire ant Solenopsis invicta struggle in water, whereas a group can float effortlessly for days? We use time-lapse photography to investigate how fire ants S. invicta link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Although water repellency in nature has been previously viewed as a static material property of plant leaves and insect cuticles, we here demonstrate a self-assembled hydrophobic surface. We find that ants can considerably enhance their water repellency by linking their bodies together, a process analogous to the weaving of a waterproof fabric. We present a model for the rate of raft construction based on observations of ant trajectories atop the raft. Central to the construction process is the trapping of ants at the raft edge by their neighbors, suggesting that some "cooperative" behaviors may rely upon coercion.

  3. Fire ants self-assemble into waterproof rafts to survive floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlot, Nathan J.; Tovey, Craig A.; Hu, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Why does a single fire ant Solenopsis invicta struggle in water, whereas a group can float effortlessly for days? We use time-lapse photography to investigate how fire ants S. invicta link their bodies together to build waterproof rafts. Although water repellency in nature has been previously viewed as a static material property of plant leaves and insect cuticles, we here demonstrate a self-assembled hydrophobic surface. We find that ants can considerably enhance their water repellency by linking their bodies together, a process analogous to the weaving of a waterproof fabric. We present a model for the rate of raft construction based on observations of ant trajectories atop the raft. Central to the construction process is the trapping of ants at the raft edge by their neighbors, suggesting that some “cooperative” behaviors may rely upon coercion. PMID:21518911

  4. Sustainability Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Roof Waterproofing Methods Considering LCCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a construction project, selection of an appropriate method in the planning/design stage is very important for ensuring effective project implementation and success. Many companies have adopted the life cycle cost (LCC method, one of the methods for analyzing economic efficiency, for appropriate decision-making in the basic/detailed design stage by estimating overall costs and expenses generated over the entire project. This paper presents an LCC method for calculating the LCC of CO2 (LCCO2, based on materials committed during the lifecycle of a structure for each roof waterproofing method and adding this cost to the LCC for comparative analysis. Thus, this technique presents the LCC that includes the cost of CO2 emission. The results show that in terms of initial construction cost, asphalt waterproofing had the highest CO2 emission cost, followed by sheet waterproofing. LCCO2 did not greatly influence the initial construction cost and maintenance cost, as it is relatively smaller than the LCC. However, when the number of durable years was changed, the LCC showed some changes.

  5. Waterproof, Ultrahigh Areal-Capacitance, Wearable Supercapacitor Fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Huang, Qiyao; Niu, Liyong; Wang, Dongrui; Yan, Casey; She, Yiyi; Zheng, Zijian

    2017-02-24

    High-performance supercapacitors (SCs) are promising energy storage devices to meet the pressing demand for future wearable applications. Because the surface area of a human body is limited to 2 m(2) , the key challenge in this field is how to realize a high areal capacitance for SCs, while achieving rapid charging, good capacitive retention, flexibility, and waterproofing. To address this challenge, low-cost materials are used including multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and metallic textiles to fabricate composite fabric electrodes, in which MWCNT and RGO are alternatively vacuum-filtrated directly onto Ni-coated cotton fabrics. The composite fabric electrodes display typical electrical double layer capacitor behavior, and reach an ultrahigh areal capacitance up to 6.2 F cm(-2) at a high areal current density of 20 mA cm(-2) . All-solid-state fabric-type SC devices made with the composite fabric electrodes and water-repellent treatment can reach record-breaking performance of 2.7 F cm(-2) at 20 mA cm(-2) at the first charge-discharge cycle, 3.2 F cm(-2) after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles, zero capacitive decay after 10 000 bending tests, and 10 h continuous underwater operation. The SC devices are easy to assemble into tandem structures and integrate into garments by simple sewing.

  6. 保温隔热防水一体化的新型屋面水泥波形瓦及施工%ONE KIND OF HEAT PRESERVATION HEAT INSULATION WATERPROOFING INTEGRATION NEW ROOFING CEMENT PANTILE AND CONSTRUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 王元有

    2011-01-01

    Heat preservation heat insulation waterproofing cement pantile raw material by the cement, the thermal insulation material, the waterproof hatred water emulsion is composed.The heat preservation heat insulation waterproofing tile collection heat preservation heat insulation, the waterproofing, the light quality integration, the construction are simple, the construction time is short, the comprehensive cost is low. Construction technology included groove construction, roof tile construction, ridge tile construction and node management.%保温隔热防水的水泥波形瓦的原材料由水泥、保温材料、防水憎水乳液组成.该瓦集保温隔热、防水、轻质于一体,施工简便,施工时间短,综合成本低.施工技术包括阴槽流沟施工、屋面瓦施工、脊瓦施工和节点处理.

  7. RESEARCH AND APPLICATION OF BENTONITE WATERPROOF CARPET CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE%膨润土防水毯施工技术的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲春珑; 周卉鑫

    2011-01-01

    膨润土防水毯的国家或行业标准尚未正式颁布.在施工中针对具体情况,采用了相应的施工方法,解决了膨润土防水毯的大面积铺设、防水毯与其他防水材料的搭接、防水毯破损处的修补、施工缝及变形缝处细部构造等施工难题,收到了预期效果,形成了一套完整的专项技术.%At present, national or professional standard for bentonite waterproof carpet has not be officially issued, so relevant construction methods are adopted during the construction according to practical conditions to overcome construction difficulties, such as large laying area of bentonite waterproof carpet, overlapping between waterproof carpet and other waterproof material, repair of damaged waterproof carpet, detail construction at construction joint and deformation joint, etc. The expected effects are realized and a full set of special techniques are formed.

  8. Development of Techniques for Separating Waterproof Layer from XLPE Cable Sheath by Hot Water Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Masato; Nakade, Masahiko; Okashita, Minoru; Tanimoto, Mihoko

    Waterproof layer is used to prevent penetration of water which is one of the factors of dielectric breakdown in XLPE cables more than 66kV class. A XLPE cable sheath with waterproof layer is done landfill disposal as industrial waste because separation of waterproof layer is difficult for technology and cost. However, around 20 years passes after waterproof layer was introduced, and social consciousness for environment changes during these 20 years, and responsibility of company for environment of a society grows bigger. We report the result that examined techniques for separating waterproof layer.

  9. The Quality Control of Roof Waterproof Engineering%浅析屋面防水工程的质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪飞

    2013-01-01

    This paper in view of roofing waterproof problems expounds from the relevant control points and measures of ma-terial, design, construction, repair management, to strengthen t-he whole process quality control of roof waterproof engineeri-ng.%  本文鉴于屋面防水存在的问题从材料、设计、施工、维修管理角度阐述相关控制要点及措施,旨在加强屋面防水工程全过程的质量控制。

  10. Waterproof Technology in Underground Project of HNA International Mansion%海控国际广场地下工程防水技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢长; 李玥

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of the ground water and geological condition of HNA International Mansion, the design of waterproof for underground project is researched. A series of special requirements are indicated for building waterproof in Hainan province for its hot and moist environment. Comparing with the traditional waterproof membrane, the anti-salinization flexible waterproof material, such as CPS waterproofing membrane is decided to applied in this project. The construction process and key points for quality control of the waterproof membrane is described in detail. The product maintenance and repair measures are also introduced. The application effect is good, which proves the economy and efficiency of the material.%针对海控国际广场地下水及基坑土质情况,对其地下工程防水进行设计研究.因海南常年高温、多台风、多雨水,潮湿性较强,其建筑防水工程存在诸多特殊要求,经与传统卷材防水方案进行比对,决定使用耐盐碱的柔性防水材料——CPS反应粘防水卷材技术进行防水设计.详细介绍了此种防水卷材的施工工艺流程及施工中的主要质量控制要点,以及后期的成品养护及检查修补措施.此技术的应用效果良好,既经济又合理.

  11. Functional modification of breathable polyacrylonitrile/polyurethane/TiO2 nanofibrous membranes with robust ultraviolet resistant and waterproof performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Sheng, Junlu; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2017-12-15

    Exploiting high-added-value textiles equipped with multiple functionalities like ultraviolet (UV) resistance, waterproofness, and thermal-moisture comfort is facing tremendous demand by a more discerning consumer market. However, the major challenge is to realize the equilibrium among the multifunction. Herein, a new attempt of fabricating superhydrophobic electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/polyurethane (PU)/titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibrous membranes has been tried, and the membranes exhibited multifunction of UV resistance, waterproofness and breathability by coating modification with 2-hydroxy-4-n-octoxybenzophenone (UV531) and fluorinated acrylic copolymer (FAC). TiO2 NPs as inorganic blocker and UV531 as organic absorber were utilized to impart the excellent double UV resistant function for the modified nanofibrous membranes. The hydrophobic coating with FAC endowed the pristine membranes with enhanced superhydrophobic wettability and the advancing contact angle was 152.1°. Regulating the addition amount of TiO2 NPs, the UV531 and FAC concentration, the multiple functionalities of the modified PAN/PU/TiO2 were systemically optimized: robust tensile strength (14.6MPa), good ultraviolet protection factor of 1485, modest waterproofness (62kPa), and moisture breathability (12.9kgm(-2) d(-1)). The equilibrium among the multifunction of the as-prepared membranes indicated their diverse possibilities can be used in various applications, including high-altitude garments, protective clothing, covering materials, self-cleaning materials, and other medical products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated Flexible, Waterproof, Transparent, and Self-Powered Tactile Sensing Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-Zhou; Sun, Yi-Jing; Fan, Zhiyong; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-08-23

    Portable and wearable electronic devices are human-centered devices; therefore, many unique attributes are highly desirable, such as flexibility, being self-powered, and waterproof. These properties render devices excellent adaptivity in harsh operation environments. In this work, we report an integrated triboelectric tactile sensor array with flexible, transparent, self-powered, and waterproof features. Each tactile sensor is a surface nano/microtexture enhanced triboelectric nanogenerator. The sensor array can serve as a touch panel for electronic devices. Owing to a unique design of a built-in triboelectric contact pair and an electrical shielding layer, an individual pixel of the fabricated tactile sensor array can generate an open circuit voltage up to 1.613 V and a short circuit current density of 47.308 mA/m(2) under 612.5 kPa. The tactile sensors can produce stable voltage signals regardless of the materials of the touching objects, and work stably both in ambient and aqueous environments. To examine the touch panel function of a sensor array, a matrix of 10 × 10 individually addressable 4 mm × 4 mm triboelectric sensors has been integrated into a thin, transparent, and flexible film, and the 2-D touch mapping has been successfully demonstrated. The unique triboelectric tactile sensor array reported here is robust and highly versatile, and it may find broad applications in display, wearable electronics, artificial skins, Internet of Things (IoT), etc.

  13. Interaction between plasticized polyvinyl chloride waterproofing membrane and extruded polystyrene board, in the inverted flat roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrosa, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inverted flat roof is a constructive system widely used in flat roof construction. In this constructive solution, the insulation is placed over the waterproofing material as a protection. It is believed that this solution provides a longer life cycle; given the fact that it limits the thermal variation the waterproofing material bears up to the end of its life cycle. Consequently, the result will be providing a longer life to the waterproofing membrane. This constructive solution always incorporates polymers or other materials with a thermoplastic addition in their composition. Some polymers show interactions between them that can affect their integrity, and, at the same time, the bulk of the polymeric materials are incompatible. The extruded polystyrene board is always present in the inverted flat roof, and although it is an unbeatable product for this use, it presents incompatibilities and interactions with other materials, and these can affect their properties and therefore the durability of them.La cubierta plana invertida es un sistema constructivo muy utilizado en las cubiertas planas. En esta solución constructiva, el aislamiento se coloca sobre el material impermeabilizante a modo de protección. Se cree que esta solución proporciona un ciclo de vida más largo; dado que se limita la variación térmica de la impermeabilización hasta el final de su ciclo de vida. En consecuencia, el resultado proporciona una vida más larga a la membrana impermeable. Esta solución constructiva siempre incorpora polímeros u otros materiales con adición termoplástica en su composición. Algunos polímeros muestran interacciones entre ellos que pueden afectar a su integridad, además, la mayor parte de los materiales poliméricos son incompatibles. La plancha de poliestireno extrusionado está siempre presente en la cubierta plana invertida, y aunque es un producto inmejorable para este uso, presenta incompatibilidades e interacciones con otros

  14. Experimental Investigation and Lifetime Estimating on Non-sulfurized Chlorinate Polyethylene Waterproof Roll Material%非硫化型氯化聚乙烯(CPE)防水卷材耐热老化性能研究及寿命估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹本飞; 苑会林; 杨晋娜; 王新星; 牛萍

    2011-01-01

    This article was to research the thermal aging performance effect of Chlorcosane , Carbon black and Light quality magnesia on the Non-sulfurized chlorinate polyethylene waterproof roll material. Stretcher, TGA and Fourier transformation infrared spectrum were used to test the sample and the lifetime of the best compounding was estimated by thermal gravity analysis(TGA). The result showed that migration of plasticizer was the major factor of heat deterioration, The optimal ratio of chlorinate polyethylene was 15phr; Light quality MgO did nothing to heat stabilizer performance, and lowered the ageing-resistant performance of chlorinate polyethylene. Carbon black had the aging-resistant performance to some extent. By way of Doyle and Zsako' integral method of dynamic TG method, its heat degradation dynamic mechanism was got, and the formula was selected to analyse thermal degradation dynamically , calculate the dynamic parameters such as degradation activation energy E and frequency factor A,and the relation equation between temperature and lifetime was deduced. Due to the experimental data, its life cycie was estimated to be about 59 years.%为了研究阻燃增塑剂氯化石蜡、增强剂炭黑N330、轻质氧化镁对CPE防水卷材热老化性能的影响规律,对老化前后的试样进行拉伸、热重分析(TGA)和红外光谱分析等测试,并运用非等温动态热重分析法对最优配方的防水卷材进行寿命估算.结果表明:增塑剂迁移是CPE防水卷材热老化的主要因素,氯化石蜡的最佳用量是15份;轻质氧化镁在非硫化热塑性橡胶中没有热稳定的作用,反而降低了防水卷材耐热老化性能;炭黑N330具有防热老化的作用;运用动态热重法的Doyle和Zsako'积分法判断其老化反应机理并计算出反应活化能E和频率因子A等动力学参数,进而计算出卷材使用寿命与温度的关系.由实验数据估算,CPE防水卷材的使用寿命在59年左右.

  15. Waterproofing Underground Structures: Lessons from the Past, Systems for the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Smith

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes some of the key issues that need to be addressed in the design and execution of underground structures to ensure their long term suitability as watertight units and outlines through practical examples of structures that have not achieved their design requirements which situations need to be considered. Waterproofing is not an exact science but a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical experience based on the five key factors: Environment, Design, Materials, Application and Use of the Structure.In conclusion the paper outlines the advances in crack control to date that can provide the necessary long term guarantees.The adoption of re - injectable crack inducers permitted the Client to save over 10% on construction costs and reduced the construction time by six months.

  16. Application of natural sodium base bentonite waterproof blanket in artificial lake (Longzi Lake) project%天然钠基膨润土防水毯在人工湖(龙子湖)工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷松; 谢长福

    2015-01-01

    Natural sodium base bentonite waterproof blanket belongs to a novel geosynthetic waterproof material. In the paper, application condition of natural sodium base bentonite waterproof blanket in artificial lake ( Longzi Lake ) is expounded. Meanwhile, waterproof blanket anti-seepage technology is compared with traditional anti-seepage technology. Practice proves that natural sodium base bentonite waterproof blanket has wider application prospect than traditional anti-seepage technology.%天然钠基膨润土防水毯是一种新型的土工合成防水材料。本文详细阐述了在人工湖(龙子湖)的湖体防渗中应用天然钠基膨润土防水毯的情况,同时将防水毯防渗技术与传统的防渗技术进行对比。实践证明,天然钠基膨润土防水毯防渗技术比传统的防渗技术具有更广阔的应用前景。

  17. The fatty acyl-CoA reductase Waterproof mediates airway clearance in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Martin H J; Pflanz, Ralf; Riedel, Dietmar; Kawelke, Steffen; Feussner, Ivo; Schuh, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The transition from a liquid to a gas filled tubular network is the prerequisite for normal function of vertebrate lungs and invertebrate tracheal systems. However, the mechanisms underlying the process of gas filling remain obscure. Here we show that waterproof, encoding a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), is essential for the gas filling of the tracheal tubes during Drosophila embryogenesis, and does not affect branch network formation or key tracheal maturation processes. However, electron microscopic analysis reveals that in waterproof mutant embryos the formation of the outermost tracheal cuticle sublayer, the envelope, is disrupted and the hydrophobic tracheal coating is damaged. Genetic and gain-of-function experiments indicate a non-cell-autonomous waterproof function for the beginning of the tracheal gas filling process. Interestingly, Waterproof reduces very long chain fatty acids of 24 and 26 carbon atoms to fatty alcohols. Thus, we propose that Waterproof plays a key role in tracheal gas filling by providing very long chain fatty alcohols that serve as potential substrates for wax ester synthesis or related hydrophobic substances that ultimately coat the inner lining of the trachea. The hydrophobicity in turn reduces the tensile strength of the liquid inside the trachea, leading to the formation of a gas bubble, the focal point for subsequent gas filling. Waterproof represents the first enzyme described to date that is necessary for tracheal gas filling without affecting branch morphology. Considering its conservation throughout evolution, Waterproof orthologues may play a similar role in the vertebrate lung.

  18. 地下防水工程设计探讨%Discussion on the Design of Underground Waterproof Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛秉亮

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous development of the urban construction and a reducing number of resi-dential land,the longitudinal development of underground space has become the direction of the development of modern architectures,and the design of the underground parking garage becomes indispensable to residential district.Meanwhile,the waterproof design of underground engineering is more outstanding,and it has become a vital part of the whole project.The quality of the water-proof engineering is related to the safety and durability of buildings directly.Based on the design of underground parking garage,points for attention of the design of underground waterproof engi-neering and the selection of materials as well as technologies have been expounded emphatically in this paper.%随着城市建设的不断发展及住宅用地资源的日益紧张,地下空间的纵向发展已成为现代建筑的发展方向,相应的地下停车库的设计成为居住小区必不可少的配套设施。而地下工程防水设计比较突出,成为整个项目的重要部分。本文以地下停车库的设计为依托,着重阐述地下工程防水设计中应注意的事项以及对材料、技术构造的选择。地下防水工程的优劣,直接关系到建筑本身的安全性、耐久性。

  19. Waterproofed photomultiplier tube assemblies for the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Ken [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cummings, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Edwards, Emily [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Edwards, William [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ely, Ry [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hoff, Matthew [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lebanowski, Logan [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Li, Bo; Li, Piyi [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Lin, Shih-Kai [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Liu, Dawei [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Liu, Jinchang [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China); Luk, Kam-Biu, E-mail: k_luk@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Miao, Jiayuan [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Napolitano, Jim [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States); Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Peng, Jen-Chieh [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Qi, Ming [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210000 (China); and others

    2015-09-11

    In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.

  20. Waterproofed Photomultiplier Tube Assemblies for the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Ken; Edwards, Emily; Edwards, William; Ely, Ry; Hoff, Matthew; Lebanowski, Logan; Li, Bo; Li, Piyi; Lin, Shih-Kai; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Jinchang; Luk, Kam-Biu; Miao, Jiayuan; Napolitano, Jim; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Qi, Ming; Steiner, Herbert; Stoler, Paul; Stuart, Mary; Wang, Lingyu; Yang, Changgen; Zhong, Weili

    2015-01-01

    In the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment 960 20-cm-diameter waterproof photomultiplier tubes are used to instrument three water pools as Cherenkov detectors for detecting cosmic-ray muons. Of these 960 photomultiplier tubes, 341 are recycled from the MACRO experiment. A systematic program was undertaken to refurbish them as waterproof assemblies. In the context of passing the water leakage check, a success rate better than 97% was achieved. Details of the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and performance of these waterproofed photomultiplier-tube assemblies are presented.

  1. New generation waterproofing materials containing vollastonite-basedantigidron system Гидроизоляционные материалы нового поколения на основе волластонитового комплекса «Антигидрон»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezrukov Aleksey Vladimirovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Major penetrating waterproofing mixtures represent dry mixtures of cement and sand having admixtures, or systems of mineral salts, used to block the structure of capillaries and pores of cement mortars and concretes. Thin layers of waterproofing mortars are applied to sufficiently porous surfaces. As a result, the water content is reduced in the course of hardening. This process causes contraction and cracks in the coating.The findings of the research performed by the authors have proven that waterproofing materials containing wollastonite-based Antigidron system comply with each basic requirement applicable to penetrating waterproofing materials, as their admixtures penetrate into the concrete to seal concrete pores and to generate insoluble crystals.The new Antigidron system has the following strengths. Each component of the proposed system is made in Russia. It has efficient operating properties, and its cost is1.5 — 2 times lower than the one of similar products.Гидроизоляционные смеси проникающего действия — это, как правило, цементно-песчаные сухие растворные смеси, содержащие в качестве добавок систему минеральных солей, обеспечивающих блокирование капиллярнопоровой структуры цементных растворов и бетонов. Гидроизоляционные растворы наносятся тонким слоем на достаточно пористое основание. В результате при твердении происходит снижение влажности. Это вызывает усадку и образование трещин в покрытии.

  2. Condensation of Water Vapor on Waterproof Breathable Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小红; 王善元; 袁观洛

    2003-01-01

    Condensation occurs when the local vapor pressure rises above the saturation vapor pressure at the local temperature in theory. A new measuring apparatus were made to obtain temperature and relative humidity simultaneously for the purpose of investigating the mechanism of condensation occurred on the fabrics. The experiment conducted at the standard condition of temperature of 20°C and relative humidity of 65%. The result obtained from experiment showed that condensation could occur under the situation closed to saturation line as the temperature on fabric may be lower than dew point of water vapor in the measuring box depending on the experiment conducted at an ambient environment temperature of 20℃. The range of fabrics studied showed that PTFE laminated fabrics except nylon gingham PTFE laminated fabric facilitates the loss of water vapor and therefore prevent condensation. It is necessary to develop studies from a wide range of fabrics, especially breathable fabrics and under bad experiment condition in order to develop fabrics,which could eliminate condensation, or transport water vapor through the fabric while remaining waterproof.

  3. TECHNOLOGY AND EFFICIENT USE OF PEAT ASH IN MASTICS FOR WATERPROOFING OF BRIDGE AND TUNNEL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Lyahevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective method for protection of  bridges and tunnels against aggressive water action is surface waterproofing on the basis of an organo-mineral binder. Its structural strength can be increased by introduction of particles which are similar to the size of  asphaltenes and an elasticity of disperse medium has been increased due to introduction of polymers. These theoretical suppositions point out the possibility for simultaneous provision of flexibility at low temperatures and high heat resistance for mastics on the basis  of organo-mineral binders. In this regard a goal has been set to obtain a mastic high flexibility and high heat resistance  while using finely divided activated peat ash.Rubber crushed in accordance with ТУ (Technical Specifications 38.108035–87,  divinyl-styrene thermoelastoplast DСT-30Р-20ПС,  bitumen of grade 20/30 in accordance with СТБ ЕН 12591–2010, ash from burning peat at the Lida Peat Briquette Plant, multi-purpose industrial oil of solvent refining with high viscosity index, super-plasticizer – sodium salt which is a condensation product of aromatic carbon sulfo-oxidation with formaldehyde and neutralization with the help of sodium hydroxide (type 1 have been used in order to obtain the stated objective. While using these materials compositions and technology for preparation of organo-mineral mastics have been developed in the paper. Their tests have shown that a modification of finely divided  mastics carried out with the help of peat ash which is activated by super-plasticizer НСПКСАУсФ-1, various polymer additives, contributes to an increase in their heat resistance, elasticity, water resistance, and also allows to control their technological and operational characteristics. The paper has experimentally confirmed that peat ash can be successfully used for preparation of high-quality waterproofing mastics which are so necessary for  protection of bridge and tunnel

  4. Moisture-resistant TPS Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed NASA Phase I SBIR will generate closed-cell foam thermal protection system materials which do not need waterproofing, and which can be applied as a...

  5. Natural and artificial ageing for evaluating waterproofing treatments for marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mecchi, Anna María

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of samples to artificial ageing is commonly carried out to test the durability of natural and artificial stones and the effectiveness of products used for their conservation. Correlations between artificial and natural ageing, however, are not always well understood mainly because the former can only try to simulate, in a faster but simplified way, the effects of the many causes interacting ín natural environments. In the present study, marble samples from Carrara and Proconnesion quarries, were treated with four waterproofing products (or mixtures of products and exposed to artificial ageing while an analogous set was exposed outdoor, in the town center of Rome for two years. Several physical parameters were measured before and after the ageing and the experimental results enabled us to compare the effects produced by the different types of ageing and to estimate the correlations between them. As for the durability of the tested waterproofing products, the two systems are in good agreement even if two years of natural ageing resulted to be slightly more severe than 33 days of exposure to saline fog, to UV radiation and to wetting-drying cycles.

    La exposición de muestras a envejecimiento artificial se lleva a cabo comúnmente para chequear la duración de las piedras naturales y artificiales y la eficacia de los productos usados para su cuidado. Las correlaciones entre el envejecimiento artificial y natural, sin embargo, no siempre se entienden bien principalmente porque el envejecimiento trata de simular, de una manera rápida pero sencilla, los efectos de las muchas causas que actúan en el ambiente natural. En este estudio, muestras de mármol de las canteras de Carrara y Proconnesio, han sido tratadas con cuatro productos o mezclas de productos, para su impermeabilización y expuestos a envejecimiento artificial. Mientras, un juego análogo de piedras se exponía al exterior en el centro de la ciudad de Roma, por un

  6. [Acute alveolitis after using a waterproofing aerosol: apropos of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Gabrielle, L; Paquin, M L; Descotes, J

    1998-04-01

    Waterproofing sprays for leather clothing have seldom been involved in severe accidents. In some circumstances, their pulmonary toxicity is marked, as shown by two case reports and a review of the literature. Acute alveolitis is described in two young adults without previous respiratory illness, following the use of a waterproofing spray for leather clothing. Clinical features typical of a flu-like reaction (malaise, fever and chills) were associated with dyspnea and with hemoptysis in one patient. X-ray examination evidenced lesional edema which quickly resolved after symptomatic treatment. The toxic mechanism is debated, but experimental data and clinical findings suggest the causative role of recently introduced fluoropolymers. Waterproofing sprays for leather clothing may induce severe respiratory illness after massive inhalation in confined area. Treatment is supportive.

  7. Optimization study on waterproofing coal and rock pillar between two working faces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Liu; Xue-Zhou Chai; Jing-Sheng Li [Xi' an University of Science and Technology. Xi' an (China). School of Energy Engineering

    2009-02-15

    The routine method of designing the width of waterproofing coal and rock pillar between two working faces leads to the coal pillar size being too large and is wasteful of coal resources. The omission in this method of replacing the width of failure area by the displaced mass influence area was pointed out. A formula of coal pillar failure area width is given for waterproofing coal and rock design. It is recommended that coal pillars and rock pillars should be calculated separately first. The design method was corrected by replacing the width of failure area by the displaced mass influence area. This reduces the design width of coal pillars and optimizes the whole process of waterproof coal and rock pillars design. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The Construction of Roof Waterproof%浅谈屋面防水施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    There are great influences of roof waterproof qua-lity on the service life of construction, the poor roof waterproof wil seriously affect the daily life of the people. The roof sho-uld meet the durable, waterproof, thermal insulation, heat ins-ulation, fire and resist the bad influence of various functional requirements. The service life of roofing construction quality is good or bad, is directly related to the building. According to the author's working practice, this paper discusses the const-ruction technology of waterproof roof in detail.%  屋面防水的质量对建筑工程的使用寿命有很大的影响,粗劣的屋面防水必然会严重影响人们的日常生活。屋面应满足坚固耐久、防水、保温、隔热、防火和抵御各种不良影响的功能要求。屋面施工质量的好坏、优劣直接关系到建筑物的使用寿命。本文根据笔者的工作实践,对屋面防水施工技术进行了详细的阐述。

  9. Survey of cochlear implant user satisfaction with the Neptune™ waterproof sound processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J. Briaire

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A multi-center self-assessment survey was conducted to evaluate patient satisfaction with the Advanced Bionics Neptune™ waterproof sound processor used with the AquaMic™ totally submersible microphone. Subjective satisfaction with the different Neptune™ wearing options, comfort, ease of use, sound quality and use of the processor in a range of active and water related situations were assessed for 23 adults and 73 children, using an online and paper based questionnaire. Upgraded subjects compared their previous processor to the Neptune™. The Neptune™ was most popular for use in general sports and in the pool. Subjects were satisfied with the sound quality of the sound processor outside and under water and following submersion. Seventyeight percent of subjects rated waterproofness as being very useful and 83% of the newly implanted subjects selected waterproofness as one of the reasons why they chose the Neptune™ processor. Providing a waterproof sound processor is considered by cochlear implant recipients to be useful and important and is a factor in their processor choice. Subjects reported that they were satisfied with the Neptune™ sound quality, ease of use and different wearing options.

  10. Waterproofing with polymeric geo synthetic barriers (GBR-P) in the manual for the design, construction, management and maintenance of reservoirs; La impermeabilizacion con barreras geosinteticas polimericas (GBR-P) en el manual para el diseno, construccion, explotacion y mantenimiento de balsas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.; Cea, J. C.; Garcia, F.; Sanchez, F. J.; Castillo, F.; Mora, J.; Crespo, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a part of Manual for the Design, Construction, Management and Maintenance of Reservoirs relative to waterproofing with Polymeric Geo synthetic Barriers (GBR-P). the nature materials of geo membranes is studied also theirs characteristics and specifications. (Author) 26 refs.

  11. Research Progress and Application of Thermo-sensitive Waterproof and Moisture Permeable Polyurethane%温敏型防水透湿聚氨酯的研究进展及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宁; 李冰; 律微波; 李金辉; 彭丹

    2014-01-01

    温敏型防水透湿聚氨酯为当前智能高分子材料研究的热点之一。介绍了该类聚氨酯的结构和温敏特性,介绍了温敏型防水透湿聚氨酯的研究进展,并对其在纺织、医疗、食品包装等领域的应用前景进行了概述。%Thermo-sensitive waterproof and moisture permeable polyurethane is one of the hotspots in current research on intelligent polymer materials. In this paper, the structure and thermo-sensitive characteristics of this polyurethane were summarized, research progress of thermo-sensitive waterproof and moisture permeable polyurethane was introduced, and its application prospect in textile, medical, food packaging and other fields was described.

  12. 基于防腐考虑的TPO防水施工技术%TPO Waterproof Construction Technology Based on the Anti-corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜斌; 江涛; 汪绍元; 吴卓; 张爽

    2015-01-01

    在地下防水施工过程中,由于土壤被污染,普通防水材料容易被有机物腐蚀溶解,无法满足直接接触二氯乙烷等环境的防水要求。结合北京某住宅项目工程实例,探索TPO防水材料在特殊环境中的应用,并总结出了其技术特点及应用要点,介绍了TPO防水卷材具体施工工艺流程及关键节点做法,取得良好的经济和环保效益。%During the construction of the underground waterproof engineering, it is found that ordinary building waterproof materials can be corroded easily, the construction can’ t meet the requirements for the direct contact with the dichloromethane( CH2 Cl2 ) because of the soil contamination. Combining with the engineering example of some residential buildings in Beijing, this paper explores the TPO system application in the particular environment, and summarizes the characteristics for the technical and the application of the TPO system. Moreover, it introduces the construction process and key joints structure of TPO system, then good economic and environmental benefits are achieved.

  13. Waterproofing in Arabidopsis: Following phenolics and lipids in situ by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batirtze ePrats Mateu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waterproofing of the aerial organs of plants imposed a big evolutionary step during the colonization of the terrestrial environment. The main plant polymers responsible of water repelling are lipids and lignin, which play also important roles in the protection against biotic/abiotic stresses, regulation of flux of gases and solutes and mechanical stability against negative pressure, among others. While the lipids, non-polymerized cuticular waxes together with the polymerized cutin, protect the outer surface, lignin is confined to the secondary cell wall within mechanical important tissues. In the present work a micro cross-section of the stem of Arabidopsis thaliana was used to track in situ the distribution of these non-carbohydrate polymers by Confocal Raman Microscopy. Raman hyperspectral imaging gives a molecular fingerprint of the native waterproofing tissues and cells with diffraction limited spatial resolution (~300 nm at relatively high speed and without any tedious sample preparation. Lipids and lignified tissues as well as their effect on water content was directly visualized by integrating the 1299 cm-1, 1600 cm-1 and 3400 cm-1 band, respectively. For detailed insights into compositional changes of these polymers vertex component analysis was performed on selected sample positions. Changes have been elucidated in the composition of lignin within the lignified tissues and between interfascicular fibers and xylem vessels. Hydrophobising changes were revealed from the epidermal layer to the cuticle as well as a change in the aromatic composition within the cuticle of trichomes. To verify Raman signatures of different waterproofing polymers additionally Raman spectra of the cuticle and cutin monomer from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum as well as aromatic model polymers (milled wood lignin and dehydrogenation polymer of coniferyl alcohol and phenolic acids were acquired. Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, lignin, cutin, wax, Raman

  14. Waterproofing in Arabidopsis: Following phenolics and lipids in situ by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats Mateu, Batirtze; Hauser, Marie-Theres; Heredia, Antonio; Gierlinger, Notburga

    2016-02-01

    Waterproofing of the aerial organs of plants imposed a big evolutionary step during the colonization of the terrestrial environment. The main plant polymers responsible of water repelling are lipids and lignin, which play also important roles in the protection against biotic/abiotic stresses, regulation of flux of gases and solutes and mechanical stability against negative pressure, among others. While the lipids, non-polymerized cuticular waxes together with the polymerized cutin, protect the outer surface, lignin is confined to the secondary cell wall within mechanical important tissues. In the present work a micro cross-section of the stem of Arabidopsis thaliana was used to track in situ the distribution of these non-carbohydrate polymers by Confocal Raman Microscopy. Raman hyperspectral imaging gives a molecular fingerprint of the native waterproofing tissues and cells with diffraction limited spatial resolution (~300 nm) at relatively high speed and without any tedious sample preparation. Lipids and lignified tissues as well as their effect on water content was directly visualized by integrating the 1299 cm-1, 1600 cm-1 and 3400 cm-1 band, respectively. For detailed insights into compositional changes of these polymers vertex component analysis was performed on selected sample positions. Changes have been elucidated in the composition of lignin within the lignified tissues and between interfascicular fibers and xylem vessels. Hydrophobising changes were revealed from the epidermal layer to the cuticle as well as a change in the aromatic composition within the cuticle of trichomes. To verify Raman signatures of different waterproofing polymers additionally Raman spectra of the cuticle and cutin monomer from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as well as aromatic model polymers (milled wood lignin and dehydrogenation polymer of coniferyl alcohol) and phenolic acids were acquired. Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana, lignin, cutin, wax, Raman, cuticle, waterproofing

  15. TECHNOLOGY AND EFFICIENT USE OF PEAT ASH IN MASTICS FOR WATERPROOFING OF BRIDGE AND TUNNEL STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    G. D. Lyahevich; A. G. Lyahevich; Agababa Rangraz Alireza Najib; A. A. Dalidovskaya

    2015-01-01

    A prospective method for protection of  bridges and tunnels against aggressive water action is surface waterproofing on the basis of an organo-mineral binder. Its structural strength can be increased by introduction of particles which are similar to the size of  asphaltenes and an elasticity of disperse medium has been increased due to introduction of polymers. These theoretical suppositions point out the possibility for simultaneous provision of flexibility at low temperatures and high heat ...

  16. Durability assessment of concrete bridge deck considering waterproof membrane and epoxy-coated reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Konečný

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of waterproof membrane and steel reinforcement protection on the concrete bridge deck is modeled. The attention is paid to the durability prediction related to steel reinforcement corrosion initiation based on the chloride penetration. Thus 2-D finite element chloride ingress model is applied. The transient finite element model serves to solve Fick's second diffusion law using the computer tool compatible with the Matlab environment. The model focuses on the transport of chloride ions through a reinforced concrete bridge deck with and without the effect of waterproof membrane and on an estimate of the concentration of chlorides at the reinforcement level or in places with damage to the epoxide coating of the reinforcement. The model allows the incorporation of damage to the waterproof insulation under the asphalt coating. The time to chloride induced onset of corrosion is predicted and results are compared. The effect of water proof membrane reinforcement protection strategy typical for Central Europe and epoxy-coating protection widely used in North-Western United States is evaluated.

  17. The Application of Waterproofing Membrane in Automotive Interior Acoustic Environment%新型防水膜在汽车内饰声学环境中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田佳平; 梁鹏; 高玉香; 潘萍萍

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce noise of automotive interior acoustic environment, based on acoustic properties of laminated materials and waterproofing membrane material characteristics, adopting spot test data, combined with interior design experience, acoustic performance, cost and operational characteristic of waterproofing membrane materials and combination lining materials of three main doors are contrasted. The results indicated that waterproofing membrane of X-PE materials meets the design requirements. It shows good effect in sound insulation and sound absorption. High rigidity materials can improve the efficiency of sound insulation in composite materials. It provides reference for new materials used in function expansion of door trim pieces.%为降低汽车内饰声学环境的噪声,依据层复合材料的声学特性与防水膜材料特点,采用现场实测数据,结合内饰设计工作经验,对3种主流车门防水膜材料及其组合内衬材料的声学性能、成本及使用特性进行对比,结果表明,XPE材料防水膜满足设计要求,吸声和隔声效果良好,在层复合材料中,刚性高的材料能提高隔声效果。为新型材料用于车门内饰件功能扩展方面的设计提供了参考。

  18. Experimental study of CT test on the failure of acrylate spray-applied waterproof layer in the groundwater environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this study the computerized tomography (CT) was first used to quantitatively analyze the failure of acrylate spray-applied waterproof membrane in the groundwater environment. The results of the CT tests show that it is feasible to use the CT to quantitatively analyze the failure of the waterproof membrane and the CT method has the advantages of speediness and accuracy that can eliminate the fussy operation process in routine tests. The main conclusions summarized from the study are as follows. First, there are two combined-indexes that can be used to decide the failure of the spray-on waterproof layer: one is that the reduced percentage of the CT number of the spray-on waterproof layer is less than 40.0% and the other is that the variance of the CT number decreases first and then increases. Second, the applicability for the spray-on waterproof layer in the groundwater environment is the SO 24-concentration ≤ 1%, the Cl-concentration ≤ 7.5% and the pH value ≤ 12.0 of the groundwater, respectively.

  19. 纳米材料拒水织物加工技术及应用%Technology and Application of Nanomaterials in Waterproof Fabric Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党美娟; 林娜; 王飞龙

    2011-01-01

    Application of nanomaterials in waterproof fabric production was summarized. Principle of applying nanomaterials in surface waterproof fabric were researched, characterization of nanomaterial was introduced as well as fabric water repellency test index, method of doing fabric water repellency for nanomaterials, applications at home and a-broad. It is considered that advantages of nano water repellence materials in both materials manufacture process and function application are obviously. It is pointed out that research of nano water repellence materials should be strengthened, agglomeration phenomenon of nanomaterials in applications and its effect on human body should be paid attention to specially.%概述纳米材料在拒水织物生产中的应用情况.探究了纳米材料应用于表面拒水性织物的机理,介绍了纳米材料的表征方法、织物拒水性测试指标及纳米材料进行织物拒水整理加工的方法和国内外应用状况.认为:不论是从材料的加工过程,还是功能性应用方面,纳米拒水材料都具有明显优势,并指出应加强纳米拒水材料的研究,着重关注纳米材料在应用中的团聚现象及时人体的影响.

  20. Industrialization of the Protective Layer for Waterproof Roof%屋面防水保护层轻质、工业化生产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继文

    2014-01-01

    Most of the protective layer chosen for the waterproof layer is the fine stone concrete protection layer in wet oper -ation.To reduce the deformation caused by the temperature difference of the structural disadvantages , used in the process of repair and trouble , the construction speed is slow , the seasonal construction conditions , but also bring hidden trouble of quality and not the economy .In the development of science and technology today , along with the construction technology and the progress of the material science , if taken in light , high-strength material roof panel , can achieve the purpose of pro-tecting the waterproof layer , but also can solve the repair , hidden quality problems caused wet construction .Discuss the ad-vantages and disadvantages of this paper is through the use of light plate , thus roof waterproof protection layer of light , the plate to be popularized .%在现在在建工程中,大多数防水保护层主要还是采取湿作业的细石砼保护层。对降低屋面温度、降低温差引起的结构变形不利,使用过程中的维修带来很大麻烦,施工速度慢,在季节性施工条件下,还会带来质量隐患而且不经济。在科学技术大发展的今天,随着施工技术和材料科学的进步,如果采取轻质、高强成品材料屋面板,既可以达到保护防水层的目的,又可以解决湿作业施工带来的维修、质量隐患方面的问题。本文就是通过轻质板使用的利与弊的讨论,从而使屋面防水保护层轻质、板块化得以推广。

  1. Full recovery of Arundo donax particleboard from swelling test without waterproofing additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Antonio Flores-Yepes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of particleboard based on common reed, reproducing the industry standard manufacturing process applied to wood chipboard. One of the main properties of the resulting board was its resistance to water, due to the hydrophobic properties of the common reed, despite there being no incorporation of melamine or any other waterproofing additive. The boards that were developed were analyzed using 2 mm and 4 mm sieves for fibre selection, a manufacturing pressure of 3 N/mm2 and 25 N/mm2, and a volume of urea formaldehyde resin content ranging from 5.2% to 13% (8 to 20% liquid format. Standard destructive tests were performed. It was found that under certain applied conditions, namely high pressure and adequate resin proportion (a pressure of over 3 N/mm2 and over 15% liquid resin, Arundo donax L. particleboard demonstrated full recovery from the swelling test. This finding highlights an unmatched property in terms of recovery from the swelling test of the designed board. This property confers a interesting property to be used in high humidity environments without the need for special resin or waterproofing process.

  2. Robust Fluorine-Free Superhydrophobic Amino-Silicone Oil/SiO2 Modification of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Membranes for Waterproof-Breathable Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Junlu; Xu, Yue; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2017-05-03

    Superhydrophobic waterproof-breathable membranes have attracted considerable interest owing to their multifunctional applications in self-cleaning, anti-icing, anticorrosion, outdoor tents, and protective clothing. Despite the researches pertaning to the construction of superhydrophobic functional membranes by nanoparticle finishing have increased drastically, the disconnected particle component is easy to fall off from the membranes under deformation and wear conditions, which has restricted their wide use in practice. Here, robust superhydrophobic microporous membranes were prepared via a facile and environmentally friendly strategy by dip-coating amino-silicone oil (ASO) onto the electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes, followed by SiO2 nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) blade coating. Compared with hydrophilic PAN membranes, the modified membranes exhibited superhydrophobic surface with an advancing water contact angle up to 156°, after introducing ASO as low surface energy substance and SiO2 NPs as filler to reduce the pore size and construct the multihierarchical rough structure. Varying the concentrations of ASO and SiO2 NPs systematically, the PAN electrospun membranes modified with 1 wt % ASO and 0.1 wt % SiO2 NPs were endowed with good water-resistance (74.3 kPa), relative low thermal conductivity (0.0028 W m(-1) K(-1)), modest vapor permeability (11.4 kg m(-2) d(-1)), and air permeability (20.5 mm s(-1)). Besides, the inorganic-organic hybrid coating of ASO/SiO2 NPs could maintain its superhydrophobicity even after 40 abrasion cycles. The resulting membranes were found to resist variations on the pH scale from 0 to 12, and retained their water repellent properties when exposed to harsh acidic and alkali conditions. This facile fabrication of durable fluorine-free superhydrophobic membranes simultaneous with good waterproof-breathable performance provides the advantages for potential applications in self-cleaning materials and versatile protective clothing.

  3. the Research Progress of Water-Proofing Gypsum Block%石膏砌块耐水性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丹; 杨林; 曹建新

    2009-01-01

    Owing to gypsum block's disadvantage of poor water-proofing, the paper summarized some methods which can improve gypsum block's disadvantage by looking up lots of literatures. The results showed that there were mainly three methods: one was adding the activated pozzolana to gypsum; the other was adding organic water repellents; thirdly, the two materials (the activated pozzolana and organic water repellents) were added to gypsum at some rate. The first method was the most economical. If the gypsum block could be water-proofing only by adding the activated pozzolana, the prospect would be broad.%石膏砌块具有耐水性差的缺点,从而限制其使用领域.基于这一问题,文章总结了目前耐水石膏砌块处理技术的研究进展,其中采用在建筑石膏中掺入有机防水剂与活性火山灰质等材料制备耐水石膏砌块的方法具有防水效果好、强度高的优点.但是成本较单独掺活性火山质材料高,并且还存在石膏掺量低、制备工艺复杂等不足,若能在建筑石膏中只掺入活性火山灰质等材料,同时提高石膏掺量制备耐水石膏砌块,该制备技术的应用前景将更为广阔.

  4. Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Xiao, Jianliang; Kim, Bong Hoon; Park, Sang-Il; Panilaitis, Bruce; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Yao, Jimin; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhuangjian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Kim, Dae Gon; Le, An-Phong; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Huang, Yonggang; Kang, Zhan; Rogers, John A.

    2010-11-01

    Inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors represent important, established technologies for solid-state lighting, digital imaging and many other applications. Eliminating mechanical and geometrical design constraints imposed by the supporting semiconductor wafers can enable alternative uses in areas such as biomedicine and robotics. Here we describe systems that consist of arrays of interconnected, ultrathin inorganic light-emitting diodes and photodetectors configured in mechanically optimized layouts on unusual substrates. Light-emitting sutures, implantable sheets and illuminated plasmonic crystals that are compatible with complete immersion in biofluids illustrate the suitability of these technologies for use in biomedicine. Waterproof optical-proximity-sensor tapes capable of conformal integration on curved surfaces of gloves and thin, refractive-index monitors wrapped on tubing for intravenous delivery systems demonstrate possibilities in robotics and clinical medicine. These and related systems may create important, unconventional opportunities for optoelectronic devices.

  5. 防水鞋面革和防水变色革的水性涂饰%Aqueous Finishing of Waterproof Shoe Upper Leathers and Waterproof Pull-ups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hartmut Huber

    2009-01-01

    详细介绍了防水鞋面革和防水变色革的涂饰方法,包括坯革的准备、粘合层、底涂、顶涂过程中产品的选择和过程参数的确定,以及涂饰过程中的注意事项.%The finishing technology of waterproof shoe upper leathers and waterproof pull-ups were introduced in detail,in-cluding preparation of crust,products choice and process parameters of adhesion coating,base coating and top finishing,as well as the key problems in the finishing process.

  6. 掺澎内传 PNC-803的防水混凝土在工程中的应用%On application of penetron admix PNC-803 waterproof concrete in projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴鲜英

    2015-01-01

    From the main features of materials,the paper illustrates the main features of penetron admix PNC-803,illustrates its waterproof mechanism,analyzes from the construction methods to economic effects according to engineering cases,and proves the waterproof effect and eco-nomic benefits have advantages,so as to extend its application in projects.%从材料的主要特性入手,阐述了澎内传PNC-803的主要特性,并进一步阐述了它的防水机理,然后附以工程实例,从施工方法到工程实体效果及经济效果进行了分析,证明在防水效果与经济效益方面确实有很大的优势,值得在工程项目中推广。

  7. APPLICATION OF POLYETHYLENE FOAM PLASTIC SHEET IN WATERPROOF PROTECTION LAYER%聚乙烯泡沫塑料片材在防水保护层中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文良

    2011-01-01

    新型聚乙烯泡沫塑料片材防水保护层区别于传统材料,既可满足图集和施工要求,又可大大降低成本.在某工程地下室防水保护层施工中采用了横向粘贴方法,并与其他保护层进行技术经济对比分析,提出了实践过程中需探讨的几个问题.%The waterproof protection layer made of new polyethylene foam plastic sheet is different from traditional material. It can not only satisfy the drawing collection and construction requirements, but also reduce the cost greatly. During the construction of basement waterproof layer in this engineering, transverse sticking method is adopted, technical and economic comparison and analysis are made with other protective layer. Finally, several problems which shall be discussed in practice are put forward.

  8. 广州地铁车站暗挖隧道防水施工技术%Waterproofing Construction Technology for Subsurface- excavated Tunnel of Guangzhou Metro Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝和意

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:隧道工程防水施工历来是隧道施工的难点与重点.而防排水施工的成功与否,直接关系到隧道工程的质量及使用寿命.特别是地铁车站暗挖隧道其防水施工的难度更大,对工程质量和施工安全影响重大.因此,对地铁暗挖隧道的防水施工关键技术进行研究,确保隧道工程质量、使用寿命和运营安全就显得尤为重要.本文以广州地铁车站暗挖隧道防水施工为例,对地铁车站暗挖隧道防水施工关键技术进行探讨分析.研究结论:暗挖隧道防水施工成败的关键在于选择合理的防水施工体系.本隧道防水施工采取全包防水方式即以结构自防水为主,外防水(附加防水)为辅的施工方案,重点抓好结构自防水混凝土施工质量,关键处理好施工缝、变形缝、穿墙管、结构预留孔等薄弱环节的防水质量,使隧道防水施工取得了良好的效果,保证了隧道工程质量和施工安全.%Research purposes: Tunnel waterproofing construction is always a difficult and crucial work in construction of tunnel.The waterproofing quality of tunnel directly influences the tunnel construction quality and the tunnel service life.The waterproofing engineering of metro subsurface - excavated tunnel is more difficult, and its engineering quality has more influence on the tunnel construction quality and safety.So it is very important to do the research on the waterproofing construction technology for metro subsurface- excavated tunnel to guarantee the construction quality,service life and operational safety of tunnel.This paper discusses and anlyzes the key waterproofing construction technologies for the subsurface -excavated tunnel of Guangzhou metro station.Research conclusions:Whether the waterproofing construction system is reasonable or not is crucial to the waterproofing construction of the subsurface - excavated tunnel.The full waterproofing way was adopted to this tunnel.That was to take

  9. Ovarian dual oxidase (Duox) activity is essential for insect eggshell hardening and waterproofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Felipe A; Gandara, Ana Caroline P; Queiroz-Barros, Fernanda G; Oliveira, Raquel L L; Sorgine, Marcos H F; Braz, Glória R C; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2013-12-06

    In insects, eggshell hardening involves cross-linking of chorion proteins via their tyrosine residues. This process is catalyzed by peroxidases at the expense of H2O2 and confers physical and biological protection to the developing embryo. Here, working with Rhodnius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease, we show that an ovary dual oxidase (Duox), a NADPH oxidase, is the source of the H2O2 that supports dityrosine-mediated protein cross-linking and eggshell hardening. RNAi silencing of Duox activity decreased H2O2 generation followed by a failure in embryo development caused by a reduced resistance to water loss, which, in turn, caused embryos to dry out following oviposition. Phenotypes of Duox-silenced eggs were reversed by incubation in a water-saturated atmosphere, simultaneous silencing of the Duox and catalase genes, or H2O2 injection into the female hemocoel. Taken together, our results show that Duox-generated H2O2 fuels egg chorion hardening and that this process plays an essential role during eggshell waterproofing.

  10. Transparent, self-cleaning and waterproof surfaces with tunable micro/nano dual-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yujin; You, Eun-Ah; Ha, Young-Geun

    2016-09-01

    The rational design and facile fabrication of optically transparent, superhydrophobic surfaces can advance their versatile applications, including optoelectronic devices. For the easily accessible and scalable preparation of transparent, superhydrophobic surfaces, various coating methods using a solution-process have been developed. However, obtaining highly transparent, non-wetting surfaces with excellent properties is challenging due to the difficulty in controlling surface roughness. Here, we report on a novel approach to control the surface roughness by fabricating tailorable micro/nano dual-scale surface structures via solution-processed nanoparticle coating. The surface roughness was able to be controlled by micro/nano dual-scale structures that can be manipulated by varying the mixture ratio of two different sizes of Al2O3 nanoparticles. The controllable micro/nano dual-scale structures were optimized to achieve the superior surface properties in both hydrophobicity and transparency, exhibiting a high water contact angle (>160°), low sliding angle (90%). These characteristics allowed an excellent transparency and self-cleaning capability as well as a superior waterproof ability even under applied voltage. Furthermore, we demonstrated the versatile applicability of the developed surface-coating method to a wide range of substrates including glass, paper, fabrics, and even flexible plastics.

  11. 雨虹外墙防水保温一体化外墙外保温系统%Exterior insulation and waterproof integration system of oriental Yuhong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋明宇; 刘晓斌

    2014-01-01

    北京东方雨虹防水技术股份有限公司结合多年建筑防水及外保温施工经验,在总结EPS板薄抹灰外墙保温做法的基础上研发出防水保温一体化的雨虹外墙防水保温一体化外墙外保温系统,本文介绍该系统的构造性能及施工方法。%Beijing Oriental Yuhong Waterproof Technology Co.,combined with years of building waterproofing and insulation construction experience,on the basis of EPS thin plaster external wall insulation practices,developed the exterior insulation and waterproof integration system,this article describes the structure of the system performance and construction methods.

  12. Visible ns-pulse laser oscillation in Pr-doped double-clad structured waterproof fluoride glass fibre with SESAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Kajikawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A visible Q-switched pulse train at 639 nm was successfully generated in a Pr-doped double-clad structured waterproof fluoride glass fibre with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. The slope efficiency was calculated as 36.3%. The pulse duration and the radio frequency were measured as 270 ns and 107 kHz at 596 mW of absorbed power, respectively. The pulse energy and the pulse peak power were calculated as 1.32 μJ and 4.87 W, respectively.

  13. 关于隧道防水技术的探讨%Discussion on the Tunnel Waterproof Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂凯良

    2013-01-01

    地铁隧道的防水处理不好,将造成隧道漏水、渗水,其结果是引起隧道内各种设备机能降低、失效,加速衬砌劣化,减少隧道使用寿命,增加维修费用,尤其在寒冷地区,漏、渗水会使路面结冰或形成冰棱,在衬砌表面形成冰柱,直接影响行车安全。本文结合工程实例探讨了地铁隧道防水工程的施工技术。%The bad subway tunnel waterproof processing will cause the tunnel leakage, water seepage, the result will make the equipment function reduce and lose efficacy, accelerate the lining cracking, reduce the service life of the tunnel, and increase maintenance costs, especially in cold areas, water seepage can make the road be icy, and form ice, and form icicles in the lining surface, it directly influences the train operation safety. Combined with engineering example, the paper discusses the construction technology of waterproof engineering of metro tunnel.

  14. Disccusion on Waterproofing and Draining Design of Railway Tunnel in Severe Cold and Cold Regions%寒冷及严寒地区铁路隧道防排水设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国伟

    2013-01-01

    研究目的:我国寒冷及严寒地区已建成的隧道存在渗漏水影响造成的仰拱翻浆冒泥、衬砌开裂、底鼓甚至侵限等一系列病害.通过对东北地区既有铁路隧道防排水技术现状及运营维护状况进行的调研,分析严寒及寒冷地区防排水设计、施工和运营中存在的问题,指出防排水设计技术需要不断提升水平,从而简化运营维护及保证行车安全.研究结论:结合拟建及在建隧道的防排水设计、施工中存在的实际问题以及新工艺、新材料的实用,总结出保温水沟、中心深埋水沟、防寒泄水洞以及保温盲沟等保温排水的设计应优先采用新型保温材料,减少施工工序以及减低施工难度,以充分解决寒冷及严寒地区隧道的冻害问题.%Research purposes; The water leakage has happened to the tunnel in the severe cold and cold regions, resulting in a series of the disasters, such as rising soil of the inverted arch, lining cracking, heaving floor and even invasion of limitation. Based on investigation and analysis of the current situation of the waterproofing and draining technologies and current maintenance situation of the existing the railway tunnels in the Northeast China, the analysis of the problems in design, construction and maintenance of the waterproofing and draining facilities was made and it was proposed that the waterproofing and draining technologies could be continuously improved to simplify the operation and maintenance and ensure the traffic safety. Research conclusions; Combining with the real problems in design and construction of the waterproofing and draining facilities for the planned tunnel and the tunnel under construction and the application of the new technologies and new materials, it is proposed that the new type heat insulating material should be used for the heat insulating ditch, central deep buried ditch, cold - proof weepage hole and heat insulating blind ditch to reduce

  15. Effects of bituminous layer as backfill material on mechanical behavior in tunnel model

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Takano, Shin-ei; Urata, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Takaki

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of bituminous material as a backfill material on mechanical behavior in model tunnel in laboratory. It is known that load spreading and relaxation of bituminous material are good properties. Then if we use bituminous material as a backfill material of tunnel, the tunnel will have waterproof, good load spreading property. We used new bituminous material (Aquaphalt) which can solidify in water. We conducted relaxation test in tension for new bituminous mat...

  16. Use of high resolution images of orbital surface of waterproofing with different levels of urban land: case Irati-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Costa de Oliveira Filho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to present a detailed diagnosis for use and occupation of urban land aimed at different levels of sealing, in a downtownIrati area of 14 blocks, totaling 0.23 km2, from the Quickbird satellite images with spatial resolution of 0.60 m, by the method of interpretation and vectorization on the screen followed by classification. The area occupied by the classes that represent the highest level of waterproof is 33,218% of the total study area, since the area occupied by classes representing less impermeable level is 22,488% of the same area. The results show that the study area is well sealed.

  17. Analysis of the use of waterproofing treatments on copings and cornices in preservation of the brickwork heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Camino Olea

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the historic buildings built with face brick tile it is very common to have copings and cornices of soldier or header course, made with the same brick as the facade and these bricks are usually more deteriorated than the rest of the facade. The cause of the deterioration is the action of the water combined with dirt, vegetation, and other moisture-related causes. One of the possible systems to conserve and protect these elements is by projecting a water repellent. This article will present the results of tests conducted on laboratory specimens formed by low brick walls with and without the application of a waterproofing treatment, finished off at the top part by a sloping course also of brick.

  18. Stretchable and Waterproof Self-Charging Power System for Harvesting Energy from Diverse Deformation and Powering Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Xiaofeng; Niu, Simiao; Li, Shengming; Liao, Qingliang; Xu, Youlong; You, Zheng; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-07-26

    A soft, stretchable, and fully enclosed self-charging power system is developed by seamlessly combining a stretchable triboelectric nanogenerator with stretchable supercapacitors, which can be subject to and harvest energy from almost all kinds of large-degree deformation due to its fully soft structure. The power system is washable and waterproof owing to its fully enclosed structure and hydrophobic property of its exterior surface. The power system can be worn on the human body to effectively scavenge energy from various kinds of human motion, and it is demonstrated that the wearable power source is able to drive an electronic watch. This work provides a feasible approach to design stretchable, wearable power sources and electronics.

  19. Discussion on Technical Requirements and Methods in Underground Waterproof Engineering Construction%浅谈地下防水工程施工的技术要求和方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 唐玉东

    2011-01-01

    The underground waterproof project generally includes waterproofing of concrete waterproofing, cement mortar, painting, plastic sheeting,and metal plates and so on. This paper analyzes the technical points of the construction of underground waterproof works from this perspective.%地下防水工程一般包括防水混凝土防水、水泥砂浆防水、卷材防水、涂料防水、塑料板防水、金属板防水等.本文从这个角度出发,对地下防水工程施工的技术要点进行了分析.

  20. Construction method of foam glass thermal insulation material in sloping roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longwei; Bu, Fangming; Guo, Fenglu; Zhang, Zimeng

    2017-04-01

    Foam glass thermal insulation board has the characteristics of fireproof, waterproof, corrosion resistant, noncombustible, mothproof, non-toxic, non-aging, non-radioactive, high mechanical strength and good dimensional stability. Foam glass thermal insulation material in sloping roof construction method is an effective solution to large angle sloping roof construction operation difficulties.

  1. 智能防水透湿聚氨酯研究进展%Development of Shape Memory Polyurethane on Intelligent Waterproof and Water Vapour Permeable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮玲; 于伟东

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍了实现形状记忆聚氨酯( SMPU)的智能透湿机理,综述了SMPU在智能透湿性方面的研究进展及智能防水透湿膜和织物研究中存在的问题,提出了研究开发具有创新功能的智能防水透湿织物是未来纺织工业发展的趋势。%The mechanism of waterproof and water vapor permeable of shape memory polyurethane was brief in⁃troduced. The research progress of shape memory polyurethane(SMPU) in intelligent water vapor permeability and problem which existed in membrane and fabrics of smart waterproof breathable were summerized. The research of in⁃telligent water proof and breathable fabrics with innovation function was the trend of textiles in the future.

  2. 软土基坑隔水帷幕渗漏检测技术%Leakage Detection in Waterproof Curtain of Soft Soil Foundation Pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆生; 韩凯; 刘涛; 高镇

    2016-01-01

    隔水帷幕渗漏是影响软土基坑稳定性的关键问题。针对隔水帷幕渗漏检测技术,开展了数值模拟和物理模型试验,深入研究了不同采集装置类型三维电阻率法和探地雷达法对渗漏异常的反映能力及在探测剖面上表现出来的异常特征,给出了判断帷幕是否渗漏和确定渗漏点位置的解释方法。结果表明:温纳装置、偶极装置和温纳施龙贝格装置都能有效反映渗漏点的存在;降水后帷幕未发生渗漏时,与基坑外侧软土含水层相比,内侧软土层电阻率表现为高阻异常;帷幕渗漏后基坑内侧底部软土层电阻率降低,外侧电阻率升高,并呈现漏斗状异常,两侧低阻异常与帷幕的交叉点可正确指示渗漏点位置;帷幕发生渗漏后,基于基坑外侧的探地雷达探测剖面中会出现双曲型反射波同相轴,通过其顶点可确定渗漏点的位置。研究结果证实了两种地球物理手段开展软土基坑隔水帷幕渗漏检测的可行性。%The leakage of waterproof curtain is a serious problem for the stability of soft soil foundation pit. In respect of the leakage detection methods of waterproof curtain, the numerical simulation and indoor physical model test were performed to verify the ability to determine the leakage position of the three different arrays of 3D resistivity methods and GPR method,and to discuss the anomaly characteristics in detecting profile.At the same time,the judgment of whether the waterproof curtain leak or not and the interpretation method of leakage position were also made.The research shows that:the resistivity method can reflect the existence of leakage position effectively by Wenner array,dipole-dipole array,and Wenner-Schlumberger array;it reveals high resistivity of soil inside foundation pit compared with that of outside the foundation pit without leakage of waterproof curtain;on the contrary,the resistivity will decrease at the

  3. A composite construction material that solidifies in water

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Fukai, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Mikio

    1990-01-01

    A flexible, waterproof material that will solidify in water has long been desired in civil engineering. We have developed a new class of material, called Aquaphalt, which has these and other desirable properties. Aquaphalt is composed of an asphalt emulsion, cement and a water-absorbing polymer. The components are liquid at ambient temperature and can therefore be pumped, but they form a gel almost instantly when mixed. The hardened mixture is similar to hard bitumen, and has very low water p...

  4. 防水材料环保标准解读%Interpretation of environmental standards for waterproofing materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶林标; 王翠芬

    2010-01-01

    介绍了防水卷材、防水涂料及刚性防水材料环境标志产品技术要求标准的制定背景、必要性和可行性;对该3项标准的适用范围以及主要的技术内容进行了解读.

  5. Design and development of outdoor intelligent waterproof clothes-drying device%室外智能防风雨晾衣装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永; 林诗怡; 黄鉴昆; 李安然

    2013-01-01

    The design and development process of outdoor intelligent waterproof clothes-drying device is introduced in this paper. The device will control DC motor to shrink the clothes rod and delay control electromagnet to lay down the waterproof along the groove in the aluminum profiles when it has rain or snow,even other odious weather.Through commanding the DC motor to spin the rope winding stick and raise the waterproof,then stretch the clothes rod when the weather becomes good.It can be operated manually to raise the waterproof and take back the clothes when it meets the situation like the power shortage or other breakdown of mechanical control.The mechatronics device has simple structure,convenient operation and good market prospects.%设计研制一种智能防雨晾衣装置,当遇到雨雪等恶劣天气时,该装置先控制伸缩衣杆的收缩,再由电磁铁延迟加电让遮雨布沿着铝型材内的导槽自动放下;而当天气晴朗时,可驱动绕绳杆将遮雨布收起后伸展晾衣杆。遇到电源失电或者其它故障时则可手动卷起遮雨布收回衣物。该装置结构简单,操纵便捷,具有较好的市场应用前景。

  6. 氟硅树脂石膏防水剂的制备与应用%Application and preparation of water-proofing fluorin silicon gypsum additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红; 李国忠

    2011-01-01

    以有机氟﹑有机硅以及(甲基)丙烯酸酯为原料,采用溶液聚合的方法制备了氟硅树脂防水剂,探讨了软硬单体配比、反应温度和单体投入方式对防水剂性能的影响,确定了工艺参数。研究了此防水剂对石膏试样耐水性能的影响。试验结果表明:该氟硅树脂石膏防水剂对石膏试样的短期防水性能具有显著改善,但长期使用时,防水性能有一定程度的削弱。%Organic fluorine,organic silicon,and(methyl) acrylate are used to prepare a water-proofing gypsum additive which is a fluorosilicon resin by liquor polymerization method.Effects of soft hard monomer ratio,reaction temperature and the introducing model of monomers on the properties of the waterproofing additive are discussed,and the process parameters are determined.Experiment shows that the early waterproofing performance of gypsum samples with the additive is significantly improved,but the water resistance is weakened to a certain extent for a long time.

  7. Construction Control Method for Waterproof and Drainage of Highway Tunnel%公路隧道防排水施工控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷永刚

    2014-01-01

    隧道施工期间防排水施工不达标,对于隧道后期运营以及隧道使用寿命存在很大的影响,且进行防排水处理难度大、费用高,效果差.以米仓山隧道为例,介绍了公路隧道防排水施工方法,铺设PVC复合土工布防水板工艺、排水管道施工等,希望对相关领域工程设计与施工实践等起到一定的借鉴作用.%The non-compliance waterproof and drainage system during tunnel construction would be a huge threat to operation and the service life of the tunnel.Besides,it will increase the difficulties and costs for repairing,and normally will receive poor effect.Taking Micangshan Tunnel as an example,this paper introduces the highway tunnel waterproof and drainage construction,PVC composite geotextile waterproof board technology,drainage pipeline construction,etc.Hopefully,it may provide some reference to related engineering design and construction practice.

  8. The preparation of waterproof luminous coated fabric and its properties%夜光涂层拒水织物的制备及其性能∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴仁芬; 葛明桥

    2015-01-01

    Have a water repellent finish on fabric by using fluoride from water and organic silicon from agent re-spectively setting the concentration at 30 g/L firstly,and then coated with luminous materials.Discuss the influ-ence of two different repellent finishing agents on the coated fabric’s fastness,luminous property,washing prop-erty,waterproof property,moisture permeation property,breathability property and surface morphology.The results show that luminous coated fabric has no water repellent finish was better at fastness luminance and moisture permeation than that has,but show worse at washing,water resistance and breathability.Luminous coated fabric that has be finshed by organic silicon from agent was better at fastness,luminance,washing and moisture permeation than that has be finshed by fluoride from water,but do worse at water resistance and breathability.%采用30 g/L的含氟和有机硅拒水剂分别对织物先进行拒水整理,再对拒水整理的织物进行夜光涂层,讨论两种不同拒水剂整理对夜光涂层织物的牢度性能、发光性能、耐水洗性能、防水透湿透气性能以及表面形态的影响。结果显示,未经拒水整理的夜光涂层织物的牢度、发光性能和透湿性比经拒水整理的要好,但是耐水洗、透气性和拒水性能要差;有机硅拒水剂整理的夜光涂层织物的牢度、发光性能、耐水洗性和透湿性均比含氟拒水剂整理的要好,但是透气性和拒水性均不如含氟拒水剂整理的夜光涂层织物。

  9. Preparation and application of gypsum block waterproofing agent%石膏砌块防水剂的制备与应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红; 李国忠

    2012-01-01

    选用自由基溶液聚合的方式合成氟硅改性丙烯酸酯树脂,加入固化剂制得双组分石膏砌块防水剂。研究了有机硅功能单体、有机氟功能单体对防水剂憎水性能的改性效果,探讨了功能单体的作用机理。分别选用外涂和内掺的方法将制得的防水剂用于石膏砌块试样中,研究其对石膏砌块试样的抗折、抗压强度、吸水率以及软化系数的影响。试验结果表明:外涂防水剂的方法可明显降低石膏砌块试样浸水2h的吸水率;内掺防水剂的方法对石膏砌块试样的浸水2h、24h吸水率均有了一定程度的改善,其24h软化系数为0.71,达到防潮石膏砌块的标准要求。%A kind of gypsum block waterproofing agent is introduced, which is made of fluorine silicon modified acrylate resin and hardener. The modification effect of organic silicon and organic fluorine monomers on the water resistant of the waterproofing agent is researched. The waterproofing agent is respectively applied on gypsum block samples by coating or doping method. Effects of the agent on flexural strength, compressive strength and water absorption of gypsum block samples are studied. The experimental results show that the water absorption of gypsum block sample coated with waterproofing agent in water for 2h is significantly reduced; and the water absorption of gypsum block sample added waterproofing agent in water for 2h and 24h is also reduced, which softening coefficient reaches 0.71 for 24h, and fulfills the standard requirement of moisture resistant gypsum blocks.

  10. AnaIysis of performance and microstructure of waterproof and anti-crack phosphorus sIag mortar%磷渣砂防水抗裂砂浆的性能及显微结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林; 刘亚明; 张冰; 左健; 周坤; 刘秀伟

    2015-01-01

    Performance and micro-structure of waterproof and anti-crack phosphorus slag mortar were explored,and the mineral composition,microstructure and pore size distribution of phosphorus slag mortarˊs hardening body were studied by the means of XRD, SEM and Physical Adsorption Instrument. The results show that with the content of waterproof agent increasing,water retention,the orig-inal tensile bond strength and soaking the tensile bond strength increase and ratio of compressive strength to flexural,compressive strength and water permeability reduce. With the content of redispersion emulsoid powder decreasing,compressive strength,soaking the tensile bond strength and ratio of compressive strength to flexural reduce,and water retention,water permeability,and original tensile bond strength increase. The main mineral composition of hydration and hardening of the mortar are silica,hydrated calcium silicate,cal-cium hydroxide and wollastonite. With hydration time extending,active material of fly ash and phosphorus slag powder react with calci-um hydroxide to generate massive hydrated calcium silicate gel. These hydrated calcium silicate fill the gap between fine aggregate,thus the specific surface area and bore diameter of the slurry decrease,and the performance of phosphorus slag mortar(smaple M3)meet re-spectively the technical requirements of M10 waterproof mortar in JG/T 230—2007 and the anti-crack mortar in JGJ 253—2011.%考察了常用添加剂对磷渣砂防水抗裂浆性能的影响,并结合XRD、SEM及物理吸附仪等测试技术分析了磷渣砂浆水化硬化体的矿物组成,微观形貌及孔径分布。试验结果表明:提高防水剂掺量可使砂浆的保水性,原拉伸黏结强度以及浸水拉伸黏结强度增大,而压折比,抗压强度与透水性却降低。减小可再分散乳胶粉的掺量可使砂浆的抗压强度,浸水拉伸黏结强度及压折比减小,而保水性,透水性及原拉伸黏结强度增加。

  11. Discuss the Fire Elevator Waterproof Measures%浅谈消防电梯防水的措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉茂

    2014-01-01

    高层建筑已成为城市建筑的主要选择,超过一定规模的建筑,按照现行规范的规定一定要设置消防电梯。本文从消防电梯的重要性着手,分析消防电梯不防水的原因及危害,有针对性地提出应对方法,确保消防电梯在关键时候不“罢工”。%High-rise buildings have become the main choice of urban buildings. In excess of a certain size of city con-struction buildings, where must set the fire elevator on the basis of the regulation of current specification. This article starts from the importance of fire elevator, analyzes the cause and damage of the fire lift with no waterproof, and ensures the fire elevator does not"strike"in the right time.

  12. Encapsulated, High-Performance, Stretchable Array of Stacked Planar Micro-Supercapacitors as Waterproof Wearable Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungjun; Yoon, Jangyeol; Lee, Geumbee; Paik, Seung-Ho; Choi, Gukgwon; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Beop-Min; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-06-29

    We report the fabrication of an encapsulated, high-performance, stretchable array of stacked planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) as a wearable energy storage device for waterproof applications. A pair of planar all-solid-state MSCs with spray-coated multiwalled carbon nanotube electrodes and a drop-cast UV-patternable ion-gel electrolyte was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate film using serial connection to increase the operation voltage of the MSC. Additionally, multiple MSCs could be vertically stacked with parallel connections to increase both the total capacitance and the areal capacitance owing to the use of a solid-state patterned electrolyte. The overall device of five parallel-connected stacked MSCs, a microlight-emitting diode (μ-LED), and a switch was encapsulated in thin Ecoflex film so that the capacitance remained at 82% of its initial value even after 4 d in water; the μ-LED was lit without noticeable decrease in brightness under deformation including bending and stretching. Furthermore, an Ecoflex encapsulated oximeter wound around a finger was operated using the stored energy of the MSC array attached to the hand (even in water) to give information on arterial pulse rate and oxygen saturation in the blood. This study suggests potential applications of our encapsulated MSC array in wearable energy storage devices especially in water.

  13. 浅谈铁路隧道防水施工技术%On Waterproof Construction Technology of Railway Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟

    2014-01-01

    铁路一直都是我国重要的交通运输方式之一,在铁路施工的过程中,隧道防水就是工程质量好坏与否的关键点。本文就铁路隧道防水施工技术的意义和基本的防水施工工艺方法进行了简要的分析,阐述了我国铁路隧道渗漏水的主要原因及应对措施。%Railway has always been one of China's important transportation way, and in the process of railway construction, tunnel waterproof is the key point of engineering quality. This paper makes a brief analysis on the significance of the waterpr- oof construction technique of railway tunnel and basic wate- rproof construction technology and method, elaborates the ma- in reason and countermeasures of railway tunnels water leak- age infiltration in China.

  14. 无纺布对海底隧道衬砌防水作用的试验研究%Test study of waterproof effect of nonwoven fabrics on subsea tunnel lining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭忠盛; 李健; 卓越; 张鹏

    2012-01-01

    As a common waterproof material used in tunnel construction, nonwoven fabrics are widely used as a cushion in the waterproof layer. But the water pressure and structure stress distribution mechanism after using it hasn't been studied thoroughly. Through the research of Xiang'an subsea tunnel, the effect of nonwoven fabrics has been studied with different proof-drainage patterns; i.e. whole block, block combined with drainage and drainage modes. The primary research method adopted is simulated model test with proportional scale of 1:38.88. Its test apparatus can apply both soil pressure and water pressure at the same time. According to the model test, the conclusion is as follow: under whether whole block or limited drainage condition, nonwoven fabrics have a good Junction of water collection and absorption; the nonwoven fabrics can strengthen the water fluxility and complementarity around the lining to make the water pressure distribution on it more well and also improve the stress condition around the lining structure.%采用无纺布作为防水层中的垫层,是国内外隧道工程中结构外层防水常用的措施,但对于无纺布如何改善隧道衬砌背后水压力分布及结构应力分布却一直缺乏相应研究.依托厦门翔安海底隧道,对不同防排水方式(即全封堵、堵排结合及排放方式)的隧道衬砌无纺布作用进行研究,采用相似模型试验方法,模型试验的比例尺为1∶38.88,试验台架可同时施加土压力和水压力.通过模型试验得出结论:无论在全封堵条件还是限排条件下,无纺布均起到很好的集水、附水的作用,加强了水在衬砌四周的流动性、相互补给性,使衬砌周围的水压分布更为均匀,并且改善了衬砌结构周边的应力环境.

  15. 浅谈监理在建筑防水工程中的主要监控措施%The Main Control Measures of the Supervision of Building Waterproofing Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兵

    2014-01-01

    Building waterproof technology plays a functional role in protection of housing construction, That the housing construction can ensure al parts to be not subjected to various water leakage is directly related to the use of housing function, quality of life of owners and living environment. This paper di-scussed some supervision measures of quality control of wate-rproof engineering including basement waterproof, floor wat-erproof and building surface waterproof.%建筑防水技术在房屋建筑中发挥功能保障作用,房屋建筑所有部位能否保证免受各种水的侵入而不渗漏,直接关系到房屋的使用功能、生活质量和人居环境。本文着重谈了监理对地下室防水工程、屋面防水和楼面防水质量控制的一些监理措施。

  16. Mechanical Retention and Waterproof Properties of Bacterial Cellulose-Reinforced Thermoplastic Starch Biocomposites Modified with Sodium Hexametaphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-wei Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The waterproof and strength retention properties of bacterial cellulose (BC-reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS resins were successfully improved by reacting with sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP. After modification with SHMP, the tensile strength (σf and impact strength (Is values of initial and conditioned BC-reinforced TPS, modified with varying amounts of SHMP(TPS100BC0.02SHMPx, and their blends with poly(lactic acid((TPS100BC0.02SHMPx75PLA25 specimens improved significantly and reached a maximal value as SHMP content approached 10 parts per hundred parts of TPS resin (phr, while their moisture content and elongation at break (ɛf was reduced to a minimal value as SHMP contents approached 10 phr. The  σf, Is and ɛf retention values of a (TPS100BC0.02SHMP1075PLA25 specimen conditioned for 56 days are 52%, 50% and 3 times its initial σf, Is and ɛf values, respectively, which are 32.5 times, 8.9 times and 40% of those of a corresponding conditioned TPS100BC0.02 specimen, respectively. As evidenced by FTIR analyses of TPS100BC0.02SHMPx specimens, hydroxyl groups of TPS100BC0.02 resins were successfully reacted with the phosphate groups of SHMP molecules. New melting endotherms and diffraction peaks of VH-type crystals were found on DSC thermograms and WAXD patterns of TPS or TPS100BC0.02 specimens conditioned for 7 days, while no new melting endotherm or diffraction peak was found for TPS100BC0.02SHMPx and/or (TPS100BC0.02SHMPx75PLA25 specimens conditioned for less than 14 and 28 days, respectively.

  17. Research on waterproofness of expanded perlite thermal insulation mortar%膨胀珍珠岩保温砂浆防水性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长伟; 马世方; 陈勇; 曾伟

    2015-01-01

    Hydrophobe modified expangded perlite were prepared by soaking method. The change law of water absorption,compressive strength and dry density of perlite thermal insulation mortar were investigated by the change of mass-volume concentration and the ad-dition of waterproof agent,basing on the modification of expanded perlite. The results show that the water absorption of perlite can be decreased from 290%to 90%when the surface of expanded perlite is modified by silicone water-proofing agent. With the decreasing of mass-volume concentration,the water absorption of perlite insulation mortar increases,the compressive strength and dry density de-crease.The water absorption of perlite insulation mortar can be decreased further by adding water-proofing agent for perlite,supposing the optimal mass-volume concentration is selected.%采用浸泡法制得了憎水剂改性膨胀珍珠岩,以此为基础,通过调整质体比和加入防水剂,研究了膨胀珍珠岩保温砂浆吸水率、强度和干密度的变化规律。试验结果表明:通过有机硅憎水剂对膨胀珍珠岩表面改性,可以把珍珠岩的吸水率从290%降低到90%;随着质体比的减小,砂浆的吸水率增大,强度和干密度减小;在选择最优质体比的基础上,加入珍珠岩专用防水剂,可进一步降低膨胀珍珠岩保温砂浆的吸水率。

  18. 一种新型防水剂的性能研究%Performance of new-kind water-proofing additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈尔卜; 李遵云; 李顺凯; 屠柳青

    2015-01-01

    A new kind water-proofing additive can fundamentally prevent water absorption through the capillary pore and keep chlorine ion out of the concrete structure,so as to prevent reinforcement corrosion.This paper studies the performance of the new-kind water-proofing additive,including the influence on both mortar and concrete;Takes the lead to use the British Standard to evaluate the water absorption rate of concrete;Furthermore,it compares it with the same-kind similar foreign products.The new-kind water-proofing additive can improve 7 d and 28 d compressive strength and the anti-permeability of both mortar and concrete in case of no changing the working performance.%该新型防水剂产品能从根本上解决混凝土中毛细孔吸水问题,防止混凝土结构被氯离子渗透,从而防止钢筋锈蚀。对该防水剂的性能进行测试研究,综合测试其对砂浆和混凝土相关性能的影响;率先采用英国标准评价混凝土吸水率;并比对该新型防水剂与某国外同类成熟产品的相关性能。该防水剂对混凝土和砂浆的7 d和28 d抗压强度均有良好的增益效果,在不改变工作性能的情况下,能有效改善混凝土和砂浆的抗渗能力。

  19. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Scott R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Efird, Marty [VeloxFlow, LLC

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  20. TEST AND ANALYSIS ON FACTORS AFFECTING COMBUSTION PERFORMANCE OF HEAT INSULATION MATERIAL%影响保温材料燃烧性能因素试验与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段恺; 费慧慧; 张丽; 赵莹

    2011-01-01

    Combustion performance test of polystyrene foam boards EPS and XPS is carried out by covering ethylene propylene terpolymer waterproof sheet and SBS modified asphalt waterproof coiled material respectively, to obtain the factors affecting the combustion performance of polystyrene foam material, whose combustion performance is completely different from that covered with ethylene propylene terpolymer waterproof material or SBS modified asphalt waterproof coiled material. After test and analysis, it is suggested to reasonably select and use organic and efficient heat insulation material on building to improve the fire resistance of heat insulating building.%通过对聚苯乙烯泡沫材料板EPS和XPS分别覆盖三元乙丙橡胶防水片材和SBS改性沥青防水卷材试件进行燃烧性能试验,得到影响聚苯乙烯泡沫材料燃烧性能的因素,与覆盖三元乙丙橡胶防水材料或SBS改性沥青防水卷材所产生的燃烧结果是不同的.经试验分析,为提高保温隔热建筑的防火性能,建议在建筑上合理选择使用有机高效保温材料.

  1. Waterproofing Design for Shield Tunnels on High-Speed Railways%高速铁路盾构隧道防水设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓朝辉

    2013-01-01

    根据高速铁路的运营养护特点,在广深港高速铁路狮子洋隧道设计过程中提出了盾构管片接缝防水采用双道密封与分区隔断的防水技术方案.文章针对弹性密封垫防水特点,分析了弹性密封垫及分区防水的关键技术参数,并针对弹性密封垫的正常工作状态,提出了接缝的错台量、张开量及施工期沟槽修补要求.%Considering the characteristics of operation and maintenance of high-speed railways, an option featuring a double seal and partition separation was adopted in the waterproofing design for the segment joint in the Shiziyang Tunnel on the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hongkong high-speed railway. The key technical parameters of an elastic seal gasket and partition separation are analyzed in regard to waterproofing, and the requirements for joint staggering, joint opening, and groove repair during construction are addressed.

  2. Waterproof Fire Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer; Stjernfelt, Frederik; Østergaard, Svend

    2006-01-01

    of Fauconnier & Turner’s theory of conceptual integration, which historically is a reelaboration of Lakoff & Johnson’s theory of metaphor.    The first section sums up two classical approaches in the analysis of nominal compounds; it comments on their inadequacies, and how these have been assessed by Fauconnier...

  3. Waterproof Fire Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer; Stjernfelt, Frederik; Østergaard, Svend

    2006-01-01

    The paper develops a characterization of nominal compounds. The analysis is carried out on frame-schematic and construction-grammatical grounds.  It rests on assumptions about cognitive processing long since known within cognitive linguistics, but it criticizes certain linguistic applications of ...

  4. Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drchalová

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor paints on glass concrete substrates. All the Karlocolor paints are found to be very effective materials for driven rain protection. The diffusion properties of all the paints are found to be excellent.

  5. Synthesis of new water expandable waterproofing sealant and its application%新型水膨胀防水密封胶的合成与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文君

    2009-01-01

    重点阐述了一种新型水膨胀防水密封胶的合成,包括丙烯酸类专用吸水树脂的组成配方和合成过程,以及以氯丁胶为主的基体胶料的选择;扼要介绍了该水膨胀防水密封胶的工程应用.%The article focuses on synthesis of a new water ex-pandable waterproofing sealant, including formulation of acrylic specific hydroscopic resin and its synthesis process and selection of neoprene -based rubbers. It also briefs the application of the sealant.

  6. Factors Influencing the Quality of the Roof Waterproof Construction and Exploration%影响建筑屋面防水质量的因素和探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇

    2014-01-01

    屋面渗漏严重影响了屋主的起居生活。因为屋面结构复杂,如果在抢修过程要求速度将导致工程积压繁多甚至可能修缮不当。对于建筑屋面的防水质量从两方面分析:一是影响建筑屋面防水质量的因素;二是如何应对的措施。%The roof leakage seriously affected homeowners living life. Because the roof structure is complex, if the repair process requires speed wil lead to many engineering backlog may even repair improper. Water quality for the building roof is analyzed from two aspects: one is the influence factors of building roofing waterproof quality;the two is measures how to deal with.

  7. Polymeric synthetic geo membranes in reservoirs waterproofing in the Kingdom of Morocco; Las geomembranas sinteticas polimericas en la impermeabilizacion de balsas en el Reino de Marruecos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.

    2015-07-01

    This essay aims to address some of the aspects related to polymeric synthetic geo membranes that could be used in reservoirs of water located in the Kingdom of Morocco. In this regard, it offers a description of the two basic components geo membranes consist of, that is, resins and additives. It also gives an overview of the key pieces of legislation affecting such an issue. Furthermore, it stresses the paramount importance of implementing monitoring procedures in order to assess the condition of geo membranes over time and, if necessary, to proceed to provide for new waterproofing. Lastly, the characteristics of the process monitoring aforementioned are detailed in terms of tensile strength, elongation, tear resistance, dynamic impact, puncture resistance, low-temperature folding. Shore hardness, stress cracking, oxidation induction times, joint strength shear and peeling test, content and dispersion of carbon black and reflection-optical and scanning-electron microscopy. (Author)

  8. 细石混凝土刚性防水屋面渗漏及防治%FINE AGGREGATE CONCRETE RIGID WATERPROOF ROOF LEAKAGE AND PREVENTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭皓; 张电吉; 卢海林

    2011-01-01

    细石混凝土刚性防水屋面在我国一些经济欠发达地区的居民住宅、中小学校以及广房建筑等,还在大量应用.文中通过分析细石混凝土刚性防水屋面产生渗漏的原因,提出其渗漏的防治措施.%Rigid waterproofing fine aggregate concrete is still widely used in some of our underdeveloped residential areas, schools and widespread housing constructions. By analyzing the causes of the leakage, we come along with the control measures for the leakage.

  9. 575 nm laser oscillation in Dy3+-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fiber pumped by violet GaN laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ishii, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masaaki

    2011-02-01

    We successfully drew a low-loss Dy-doped optical fiber (0.3dB/m at 532nm) of a waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass system and demonstrated yellow laser oscillation in the Dy3+-doped fluoride fiber pumped by a 398.8-nm GaN laser diode. The maximum output power was 10.3 mW and the slope efficiency was 17.1% at 575 nm. Since the fluoro-aluminate- glass system has a remarkable water resistance advantage compared to ZBLAN glass, Dy-doped fluoro-aluminate glass fiber is expected to contribute to making a solid-state yellow fiber laser with high chemical durability without a frequency doubling technique.

  10. The synthesis and application of fluorinated-containing acrylate waterproof agent%含氟丙烯酸酯防水剂的合成及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦毅; 贺江平; 马科

    2014-01-01

    以甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)、丙烯酸丁酯(BA)为单体,脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚(AEO-9)和十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)为复合乳化剂,过硫酸铵(APS)为引发剂,采用乳液聚合方法制备含氟防水整理剂乳液。结果表明:当m(BA)︰m(MMA)=3︰2,乳化剂用量为6%,引发剂用量为0.6%(均为对单体总质量),制得的聚合物乳液外观透亮、细腻、稳定性好。经该防水整理剂整理后的棉织物对水的接触角可达140°。%A fluorinated-containing waterproof agent emulsion was synthesized by emulsion polymerization using methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BA) as monomer, fatty alcohol-polyoxyethylene ether(AEO-9) and sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS) as compound emulsifier, and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. The results showed that with m(BA)︰m(MMA) of 3︰2, 0.6%initiator, and 0.6%emulsifier(compared to total mass of monomers), the prepared copolymer emulsion was transparent, fine and stable. The water contact angle of fabric treated by this prepared waterproof agent could reach up to 140°.

  11. Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  12. Waterproofing methods of comprehensive underground pipe ditch pipeline engineering in Zhenhua street%振华街地下综合管沟管道工程防水做法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史拉明

    2015-01-01

    通过研究某地下综合沟的工程现状,对地下综合管沟防水工程的技术复杂性和难度性进行了分析,阐述了施工缝部分、施工工艺、要求等具体的防水技术,指出完工后达到了良好的使用效果。%Through analyzing comprehensive underground pipe ditch engineering status,the paper analyzes technological complexity and difficulty of comprehensive underground pipe ditch waterproofing engineering,describes its construction joint,construction technology and other specific waterproofing techniques,and finally points out its good utilization effect after completion.

  13. 大连北站雨棚屋面多层中空阳光板防水施工技术%The Waterproofing Construction Technology of Awning Roof Multilayer Hollow Slab in the North Station of Dalian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方源

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the awning roof system of railway station increasingly perfect, highlighting the characteristics of architectural diversity and aesthetic. But people increasingly pursuing the aesthetic architectural, while the waterproof roof lighting system issue has become a key point of quality control. Therefore, the waterproofing technology of multi-layer hol ow slab can effectively ensure the roofing performance.%近年来,铁路客站雨棚屋面系统日益完美,突出了建筑的多样性、美学性等特点。但在日益追求建筑美感的同时,屋面采光系统的防水问题成为了质量控制的关键点。因此,多层中空阳光板防水施工技术可有效地保证屋面防水性能。

  14. On quality control of single-floor SBS roof waterproof craft with heat fusion method%热熔法单层 SBS 屋面防水工艺工程质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵基平

    2015-01-01

    结合工作经验,介绍了热熔法单层SBS屋面防水工艺原材料的控制要点,主要阐述了单层SBS屋面防水施工的质量控制措施,并对施工时适宜的气候条件进行了研究,以避免屋面防水质量问题的发生。%Combining with the work experience,the paper introduces the controlling measures for the single-floor SBS roof waterproof craft with heat fusion method,mainly illustrates the quality control measures for the construction,and researches the suitable climate conditions of the con-struction,so as to avoid the defects in the roof waterproof quality.

  15. Effect of ultraviolet absorptivity and waterproofness of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) with extremely weak acidity, high conductivity on enhanced stability of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Wang, Kaixuan; Guo, Bin; Qiu, Xueqing; Hao, Yue; Chang, JingJing; Li, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    The poor long-term stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) tremendously hampers their future commercialization though their superior photovoltaic efficiencies. To enhance the device stability, a new poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):sulfonated acetone-formaldehyde (PEDOT:SAF) with higher PEDOT content (2:1) is developed considering the excellent dispersing capacity of SAF. PEDOT:SAF exhibits extremely lower acidity with pH value of 6 and higher conductivity of 3.12 S/cm comparing with the former reported sample with lower PEDOT content. Moreover, PEDOT:SAF film shows superior ultraviolet (UV) absorptivity originated from the fluorescence effect of SAF and unexceptionable film waterproofness on account of the high PEDOT content. As a result, the PSC incorporating PEDOT:SAF as the hole extraction layer (HEL) achieves higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) and highly enhanced device stability than the traditional PEDOT:PSS-based device. After 28 days of storage time, our device retains 83.2% from its original PCE, while almost half-degradation is experienced in the PEDOT:PSS controlled device. In addition, SAF is renewable with more simple and inexpensive preparation than that of PSS. Undoubtedly, this new PEDOT:SAF provides us a scaffold for designing stable PSC, and this platform is also shared in other photovoltaic technologies.

  16. LmCYP4G102: An oenocyte-specific cytochrome P450 gene required for cuticular waterproofing in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xueyao; Wang, Yiwen; Moussian, Bernard; Zhu, Kun Yan; Li, Sheng; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-07-22

    Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102-knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of cuticular water that is reported to modulate cuticle mechanics. Interestingly, LmCYP4G102 was not expressed in the epidermis that produces the cuticle but in the sub-epdiermal hepatocyte-like oenocytes. Together, our results suggest that the oenocyte-specific LmCYP4G102 plays a critical role in the synthesis of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are important for cuticle waterproofing and mechanical stability in L. migratoria.

  17. High power red laser oscillation in Pr3+-doped waterproof fluoroaluminate glass fiber excited by a GaN laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, J.; Yamada, T.; Fujimoto, Y.; Ishii, O.; Yamazaki, M.

    2011-02-01

    We have demonstrated a high power red fiber laser with a Pr-doped waterproof fluoro-aluminate glass fiber (Pr:WPFGF). When 800 mW pumping power of a blue/violet GaN laser diode (GaN-LD) was launched into the Pr:WPFGF (core diameter 8 μm, length 40 mm) with dielectric coating on both end surfaces to construct a resonator, the maximum output laser power at 638 nm was obtained to be 311.4 mW that is higher than previously reported Pr:ZBLAN fibers. The threshold power was evaluated to be 52.1 mW, and the slope efficiency was calculated to be 41.6%. Assuming the resonator to be a Fabry-Perot resonator, we can calculate the output power to be 336 mW at 800 mW pump power and the slop efficiency to be 44.2%. These theoretical values show good agreement with experimental ones.

  18. Weaving Processing Optimization of Waterproof Permeable Fabric%防水透湿织物织造工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东照; 胥正安

    2011-01-01

    探讨防水透湿织物的织造工艺要点.选用超细涤纶高收缩纤维,结合高密度织物组织设计,通过优选卷取方式、经纱张力、开口时间、送经张力补偿弹簧圈数、筘的空间率等工艺参数,认为选用W型卷取方式、适当降低经纱张力、适当提早开口时间、合理选择筘的空间率等,可使织机效率得到有效提高.%Weaving processing key points of waterproof permeable fabric were discussed. Superfine polyester shrinkage fiber was selected, combining high density fabric weave design, processing parameter was optimized including take-up style,warp tension, shed time,warp let-off tension compensation spring coils,reed density et al. It is considered that loom efficiency could be improved effectively when adopting W type take-up, reducing warp tension properly, setting shed time early,selecting reed density rationally et al.

  19. Long-Term Performance of the Laguna de Barlovento Reservoir Water-Proofing using a PVC-P Geo membrane; Impermeabilizacion de la balsa de la Laguna de Barlovento con geomembrana de PVC-P: evolucion a lo largo del tiempo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Leiro Lopez, A.; Soriano Carrillo, J.; Crespo Mucientes, M.; Zornberg, J.; Aguilar Gonzalez, E.; Rico Arnaiz, G.; Pargada Iglesias, L.

    2014-02-01

    The Laguna de Barlovento reservoir was one of the most important European hydraulic projects at the time of its construction because of its high capacity and challenging location. At the time, the designers decided to waterproof this reservoirs with a geo membrane of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-P). This paper documents the initial characteristics of the geo membrane and its performance since its installation until 2010. The material characterization includes a comprehensive testing program, the results of which are presented. They include quantification of the geo membrane thickness, amount and nature of plasticizers, tensile properties, fold ability under low temperatures, dynamic impact resistance, puncture resistance, welding strength (both in the manufacturing facility and in the field), as well as the use of techniques involving optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, advanced analytical techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Mass spectrometry (MS), were used in order to identify the plasticizers used in the geo membrane formulation. Fold ability tests were found to provide early indication of degradation. Results from reflection optical and electron scanning microscopy showed that, after 19 nineteen years of installation, the geo membrane remains in good conditions, particularly on the non-exposed side. (Author)

  20. The Waterproof Effect Analysis and Improvement Techniques for Underground Stations of Xi’an Metro Line No .3%西安地铁3号线地下车站防水效果分析及其改进技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军琪; 邓国华

    2015-01-01

    Based on the study of the waterproof design and its effect for the underground stations of Xi’an Metro Line No . 3 ,a set of waterproof design schemes which are suitable for these stations were proposed .In the study ,the waterproof ef-fects of different schemes were tested out on a few typical stations ,and then the subsequent waterproof schemes were de-termined ,which were the combination of outer waterproof coating of the structure ,joint and roof waterproofing .More-over ,the improvement measures and suggestions for the subsequent construction were put forward based on the waterproof effects .It is suggested that macromolecule polythene self-adhesive waterproof roofing should be adopted in the sections with complex strata and abundant ground water .During the construction of the joint waterproofing ,the installation of steel-edged rubber water stop in the middle of the vertical joints and galvanized steel plate water stop in the middle of the horizontal joints should be handled with extra attention .%通过对西安地铁3号线地下车站防水设计及其效果研究,提出了一套适用于西安地铁地下车站的防水设计方案。研究中选择典型车站进行试验,比较了不同防水方案下的防水效果,确定了后续西安地铁地下车站外包防水、接缝防水和顶板防水的设计方案,并根据防水效果,提出了相应的改进措施和建议。建议在地下水丰富且地层复杂地段采用聚乙烯高分子自粘防水卷材;在施工缝防水管理中建议重点把控对垂直施工缝中部设置钢边橡胶止水带、水平施工缝中部设置镀锌钢板止水带的接头处理。

  1. 建筑中防水性能造价约束与抗冲击能力建模%Modeling of Cost Constraints in Building Waterproof Performance and Shock Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    绳晓庆

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the anti shock ability analysis of cost and building waterproof engineering in civil and structural engineering, cost constrained optimal and anti impact performance ratio is achieved. Waterproof construction in the traditional relational model, empirical mode decomposition and by the stiffness degradation model design of building waterproof performance of remainder binding and shock resistant ability, model affected by impact fatigue damage and ma⁃terial cost ratio, the relationship between model, it should use less value. A waterproof performance cost constraint model based on impact damage cracking point and the yield point is proposed, the characteristic energy limited, the relationship between anti impact ability analysis of cost constraints and building body. Impact Damage Cracking point analysis of the building results and the yield point, the characteristic energy confinement model, constructing the element equilibrium equation, on the basis of Euler-Bernoulli waterproof performance cost residue theory establishment of steel frame, nonlin⁃ear finite element model of multi scale, from the overall structure of the layer structure in the face of the yield mechanism to evaluate, get in waterproofing design impact the longitudinal residual stress distribution model. By using the finite element analysis software ANSYS waterproof performance cost constraint parameters in architecture, implementation of modeling waterproof performance cost constraint construction and anti impact capability analysis. Test results, using this model, can realize to waterproof the most under cost, realize the impact resistance performance of building structure of the biggest im⁃pact, the anti damage strength under the same cost saving, the waterproof is saved by 28%, improve the quality of construc⁃tion, it has the important meaning to save the project cost.%分析土建结构中防水工程造价与建筑体抗冲击能力的关系,达到最优的

  2. Dynamics of Drying in Phenolically Tanned Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian F. V. Vincent

    2004-01-01

    The cuticle of a maggot goes through a mechanical transition when it dries, increasing in stiffness by about an order of magnitude (e. g. from 0.5 GPa to 5 GPa) as the water content drops from about 1 g/g (weight of water per unit dry weight) to 0.4 g/g. Thus stiffness represents the loss of freezable water and is more or less diagnostic of a material stabilized by hydrogen bonds. Further loss in water results in a smaller increase in stiffness. In natural systems the water content is controlled by the addition of phenolic residues, resulting in tanning or sclerotisation, which drives the matrix components towards co-operative interaction and makes the material permanently waterproof.

  3. 基于Leaky Noisy OR模型的运营隧道防水系统可靠性研究%Reliability Research of Operating Tunnel Waterproof System Based on the Leaky Noisy OR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长庆; 李晓钟

    2015-01-01

    The concealment of the operating tunnel and the uncertain and complex risk factors both increase the difficulty in the reliability research of operational tunnel waterproof system. Firstly this paper established the bayesian network topology and identified the root node prior probability of the failure of values based on the history data and expert experience. Secondly the Leaky Noisy OR model is introduced into the bayesian network,which greatly reduced the demand of the conditional probability value,at the same time improved the accuracy of the models. Then this paper applied GeNIe Ver 2.0 software to model deduction,calculated the tunnel waterproof system failure probability and posterior probability of each risk factor respectively. The size of the posterior probability can provide theoretical guidance for tunnel waterproofing system operation maintenance,and improve the work efficiency. Finally through the sensitivities analysis of each risk factor,this paper found out the sensitivity of the system factor, provided guidance to reduce the occurring probability of sensitive factors to improve the reliability of tunnel waterproofing system in the tunnel construction.%由于运营隧道的隐蔽性和风险因素的不确定性、复杂性增加了运营隧道防水系统可靠性研究的难度.根据历史数据和专家经验建立了贝叶斯网络拓扑结构并确定根节点发生故障的先验概率值,将Leaky Noisy OR模型引入到贝叶斯网络中,大大降低对条件概率值的需求量,同时提高模型的准确性.并应用GeNIe Ver 2.0软件对模型进行推导,分别计算出隧道防水系统的失效概率和各风险因子的后验概率,根据后验概率的大小可以为隧道防水系统运营维护提供理论指导,提高工作效率.通过对各风险因子进行敏感性分析,找到系统中存在的敏感性因子,指导在隧道施工中降低敏感因子的发生概率以提高隧道防水系统的可靠性.

  4. 地下室外墙聚合物柔性防水监理工作经验探讨%Discussion on Supervision Experience on Flexible Waterproof of Basement Exterior Wall Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志勇

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the supervision control method in the application of polymer flexible waterproof of basement exterior wall from aspects of quality control, schedule control and safety management, which provides reference for professional technical management personnel.%本文从质量控制、进度控制、安全管理等方面,探讨地下室外墙聚合物柔性防水应用中的监理控制方法,以供专业技术管理人员借鉴。

  5. Research and development of peripheral technology for photovoltaic power systems. Research and development of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials (detachable plane panel); Shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kenzai ittaigata module no kenkyu kaihatsu (chakudatsushiki heiban panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of photovoltaic modules integrated with construction materials in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of technology for module structures, specifications of the horizontal muntin system module were newly determined in addition to the improved muntin system module, and the prototype pseudo-module integrated with construction material was prepared. The comparison results of the basic performance of both system modules clarified superior waterproofing and module temperature uniformity of the horizontal muntin system. Based on this specifications, integration technology of modules with back metal plates was studied. Formation of the integrated module close to final specifications was ascertained to be possible by use of passivation equipment to irregular form. (2) On development of construction and installation methods of modules, improvement of the waterproofing and workability of both system modules was studied. (3) On the study on practical use of modules, their design and ventilation/cooling structure were studied. 38 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. Application of High Pressure Jet Waterproof Curtain to Dock Cofferdam Project%高压旋喷止水帷幕在船坞围堰工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东俊

    2013-01-01

    泉州船厂船坞围堰工程采用基床双排高喷连续墙和帷幕灌浆止水施工工艺。本文对主围堰基床采用2排高压旋喷桩、土石坝围堰采用1排高压旋喷桩的帷幕灌浆止水施工工艺进行简要叙述,对施工过程质量控制和成果、以及工程中出现的几个问题进行了分析。%Dock cofferdam phase-1 project in the ship-repairing zone of Quanzhou shipyard adopts the construction technologies of two-row high-pressure jet diaphragm wall supported on the bedding and curtain grouting waterproofing. The construction technology of curtain grouting waterproofing is briefly described in which two rows of high pressure jet grouting piles are used for main cofferdam bedding and one row for earth-and-rock dam cofferdam. In addition,the construction quality control,results and problems are analyzed in detail.

  7. Analysis of the Waterproofing Construction Weight Control of a Building Basement%某大厦地下室防水工程施工重量控制探讨分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世益

    2013-01-01

      地下室墙板砼的浇筑质量优劣直接影响地下室的抗渗能力。超大超长地下室工程一旦产生渗漏,补修工作较困难。本文以某大厦地下室防水工程为例,详细阐述了如何做好地下室防水施工质量控制,希望能够给类似项目提供一些参考和建议。%The basement wal concrete pouring quality direct-ly affects the basement impermeability. Super-long oversized basement project once produced leakage, repair work is more difficult. This paper taking waterproof engineering in the base-ment of a building as the example, elaborates how to do qualit-y control of basement waterproof construction, hoping to be able to provide some reference and suggestions for similar pro-jects.

  8. 防水剂对受荷开裂下PVA-SHCC渗透性能的影响%Influences by waterproofing agent on impermeability of strain hardening cement-based composite on the loading state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高嵩; 李秋义; 金祖权; 吴本清

    2014-01-01

    受荷载时产生的多重裂缝是SHCC的薄弱部位和外界介质侵入的通路,会加速了结构的耐久性劣化。而对SHCC进行防水处理是提高耐久性的有效措施,研究了防水剂对PVA-SHCC试件抗氯离子渗透性能和受荷开裂下的试件水毛细吸收系数的影响。试验结果表明:对PVA-SHCC进行防水处理可以显著降低试件中的氯离子扩散系数,外涂防水剂试件的氯离子扩散系数只是不掺防水剂的试样的8%到20%,内掺防水剂的试件的氯离子扩散系数只是不掺防水剂试件的60%左右。试件在受荷开裂下的抗渗性比未施加应力试件的抗渗性差,采取防水处理可以有效提高受荷试件的抗渗性能,外涂和内掺处理方式对提高抗渗的效果相差不大。SHCC渗透性能的研究可以为SHCC结构耐久性研究和服役寿命预测提供重要参考。%Cracks in strain hardening cement-based composite(SHCC)structures caused by mechanical load are the weakness under ser-vice condition,and they provide pathways for access of water and solution containing chloride into strain hardening cement-based com-posite. In the present paper,the influences by waterproofing agent to chloride resisting performances and capillary suction coefficient of specimen on the loading state are experimental studied.The experimental results indicate that water proof treatment can significantly reduce the chloride diffusion coefficient.The chloride diffusion coefficient of the specimen by external application of waterproofing agent is only between 8%and 20%of normal strain hardening cement-based composite specimen. And which of blended with waterproofing agent is ap-proximately 60%of normal strain hardening cement-based composite.Furthermore,the impermeability of strain hardening cement-based composite specimen under the loading state is much worse than that of unloaded strain hardening cement-based composite specimen.The water proofing treatments are

  9. Composite nanofiber membrane based on electrospun PVDF/PVDF-HFP and evaluation for waterproof & breathable properties%电纺PVDF/PVDF-HFP复合纳米纤维膜及其防水透湿性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘延波; 马营; 孙健; 宋学礼; 陈国贵

    2014-01-01

    通过静电纺丝技术制备PVDF/PVDF-HFP复合纳米纤维膜,然后对其进行热压处理,采用FE-SEM对其形貌进行表征,并对其力学性能和防水透湿性能进行评价。结果表明:PVDF和PVDF-HFP溶液的最佳纺丝质量分数分别为9%和12%;热压处理后PVDF/PVDF-HFP复合纳米纤维膜具有优异的防水透湿性能,当复合纳米纤维膜中PVDF与PVDF-HFP的质量比为2∶1时,其耐静水压达到7220 mmH2O,透湿量达到7300 g/(m2·24 h)。%Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) composite nanofiber membrane was prepared by electrospinning, followed by thermal calendaring process. The morphology of the membrane was characterized by FE-SEM, and the mechanical property and waterproof-breathable property were evaluated. The results indicate that the best solution concentration of PVDF and PVDF-HFP are 9% and 12% respectively. PVDF/PVDF-HFP composite nanofiber membrane possesses excellent waterproof-breathable property after thermal calendaring. When the mass ratio of PVDF and PVDF-HFP is 2∶1 in the composite nanofiber membrane, the hydrohead of membrane achieves to 7 220 mmH2O and water vapor transmission rate amounts to 7 600 g/(cm2· 24 h).

  10. 橡胶沥青防水粘结层层间抗剪性能试验分析%Test Analysis on Shear Resistance Performance between Rubber Asphalt Waterproofing Adhesive Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正中; 宋晓燕; 肖庆一; 魏连雨

    2012-01-01

    Based on the indoor shear test stimulation of the interface bonding force status of concrete bridge deck waterproof layers, conduct systematically analysis of various factors and rules in layer shear resistance, in terms of asphalt spray amount, gravel spreading type, bridge panel interface treatment conditions and environmental temperature, etc, to propose various technical measures for improving the shear resistance performance between rubber asphalt waterproofing adhesive layers thus provide experimental basis and data support for the practical applications and construction quality. Research concludes that; in order to give full play to the shear resistance performance between rubber asphalt waterproofing adhesive layers, the shear resistance and bond performance in high temperature state must be strictly controlled, the spray volume and spray temperature should be controlled at 1. 8 ~2. 2 kg/m2 and 190 - 200 ℃ ; meanwhile, the spreading gravels should be clean with preheating treatment, the diameter ranging from 2. 36mm to 4. 75 mm; the spraying volume should be 10 kg/m2. In addition, the bridge panel surface roughness degree should be controlled within a reasonable context, when the anti-sliding value is between 45 to 55, the maximum value of interlayer shear resistance strength appears.%利用室内剪切试验模拟水泥混凝土桥面防水粘结层的界面受力状态,从沥青喷涂量、碎石撒布类型、桥面板界面处理状况、环境温度等方面系统分析影响其层间抗剪性能的各种因素及变化规律,以此提出提高橡胶沥青防水粘结层层间抗剪性能的各项技术措施,为充分发挥橡胶沥青防水粘结层的层间抗剪性能,必须严格控制其在高温状态下的抗剪和粘结性能,喷洒量和喷洒温度应控制在1.8~2.2 kg/m2和190~200℃,同时,撤布粒径为2.36~4.75mm、撒布量为10 kg/m2左右且经过预热处理的洁净碎石,而且,还应将桥面板的表面粗糙程度控

  11. Studying on the permeability of waterproofing concrete processed with silane emuslion under freezing-thawing environment%冻融环境下硅烷防水混凝土渗透性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵炜; 黄巍林; 宋强; 徐建光

    2016-01-01

    For studying the influence of freezing-thawing damage on the anti-permeability of integral waterproofing concrete,the con-crete specimens with different W/C and the amount of silane emulsion were prepared.The water absorption and chloride penetration testes were respectively carried out after different freezing-thawing cycles.Eventually,the curves of water absorption and chloride tent are drawn, which aims to evaluate the anti-permeability of integral water proofing concrete.The results show that the anti-frost property of integral wa-terproof concrete is decreased with the addition of silane emulsion.After the same freezing-thawing cycles,the integral water proofing con-crete possesses a better anti-permeability than ordinary concrete that without silane emulsion adding.%为研究冻融损伤对整体混凝土抗渗透性能影响,制备不同水灰比、不同硅烷乳液掺量的整体防水混凝土试件。在不同冻融循环次数下,测定不同试件相对动弹性模量以评价整体防水混凝土抗冻性能。同时,对经过不同冻融循环次数下的试件进行毛细吸水试验和氯离子侵蚀试验,并绘制毛细吸水曲线和氯离子含量曲线,以评价不同冻融损伤下整体防水混凝土的抗渗透性能。试验结果表明,随着硅烷乳液掺量的增加,整体防水混凝土的抗冻性能降低。但是在相同冻融循环次数下,整体防水混凝土仍较普通混凝土具有较好的抗渗透性能。

  12. Waterproofing of thermally insulating products based on caustic dolomite ПОВЫШЕНИЕ ВОДОСТОЙКОСТИ ТЕПЛОИЗОЛЯЦИОННЫХ ИЗДЕЛИЙ НА ОСНОВЕ КАУСТИЧЕСКОГО ДОЛОМИТА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvezdina Yevgeniya Vasilevna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Constructional materials production based on magnesia cement, the waterproofing and the cold endurance of these materials is described. The composition and the hardening kinetics of magnesia cement is investigated.Рассмотрены получение строительных материалов на основе магнезиальных вяжущих; повышение водо- и морозостойкости этих материалов. Исследованы состав и кинетика твердения магнезиальных вяжущих.

  13. Analysis of SBS Modified Bitumen Waterproofing Membrane Cracking and Quality Control%浅析屋面 SBS 改性沥青防水卷材开裂及质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯锦

    2013-01-01

    SBS modified bitumen waterproofing membrane cra-cking was widely used in the roof, toilet water proof. Because the product quality of their own and human operator improper proc-es, which make serious problem of leaks between the roof and th-e toilet with the bathroom. The article analysis it’s performance and the Construction points in the process, and puts forward so-me treatment methods%  SBS 改性沥青防水卷材在屋面、卫生间防水中被广泛采用,但由于产品的自身质量原因和在人为操作过程中的不当,使屋面及厕浴间渗漏等问题突出。本文通过对 SBS改性沥青防水卷材的性能、使用过程中施工的要点进行了分析,并提出了一些处理方法。

  14. Comparative study of three different kinds of geo membranes (PVC-P, HDPE, EPDM) used in the waterproofing of reservoirs; Estudio comparativo de tres geomembranas de distinta naturaleza (PVC-P, PEAD, EPDM) empleadas en la impermeabilizacion de balsas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Castillo Rubi, F.; Soriano Carrillo, J.; Noval Arango, A. M.; Touze-Foltz, N.; Pargada Iglesias, L.; Rico Arnaiz, G.; Aguilar gonzalez, E.

    2014-02-01

    This work describes the long-term behaviour of three kinds of geo membranes which are constituted by plasticised poly vinyl chloride (PVC-P), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and terpolymer rubber of ethylene-propylene-dienic monomer (EPDM) used as the waterproofing system of the reservoirs Los Llanos de Mesa, San Isidro and El Golfo, respectively. Characteristics of the three original geo membranes and their behaviour along time are presented. Thicknesses, content and nature of the plasticizers ( in PVC-P), tensile properties dynamic and static puncture, fold ability at low temperature, shore hardness, tear resistance and carbon black ( in HDPE), joint strength (shear and peeling test) and microscopy, both optical and electronic scanning tests were carried out. Results obtained conclude with a long-term durability of geo membranes, independently of their macromolecular nature. These characteristics were determined by advanced analytical techniques in PVC-P samples, such as fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Spectrometry (MS). (Author)

  15. Study on the lining crack of subsea tunnel in the different conditions of waterproof and drainage%海底隧道不同防排水条件下衬砌结构开裂情况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷波; 漆泰岳; 王睿; 陈小雨

    2015-01-01

    The waterproof and drainage way are not always similar to each other in the different level of surround-ing rock of subsea tunnel,among which the principle of controlled drainage was used in the hard surrounding rock I andⅡ,and the entire plugging method can be applied to the surrounding rock of poor quality,such as the level of Ⅳ and Ⅴ.Based on the XFEM,the actual cracking of Xiamen Subsea Tunnel will be taken in a re-search in different condition of waterproof and drainage,which can be available to provide some useful sugges-tions for the building of other high -pressure tunnels and making cause analysis of lining crack.The research re-sults show that it is not happened to the crack of tunnel lining in the case of controlled drainage of surrounding rock level Ⅱ and the design is reasonable.It also turns out that the outside of arch springing of tunnel lining is cracked in the condition of whole block of surrounding rock level Ⅴ.Both the crushing and cracking of concrete lining will happen under the condition of higher water pressure,which need to be structural reinforced in the rel-evant position of tunnel lining cracks.Besides,based on tunnel lining diseases until now,which mainly are cir-cumferential cracks and located in some parts above the arch wall,it is found that the high water pressure isn’t the main reason of lining cracking of Xiamen subsea tunnel.%海底隧道不同围岩级别所采用的防排水方式不同。Ⅰ、Ⅱ级围岩采用限量排导的防排水方案,Ⅳ、Ⅴ级较差围岩地段衬砌结构采用全封闭防排水方案。基于扩展有限元法,以厦门海底隧道为例,针对海底隧道不同防排水条件下的衬砌结构开裂情况进行研究,为今后其他高水压水下隧道设计和海底隧道的病害原因分析提供一定的参考价值。研究表明:采用堵水限排的条件下Ⅱ级围岩的衬砌结构未发生衬砌结构开裂,结构设计合理;而采

  16. 高铁梁面防水保护层C40细石纤维混凝土性能研究%Study on properties of waterproof protectivelayer C40 fine aggregate concrete for high speed railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志讲; 周华新; 崔巩; 阳知乾

    2014-01-01

    依据高铁梁面防水保护层C40细石纤维混凝土技术要求,对比研究了网状聚丙烯纤维、聚丙烯腈纤维、聚乙烯醇纤维及纤维素纤维对混凝土抗裂性能及拌合物性能的影响。试验结果表明:网状聚丙烯纤维和聚丙烯腈纤维均存在各自的局限性,网状聚丙烯纤维早期抗塑性开裂性能较差,而聚丙烯腈纤维早期抗塑性开裂性能较好,但严重影响混凝土施工性能;短切纤维素纤维在混凝土体系中很难搭接粗骨料和细骨料形成网络结构,抗塑性开裂效果一般;聚乙烯醇纤维分子结构中含有羟基,能与水泥水化产物发生反应,亲水性强,分散性好,具有较好抗裂性能,更适合用于高铁梁面防水保护层C40细石纤维混凝土。%According to the requirements of C40 fine aggregate concrete technology of waterproof protective layer for high speed rail-ways,the influence of the reticulate polypropylene fiber,polyacrylonitrile fiber,polyvinyl alcohol fiber and cellulose fiber on the properties of concrete anti-cracking performance and workability were studied.The results showed that the reticular polypropylene fiber and polyacry-lonitrile fiber had their limitations,the reticulate polypropylenefiber had little effect on concrete workability,but early plastic cracking re-sistance performance wasvery poor,polyacrylonitrile fiber early plastic cracking resistance performance was good,but seriously affected the construction of concrete performance.Short cellulose fiber in the concrete system was difficult to lap of coarse aggregate and fine aggre-gate to form network structure,and plastic cracking resistance effect was not very ideal.The molecular structure of polyvinyl alcohol fiber containing hydroxyl,could react with cement hydration products,powerful hydrophily,good dispersibility,had a good crack resistance,so more suitable for waterproof protective layer C40 fiber concrete with fine stones.

  17. PU/PVDF 防水透气共混膜的制备及性能研究%Preparation and characterization analysis of waterproof breathable PU/PVDF nanofibrous membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 姚理荣; 高强

    2014-01-01

    PU/PVDF nanofibrous membranes were successfully prepared by electrospinning .The effect of the concentration , the component solvent of DMF/acetone and mass ratio of solute on the morphology , the diameter of the spun fibers and the contact angle of fiber membrane were studied .The PU/PVDF membrane with optimum parameter was explored .The results show that the optimum process for electrospinning PU/PVDF membrane is concentration being 12%, volume ratio of component solvents of DMF/acetone being 4/6 , mass ratio of solute of PU/PVDF being 7/3 when voltage being 14 kV and traveling distance being 10 cm.Under these conditions , PU/PVDF blend membrane with good air permeability, excellent waterproofness and stretchability can be obtained .%采用静电纺丝法制备聚氨酯/聚偏氟乙烯( PU/PVDF )共混纳米纤维膜,研究PU、PVDF质量分数、溶剂体积配比、溶质质量比对纳米纤维形貌、直径及膜性能的影响,探索共混纤维膜较优制备工艺。结果表明:共混纳米纤维膜较优制备工艺为静电纺丝电压14 kV、接收距离10 cm、纺丝液质量分数12%、溶剂体积配比N,N-二甲基甲酰胺/丙酮为4/6、溶质质量比PU/PVDF为7/3,此条件下可获得具有较优防水透气性能和力学性能的共混膜。

  18. Engineering water repellency in granular materials for ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Sergio; Saulick, Yunesh; Zheng, Shuang; Kang, Hengyi; Liu, Deyun; Lin, Hongjie

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic water repellent granular materials are a novel technology for constructing water-tight barriers and fills that is both inexpensive and reliant on an abundant local resource - soils. Our research is verifying its stability, so that perceived risks to practical implementation are identified and alleviated. Current ground stabilization measures are intrusive and use concrete, steel, and glass fibres as reinforcement elements (e.g. soil nails), so more sustainable approaches that require fewer raw materials are strongly recommended. Synthetic water repellent granular materials, with persistent water repellency, have been tested for water harvesting and proposed as landfill and slope covers. By chemically, physically and biologically adjusting the magnitude of water repellency, they offer the unique advantage of controlling water infiltration and allow their deployment as semi-permeable or impermeable materials. Other advantages include (1) volumetric stability, (2) high air permeability and low water permeability, (3) suitability for flexible applications (permanent and temporary usage), (4) improved adhesion aggregate-bitumen in pavements. Application areas include hydraulic barriers (e.g. for engineered slopes and waste containment), pavements and other waterproofing systems. Chemical treatments to achieve water repellency include the use of waxes, oils and silicone polymers which affect the soil particles at sub-millimetric scales. To date, our research has been aimed at demonstrating their use as slope covers and establishing the chemical compounds that develop high and stable water repellency. Future work will determine the durability of the water repellent coatings and the mechanics and modelling of processes in such soils.

  19. Application of infrared thermography in bonding effect detection of building waterproofing materials%红外热像法在检测建筑防水卷材粘合效果的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓烨; 石永平; 关洪军; 李宏伟; 刘华丽

    2014-01-01

    红外热像法(Infrared Thermography)在建筑检测领域具有相当广阔的应用前景.本文利用NEC_H2640型红外热像仪,结合软件编程及参考红外热像法检测建筑外墙饰面粘结质量技术规程[1],提出红外热像法检测的具体技术方法,对某建筑地下车库外墙防水卷材粘合效果进行了检测尝试,发现红外热像法对大部分空鼓具有很高辨识度.实现了红外热像法在建筑防水检测领域的有效应用.

  20. Experimental research of cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing material applied to metro engineering concrete%水泥基渗透结晶型防水剂在地铁应用的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘行; 殷素红; 李铁锋; 文梓芸; 史海欧; 刘健美

    2007-01-01

    Penetron Admix是一种在混凝土拌和时加入的新型水泥基渗透结晶型本体防水添加剂.采用广州地铁工程混凝土所使用的原材料和配合比,在试验室研究了添加Penetron Admix后对混凝土性能的影响.结果表明:掺入一定量的Penetron Admix后,混凝土拌合物的流动性能提高;硬化混凝土的抗渗性能显著提高,渗透压力比大于267%;抗压强度也有所提高;但混凝土收缩值比基准混凝土稍大.裂缝自修复试验表明掺入Penetron Admix的混凝土试件在水或潮湿条件下确实具有裂缝自修复功能.

  1. 聚氨酯泡沫在屋面保温防水中的应用%Applications of Polyurethane Foam in Thermo-insulating and Waterproofing Material of the Building Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美丽; 平玉柱; 李效华; 黄实; 赵慧妍; 屈明晨

    2002-01-01

    简要介绍了硬质聚氨酯泡沫塑料的特点及其在建筑业的应用情况.硬质聚氨酯泡沫塑料作为建筑物屋面保温防水新材料,改变传统屋面保温防水的方法,达到提高工效、保温、防水、节能的效果.

  2. Application of TJ281-BEP new waterproof coiled materials in the tunnel project%TJ281-BEP新型防水卷材在隧道工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武秀萍

    2001-01-01

    针对隧道施工过程中常见的隧道渗漏水问题,结合具体工程实例,提出了采用TJ281-BEP隧道专用型背贴背吊带式高分子土工复合排防水卷材是解决该问题的有效方法,并叙述了该方法在施工中的施工工艺、注意事项及工艺特点,得到了较好的应用效果.

  3. Repair the Problematic Reinforced Concrete Bridges Using Cementitious Capillary Crystalline Waterproofing Materials%采用水泥基渗透结晶型材料治理钢筋混凝土桥梁病害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海涛; 孔凡坤

    2011-01-01

    针对钢筋混凝土桥梁病害情况,提出采用水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料作为其病害处理的主要材料.以"长牛线11#桥"维修工程为例,介绍了该类材料的施工工艺和处理技术.

  4. 渗透结晶防水材料和橡胶止水片的应用%Engineering application of cement based capillary crystalline waterproof material and split blot of expanded rubber water-stop form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞连红

    2004-01-01

    以太原市金桥大厦地下室外墙防水工程为例,对水泥基渗透结晶型防水材料和对拉螺栓膨胀橡胶止水片的特点及止水原理作了介绍,经过严格组织施工管理,取得了较好的防水效果.

  5. The construction of SBS modified bitumen water-proof rolling material%屋面高聚物SBS改性沥青防水卷材施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱双双

    2008-01-01

    高聚物SBs改性沥青防水卷材属弹性体沥青防水卷材,具有良好的弹性、柔性、耐疲劳性、抗拉强度高及温度稳定性,广泛应用于各类建筑防水防潮工程,被列为重点发展的沥青改性物料.为确保SBS改性沥青防水卷材达到最佳使用效果,采用热熔法施工技术具有重要意义.

  6. 利用粉煤灰和废泡沫塑料研制屋面保温防水材料%Developing waterproof and thermal insulation roofing material using fly ash and waste plastic foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛福生; 倪文; 陈淑祥

    2004-01-01

    介绍的新型屋面保温材料是以电厂粉煤灰、废弃泡沫塑料为主要原料,普通硅酸盐水泥为胶凝材料,配以多种外加剂,在常温、常压条件下成型养护而成.具有产品质轻、导热系数小以及粉煤灰掺量大、成型方便、工艺简单、投资小、见效快等特点.

  7. Influence of fly ash, activator and waterproofing agent on the properties of thermal insulation gypsum block%粉煤灰、激发剂和防水剂对石膏自保温砌块性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘研; 李国忠

    2015-01-01

    Influence of fly ash, activator and waterproofing agent on the properties of thermal insulation gypsum block is researched. The research results show that when the content of fly ash is up to 25%, the mechanical properties of samples is best; when the activator reaches 1.5%, dry bending strength increases 36.5%, dry compressive strength increases 27.6%;when the organosilicon waterproofing agent content is 0.4%, the water absorption rates for 2 h and 24 h respectively are 3.5%and 4.2%, comparing the gypsum sample, the water absorption rate reduces respectively 88.3%and 87%.%研究结果表明,当粉煤灰掺量达到25%时,试样的力学性能最好;当激发剂掺量达到1.5%时,绝干抗折强度增加了36.5%,绝干抗压强度增加了27.6%;当有机硅防水剂掺量为0.4%时,2 h和24 h的吸水率分别为3.5%和4.2%,相比于空白试样,吸水率分别降低了88.3%和87%。

  8. 聚合物水泥防水涂料的自修复性能研究%Study on the Self Repair Property of Polymer Cement Waterproof Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩朝辉

    2011-01-01

    Through the experiments, the influences of different types of cement on the self repair performance of polymer cement waterproof coatings is investigated, getting that only in use of fast hardening ferric aluminate cement, can the self repair performance be obtained. Basing on this, this paper discusses the influence of amount of cement, amount of vinyl acetate - ethylene polymer emulsion, amount of water absorbent resin and the ratio of powder and liquid on the self repair performance. Experiment results show that, with the increase of the amount of cement and water absorbent resin, the self repair performance increases; and with the increase of vinyl acetate - ethylene polymer emulsion and powder, the self repair performance firstly increases and then decreases.%通过试验,考察了不同型号水泥对聚合物水泥防水涂料的自修复性能的影响,结果只有在使用快硬铁铝酸盐水泥情况下聚合物水泥防水涂料才能自我修复。在此基础上,进一步考察了水泥用量、聚醋酸乙烯-乙烯聚合物乳液用量、吸水树脂用量、粉料与液料之比对聚合物水泥防水涂料的自修复性能的影响。试验结果显示:随着水泥及吸水树脂用量的增加,聚合物水泥防水涂料的自修复性能增加;随着聚醋酸乙烯-乙烯聚合物乳液及粉料的增加,聚合物水泥防水涂料的自修复性能先增加后降低。

  9. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Contrast Materials What are contrast materials and how do they ... material? Pregnancy and contrast materials What are contrast materials and how do they work? Contrast materials, also ...

  10. 石灰-水泥系外墙防水装饰砂浆与外墙外保温系统适应性研究%The adaptive research of lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall and exterior insulation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩方晖; 王栋民; 许晨阳; 刘晓斌; 刘天德

    2012-01-01

    To make lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall which successes through chemical modification technology to be widely applied in exterior insulation system, it must have good adaptability with exterior insulation system. This paper through establishing force diagram of facing external wall thermal insulation and adopting ESP external wall thermal insulation to be used in high-rise building)analyzing and calculating the earthquake effect by level, wind load and both combination effect and vertical stress gravity and bond force: meanwhile,on the basis of the calculation method to calculate the force of the 100 m-high high-rise building top exterior insulation system in the Beijing center: furthermore, calculating the force of facing external wall thermal insulation when the exterior wall facing is ceramic tile, coating and carrying on the comparison. Results indicate: it is safe when the exterior wall facing is lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall in high-rise exterior insulation system; by the size of the load is for ceramic tile > lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall > coating, in comprehensive comparison, lime-cement waterproof decorative mortar for exterior wall has superiority.%要使通过化学改性技术研制成功的石灰-水泥系外墙防水装饰砂浆在外墙外保温系统中得到广泛应用,其必须与外墙外保温系统有很好的适应性.通过建立饰面外墙外保温系统受力图,对采用膨胀聚苯板作为高层建筑外墙外保温时,所受水平地震作用、风荷载和两者组合效应及竖直方向受力重力和压剪粘结力分析计算;同时,依据这些计算方法计算了北京市中心高为100m的高层建筑顶部外墙外保温系统受力情况;计算了外墙饰面为瓷砖、涂料时外墙外保温系统的受力情况,并对其进行比较.结果表明:外墙饰面为石灰-水泥系外墙防水装饰砂浆时应用于高层外

  11. A review on fatigue life prediction methods for anti-vibration rubber materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli WANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anti-vibration rubber, because of its superior elasticity, plasticity, waterproof and trapping characteristics, is widely used in the automotive industry, national defense, construction and other fields. The theory and technology of predicting fatigue life is of great significance to improve the durability design and manufacturing of anti-vibration rubber products. According to the characteristics of the anti-vibration rubber products in service, the technical difficulties for analyzing fatigue properties of anti-vibration rubber materials are pointed out. The research progress of the fatigue properties of rubber materials is reviewed from three angles including methods of fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack propagation and fatigue damage accumulation. It is put forward that some nonlinear characteristics of rubber under fatigue loading, including the Mullins effect, permanent deformation and cyclic stress softening, should be considered in the further study of rubber materials. Meanwhile, it is indicated that the fatigue damage accumulation method based on continuum damage mechanics might be more appropriate to solve fatigue damage and life prediction problems for complex rubber materials and structures under fatigue loading.

  12. CFRP materials reinforced with LCP fibres for applications in vehicle and aircraft engineering. Final report; Faserverbundkunststoffe mit einer LCP-Faserverstaerkung fuer Anwendungen im Fahrzeug- und Flugzeugbau. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-11

    CFRP materials reinforced with liquid crystalline polyester (LCP) fibres were produced and characterized with regard to their physical and mechanical characteristics. Compared with non-reinforced plastics, polypropylene/LCP fibre-UD laminates produced by filmstacking, epoxy resin/LCP fibre-UD laminates produced by spooling and epoxy resin composites with internal LCP fibre fleece had significantly higher strength and stiffness as well as high thermoforming resistance and waterproofness. [Deutsch] In diesem Forschungsvorhaben wurden Faserverbundkunststoffe mit einer Verstaerkungsfaser auf Basis eines thermotropen fluessigkristallinen Polyester [Liquid Crystalline Polyester, abgekuerzt LCP] hergestellt und bezueglich der physikalisch-mechanischen Eigenschaften charakterisiert. Die im `filmstacking`-Verfahren hergestellte Polypropylen/LCP-Faser-UD-Laminate und mittels Bewicklung gewonnene Epoxidharz/LCP-Faser-UD-Laminate sowie Epoxidharzverbunde mit eingearbeiteten LCP-Faservlies zeigen gegenueber den unverstaerkten Kunststoffmaterialien einen betraechtlichen Anstieg von Festigkeit und Steifigkeit. Die Faserverbunde weisen ausserdem eine hohe Waermeformbestaendigkeit und Wassersperrwirkung auf. (orig.)

  13. Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Helen

    Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when

  14. Electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-01-31

    A process for forming a surface-treatment layer on an electroactive material includes heating the electroactive material and exposing the electroactive material to a reducing gas to form a surface-treatment layer on the electroactive material, where the surface-treatment layer is a layer of partial reduction of the electroactive material.

  15. Design and Construction of Heat-keeping Water-proofing and Drainage System of Lafashan Tunnel in Extremely Cold Region%严寒地区拉法山隧道保温型防排水系统设计施工技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐晟; 杨春勃; 杨艳玲

    2014-01-01

    严寒地区隧道结构因为地下水的存在,会长期出现冻胀的问题,经过冻融后,隧道结构易产生破坏,将大大影响结构的使用寿命。严寒地区的拉法山隧道从设计到施工,在“防、排、截、堵相结合,因地制宜,综合治理”的原则指导下,摸索出“先堵水、后排水、再防水”的防排水工程三要素。即先对围岩进行封闭注浆堵水,达到衬砌背后无水、少水的目的,再对衬砌背后增加聚氨酯保温层,保证衬砌背后不结冻;同时,采用在冻结线以下的深埋中央水沟,保证排水的通畅,解决了隧道在严寒环境下的冻胀问题。在施工技术上,开发了挂设聚氨酯保温层的施工方法,同时对止水带施工工艺进行优化,仰拱纵向钢边止水带、中埋式止水带和衬砌中埋止水带均采用了特制的定型钢模板施工,有效地解决了隧道防排水系统施工的质量通病。%Due to the existence of ground water,swelling and thawing caused by freezing always occur to tunnels located in extremely cold regions.Therefore,the tunnel structure may be damaged and the service life of the tunnel may be reduced.For the water-proofing and drainage of Lafashan tunnel,which is located in extremely cold region,the design principle of“water stopping,water draining and water sealing”is established,i.e.,water-stopping grouting is made to stop the ground water so as to minimize the water behind the lining,then heat-keeping layer is installed behind the lining to avoid freezing behind the lining,and finally central drainage ditch is built below the freezing level so as to ensure smooth water releasing.In this way,the problem of freezing swelling in extremely cold regions has been successfully solved .Regarding the construction of the water-proofing and drainage system,new heat-keeping layer installation method is developed,the water stop tie installation technique is optimized and

  16. Water inrush risk evaluation of coal mining under Quatemary alluvial water and reasonable design method of waterproof coal pillar%第四系松散含水层下煤层开采突水危险性及防水煤柱确定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟召平; 高延法; 卢爱红; 王睿; 乔旭; 黄成玉

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the concept of water inrush risk coefficient was proposed through theoretical analysis, and the theory and method of the evaluation of water inrush danger under the Quaternary loose aquifer, as well as the reasonable design method of waterproof coal pillar were established. The results show that the thickness of effective protective layer is calculated by the distance between the top of mining seam and bottom of Quaternary loose aquifer minus the height of caving and fractured zone which is formed after mining the whole height at one time. If the thickness value is less than zero, the water in the Quaternary loose aquifer may influx into the working face, which will result in roof water inrush. If the thickness value is larger than zero, the water inrush risk coefficient, which is the ratio of hydraulic pressure in Quaternary loose aquifer to the thickness value of effective protective layer, can be used to evaluate the water inrush danger. On this basis, the thickness of protective layer and the reasonable height of waterproof coal pillar are put forward according to the hydraulic pressure value of loose aquifer. Adopting the method metioned above, the water inrush danger of No. 8 coal seam mining under Quaternary loose aquifer in Donghuantuo minefield, Kailuan mining area, and the reasonable waterproof coal pillar were evaluated. The evaluation results consistent well with the actual conditions.%通过理论分析提出了松散含水层突水危险系数概念,建立了第四系松散含水层下煤层开采突水危险性评价和防水煤柱留设的理论与方法.研究结果表明,开采煤层顶界至第四系松散含水层底界之间距离减去开采煤层一次采全高形成的冒落裂隙带高度为有效保护层厚度,若有效保护层厚度小于零,第四系松散含水层可能涌入回采工作面,造成顶板突水.若有效保护层厚度大于零,其突水危险性采用松散含水层水压与有效保护层厚度之比

  17. Study on Scheme Selection of Waterproof System of Bridge Deck Pavement Based on Fuzzy Evaluation Theory%模糊评价理论在桥面铺装防水体系方案比选中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强; 潘红伟; 付建村; 孙杰

    2014-01-01

    结合华北地区某大型水泥混凝土桥面沥青铺装层工程,将半结构多目标模糊优选评价理论应用到桥面铺装防水体系方案比选中。根据桥面铺装防水体系需要综合考虑的几个方面,建立综合评价指标体系,通过确定各指标对分系统相对优属度矩阵及分系统对总决策的相对优属度向量,并确定出各方案对总决策的优越度,最终比选出方案1(热 SBS 改性沥青与0.5%单粒径预拌碎石封层+2 cm 沥青胶砂防水层+改性乳化沥青粘层)为最优方案。%Relying on bridge deck pavement for a large concrete bridge in North China,the half-structural and multi-objective fuzzy optimization theory is applied.According to considering several as-pects of waterproof system of bridge deck pavement,comprehensive evaluation index system is estab-lished.Through determining the relative subordinate degree matrix for the criteria and the relative subor-dinate degree vector of the sub-system to total decision,the preponderance of the scenarios chosen to the total decision are decided,and finally program 1 that is seal coat of heat SBS modified asphalt and 0.5%single particle size premixed gravel +waterproof layer of 2 cm asphalt sand +sticky layer of modified e-mulsified asphalt is selected as the optimal scheme.

  18. ON APPLICATION OF MATERIALS BASED ON DISPERSE HYDRATED CALCIUM SILICATE FOR PROTECTIVE LAYER OF LOCAL AUTOMOBILE ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road construction is one of the most material-intensive industrial production. In this context, the urgent task for this branch is the maximum reduction in consumption of materials through usage of effective local materials, decrease energy intensity of processes by using new materials. The developed network of local roads require constant care and maintenance, thus it is advisable to consider the use of protective coatings for such roads on the basis of contactcondensation hardening, which can be obtained on the basis of local raw materials. One of the representatives of such material is disperse hydrated calcium silicate, which found wide practical application as the main components in the production of building materials, glass, glass ceramics and ceramic products. For example, relatively cheap highly dispersed crystalline material is intermediate product of hydrochemical synthesis of wollastonite xonotlite Ca6(Si6O17(OH2. A variety of calcium and silicon-containing raw materials, suitable to obtain various types hydrated calcium silicate, as well as increasing requirements for physical and chemical properties, caused by actuality of problems of search and study the best ways of synthesis hydrated calcium silicate from man-made and natural materials. The theoretical basis of the proposed technology for material production for road pavement lower categories is the ability of silicate dispersed materials transferred in an unstable state, forming a rock-like waterproof body at the time of application of mechanical load. Disperse hydrated calcium silicate are the most typical representatives of contactcondensation hardening binders. It should be noted that the technology of obtaining these binders is not related to high-temperature processes and the synthesis of HCS realized when wet treatment of available cheap raw materials on the standard equipment, what determines their practical significance.

  19. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  20. Materials Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Tomlinson

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Materials development is both a field of study and a practical undertaking. As a field it studies the principles and procedures of the design, implementation and evaluation and adaptation of language teaching materials, by teachers for their own classrooms and by materials writers for sale or distribution. Ideally these two aspects of materials development are interactive in that the theoretical studies inform and are informed by the development and use of classroom materials (e. g. Tomlinson 1998c).

  1. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  2. Analytic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90(°) rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  3. Analytic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-01-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer $p$. If $p$ takes its maximum value then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise it is incomplete analytic material of rank $p$. For two-dimensional materials further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a $90^\\circ$ rotation applied to a divergence free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  4. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause cancer. Know how to use the material and how to store it or throw it away when you are done. Other tips include: Never enter an area where radiation ... materials from one area to another. Check bottles, containers, ...

  5. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...... materials. Numerical procedures are outlined which facilitate the practical analysis of any feature considered in this book. Examples are presented which illustrate the analysis of well-known materials such as concrete, hardening cement paste, ceramics, tile, wood, impregnated and reinforced materials...

  6. Aerospace materials and material technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, R

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of chapters on materials (both established and evolving) and material technologies that are important for aerospace systems. It considers aerospace materials in three Parts. Part I covers Metallic Materials (Mg, Al, Al-Li, Ti, aero steels, Ni, intermetallics, bronzes and Nb alloys); Part II deals with Composites (GLARE, PMCs, CMCs and Carbon based CMCs); and Part III considers Special Materials. This compilation has ensured that no important aerospace material system is ignored. Emphasis is laid in each chapter on the underlying scientific principles as well as basic and fundamental mechanisms leading to processing, characterization, property evaluation and applications. A considerable amount of materials data is compiled and presented in appendices at the end of the book. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

  7. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  8. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  9. Materials characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, N.W.; Nicolet, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the methods used in the chemical analysis of materials. Topics considered at the symposium included emerging techniques for materials microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, crystal lattices, computerized tomography using synchrotron radiation, epitaxy, photoconductivity, elastic properties, neutron-induced particle track mapping of elemental distributions, and point defects in crystals.

  10. Bioresponsive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Aimetti, Alex A.; Langer, Robert; Gu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    'Smart' bioresponsive materials that are sensitive to biological signals or to pathological abnormalities, and interact with or are actuated by them, are appealing therapeutic platforms for the development of next-generation precision medications. Armed with a better understanding of various biologically responsive mechanisms, researchers have made innovations in the areas of materials chemistry, biomolecular engineering, pharmaceutical science, and micro- and nanofabrication to develop bioresponsive materials for a range of applications, including controlled drug delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and biomedical devices. This Review highlights recent advances in the design of smart materials capable of responding to the physiological environment, to biomarkers and to biological particulates. Key design principles, challenges and future directions, including clinical translation, of bioresponsive materials are also discussed.

  11. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  12. Periodontal materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, I

    2011-06-01

    Periodontics is more associated with debridement of periodontal pockets and not generally thought of as using dental materials in the treatment of patients. However, the last 30 years have seen the development of materials used in regeneration of the periodontal tissues following periodontal disease, guided tissue regeneration, and the use of these materials in bone regeneration more recently, guided bone regeneration. The materials used include bone grafts and membranes, but also growth factors and cells-based therapies. This review provides an overview of the materials currently used and looks at contemporary research with a view to what may be used in the future. It also looks at the clinical effectiveness of these regenerative therapies with an emphasis on what is available in Australia.

  13. Bioresponsive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Aimetti, Alex A.; Langer, Robert; Gu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    'Smart' bioresponsive materials that are sensitive to biological signals or to pathological abnormalities, and interact with or are actuated by them, are appealing therapeutic platforms for the development of next-generation precision medications. Armed with a better understanding of various biologically responsive mechanisms, researchers have made innovations in the areas of materials chemistry, biomolecular engineering, pharmaceutical science, and micro- and nanofabrication to develop bioresponsive materials for a range of applications, including controlled drug delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and biomedical devices. This Review highlights recent advances in the design of smart materials capable of responding to the physiological environment, to biomarkers and to biological particulates. Key design principles, challenges and future directions, including clinical translation, of bioresponsive materials are also discussed.

  14. Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Group of the Safety Commission is responsible for shipping of radioactive material from CERN to any external institute or organisation. The RP group is equally responsible for the reception of radioactive material shipped to any of the CERN sites. Anyone who needs to ship from or import into CERN radioactive material must contact the Radioactive Shipping Service of the RP group in advance. Instructions are available at: http://cern.ch/rp-shipping or in the Radiation Protection Procedure PRP13: https://edms.cern.ch/document/346823 Radiation Protection Group

  15. Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Group of the Safety Commission is responsible for shipping of radioactive material from CERN to any external institute or organisation. The RP group is equally responsible for the reception of radioactive material shipped to any of the CERN sites. Anyone who needs to ship from or import into CERN radioactive material must contact the Radioactive Shipping Service of the RP group in advance. Instructions are available at: http://cern.ch/rp-shipping or in the Radiation Protection Procedure PRP13: https://edms.cern.ch/document/346823 Radiation Protection Group

  16. Virtual materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    an interesting platform for further development including virtual materiality and agency. If we choose to proceed along this line – some of our steps would include attention to the following points: 1. Working with virtual realities first of all undermines a pure realist conceptualization of materiality. We need......There are two questions that feed the curiosity of this paper: a theoretical question connected to the conceptualization of materiality across the real/virtual divide and an empirical question connected to the understanding of virtual experiences in children’s lives when studied in relation...... as their recounts of them and 3. the consumption of other media products like movies, reality shows, YouTube videos etc. How do we theorize ‘matter’ in such dimensions? Is it possible to theorize virtual matter as ‘materiality’ in line with any real life materiality? What conceptualization will help us understand...

  17. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  18. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  19. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  20. Propulsion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Edward J. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sullivan, Rogelio A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  1. Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    with macroscopic reinforcements such as fiber, clay, glass mineral and other fillers. The nano-alloyed polymers are particularly useful for producing...applications, including space-sur- vivable materials and seals, gaskets, cosmetics , and personal care. 25 Claims, 10 Drawing Sheets B-3 U.S. Patent Mar...the incorporation of fluorinated nanostructured chemicals onto the surface of a secondary material (such as Ti02 , CaC03 , glass or mineral

  2. Wetting, superhydrophobicity, and icephobicity in biomimetic composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Vahid

    Recent developments in nano- and bio-technology require new materials. Among these new classes of materials which have emerged in the recent years are biomimetic materials, which mimic structure and properties of materials found in living nature. There are a large number of biological objects including bacteria, animals and plants with properties of interest for engineers. Among these properties is the ability of the lotus leaf and other natural materials to repel water, which has inspired researchers to prepare similar surfaces. The Lotus effect involving roughness-induced superhydrophobicity is a way to design nonwetting, self-cleaning, omniphobic, icephobic, and antifouling surfaces. The range of actual and potential applications of superhydrophobic surfaces is diverse including optical, building and architecture, textiles, solar panels, lab-on-a-chip, microfluidic devices, and applications requiring antifouling from biological and organic contaminants. In this thesis, in chapter one, we introduce the general concepts and definitions regarding the wetting properties of the surfaces. In chapter two, we develop novel models and conduct experiments on wetting of composite materials. To design sustainable superhydrophobic metal matrix composite (MMC) surfaces, we suggest using hydrophobic reinforcement in the bulk of the material, rather than only at its surface. We experimentally study the wetting properties of graphite-reinforced Al- and Cu-based composites and conclude that the Cu-based MMCs have the potential to be used in the future for the applications where the wear-resistant superhydrophobicity is required. In chapter three, we introduce hydrophobic coating at the surface of concrete materials making them waterproof to prevent material failure, because concretes and ceramics cannot stop water from seeping through them and forming cracks. We create water-repellant concretes with CA close to 160o using superhydrophobic coating. In chapter four, experimental

  3. Construction technology of waterproofing and insulation in spraying rigid polyurethane foam on external wall%外墙喷涂聚氨酯硬泡体防水保温一体化施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付国永

    2012-01-01

      Rigid polyurethane foam is a new type of building material. Rigid polyurethane foam external wall insulation system is a thermal insulation system with excellent properties, which can achieve 65 % of energy conservation. This article describes characteristics, structure, construction process and construction technology of rigid polyurethane foam external thermal insulation system.%  聚氨酯硬泡体是一种新型建筑材料。聚氨酯硬泡体外墙外保温系统是技术先进、性能优良的保温体系,其应用和推广对于实现65%的节能目标具有重要意义。针对喷涂法介绍聚氨酯硬泡体外墙防水保温一体化系统的特点、构造、施工流程和施工工艺等。

  4. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  5. Utopian Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard-Jensen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    In various ways, this paper makes the counter-intuitive claim that the utopian and the material are thoroughlyinterdependent, rather than worlds apart. First, through a reading of Thomas More's Utopia, it is argued thatUtopia is the product of particular kinds of relations, rather than merely...... a detachment from the known world.Second, the utopianism of a new economy firm is examined. It is argued that the physical set-up of the firm -in particular the distribution of tables and chairs - evoke a number of alternatives to ordinary work practice.In this way the materialities of the firm are crucial...

  6. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  7. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily...

  8. Touching Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2012-01-01

    Dripping ink pens, colourful paint on skin, vegetables pots on a school roof. In interviews with three generations of former school pupils, memories of material objects bore a relation to everyday school life in the past. Interwoven, these objects entered the memorising processes, taking...

  9. Friction Material Composites Materials Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2012-01-01

    Friction Material Composites is the first of the five volumes which strongly educates and updates engineers and other professionals in braking industries, research and test labs. It explains besides the formulation of design processes and its complete manufacturing input. This book gives an idea of mechanisms of friction and how to control them by designing .The book is  useful for designers  of automotive, rail and aero industries for designing the brake systems effectively with the integration of friction material composite design which is critical. It clearly  emphasizes the driving  safety and how serious designers should  select the design input. The significance of friction material component like brake pad or a liner as an integral part of the brake system of vehicles is explained. AFM pictures at nanolevel illustrate broadly the explanations given.

  10. Magnetocaloric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppesen, Stinus

    2008-10-15

    New and improved magnetocaloric materials are one of the cornerstones in the development of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. Magnetic refrigeration has been used since the 1930ies in cryogenic applications, but has since the discovery of room temperature refrigerants received enormous attention. This Ph.D. work has been mainly concerned with developing a new technique to characterize the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and using this technique in the investigations on new and improved magnetocaloric materials. For this purpose a novel differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with applied magnetic fields was developed for measuring heat capacity as function of magnetic field. Measurements using the developed DSC demonstrate a very high sensitivity, fast measurements and good agreement with results obtained by other techniques. Furthermore, two material systems have been described in this work. Both systems take basis in the mixed-valence manganite system La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} well known from research on colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The mixed-valence manganite crystallizes in the perovskite structure of general formula ABO{sub 3}. The first material system is designed to investigate the influence of low level Cu doping on the B-site. Six different samples were prepared with over-stoichiometric compositions La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1.05}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}, x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. All compositions crystallized well in the same perovskite structure, but the morphology of the samples changed drastically with doping. Investigation on the magnetocaloric properties revealed that small levels of Cu up to around 3% could improve the magnetocaloric performance of the materials. Furthermore, Cu could be used to tune the temperature interval without deteriorating the MCE, which is a much desired characteristic for potential use in magnetic refrigerators. A less comprehensive part of the work has been concerned with the investigation of doping on the A

  11. DENTAL MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study deals with the determination of characteristic physical and mechanical properties of restorative dental materials, and effect of...manipulative variables on these properties. From the study an entirely new dental gold inlay casting technic was developed, based on the principle of...controlled water added hygroscopic technic. The method has had successful dental applications and is a recognized method of dental inlay casting procedure

  12. Strategic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Titanium exists primarily in the minerals anatase , brookite, ilmenite, perovskite, rutile , titanite (sphene), as well in many iron ores. Of these minerals...raw materials ( anatase , ilmenite, and rutile ) are estimated at over 2 billion tons (U.S.G.S., 2007, p. 175). Due to its tendency to react with air at...only rutile (titanium dioxide) and ilmenite (iron-titanium oxide) have any economic importance. Unfortunately, high concentrations of the mineral

  13. Biomedical Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jiang; ZHOU Yanling

    2011-01-01

    @@ Biomedical materials, biomaterials for short, is regarded as "any substance or combination of substances, synthetic or natural in origin, which can be used for any period of time, as a whole or as part of a system which treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ or function of the body" (Vonrecum & Laberge, 1995).Biomaterials can save lives, relieve suffering and enhance the quality of life for human being.

  14. Material monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, W.; Zirker, L.; Hancock, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) facilities are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall goal for the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Unit is to identify and establish the correct amount of waste generated so that it can be reduced. Quarterly, the INEL Pollution Prevention (P2) Unit compares the projected amount of waste generated per process with the actual amount generated. Examples of waste streams that would be addresses for our facility would include be are not limited to: Maintenance, Upgrades, Office and Scrap Metal. There are three potential sources of this variance: inaccurate identification of those who generate the waste; inaccurate identification of the process that generates the waste; and inaccurate measurement of the actual amount generated. The Materials Monitoring Program was proposed to identify the sources of variance and reduce the variance to an acceptable level. Prior to the implementation of the Material Monitoring Program, all information that was gathered and recorded was done so through an informal estimation of waste generated by various personnel concerned with each processes. Due to the inaccuracy of the prior information gathering system, the Material Monitoring Program was established. The heart of this program consists of two main parts. In the first part potential waste generators provide information on projected waste generation process. In the second part, Maintenance, Office, Scrap Metal and Facility Upgrade wastes from given processes is disposed within the appropriate bin dedicated to that process. The Material Monitoring Program allows for the more accurate gathering of information on the various waste types that are being generated quarterly.

  15. FOREWORD: Materials metrology Materials metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Seton; Valdés, Joaquin

    2010-04-01

    It seems that so much of modern life is defined by the materials we use. From aircraft to architecture, from cars to communications, from microelectronics to medicine, the development of new materials and the innovative application of existing ones have underpinned the technological advances that have transformed the way we live, work and play. Recognizing the need for a sound technical basis for drafting codes of practice and specifications for advanced materials, the governments of countries of the Economic Summit (G7) and the European Commission signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 1982 to establish the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). This project supports international trade by enabling scientific collaboration as a precursor to the drafting of standards. The VAMAS participants recognized the importance of agreeing a reliable, universally accepted basis for the traceability of the measurements on which standards depend for their preparation and implementation. Seeing the need to involve the wider metrology community, VAMAS approached the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM). Following discussions with NMI Directors and a workshop at the BIPM in February 2005, the CIPM decided to establish an ad hoc Working Group on the metrology applicable to the measurement of material properties. The Working Group presented its conclusions to the CIPM in October 2007 and published its final report in 2008, leading to the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between VAMAS and the BIPM. This MoU recognizes the work that is already going on in VAMAS as well as in the Consultative Committees of the CIPM and establishes a framework for an ongoing dialogue on issues of materials metrology. The question of what is meant by traceability in the metrology of the properties of materials is particularly vexed when the measurement results depend on a specified procedure. In these cases, confidence in results requires not only traceable

  16. Casting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  17. Energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2011-01-01

    In an age of global industrialisation and population growth, the area of energy is one that is very much in the public consciousness. Fundamental scientific research is recognised as being crucial to delivering solutions to these issues, particularly to yield novel means of providing efficient, ideally recyclable, ways of converting, transporting and delivering energy. This volume considers a selection of the state-of-the-art materials that are being designed to meet some of the energy challenges we face today. Topics are carefully chosen that show how the skill of the synthetic chemist can

  18. Materializing Superghosts

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Victor; Losev, Andrei; Lysov, Vyacheslav

    2007-01-01

    We construct the off-shell BV realization of N=1, d=10 SYM with 7 auxillary fields. This becomes possible due to materialized ghost phenomenon. Namely, supersymmetry ghosts are coordinates on a manifold B of 10-dimensional spinors with pure spinors cut out. Auxillary fields are sections of a bundle over B, and supersymmetry transformations are nonlinear in ghosts. By integrating out axillary fields we obtain on-shell supersymmetric BV action with terms quadratic in antifields. Exactly this on-shell BV action was obtained in our previous paper after integration out of auxiliary fields in the framework of Pure Spinor Superfield Formalism.

  19. Construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  20. Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational

  1. Human-mediated dispersal of aquatic invertebrates with waterproof footwear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valls, Luis; Castillo-Escrivà, Andreu; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Armengol, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    ...-)national management considering invasive species in other aquatic systems. In this context, we aim at understanding the role of human-mediated dispersal by footwear in protected wetlands with high conservation value...

  2. Materializing ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandvad, Sara Malou

    2011-01-01

    to investigate how the evolving object may form an active part in the collaborative process of its making. The article identifies three moments when the evolving object becomes decisive for the collaboration: the idea has to be detached to enable collaboration; attachments between collaborators are made via...... the evolving object; and closure of the product is postponed to enhance creative development. Thus, the article suggests that cultural objects and the processes of their making are co-produced, evolve simultaneously and are mutually constitutive. In this way, the object may have effects even while......Based on a qualitative study of development processes in the Danish film industry, this article sketches a socio-material perspective for analysing the production of culture. Whereas previous studies of cultural production have identified social factors in cultural production, this article sets out...

  3. Virtual materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    to bullying practices in school. The theoretical question concerns the conceptual challenges that arise from empirical data which contain 1. children’s narratives about matter and meaning as they intertwine in their nightly dreams, 2. the observations of children’s’ computer gaming practices as well...... the character and effects of the skeleton army, which came across the sea to drown the boys in Phillip’s school class: a central scene in one of the dreams he recounted? Are the boat and the water in that dream materialities? Discourse? Part of some kind of enacted subjectivity? How will our decision of which......, experiences etc. Among these many interacting forces technologies play a crucial part – as do bodies, whether they are fighting, playing, dreaming, loving or hating bodies. And as do weapons - whether in the shape of virtual weapons of the computer games (as in e.g. Battlefield, Counter Strike, Grand Theft...

  4. Materializing superghosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, V.; Krotov, D.; Losev, A.; Lysov, V.

    2007-12-01

    The off-shell Batalin-Vilkovysky (BV) realization has been constructed for N = 1, d = 10 super-Yang-Mills theory with seven auxiliary fields. This becomes possible due to the materialized ghost phenomenon. Namely, supersymmetry ghosts are coordinates on a manifold B of ten-dimensional spinors with the pure spinors cut out. Auxiliary fields are sections of a bundle over B, and supersymmetry transformations are nonlinear in ghosts. By integrating out the auxiliary fields, we obtain an on-shell supersymmetric BV action with quadratic terms in the antifields. Exactly this on-shell BV action was obtained in our previous paper after integration out of auxiliary fields in the framework of a pure spinor superfield formalism.

  5. Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational

  6. Grace Concrete Admixture and water-proofing material of roof applying in Hongkong Disneyland%格雷斯混凝土外加剂以及屋面防水层用于香港迪士尼乐园建设项目

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    (2005年11月3日,上海)香港迪士尼乐园主题公园于2005年9月在人们的热切期盼中开放。在这个历时几年的高难度建设项目中,作为全球领先的建筑产品制造商,格雷斯公司以其优质的产品参与了此项目的建设。格雷斯混凝土外加剂的使用

  7. 反应型橡胶基防水材料与硅酸盐水泥的化学作用研究%Investigation on the chemical reaction between the reactive rubber-based waterproof material and the silicate cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓岚; 周为为; 雷彩霞; 曹德光; 陈立斌; 王烨文

    2015-01-01

    分别采用了固体核磁共振和X射线光电子能谱对掺入不同KH-550硅烷偶联剂以及反应型橡胶基防水密封膏含量的水泥石样品进行了测试和分析.实验结果表明,当KH-550的含量达到一定值时,驾i固体核磁共振谱峰发生了比较明显的偏移,Si原子的化学环境发生了一定程度的变化;并且随着偶联剂用量的增加,水泥石样品中XPS的Si2p峰强呈现增强的趋势,而O1s的峰强有减弱的趋势.这些现象都在一定程度上证实了反应型橡胶基防水密封膏与水泥颗粒之间发生了化学反应,形成了一定的化学键.

  8. Biointegrating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amédée, J.; Bordenave, L.; Durrieu, M.-C.; Fricain, J.-C.; Pothuaud, L.

    The extraordinary increase in human longevity explains the growing need for replacement organs. The remarkable successes of conventional transplants (associated with the development of effective antirejection drugs and improved control of their administration) are also accompanied by certain drawbacks. First on the list is an inadequate supply of replacement organs: the number of candidates for transplants grows larger, opposition to the removal of organs increases, and the number of transplants has reached a ceiling. Furthermore, it has come to light over the past few years that organ transplants carry a significant risk of transmitting pathogens. Finally, the main drawback lies in the need to pursue an immunosuppression treatment. Scientists and doctors have long been in search of alternatives to human organ transplants. According to the definition drawn up in Chester in 1986 at the Consensus Conference organised under the aegis of the European Society for Biomaterials, biomaterials are non-viable materials used in a medical device and destined to interact with biological systems, whether they contribute to the constitution of a diagnostic device, a tissue or organ substitute, or a device designed to provide functional assistance or replacement.

  9. 南京四桥钢桥面铺装防水粘结层试验及施工工艺研究%Tests for Waterproof Binding Layer of Steel Bridge Deck Pavement of Fourth Nanjing Changjiang River Bridge and the Paving Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章登精; 朱华平; 潘友强

    2014-01-01

    T he Fourth Nanjing Changjiang River Bridge is a three-span continuous steel box girder suspension bridge with a main span of 1 418 m ,to which the composite poured asphalt steel deck pavement system has been used for the first time .The lower layer of the pavement is the 4 cm thick GA-13 poured asphalt concrete w hile the upper layer is the 3 .5 cm thick AC-13 high-elastic modified asphalt concrete ,and the binding layer between the lower layer and the steel deck plate a-dopts the solvent rubber asphalt .To investigate the performance of the binding layer ,the solvent rubber asphalt was checked by the pull-out test and shear test .The results indicate that the bind-ing layer of solvent rubber asphalt can better meet the anti-debonding damage requirements of the steel bridge deck pavement under constant temperatures ,but under the extreme low temperatures , the tensile strength of the binding layer should be checked .The binding layer is proved satisfying the anti-shear requirements .To direct the binding layer construction ,the testing of the surface handling technique for the steel bridge deck and that of the field construction technique of the bind-ing layer were carried out .According to the test results ,the targeted measures taken for ensuring the construction quality were proposed . The sandblasting of the steel bridge deck was set at Sa3 .0 .After the sandblasting of the steel bridge deck ,the waterproof binding layer was directly paved and there was no need to do the traditional zinc spraying or painting protection .The rational construction control parameters were determined through experimental study and trial section con-struction .%南京四桥为主跨1418 m的三跨连续钢箱梁悬索桥,在国内首次采用复合浇注式沥青钢桥面铺装体系,下层为4 cm厚GA -13浇注式沥青混凝土,上层为3.5 cm厚AC -13高弹改性沥青混凝土,下层与桥面钢板的粘结层采用溶剂型橡胶沥青。为了解粘结层性能,

  10. HIGHLY EFFECTIVE CHEMICAL MODIFIERS FOR PRODUCTION OF CONCRETES WITH PRE-SET PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the application of industrial by-products and recycled materials. Waterproofing admixtures improve the structure and the properties of the cement stone. Development and preparation of highly effective waterproofing modifiers of durable effect, as well as development of the process procedure parameters, including mixing, activation, heat treatment, etc. are to be implemented. The composition of waterproofing modifiers is to be fine-tuned to synergize the behaviour of var...

  11. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2016-03-29

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer resin, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  12. Assessment of hydrophysical and mechanical properties of the new mineral-basedwaterproofing material ОЦЕНКА ГИДРОФИЗИЧЕСКИХ И МЕХАНИЧЕСКИХ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИК НОВОГО ГИДРОИЗОЛЯЦИОННОГО ОБМАЗОЧНОГО СОСТАВА НА МИНЕРАЛЬНОЙ ОСНОВЕ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapidevskaya Ol’ga Borisovna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problems of influence of corrosive water media onto underground buildings and structures and various methods of their waterproofing. The market overview of up-to-date waterproofing compounds is provided in the article. The authors set forth their research findings identified at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering recently. A new mineral-based waterproofing coating material is presented. The authors deal with the issue of chemical interaction within the system of cement - microsilica - soda-silica glass and the issue of optimization of particle packing aimed at the assurance of superior protective and durability-related properties of the composition. The main process strengths of the new coating material are enlisted.The authors introduce the results of comparative tests of basic hydro-physical and mechanical (compressive strength, adhesive strength properties of the new material and its analogues currently applied in the construction industry with a view to the assessment of the protective ability and the economic effectiveness of the new waterproofing material.Рассмотрен вопрос обеспечения гидроизоляционной защиты подземных зданий и сооружений. Предложен новый эффективный обмазочный гидроизоляционный материал на минеральной основе. Приведены результаты сравнительных испытаний по определению основных гидрофизических и механических характеристик разработанного состава и аналогов, применяемых в строительной индустрии, с целью оценки эффективности применения представленного гидроизоляционного материала.

  13. The materials physics companion

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Materials Physics: Structure of matter. Solid state physics. Dynamic properties of solids. Dielectric Properties of Materials: Dielectric properties. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Dielectric breakdown. Applications of dielectrics. Magnetic Properties of Materials: Magnetic properties. Magnetic moment. Spontaneous magnetization. Superconductivity.

  14. Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2 Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Günter, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2: Materials is the second of three volumes within the Springer Series in Optical Sciences. The book gives a comprehensive review of the most important photorefractive materials and discusses the physical properties of organic and inorganic crystals as well as poled polymers. In this volume, photorefractive effects have been investigated at wavelengths covering the UV, visible and near infrared. Researchers in the field and graduate students of solid-state physics and engineering will gain a thorough understanding of the properties of materials in photorefractive applications. The other two volumes are: Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1: Basic Effects. Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 3: Applications.

  15. Transporting particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Derek Leslie [North Hollywood, CA; Rader, Jeffrey A [North Hollywood, CA; Saunders, Timothy W [North Hollywood, CA

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  16. Investigations on Electronic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    E. Pugnor; T. Kormány

    1982-01-01

    Electronics has been described as a materials oriented technology. In this sense a short review is given concerning: the connection of materials characterization to the design and processing of electronic components; the most important materials characterization methods used for electronic materials; the strategy of organizing a complete material characterization system for selected electronic components.

  17. Nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D F

    1991-07-19

    The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.

  18. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  19. Coated electroactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2016-08-30

    A process includes suspending an electroactive material in a solvent, suspending or dissolving a carbon precursor in the solvent; and depositing the carbon precursor on the electroactive material to form a carbon-coated electroactive material. Compositions include a graphene-coated electroactive material prepared from a solution phase mixture or suspension of an electroactive material and graphene, graphene oxide, or a mixture thereof.

  20. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Julian M; Ashby, Michael F; Gutowski, Timothy G; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-03-13

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations-- for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards--is likely to have a more immediate effect.

  1. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...

  2. Thermoelectric materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Talcott, Noel A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    New thermoelectric materials comprise highly [111]-oriented twinned group IV alloys on the basal plane of trigonal substrates, which exhibit a high thermoelectric figure of merit and good material performance, and devices made with these materials.

  3. Materials for Fusion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Matějíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of materials foreseen for use or already used in fusion devices is given. The operating conditions, material requirements and characteristics of candidate materials in several specific application segments are briefly reviewed. These include: construction materials, electrical insulation, permeation barriers and plasma facing components. Special attention will be paid to the latter and to the issues of plasma-material interaction, materials joining and fuctionally graded interlayers.

  4. Advances of the Development of MMA Series Materials%MMA系列材料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱怀刚; 李明阳

    2012-01-01

    文章综述了MMA防水涂料、MMA彩色防滑路面、MMA地坪涂料和MMA混凝土修复材料等系列产品的研究进展情况。%The recent research progresses of MMA in waterproof paint, colorful antiskid pavement, floor paint and concrete restoration were summarized.

  5. High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The High Temperature Materials Lab provides the Navy and industry with affordable high temperature materials for advanced propulsion systems. Asset List: Arc Melter...

  6. Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...

  7. Multifunctional materials and composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Jeon, Ki-Wan

    2017-08-22

    Forming multifunctional materials and composites thereof includes contacting a first material having a plurality of oxygen-containing functional groups with a chalcogenide compound, and initiating a chemical reaction between the first material and the chalcogenide compound, thereby replacing oxygen in some of the oxygen-containing functional groups with chalcogen from the chalcogen-containing compound to yield a second material having chalcogen-containing functional groups and oxygen-containing functional groups. The first material is a carbonaceous material or a macromolecular material. A product including the second material is collected and may be processed further to yield a modified product or a composite.

  8. Physically Functional Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    acids or peptides having azobenzenes or other physicially functional groups, e.g., photoresponsive groups, as side chains. These compounds may be synthesized using solid phase peptide synthesis techniques. Materials, e.g., thin films, comprising such compounds may be used for optical storage...... of information (holographic data storage), nonlinear optics (NLO), as photoconductors, photonic band-gap materials, electrically conducting materials, electroluminescent materials, piezo-electric materials, pyroelectric materials, magnetic materials, ferromagnetic materials, ferroelectric materials......, photorefractive materials, or materials in which light-induced conformational changes can be produced. Optical anisotropy may reversibly be generated with polarized laser light whereby a hologram is formed. First order diffraction efficiencies of up to around 80% have been obtained....

  9. Reference Materials System: materials policy information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, N.K.; Hoffman, K.C.

    1979-01-01

    The social and economic development of a nation is dependent on a reliable supply of materials and energy and on the efficient utilization of these resources. Decision making in industry and the formulation of government policies require a comprehensive information base encompassing the technical, economic, and environmental factors involved in the flow of materials through production processes and the overall economy. The Reference Materials System (RMS) is a network description of the flow of materials from resource extraction through refinement, production, and transportation processes to the utilization, maintenance, and recycling operations. The system has been employed for the assessment of material production technologies and for the evaluation of substitution possibilities. The RMS provides a framework for integrating engineering and economic information into a comprehensive systems framework. The network flow diagram is quantified in terms of the mass flow of all renewable and nonrenewable materials on an annual basis through each step of the system. A variety of data elements including capital and labor requirements may be organized in this framework to provide a Materials Policy Data Base. This process description of the materials system may also be coupled with economic policy models of the input--output or econometric variety to ensure proper analysis of the role of materials in the overall economy.

  10. Materials Analysis and Modeling of Underfill Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, Nicholas B [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chambers, Robert S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The thermal-mechanical properties of three potential underfill candidate materials for PBGA applications are characterized and reported. Two of the materials are a formulations developed at Sandia for underfill applications while the third is a commercial product that utilizes a snap-cure chemistry to drastically reduce cure time. Viscoelastic models were calibrated and fit using the property data collected for one of the Sandia formulated materials. Along with the thermal-mechanical analyses performed, a series of simple bi-material strip tests were conducted to comparatively analyze the relative effects of cure and thermal shrinkage amongst the materials under consideration. Finally, current knowledge gaps as well as questions arising from the present study are identified and a path forward presented.

  11. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R.W.; Nieman, G.W.; Weertman, J.R.

    1994-06-14

    A method is disclosed for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material. 19 figs.

  12. Giant magnetostrictive materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU JingHua; JIANG ChengBao; XU HuiBin

    2012-01-01

    Giant magnetostrictive materials are a kind of functional materials developed since 1970s,known as their large magnetostrain and high energy density.In this paper,an introduction of magnetosttiction and the history of magnetostrictive materials are described firstly.Then we review the recent developments of both rare earth and non-rare earth magnetostrictive materials.Finally,the tendency of developing new giant magnetostrictive materials is presented.

  13. Joining of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

    2012-10-16

    A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

  14. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  15. Bulk Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, C. C.; Langdon, T. G.; Lavernia, E. J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper will address three topics of importance to bulk nanostructured materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are defined as bulk solids with nanoscale or partly nanoscale microstructures. This category of nanostructured materials has historical roots going back many decades but has relatively recent focus due to new discoveries of unique properties of some nanoscale materials. Bulk nanostructured materials are prepared by a variety of severe plastic deformation methods, and these will be reviewed. Powder processing to prepare bulk nanostructured materials requires that the powders be consolidated by typical combinations of pressure and temperature, the latter leading to coarsening of the microstructure. The thermal stability of nanostructured materials will also be discussed. An example of bringing nanostructured materials to applications as structural materials will be described in terms of the cryomilling of powders and their consolidation.

  16. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...... materials are characterized by their hierarchical and composite design, where features with sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters provide the basis for the functionality of the material. Understanding of biological materials is, while very interesting from a basic research perspective, also valuable...... as inspiration for the development of new materials for medical and technological applications. In order to successfully mimic biological materials we must first have a thorough understanding of their design. As such, the purpose of the characterization of biological materials can be defined as the establishment...

  17. Materials science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    During FY-96, work within the Materials Science and Engineering Thrust Area was focused on material modeling. Our motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as material processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, in support of many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These studies are described in (1) Strength and Fracture Toughness of Material Interfaces; (2) Damage Evolution in Fiber Composite Materials; (3) Flashlamp Envelope Optical Properties and Failure Analysis; (4) Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite; and (5) Room Temperature Creep Compliance of Bulk Kel-E.

  18. Advanced energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    An essential resource for scientists designing new energy materials for the vast landscape of solar energy conversion as well as materials processing and characterization Based on the new and fundamental research on novel energy materials with tailor-made photonic properties, the role of materials engineering has been to provide much needed support in the development of photovoltaic devices. Advanced Energy Materials offers a unique, state-of-the-art look at the new world of novel energy materials science, shedding light on the subject's vast multi-disciplinary approach The book focuses p

  19. EC Transmission Line Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  20. Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane Material for Patching: Laboratory Investigations and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    membranes made from vulcanized cthylcne-propylenc-dienc terpolymer (EPDM) rubber as the waterproofing component of low-sloped roofing systems has...terpolymer). The use of vulcanized EPDM rubber for low-sloped roofing membranes has become common in the U.S. Current estimates indicate that more than 93...would provide a means for obtaining field data on this proposed tesi , which has not yet been investigated in the field. 45 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND

  1. Smart hydrogel functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.

  2. Sustainable Materials Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce businesses, NGOs, and government officials to the concept of Sustainable Materials Management (SMM). To provide tools to allow stakeholders to take a lifecycle approach managing their materials, & to encourage them to join a SMM challenge.

  3. Practical materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Presents cross-comparison between materials characterization techniquesIncludes clear specifications of strengths and limitations of each technique for specific materials characterization problemFocuses on applications and clear data interpretation without extensive mathematics

  4. Informing material specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Karmon, Ayelet

    2012-01-01

    programmable architectural design tools and advanced computer numerically controlled (CNC) knitting machines we understand the practice of textile design as a particular class of material design that enables variegation across both material and structure. Our aim for the experiments is firstly: the design......Architecture is entering a radical rethinking of its material practice. Advancements in material science and more complex models of material simulation as well as the interfaces between design and fabrication are fundamentally changing the way we conceive and design our built environment. This new...... technological platform allows an unprecedented control over the material. Creating direct links between the space of design and the space of fabrication, the idea of the hyper specified material developed in direct response to defined design criteria calls upon a new material practice in which designers...

  5. Renewable smart materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chan; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U.; Zhai, Lindong; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-01

    The use of renewable materials is essential in future technologies to harmonize with our living environment. Renewable materials can maintain our resources from the environment so as to overcome degradation of natural environmental services and diminished productivity. This paper reviews recent advancement of renewable materials for smart material applications, including wood, cellulose, chitin, lignin, and their sensors, actuators and energy storage applications. To further improve functionality of renewable materials, hybrid composites of inorganic functional materials are introduced by incorporating carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide and tin oxide conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Since renewable materials have many advantages of biocompatible, sustainable, biodegradable, high mechanical strength and versatile modification behaviors, more research efforts need to be focused on the development of renewable smart materials.

  6. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  7. Materials modelling in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David

    2016-04-01

    Angelos Michaelides, Professor in Theoretical Chemistry at University College London (UCL) and co-director of the Thomas Young Centre (TYC), explains to Nature Materials the challenges in materials modelling and the objectives of the TYC.

  8. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  9. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  10. Crystallography of modular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraris, Giovanni; Merlino, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive text is addressed at scientists who are interested in considering crystalline materials from a non-conventional but inspiring viewpoint. It contains the first systematic theoretical and illustrative presentation of crystalline materials built from modules.

  11. Electronics materials research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  12. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  13. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  14. Materials Genome Initiative Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is committed to developing new materials and manufacturing methods that can enable new missions with ever increasing mission demands. Typically, the development and certification of new materials and manufacturing methods in the aerospace industry has required more than 20 years of development time with a costly testing and certification program. To reduce the cost and time to mature these emerging technologies, NASA is developing computational materials tools to improve understanding of the material and guide the certification process.

  15. Multifunctional Metallosupramolecular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    University, Dallas, Texas Invited Lecture: Supramolecular Chemistry in Polymeric Systems: From Nanoassemblies to Dynamic Materials Aug 2009 ACS Fall...Supramolecular Chemistry in Polymeric Systems: From Nanoassemblies to Dynamic Materials April 2009 University of Michigan, Ann Arbour, Michigan Invited... Nanoassemblies to Dynamic Materials Sept 2008 College of Wooster, Department of Chemistry Invited Lecture: Supramolecular Polymer Chemistry: A Route to

  16. New materials for Inductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roc'h, A.; Iannarelli, R.; Leferink, F.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional materials for coils and common mode chokes are iron and ferrites. Iron has a high saturation level but low permeability, and ferrite has low saturation and high permeability. Nanocrystalline materials are a rather new material with a high saturation and a high permeability. The advantage

  17. Hydrophilic nanoporous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    .05, the method comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a precursor material comprising at least one polymeric component and having a first phase and a second phase; (b) removal of at least a part of the first phase of the precursor material prepared in step (a) so as to leave behind a nanoporous material...

  18. Advances in dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-05-01

    The dental market is replete with new resorative materials marketed on the basis of novel technological advances in materials chemistry, bonding capability or reduced operator time and/or technique sensitivity. This paper aims to consider advances in current materials, with an emphasis on their role in supporting contemporary clinical practice.

  19. Bibliography of Citizenship Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 CASAS "Bibliography of Citizenship Materials" lists available instructional resources for citizenship education. It focuses on materials appropriate for preparing people for the naturalization process and the standardized citizenship examination. Resources include textbooks, audio materials, software and Videos/DVDs. The bibliography also…

  20. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  1. Computing and Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The digital is often said to bring us away from material. The adverse is true: digital design and fabrication grants new interfaces towards material and allows architectural design to engage with material on architectural scale in a way that is further reaching than ever before....

  2. Magnetism Materials and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Trémolet de Lacheisserie, Étienne; Schlenker, Michel

    2005-01-01

    This book treats permanent magnet (hard) materials, magnetically soft materials for low-frequency applications and for high-frequency electronics, magnetostrictive materials, superconductors, magnetic-thin films and multilayers, and ferrofluids. Chapters are dedicated to magnetic recording, the role of magnetism in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and instrumentation for magnetic measurements.   

  3. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  4. Advanced Materials Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, C. P. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Composites, polymer science, metallic materials (aluminum, titanium, and superalloys), materials processing technology, materials durability in the aerospace environment, ceramics, fatigue and fracture mechanics, tribology, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are discussed. Research and development activities are introduced to the nonaerospace industry. In order to provide a convenient means to help transfer aerospace technology to the commercial mainstream in a systematic manner.

  5. Preparation of a Fully Degraded Packaging Material by Using the Mushroom Cultivation Technology%食用菌制全降解包装材料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚舒; 牛宏震; 林理量; 苏鑫; 陈万通; 林毅; 曾德芳

    2015-01-01

    In order to diminish the contamination of non -degradable plastic packaging waste on the environment,the straw and wood chips was used as the main raw materials,aided by mushroom cultivation technology,a new type of packaging material which can be completely degraded and is pollution free and cost-effective,was produced.The manufacturing method is simple and suitable for industrialized production. In this experiment,comparison methods are used to study the effect of different ratio of raw materials on my-celial's growth.The result shows that in the ratio of 57% straw,30%wood chips,10% wheat bran,1%gypsum and 2% lime,the mycelium cultivated by pure culture of pleurotus ostreatus is most abundant and has best firmness.By waterproof test and comparing the cushioning property of the materials,we find that the biomass material can totally replace EPS (expanded polystyrene),EPE (expanded polyethylene)and other packaging materials.Meanwhile,the biomass material can be fully degraded in the soil and provide organic fertilizer for soil.%为了解决不可降解的废弃塑料类包装材料对环境的污染,以秸秆和木屑为主要原料,利用食用菌栽培技术制备了一种新型的、可完全降解的包装材料。采用对比实验的方法,研究了不同原料配比对菌丝生长情况的影响,结果表明,在秸秆57%、木屑30%、麸皮10%、石膏1%、石灰2%的配比下,选用平菇菌种栽培的培养基菌丝体含量最多,紧实度最好。通过材料的防水性能测试和缓冲性能比较,表明该生物质材料完全可以替代 EPS(发泡聚苯乙烯)和 EPE (发泡聚乙烯)等包装材料。同时,该生物质材料在土壤中可实现完全降解,为土壤提供有机肥料。

  6. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation

  7. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  8. Microporous polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Budd

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Microporous materials are solids that contain interconnected pores of molecular dimensions (i.e. <2 nm. Such materials possess large surface areas, typically 300-1500 m2 g−1, and are of great technological importance for adsorption and heterogeneous catalysis1. There are two main classes of microporous materials widely used in industry: crystalline zeolites (aluminosilicates and activated carbons. In the past decade, there has been an intense effort to optimize the porosity of these materials for various applications2,3. However, it is recognized that the design of entirely new microporous materials would open up exciting opportunities for fundamental research and industrial applications3.

  9. Tailored Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  10. Terminology of carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, G.N.; Nagornyi, V.G.; Ostrovskii, V.S.

    1986-07-01

    The need is discussed to standardize definition of carbonaceous material. Terms related to carbonaceous materials and their products are selected and analyzed. Diagramatic representation is given of relationships between carbonaceous materials. Carbon has two forms of structure, cubic and hexagonal, characterized by sp/sup 3/-hybrid groups of atoms forming spatial system of tetrahedral bonds. Hexagonal form of carbon is represented by natural materials such as graphite, shungite, anthracite and a number of artificial materials obtained during thermal treatment of organic substances at temperatures above carbonization temperature. 4 references.

  11. Applied Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Applied Electromagnetism and Materials picks up where the author's Basic Electromagnetism and Materials left off by presenting practical and relevant technological information about electromagnetic material properties and their applications. This book is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers in materials science and is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. Topics range from the spectroscopy and characterization of dielectrics and semiconductors, to non-linear effects and electromagnetic cavities, to ion-beam applications in materials science.

  12. Self-healing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Martin D; Greil, Peter; Leyens, Christoph; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2010-12-14

    Self-healing materials are able to partially or completely heal damage inflicted on them, e.g., crack formation; it is anticipated that the original functionality can be restored. This article covers the design and generic principles of self-healing materials through a wide range of different material classes including metals, ceramics, concrete, and polymers. Recent key developments and future challenges in the field of self-healing materials are summarised, and generic, fundamental material-independent principles and mechanism are discussed and evaluated.

  13. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena that modify the expected device performance. These reactions have become more challenging and more difficult to control as new materials have been introduced and as device sizes have entered the deep nanoscale. To provide an overview of this field of inquiry, this issue of MRS Bulletin includes articles on gate and contact materials for Si-based devices, junction contact materials for Si-based devices, and contact materials for alternate channel substrates (Ge and III-V), nanodevices. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  14. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  15. Modelling of thermoelectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lasse

    In order to discover new good thermoelectric materials, there are essentially two ways. One way is to go to the laboratory, synthesise a new material, and measure the thermoelectric properties. The amount of compounds, which can be investigated this way is limited because the process is time...... consuming. Another approach is to model the thermoelectric properties of a material on a computer. Several crystal structures can be investigated this way without use of much man power. I have chosen the latter approach. Using density functional theory I am able to calculate the band structure of a material....... This band structure I can then use to calculate the thermoelectric properties of the material. With these results I have investigated several materials and found the optimum theoretical doping concentration. If materials with these doping concentrations be synthesised, considerably better thermoelectric...

  16. Optical material. Hikari zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Sakate, N.; Ueoka, T.; Iwakuni, H. (Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    It is obvious that various electronic technologies will be positively adopted in automobiles in the future and optical materials are supporting the above trend greatly. In this article, with regard to the optical materials now adopted in automobiles or those expected to be adopted therein in the future, their principles as well as usage, etc. are outlined. Furthermore, the prospect of the materials in the future is stated. The optical materials selected in this article are as follows: as for optical communications; optical fibers, photo emission/reception components, connecting technologies, and photo switches, etc., concerning materials for display such as meters and instrument panels for automobiles, etc.; liquid crystal, electroluminescent elements, light emitting diodes, and polarization films, with regard to dimmering materials; electrochromism and photochromism, and concerning other optical materials; solar cells, and transparent electroconductive films. 13 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Articulating Material Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the experiences and potentials with materials teaching at the Institute for Product Design at Kolding School of Design, using materials teaching as experiments in my PhD project. The project intents to create a stronger material awareness among product design students...... with emphasis on sustainability. The experiments aim to develop an understanding of, how product design students include materials in their design practice and how tools can be developed that further enhance this. Hence experiments are essential for the progress of the PhD project as they help to observe......, imitate and articulate the students’ inclusion of materials. This paper particularly discusses the experiences made and ideas generated after the execution of a material science course for second year students, with emphasis on the concept of the material selection matrix as an educational tool...

  18. Multicomponent polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Sabu; Saha, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    The book offers an in-depth review of the materials design and manufacturing processes employed in the development of multi-component or multiphase polymer material systems. This field has seen rapid growth in both academic and industrial research, as multiphase materials are increasingly replacing traditional single-component materials in commercial applications. Many obstacles can be overcome by processing and using multiphase materials in automobile, construction, aerospace, food processing, and other chemical industry applications. The comprehensive description of the processing, characterization, and application of multiphase materials presented in this book offers a world of new ideas and potential technological advantages for academics, researchers, students, and industrial manufacturers from diverse fields including rubber engineering, polymer chemistry, materials processing and chemical science. From the commercial point of view it will be of great value to those involved in processing, optimizing an...

  19. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  20. Biological materials: a materials science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Marc A; Chen, Po-Yu; Lopez, Maria I; Seki, Yasuaki; Lin, Albert Y M

    2011-07-01

    The approach used by Materials Science and Engineering is revealing new aspects in the structure and properties of biological materials. The integration of advanced characterization, mechanical testing, and modeling methods can rationalize heretofore unexplained aspects of these structures. As an illustration of the power of this methodology, we apply it to biomineralized shells, avian beaks and feathers, and fish scales. We also present a few selected bioinspired applications: Velcro, an Al2O3-PMMA composite inspired by the abalone shell, and synthetic attachment devices inspired by gecko.

  1. The Time of Materiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrid Sørensen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While time and space form a classic duality in social science, this article demonstrates a perspective on time, space and materiality as a core trinity. As a prominent figure in contemporary discussions on materiality in the social sciences Science and Technology Studies (STS emphasizes relational approaches. STS however lacks a clear relational definition of materiality and tends instead to focus on the agency of entities, on for instance material agency. The article suggests a relational definition of materiality and notes that this move implies turning the question of the time of materiality into an empirical question. It is argued that relational materiality must be studied spatially, and thus a spatial approach describing patterns of relations is presented. Based on field work in a primary school classroom and computer lab, three materials are analyzed: the blackboard, a bed-loft and an online 3D virtual environment. The empirical descriptions depict three different materialities, and it is shown how time is formed differently in each of them. Time, it is argued, is an emergent and characterizing aspect of materialities as spatial formations. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070122

  2. Materials and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Theodore T.; Langenbeck, Sharon L.; Al-Jamily, Ghanim; Arnold, Joe; Barbee, Troy; Coulter, Dan; Dolgin, Ben; Fichter, Buck; George, Patricia; Gorenstein, Paul

    1992-08-01

    Materials and structures technology covers a wide range of technical areas. Some of the most pertinent issues for the Astrotech 21 missions include dimensionally stable structural materials, advanced composites, dielectric coatings, optical metallic coatings for low scattered light applications, low scattered light surfaces, deployable and inflatable structures (including optical), support structures in 0-g and 1-g environments, cryogenic optics, optical blacks, contamination hardened surfaces, radiation hardened glasses and crystals, mono-metallic telescopes and instruments, and materials characterization. Some specific examples include low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) structures (0.01 ppm/K), lightweight thermally stable mirror materials, thermally stable optical assemblies, high reliability/accuracy (1 micron) deployable structures, and characterization of nanometer level behavior of materials/structures for interferometry concepts. Large filled-aperture concepts will require materials with CTE's of 10(exp 9) at 80 K, anti-contamination coatings, deployable and erectable structures, composite materials with CTE's less than 0.01 ppm/K and thermal hysteresis, 0.001 ppm/K. Gravitational detection systems such as LAGOS will require rigid/deployable structures, dimensionally stable components, lightweight materials with low conductivity, and high stability optics. The Materials and Structures panel addressed these issues and the relevance of the Astrotech 21 mission requirements by dividing materials and structures technology into five categories. These categories, the necessary development, and applicable mission/program development phasing are summarized. For each of these areas, technology assessments were made and development plans were defined.

  3. Materials research for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  4. Chemicals in material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used in materials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material and diisob......Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used in materials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material...... and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) as chemical in focus. The results showed variations, between 0.83 and 32 μg/g, in the presence of DiBP in Danish waste paper and board and potential accumulation due to recycling....

  5. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  6. Characterization of dielectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Danny J.; Babinec, Susan; Hagans, Patrick L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Payzant, Edward A.; Daniel, Claus; Sabau, Adrian S.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Howe, Jane Y.; Wood, III, David L.; Nembhard, Nicole S.

    2017-06-27

    A system and a method for characterizing a dielectric material are provided. The system and method generally include applying an excitation signal to electrodes on opposing sides of the dielectric material to evaluate a property of the dielectric material. The method can further include measuring the capacitive impedance across the dielectric material, and determining a variation in the capacitive impedance with respect to either or both of a time domain and a frequency domain. The measured property can include pore size and surface imperfections. The method can still further include modifying a processing parameter as the dielectric material is formed in response to the detected variations in the capacitive impedance, which can correspond to a non-uniformity in the dielectric material.

  7. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  8. HIGHLY EFFECTIVE CHEMICAL MODIFIERS FOR PRODUCTION OF CONCRETES WITH PRE-SET PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya Vladimirovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the application of industrial by-products and recycled materials. Waterproofing admixtures improve the structure and the properties of the cement stone. Development and preparation of highly effective waterproofing modifiers of durable effect, as well as development of the process procedure parameters, including mixing, activation, heat treatment, etc. are to be implemented. The composition of waterproofing modifiers is to be fine-tuned to synergize the behaviour of various ingredients of cement systems to assure the substantial improvement of their strength, freeze- and corrosion resistance. Multi-functional waterproofing admixtures were used to produce highly effective modified concretes. The key idea of the new method of modifying cement-based building materials is that the waterproofing admixture concentration is to exceed 10% of the weight of the binding agent within the per-unit weight of the cement stone, given that its strength does not deteriorate. GKM-type modifier coupled with organo-mineral waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M may be recommended for mass use in the manufacturing of hydraulic concrete and reinforced concrete products. Overview of their practical implementation has proven that waterproofing modifier GKM-S, if coupled with waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M, improves the corrosion control inside the cement stone and makes it possible to manufacture durable concrete and reinforced concrete products that demonstrate pre-set physical and processing behaviour. Comprehensive concrete modification by modifier GKM-S and waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M may be regarded as one of the most ambitious methods of production of highly effective waterproof concretes.

  9. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W

    1993-01-01

    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  10. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  11. Emerging smart materials systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strock, H.B. [Strock Technology Associates Inc., Holden, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Smart materials systems are nonliving systems that integrate the functions of sensing, actuation, logic and control to respond adaptively to changes in their condition or the environment to which they are exposed, in a useful and usually repetitive manner. Smart materials possess both sensing and actuation capability. They can adaptively respond to changing stimuli, e.g., the variable darkening of photochromic glass or plastic on exposure to sunlight. Such passively smart materials behavior has relatively limited, although marketable, functionality.

  12. Strongly Correlated Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H.; Si, Qimiao

    2013-01-01

    Strongly correlated materials are profoundly affected by the repulsive electron-electron interaction. This stands in contrast to many commonly used materials such as silicon and aluminum, whose properties are comparatively unaffected by the Coulomb repulsion. Correlated materials often have remarkable properties and transitions between distinct, competing phases with dramatically different electronic and magnetic orders. These rich phenomena are fascinating from the basic science perspective ...

  13. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  14. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  15. ANS materials databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchbanks, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Technical development in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) project is dynamic, and a continuously updated information source is necessary to provide readily usable materials data to the designer, analyst, and materials engineer. The Advanced Neutron Source Materials Databook (AMBK) is being developed as a part of the Advanced Neutron Source Materials Information System (AMIS). Its purpose is to provide urgently needed data on a quick-turnaround support basis for those design applications whose schedules demand immediate estimates of material properties. In addition to the need for quick materials information, there is a need for consistent application of data throughout the ANS Program, especially where only limited data exist. The AMBK is being developed to fill this need as well. It is the forerunner to the Advanced Neutron Source Materials Handbook (AMHB). The AMHB, as reviewed and approved by the ANS review process, will serve as a common authoritative source of materials data in support of the ANS Project. It will furnish documented evidence of the materials data used in the design and construction of the ANS system and will serve as a quality record during any review process whose objective is to establish the safety level of the ANS complex. The information in the AMBK and AMHB is also provided in electronic form in a dial-up computer database known as the ANS Materials Database (AMDB). A single consensus source of materials information prepared and used by all national program participants has several advantages. Overlapping requirements and data needs of various sub-projects and subcontractors can be met by a single document which is continuously revised. Preliminary and final safety analysis reports, stress analysis reports, equipment specifications, materials service reports, and many other project-related documents can be substantially reduced in size and scope by appropriate reference to a single data source.

  16. Micromechanics of heterogeneous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Buryachenko, Valeriy

    2007-01-01

    Here is an accurate and timely account of micromechanics, which spans materials science, mechanical engineering, applied mathematics, technical physics, geophysics, and biology. The book features rigorous and unified theoretical methods of applied mathematics and statistical physics in the material science of microheterogeneous media. Uniquely, it offers a useful demonstration of the systematic and fundamental research of the microstructure of the wide class of heterogeneous materials of natural and synthetic nature.

  17. Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Materials Characterization Facility enables detailed measurements of the properties of ceramics, polymers, glasses, and composites. It features instrumentation...

  18. Frontiers in Magnetic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Magnetic Materials focuses on the current achievements and state-of-the-art advancements in magnetic materials. Several lines of development- High-Tc Superconductivity, Nanotechnology and refined experimental techniques among them – raised knowledge and interest in magnetic materials remarkably. The book comprises 24 chapters on the most relevant topics written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students.

  19. Mechanics of materials model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Jeffrey P.

    1987-01-01

    The Mechanics of Materials Model (MOMM) is a three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis code for use as an early design stage tool for hot section components. MOMM is a stiffness method finite element code that uses a network of beams to characterize component behavior. The MOMM contains three material models to account for inelastic material behavior. These include the simplified material model, which assumes a bilinear stress-strain response; the state-of-the-art model, which utilizes the classical elastic-plastic-creep strain decomposition; and Walker's viscoplastic model, which accounts for the interaction between creep and plasticity that occurs under cyclic loading conditions.

  20. Materials development for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Mishan, Freda

    2015-01-01

    Materials development has become much more important in the field of TESOL in the last twenty years: modules on materials development are now commonplace on MA TESOL courses around the world. The overall aim of the book is to introduce readers to a wide range of theoretical and practical issues in materials development to enable them to make informed and principled choices in the selection, evaluation, adaptation and production of materials. The book aims to show how these choices need to be informed by an awareness of culture, context and purpose.

  1. Materials Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  2. Multifunctional Composite Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polymeric composite materials that are currently utilized in aircraft structures are susceptible to significant damage from lightning strikes. Enhanced electrical...

  3. Materials Behavior Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to evaluate mechanical properties of materials including metals, intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, and ceramic-matrix composites under typical...

  4. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2002-04-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  5. The Materials Genome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aourag, H.

    2008-09-01

    In the past, the search for new and improved materials was characterized mostly by the use of empirical, trial- and-error methods. This picture of materials science has been changing as the knowledge and understanding of fundamental processes governing a material's properties and performance (namely, composition, structure, history, and environment) have increased. In a number of cases, it is now possible to predict a material's properties before it has even been manufactured thus greatly reducing the time spent on testing and development. The objective of modern materials science is to tailor a material (starting with its chemical composition, constituent phases, and microstructure) in order to obtain a desired set of properties suitable for a given application. In the short term, the traditional "empirical" methods for developing new materials will be complemented to a greater degree by theoretical predictions. In some areas, computer simulation is already used by industry to weed out costly or improbable synthesis routes. Can novel materials with optimized properties be designed by computers? Advances in modelling methods at the atomic level coupled with rapid increases in computer capabilities over the last decade have led scientists to answer this question with a resounding "yes'. The ability to design new materials from quantum mechanical principles with computers is currently one of the fastest growing and most exciting areas of theoretical research in the world. The methods allow scientists to evaluate and prescreen new materials "in silico" (in vitro), rather than through time consuming experimentation. The Materials Genome Project is to pursue the theory of large scale modeling as well as powerful methods to construct new materials, with optimized properties. Indeed, it is the intimate synergy between our ability to predict accurately from quantum theory how atoms can be assembled to form new materials and our capacity to synthesize novel materials atom

  6. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  7. Thermoelectric materials having porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

    2014-08-05

    A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

  8. Innovative Solar Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Carl M.

    1984-02-01

    A variety of optical coatings are discussed in the context of solar energy utilization. Well-known coatings such as transparent conductors (heat mirrors), selective absorbers, and reflective films are surveyed briefly. Emphasis is placed on the materials' limitations and on use of lesser-known optical coatings and materials. Physical and optical properties are detailed for protective antireflection films, cold mirrors, fluorescent concentrator materials, radiative cooling surfaces, and optical switching films including electrochromic, thermochromic, photochromic, and liquid crystal types. For many of these materials, research has only recently been considered, so various design and durability issues need to be addressed.

  9. Radiation Shielding Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA has relied on the materials to provide radiation shielding for astronauts since the first manned flights. Until very recently existing materials in the structure of manned spacecraft as well as the equipment and consumables onboard have been taken advantage of for radiation shielding. With the advent of the International Space Station and the prospect of extended missions to the Moon or Mars, it has been found that the materials, which were included in the spacecraft for other reasons, do not provide adequate shielding. For the first time materials are being added to manned missions solely to improve the radiation shielding. It is now recognized that dual use materials must be identified/developed. These materials must serve a purpose as part of the spacecraft or its cargo and at the same time be good shielding. This paper will review methods for evaluating the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials and describe the character of materials that have high radiation shielding effectiveness. Some candidate materials will also be discussed.

  10. [New direct restorative materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickel, R; Dasch, W; Janda, R; Tyas, M; Anusavice, K

    1999-04-01

    People worldwide have become increasingly aware of the potential adverse effects on the environment, of pollution control and of toxic effects of food, drugs and biomaterials. Amalgam and its potential toxic side effects (still scientifically unproven) continue to be discussed with increasing controversy by the media in some countries. Consequently, new direct restorative materials are now being explored by dentists, materials scientists and patients who are searching for the so-called 'amalgam substitute' or 'amalgam alternative'. From a critical point of view some of the new direct restorative materials are good with respect in aesthetics, but all material characteristics must be considered, such as mechanical properties, biological effects, and longterm clinical behaviour.

  11. Advanced thermal management materials

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Guosheng; Kuang, Ken

    2012-01-01

    ""Advanced Thermal Management Materials"" provides a comprehensive and hands-on treatise on the importance of thermal packaging in high performance systems. These systems, ranging from active electronically-scanned radar arrays to web servers, require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires materials capable of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility with the packaging and dye. Its coverage includes all aspects of thermal management materials, both traditional and non-traditional, with an emphasis on metal based materials. An in-depth discussion of properties and m

  12. Nanoprobes, nanostructured materials and solid state materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Houping

    2005-07-01

    Novel templates have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials through nonsurfactant templated pathway. And new applications of these materials, such as drug delivery and molecular imprinting, have been explored. The relationship between template content and pore structure has been investigated. The composition and pore structures were studied in detail using IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials have tunable diameters in the range of 2--12 nm. Due to the many advantages of this nonsurfactant templated pathway, such as environment friendly and biocompatibility, controlled release of antibiotics in the nanoporous materials were studied. The in vitro release properties were found to depend on the silica structures which were well tuned by varying the template content. A controlled long-term release pattern of vancomycin was achieved when the template content was 30 wt% or lower. Nanoscale electrochemical probes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1--2 mum in length were fabricated using electron beam deposition on the apex of conventional micron size electrodes. The electroactive region was limited to the extreme tip of the nanoprobe by coating with an insulating polymer and re-opening of the coating at the extreme tip. The novel nanoelectrodes thus prepared were employed to probe neurons in mouse brain slice and the results suggest that the nanoprobes were capable of recording neuronal excitatory postsynaptic potential signals. Interesting solid state chemistry was found in oxygenated iron phthalocyanine. Their Mossbauer spectra show the formation of four oxygenated species apart from the unoxygenated parent compound. The oxygen-bridged compounds formed in the solid matrix bear no resemblance to the one formed by solution chemistry. Tentative assignment of species has been made with the help of Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy. An effort to modify aniline trimer for potential nanoelectronics applications and to

  13. 75 FR 68384 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon...

  14. 77 FR 31400 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon...

  15. 76 FR 62856 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon Presidential...

  16. 78 FR 42805 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ] ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Nixon Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  17. 76 FR 27092 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon...

  18. 75 FR 30863 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon...

  19. 77 FR 58179 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon...

  20. The Materiality of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    In this feature essay, Ninna Meier reflects on the materiality of the writing – and re-writing – process in academic research. She explores the ways in which our ever-accummulating thoughts come to form layers on the material objects in which we write our notes and discusses the pleasures of co-authorship....

  1. Strongly correlated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H; Si, Qimiao

    2012-09-18

    Strongly correlated materials are profoundly affected by the repulsive electron-electron interaction. This stands in contrast to many commonly used materials such as silicon and aluminum, whose properties are comparatively unaffected by the Coulomb repulsion. Correlated materials often have remarkable properties and transitions between distinct, competing phases with dramatically different electronic and magnetic orders. These rich phenomena are fascinating from the basic science perspective and offer possibilities for technological applications. This article looks at these materials through the lens of research performed at Rice University. Topics examined include: Quantum phase transitions and quantum criticality in "heavy fermion" materials and the iron pnictide high temperature superconductors; computational ab initio methods to examine strongly correlated materials and their interface with analytical theory techniques; layered dichalcogenides as example correlated materials with rich phases (charge density waves, superconductivity, hard ferromagnetism) that may be tuned by composition, pressure, and magnetic field; and nanostructure methods applied to the correlated oxides VO₂ and Fe₃O₄, where metal-insulator transitions can be manipulated by doping at the nanoscale or driving the system out of equilibrium. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting prospects for this class of materials.

  2. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education...

  3. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education.......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education....

  4. Materials inventory management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Materials Inventory Management Manual (NHB 4100.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 USC 2473). It sets forth policy, performance standards, and procedures governing the acquisition, management and use of materials. This Manual is effective upon receipt.

  5. Supramolecular biofunctional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2017-06-01

    This review discusses supramolecular biofunctional materials, a novel class of biomaterials formed by small molecules that are held together via noncovalent interactions. The complexity of biology and relevant biomedical problems not only inspire, but also demand effective molecular design for functional materials. Supramolecular biofunctional materials offer (almost) unlimited possibilities and opportunities to address challenging biomedical problems. Rational molecular design of supramolecular biofunctional materials exploit powerful and versatile noncovalent interactions, which offer many advantages, such as responsiveness, reversibility, tunability, biomimicry, modularity, predictability, and, most importantly, adaptiveness. In this review, besides elaborating on the merits of supramolecular biofunctional materials (mainly in the form of hydrogels and/or nanoscale assemblies) resulting from noncovalent interactions, we also discuss the advantages of small peptides as a prevalent molecular platform to generate a wide range of supramolecular biofunctional materials for the applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, immunology, cancer therapy, fluorescent imaging, and stem cell regulation. This review aims to provide a brief synopsis of recent achievements at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and biomedical science in hope of contributing to the multidisciplinary research on supramolecular biofunctional materials for a wide range of applications. We envision that supramolecular biofunctional materials will contribute to the development of new therapies that will ultimately lead to a paradigm shift for developing next generation biomaterials for medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Computational Materials Repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landis, David D.; Hummelshøj, Jens S.; Nestorov, Svetlozar

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities for designing new materials based on quantum physics calculations are rapidly growing, but these design efforts lead to a significant increase in the amount of computational data created. The Computational Materials Repository (CMR) addresses this data challenge and provides...

  7. Chromogenic smart materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl M. Lampert

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart materials cover a wide and developing range of technologies. A particular type of smart material, known as chromogenics, can be used for large area glazing in buildings, automobiles, planes, and for certain types of electronic display. These technologies consist of electrically-driven media including electrochromism, suspended particle electrophoresis, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, electrically heated thermotropics, and gaschromics.

  8. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  9. Contemporary dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with experimental results of the physical characterization of several important, dielectric materials of great current interest. The experimental tools used for the analysis of these materials include X-ray diffraction, dielectric measurements, magnetic measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer, optical measurements using a UV-Visible spectrometer etc.

  10. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-09-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide.

  11. Material Writer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.

    This guide is a collection of essays on the writing of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks and other instructional materials. Articles include: "Writing and Publishing Textbooks (Patricia Byrd); "The Craft of Materials Writing" (Fraida Dubin); "Considering Culture: Guidelines for ESL/EFL Textbook Writers" (Gayle Nelson); "Issues in the…

  12. A Material Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Sokoler, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...

  13. MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. BISHOP

    2000-09-01

    This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

  14. Material Writer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.

    This guide is a collection of essays on the writing of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks and other instructional materials. Articles include: "Writing and Publishing Textbooks (Patricia Byrd); "The Craft of Materials Writing" (Fraida Dubin); "Considering Culture: Guidelines for ESL/EFL Textbook Writers" (Gayle Nelson); "Issues in the…

  15. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education.......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education....

  16. The Materiality of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    In this feature essay, Ninna Meier reflects on the materiality of the writing – and re-writing – process in academic research. She explores the ways in which our ever-accummulating thoughts come to form layers on the material objects in which we write our notes and discusses the pleasures of co-authorship....

  17. Dielectric material for dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, P.R.; Podgorsak, E.; Fullerton, G.D.; Fuller, G.E.

    1976-01-27

    A RITAD dosimeter is described having a dielectric material such as sapphire wherein the efficiency as measured by mean drift distance and trapping efficiency is increased by making use of a dielectric material in which the total active impurity does not exceed 50 ppm and in which any one active impurity does not exceed 10 ppm.

  18. Nanocrystalline Heterojunction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Scott H.; Su, Yali; Gao, Yufei; Heald, Steve M.

    2004-02-03

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline titanium dioxide heterojunction materials and methods of making the same are disclosed. In one disclosed embodiment, materials comprising a core of titanium dioxide and a shell of a molybdenum oxide exhibit a decrease in their photoadsorption energy as the size of the titanium dioxide core decreases.

  19. Scintillator materials for calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.

    1994-09-01

    Requirements for fast, dense scintillator materials for calorimetry in high energy physics and approaches to satisfying these requirements are reviewed with respect to possible hosts and luminescent species. Special attention is given to cerium-activated crystals, core-valence luminescence, and glass scintillators. The present state of the art, limitations, and suggestions for possible new scintillator materials are presented.

  20. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...

  1. Designing Material Materialising Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designing Material Materialising Design documents five projects developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. These projects explore the idea that new designed materials might require new design methods...

  2. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  3. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...... are mentioned. References to review papers, papers with experimental data, and papers describing the thermodynamic modelling of the systems are given....

  4. OISE Materials for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto.

    This annotated bibliography lists published and unpublished elementary and secondary school materials developed in connection with projects of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) from 1970 through 1978. The major portion of the document lists teaching materials. This section first lists documents produced by the Major Thrust in…

  5. Elaboration of protocol for characterization of clay as a filling material and coverage for surface repository; Elaboracao de protocolo para caracterizacao de argilas como material de recheio e de cobertura para repositorio de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daisy Mary Marchezini dos

    2017-04-01

    The nuclear energy in its various applications generates wastes that must be properly treated. The Radioactive Waste Management covers operations since generation of the waste until to its storage in repository ensuring the protection of man and of environment of the possible negative impacts. The radioactive waste are segregated, treated, conditioned in suitable packaging and posteriorly are stored or disposal in repository. The “RBMN Project” is a priority project of CNEN to implementation the repository for the deposition of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated by nuclear energy activities in Brazil, proposing a definitive solution for its storage. Engineered and natural barriers as the filling layer and coverage layer will compose the disposal system of a near surface repository, concept proposed by the “RBMN Project”. The use these barriers views to avoid or restrict the release of radionuclides present in waste for the humans beings and environment. The waterproofing barriers are composed of clays. Certainly, for the national repository, will be used those clays existing in the place where it will be implanted it. So some fundamentals tests will have to be carried for to verify the suitability of these clays as barriers. These tests were determined and realized with a reference clay, a brazilian bentonite constituted of 67.2% montmorillonite. The results were compared with national and international literature of materials with similar mineralogical features. The values found with 95% reliance were 9.73±0,35 μm for granulometric size. For the moisture content were 13,3±0,6% and for capacity of cationic exchange were , 816±9 mmol.kg{sup -1}. For the hydraulic conductivity, without the use of internal pressure, it was obtained maximum value of 59.0% saturated. In addition, during the observed period, there was no percolation in the test specimen submitted to internal pressure of 200 kPa. This result leads to the conclusion that the

  6. Of 'other' materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the notion of materialities is rearticulated as an important field for the future of mobilities research. We focus on the intersection between situational mobilities research and design/architecture. The vocabulary and material imaginary developed within the latter are an important...... source of inspiration for the future mobilities research interested in the pragmatic question: What makes this particular mobile situation possible? The argument is based on a critique of an abstract and universal notion of materiality or the material. Rather, it is argued, we should partly look...... and design intersects with research into situational mobilities design in two dimensions. Firstly, there are direct links to the ways in which designers and architects perceive, gestate and articulate their ideas about things, spaces and materialities. Secondly, the article draws on the recent thinking...

  7. Combinatorial materials synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Takeuchi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The pace at which major technological changes take place is often dictated by the rate at which new materials are discovered, and the timely arrival of new materials has always played a key role in bringing advances to our society. It is no wonder then that the so-called combinatorial or high-throughput strategy has been embraced by practitioners of materials science in virtually every field. High-throughput experimentation allows simultaneous synthesis and screening of large arrays of different materials. Pioneered by the pharmaceutical industry, the combinatorial method is now widely considered to be a watershed in accelerating the discovery and optimization of new materials1–5.

  8. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  9. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  10. Lasers in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Ossi, Paolo; Zhigilei, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    This book covers various aspects of lasers in materials science, including a comprehensive overview on basic principles of laser-materials interactions and applications enabled by pulsed laser systems.  The material is organized in a coherent way, providing the reader with a harmonic architecture. While systematically covering the major current and emerging areas of lasers processing applications, the Volume provides examples of targeted modification of material properties achieved through careful control of the processing conditions and laser irradiation parameters. Special emphasis is placed on specific strategies aimed at nanoscale control of material structure and properties to match the stringent requirements of modern applications.  Laser fabrication of novel nanomaterials, which expands to the domains of photonics, photovoltaics, sensing, and biomedical applications, is also discussed in the Volume. This book assembles chapters based on lectures delivered at the Venice International School on Lasers...

  11. Architected Cellular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  12. Materials at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the physics, chemistry, and metallurgy of materials has been a primary focus of Los Alamos National Laboratory since its inception. In the early 1940s, very little was known or understood about plutonium, uranium, or their alloys. In addition, several new ionic, polymeric, and energetic materials with unique properties were needed in the development of nuclear weapons. As the Laboratory has evolved, and as missions in threat reduction, defense, energy, and meeting other emerging national challenges have been added, the role of materials science has expanded with the need for continued improvement in our understanding of the structure and properties of materials and in our ability to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. Materials science and engineering continues to be central to this Laboratory's success, and the materials capability truly spans the entire laboratory - touching upon numerous divisions and directorates and estimated to include >1/3 of the lab's technical staff. In 2006, Los Alamos and LANS LLC began to redefine our future, building upon the laboratory's established strengths and promoted by strongly interdependent science, technology and engineering capabilities. Eight Grand Challenges for Science were set forth as a technical framework for bridging across capabilities. Two of these grand challenges, Fundamental Understanding of Materials and Superconductivity and Actinide Science. were clearly materials-centric and were led out of our organizations. The complexity of these scientific thrusts was fleshed out through workshops involving cross-disciplinary teams. These teams refined the grand challenge concepts into actionable descriptions to be used as guidance for decisions like our LDRD strategic investment strategies and as the organizing basis for our external review process. In 2008, the Laboratory published 'Building the Future of Los Alamos. The Premier National Security Science Laboratory

  13. Hydrophilic nanoporous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present application discloses a method for preparing and rendering hydrophilic a nanoporous material of a polymer matrix which has a porosity of 0.1-90 percent (v/v), such that the ratio between the final water absorption (percent (w/w)) and the porosity (percent (v/v)) is at least 0.05, the ......The present application discloses a method for preparing and rendering hydrophilic a nanoporous material of a polymer matrix which has a porosity of 0.1-90 percent (v/v), such that the ratio between the final water absorption (percent (w/w)) and the porosity (percent (v/v)) is at least 0.......05, the method comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a precursor material comprising at least one polymeric component and having a first phase and a second phase; (b) removal of at least a part of the first phase of the precursor material prepared in step (a) so as to leave behind a nanoporous material...... of the polymer matrix; (c) irradiating at least a part of said nanoporous material with light of a wave length of in the range of 250-400 nm (or 200-700 nm) in the presence of oxygen and/or ozone. Corresponding hydrophilic nanoporous materials are also disclosed. L...

  14. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  15. Advanced healthcare materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Advanced materials are attracting strong interest in the fundamental as well as applied sciences and are being extensively explored for their potential usage in a range of healthcare technological and biological applications. Advanced Healthcare Nanomaterials summarises the current status of knowledge in the fields of advanced materials for functional therapeutics, point-of-care diagnostics, translational materials, up and coming bio-engineering devices. The book highlights the key features which enable engineers to design stimuli-responsive smart nanoparticles, novel biomaterials, nan

  16. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  17. Macrocyclic fragrance materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvito, Daniel; Lapczynski, Aurelia; Sachse-Vasquez, Christen

    2011-01-01

    A screening-level aquatic environmental risk assessment for macrocyclic fragrance materials using a “group approach” is presented using data for 30 macrocyclic fragrance ingredients. In this group approach, conservative estimates of environmental exposure and ecotoxicological effects thresholds...... for compounds within two subgroups (15 macrocyclic ketones and 15 macrocyclic lactones/lactides) were used to estimate the aquatic ecological risk potential for these subgroups. It is reasonable to separate these fragrance materials into the two subgroups based on the likely metabolic pathway required...... for both regions is materials, and minimal in stream dilution (3:1), the conservatively predicted exposure concentrations for macrocyclic ketones would range from

  18. Materials science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, T.M.

    1995-10-01

    The science-based stockpile stewardship program emphasizes a better understanding of how complex components function through advanced computer calculations. Many of the problem areas are in the behavior of materials making up the equipment. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) can contribute to solving these problems by providing diagnostic tools to examine parts noninvasively and by providing the experimental tools to understand material behavior in terms of both the atomic structure and the microstructure. Advanced computer codes need experimental information on material behavior in response to stress, temperature, and pressure as input, and they need benchmarking experiments to test the model predictions for the finished part.

  19. Materials for syngas coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. A.; Morse, G.; Coons, W. C.

    1982-08-01

    A technical basis for materials selection and laboratory testing of practical boiler tube materials which will provide reliable long term service in syngas coolers for coal gasification combined cycle power plants is outlined. The resistance of low alloy steel, stainless steels, and aluminum rich coatings to attach by a high sulfur, medium Btu coal gasification atmosphere was evaluated at 300 to 500 deg C. The materials may have adequate resistance for long time service in radiant coolers operating up to 500 deg C on high sulfur medium Btu gas. Performance is analyzed for thermodynamic and kinetic properties and recommendations for long term tests and development of protective coatings are presented.

  20. Optical materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wakaki, Moriaki; Kudo, Keiei

    2012-01-01

    The definition of optical material has expanded in recent years, largely because of IT advances that have led to rapid growth in optoelectronics applications. Helping to explain this evolution, Optical Materials and Applications presents contributions from leading experts who explore the basic concepts of optical materials and the many typical applications in which they are used. An invaluable reference for readers ranging from professionals to technical managers to graduate engineering students, this book covers everything from traditional principles to more cutting-edge topics. It also detai

  1. On materials destruction criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kremnev, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    In terms of nonlinear material fracture mechanics, the real (discrete)-structure material fracture model has been developed. The model rests on the demonstration of the fact that crack resistance $K_{1c}=2\\sigma \\sqrt l$ and fracture toughness are $G_{1c}=J_{1c}=2\\sigma l$ obtained on the basis of energy conservation law and derived without linear material fracture mechanics assumptions can be respectively taken as force and energy criteria for non-linear fracture mechanics. It is shown that ...

  2. Conducting polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers represent a very interesting group of polymer materials Investigation of the synthesis, structure and properties of these materials has been the subject of considerable research efforts in the last twenty years. A short presentating of newer results obtained by investigating of the synthesis, structure and properties of two basic groups of conducting polymers: a conducting polymers the conductivity of which is the result of their molecular structure, and b conducting polymer composites (EPC, is given in this paper. The applications and future development of this group of polymer materials is also discussed.

  3. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  4. Bioinspired structural materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G. K.; Bai, Hao; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Natural structural materials are built at ambient temperature from a fairly limited selection of components. They usually comprise hard and soft phases arranged in complex hierarchical architectures, with characteristic dimensions spanning from the nanoscale to the macroscale. The resulting materials are lightweight and often display unique combinations of strength and toughness, but have proven difficult to mimic synthetically. Here, we review the common design motifs of a range of natural structural materials, and discuss the difficulties associated with the design and fabrication of synthetic structures that mimic the structural and mechanical characteristics of their natural counterparts.

  5. Investigating Encrypted Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe

    When encrypted material is discovered during a digital investigation and the investigator cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital investigator must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital investigation can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.

  6. Superconducting material development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    A superconducting compound was developed that showed a transition to a zero-resistance state at 65 C, or 338 K. The superconducting material, which is an oxide based on strontium, barium, yttrium, and copper, continued in the zero-resistance state similar to superconductivity for 10 days at room temperature in the air. It was also noted that measurements of the material allowed it to observe a nonlinear characteristic curve between current and voltage at 65 C, which is another indication of superconductivity. The research results of the laboratory experiment with the superconducting material will be published in the August edition of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.

  7. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date text covering topics in utilizing hydrogen bonding for constructing functional architectures and supramolecular materials. The first chapter addresses the control of photo-induced electron and energy transfer. The second chapter summarizes the formation of nano-porous materials. The following two chapters introduce self-assembled gels, many of which exhibit unique functions. Other chapters cover the advances in supramolecular liquid crystals and the versatility of hydrogen bonding in tuning/improving the properties and performance of materials. This book is designed

  8. Polymer material biodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from literature was used to discuss the impact of external factors (stress, radiation, temperature, ultrasounds, biological organisms on the course of polymer material degradation. Polymer materials, in widespread use for over a dozen years, constitute a serious environmental problem. This is why their susceptibility to biodegradation is researched. Work on biodegradable polymers concernsmodifying their structure to bring their physical and chemical properties closer to plastics in practical use or using biodegradable polymers as an alternative for the current conventional materials. In addition, the publication also presents the first results of work on the biodegradation of polymer foundry binders.

  9. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  10. THERMALLY CLEAVABLE HYBRID MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gaina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermally cleavable hybrid materials were prepared by the Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction of poly(vinyl furfural to N phenylmaleimido-N’-(triethoxysilylpropylurea followed by the sol-gel condensation reaction of trietoxysilyl groups with water and acetic acid. Thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis, dielectric and FTIR spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The size of the inorganic silica particles in the hybrid material varied dependent on the silica content. The DSC study of the prepared materials revealed that the cleavage process of the formed cycloadducts takes place at temperatures varying between 143-165°C and is an endothermic process.

  11. Materials at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the physics, chemistry, and metallurgy of materials has been a primary focus of Los Alamos National Laboratory since its inception. In the early 1940s, very little was known or understood about plutonium, uranium, or their alloys. In addition, several new ionic, polymeric, and energetic materials with unique properties were needed in the development of nuclear weapons. As the Laboratory has evolved, and as missions in threat reduction, defense, energy, and meeting other emerging national challenges have been added, the role of materials science has expanded with the need for continued improvement in our understanding of the structure and properties of materials and in our ability to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. Materials science and engineering continues to be central to this Laboratory's success, and the materials capability truly spans the entire laboratory - touching upon numerous divisions and directorates and estimated to include >1/3 of the lab's technical staff. In 2006, Los Alamos and LANS LLC began to redefine our future, building upon the laboratory's established strengths and promoted by strongly interdependent science, technology and engineering capabilities. Eight Grand Challenges for Science were set forth as a technical framework for bridging across capabilities. Two of these grand challenges, Fundamental Understanding of Materials and Superconductivity and Actinide Science. were clearly materials-centric and were led out of our organizations. The complexity of these scientific thrusts was fleshed out through workshops involving cross-disciplinary teams. These teams refined the grand challenge concepts into actionable descriptions to be used as guidance for decisions like our LDRD strategic investment strategies and as the organizing basis for our external review process. In 2008, the Laboratory published 'Building the Future of Los Alamos. The Premier National Security Science Laboratory

  12. Nuclear material operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  13. Quasicrystals: Making invisible materials

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskina, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    All-dielectric photonic quasicrystals may act as zero-refractive-index homogeneous materials despite their lack of translational symmetry and periodicity, stretching wavelengths to infinity and offering applications in light wavefront sculpting and optical cloaking.

  14. The Materiality of Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Estrid

    or postgraduate students interested in a variety of fields, including educational studies, educational psychology, social anthropology, and STS. Original ethnographic descriptions showing the fine details of how materials influence the learning process Introduces the advanced and complex Actor-Network Theory......The field of educational research lacks a methodology for the study of learning that does not begin with humans, their aims, and their interests. The Materiality of Learning seeks to overcome this human-centered mentality by developing a novel spatial approach to the materiality of learning....... Drawing on science and technology studies (STS), Estrid Sørensen compares an Internet-based 3D virtual environment project in a fourth-grade class with the class's work with traditional learning materials, including blackboards, textbooks, notebooks, pencils, and rulers. Taking into account pupils...

  15. Sustainable Materials Management Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMM is a systemic approach to using and reusing materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. It represents a change in how our society thinks about the use of natural resources and environmental protection

  16. Materials engineering data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The various types of materials related data that exist at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and compiled into databases which could be accessed by all the NASA centers and by other contractors, are presented.

  17. Photoconductivity in Dirac materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity.

  18. Intelligent Radiative Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An opportunity to boost energy efficiency in homes and buildings exists through the design of functional radiative properties in glass and other building materials....

  19. Developing Teaching Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菁; 罗江霞

    2014-01-01

    In China, English teachers have more choices to select teaching materials for their students. In the teaching of English, there are several main sets of textbooks available for non-majors of English. These textbooks are compiled based on China ’s Na-tional Syllabus of College English. In order to learn these materials better, both teachers and students should know how to use and develop the teaching materials. In the essay, the book of“College English”will be used to explain the ways to develop teach-ing materials. As teachers and learners, textbooks are so important that every teacher and learner should choose the best and the most suitable one for their learning.

  20. Material and Virtuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    world and a physical world can interchange. The paper suggest an approach where an overlapping of virtuality and the tangible material output from digital fabrication machines create a method of using materialisation tools as instruments to connect the reality of materials and to an exploring process....... In this paper investigations in sheet steel form a substance of concrete experiments. The experiments set up shuttling processes in between different domains. Through those processes connections and intermingling between information from digital drawing and materiality is created. The dialogues established...... through these experiments is both tangible and directly connected to real actions in digital drawing or material processing but also the base for theoretical contemplations of the relation between virtual and actual and control and uncertainty....

  1. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  2. Moldable cork ablation material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A successful thermal ablative material was manufactured. Moldable cork sheets were tested for density, tensile strength, tensile elongation, thermal conductivity, compression set, and specific heat. A moldable cork sheet, therefore, was established as a realistic product.

  3. Materials research at CMAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-01

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  4. Relativistic theories of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Aldo

    1978-01-01

    The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...

  5. Citations in supplementary material

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Manfred S.; Einspahr, Howard; Edward N. Baker; Dauter, Zbigniew; Kaysser-Pyzalla, Anke R.; Kostorz, Gernot; Larsen, Sine

    2010-01-01

    The problem of undercounting of citations that are published only in supplementary material is studied for the journals Nature, Science, Cell and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA).

  6. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...

  7. Spacecraft Material Outgassing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of outgassing data of materials intended for spacecraft use were obtained at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), utilizing equipment developed...

  8. Designing through Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    be a part, a component or part of a component in a larger context or construction. Through tangible experiments the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect’s digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this expansion...... of control through digital drawing and fabrication and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Within this span the project is situated in a shuttling between the virtual and the actual, investigating levels of control and uncertainty originating from these (Fig. 1). Throughout...... as an opportunity to connect the digital environment with the reality of materials – and use realisation and materialisation to generate architectural developments and findings through an iterative mode of thinking about the dialogue between drawing, materials and fabrication. Consequently the interest and mind...

  9. Mechanics of moving materials

    CERN Document Server

    Banichuk, Nikolay; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Saksa, Tytti; Tuovinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical aspects of modelling the mechanical behaviour of manufacturing, processing, transportation or other systems in which the processed or supporting material is travelling through the system. Examples of such applications include paper making, transmission cables, band saws, printing presses, manufacturing of plastic films and sheets, and extrusion of aluminium foil, textiles and other materials.   The work focuses on out-of-plane dynamics and stability analysis for isotropic and orthotropic travelling elastic and viscoelastic materials, with and without fluid-structure interaction, using analytical and semi-analytical approaches.  Also topics such as fracturing and fatigue are discussed in the context of moving materials. The last part of the book deals with optimization problems involving physical constraints arising from the stability and fatigue analyses, including uncertainties in the parameters.   The book is intended for researchers and specialists in the field, providin...

  10. Evaluation of learning materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Hansen, Thomas Illum

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic framework for evaluating learning materials and designs for learning. A holistic evaluation comprises investigations of the potential learning potential, the actualized learning potential, and the actual learning. Each aspect is explained and exemplified through...

  11. Closing global material loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosman, Ernst-Jan; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Liotta, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Replacing virgin materials with waste materials, a practice known as Industrial Symbiosis (IS), has been identified as a key strategy for closing material loops. This article adopts a critical view on geographic proximity and external coordinators – two key enablers of IS. By ‘uncovering’ a case...... where both enablers are absent, this study seeks to explore firm-level challenges of IS. We adopt an exploratory case study approach at a cement manufacturer who engages in cross-border IS without the support of external coordinators. Our research presents insights into two key areas of IS: 1) setting...... for geographic proximity and external coordinators. In doing so, our insights into firm-level challenges of long-distance IS exchanges contribute to closing global material loops by increasing the number of potential circular pathways....

  12. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  13. Material Religion - Hinduism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive bibliography on material religion in Hinduism. Monographs, anthologies, anthology chapters, journal articles, web articles, documentation on cultic elements of the landscape (mountains, rivers, trees, stones), three- and two-dimensional cultic artefacts, textiles, ritual accessories...

  14. Photoconductivity in Dirac materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, J. M.; Yang, G. W., E-mail: stsygw@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Nanotechnology Research Center, School of Materials & Engineering, School of Physics & Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong (China)

    2015-11-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity.

  15. Degradation of implant materials

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Noam

    2012-01-01

    This book surveys the degradation of implant materials, reviewing in detail such failure mechanisms as corrosion, fatigue and wear, along with monitoring techniques. Surveys common implant biomaterials, as well as procedures for implant retrieval and analysis.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMAGED MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P C; Dehaven, M; McClelland, M; Chidester, S; Maienschein, J L

    2006-06-23

    Thermal damage experiments were conducted on LX-04, LX-10, and LX-17 at high temperatures. Both pristine and damaged samples were characterized for their material properties. A pycnometer was used to determine sample true density and porosity. Gas permeability was measured in a newly procured system (diffusion permeameter). Burn rate was measured in the LLNL strand burner. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant. Damaged pressed parts expanded, resulting in a reduction of bulk density by up to 10%. Both gas permeabilities and burn rates of the damaged samples increased by several orders of magnitude due to higher porosity and lower density. Moduli of the damaged materials decreased significantly, an indication that the materials became weaker mechanically. Damaged materials were more sensitive to shock initiation at high temperatures. No significant sensitization was observed when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature.

  17. Designing Printed Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lucille; Pett, Dennis

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the importance of identifying the audience and determining specific objectives when designing printed instructional materials that will communicate effectively and provides detailed guidelines for dealing with such design factors as content, writing style, typography, illustrations, and page organization. (MBR)

  18. Materials research at CMAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro [Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, c/ Faraday 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-18

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  19. Beam-Material Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Cerutti, F. [CERN

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  20. Architects and Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    . One of the reasons the digital drawing has become essential is clearly because of the level of interchange and versatility it provides. However, this is also where much capacity is still left unexplored and unused. Digital material has enormous potential to intermingle with the world, in which we live...... and for which architecture is created. Through the interface of digital drawing, data can feed into digital production, linking the architect directly to the materials. Drawing can morph directly into materialisation instead of representation....

  1. Nano semiconducting materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of the present book is the characterization of a number of nano-semiconducting materials, using such techniques as powder X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The materials studied include ZnS, TiO2, NiO, Ga doped ZnO, Mn doped SnO2, Mn doped CeO2 and Mn doped ZrO2.

  2. Nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  3. Nanostructured Materials for Magnetoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikailzade, Faik

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of nanometer-scale magnetism and focuses on the investigation of the basic properties of magnetic nanostructures. It describes a wide range of physical aspects together with theoretical and experimental methods. A broad overview of the latest developments in this emerging and fascinating field of nanostructured materials is given with emphasis on the practical understanding and operation of submicron devices based on nanostructured magnetic materials.

  4. Modeling multiphase materials processes

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    ""Modeling Multiphase Materials Processes: Gas-Liquid Systems"" describes the methodology and application of physical and mathematical modeling to multi-phase flow phenomena in materials processing. The book focuses on systems involving gas-liquid interaction, the most prevalent in current metallurgical processes. The performance characteristics of these processes are largely dependent on transport phenomena. This volume covers the inherent characteristics that complicate the modeling of transport phenomena in such systems, including complex multiphase structure, intense turbulence, opacity of

  5. Auxetic materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the fundamentals of the mechanics and design of auxetic solids and structures, which possess a negative Poisson’s ratio. It will benefit two groups of readers: (a) industry practitioners, such as product and structural designers, who need to control mechanical stress distributions using auxetic materials, and (b) academic researchers and students who intend to produce structures with unique mechanical and other physical properties using auxetic materials.

  6. Thermal barrier coating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Clarke

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved thermal barrier coatings (TBCs will enable future gas turbines to operate at higher gas temperatures. Considerable effort is being invested, therefore, in identifying new materials with even better performance than the current industry standard, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ. We review recent progress and suggest that an integrated strategy of experiment, intuitive arguments based on crystallography, and simulation may lead most rapidly to the development of new TBC materials.

  7. Designing Material Materialising Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designing Material Materialising Design documents five projects developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. These projects explore the idea that new designed materials might require new design methods....... Focusing on fibre reinforced composites, this book sustains an exploration into the design and making of elastically tailored architectural structures that rely on the use of computational design to predict sensitive interdependencies between geometry and behaviour. Developing novel concepts...

  8. Polymer material biodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    B. Grabowska

    2010-01-01

    Data from literature was used to discuss the impact of external factors (stress, radiation, temperature, ultrasounds, biological organisms) on the course of polymer material degradation. Polymer materials, in widespread use for over a dozen years, constitute a serious environmental problem. This is why their susceptibility to biodegradation is researched. Work on biodegradable polymers concernsmodifying their structure to bring their physical and chemical properties closer to plastics in prac...

  9. Ceramic Laser Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soules, T F; Clapsaddle, B J; Landingham, R L; Schaffers, K I

    2005-02-15

    Transparent ceramic materials have several major advantages over single crystals in laser applications, not the least of which is the ability to make large aperture parts in a robust manufacturing process. After more than a decade of working on making transparent YAG:Nd, Japanese workers have recently succeeded in demonstrating samples that performed as laser gain media as well as their single crystal counterparts. Since then several laser materials have been made and evaluated. For these reasons, developing ceramic laser materials is the most exciting and futuristic materials topic in today's major solid-state laser conferences. We have established a good working relationship with Konoshima Ltd., the Japanese producer of the best ceramic laser materials, and have procured and evaluated slabs designed by us for use in our high-powered SSHCL. Our measurements indicate that these materials will work in the SSHCL, and we have nearly completed retrofitting the SSHCL with four of the largest transparent ceramic YAG:Nd slabs in existence. We have also begun our own effort to make this material and have produced samples with various degrees of transparency/translucency. We are in the process of carrying out an extensive design-of-experiments to establish the significant process variables for making transparent YAG. Finally because transparent ceramics afford much greater flexibility in the design of lasers, we have been exploring the potential for much larger apertures, new materials, for example for the Mercury laser, other designs for SSHL, such as, edge pumping designs, slabs with built in ASE suppression, etc. This work has just beginning.

  10. Beam-Material Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high- intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target , and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and envir onment in challenging current and future application

  11. LDEF materials data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the accompanying experiments were composed of and contained a wide variety of materials representing the largest collection of materials flown in low Earth orbit (LEO) and retrieved for ground based analysis to date. The results and implications of the mechanical, thermal, optical, and electrical data from these materials are the foundation on which future LEO space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been charged with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the spacecraft user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. This paper discusses the format and content of the three data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task. The hardware and software requirements for each of these three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases. This paper also serves as a user's guide to the MAPTIS LDEF Materials Data Base.

  12. Shape memory materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Compared with piezoelectric ceramics and magnetostrictive materials, the shape memory materials possess larger recoverable strain and recovery stress but slower response to external field. It is expected that the magneto-shape memory materials may develop considerable strain as well as rapid and precise shape control. Pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect (SME) resulted from martensitic transformation and its reverse transformation in shape memory materials were generally described. The requirements of appearing the shape memory effect in materials and the criteria for thermoelastic martensitic transformation were given. Some aspects concerning characteristics of martensitic transformation, and factors affecting SME in Ni-Ti, Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Mn-Si based alloys as well as ZrO2 containing ceramics were briefly reviewed. Thermodynamic calculation of Ms temperature as function of grain size and parent ordering in Cu-Zn-Al was presented. The works on prediction of Ms in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys and in ZrO2-CeO2 were mentioned. Magnetic shape memory materials were briefly introduced.

  13. The preparation of blend membrane about quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan/waterborne polyurethane and its waterproof and breathable properties%季铵盐壳聚糖/水性聚氨酯共混膜的制备及防水透湿性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉章; 尉霞; 章媛媛

    2011-01-01

    将季铵盐壳聚糖( HACC)与水性聚氨酯(WPU)进行共混,对共混膜进行了耐静水压、透湿量性能测试.讨论了HACC用量、共混时间、烘干温度对共混膜防水透湿性能的影响.结果表明,当HACC用量10%~15%,共混时间15~20min,烘干温度100~110℃时,制备的共混膜具有良好的防水透湿性能及共混性能.%In order to further enrich cashmere product category and utilize cashmere resource more rationally, a type of light and thin worsted blending fabric is successfully developed. It was used wool, mulberry silk fiber and cashmere fiber as raw materials, and mainly to the technological process and key techniques through the re-combing, spinning, weaving and finishing four parts to feasible treatment technology. This topic of research and development the superb properties of wool, mulberry silk fiber and cashmere fibers contribute to the superior quality of high count yarn, best quality and superior product performance reduce the consumption of raw material, improves the grade of the product.

  14. Catalog of Martian Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Horton E.; Hagerty, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    The long-term exploration of Mars will require the utilization of surface and near-surface materials for construction, radiation shielding, and life support. Eventually, such materials could be used as raw materials in manufacturing. While there is a resemblance between the surface of Mars, as revealed in Viking and Pathfinder images, and terrestrial desert environments, there are distinct differences that will affect the utilization of in situ resources. In general, the surface geological features are extremely old compared to Earth, dating back to the early evolution of the solar system. Therefore, materials created by processes such as impact cratering are important on Mars. Impact cratering probably created extensive sheets of impact melt bearing breccias on the surface and resulted in the formation of a thick regolith of broken rock fragments in the ancient terrains of Mars. Another key feature is the lack of rainfall over most of Mars' history. This resulted in the lack of extensive erosion. On Earth, extensive erosion of volcanic centers, for example, has exposed deep hydrothermal deposits that are mined for Cu, Mo, and W, but such deposits are not likely to be exposed at the surface on Mars. Similarly, deposits of quartz sand, used for glass making, are created by the erosion of granitic terrains on Earth, and are not likely to be found on Mars. The soil on Mars is also very different from wind-blown material on Earth. Virtually no organic material is present, and the material is enriched in volatile elements, such as S and Cl, and possibly also toxic heavy metals, derived from volcanic gases and hydrothermal waters that poured onto the surface. The volatile elements have remained in the soil due to the absence of processes that recycle volatile elements back into the planet's crust. Hydrogen peroxide originally formed in the atmosphere is also mixed into the soil and regolith, and was probably responsible for the "oxidant" found in the soil by the Viking

  15. Tribological comparison of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing

    Approximately 600,000 total joint replacement surgeries are performed each year in the United States. Current artificial joint implants are mainly metal-on-plastic. The synthetic biomaterials undergo degradation through fatigue and corrosive wear from load-bearing and the aqueous ionic environment of the human body. Deposits of inorganic salts can scratch weight-bearing surfaces, making artificial joints stiff and awkward. The excessive wear debris from polyethylene leads to osteolysis and potential loosening of the prosthesis. The lifetime for well-designed artificial joints is at most 10 to 15 years. A patient can usually have two total joint replacements during her/his lifetime. Durability is limited by the body's reaction to wear debris of the artificial joints. Wear of the artificial joints should be reduced. A focus of this thesis is the tribological performance of bearing materials for Total Replacement Artificial Joints (TRAJ). An additional focus is the scaffolds for cell growth from both a tissue engineering and tribological perspective. The tribological properties of materials including Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coated materials were tested for TRAJ implants. The DLC coatings are chemically inert, impervious to acid and saline media, and are mechanically hard. Carbon-based materials are highly biocompatible. A new alternative to total joints implantation is tissue engineering. Tissue engineering is the replacement of living tissue with tissue that is designed and constructed to meet the needs of the individual patient. Cells were cultured onto the artificial materials, including metals, ceramics, and polymers, and the frictional properties of these materials were investigated to develop a synthetic alternative to orthopedic transplants. Results showed that DLC coated materials had low friction and wear, which are desirable tribological properties for artificial joint material. Cells grew on some of the artificial matrix materials, depending on the

  16. Visualizing Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.

    2016-12-01

    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  17. Thermodynamics of Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Jeff W.

    One challenge facing society is the responsible use of our energy resources. Increasing the efficiency of energy generation provides one path to solving this challenge. One commonality among most current energy generation methods is that waste heat is generated during the generation process. Thermoelectrics can provide a solution to increasing the efficiency of power generation and automotive systems by converting waste heat directly to electricity. The current barrier to implementation of thermoelectric systems is the low efficiencies of underlying thermoelectric materials. The efficiency of a thermoelectric material depends on the electronic and thermal transport properties of the material; a good thermoelectric material should be an electronic conductor and a thermal insulator, traits which generally oppose one another. The thermal properties of a thermoelectric material can be improved by forming nanoscale precipitates with the material which scatter phonons, reducing the thermal conductivity. The electronic properties of a thermoelectric material can be improved by doping the material to increase the electronic conductivity or by alloying the material to favorably alter its band structure. The ability of these chemical modifications to affect the thermoelectric efficiency of material are ultimately governed by the chemical thermodynamics of the system. PbTe is a prototypical thermoelectric material: Alloying PbTe with PbS (or other materials) creates nanostructures which scatter phonons and reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. Doping PbTe with Na increases the hole concentration, increasing the electronic conductivity. In this work, we investigate the thermodynamics of PbTe and similar systems using first principles to understand the underlying mechanisms controlling the formation of nanostructures and the amount of doping allowed in these systems. In this work we: 1) investigate the thermodynamics of pseudo-binary alloys of IV--VI systems to identify the

  18. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  19. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function ...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those.......The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...

  20. Nanostructured materials in potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzgün, Ali; Zelada-Guillén, Gustavo A; Crespo, Gastón A; Macho, Santiago; Riu, Jordi; Rius, F Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Potentiometry is a very simple electrochemical technique with extraordinary analytical capabilities. It is also well known that nanostructured materials display properties which they do not show in the bulk phase. The combination of the two fields of potentiometry and nanomaterials is therefore a promising area of research and development. In this report, we explain the fundamentals of potentiometric devices that incorporate nanostructured materials and we highlight the advantages and drawbacks of combining nanomaterials and potentiometry. The paper provides an overview of the role of nanostructured materials in the two commonest potentiometric sensors: field-effect transistors and ion-selective electrodes. Additionally, we provide a few recent examples of new potentiometric sensors that are based on receptors immobilized directly onto the nanostructured material surface. Moreover, we summarize the use of potentiometry to analyze processes involving nanostructured materials and the prospects that the use of nanopores offer to potentiometry. Finally, we discuss several difficulties that currently hinder developments in the field and some future trends that will extend potentiometry into new analytical areas such as biology and medicine.

  1. Astrophysics with Extraterrestrial Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittler, Larry R.; Ciesla, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Extraterrestrial materials, including meteorites, interplanetary dust, and spacecraft-returned asteroidal and cometary samples, provide a record of the starting materials and early evolution of the Solar System. We review how laboratory analyses of these materials provide unique information, complementary to astronomical observations, about a wide variety of stellar, interstellar and protoplanetary processes. Presolar stardust grains retain the isotopic compositions of their stellar sources, mainly asymptotic giant branch stars and Type II supernovae. They serve as direct probes of nucleosynthetic and dust formation processes in stars, galactic chemical evolution, and interstellar dust processing. Extinct radioactivities suggest that the Sun's birth environment was decoupled from average galactic nucleosynthesis for some tens to hundreds of Myr but was enriched in short-lived isotopes from massive stellar winds or explosions shortly before or during formation of the Solar System. Radiometric dating of meteorite components tells us about the timing and duration over which solar nebula solids were assembled into the building blocks of the planets. Components of the most primitive meteoritical materials provide further detailed constraints on the formation, processing, and transport of material and associated timescales in the Sun's protoplanetary disk as well as in other forming planetary systems.

  2. Panel 3 - material science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yip, Sidney [MIT

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, NNSA's national security challenge has evolved, and the role of simulation and computation has grown dramatically. The process of certifying nuclear weapons performance has changed from one based on integrated tests to science-based certification in which underground nuclear tests have been replaced by large-scale simulations, appropriately validated with fundamental experimental data. Further, the breadth of national security challenges has expanded beyond stewardship of a nuclear deterrent to a broad range of global and asymmetric threats. Materials challenges are central to the full suite of these national security challenges. Mission requirements demand that materials perform predictably in extreme environments -- high pressure, high strain rate, and hostile irradiation and chemical conditions. Considerable advances have been made in incorporating fundamental materials physics into integrated codes used for component certification. On the other hand, significant uncertainties still remain, and materials properties, especially at the mesoscale, are key to understanding uncertainties that remain in integrated weapons performance codes and that at present are treated as empirical knobs. Further, additional national security mission challenges could be addressed more robustly with new and higher performing materials.

  3. EDITORIAL: Electroactive polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Kim, Kwang J.; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk; Madden, John D. W.

    2007-04-01

    Imitating nature's mechanisms offers enormous potential for the improvement of our lives and the tools we use. This field of the study and imitation of, and inspiration from, nature's methods, designs and processes is known as biomimetics. Artificial muscles, i.e. electroactive polymers (EAPs), are one of the emerging technologies enabling biomimetics. Polymers that can be stimulated to change shape or size have been known for many years. The activation mechanisms of such polymers include electrical, chemical, pneumatic, optical and magnetic. Electrical excitation is one of the most attractive stimulators able to produce elastic deformation in polymers. The convenience and practicality of electrical stimulation and the continual improvement in capabilities make EAP materials some of the most attractive among activatable polymers (Bar-Cohen Y (ed) 2004 Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles—Reality, Potential and Challenges 2nd edn, vol PM136 (Bellingham, WA: SPIE Press) pp 1-765). As polymers, EAP materials offer many appealing characteristics that include low weight, fracture tolerance and pliability. Furthermore, they can be configured into almost any conceivable shape and their properties can be tailored to suit a broad range of requirements. These capabilities and the significant change of shape or size under electrical stimulation while being able to endure many cycles of actuation are inspiring many potential possibilities for EAP materials among engineers and scientists in many different disciplines. Practitioners in biomimetics are particularly excited about these materials since they can be used to mimic the movements of animals and insects. Potentially, mechanisms actuated by EAPs will enable engineers to create devices previously imaginable only in science fiction. For many years EAP materials received relatively little attention due to their poor actuation capability and the small number of available materials. In the last fifteen

  4. EDITORIAL: Computational materials science Computational materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Gerhard; Kresse, Georg

    2011-10-01

    Special issue in honour of Jürgen Hafner On 30 September 2010, Jürgen Hafner, one of the most prominent and influential members within the solid state community, retired. His remarkably broad scientific oeuvre has made him one of the founding fathers of modern computational materials science: more than 600 scientific publications, numerous contributions to books, and a highly cited monograph, which has become a standard reference in the theory of metals, witness not only the remarkable productivity of Jürgen Hafner but also his impact in theoretical solid state physics. In an effort to duly acknowledge Jürgen Hafner's lasting impact in this field, a Festsymposium was held on 27-29 September 2010 at the Universität Wien. The organizers of this symposium (and authors of this editorial) are proud to say that a large number of highly renowned scientists in theoretical condensed matter theory—co-workers, friends and students—accepted the invitation to this celebration of Hafner's jubilee. Some of these speakers also followed our invitation to submit their contribution to this Festschrift, published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, a journal which Jürgen Hafner served in 2000-2003 and 2003-2006 as a member of the Advisory Editorial Board and member of the Executive Board, respectively. In the subsequent article, Volker Heine, friend and co-worker of Jürgen Hafner over many decades, gives an account of Hafner's impact in the field of theoretical condensed matter physics. Computational materials science contents Theoretical study of structural, mechanical and spectroscopic properties of boehmite (γ-AlOOH) D Tunega, H Pašalić, M H Gerzabek and H Lischka Ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by chlorine-promoted silver oxide M O Ozbek, I Onal and R A Van Santen First-principles study of Cu2ZnSnS4 and the related band offsets for photovoltaic applicationsA Nagoya, R Asahi and G Kresse Renormalization group study of random quantum magnetsIstván A Kovács and

  5. Applied bioactive polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Carraher, Charles; Foster, Van

    1988-01-01

    The biological and biomedical applications of polymeric materials have increased greatly in the past few years. This book will detail some, but not all, of these recent developments. There would not be enough space in this book to cover, even lightly, all of the major advances that have occurred. Some earlier books and summaries are available by two of this book's Editors (Gebelein & Carraher) and these should be consul ted for additional information. The books are: "Bioactive Polymeric Systems" (Plenum, 1985); "Polymeric Materials In Medication" (Plenum, 1985); "Biological Acti vi ties of Polymers" (American Chemical Society, 1982). Of these three, "Bioacti ve Polymeric Systems" should be the most useful to a person who is new to this field because it only contains review articles written at an introductory level. The present book primarily consists of recent research results and applications, with only a few review or summary articles. Bioactive polymeric materials have existed from the creation of life...

  6. Hysteresis in Magnetocaloric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Moos, Lars

    , obtained at the initial low and final high field. However, in first order materials thermal entropy hysteresis loops are obtained through characterization, corresponding to measurements done in an increasing and a decreasing temperature mode. Indirectly determining the MCE through the use of the Maxwell...... characterization of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in these materials is done through conventional indirect magnetometric and calorimetric methods, as well as newly developed direct methods. The determination of the MCE due to a magnetic field change is in principle given by the isofield material entropy curves...... relation or calorimetric measurements done only in a heating or cooling mode, estimate the MCE as the reversible difference between the set isofield heating-heating or cooling-cooling entropy curves. Here it is shown that direct measurements suggest that the real MCE is given by the difference between...

  7. Micromechanics of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, George

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a broad exposition of analytical and numerical methods for modeling composite materials, laminates, polycrystals and other heterogeneous solids, with emphasis on connections between material properties and responses on several length scales, ranging from the nano and microscales to the macroscale. Many new results and methods developed by the author are incorporated into a rich fabric of the subject, which has been explored by several researchers over the last 40 years.   The first  part of the book reviews anisotropic elasticity theory, and then it describes the frequently used procedures and theorems for bounding and estimating overall properties, local fields and energy changes in elastic inhomogeneities, heterogeneous media, fiber composites and functionally graded materials.  Those are caused by mechanical loads and by phase eigenstrains, such as thermal, transformation and inelastic strains, and also by cavities and cracks.    Worked examples show that the eigendeformations may...

  8. A new material practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The first generation of digital architecture was fascinated with the extension of digital possibilities into the physical world. Today, we are seeing the emergence of a new material practice. This practice is focusing on a design and production process that is seeking an understanding of the aggr......The first generation of digital architecture was fascinated with the extension of digital possibilities into the physical world. Today, we are seeing the emergence of a new material practice. This practice is focusing on a design and production process that is seeking an understanding...... of the aggregated behavior of matter in an environment. Advances in material science and in computational tools are creating new opportunities within architectural design. However, these approaches are challenging the current practices of design and representation....

  9. Nanoscale Ionic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Robert

    2008-11-18

    Polymer nanocomposites (nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer matrix) have been the subject of intense research for almost two decades in both academic and industrial settings. This interest has been fueled by the ability of nanocomposites to not only improve the performance of polymers, but also by their ability to introduce new properties. Yet, there are still challenges that polymer nanocomposites must overcome to reach their full potential. In this Research News article we discuss a new class of hybrids termed nanoparticle ionic materials (NIMS). NIMS are organic-inorganic hybrid materials comprising a nanoparticle core functionalized with a covalently tethered ionic corona. They are facilely engineered to display flow properties that span the range from glassy solids to free flowing liquids. These new systems have unique properties that can overcome some of the challenges facing nanocomosite materials. © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Material Modelling - Composite Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    in this report is that cement paste and concrete behave practically as linear-viscoelastic materials from an age of approximately 10 hours. This is a significant age extension relative to earlier studies in the literature where linear-viscoelastic behavior is only demonstrated from ages of a few days. Thus......, linear-viscoelastic analysis methods are justified from the age of approximately 10 hours.The rheological properties of plain cement paste are determined. These properties are the principal material properties needed in any stress analysis of concrete. Shrinkage (autogeneous or drying) of mortar...... and concrete and associated internal stress states are examples of analysis made in this report. In this context is discussed that concrete strength is not an invariable material property. It is a property the potentials of which is highly and negatively influenced by any damage caused by stress concentrations...

  11. Optimized nanoporous materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Paul V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Langham, Mary Elizabeth; Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Ong, Markus D.; Narayan, Roger J. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Pierson, Bonnie E. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Gittard, Shaun D. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Robinson, David B.; Ham, Sung-Kyoung (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Chae, Weon-Sik (Korea Basic Science Institute, Gangneung, South Korea); Gough, Dara V. (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL); Wu, Chung-An Max; Ha, Cindy M.; Tran, Kim L.

    2009-09-01

    Nanoporous materials have maximum practical surface areas for electrical charge storage; every point in an electrode is within a few atoms of an interface at which charge can be stored. Metal-electrolyte interfaces make best use of surface area in porous materials. However, ion transport through long, narrow pores is slow. We seek to understand and optimize the tradeoff between capacity and transport. Modeling and measurements of nanoporous gold electrodes has allowed us to determine design principles, including the fact that these materials can deplete salt from the electrolyte, increasing resistance. We have developed fabrication techniques to demonstrate architectures inspired by these principles that may overcome identified obstacles. A key concept is that electrodes should be as close together as possible; this is likely to involve an interpenetrating pore structure. However, this may prove extremely challenging to fabricate at the finest scales; a hierarchically porous structure can be a worthy compromise.

  12. Ceramic laser materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikesue, Akio; Aung, Yan Lin

    2008-12-01

    The word 'ceramics' is derived from the Greek keramos, meaning pottery and porcelain. The opaque and translucent cement and clay often used in tableware are not appropriate for optical applications because of the high content of optical scattering sources, that is, defects. Recently, scientists have shown that by eliminating the defects, a new, refined ceramic material - polycrystalline ceramic - can be produced. This advanced ceramic material offers practical laser generation and is anticipated to be a highly attractive alternative to conventional glass and single-crystal laser technologies in the future. Here we review the history of the development of ceramic lasers, the principle of laser generation based on this material, some typical results achieved with ceramic lasers so far, and discuss the potential future outlook for the field.

  13. Synthesis of superhard materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir L. Solozhenko

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of solids at high pressures and temperatures is an important area of modern condensed matter physics, chemistry, and materials science. The last decade has seen revolutionary developments in the field of high-pressure experimentation: new types of cells allow a wider range of experiments at higher pressures, and third-generation synchrotrons have brought the possibility of conducting X-ray diffraction experiments that were unthinkable only 10 years ago. In this review, we give some recent examples to illustrate how modern high-pressure tools, such as the diamond anvil cell (DAC, multianvil press, and shock compression, can be used to answer questions relevant to the synthesis of new advanced materials. Our examples will be related mostly to superhard materials.

  14. Designing through Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    of architectural tools is indeed changing. Digital drawing and design tools have either replaced or supplemented sketching and drawing by hand. Alone however these new tools still – with Evans’s words – put the architects at the disadvantage of newer working directly with the object of their thoughts...... of control through digital drawing and fabrication and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Within this span the project is situated in a shuttling between the virtual and the actual, investigating levels of control and uncertainty originating from these (Fig. 1). Throughout...... as an opportunity to connect the digital environment with the reality of materials – and use realisation and materialisation to generate architectural developments and findings through an iterative mode of thinking about the dialogue between drawing, materials and fabrication. Consequently the interest and mind...

  15. Heat-resistant materials

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    This handbook covers the complete spectrum of technology dealing with heat-resistant materials, including high-temperature characteristics, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, materials selection guidelines for industrial applications, and life-assessment methods. Also included is information on comparative properties that allows the ranking of alloy performance, effects of processing and microstructure on high-temperature properties, high-temperature oxidation and corrosion-resistant coatings for superalloys, and design guidelines for applications involving creep and/or oxidation. Contents: General introduction (high-temperature materials characteristics, and mechanical and corrosion properties, and industrial applications); Properties of Ferrous Heat-Resistant Alloys (carbon, alloy, and stainless steels; alloy cast irons; and high alloy cast steels); Properties of superalloys (metallurgy and processing, mechanical and corrosion properties, degradation, and protective coa...

  16. Material and Virtuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Through tangible experiments this paper discusses the dialogues between digital architectural drawing and the process of materialisation. The paper sets op the spans between virtual and actual and control and uncertainty making these oppositions a combined spaces where information between a digital...... world and a physical world can interchange. The paper suggest an approach where an overlapping of virtuality and the tangible material output from digital fabrication machines create a method of using materialisation tools as instruments to connect the reality of materials and to an exploring process...... through these experiments is both tangible and directly connected to real actions in digital drawing or material processing but also the base for theoretical contemplations of the relation between virtual and actual and control and uncertainty....

  17. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  18. Electron Beam Materials Irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2012-06-01

    Radiation processing is a well established method for enhancing the properties of materials and commercial products by treating them with ionizing energy in the form of high-energy electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays. Beneficial effects include polymerizing, cross-linking, grafting and degrading plastics, sterilizing single-use medical devices, disinfecting and disinfesting fresh foods, purifying drinking water, treating wastewater and other toxic waste materials that harm the environment, and many other applications that are still being evaluated. Industrial electron accelerators of several types have been developed and are being used for these applications. More than 1800 electron accelerators are presently installed in facilities worldwide for these purposes.

  19. Organic nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  20. Materials for hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Züttel

    2003-09-01

    The goal is to pack hydrogen as close as possible, i.e. to reach the highest volumetric density by using as little additional material as possible. Hydrogen storage implies the reduction of an enormous volume of hydrogen gas. At ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure, 1 kg of the gas has a volume of 11 m3. To increase hydrogen density, work must either be applied to compress the gas, the temperature decreased below the critical temperature, or the repulsion reduced by the interaction of hydrogen with another material.

  1. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  2. Porous Thermoelectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Julian Goldsmid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric materials are sometimes prepared using a sintering process in which the achievement of a high density is often one of the objectives. However, it has recently been shown that the introduction of a highly porous material is desirable in synthetic transverse thermoelements. Porosity may also be an advantage in conventional longitudinal thermoelectric modules in which a high thermal flux density creates problems, but heat transfer within the pores can degrade the thermoelectric figure of merit. The amount of this degradation is calculated and it is shown that it can be small enough to be acceptable in practical devices.

  3. Materiality, Practice and Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Skovbjerg-Karoff, Helle

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the interaction between human and technology, the relationship must be emphasized as a triangulation between materiality, body and practice. By introducing play situations from a just finished empirical study in three bigger cities in Denmark, this paper will address...... the interplay from the human‟s point of view, as a body doing a certain practice, which is constantly produced by taking approaches which comes from phenomenology and practice theory. We introduce aspects of play understood as a dynamic between materiality, body and practice with the goal of inspiring not only...

  4. Trends in building materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapiravana, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available in Construction Materials? Dr. Joe Mapiravana BSc (UZ); MScTech.(Sheffield); PhD (Leeds); EDP(UNISA-SBL) Principal Researcher and Construction Materials Research Group Leader, CSIR ABSTRACT This paper was motivated by the need to identify trends... reinforcement of mud bricks and their characterisation. Rammed earth construction has been extensively and successfully used and accepted in Australia for 2 to 3 storey buildings but the technology had not made headway in South Africa. 3.5 Timber Only...

  5. Magnetic refrigeration materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴闻; 沈保根; 高政祥

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic refrigeration has drawn much attention because of its greater efficiency and higher reliability than the traditional gas-cycle refrigeration technology. Recently, a kind of new materials with a giant magnetocaloric effect in the subroom temperature range, Gd5 (Six Ge1- x)4, was discovered, which boosts the search for high-performance magnetic refrigerants. However, the intermetallic compounds Gd5 (SixGe1 - x )4 belong to the first order transition materials; their performance in practical magnetic refrigeration cycles remains controversial. In this paper the developing tendency of the refrigerants are discussed on the basis of our work.

  6. Walter Benjamin and 'materialism'

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the emergence of Walter Benjamin’s materialism, within his early\\ud thought, from within the context of post-Kantian philosophy. The original contribution\\ud made by this thesis is that it differentiates Benjamin’s materialism from both Romanticism\\ud and neo-Kantianism, on the one side, and empiricism, on the other. In contrast to those\\ud who identify Benjamin as a practitioner of a Romantic form of immanence, a neo-Kantian\\ud or a mystical empiricist, I place Benjamin’...

  7. Losses in Ferroelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Wenhua; Cao, Wenwu

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric materials are the best dielectric and piezoelectric materials known today. Since the discovery of barium titanate in the 1940s, lead zirconate titanate ceramics in the 1950s and relaxor-PT single crystals (such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate and lead zinc niobate-lead titanate) in the 1980s and 1990s, perovskite ferroelectric materials have been the dominating piezoelectric materials for electromechanical devices, and are widely used in sensors, actuators and ultrasonic transducers. Energy losses (or energy dissipation) in ferroelectrics are one of the most critical issues for high power devices, such as therapeutic ultrasonic transducers, large displacement actuators, SONAR projectors, and high frequency medical imaging transducers. The losses of ferroelectric materials have three distinct types, i.e., elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric losses. People have been investigating the mechanisms of these losses and are trying hard to control and minimize them so as to reduce performance degradation in electromechanical devices. There are impressive progresses made in the past several decades on this topic, but some confusions still exist. Therefore, a systematic review to define related concepts and clear up confusions is urgently in need. With this objective in mind, we provide here a comprehensive review on the energy losses in ferroelectrics, including related mechanisms, characterization techniques and collections of published data on many ferroelectric materials to provide a useful resource for interested scientists and engineers to design electromechanical devices and to gain a global perspective on the complex physical phenomena involved. More importantly, based on the analysis of available information, we proposed a general theoretical model to describe the inherent relationships among elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and mechanical losses. For multi-domain ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics, intrinsic and extrinsic energy

  8. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreja, Vasile V. N.

    2014-06-01

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes

  9. Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Material Transfer Agreements are appropriate for exchange of materials into or out of the Frederick National Labfor research or testing purposes, with no collaborative research by parties involving the materials.

  10. Beneficial Use of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important goal of managing dredged material is to ensure that the material is used or disposed of in an environmentally sound manner.Most of this dredged material could be used in a beneficial manner instead.

  11. PROSPECTS OF POLYMER PACKAGING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sedykh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main types of materials used in the manufacture of packaging. Analyzed trends in further development of packaging materials. Shows how to improve the quality of plastic packaging materials in today's market.

  12. Composite materials for battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Yang, Junbing; Abouimrane, Ali; Ren, Jianguo

    2017-03-14

    A process for producing nanocomposite materials for use in batteries includes electroactive materials are incorporated within a nanosheet host material. The process may include treatment at high temperatures and doping to obtain desirable properties.

  13. Rudiments of materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Pillai, SO

    2007-01-01

    Writing a comprehensive book on Materials Science for the benefit of undergraduate courses in Science and Engineering was a day dream of the first author, Dr. S.O. Pillai for a long period. However, the dream became true after a lapse of couple of years. Lucid and logical exposition of the subject matter is the special feature of this book.

  14. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  15. Catalogue of Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Lincoln Filene Center for Citizenship and Public Affairs.

    This catalogue lists resource materials available to secondary social studies teachers using an inductive approach and multi-media techniques to create a variety of learning experiences. Seven supplemental classroom instructional programs were developed by the Center: 1) Dimensions of Citizenship; 2) Politics and Policy Making; 3) Urban Problems…

  16. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Dalton , “Li ion batteries for aerospace applications,” J. Power Sources, vol. 97, pp. 25–27, 2001. [11] J. Caley, private communication, Aug...Faulkner, Electrochemical Methods and Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2001. 52 [14] P. Simon and Y. Gogotsi, “Materials for

  17. Weightless Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Gravity affects everything we do. Only in very recent years have we been able to carry out experiments in orbit around the Earth and see for the first time how things behave in its absence. This has allowed us to understand fundamental processes better and to design new materials using this knowledge. (Contains 6 figures.)

  18. Amharic. Materials Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language/Area Reference Center.

    The materials status report for Amharic, the dominant language of Ethiopia, is one of a series intended to provide the nonspecialist with a picture of the availability and quality of texts for teaching various languages to English speakers. The report consists of: (1) a brief narrative description of Amharic, the areas where it is spoken, its…

  19. Materials for Optical Cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-07

    temperature.9,53 They used 5 mol% and 10 mol% Yb3+-doped YLF single crystals that were grown by AC Materials Inc. using the Czochralski method . The...reaching the attached payload. The design of the thermal link involves optimization of the optical geometry as well as careful choice of the methods

  20. Structure - materials - production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders; Gammel, Peder; Busch, Jens

    2002-01-01

    For the last six years th Aarhus School of Architecture has introduced the first year students (there are about 200 students admitted each year) to structure, materials, design and production through a five week course in collaboration with a group of local companies....

  1. Ferrocement as a Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Kristian Jehrbo

    FERROCEMENT is not a new material. In 1850 Jean Louis Lambot took out a patent on FERCIMENT, and in 1930's Pier Luigi Nervi created FERROCEMENT. In this report the structure (meshes, rods and mortar) and composition (diameter and widths of meshes and rods, water/cement ratio, aggregat e/ cement...

  2. Multifunctional Mechatronic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    actuating structures based on the properties of the Kagome system. This final report contains the following studies: (1) Effective Properties of the Octet...truss Lattice Material, by V.S. Deshpande, N.A. Fleck, and M.F. Ashby; (2) Kagome Plate Structures for Actuation, by R.G. Hutchinson, N. Wicks, A.G

  3. Methods of materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi

    2016-01-01

    , and the method of participant observation is suggested as a viable approach to achieve this end. An empirical example of how authority is produced in a parent-teacher conference, not only through language but also through material objects and embodied being, is then presented. The article concludes by suggesting...

  4. Tritium Storage Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, Donald F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Metallurgical Science Dept.; Luo, Weifang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Metallurgical Science Dept.; Smugeresky, John E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Hydrogen and Metallurgical Science Dept.; Robinson, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Systems Dept.; Fares, Stephen James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Systems Dept.; Ong, Markus D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Systems Dept.; Arslan, Ilke [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Systems Dept.; Tran, Kim L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Systems Dept.; McCarty, Kevin F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Physics Dept.; Sartor, George B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Thermal/Fluid Science and Engineering; Stewart, Kenneth D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engineered Material Dept.; Clift, W. Miles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engineered Material Dept.

    2008-09-01

    Nano-structured palladium is examined as a tritium storage material with the potential to release beta-decay-generated helium at the generation rate, thereby mitigating the aging effects produced by enlarging He bubbles. Helium retention in proposed structures is modeled by adapting the Sandia Bubble Evolution model to nano-dimensional material. The model shows that even with ligament dimensions of 6-12 nm, elevated temperatures will be required for low He retention. Two nanomaterial synthesis pathways were explored: de-alloying and surfactant templating. For de-alloying, PdAg alloys with piranha etchants appeared likely to generate the desired morphology with some additional development effort. Nano-structured 50 nm Pd particles with 2-3 nm pores were successfully produced by surfactant templating using PdCl salts and an oligo(ethylene oxide) hexadecyl ether surfactant. Tests were performed on this material to investigate processes for removing residual pore fluids and to examine the thermal stability of pores. A tritium manifold was fabricated to measure the early He release behavior of this and Pd black material and is installed in the Tritium Science Station glove box at LLNL. Pressure-composition isotherms and particle sizes of a commercial Pd black were measured.

  5. Shakespeare Materials. Potpourri 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, N. Reed

    This publication provides a source of practical ideas for teaching Shakespeare, taken from materials in the teaching notebooks of N. Reed Mathis, a Shakespeare specialist. It contains: (1) "As You Like It"--a study guide and composition topics; (2) "Romeo and Juliet"--an objective-type final exam; (3) "Sonnets"--a way of analyzing a poem, critical…

  6. Review on Superconducting Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hott, Roland; Kleiner, Reinhold; Wolf, Thomas; Zwicknagl, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    Short review of the topical comprehension of the superconductor materials classes Cuprate High-Temperature Superconductors, other oxide superconductors, Iron-based Superconductors, Heavy-Fermion Superconductors, Nitride Superconductors, Organic and other Carbon-based Superconductors and Boride and Borocarbide Superconductors, featuring their present theoretical understanding and their aspects with respect to technical applications.

  7. Self-Decontaminating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    elements containing only the specific activity required. Table 1. Rate of kill of E. coli on surface of nonwoven material modified by incorporation of...Summary A wide spectrum of polymers that are used in construction of equipment items of all types, commercial or military-unique, can be modified to

  8. Protocol Materials: A Clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innerd, Wilfred; O'Gorman, David

    "Protocol materials" are records or recordings of a wide variety of behavioral situations. Characteristically they are neither simulated nor extensively edited. They are to be used for the empirical verification of concepts derived from both educational theory and the social sciences. They are attempts to capture reality so that it may be studied…

  9. Encapsulated microenergetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jeffery James; Aines, Roger D.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vandersall, Kevin S.

    2017-02-07

    Providing high energy materials that can be placed in previously created fractures and activating them in place to extend or change an existing fracture system. Also detecting the location of fractures or permeable pathways and a means to assess the extent and efficiency of proppant emplacement.

  10. Complex Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    Disruptive Basic Research Areas” – Metamaterials and Plasmonics – Quantum Information Science – Cognitive Neuroscience – Nanoscience and...Sayir, Fuller) Bio-Sensing of Magnetic Fields (Larkin, Bradshaw, Curcic, DeLong 2D Materials & Devices Beyond Graphene (Hwang, Pomrenke, Harrison

  11. Russian Resource Materials Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Viveca

    This guide provides the teacher of Russian with helpful background material and activities on the geography of the Soviet Union and the history of Russia as well as its customs, traditions, literary selections, songs, foods, and festivals. In addition to these topics, the introductory chapter outlines a philosophy for teaching and learning Russian…

  12. Methods of materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi

    2016-01-01

    , and the method of participant observation is suggested as a viable approach to achieve this end. An empirical example of how authority is produced in a parent-teacher conference, not only through language but also through material objects and embodied being, is then presented. The article concludes by suggesting...

  13. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  14. MATERIALS FOR INTERMEDIATE TELUGU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KELLEY, GERALD B.

    ONE OF THE FOUR DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES RECOGNIZED BY THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1950 AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF THE COUNTRY, TELUGU IS SPOKEN BY 42 MILLION PEOPLE IN ANDHRA PRADESH. THESE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED FOR THE INTERMEDIATE STUDENT OF TELUGU AND ARE DIVIDED INTO NEWSPAPER READINGS AND DIALOGUES OF EVERYDAY CONVERSATION. SUBJECTS…

  15. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  16. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  17. Making Biological Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian F.V.Vincent

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Chemistry and synthesis 1.1 Production and control of materials These days there can be few people who do not know that proteins are defined by DNA. DNA is made of two strands, each of which has along it, like a string of fairy lights, side branches that meet between the strands and hold them together.

  18. Uigur. Materials Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language/Area Reference Center.

    The materials status report for Uigur, a Turkic language spoken in the Sinkiang-Uigur Autonomous Region in northwest China and in the Soviet Socialist Republics of Kazakh and Uzbek, is one of a series intended to provide the nonspecialist with a picture of the availability and quality of texts for teaching various languages to English speakers.…

  19. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-08-01

    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  20. GRAPHENE: A NEW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the properties of a new but allready known material – graphene. Graphene is a 2-dimensional network of carbon atoms. Are presented the estonished characteristics of this form of carbon, alongwith some interesting field of use.